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Sample records for wztmn 3n wxtm

  1. Pressureless sintering of dense Si3N4 and Si3N4/SiC composites with nitrate additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.Y.; Iseki, Takayoshi; Yano, Toyohiko

    1996-01-01

    The effect of aluminum and yttrium nitrate additives on the densification of monolithic Si 3 N 4 and a Si 3 N 4 /SiC composite by pressureless sintering was compared with that of oxide additives. The surfaces of Si 3 N 4 particles milled with aluminum and yttrium nitrates, which were added as methanol solutions, were coated with a different layer containing Al and Y from that of Si 3 N 4 particles milled with oxide additives. Monolithic Si 3 N 4 could be sintered to 94% of theoretical density (TD) at 1,500 C with nitrate additives. The sintering temperature was about 100 C lower than the case with oxide additives. After pressureless sintering at 1,750 C for 2 h in N 2 , the bulk density of a Si 3 N 4 /20 wt% SiC composite reached 95% TD with nitrate additives

  2. Influenza A (H3N2) Variant Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swine Variant Pandemic Other Influenza A (H3N2) Variant Virus Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Influenza viruses that normally circulate in pigs are called “variant” ...

  3. Thermal expansion of spinel-type Si3N4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paszkowics, W.; Minkikayev, R.; Piszora, P.

    2004-01-01

    The lattice parameter and thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) for the spinel-type Si3N4 phase prepared under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions are determined for 14 K......The lattice parameter and thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) for the spinel-type Si3N4 phase prepared under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions are determined for 14 K...

  4. Lattice dynamics of a- Si3N4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, P.A.B.; Silva, C.E.T.G. da

    1984-01-01

    We introduce a model for the lattice dynamics of SI 3 N 4 in its amorphous phase. This model is based on a Born hamiltonian, solved in the Bethe lattice approximation. We included the local vicinity until third nearest neighbours, building up the central cluster. (M.W.O.) [pt

  5. 3N scattering in a three-dimensional operator formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloeckle, W.; Fachruddin, I.; Elster, C.; Golak, J.; Skibinski, R.; Witala, H.

    2010-01-01

    A recently developed formulation for a direct treatment of the equations for two- and three-nucleon bound states as set of coupled equations of scalar functions depending only on vector momenta is extended to three-nucleon scattering. Starting from the spin-momentum dependence occurring as scalar products in two- and three-nucleon forces together with other scalar functions, we present the Faddeev multiple scattering series in which order by order the spin degrees can be treated analytically leading to 3D integrations over scalar functions depending on momentum vectors only. Such formulation is especially important in view of awaiting extension of 3N Faddeev calculations to projectile energies above the pion production threshold and applications of chiral perturbation theory 3N forces, which are to be most efficiently treated directly in such three-dimensional formulation without having to expand these forces into a partial-wave basis. (orig.)

  6. Vibration modes of 3n-gaskets and other fractals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajorin, N; Chen, T; Dagan, A; Emmons, C; Hussein, M; Khalil, M; Mody, P; Steinhurst, B; Teplyaev, A [Department of Mathematics, University of Connecticut, Storrs CT 06269 (United States)

    2008-01-11

    We rigorously study eigenvalues and eigenfunctions (vibration modes) on the class of self-similar symmetric finitely ramified fractals, which include the Sierpinski gasket and other 3n-gaskets. We consider the classical Laplacian on fractals which generalizes the usual one-dimensional second derivative, is the generator of the self-similar diffusion process, and has possible applications as the quantum Hamiltonian. We develop a theoretical matrix analysis, including analysis of singularities, which allows us to compute eigenvalues, eigenfunctions and their multiplicities exactly. We support our theoretical analysis by symbolic and numerical computations. Our analysis, in particular, allows the computation of the spectral zeta function on fractals and the limiting distribution of eigenvalues (i.e., integrated density of states). We consider such examples as the level-3 Sierpinski gasket, a fractal 3-tree, and the diamond fractal.

  7. Interfacial microstructure of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} brazing joint with Cu-Zn-Ti filler alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)], E-mail: hitzhangjie@hit.edu.cn; Zhang, X.M.; Zhou, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Naka, M. [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Svetlana, Atroshenko [Faculty of Mathematics and Mechanics, Saint-Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2008-11-15

    In this study, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic was jointed by a brazing technique with a Cu-Zn-Ti filler alloy. The interfacial microstructure between Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic and filler alloy in the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} joint was observed and analyzed by using electron-probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that there are two reaction layers at the ceramic/filler interface in the joint, which was obtained by brazing at a temperature and holding time of 1223 K and 15 min, respectively. The layer nearby the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic is a TiN layer with an average grain size of 100 nm, and the layer nearby the filler alloy is a Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3}N{sub x} layer with an average grain size of 1-2 {mu}m. Thickness of the TiN and Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3}N{sub x} layers is about 1 {mu}m and 10 {mu}m, respectively. The formation mechanism of the reaction layers was discussed. A model showing the microstructure from Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic to filler alloy in the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} joint was provided as: Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic/TiN reaction layer/Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3}N{sub x} reaction layer/Cu-Zn solution.

  8. Microstructure and Properties of Porous Si3N4/Dense Si3N4 Joints Bonded Using RE–Si–Al–O–N (RE = Y or Yb Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The joining of porous Si3N4 to dense Si3N4 ceramics has been successfully performed using mixed RE2O3 (RE = Y or Yb, Al2O3, SiO2, and α-Si3N4 powders. The results suggested that the α-Si3N4 powders partly transformed into β-SiAlON and partly dissolved into oxide glass to form oxynitride glass. Thus, composites of glass/β-SiAlON-ceramic formed in the seam of joints. Due to the capillary action of the porous Si3N4 ceramic, the molten glass solder infiltrated into the porous Si3N4 ceramic side during the joining process and formed the “infiltration zone” with a thickness of about 400 μm, which contributed to the heterogeneous distribution of the RE–Si–Al–O–N glasses in the porous Si3N4 substrate. In-situ formation of β-SiAlON in the seam resulted in a high bonding strength. The maximum bending strength of 103 MPa and 88 MPa was reached for the porous Si3N4/dense Si3N4 joints using Y–Si–Al–O–N and Yb–Si–Al–O–N glass solders, respectively.

  9. High-pressure pyrolysis study of C sub 3 N sub 6 H sub 6 : a route to preparing bulk C sub 3 N sub 4

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, H A; Chen, L X; Zhu, P W; Guo, W L; Guo, X B; Wang, Y D; Li, S Q; Zou Guang Tian; Zhang, G; Bex, P

    2002-01-01

    In order to prepare bulk C sub 3 N sub 4 , high-pressure pyrolysis of melamine (C sub 3 N sub 6 H sub 6) at different temperatures was carried out. The products were characterized by C, N, H element analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray diffractometry. The results of the analysis reveal that graphitic phase C sub 3 N sub 4 has been synthesized. It provides a novel route to synthesis of the theoretical superhard cubic C sub 3 N sub 4 and other C sub 3 N sub 4 phases from organic compounds by a high-pressure and high-temperature method.

  10. SYNTHESIS OF 4’-ALLYLBENZO-3N-CROWN-N ETHERS AND THEIR MASS SPECTRA COMPARED WITH BENZO-3N-CROWN-N ETHERS

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar, Chairil

    2008-01-01

    Synthesis of 4’allylbenzo-3n-crown-n ethers was carried out by reacting demethylated eugenol with α,ω-dichloro-oligoethylene glycols in 1-butanol under basic condition. The mass spectra of 4’allylbenzo-3n-crown-n and benzo-3n-crown-n were investigated by mass spectrometry using electron impact under 70 eV of electron bombardment as ionisation method. The difference between the group of compounds is only the present of allyl moiety as a side chain at the other side of benzene ring. The first g...

  11. Pressure induced magnetic phase transition in RhFe{sub 3}N and IrFe{sub 3}N: An ab-initio study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puvaneswari, S. [Department of physics, E.M.G.Yadava women’s college, Madurai, Tamilnadu-625014 (India); Manikandan, M. [Department of physics, N.M.S.S.V.N college, Madurai, Tamilnadu-625019 (India); Rajeswarapalanichamy, R., E-mail: rrpalanichamy@gmail.com

    2016-05-06

    The structural, electronic, elastic and magnetic properties of RhFe{sub 3}N and IrFe{sub 3}N are investigated using ab-initio calculations based on density functional theory as implemented in VASP code within the gradient generalized approximation. The non-spin polarized and spin polarized calculations are performed for these nitrides at normal and high pressures. It is found that these ternary nitrides are stable in ferromagnetic state at normal pressure. The lattice constant and bulk modulus values are calculated. The electronic structure reveals that these nitrides are metallic at normal pressure. The calculated elastic constants indicate that they are mechanically stable at ambient pressure. Ferromagnetic to nonmagnetic phase transition is observed in RhFe{sub 3}N and IrFe{sub 3}N at high pressure. Ferromagnetism is quenched in these nitrides at high pressure.

  12. Fluorocarbon based atomic layer etching of Si_3N_4 and etching selectivity of SiO_2 over Si_3N_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chen; Metzler, Dominik; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.; Lai, Chiukin Steven; Hudson, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Angstrom-level plasma etching precision is required for semiconductor manufacturing of sub-10 nm critical dimension features. Atomic layer etching (ALE), achieved by a series of self-limited cycles, can precisely control etching depths by limiting the amount of chemical reactant available at the surface. Recently, SiO_2 ALE has been achieved by deposition of a thin (several Angstroms) reactive fluorocarbon (FC) layer on the material surface using controlled FC precursor flow and subsequent low energy Ar"+ ion bombardment in a cyclic fashion. Low energy ion bombardment is used to remove the FC layer along with a limited amount of SiO_2 from the surface. In the present article, the authors describe controlled etching of Si_3N_4 and SiO_2 layers of one to several Angstroms using this cyclic ALE approach. Si_3N_4 etching and etching selectivity of SiO_2 over Si_3N_4 were studied and evaluated with regard to the dependence on maximum ion energy, etching step length (ESL), FC surface coverage, and precursor selection. Surface chemistries of Si_3N_4 were investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) after vacuum transfer at each stage of the ALE process. Since Si_3N_4 has a lower physical sputtering energy threshold than SiO_2, Si_3N_4 physical sputtering can take place after removal of chemical etchant at the end of each cycle for relatively high ion energies. Si_3N_4 to SiO_2 ALE etching selectivity was observed for these FC depleted conditions. By optimization of the ALE process parameters, e.g., low ion energies, short ESLs, and/or high FC film deposition per cycle, highly selective SiO_2 to Si_3N_4 etching can be achieved for FC accumulation conditions, where FC can be selectively accumulated on Si_3N_4 surfaces. This highly selective etching is explained by a lower carbon consumption of Si_3N_4 as compared to SiO_2. The comparison of C_4F_8 and CHF_3 only showed a difference in etching selectivity for FC depleted conditions. For FC accumulation conditions

  13. Tribological characteristics of Si3N4-based composites in unlubricated sliding against steel ball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.-C.; Huang, J.-L.

    2004-01-01

    The dry-sliding wear mechanism of Si 3 N 4 -based composites against AISI-52100 steel ball was studied using a ball-on-disc mode in a reciprocation motion. The addition of TiN particles can increase the fracture toughness of Si 3 N 4 -based composites. The fracture toughness of Si 3 N 4 -based composites played an important role for wear behavior. The Si 3 N 4 -based composites exhibits a small friction and wear coefficient compared to monolithic Si 3 N 4 . Atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies displayed fine wear grooves along the sliding traces. The subsurface deformation shows that the microcrack propagation extends along the TiN/Si 3 N 4 grain interface. The wear mechanisms were determined with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy

  14. Carrier dynamics of a visible-light-responsive Ta3N5 photoanode for water oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Ziani, Ahmed; Nurlaela, Ela; Dhawale, Dattatray Sadashiv; Silva, Diego Alves; Alarousu, Erkki; Mohammed, Omar F.; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of a tantalum nitride (Ta3N5) photoanode were investigated in detail to understand the fundamental aspects associated with the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation. The Ta3N5 thin films were synthesized using DC magnetron sputtering followed by annealing in air and nitridation under ammonia (NH3). A polycrystalline structure with a dense morphology of the monoclinic Ta3N5 films was obtained. A relatively low absorption coefficient (104 to 105 cm-1) in the visible light range was measured for Ta3N5, consistent with the nature of the indirect band-gap. Ultra-fast spectroscopic measurements revealed that the Ta3N5 with different thicknesses films possess low transport properties and fast carrier recombination (<10 ps). These critical kinetic properties of Ta3N5 as a photoanode may necessitate high overpotentials to achieve appreciable photocurrents for water oxidation (onset ∼0.6 V vs. RHE). This journal is

  15. Two Novel C3N4 Phases: Structural, Mechanical and Electronic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyang Fan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We systematically studied the physical properties of a novel superhard (t-C3N4 and a novel hard (m-C3N4 C3N4 allotrope. Detailed theoretical studies of the structural properties, elastic properties, density of states, and mechanical properties of these two C3N4 phases were carried out using first-principles calculations. The calculated elastic constants and the hardness revealed that t-C3N4 is ultra-incompressible and superhard, with a high bulk modulus of 375 GPa and a high hardness of 80 GPa. m-C3N4 and t-C3N4 both exhibit large anisotropy with respect to Poisson’s ratio, shear modulus, and Young’s modulus. Moreover, m-C3N4 is a quasi-direct-bandgap semiconductor, with a band gap of 4.522 eV, and t-C3N4 is also a quasi-direct-band-gap semiconductor, with a band gap of 4.210 eV, with the HSE06 functional.

  16. Enhanced photocatalytic ozonation of organics by g-C3N4 under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Gaozu; Zhu, Dongyun; Li, Laisheng; Lan, Bingyan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • g-C 3 N 4 is employed as active catalyst in the photocatalytic ozonation system. • The more negative conduction band of g-C 3 N 4 benefits the transfer of electrons. • The synergistic effect between photocatalysis and ozonation is promoted by g-C 3 N 4 . • Enhanced degradation of oxalic acid and biphenol A is achieved via g-C 3 N 4 /Vis/O 3 . - Abstract: Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) was employed as the active photocatalyst in the photocatalytic ozonation coupling system in the present study. g-C 3 N 4 was prepared by directly heating thiourea in air at 550 °C. XRD, FT-IR, UV–vis was used to characterize the structure and optical property. Oxalic acid and bisphenol A were selected as model substances for photocatalytic ozonation reactions to evaluate the catalytic ability of g-C 3 N 4 (g-C 3 N 4 /Vis/O 3 ). The results showed that the degradation ratio of oxalic acid with g-C 3 N 4 /Vis/O 3 was 65.2% higher than the sum of ratio when it was individually decomposed by g-C 3 N 4 /Vis and O 3 . The TOC removal of biphenol A with g-C 3 N 4 /Vis/O 3 was 2.17 times as great as the sum of the ratio when using g-C 3 N 4 /Vis and O 3 . This improvement was attributed to the enhanced synergistic effect between photocatalysis and ozonation by g-C 3 N 4 . Under visible light irradiation, the photo-generated electrons produced on g-C 3 N 4 facilitated the electrons transfer owing to the more negative conduction band potential (−1.3 V versus NHE). It meant that the photo-generated electrons could be trapped by ozone and reaction with it more easily. Subsequently, the yield of hydroxyl radicals was improved so as to enhance the organics degradation efficiency. This work indicated that metal-free g-C 3 N 4 could be an excellent catalyst for mineralization of organic compounds in waste control

  17. Improving g-C3N4 photocatalysis for NOx removal by Ag nanoparticles decoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yanjuan; Xiong, Ting; Ni, Zilin; Liu, Jie; Dong, Fan; Zhang, Wei; Ho, Wing-Kei

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ag/g-C 3 N 4 nanocomposites were prepared via a facile method for enhanced photocatalytic NO x removal due to surface plasmon resonance of Ag. - Highlights: • The Ag/g-C 3 N 4 nanocomposites were prepared using urea as the precursor. • The Ag/g-C 3 N 4 nanocomposites were applied in removal of NO x in air. • The Ag nanoparticles enhanced the photocatalytic activity of g-C 3 N 4 . • The surface plasmon resonance of Ag played a key role in photocatalysis. - Abstract: In order to overcome the intrinsic drawback of pristine g-C 3 N 4 , we prepared g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets with enhanced photocatalytic performance by Ag nanoparticles decoration using urea as the precursor. It was revealed that the monodispersed Ag nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets. The Ag/g-C 3 N 4 nanocomposites were applied in removal of NO x in air under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the decoration of Ag nanoparticles not only enhanced the photocatalytic activity of g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets, but also benefited the oxidation of NO to final products. The increased visible light absorption arising from the surface plasmon resonance of Ag and improved separation and transfer of photoinduced carriers over Ag/g-C 3 N 4 composites were demonstrated by the UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra and photoluminescence spectra, respectively. It was therefore proposed that the enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag/g-C 3 N 4 composites could be attributed to the extended light response range and enhanced charge separation due to the introduction of Ag nanoparticles.

  18. Process control & monitoring for laser micromaching of Si3N4 ceramics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tshabalala, L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Laser machining which is a non-contact process that offers the advantage of machining advanced ceramics. In laser machining Si3N4, surface temperature is increased and controlled to evaporate the YSiAlON glassy phase of the Si3N4. However...

  19. Development and characterization of HIP joining techniques for Si3N4 materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Woo, J.

    1991-09-01

    The report deals with the development and optimization of reproducible techniques for joining Si 3 N 4 with Si 3 N 4 without interlayers consisting of other materials, applying hot isostatic pressing and vacuum plasma spraying. Furthermore, experiments are reported that have been performed in addition to the above-mentioned, for preparing Si 3 N 4 sintered specimens without sintering additives, applying the HIP technique. The resulting specimens have been tested for their joining characteristics, which are reported. All reported experiments have been performed varying essential parameters such as HIP temperature, pressure, holding time, surface roughness, and heat treatment. Every parameter has been examined individually for its effect on the bonding strength of the prepared Si 3 N 4 -Si 3 N 4 joint, applying 4P bending tests at room temperature and at 1200deg C. (orig./MM) [de

  20. New template for metal decoration and hydrogen adsorption on graphene-like C3N4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yi; Sun Hong; Chen Changfeng

    2009-01-01

    From density functional theory calculations we identify a graphene-like C 3 N 4 (g-C 3 N 4 ) as an excellent template for stable and well dispersed decoration of alkali (Li) and 3d transition metal (TM) atoms. The porous sites of g-C 3 N 4 accommodate excessive N lone-pair electrons and promote hybridization between the orbitals of N and the metal atoms. The most stable TM decorations (Ti and Sc) on g-C 3 N 4 exhibit high capacities of hydrogen adsorption with binding energies suitable for mobile applications. These metal decorated g-C 3 N 4 may also prove useful in catalytic and sensing applications for their unique nanoscale structural features unavailable in conventional nano-clusters.

  1. Large resistive-switching phenomena observed in Ag/Si3N4/Al memory cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee-Dong; An, Ho-Myoung; Kim, Kyoung Chan; Seo, Yujeong; Kim, Tae Geun; Nam, Ki-Hyun; Chung, Hong-Bay; Lee, Eui Bok

    2010-01-01

    An effective resistive-switching effect has been observed in silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ) dielectrics in Ag/Si 3 N 4 /Al memory cells. The ratio of the low resistance to high resistance state was larger than 10 7 at ±1.2 V for a 10 nm thick Si 3 N 4 layer. This switching behavior is attributed to a change in the conductivity of the Si 3 N 4 dielectrics, depending on whether nitride-related traps are filled with electrons under positive biases or unfilled under negative biases. This assertion is experimentally confirmed from the relationship between the amount of charges trapped in the Si 3 N 4 layer and the corresponding changes in its resistance with respect to bias voltages. In addition, the formation or dissolution of the conductive path is confirmed by conductive atomic force microscopy current images

  2. Subnitride chemistry: A first-principles study of the NaBa3N, Na5Ba3N, and Na16Ba6N phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, Josep M.

    2005-01-01

    An ab initio study on the electronic structure of the subnitrides NaBa 3 N, Na 5 Ba 3 N, and Na 16 Ba 6 N is performed for the first time. The NaBa 3 N and Na 5 Ba 3 N phases consist of infinite 1 ∞ [NBa 6/2 ] strands composed of face-sharing NBa 6 octahedra surrounded by a 'sea' of sodium atoms. The Na 16 Ba 6 N phase consist of discrete [NBa 6 ] octahedra arranged in a body-cubic fashion, surrounded by a 'sea' of sodium atoms. Our calculations suggest that the title subnitrides are metals. Analysis of the electronic structure shows partial interaction of N(2s) with Ba(5p) electrons in the lower energy region for NaBa 3 N and Na 5 Ba 3 N. However, no dispersion is observed for the N(2s) and Ba(5p) bands in the cubic phase Na 16 Ba 6 N. The metallic band below the Fermi level shows a strong mixing of N(2p), Ba(6s), Ba(5d), Ba(6p), Na(3s) and Na(3p) orbitals. The metallic character in these nitrides stems from delocalized electrons corresponding to hybridized 5d l 6s m 6p n barium orbitals which interact with hybridized 3s n 3p m sodium orbitals. Analysis of the electron density and electronic structure in these nitrides shows two different regions: a metallic matrix corresponding to the sodium atoms and the regions around them and heteropolar bonding between nitrogen and barium within the infinite 1 ∞ [NBa 6/2 ] strands of the NaBa 3 N and Na 5 Ba 3 N phases, and within the isolated [NBa 6 ] octahedra of the Na 16 Ba 6 N phase. The nitrogen atoms inside the strands and octahedra are negatively charged, the anionic character of nitrogens being larger in the isolated octahedra of the cubic phase Na 16 Ba 6 N, due to the lack of electron delocalization along one direction as opposed to the other phases. The sodium and barium atoms appear to be slightly negatively and positively charged, the latter to a larger extent. From the computed Ba-N overlap populations as well as the analysis of the contour maps of differences between total density and superposition of

  3. Is H3N2 Pneumonia Different from Other Community-Acquired Pneumonia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coşkun Doğan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the clinical, laboratory, radiological, and demographic data of H3N2 pneumonia cases hospitalized to the Pulmonology Department during H3N2 pandemics and compare them with non-H3N2 community-acquired pneumonia (CAP cases. Methods: The study population consisted of all CAP cases hospitalized to our Pulmonology Department between December 2013 and February 2014 during the influenza outbreak. The patient files were evaluated for physical findings, laboratory data, radiological findings, and treatment and outcome of cases. H3N2 was diagnosed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis of throat swabs. The clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings of H3N2 pneumonia cases were compared with those of non-H3N2 pneumonia cases. Mann–Whitney U test, Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and logistic regression analysis by the forward step wise method were used for statistical analyses. P value0.05. The rates of treatment failure and/or transport to the intensive care unit with the need of invasive mechanical ventilation and mortality rates were also similar in both groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: H3N2 pneumonia/viral pneumonia is a member of CAP. Although the number of H3N2 cases are extremely small to draw a conclusion, the results of this study highlight that the clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings of H3N2 pneumonia cases are not different from those of non-H3N2 CAP cases.

  4. Self-assembled hierarchical carbon/g-C3N4 composite with high photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ru-Long; Huang, Wei-Qing; Li, Dong-Feng; Ma, Li-Li; Pan, Anlian; Hu, Wangyu; Fan, Xiaoxing; Huang, Gui-Fang

    2018-04-01

    Hierarchical carbon/g-C3N4 composites consisting of nanosheets are synthesized by a direct thermal diffusion and exfoliation approach with glucose acting as the intercalator and carbon source. This facile protocol not only renders nanosheets with a large surface area, but also carbon intercalation into the interlayer of g-C3N4. Therefore, the synthesized carbon/g-C3N4 composites exhibit superior photocatalytic performance for degrading representative methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiatuon. Carbon/g-C3N4 composites with an optimal glucose mass ratio of 0.25% show the apparent reaction rate constant of 0.253 h-1, which is 9 times higher than that over bluk g-C3N4. The superior photocatalytic performance of carbon/g-C3N4 hierarchical architectures can be attributed to the synergic effects of large reactive sites, effective visible light adsorption and faster charge transfer owing to the superior electron transfer ability of carbon as verified by the PL and photoelectrochemical measurements. The main reactive species responsible for the photocatalytic degradation are photoinduced holes and ·OH radicals under visible light irradiation. This work provides a facile way to fabricate effecient g-C3N4-based photocatalysts for the potential application in dealing with environmental and energy shortage issues using solar energy.

  5. Ultrathin g-C3N4 films supported on Attapulgite nanofibers with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongshuai; Zhang, Lili; Yin, Minghui; Xie, Dengyu; Chen, Jiaqi; Yin, Jingzhou; Fu, Yongsheng; Zhao, Pusu; Zhong, Hui; Zhao, Yijiang; Wang, Xin

    2018-05-01

    A novel visible-light-responsive photocatalyst is fabricated by introducing g-C3N4 ultrathin films onto the surface of attapulgite (ATP) via a simple in-situ depositing technique, in which ATP was pre-grafted using (3-Glycidyloxypropyl) trimethoxysilane (KH560) as the surfactant. A combination of XRD, FT-IR, BET, XPS, UV-vis, TEM and SEM techniques are utilized to characterize the composition, morphology and optical properties of the products. The results show that with the help of KH560, g-C3N4 presented as ultrathin layer is uniformly loaded onto the surface of ATP by forming a new chemical bond (Sisbnd Osbnd C). Comparing with g-C3N4 and ATP, ATP/g-C3N4 exhibits remarkably enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity in degradation of methyl orange (MO) because of its high surface area, appropriate band gap and the synergistic effect between g-C3N4 and ATP. To achieve the best photocatalyst, the ratio of g-C3N4 was adjusted by controlling the mass portion between ATP-KH560 and melamine (r = m (ATP-KH560)/m (melamine)). The highest decomposition rate of methyl orange (MO) was 96.06% when r = 0.5 and this degradation efficiency remained unchanged after 4 cycles, which is 10 times as that of pure g-C3N4 particles. Possible photocatalytic mechanism is presented.

  6. Production and loss of HC3N in interstellar clouds: some relevant laboratory measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, J.S.; Freeman, C.G.; McEwan, M.J.; Smith, S.C.; Adams, N.G.; Smith, D.

    1986-01-01

    The results of recent selected ion flow tube (SIFT) experiments on the ion-molecule chemistry of cyanoacetylene are considered in the context of the chemistry of HC 3 N in the interstellar environment. Important errors revealed by this SIFT investigation, following an earlier flowing afterglow study in the authors' laboratory, have led to a different perception of the ion-molecule chemistry that HC 3 N may undergo in interstellar clouds. It is now evident that insertion and association occur in the reactions of hydrocarbon ions with HC 3 N. (author)

  7. Interspecies and intraspecies transmission of triple reassortant H3N2 influenza A viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Chang-Won; Al-Natour Mohammad Q; Yassine Hadi M; Saif Yehia M

    2007-01-01

    1. Abstract The triple reassortant H3N2 viruses were isolated for the first time from pigs in 1998 and are known to be endemic in swine and turkey populations in the United States. In 2004, we isolated two H3N2 triple reassortant viruses from two turkey breeder flocks in Ohio and Illinois. Infected hens showed no clinical signs, but experienced a complete cessation of egg production. In this study, we evaluated three triple reassortant H3N2 isolates of turkey origin and one isolate of swine o...

  8. Transmission of Avian Influenza Virus (H3N2) to Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Daesub; Kang, Bokyu; Lee, Chulseung; Jung, Kwonil; Ha, Gunwoo; Kang, Dongseok; Park, Seongjun; Park, Bongkyun; Oh, Jinsik

    2008-01-01

    In South Korea, where avian influenza virus subtypes H3N2, H5N1, H6N1, and H9N2 circulate or have been detected, 3 genetically similar canine influenza virus (H3N2) strains of avian origin (A/canine/Korea/01/2007, A/canine/Korea/02/2007, and A/canine/Korea/03/2007) were isolated from dogs exhibiting severe respiratory disease. To determine whether the novel canine influenza virus of avian origin was transmitted among dogs, we experimentally infected beagles with this influenza virus (H3N2) is...

  9. Selective Oxidation of Alcohols Using Photoactive VO@g‑C3N4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A photoactive VO@g-C3N4 catalyst has been developed for the selective oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones. The visible light mediated...

  10. Photocatalytic C-H Activation and Oxidative Esterification Using Pd@g-C3N4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Graphitic carbon nitride supported palladium nanoparticles, Pd@g-C3N4, have been synthesized and utilized for the direct oxidative esterification of alcohols using...

  11. Photocatalytic C−H Activation of Hydrocarbons over VO@g‑C3N4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A highly selective and sustainable method has been developed for the oxidation of methyl arenes and their analogues. The VO@g-C3N4 catalyst is very efficient in the...

  12. Synthesis of nanocrystalline magnesium nitride (Mg3N2) powder using thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Tae-Hee; Park, Hyun-Woo; Park, Dong-Wha

    2011-01-01

    Nanocrystalline magnesium nitride (Mg 3 N 2 ) powder was synthesized from bulk magnesium by thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure. Magnesium vapor was generated through heating the bulk magnesium by DC plasma jet and reacted with ammonia gas. Injecting position and flow rates of ammonia gas were controlled to investigate an ideal condition for Mg 3 N 2 synthesis. The synthesized Mg 3 N 2 was cooled and collected on the chamber wall. Characteristics of the synthesized powders for each experimental condition were analyzed by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravity analysis (TGA). In absence of NH 3 , magnesium metal powder was formed. The synthesis with NH 3 injection in low temperature region resulted in a formation of crystalline magnesium nitride with trigonal morphology, whereas the mixture of magnesium metal and amorphous Mg 3 N 2 was formed when NH 3 was injected in high temperature region. Also, vaporization process of magnesium was discussed.

  13. Establishing efficient cobalt based catalytic sites for oxygen evolution on a Ta3N5 photocatalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Nurlaela, Ela; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Llorens, Isabelle; Hazemann, Jean-louis; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    In a photocatalytic suspension system with a powder semiconductor, the interface between the photocatalyst semiconductor and catalyst should be constructed to minimize resistance for charge transfer of excited carriers. This study demonstrates an in-depth understanding of pretreatment effects on the photocatalytic O2 evolution reaction (OER) activity of visible-light-responsive Ta3N5 decorated with CoOx nanoparticles. The CoOx/Ta3N5 sample was synthesized by impregnation followed by sequential heat treat-ments under NH3 flow and air flow at various temperatures. Various characterization techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and X-ray photoelectron spec-troscopy (XPS), were used to clarify the state and role of cobalt. No improvement in photocatalytic activity for OER over the bare Ta3N5 was observed for the as-impregnated CoOx/Ta3N5, likely because of insufficient contact between CoOx and Ta3N5. When the sample was treated in NH3 at high temperature, a substantial improvement in the photocatalytic activity was observed. After NH3 treatment at 700 °C, the Co0-CoOx core-shell agglomerated cobalt structure was identified by XAS and STEM. No metallic cobalt species was evident after the photocatalytic OER, indicating that the metallic cobalt itself is not essential for the reaction. Accordingly, mild oxidation (200 °C) of the NH3-treated CoOx/Ta3N5 sample enhanced photocatalytic OER activity. Oxidation at higher temperatures drastically eliminated the photocatalytic activity, most likely because of unfavorable Ta3N5 oxidation. These results suggest that the intimate contact between cobalt species and Ta3N5 facilitated at high temperature is beneficial to enhancing hole transport and that the cobalt oxide provides electrocatalytic sites for OER.

  14. Improvement of photoluminescence from Ge layer with patterned Si3N4 stressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Katsuya; Okumura, Tadashi; Tani, Kazuki; Saito, Shin-ichi; Ido, Tatemi

    2014-01-01

    Lattice strain applied by patterned Si 3 N 4 stressors in order to improve the optical properties of Ge layers directly grown on a Si substrate was investigated. Patterned Si 3 N 4 stressors were fabricated by various methods and their effects on the strain and photoluminescence were studied. Although we found that when the stressor was fabricated by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD), the Ge waveguide was tensilely and compressively strained in the edge and center positions, respectively, and photoluminescence (PL) could be improved by decreasing the width of the waveguide, the crystallinity of the Ge waveguide was degraded by the thermal impact of the deposition process. Low-temperature methods were therefore used to make the patterned stressors. The tensile strain of the Ge layer increased from 0.14% to 0.2% when the stressor was grown by plasma enhanced CVD at 350 °C, but the effects of the increased tensile strain could not be confirmed because the Si 3 N 4 layer was unstable when irradiated with the excitation light used in photoluminescence measurements. Si 3 N 4 stressors grown by inductively coupled plasma CVD at room temperature increased the tensile strain of the Ge layer up to 0.4%, thus red-shifting the PL peak and obviously increasing the PL intensity. These results indicate that the Si 3 N 4 stressors fabricated by the room-temperature process efficiently improve the performance of Ge light-emitting devices. - Highlights: • Ge layers were directly grown on a Si substrate by low-temperature epitaxial growth. • Si 3 N 4 stressors were fabricated on the Ge layers by various methods. • Tensile strain of the Ge layers was improved by the Si 3 N 4 stressors. • Photoluminescence (PL) intensity was increased with the Si 3 N 4 stressors. • Red-shift of the PL spectra was observed from the tensile strained Ge layers

  15. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by C3N4/ZnO: the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    heating at 540◦C for 3 h in air, melamine was converted to C3N4 but the formation of C3N4 depended on the ratios of the melamine and ZnO (M/Z) powders. From the experimental results, ... decolourize the textile wastewater such as adsorption, chem- ical coagulation, oxidization and so on [1–3]. Photocataly- sis is one of ...

  16. Establishing efficient cobalt based catalytic sites for oxygen evolution on a Ta3N5 photocatalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Nurlaela, Ela

    2015-08-05

    In a photocatalytic suspension system with a powder semiconductor, the interface between the photocatalyst semiconductor and catalyst should be constructed to minimize resistance for charge transfer of excited carriers. This study demonstrates an in-depth understanding of pretreatment effects on the photocatalytic O2 evolution reaction (OER) activity of visible-light-responsive Ta3N5 decorated with CoOx nanoparticles. The CoOx/Ta3N5 sample was synthesized by impregnation followed by sequential heat treat-ments under NH3 flow and air flow at various temperatures. Various characterization techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and X-ray photoelectron spec-troscopy (XPS), were used to clarify the state and role of cobalt. No improvement in photocatalytic activity for OER over the bare Ta3N5 was observed for the as-impregnated CoOx/Ta3N5, likely because of insufficient contact between CoOx and Ta3N5. When the sample was treated in NH3 at high temperature, a substantial improvement in the photocatalytic activity was observed. After NH3 treatment at 700 °C, the Co0-CoOx core-shell agglomerated cobalt structure was identified by XAS and STEM. No metallic cobalt species was evident after the photocatalytic OER, indicating that the metallic cobalt itself is not essential for the reaction. Accordingly, mild oxidation (200 °C) of the NH3-treated CoOx/Ta3N5 sample enhanced photocatalytic OER activity. Oxidation at higher temperatures drastically eliminated the photocatalytic activity, most likely because of unfavorable Ta3N5 oxidation. These results suggest that the intimate contact between cobalt species and Ta3N5 facilitated at high temperature is beneficial to enhancing hole transport and that the cobalt oxide provides electrocatalytic sites for OER.

  17. Evaluation of protective efficacy of three novel H3N2 canine influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Liqing; Zhou, Pei; Li, Lutao; Li, Xiuzhen; Hu, Renjun; Jia, Kun; Sun, Lingshuang; Yuan, Ziguo; Li, Shoujun

    2017-11-17

    Canine influenza virus (CIV) has the potential risk to spread in different areas and dog types. Thus, there is a growing need to develop an effective vaccine to control CIV disease. Here, we developed three vaccine candidates: 1) a recombinant pVAX1 vector expressing H3N2 CIV hemagglutinin (pVAX1-HA); 2) a live attenuated canine adenovirus type 2 expressing H3N2 CIV hemagglutinin (rCAV2-HA); and 3) an inactivated H3N2 CIV (A/canine/Guangdong/01/2006 (H3N2)). Mice received an initial intramuscular immunization that followed two booster injections at 2 and 4 weeks post-vaccination (wpv). The splenic lymphocytes were collected to assess the immune responses at 6 wpv. The protective efficacy was evaluated by challenging H3N2 CIV after vaccination (at 6 wpv). Our results demonstrated that all three vaccine candidates elicited cytokine and antibody responses in mice. The rCAV2-HA vaccine and the inactivated vaccine generated efficient protective efficacy in mice, whereas limited protection was provided by the pVAX1-HA DNA vaccine. Therefore, both the rCAV2-HA live recombinant virus and the inactivated CIV could be used as potential novel vaccines against H3N2CIV. This study provides guidance for choosing the most appropriate vaccine for the prevention and control of CIV disease.

  18. External electric field effects on Schottky barrier at Gd3N@C80/Au interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Koichi; Nakashima, Fumihiro; Jin, Ge; Eto, Daichi; Hattori, Hayami; Miyoshi, Noriko; Kirimoto, Kenta; Sun, Yong

    2017-08-01

    The effects of the external electric field on the height of the Schottky barrier at the Gd3N@C80/Au interface were studied by measuring current-voltage characteristics at various temperatures from 200 K to 450 K. The Gd3N@C80 sample with the conduction/forbidden/valence energy band structure had a face-centered cubic crystal structure with the average grain size of several nanometers. The height of the Gd3N@C80/Au Schottky barrier was confirmed to be 400 meV at a low electric field at room temperature. Moreover, the height decreases with the increasing external electric field through a change of permittivity in the Gd3N@C80 sample due to a polarization of the [Gd3] 9 +-[N3 -+("separators="|C80 ) 6 -] dipoles in the Gd3N@C80 molecule. The field-dependence of the barrier height can be described using a power math function of the electric field strength. The results of the field-dependent barrier height indicate that the reduction in the Schottky barrier is due to an image force effect of the transport charge carrier at the Gd3N@C80/Au interface.

  19. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} materials and applications; Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-Werkstoffe und deren Anwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woetting, G.; Leimer, G.; Gugel, E. [Cremer Forschungsinstitut GmbH und Co. KG, Roedental (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Silicon nitrides, or silicon nitride-based materials, offer a very wide range of high-duty applications due to their high mechanical strength and good resistance to thermal, corrosive, and/or abrasive wear. Variation and optimization of their properties in response to intended applications is described in detail, also referring to potential new applications. (orig./CB) [German] Siliciumnitrid(Si3N4)- bzw. SN-Werkstoffe finden aufgrund ihrer hohen mechanischen Festigkeit sowie guten thermischen, korrosiven und/oder abrasiven Bestaendigkeit bereits vielfaeltige Anwendungen als hochbelastete Bauteile. Um fuer die jeweiligen Einsatzbedingungen optimale Werkstoffe einzusetzen, sind spezifische Modifizierungen moeglich und sinnvoll. Diesbezueglich kommerziell verfuegbare Si3N4-Werkstoffqualitaeten werden vorgestellt und derzeitige sowie potentielle Anwendungen ausgefuehrt. Die haeufig als Hemmnis fuer einen breiten Einsatz angefuehrten Bauteilkosten werden diskutiert. (orig.)

  20. STUDY ON POLYMRIZED C3N4 FILM BY DYAMICSCATALYTIC AGENT METHOD%动态催化聚合C3N4膜的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈剑瑄; 刘仲阳; 张大忠; 孙官清; 罗伯诚

    2001-01-01

    The C3N4 film on Al2O3 formed by dynamic catalytic at low energy Ar+ ion sputtering C3H6N6 + Ni target. The ratio of nitroge atoms to carbon in the films is 4:3. C(ls) peakes for graphite, diamond and C≡N not have observed, above results are obtained by XPS. The main peak appears at 1275cm- 1 in the Raman spectrum. Resuits of SEM cant observed that sample is consist of cluter type crystal, but is no needle type. The colour is yellow but is no white. The experimental result indicated films consist of inorganic cavalent solid carbon nitride. The results from XRF observed sample contain Fe and Ni elements. It has been illustrated that Fe and Ni responsible for one C3N4 polymerization.

  1. Zoonotic Risk, Pathogenesis, and Transmission of Avian-Origin H3N2 Canine Influenza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hailiang; Blackmon, Sherry; Yang, Guohua; Waters, Kaitlyn; Li, Tao; Tangwangvivat, Ratanaporn; Xu, Yifei; Shyu, Daniel; Wen, Feng; Cooley, Jim; Senter, Lucy; Lin, Xiaoxu; Jarman, Richard; Hanson, Larry; Webby, Richard; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2017-11-01

    Two subtypes of influenza A virus (IAV), avian-origin canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N2 (CIV-H3N2) and equine-origin CIV H3N8 (CIV-H3N8), are enzootic in the canine population. Dogs have been demonstrated to seroconvert in response to diverse IAVs, and naturally occurring reassortants of CIV-H3N2 and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus (pdmH1N1) have been isolated. We conducted a thorough phenotypic evaluation of CIV-H3N2 in order to assess its threat to human health. Using ferret-generated antiserum, we determined that CIV-H3N2 is antigenically distinct from contemporary human H3N2 IAVs, suggesting that there may be minimal herd immunity in humans. We assessed the public health risk of CIV-H3N2 × pandemic H1N1 (pdmH1N1) reassortants by characterizing their in vitro genetic compatibility and in vivo pathogenicity and transmissibility. Using a luciferase minigenome assay, we quantified the polymerase activity of all possible 16 ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes (PB2, PB1, PA, NP) between CIV-H3N2 and pdmH1N1, identifying some combinations that were more active than either parental virus complex. Using reverse genetics and fixing the CIV-H3N2 hemagglutinin (HA), we found that 51 of the 127 possible reassortant viruses were viable and able to be rescued. Nineteen of these reassortant viruses had high-growth phenotypes in vitro , and 13 of these replicated in mouse lungs. A single reassortant with the NP and HA gene segments from CIV-H3N2 was selected for characterization in ferrets. The reassortant was efficiently transmitted by contact but not by the airborne route and was pathogenic in ferrets. Our results suggest that CIV-H3N2 reassortants may pose a moderate risk to public health and that the canine host should be monitored for emerging IAVs. IMPORTANCE IAV pandemics are caused by the introduction of novel viruses that are capable of efficient and sustained transmission into a human population with limited herd immunity. Dogs are a a potential mixing vessel for avian

  2. A review on g-C3N4-based photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Jiuqing; Xie, Jun; Chen, Xiaobo; Li, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The photocatalytic fundamentals, versatile properties, design strategies and potential applications of g-C 3 N 4 -based photocatalysts were systematically summarized and addressed. - Highlights: • The photocatalytic fundamentals of g-C 3 N 4 were systematically summarized. • The versatile properties of g-C 3 N 4 photocatalysts were highlighted. • The different design strategies of g-C 3 N 4 photocatalysts were reviewed. • The important photocatalytic applications of g-C 3 N 4 were also addressed. - Abstract: As one of the most appealing and attractive technologies, heterogeneous photocatalysis has been utilized to directly harvest, convert and store renewable solar energy for producing sustainable and green solar fuels and a broad range of environmental applications. Due to their unique physicochemical, optical and electrical properties, a wide variety of g-C 3 N 4 -based photocatalysts have been designed to drive various reduction and oxidation reactions under light irradiation with suitable wavelengths. In this review, we have systematically summarized the photocatalytic fundamentals of g-C 3 N 4 -based photocatalysts, including fundamental mechanism of heterogeneous photocatalysis, advantages, challenges and the design considerations of g-C 3 N 4 -based photocatalysts. The versatile properties of g-C 3 N 4 -based photocatalysts are highlighted, including their crystal structural, surface phisicochemical, stability, optical, adsorption, electrochemical, photoelectrochemical and electronic properties. Various design strategies are also thoroughly reviewed, including band-gap engineering, defect control, dimensionality tuning, pore texture tailoring, surface sensitization, heterojunction construction, co-catalyst and nanocarbon loading. Many important applications are also addressed, such as photocatalytic water splitting (H 2 evolution and overall water splitting), degradation of pollutants, carbon dioxide reduction, selective organic

  3. A review on g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Jiuqing; Xie, Jun [College of Materials and Energy, Key Laboratory of Energy Plants Resource and Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Key Laboratory of Biomass Energy of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642 (China); Chen, Xiaobo, E-mail: chenxiaobo@umkc.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri – Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, 64110 (United States); Li, Xin, E-mail: Xinliscau@yahoo.com [College of Materials and Energy, Key Laboratory of Energy Plants Resource and Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Key Laboratory of Biomass Energy of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The photocatalytic fundamentals, versatile properties, design strategies and potential applications of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based photocatalysts were systematically summarized and addressed. - Highlights: • The photocatalytic fundamentals of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} were systematically summarized. • The versatile properties of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalysts were highlighted. • The different design strategies of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalysts were reviewed. • The important photocatalytic applications of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} were also addressed. - Abstract: As one of the most appealing and attractive technologies, heterogeneous photocatalysis has been utilized to directly harvest, convert and store renewable solar energy for producing sustainable and green solar fuels and a broad range of environmental applications. Due to their unique physicochemical, optical and electrical properties, a wide variety of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based photocatalysts have been designed to drive various reduction and oxidation reactions under light irradiation with suitable wavelengths. In this review, we have systematically summarized the photocatalytic fundamentals of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based photocatalysts, including fundamental mechanism of heterogeneous photocatalysis, advantages, challenges and the design considerations of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based photocatalysts. The versatile properties of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based photocatalysts are highlighted, including their crystal structural, surface phisicochemical, stability, optical, adsorption, electrochemical, photoelectrochemical and electronic properties. Various design strategies are also thoroughly reviewed, including band-gap engineering, defect control, dimensionality tuning, pore texture tailoring, surface sensitization, heterojunction construction, co-catalyst and nanocarbon loading. Many important applications are also addressed, such as photocatalytic water splitting (H{sub 2} evolution and overall water

  4. Friction and wear study of NR/SBR blends with Si3N4Filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    GaneshKumar, A.; Balaganesan, G.; Sivakumar, M. S.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate mechanical and frictional properties of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber (NR/SBR) blends with and without silicon nitride (Si3N4) filler. The rubber is surface modified by silane coupling agent (Si-69) for enhancing hydrophobic property. The Si3N4of percentage 0 1, 3, 5 and 7, is incorporated into NR/SBR rubber compounds with 20% precipitated silica. The specimens with and without fillers are prepared as per standard for tensile and friction testing. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy test is conducted and it is inferred that the coupling agent is covalently bonded on the surface of Si3N4 particles and an organic coating layer is formed. The co-efficient of friction and specific wear rate of NR/SBR blends are examined using an in-house built friction tester in a disc-on-plate (DOP) configuration. The specimens are tested to find coefficient of friction (COF) against steel grip antiskid plate under dry, mud, wet and oil environmental conditions. It is found that the increase in tensile strength and modulus at low percentage of Si3N4 dispersion. It is also observed that increase in sliding friction co-efficient and decrease in wear rate for 1% of Si3N4 dispersion in NR/SBR blends. The friction tested surfaces are inspected using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and 3D non contact surface profiler.

  5. Air-stable n-type doping of graphene from overlying Si3N4 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zegao; Li, Pingjian; Chen, Yuanfu; Liu, Jingbo; Qi, Fei; Tian, Hongjun; Zheng, Binjie; Zhou, Jinhao

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we report a facile method to obtain air-stable n-type graphene by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor depositing Si 3 N 4 film on the surface of graphene. We have demonstrated that the overlying Si 3 N 4 film can not only act as the penetration-barrier against H 2 O and O 2 adsorbed on the graphene surface, but also cause an effective n-type doping due to the amine groups at the interface of graphene/Si 3 N 4 . Furthermore, the studies reveal that the Dirac point of graphene can be modulated by the thickness of Si 3 N 4 film, which is due to competing effects of Si 3 N 4 -induced doping (n-type) and penetrating H 2 O (O 2 )-induced doping (p-type). We expect this method to be used for obtaining stable n-type graphene field-effect transistors in air, which will be widely used in graphene electronic devices.

  6. Distribution of CCS and HC3N in L1147, an early phase dark cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Taiki; Ohishi, Masatoshi; Hirota, Tomoya

    2014-01-01

    We used the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope to reveal spatial distributions of CCS and HC 3 N in L1147, one of the carbon-chain producing region (CCPR) candidates, where carbon-chain molecules are dominant rather than NH 3 . We found that three cores (two CCS cores and one HC 3 N core), which are away from a very low luminosity object (a source that may turn into a sub-stellar mass brown dwarf), exist along the NE-SW filament traced by the 850 μm dust continuum. The column densities of CCS are 3-7 × 10 12 cm –2 and those of HC 3 N are 2-6 × 10 12 cm –2 , respectively, much lower than those previously reported toward other CCPRs. We also found that two CCS peaks are displaced from the peaks of HC 3 N. In order to interpret such interleaved distributions, we conducted chemical reaction network simulations and found that slightly different gas densities could lead to large variation of the CCS-to-HC 3 N ratio in the early phase of dark cloud evolution. Such a chemical 'variation' may be seen in other CCPRs. Finally, we were able to confirm that the L1147 filament can be regarded as a CCPR.

  7. Incorporating Si3 N4 into PEEK to Produce Antibacterial, Osteocondutive, and Radiolucent Spinal Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Marin, Elia; Adachi, Tetsuya; Lerussi, Federica; Rondinella, Alfredo; Boschetto, Francesco; Zhu, Wenliang; Kitajima, Takashi; Inada, Kosuke; McEntire, Bryan J; Bock, Ryan M; Bal, B Sonny; Mazda, Osam

    2018-04-24

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a popular polymeric biomaterial which is primarily used as an intervertebral spacer in spinal fusion surgery; but it is developed for trauma, prosthodontics, maxillofacial, and cranial implants. It has the purported advantages of an elastic modulus which is similar to native bone and it can be easily formed into custom 3D shapes. Nevertheless, PEEK's disadvantages include its poor antibacterial resistance, lack of bioactivity, and radiographic transparency. This study presents a simple approach to correcting these three shortcomings while preserving the base polymer's biocompatibility, chemical stability, and elastic modulus. The proposed strategy consists of preparing a PEEK composite by dispersing a minor fraction (i.e., 15 vol%) of a silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ) powder within its matrix. In vitro tests of PEEK composites with three Si 3 N 4 variants-β-Si 3 N 4 , α-Si 3 N 4 , and β-SiYAlON-demonstrate significant improvements in the polymer's osteoconductive versus SaOS-2 cells and bacteriostatic properties versus gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria. These properties are clearly a consequence of adding the bioceramic dispersoids, according to chemistry similar to that previously demonstrated for bulk Si 3 N 4 ceramics in terms of osteogenic behavior (vs both osteosarcoma and mesenchymal progenitor cells) and antibacterial properties (vs both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria). © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 assisted by hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quan-Liang; Liu, Yi-Ling; Tong, Li-Ge

    2018-04-01

    Water pollution has caused much attention nowadays. Photocatalysis as a kind of advanced oxidation technology has been widely studied in the field of environmental pollution control. As a stable non-metal photocatalyst, the photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 assisted by H2O2 was investigated for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. The combination of g-C3N4 and H2O2 has much higher activity than that of pure g-C3N4 or H2O2. Neutral solution is preferred for the high phtotocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 with H2O2. The effect of the amount of catalyst, H2O2 concentration and RhB concentration was investigated. Photocatalytic mechanism study using radical scavenger showed free radicals {{{{O}}}2}- and · OH are the main active species. g-C3N4 assisted by H2O2 showed good photostability and repeatability after five cycles of degradation experiment.

  9. Mechanical Properties and Thermal Shock Resistance Analysis of BNNT/Si3N4 Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shouren; Wang, Gaoqi; Wen, Daosheng; Yang, Xuefeng; Yang, Liying; Guo, Peiquan

    2018-04-01

    BNNT/Si3N4 ceramic composites with different weight amount of BNNT fabricated by hot isostatic pressing were introduced. The mechanical properties and thermal shock resistance of the composites were investigated. The results showed that BNNT-added ceramic composites have a finer and more uniform microstructure than that of BNNT-free Si3N4 ceramic because of the retarding effect of BNNT on Si3N4 grain growth. The addition of 1.5 wt.% BNNT results in simultaneous increase in flexural strength, fracture toughness, and thermal shock resistance. The analysis of the results indicates that BNNT brings many thermal transport channels in the microstructure, increasing the efficiency of thermal transport, therefore results in increase of thermal shock resistance. In addition, BNNT improves the residual flexural strength of composites by crack deflection, bridging, branching and pinning, which increase the crack propagation resistance.

  10. Preparation of rod-like β-Si3N4 single crystal particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirao, K.; Tsuge, A.; Brito, M.E.; Kanzaki, S.

    1994-01-01

    The use of β-Si 3 N 4 particles as a seed material has been demonstrated to be effective for development of a self-reinforcing microstructure in sintered silicon nitride ceramics. We have confirmed the seeding effect and arrived at a concept that seed particles should consist of rod-like single crystals free from defects and with a large diameter. The present work describes our attempts to produce such particles with a controlled morphology and in high amount. β-Si 3 N 4 particles with a diameter of 1μm and length of 5μm were obtained by heating a mixture of α-Si 3 N 4 , SiO 2 and Y 2 O 3 , followed by acid rinse treatments to remove residual glassy phase. (orig.)

  11. The Preparation of Cu-g-C3N4/AC Catalyst for Acetylene Hydrochlorination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Zhao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel catalyst based on g-C3N4/activated carbon was prepared by adding CuCl2. The catalytic performance of the as-prepared catalyst was investigated in the acetylene hydrochlorination reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption, low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, and thermal gravity analysis showed that Cu-g-C3N4/AC significantly enhanced the catalytic performance of the original catalyst by increasing the relative pyrrolic N content. Cu-g-C3N4/AC also affected the adsorption of hydrogen chloride and acetylene, as well as inhibited the coke deposition during acetylene hydrochlorination.

  12. Genetic characterization of canine influenza A virus (H3N2) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunpapong, Napawan; Nonthabenjawan, Nutthawan; Chaiwong, Supassama; Tangwangvivat, Ratanaporn; Boonyapisitsopa, Supanat; Jairak, Waleemas; Tuanudom, Ranida; Prakairungnamthip, Duangduean; Suradhat, Sanipa; Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje; Amonsin, Alongkorn

    2014-02-01

    In January 2012, several clinical cases of dogs with flu-like symptoms, including coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, and fever, were reported in a small-animal hospital located in Bangkok, Thailand. One influenza A virus was identified and characterized as an avian-like influenza virus H3N2. The virus was named A/canine/Thailand/CU-DC5299/12. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that the canine virus belonged to an avian Eurasian lineage and was genetically related to the canine influenza viruses H3N2 from China and Korea. This canine virus displays a unique genetic signature with two amino acid insertions in the NA protein, which is similar to the canine influenza viruses from eastern China (Zhejiang and Jiangsu). This study constitutes the first report of H3N2 canine influenza virus infection in a small-animal hospital in Thailand.

  13. The development of a material for uranium sorption in NH_3/N environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaotong; He Linfeng; Liu Bing; Tang Yaping

    2014-01-01

    An efficient hybrid silica (TD-silica) bifunctionalized with trimethyl ammonium (TMAP) and phosphonate (DPTS) for Uranium (VI) extraction in NH_3/N media has been developed in this study. The hybrid silica was prepared by a post grafting of N-trimethoxysilylpropyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium at large-pore silica. The resulting TD-modified silica were observed to possess a good stability and high efficiency for uranium (VI) sorption from solution in coexist with NH_3/N. The adsorbed uranium (VI) can be easily desorbed by using 0.05 mol/L HNO_3 and reused for at least 4 times. It is suggested that TD-silica could be a promising solid phase sorbent for highly-efficient removal of U(VI) from solution in coexist with NH_3/N. (author)

  14. H3N2 Virus as Causative Agent of ARDS Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Peris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pandemic influenza virus A(H1N1 2009 was associated with a higher risk of viral pneumonia in comparison with seasonal influenza viruses. The influenza season 2011-2012 was characterized by the prevalent circulation of influenza A(H3N2 viruses. Whereas most H3N2 patients experienced mild, self-limited influenza-like illness, some patients were at increased risk for influenza complications because of age or underlying medical conditions. Cases presented were patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU of ECMO referral center (Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, Italy. Despite extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment (ECMO, one patient with H3N2-induced ARDS did not survive. Our experience suggests that viral aetiology is becoming more important and hospitals should be able to perform a fast differential diagnosis between bacterial and viral aetiology.

  15. Fabrication of Si3N4 thin films on phynox alloy substrates for electronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankernath, V.; Naidu, K. Lakshun; Krishna, M. Ghanashyam; Padmanabhan, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    Thin films of Si3N4 are deposited on Phynox alloy substrates using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The thickness of the films was varied between 80-150 nm by increasing the duration of deposition from 1 to 3 h at a fixed power density and working pressure. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the Si3N4 films had crystallized inspite of the substrates not being heated during deposition. This was confirmed using selected area electron diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy also. It is postulated that a low lattice misfit between Si3N4 and Phynox provides energetically favourable conditions for ambient temperature crystallization. The hardness of the films is of the order of 6 to 9 GPa.

  16. Anion vacancy-mediated ferromagnetism in atomic-thick Ni3N nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Baorui; Wang, Tongtong; Chi, Xiao; Yu, Xiaojiang; Liu, Peitao; Zhang, Jingyan; Xi, Shibo; Du, Yonghua; Gao, Daqiang

    2017-12-01

    Realizing spin and electronic behavior of two-dimensional ultrathin nanosheets is significant to construct next generation nanoelectronics. Here, atomic-thick Ni3N nanosheets with clear room temperature ferromagnetism and high saturation magnetization (1.2 emu/g) are reported. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and first-principles calculation results give the evidence that the observed intrinsic ferromagnetism in Ni3N nanosheets originates from the surface N-deficiency, where alignments of localized large magnetic moments of Ni in the vicinity of the N defect can be aligned parallel to activate macroscopic ferromagnetism. These ultrathin Ni3N nanosheets show great potential application in next-generation electron devices.

  17. Colloidal processing and rapid prototyping of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liwu Wang

    1998-12-01

    Some progresses have been made in the wet shaping of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} based on a better understanding of the colloidal behavior of suspensions and by improved pressure casting with porous polystyrene (PS) molds. This work illustrated that the combination of proper colloidal processing and rapid prototyping is an effective way to fabricate high-performance ceramics with complex shapes. In colloidal processing the packing density and microstructure of green bodies can be controlled if the interaction between ceramic particles in suspensions and the conditions under which the suspensions are consolidated are understood. Therefore, detailed studies on the surface chemistry of the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder, the dispersing behavior of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} suspensions, the influence of dispersants and the mechanism during powder consolidation into complex-shaped green bodies are performed. (orig.)

  18. Preparation of Si3N4 Form Diatomite via a Carbothermal Reduction-Nitridation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bin; Huang, Zhaohui; Mei, Lefu; Fang, Minghao; Liu, Yangai; Wu, Xiaowen; Hu, Xiaozhi

    2016-05-01

    Si3N4 was produced using diatomite and sucrose as silicon and carbon sources, respectively. The effect of the C/SiO2 molar ratio, heating temperature and soaking time on the morphology and phase compositions of the final products was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The phase equilibrium relationships of the system at different heating temperatures were also investigated based on the thermodynamic analysis. The results indicate that the phase compositions depended on the C/SiO2 molar ratio, heating temperature and soaking time. Fabrication of Si3N4 from the precursor via carbothermal reduction nitridation was achieved at 1550°C for 1-8 h using a C/SiO2 molar ratio of 3.0. The as-prepared Si3N4 contained a low amount of Fe3Si (<1 wt.%).

  19. Development of Ta3N5 as an Efficient Visible Light-responsive Photocatalyst for Water Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Nurlaela, Ela

    2015-01-01

    phase sample. The photophysical properties of Ta3N5, such as the absorption coefficient, carrier mobility, and carrier lifetime, have been experimentally measured by synthesizing Ta3N5 thin films. Very low kinetic properties with very low transport

  20. Graphene and g-C3N4 based photocatalysts for NOx removal: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikokavoura, Aspasia; Trapalis, Christos

    2018-02-01

    NOx liberated into atmosphere from automobile exhausts and fossil fuel combustion, comprise the major air pollutants. They are responsible for serious environmental problems such as acid rain, ozone accumulation, haze and photochemical smog. Besides they contribute to the deterioration of human health by causing decrease of the lung function and respiratory problems. The application of photocatalytic methods in order to mitigate the presence of NOx in the atmosphere is preferable as they are environmentally friendly, mild and low cost. Therefore, in this review, the photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 and graphene based composites towards NOx removal was discussed. NOx oxidation to non volatile nitrates on the surface of graphene and g-C3N4 based photocatalysts has attracted much interest during the last years due to their structures with unique features such as large specific surface area, thermal and chemical stability and enhanced visible light utilization. The formation of 2D-2D intimate heterojunctions between graphene or g-C3N4 and other components ensures the enhanced charge transfer, lifetime of electron/hole pairs and thus photocatalytic activity. The increased visible light harvesting also contributes to their usefulness as effective photocatalytic materials. In the present work, the advantages of these novel photocatalysts and the differences/similarities between them were exhaustively highlighted. The role of graphene as catalyst promoter, electron reservoir, support and photosensitizer in its photocatalytic composites was emphasized. The effect of g-C3N4 doping and copolymerization with metals/semiconductors on its photocatalytic activity towards NOx oxidation was thoroughly discussed. Besides, the preparation methods, photocatalytic efficiencies, type of irradiation, utilization of appropriate cocatalysts, and reaction mechanisms during the photocatalytic NOx removal by graphene and g-C3N4 composies, were summarized. It was demonstrated that in the vast

  1. Vertically aligned Ta3N5 nanorod arrays for solar-driven photoelectrochemical water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanbo

    2012-09-18

    A vertically aligned Ta3N5 nanorod photoelectrode is fabricated by through-mask anodization and nitridation for water splitting. The Ta3N5 nanorods, working as photoanodes of a photoelectrochemical cell, yield a high photocurrent density of 3.8 mA cm -2 at 1.23 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode under AM 1.5G simulated sunlight and an incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 41.3% at 440 nm, one of the highest activities reported for photoanodes so far. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Vertically aligned Ta3N5 nanorod arrays for solar-driven photoelectrochemical water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanbo; Takata, Tsuyoshi; Cha, Dong Kyu; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Minegishi, Tsutomu; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2012-01-01

    A vertically aligned Ta3N5 nanorod photoelectrode is fabricated by through-mask anodization and nitridation for water splitting. The Ta3N5 nanorods, working as photoanodes of a photoelectrochemical cell, yield a high photocurrent density of 3.8 mA cm -2 at 1.23 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode under AM 1.5G simulated sunlight and an incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 41.3% at 440 nm, one of the highest activities reported for photoanodes so far. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Gold-coated iron nanoparticles in transparent Si3N4 matrix thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Marcos, J.; Céspedes, E.; Jiménez-Villacorta, F.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Prieto, C.

    2013-06-01

    A new method to prepare thin films containing gold-coated iron nanoparticles is presented. The ternary Fe-Au-Si3N4 system prepared by sequential sputtering has revealed a progressive variation of microstructures from Au/Fe/Au/Si3N4 multilayers to iron nanoparticles. Microstructural characterization by transmission electron microscopy, analysis of the magnetic properties and probing of the iron short-range order by X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirm the existence of a gold-coated iron nanoparticles of 1-2 nm typical size for a specific range of iron and gold contents per layer in the transparent silicon nitride ceramic matrix.

  4. Interferometric imaging of Titan's HC$_3$N, H$^{13}$CCCN and HCCC$^{15}$N

    OpenAIRE

    Cordiner, M. A.; Nixon, C. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Teanby, N. A.; Molter, E. M.; Kisiel, Z.; Vuitton, V.

    2018-01-01

    We present the first maps of cyanoacetylene isotopologues in Titan's atmosphere, including H$^{13}$CCCN and HCCC$^{15}$N, detected in the 0.9 mm band using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter array (ALMA) around the time of Titan's (southern winter) solstice in May 2017. The first high-resolution map of HC$_3$N in its $v_7=1$ vibrationally excited state is also presented, revealing a unique snapshot of the global HC$_3$N distribution, free from the strong optical depth effects that adv...

  5. Renormalized molecular levels in a Sc3N@C-80 molecular electronic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larade, Brian; Taylor, Jeremy Philip; Zheng, Q. R.

    2001-01-01

    We address several general questions about quantum transport through molecular systems by an ab initio analysis of a scandium-nitrogen doped C-80 metallofullerene device. Charge transfer from the Sc3N is found to drastically change the current-voltage characteristics: the current through the Sc3N...... levels and main transmission features shift in energy corresponding to half the applied bias voltage. This is also consistent with our finding that the voltage drops by V-b/2 at each molecule/electrode contact....

  6. High-temperature elastic properties of in situ-reinforced Si3N4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, Geoffrey A.; Uestuendag, Ersan; Clausen, Bjoern; Bourke, Mark A.M.; Lin, H.-T.

    2003-01-01

    A high-temperature tensile stress study of a monolithic silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ) was performed with time-of-flight neutron diffraction. A dedicated engineering diffractometer was employed at temperatures reaching 1375 deg. C. Rietveld refinements of diffraction spectra allowed the determination of (1) the coefficient of thermal expansion tensor during heating and (2) lattice strains during loading. The stress-strain response of individual lattice reflections was used to calculate the single-crystal elastic stiffness tensor of Si 3 N 4 at 1375 deg. C via a self-consistent model

  7. Prediction of novel hard phases of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}: First-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Lin; Hu, Meng; Wang, Qianqian; Xu, Bo; Yu, Dongli; Liu, Zhongyuan; He, Julong, E-mail: hjl@ysu.edu.cn

    2015-08-15

    Exploration of novel hard metastable phases of silicon nitride was performed using a recently developed particle-swarm optimization method within the CALYPSO software package. Three potential hard metastable phases of t-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, m-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and o-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} were predicted. These phases are mechanically and dynamically stable at ambient pressure based on their elastic constants and phonon dispersions. t-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and m-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} exhibit lower energies than γ-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} at pressures below 2.5 GPa and 2.9 GPa, respectively, which promise that the formers could be obtained by quenching from γ-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. o-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} is a better high-pressure metastable phase than CaTi{sub 2}O{sub 4}-type Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} proposed by Tatsumi et al. and it can come from the transition of γ-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} under 198 GPa. The theoretical band gaps of t-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, m-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and o-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} at ambient pressure were 3.15 eV, 3.90 eV, and 3.36 eV, respectively. At ambient pressure, the Vickers hardness values of t-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (32.6 GPa), m-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (31.5 GPa), and o-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (36.1 GPa) are comparable to β-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and γ-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. With the pressure increasing, t-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, m-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and o-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} will change from the brittle to ductile state at about 15.7 GPa, 7.3 GPa and 28.9 GPa, respectively. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows the crystal structures of three Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} predicted in this manuscript, and left to right: t-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, m-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and o-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. - Highlights: • We explored three metastable phases of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} — t-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, m-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and o-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • The enthalpies of t and m- are much lower than that of γ at ambient pressure. • ois one further high pressure phase than γ. • o-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} is the most hardest phase in Si

  8. Layered Halide Double Perovskites Cs3+nM(II)nSb2X9+3n (M = Sn, Ge) for Photovoltaic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gang; Xiao, Zewen; Hosono, Hideo; Kamiya, Toshio; Fang, Daining; Hong, Jiawang

    2018-01-04

    Over the past few years, the development of lead-free and stable perovskite absorbers with excellent performance has attracted extensive attention. Much effort has been devoted to screening and synthesizing this type of solar cell absorbers. Here, we present a general design strategy for designing the layered halide double perovskites Cs 3+n M(II) n Sb 2 X 9+3n (M = Sn, Ge) with desired photovoltaic-relevant properties by inserting [MX 6 ] octahedral layers, based on the principles of increased electronic dimensionality. Compared to Cs 3 Sb 2 I 9 , more suitable band gaps, smaller carrier effective masses, larger dielectric constants, lower exciton binding energies, and higher optical absorption can be achieved by inserting variable [SnI 6 ] or [GeI 6 ] octahedral layers into the [Sb 2 I 9 ] bilayers. Moreover, our results show that adjusting the thickness of inserted octahedral layers is an effective approach to tune the band gaps and carrier effective masses in a large range. Our work provides useful guidance for designing the promising layered antimony halide double perovskite absorbers for photovoltaic applications.

  9. Anisotropic carrier mobility in single- and bi-layer C3N sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueyan; Li, Qingfang; Wang, Haifeng; Gao, Yan; Hou, Juan; Shao, Jianxin

    2018-05-01

    Based on the density functional theory combined with the Boltzmann transport equation with relaxation time approximation, we investigate the electronic structure and predict the carrier mobility of single- and bi-layer newly fabricated 2D carbon nitrides C3N. Although C3N sheets possess graphene-like planar hexagonal structure, the calculated carrier mobility is remarkably anisotropic, which is found mainly induced by the anisotropic effective masses and deformation potential constants. Importantly, we find that both the electron and hole mobilities are considerable high, for example, the hole mobility along the armchair direction of single-layer C3N sheets can arrive as high as 1.08 ×104 cm2 V-1 s-1, greatly larger than that of C2N-h2D and many other typical 2D materials. Owing to the high and anisotropic carrier mobility and appropriate band gap, single- and bi-layer semiconducting C3N sheets may have great potential applications in high performance electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  10. Rumen pH and NH3-N concentration of sheep fed temperate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sorghum grain supplementation on ruminal pH and NH. 3-N concentration of wethers consuming a fresh temperate pasture (Lotus corniculatus) in metabolism cages. Sixteen Corriedale x Milchschaf wethers were fed temperate pastures ad libitum and were ...

  11. Synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-12-06

    Dec 6, 2017 ... sents an easy method to utilize the energy of either artifi- cial illumination or natural ... light. In this work, we reported the synthesis of the C3N4/CdS ... Compared ... The above suspension was stirred in the dark before irradi-.

  12. The avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus has limited replication in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genetically and antigenically distinct H3N2 canine influenza of avian-origin was detected in March of 2015 in Chicago, Illinois. A subsequent outbreak was reported with over 1,000 dogs in the Midwest affected. The potential for canine-to-swine transmission was unknown. Experimental infection in pi...

  13. Photocatalytic oxidation of aromatic amines using MnO2@g-C3N4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — An efficient and direct oxidation of aromatic amines to aromatic azo-compounds has been achieved using a MnO2@g-C3N4 catalyst under visible light as a source of...

  14. Respiratory transmission of an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from a harbour seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Ip, Hon S.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Yoon, Sun W.; Johnson, Jordan; Beck, Melinda A.; Webby, Richard J.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing human H7N9 influenza infections highlight the threat of emerging avian influenza viruses. In 2011, an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from moribund New England harbour seals was shown to have naturally acquired mutations known to increase the transmissibility of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses. To elucidate the potential human health threat, here we evaluate a panel of avian H3N8 viruses and find that the harbour seal virus displays increased affinity for mammalian receptors, transmits via respiratory droplets in ferrets and replicates in human lung cells. Analysis of a panel of human sera for H3N8 neutralizing antibodies suggests that there is no population-wide immunity to these viruses. The prevalence of H3N8 viruses in birds and multiple mammalian species including recent isolations from pigs and evidence that it was a past human pandemic virus make the need for surveillance and risk analysis of these viruses of public health importance.

  15. A Survey of CH3CN and HC3N in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, Jennifer B.; Guzmán, Viviana G.; Öberg, Karin I.; Loomis, Ryan A.; Pegues, Jamila

    2018-04-01

    The organic content of protoplanetary disks sets the initial compositions of planets and comets, thereby influencing subsequent chemistry that is possible in nascent planetary systems. We present observations of the complex nitrile-bearing species CH3CN and HC3N toward the disks around the T Tauri stars AS 209, IM Lup, LkCa 15, and V4046 Sgr as well as the Herbig Ae stars MWC 480 and HD 163296. HC3N is detected toward all disks except IM Lup, and CH3CN is detected toward V4046 Sgr, MWC 480, and HD 163296. Rotational temperatures derived for disks with multiple detected lines range from 29 to 73 K, indicating emission from the temperate molecular layer of the disk. V4046 Sgr and MWC 480 radial abundance profiles are constrained using a parametric model; the gas-phase CH3CN and HC3N abundances with respect to HCN are a few to tens of percent in the inner 100 au of the disk, signifying a rich nitrile chemistry at planet- and comet-forming disk radii. We find consistent relative abundances of CH3CN, HC3N, and HCN between our disk sample, protostellar envelopes, and solar system comets; this is suggestive of a robust nitrile chemistry with similar outcomes under a wide range of physical conditions.

  16. Observations of HC3N, HC5N, and HC7N in molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, R.L.; Schloerb, F.P.; Young, J.S.; Hjalmarson, A.; Friberg, P.

    1981-01-01

    We present observations of HC 3 N, HC 5 N, and HC 7 N in five molecular clouds. Statistical equilibrium calculations have been performed for HC 5 N and HC 7 N and compared with our data and data on other transitions of these molecules reported in the literature to derive the densities and the column densities of the cyanopolyynes in these clouds. We derive densities for TMC 1, TMC 2, and L1544 of between 1 and 4 x 10 4 cm -3 . We have found that the ratios of the cyanopolyynes in these three clouds are the following: HC 3 N/HC 5 Nroughly-equal1.4 and HC 5 N/HC 7 Nroughly-equal3. In L134 N and DR 21(OH) we have measured limits on the HC 5 N emission and find the HC 3 N/HC 5 N ratio to be substantially greater than in the three Taurus clouds. We have also compared the cyanopolyyne column densities with those of 13 CO and find that the abundance of HC 3 N in L134 N and DR 21(OH) is an order of magnitude smaller than that found in the Taurus clouds. The chemical differences between L134 N and the Taurus clouds are particularly interesting in view of their similar physical properties

  17. First-principles study of intrinsic phononic thermal transport in monolayer C3N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Wang, Haifeng; Sun, Maozhu; Ding, Yingchun; Zhang, Lichun; Li, Qingfang

    2018-05-01

    Very recently, a new graphene-like crystalline, hole-free, 2D-single-layer carbon nitride C3N, has been fabricated by polymerization of 2,3-diaminophenazine and used to fabricate a field-effect transistor device with an on-off current ratio reaching 5. 5 ×1010 (Adv. Mater. 2017, 1605625). Heat dissipation plays a vital role in its practical applications, and therefore the thermal transport properties need to be explored urgently. In this paper, we perform first-principles calculations combined with phonon Boltzmann transport equation to investigate the phononic thermal transport properties of monolayer C3N, and meanwhile, a comparison with graphene is given. Our calculated intrinsic lattice thermal conductivity of C3N is 380 W/mK at room temperature, which is one order of magnitude lower than that of graphene (3550 W/mK at 300 K), but is greatly higher than many other typical 2D materials. The underlying mechanisms governing the thermal transport were thoroughly discussed and compared to graphene, including group velocities, phonon relax time, the contribution from phonon branches, phonon anharmonicity and size effect. The fundamental physics understood from this study may shed light on further studies of the newly fabricated 2D crystalline C3N sheets.

  18. Photoionization and photofragmentation of multiply charged Lu3N@C80 ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellhund, J; Borovik, A Jr; Holste, K; Ricz, S; Schippers, S; Müller, A; Klumpp, S; Martins, M

    2015-01-01

    Relative cross sections for photoionization and photofragmentation of endohedral fullerene Lu 3 N@C 80 q+ (q=1,2,3) ions have been measured employing the new photon-ion spectrometer PIPE at PETRA III. Prominent structures related to the carbon K-shell ionization threshold were observed in the energy range 280 to 330 eV. (paper)

  19. Investigation based on nano-electromechanical system double Si3N4 resonant beam pressure sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan; Guo, Can; Yuan, Xiaowei

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a type of NEMS (Nano-Electromechanical System) double Si3N4 resonant beams pressure sensor. The mathematical models are established in allusion to the Si3N4 resonant beams and pressure sensitive diaphragm. The distribution state of stress has been analyzed theoretically based on the mathematical model of pressure sensitive diaphragm; from the analysis result, the position of the Si3N4 resonant beams above the pressure sensitive diaphragm was optimized and then the dominance observed after the double resonant beams are adopted is illustrated. From the analysis result, the position of the Si3N4 resonant beams above the pressure sensitive diaphragm is optimized, illustrating advantages in the adoption of double resonant beams. The capability of the optimized sensor was generally analyzed using the ANSYS software of finite element analysis. The range of measured pressure is 0-400 Kpa, the coefficient of linearity correlation is 0.99346, and the sensitivity of the sensor is 498.24 Hz/Kpa, higher than the traditional sensors. Finally the processing techniques of the sensor chip have been designed with sample being successfully processed.

  20. Molecular Dynamics Study of Superelastic Performance of a β-Si3N4 Nanohelical Coil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, X.; Gao, X.; Guo, X.; La, P.; Dong, Q.; Zhang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Superealsticity behavior has been discovered for the β-Si3N4 nanohelical coil. By a series of cyclic loading and unloading simulation tests, the nanohelical coil could elastically recover its original shape after a relatively long axial tension far beyond the elastic limit, accompanying little

  1. Selective oxidation of alcohols using photoactive VO@g-C3N4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A photoactive VO@g-C3N4 catalyst has been developed for the selective oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones. The visible light mediated activity of the catalyst could be attributed to photoactive graphitic carbon nitrides surface.

  2. pH controlled dispersion and slip casting of Si3N4 in aqueous media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The optimum dispersion was found to be in the pH region 9–11 wherein the slurry dis- played minimum .... presence of high levels of agglomeration of fine particles since the ... to the difference in surface chemistry of the powders. The Si3N4 ...

  3. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by C 3 N 4 /ZnO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The photocatalytic activities of prepared samples were investigated under the illumination of blacklight and fluorescent lamps as the low wattage light source. The C 3 N 4 /ZnO showed a better photocatalytic activity than ZnO to degrade a methylene blue (MB) dye solution using blacklight lamps, but there is no significant ...

  4. Construction of stable Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} metal/non-metal nitride hybrids with enhanced visible-light photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yinhua, E-mail: yms418@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 2120013,PR China (China); Liu, Peipei; Chen, YeCheng; Zhou, Zhengzhong; Yang, Haijian [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 2120013,PR China (China); Hong, Yuanzhi; Li, Fan; Ni, Liang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 2120013,PR China (China); Yan, Yongsheng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 2120013,PR China (China); Gregory, Duncan H, E-mail: duncan.gregory@glasgow.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} metal/non-metal nitride hybrids were synthesized. • The hybrid nitrides showed enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance. • The Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} hybrid nitride exhibited excellent photostability. • The hole is the main photoactive specie for the degradation of RhB. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} metal/non-metal nitride hybrid was successfully synthesized by a facile impregnation method. The photocatalytic activity of Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} hybrid nitrides was evaluated by the degradation of organic dye rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation, and the result indicated that all Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} samples exhibited distinctly enhanced photocatalytic activities for the degradation of RhB than pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The optimal Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite sample, with Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} mass ratio of 2%, demonstrated the highest photocatalytic activity, and its degradation rate constant was 2.71 times as high as that of pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of this Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} metal/metal-free nitride was predominantly attributed to the synergistic effect which increased visible-light absorption and facilitated the efficient separation of photoinduced electrons and holes. The Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} hybrid nitride exhibited excellent photostability and reusability. The possible mechanism for improved photocatalytic performance was proposed. Overall, this work may provide a facile way to synthesize the highly efficient metal/metal-free hybrid nitride photocatalysts with promising applications in environmental purification and energy conversion.

  5. Isolation and characterization of H3N2 influenza A virus from turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y; Lee, C W; Zhang, Y; Senne, D A; Dearth, R; Byrum, B; Perez, D R; Suarez, D L; Saif, Y M

    2005-06-01

    Five 34-wk-old turkey breeder layer flocks in separate houses of 2550 birds each in a single farm in Ohio experienced a drop in egg production from late January to early February 2004. Tracheal swabs (n = 60), cloacal swabs (n = 50), and convalescent sera (n = 110) from the flocks were submitted to the laboratory for diagnostics. Virus isolation was attempted in specific-pathogen free embryonating chicken eggs and Vero and MDCK cells. Virus characterization was performed using agar gel immunodiffusion, the hemagglutination test, the hemagglutination inhibition test, the virus neutralization test, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. A presumptive influenza virus was successfully propagated and isolated on the first passage in MDCK cells, but initially not in Vero cells or specific-pathogen free chicken embryos. After two passages in MDCK cells, it was possible to propagate the isolate in specific-pathogen free chicken embryos. Preliminary sequence analysis of the isolated virus confirmed that it was influenza A virus with almost 100% (235/236) identity with the matrix gene of a swine influenza A virus, A/Swine/Illinois/100084/01 (H1N2). However, it was not possible to subtype the virus using conventional serotyping methods. The results of genetic characterization of the isolated virus showed that it was the H3N2 subtype and was designated as A/Turkey/OH/313053/04 (H3N2). Phylogenetic analysis of the eight gene segments of the virus showed that A/Turkey/OH/313053/04 (H3N2) isolate was most closely related to the triple-reassortant H3N2 swine viruses [A/Swine/WI/14094/99 (H3N2)] that have been circulating among pigs in the United States since 1998, which contains gene segments from avian, swine, and human viruses. The A/Turkey/OH/313053/04 (H3N2) isolated from turkeys in this study was classified as a low pathogenic avian influenza A virus because it only caused a drop in egg production with minor other clinical

  6. Decreased bacteria activity on Si3N4 surfaces compared with PEEK or titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puckett S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Deborah Gorth,1 Sabrina Puckett,1 Batur Ercan,1 Thomas J Webster,1 Mohamed Rahaman,2 B Sonny Bal31School of Engineering and Department of Orthopaedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO, 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USAAbstract: A significant need exists for orthopedic implants that can intrinsically resist bacterial colonization. In this study, three biomaterials that are used in spinal implants – titanium (Ti, poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK, and silicon nitride (Si3N4 – were tested to understand their respective susceptibility to bacterial infection with Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphlococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus. Specifically, the surface chemistry, wettability, and nanostructured topography of respective biomaterials, and the effects on bacterial biofilm formation, colonization, and growth were investigated. Ti and PEEK were received with as-machined surfaces; both materials are hydrophobic, with net negative surface charges. Two surface finishes of Si3N4 were examined: as-fired and polished. In contrast to Ti and PEEK, the surface of Si3N4 is hydrophilic, with a net positive charge. A decreased biofilm formation was found, as well as fewer live bacteria on both the as-fired and polished Si3N4. These differences may reflect differential surface chemistry and surface nanostructure properties between the biomaterials tested. Because protein adsorption on material surfaces affects bacterial adhesion, the adsorption of fibronectin, vitronectin, and laminin on Ti, PEEK, and Si3N4 were also examined. Significantly greater amounts of these proteins adhered to Si3N4 than to Ti or PEEK. The findings of this study suggest that surface properties of biomaterials lead to differential adsorption of physiologic proteins, and that this

  7. Hierarchical Cu2O foam/g-C3N4 photocathode for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinzhou; Zhang, Jingtao; Wang, Biao; Li, Qiuguo; Chu, Sheng

    2018-01-01

    Solar photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen production is a promising way for solving energy and environment problems. Earth-abundant Cu2O is a potential light absorber for PEC hydrogen production. In this article, hierarchical porous Cu2O foams are prepared by thermal oxidation of the electrochemically deposited Cu foams. PEC performances of the Cu2O foams are systematically studied and discussed. Benefiting from their higher light harvesting and more efficient charge separation, the Cu2O foams demonstrate significantly enhanced photocurrents and photostability compared to their film counterparts. Moreover, by integrating g-C3N4, hierarchical Cu2O foam/g-C3N4 composites are prepared with further improved photocurrent and photostability, appearing to be potential photocathodes for solar PEC hydrogen production. This study may provide a new and useful insight for the development of Cu2O-based photocathodes for PEC hydrogen production.

  8. Development and characterization of Si3N4 coated AlCrN ceramic cutting tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.V.C.; Nono, M.C.A.; Martins, G.V.; Machado, J.P.B.; Silva, O.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, silicon nitride based cutting tools are used to machine cast iron from the automotive industry and nickel superalloys from the aero industries. Advances in manufacturing technologies (increased cutting speeds, dry machining, etc.) induced the fast commercial growth of physical vapor deposition (PVD) coatings for cutting tools, in order to increase their life time. In this work, a new composition of the Si 3 N 4 ceramic cutting tool was developed, characterized and subsequently coated, using a PVD process, with aluminum chromium nitride (AlCrN). The Si 3 N 4 substrate properties were analyzed by XRD, AFM, hardness and fracture toughness. The AlCrN coating was analyzed by AFM, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and hardness. The results showed that this PVD coating could be formed homogeneously, without cracks and promoted a higher surface hardness to the insert and consequently it can produce a better wear resistance during its application on high speed machining. (author)

  9. Modeling amorphous Si3B3N7: Structure and elastic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannemann, A.; Schoen, J.C.; Jansen, M.; Putz, H.; Lengauer, T.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the structure and elastic properties of the amorphous high-temperature ceramic a-Si 3 B 3 N 7 . Several different structural models are generated and their properties such as the radial and angular distribution functions, the degree of local order, the density, the bulk modulus and the phonon spectrum, are calculated and compared with the experiment. The best structural agreement between model and experimental observations is found for models exhibiting a certain degree of local ( 3 B 3 N 7 has not been synthesized by cooling from the melt but via the polymerization and subsequent pyrolysis of molecular precursors. Furthermore, we suggest that, due to the synthesis process, stable nanoscale cavities (diameter 3 )

  10. Heavy ion irradiation induced effects in Ni3N/Al bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, S.; Rissanen, L.; Engel, K.; Wenderoth, M.; Lieb, K.P.

    2001-01-01

    The article reports on the Xe ion beam irradiation studies of Ni 3 N/Al bilayers at 80 K. The ion-induced modifications were monitored by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), resonant nuclear reaction analysis (RNRA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We found preferential loss of nitrogen from the surface region of the Ni 3 N top layers. The surface roughness Δσ S and the interface broadening variance Δσ int 2 increase linearly with the Xe ion fluence PHI. The experimental mixing rate of Δσ 2 /PHI=1.8 nm 4 is explained by considering an enhancement of ballistic mixing due to chemical reactions at the interface

  11. Fatigue strength of Al2O3 and Si3N4 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonsino, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Various Al 2 O 3 ceramics and random samples of two Si 3 N 4 ceramics were examined, with all specimens differing in terms of material and manufacturing parameters. Of the Al 2 O 3 ceramics, randomly selected specimens were tested for their banding strength at room temperature, and three specifically selected specimens were tested for their compressive strength at room temperature, at 800 C and at 1200 C. A number of specimen variants were examined by cyclic fatigue tests at room temperature and 800 C, and at 1200 C in one case, the specimens used being slightly notched specimens (α n = 1,02 and 1,08), or more heavily notched speciments (α n = 1.77, 1.90 and 2.24), with bending loads being either cyclic or growing. The Si 3 N 4 specimens were randomly chosen for bending tests and cyclic fatigue tests, at room temperature. (orig./MM) [de

  12. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} optomechanical crystals in the resolved-sideband regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davanço, M., E-mail: mdavanco@nist.gov [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Ates, S.; Liu, Y. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Maryland NanoCenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Srinivasan, K. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2014-01-27

    We demonstrate sideband-resolved Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} optomechanical crystals supporting 10{sup 5} quality factor optical modes at 980 nm, coupled to ≈4 GHz frequency mechanical modes with quality factors of ≈3000. Optomechanical electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption are observed at room temperature and in atmosphere with intracavity photon numbers in excess of 10{sup 4}.

  13. Development and characterisation of Ni-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R, Mohan Reddy; M, Praveen B., E-mail: bm.praveen@yahoo.co.in [Dept of Chemistry, Srinivas School of Engineering, Mukka, Mangalore - 574146, Karnataka (India); M, Praveen C. [Dept. of Chemistry, PESITM, Shimoga – 577204 (India); V, Venkatesha T. [Dept. of Studies in Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta - 577451, Karnataka (India); Kumar N B, Rithin [Dept of Physics, Srinivas School of Engineering, Mukka, Mangalore-574 146, Karnataka (India)

    2015-06-24

    Nickel–Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites were generated by means of pulse-reverse (PR) electrodeposition technique. The corrosion rate was calculated for the composites by electrochemical methods such as polarisation and impedance methods. Composites were characterised by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) to evaluate their microstructures. Coatings obtained by PR method shows more corrosion resistance than DC generated coatings.

  14. Development and characterisation of Ni-Si3N4 nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R, Mohan Reddy; M, Praveen B.; M, Praveen C.; V, Venkatesha T.; Kumar N B, Rithin

    2015-01-01

    Nickel–Si 3 N 4 composites were generated by means of pulse-reverse (PR) electrodeposition technique. The corrosion rate was calculated for the composites by electrochemical methods such as polarisation and impedance methods. Composites were characterised by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) to evaluate their microstructures. Coatings obtained by PR method shows more corrosion resistance than DC generated coatings

  15. A Review of Recent Advances in Neuroprotective Potential of 3-N-Butylphthalide and Its Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idriss Ali Abdoulaye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research of alternative treatment for ischemic stroke and degenerative diseases has always been a priority in neurology. 3-N-Butylphthalide (NBP, a family of compounds initially isolated from the seeds of Apium graveolens Linn., has shown significant neuroprotective effects. Previous extensive studies have demonstrated that NBP promotes a better poststroke outcome and exerts a multitargeted action on several mechanisms, from oxidative stress to mitochondrial dysfunction to apoptosis to inflammation. Additionally, recent findings on several neurological disorders have shown that NBP’s beneficial effects extend beyond the management of stroke. However, despite the increasing number of studies toward a better understanding and the rapid advances made in therapeutic options, to date, dl-3-N-butylphthalide, a synthetic variation of l-3-N-butylphthalide, remains the only clinically approved anti-ischemic agent in China, stressing the difficulties for a viable and effective transition from experimental to clinical practice. Events indicate that NBP, due to its multitargeted effect and the adaptability of its basic structure, can be an important game changer and a precursor to a whole new therapeutic approach to several neurological conditions. The present review discusses recent advances pertaining to the neuroprotective mechanisms of NBP-derived compounds and the possibility of their clinical implementation in the management of various neurological conditions.

  16. Structural, mechanical, and magnetic properties of GaFe{sub 3}N thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junaid, Muhammad, E-mail: junaid@mch.rwth-aachen.de; Music, Denis, E-mail: music@mch.rwth-aachen.de; Hans, Marcus; Schneider, Jochen M. [Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Scholz, Tanja; Dronskowski, Richard [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Primetzhofer, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, S-75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2016-07-15

    Using the density-functional theory, the structural, mechanical, and magnetic properties were investigated for different GaFe{sub 3}N configurations: ferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic, paramagnetic, and nonmagnetic. Ferrimagnetic and high-spin ferromagnetic states exhibit the lowest energy and are the competing ground states as the total energy difference is 0.3 meV/atom only. All theoretically predicted values could be fully confirmed by experiments. For this, the authors synthesized phase pure, homogeneous, and continuous GaFe{sub 3}N films by combinatorial reactive direct current magnetron sputtering. Despite the low melting point of gallium, the authors succeeded in the growth of GaFe{sub 3}N films at a temperature of 500 °C. Those thin films exhibit a lattice parameter of 3.794 Å and an elastic modulus of 226 ± 20 GPa. Magnetic susceptibility measurements evidence a magnetic phase transitions at 8.0 ± 0.1 K. The nearly saturated magnetic moment at ±5 T is about 1.6 μB/Fe and is close to the theoretically determined magnetic moment for a ferrimagnetic ordering (1.72 μB/Fe).

  17. Substrate temperature effects on reactively sputtered Cr2O3/n-Si heterojunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocak, Yusuf Selim; Genisel, Mustafa Fatih; Issa, Ali Ahmed; Tombak, Ahmet; Kilicoglu, Tahsin

    2016-01-01

    To see the effects of substrate temperature on Cr 2 O 3 /n-Si heterojunctions, Cr 2 O 3 thin films were formed on n-Si and glass substrates at 40, 150 and 250 °C by radio frequency (RF) reactive sputtering technique. High purity Cr was used as target and oxygen was used as reactive gas. Optical properties of Cr 2 O 3 /n-Si thin films were analyzed using UV-vis data. The band gaps of the films were compared. The electrical properties of Cr 2 O 3 /n-Si heterojunction were tested by their current voltage ( I-V ) measurements in dark. It was observed that the heterojunction which was fabricated by forming Cr 2 O 3 thin film at 250 °C gave better rectification. The characteristic electrical parameters such as barrier height, ideality factor and series resistance were calculated by using its I-V data. The influence of light intensity on photovoltaic effect behavior of the device was also calculated, finally the barrier height value of the structure obtained from capacitance-voltage ( C-V ) data were compared with the one calculated from I-V measurements. (paper)

  18. Interspecies and intraspecies transmission of triple reassortant H3N2 influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, Hadi M; Al-Natour, Mohammad Q; Lee, Chang-Won; Saif, Yehya M

    2007-11-28

    The triple reassortant H3N2 viruses were isolated for the first time from pigs in 1998 and are known to be endemic in swine and turkey populations in the United States. In 2004, we isolated two H3N2 triple reassortant viruses from two turkey breeder flocks in Ohio and Illinois. Infected hens showed no clinical signs, but experienced a complete cessation of egg production. In this study, we evaluated three triple reassortant H3N2 isolates of turkey origin and one isolate of swine origin for their transmission between swine and turkeys. Although all 4 viruses tested share high genetic similarity in all 8 genes, only the Ohio strain (A/turkey/Ohio/313053/04) was shown to transmit efficiently both ways between swine and turkeys. One isolate, A/turkey/North Carolina/03, was able to transmit from pigs to turkeys but not vice versa. Neither of the other two viruses transmitted either way. Sequence analysis of the HA1 gene of the Ohio strain showed one amino acid change (D to A) at residue 190 of the receptor binding domain upon transmission from turkeys to pigs. The Ohio virus was then tested for intraspecies transmission in three different avian species. The virus was shown to replicate and transmit among turkeys, replicate but does not transmit among chickens, and did not replicate in ducks. Identifying viruses with varying inter- and intra-species transmission potential should be useful for further studies on the molecular basis of interspecies transmission.

  19. 2nd international workshop on graphene and C3N4-based photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2018-02-01

    Since 2009 graphene and C3N4-based photocatalysts have attracted a lot of attention in scientific and engineering communities because of their applications in photocatalysis. Graphene and C3N4-based photocatalysis was the main theme of the 2nd International Workshop on Graphene and C3N4-based Photocatalysts (IWGCP2) held at the Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, China on March 24-27, 2017. The IWGCP2 workshop was jointly organized by Wuhan University of Technology, Jianghan University, Changsha University and Kent State University, and was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), Wuhan University of Technology, Jianghan University, Changsha University, Beijing Perfectlight, ThermoFisher, LumaSense Technologies, Anhui Kemi, Zhenjiang Silver Jewelry, Instytut Fotonowy (Poland) and others. More than 240 colleagues from four continents (Asia, America, Australia and Europe) participated in this workshop, and presented 6 plenary lectures, 12 keynote lectures, 14 invited lectures, 5 oral lectures and 113 posters. A tradition of this meeting is the poster competition, which resulted in selecting 10 best posters.

  20. Phylogeography of Influenza A(H3N2) Virus in Peru, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollett, Simon; Nelson, Martha I; Kasper, Matthew; Tinoco, Yeny; Simons, Mark; Romero, Candice; Silva, Marita; Lin, Xudong; Halpin, Rebecca A; Fedorova, Nadia; Stockwell, Timothy B; Wentworth, David; Holmes, Edward C; Bausch, Daniel G

    2015-08-01

    It remains unclear whether lineages of influenza A(H3N2) virus can persist in the tropics and seed temperate areas. We used viral gene sequence data sampled from Peru to test this source-sink model for a Latin American country. Viruses were obtained during 2010-2012 from influenza surveillance cohorts in Cusco, Tumbes, Puerto Maldonado, and Lima. Specimens positive for influenza A(H3N2) virus were randomly selected and underwent hemagglutinin sequencing and phylogeographic analyses. Analysis of 389 hemagglutinin sequences from Peru and 2,192 global sequences demonstrated interseasonal extinction of Peruvian lineages. Extensive mixing occurred with global clades, but some spatial structure was observed at all sites; this structure was weakest in Lima and Puerto Maldonado, indicating that these locations may experience greater viral traffic. The broad diversity and co-circulation of many simultaneous lineages of H3N2 virus in Peru suggests that this country should not be overlooked as a potential source for novel pandemic strains.

  1. Phylogeography of Influenza A(H3N2) Virus in Peru, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Martha I.; Kasper, Matthew; Tinoco, Yeny; Simons, Mark; Romero, Candice; Silva, Marita; Lin, Xudong; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Fedorova, Nadia; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Wentworth, David; Holmes, Edward C.; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    It remains unclear whether lineages of influenza A(H3N2) virus can persist in the tropics and seed temperate areas. We used viral gene sequence data sampled from Peru to test this source–sink model for a Latin American country. Viruses were obtained during 2010–2012 from influenza surveillance cohorts in Cusco, Tumbes, Puerto Maldonado, and Lima. Specimens positive for influenza A(H3N2) virus were randomly selected and underwent hemagglutinin sequencing and phylogeographic analyses. Analysis of 389 hemagglutinin sequences from Peru and 2,192 global sequences demonstrated interseasonal extinction of Peruvian lineages. Extensive mixing occurred with global clades, but some spatial structure was observed at all sites; this structure was weakest in Lima and Puerto Maldonado, indicating that these locations may experience greater viral traffic. The broad diversity and co-circulation of many simultaneous lineages of H3N2 virus in Peru suggests that this country should not be overlooked as a potential source for novel pandemic strains. PMID:26196599

  2. Antiseptic Effects of New 3'-N-Substituted Carbazole Derivatives In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonhwa; Kwak, Soyoung; Yun, Eunju; Lee, Jee Hyun; Na, MinKyun; Song, Gyu-Yong; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2015-08-01

    Inhibition of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein and restoration of endothelial integrity are emerging as attractive therapeutic strategies in the management of sepsis. Here, new five structurally related 3'-N-substituted carbazole derivatives were examined for their effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-mediated release of HMGB1 and on modulation of HMGB1-mediated inflammatory responses. We accessed this question by monitoring the effects of posttreatment carbazole derivatives on LPS- and CLP-mediated release of HMGB1 and HMGB1-mediated regulation of proinflammatory responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and septic mice. The new 3'-N-substituted carbazole derivatives 1-5 inhibited the release of HMGB1 and downregulated HMGB1-dependent inflammatory responses in human endothelial cells. New compounds also inhibited HMGB1-mediated hyperpermeability and leukocyte migration in mice. In addition, treatment with each compound reduced CLP-induced release of HMGB1 and sepsis-related mortality and pulmonary injury in mice. These results indicate that the new 3'-N-substituted carbazole derivatives could be candidate therapeutic agents for various severe vascular inflammatory diseases owing to their inhibition of the HMGB1 signaling pathway.

  3. Structural, mechanical, and magnetic properties of GaFe_3N thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junaid, Muhammad; Music, Denis; Hans, Marcus; Schneider, Jochen M.; Scholz, Tanja; Dronskowski, Richard; Primetzhofer, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Using the density-functional theory, the structural, mechanical, and magnetic properties were investigated for different GaFe_3N configurations: ferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic, paramagnetic, and nonmagnetic. Ferrimagnetic and high-spin ferromagnetic states exhibit the lowest energy and are the competing ground states as the total energy difference is 0.3 meV/atom only. All theoretically predicted values could be fully confirmed by experiments. For this, the authors synthesized phase pure, homogeneous, and continuous GaFe_3N films by combinatorial reactive direct current magnetron sputtering. Despite the low melting point of gallium, the authors succeeded in the growth of GaFe_3N films at a temperature of 500 °C. Those thin films exhibit a lattice parameter of 3.794 Å and an elastic modulus of 226 ± 20 GPa. Magnetic susceptibility measurements evidence a magnetic phase transitions at 8.0 ± 0.1 K. The nearly saturated magnetic moment at ±5 T is about 1.6 μB/Fe and is close to the theoretically determined magnetic moment for a ferrimagnetic ordering (1.72 μB/Fe).

  4. STM-electroluminescence from clustered C3N4 nanodomains synthesized via green chemistry process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E P; Costa, B B A; Chaves, C R; de Paula, A M; Cury, L A; Malachias, A; Safar, G A M

    2018-01-01

    A Scanning Tunneling Microscopy/Spectroscopy (STM/STS) and synchrotron X-ray diffraction study on clustered C 3 N 4 nanoparticles (nanoflakes) is conducted on green-chemistry synthesized samples obtained from chitosan through high power sonication. Morphological aspects and the electronic characteristics are investigated. The observed bandgap of the nanoflakes reveals the presence of different phases in the material. Combining STM morphology, STS spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results one finds that the most abundant phase is graphitic C 3 N 4 . A high density of defects is inferred from the XRD measurements. Additionally, STM-electroluminescence (STMEL) is detected in C 3 N 4 nanoflakes deposited on a gold substrate. The tunneling current creates photons that are three times more energetic than the tunneling electrons of the STM sample. We ponder about the two most probable models to explain the observed photon emission energy: either a nonlinear optical phenomenon or a localized state emission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of rare-earth doped Si 3 N4 /SiC micro/nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tatarko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Influence of various rare-earth oxide additives (La2O3, Nd2O3, Sm2O3, Y2O3, Yb2O3 and Lu2O3 on the mechanical properties of hot-pressed silicon nitride and silicon nitride/silicon carbide micro/nano-composites has been investigated. The bimodal character of microstructures was observed in all studied materials where elongated β-Si3N4 grains were embedded in the matrix of much finer Si3N4 grains. The fracture toughness values increased with decreasing ionic radius of rare-earth elements. The fracture toughness of composites was always lower than that of monoliths due to their finer Si3N4/SiC microstructures. Similarly, the hardness and bending strength values increased with decreasing ionic radius of rare-earth elements either in monoliths or composites. On the other hand, the positive influence of finer microstructure of the composites on strength was not observed due to the present defects in the form of SiC clusters and non-reacted carbon zones. Wear resistance at room temperature also increased with decreasing ionic radius of rare-earth element. Significantly improved creep resistance was observed in case either of composite materials or materials with smaller radius of RE3+.

  6. Reduced graphene oxide wrapped Cu2O supported on C3N4: An efficient visible light responsive semiconductor photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ganesh Babu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Herein, Cu2O spheres were prepared and encapsulated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO. The Cu2O–rGO–C3N4 composite covered the whole solar spectrum with significant absorption intensity. rGO wrapped Cu2O loading caused a red shift in the absorption with respect to considering the absorption of bare C3N4. The photoluminescence study confirms that rGO exploited as an electron transport layer at the interface of Cu2O and C3N4 heterojunction. Utmost, ∼2 fold synergistic effect was achieved with Cu2O–rGO–C3N4 for the photocatalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in comparison with Cu2O–rGO and C3N4. The Cu2O–rGO–C3N4 photocatalyst was reused for four times without loss in its activity.

  7. Reduced graphene oxide wrapped Cu2O supported on C3N4: An efficient visible light responsive semiconductor photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh Babu, S.; Vinoth, R.; Surya Narayana, P.; Bahnemann, Detlef; Neppolian, B.

    2015-10-01

    Herein, Cu2O spheres were prepared and encapsulated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The Cu2O-rGO-C3N4 composite covered the whole solar spectrum with significant absorption intensity. rGO wrapped Cu2O loading caused a red shift in the absorption with respect to considering the absorption of bare C3N4. The photoluminescence study confirms that rGO exploited as an electron transport layer at the interface of Cu2O and C3N4 heterojunction. Utmost, ˜2 fold synergistic effect was achieved with Cu2O-rGO-C3N4 for the photocatalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in comparison with Cu2O-rGO and C3N4. The Cu2O-rGO-C3N4 photocatalyst was reused for four times without loss in its activity.

  8. New Line Lists for planetological applications: HC3N and C4H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, A.; Benilan, Y.; Fayt, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on-board Cassini, after four years of operation in Saturnian orbit with over thirty close fly-bys of Titan, has obtained spectra in the far and mid-infrared with a spectral resolution of 0.5 cm-1. Mismatch between observed spectra and model spectra obtained from the available line lists has led us to study the bending bands of HC3N and C4H2, the longest carbon chains observed on Titan. Our experimental study for HC3N (Jolly et al. 2007, J.Mol.Spec) has shown that band intensities had to be revised and that including hot bands with lower level as high as 1300 cm-1 was necessary to model our experimental spectra at 0.5 cm-1 resolution. A new extended line list could be obtained by fitting high resolution data with the help of a global analysis. This line list was made available to the astronomers of the CIRS team and will be included in the next version of the GEISA data base. Thanks to the precision of the new spectroscopic data, 13C isotopologues of HC3N have been detected and quantified for the first time in the atmosphere of Titan (Jennings et al. 2008, ApJL). Search for the 15N isotopologues of HC3N will also be presented. The proportion of hot bands is even more important for C4H2 than for HC3N and a new extended line list was absolutely necessary to improve the CIRS spectral analysis. We will present a new line list and show comparison between synthetic spectra and experimental spectra of C4H2 obtained between 193 and 296 K at 0.1 and 0.5 cm-1 resolution. Comparison of model spectra to CIRS observations of C4H2 at 220 and 630 cm-1 will also be presented. Detections of hot bands and isotopes in cold environments such as Titan will be emphasized.

  9. Electronic and optical properties of Y-doped Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} by density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhifeng [State Key Lab of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Chen, Fei, E-mail: chenfei027@gmail.com [State Key Lab of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Specially Functional Materials, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Su, Rui; Wang, Zhihao; Li, Junyang; Shen, Qiang [State Key Lab of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhang, Lianmeng [State Key Lab of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Specially Functional Materials, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Y-doped α-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and β-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} are systematically investigated by DFT. • Impacts of local structure and bond character on electronic property are studied. • Static dielectric constants and optical absorption properties are investigated. - Abstract: Geometry structures, formation energies, electronic and optical properties of Y-doped α-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and β-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} are investigated based on the density functional theory (DFT). The low values of formation energies indicate both Y-doped Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} models can be easily synthesized. Besides, the negative formation energies of α-Y{sub i}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} demonstrate that interstitial Y-doped α-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} has an excellent stability. The energies of impurity levels are different resulting from the different chemical environment around Y atoms. The impurity levels localized in the band gap reduces the maximum energy gaps, which enhances the optical properties of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The static dielectric constants become larger and the optical absorption spectra show the red-shift phenomena for all Y-doped Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} models.

  10. Exploring the formation and electronic structure properties of the g-C3N4 nanoribbon with density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-Zhang; Zhong, Qing-Hua; Bandaru, Sateesh; Liu, Jin; Lau, Woon Ming; Li, Li-Li; Wang, Zhenling

    2018-04-18

    The optical properties and condensation degree (structure) of polymeric g-C 3 N 4 depend strongly on the process temperature. For polymeric g-C 3 N 4 , its structure and condensation degree depend on the structure of molecular strand(s). Here, the formation and electronic structure properties of the g-C 3 N 4 nanoribbon are investigated by studying the polymerization and crystallinity of molecular strand(s) employing first-principle density functional theory. The calculations show that the width of the molecular strand has a significant effect on the electronic structure of polymerized and crystallized g-C 3 N 4 nanoribbons, a conclusion which would be indirect evidence that the electronic structure depends on the structure of g-C 3 N 4 . The edge shape also has a distinct effect on the electronic structure of the crystallized g-C 3 N 4 nanoribbon. Furthermore, the conductive band minimum and valence band maximum of the polymeric g-C 3 N 4 nanoribbon show a strong localization, which is in good agreement with the quasi-monomer characters. In addition, molecular strands prefer to grow along the planar direction on graphene. These results provide new insight on the properties of the g-C 3 N 4 nanoribbon and the relationship between the structure and properties of g-C 3 N 4 .

  11. Unconventionally prepared TiO2/g-C3N4 photocatalysts for photocatalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troppová, Ivana; Šihor, Marcel; Reli, Martin; Ritz, Michal; Praus, Petr; Kočí, Kamila

    2018-02-01

    The TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites with the various TiO2:g-C3N4 weight ratios from 1:1 to 1:3 were prepared unconventionally by pressurized hot water processing in a flow regime. The parent TiO2 and g-C3N4 was prepared by thermal hydrolysis and thermal annealing, respectively. The nanocomposites as well as parent TiO2 and g-C3N4 were characterized using several complementary characterization methods and investigated in the photocatalytic decomposition of N2O under UVA (λ = 365 nm) irradiation. All the prepared TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites showed higher photocatalytic activity in comparison with the pure g-C3N4 and chiefly pure TiO2. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites was decreasing in the following sequence: TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:3) > TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:2) > TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:1). In comparison with the parent TiO2 or g-C3N4, the TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites' photocatalytic capability was significantly enhanced by coupling TiO2 with g-C3N4. The generation of TiO2/g-C3N4 Z-scheme photocatalyst mainly benefited from the effective separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs and the extended optical absorption range. The TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:3) nanocomposite showed the best photocatalytic behavior in a consequence of the optimal weight ratio of TiO2:g-C3N4 and the lowest band gap energy from all nanocomposites. The N2O conversion in its presence was 70.6% after 20 h of UVA irradiation.

  12. Preparation of WO3/g-C3N4 composites and their application in oxidative desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Rongxiang; Li, Xiuping; Su, Jianxun; Gao, Xiaohan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The WO 3 /g-C 3 N 4 was successfully synthesized through simple calcination. • The process is simple and the cost raw materials is cheap. • The WO 3 /g-C 3 N 4 firstly applied to ODS. • The desulpurization rate of WO 3 /g-C 3 N 4 may attach to 91.2%. • Five recycles of WO 3 /g-C 3 N 4 still attach to 89.5% due to heterogeneous catalysis. - Abstract: WO 3 /graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) composites were successfully synthesized through direct calcining of a mixture of WO 3 and g-C 3 N 4 at 400 °C for 2 h. The WO 3 was prepared by calcination of phosphotungstic acid at 550 °C for 4 h, and the g-C 3 N 4 was obtained by calcination of melamine at 520 °C for 4 h. The WO 3 /g-C 3 N 4 composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Brunner−Emmett−Teller analysis (BET). The WO 3 /g-C 3 N 4 composites exhibited stronger XRD peaks of WO 3 and g-C 3 N 4 than the WO 3 and pure g-C 3 N 4 . In addition, two WO 3 peaks at 25.7° and 26.6° emerged for the 36% −WO 3 /g-C 3 N 4 composite. This finding indicated that WO 3 was highly dispersed on the surface of the g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets and interacted with the nanosheets, which resulted in the appearance of (012) and (022) planes of WO 3 . The WO 3 /g-C 3 N 4 composite also exhibited a larger specific surface area and higher degree of crystallization than WO 3 or pure g-C 3 N 4 , which resulted in high catalytic activity of the catalyst. Desulfurization experiments demonstrated that the desulfurization rate of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in model oil reached 91.2% under optimal conditions. Moreover, the activity of the catalyst was not significantly decreased after five recycles.

  13. Enhanced photocatalytic ozonation of organics by g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Gaozu, E-mail: liaogaozu@m.scnu.edu.cn; Zhu, Dongyun; Li, Laisheng, E-mail: llsh@scnu.edu.cn; Lan, Bingyan

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} is employed as active catalyst in the photocatalytic ozonation system. • The more negative conduction band of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} benefits the transfer of electrons. • The synergistic effect between photocatalysis and ozonation is promoted by g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • Enhanced degradation of oxalic acid and biphenol A is achieved via g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Vis/O{sub 3}. - Abstract: Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) was employed as the active photocatalyst in the photocatalytic ozonation coupling system in the present study. g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was prepared by directly heating thiourea in air at 550 °C. XRD, FT-IR, UV–vis was used to characterize the structure and optical property. Oxalic acid and bisphenol A were selected as model substances for photocatalytic ozonation reactions to evaluate the catalytic ability of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Vis/O{sub 3}). The results showed that the degradation ratio of oxalic acid with g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Vis/O{sub 3} was 65.2% higher than the sum of ratio when it was individually decomposed by g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Vis and O{sub 3}. The TOC removal of biphenol A with g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Vis/O{sub 3} was 2.17 times as great as the sum of the ratio when using g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Vis and O{sub 3}. This improvement was attributed to the enhanced synergistic effect between photocatalysis and ozonation by g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Under visible light irradiation, the photo-generated electrons produced on g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} facilitated the electrons transfer owing to the more negative conduction band potential (−1.3 V versus NHE). It meant that the photo-generated electrons could be trapped by ozone and reaction with it more easily. Subsequently, the yield of hydroxyl radicals was improved so as to enhance the organics degradation efficiency. This work indicated that metal-free g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} could be an excellent catalyst for mineralization of organic compounds in waste control.

  14. An ingenious strategy of preparing TiO2/g-C3N4 heterojunction photocatalyst: In situ growth of TiO2 nanocrystals on g-C3N4 nanosheets via impregnation-calcination method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanghui; Zhang, Tianyong; Li, Bin; Jiang, Shuang; Zhang, Xia; Hai, Li; Chen, Xingwei; Wu, Wubin

    2018-03-01

    An ingenious method was employed to design and fabricate the TiO2/g-C3N4 heterojunction photocatalysts in this study. The thermal oxidation etching of g-C3N4 nanosheets and the in situ growth of TiO2 nanocrystal on the surface of g-C3N4 nanosheets were completed simultaneously by the calcination process. The g-C3N4 nanosheets played a crucial role in regulating and assembling the structures and morphologies of TiO2. Furthermore, the thickness and content of g-C3N4, and the crystallinity of TiO2 in TiO2/g-C3N4 composites could be regulated and controlled by the calcination temperature. Among the resultant TiO2/g-C3N4 samples, the TiO2/g-C3N4 sample with 41.6 wt% g-C3N4 exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. It could degrade almost all MO molecules under visible light irradiation within 3 h. Moreover, it displayed higher visible light photocatalytic performance for degrading MO solution than pure g-C3N4 and D-TiO2. The synergistic effect between TiO2 and g-C3N4 makes significant contributions to the enhancement of the visible light photocatalytic activity. In addition, the favorable photocatalytic performance of TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites is also attributed to the porous structures and uniform morphologies, and large surface area. Furthermore, the resultant TiO2/g-C3N4 exhibits excellent photocatalytic stability. Radical trapping experiments indicated that rad O2- and h+ were the main reactive species during the photodegradation process under visible light irradiation. Hopefully, the results can offer new design and strategy for preparing other g-C3N4-based nanocomposites for environmental and energy applications.

  15. Photocatalytic decomposition of N2O over TiO2/g-C3N4 photocatalysts heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočí, K.; Reli, M.; Troppová, I.; Šihor, M.; Kupková, J.; Kustrowski, P.; Praus, P.

    2017-02-01

    TiO2/g-C3N4 photocatalysts with the various TiO2/g-C3N4 weight ratios from 1:2 to 1:6 were fabricated by mechanical mixing in water suspension followed by calcination. Pure TiO2 was prepared by thermal hydrolysis and pure g-C3N4 was prepared from commercial melamine by thermal annealing at 620 °C. All the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, photoelectrochemical measurements and nitrogen physisorption. The prepared mixtures along with pure TiO2 and g-C3N4 were tested for the photocatalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide under UVC (λ = 254 nm), UVA (λ = 365 nm) and Vis (λ > 400 nm) irradiation. The TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites showed moderate improvement compared to pure g-C3N4 but pure TiO2 proved to be a better photocatalyst under UVC irradiation. However, under UVA irradiation conditions, the photocatalytic activity of TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:2) nanocomposite exhibited an increase compared to pure TiO2. Nevertheless, further increase of g-C3N4 amount leads/led to a decrease in reactivity. These results are suggesting the nanocomposite with the optimal weight ratio of TiO2 and g-C3N4 have shifted absorption edge energy towards longer wavelengths and decreased the recombination rate of charge carriers compared to pure g-C3N4. This is probably due to the generation of heterojunction on the TiO2/g-C3N4 interface.

  16. Synthesis of g-C3N4/Ag3PO4 heterojunction with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Peizhi; Song, Limin; Zhang, Shujuan; Wu, Xiaoqing; Wei, Qingwu

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 heterojunction photocatalyst with visible-light response was prepared by a facile coprecipitation method. The results show that g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 possesses a much higher activity for the decomposition of RhB than that of the pure Ag 3 PO 4 particles. The most mechanism is that g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 heterojunction photocatalyst can efficiently separate the photogenerated electron–hole pairs, enhancing the photocatalytic activity of g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 composites. - Highlights: • g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 heterojunction showed much higher activity than that of Ag 3 PO 4 . • The high activity could be attributed to g-C 3 N 4 for modifying Ag 3 PO 4 . • More ·OH radicals may be significant reason to improve Ag 3 PO 4 activity. - Abstract: g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 heterojunction photocatalyst with visible-light response was prepared by a facile coprecipitation method. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activities of the obtained samples were tested by using Rhodamine B (RhB) as the degradation target under visible light irradiation. g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 decomposed RhB more effectively than the pure Ag 3 PO 4 particles did, and 2 wt.% g-C 3 N 4 had the highest activity. Furthermore, 2 wt.% g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 degraded high-concentration RhB more potently than unmodified Ag 3 PO 4 did, probably because g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 heterojunction photocatalyst enhanced the photocatalytic activity by efficiently separating the photogenerated electron–hole pairs

  17. Preparation of WO3/g-C3N4 composites and their application in oxidative desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rongxiang; Li, Xiuping; Su, Jianxun; Gao, Xiaohan

    2017-01-01

    WO3/graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) composites were successfully synthesized through direct calcining of a mixture of WO3 and g-C3N4 at 400 °C for 2 h. The WO3 was prepared by calcination of phosphotungstic acid at 550 °C for 4 h, and the g-C3N4 was obtained by calcination of melamine at 520 °C for 4 h. The WO3/g-C3N4 composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Brunner-Emmett-Teller analysis (BET). The WO3/g-C3N4 composites exhibited stronger XRD peaks of WO3 and g-C3N4 than the WO3 and pure g-C3N4. In addition, two WO3 peaks at 25.7° and 26.6° emerged for the 36% -WO3/g-C3N4 composite. This finding indicated that WO3 was highly dispersed on the surface of the g-C3N4 nanosheets and interacted with the nanosheets, which resulted in the appearance of (012) and (022) planes of WO3. The WO3/g-C3N4 composite also exhibited a larger specific surface area and higher degree of crystallization than WO3 or pure g-C3N4, which resulted in high catalytic activity of the catalyst. Desulfurization experiments demonstrated that the desulfurization rate of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in model oil reached 91.2% under optimal conditions. Moreover, the activity of the catalyst was not significantly decreased after five recycles.

  18. Robust Pinhole-free Li3N Solid Electrolyte Grown from Molten Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithium metal is the ultimate anode choice for high energy density rechargeable lithium batteries. However, it suffers from inferior electrochemical performance and safety issues due to its high reactivity and the growth of lithium dendrites. It has long been desired to develop a materials coating on Li metal, which is pinhole-free, mechanically robust without fracture during Li metal deposition and stripping, and chemically stable against Li metal and liquid electrolytes, all while maintaining adequate ionic conductivity. However, such an ideal material coating has yet to be found. Here we report a novel synthesis method by reacting clean molten lithium foil directly with pure nitrogen gas to generate instantaneously a pinhole-free and ionically conductive α-Li3N film directly bonded onto Li metal foil. The film consists of highly textured large Li3N grains (tens of μm with (001 crystalline planes parallel to the Li metal surface. The bonding between textured grains is strong, resulting in a mechanically robust film which does not crack even when bent to a 0.8 cm curvature radius and is found to maintain pinhole-free coverage during Li metal deposition and stripping. The measured ionic conductivity is up to 5.2 × 10–4 S cm–1, sufficient for maintaining regular current densities for controllable film thicknesses ranging from 2 to 30 μm. This Li3N coating is chemically stable, isolating the reactive metallic lithium from liquid electrolyte, prevents continuous electrolyte consumption during battery cycling, and promotes dendrite-free uniform lithium plating/stripping underneath. We demonstrated Li|Li4Ti5O12 cells with stable and flat potential profiles for 500 cycles without capacity decay or an increase in potential hysteresis.

  19. Interspecies and intraspecies transmission of triple reassortant H3N2 influenza A viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chang-Won

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. Abstract The triple reassortant H3N2 viruses were isolated for the first time from pigs in 1998 and are known to be endemic in swine and turkey populations in the United States. In 2004, we isolated two H3N2 triple reassortant viruses from two turkey breeder flocks in Ohio and Illinois. Infected hens showed no clinical signs, but experienced a complete cessation of egg production. In this study, we evaluated three triple reassortant H3N2 isolates of turkey origin and one isolate of swine origin for their transmission between swine and turkeys. Although all 4 viruses tested share high genetic similarity in all 8 genes, only the Ohio strain (A/turkey/Ohio/313053/04 was shown to transmit efficiently both ways between swine and turkeys. One isolate, A/turkey/North Carolina/03, was able to transmit from pigs to turkeys but not vice versa. Neither of the other two viruses transmitted either way. Sequence analysis of the HA1 gene of the Ohio strain showed one amino acid change (D to A at residue 190 of the receptor binding domain upon transmission from turkeys to pigs. The Ohio virus was then tested for intraspecies transmission in three different avian species. The virus was shown to replicate and transmit among turkeys, replicate but does not transmit among chickens, and did not replicate in ducks. Identifying viruses with varying inter- and intra-species transmission potential should be useful for further studies on the molecular basis of interspecies transmission.

  20. Association between nasal shedding and fever that influenza A (H3N2) induces in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Daesub; Moon, Hyoungjoon; Jung, Kwonil; Yeom, Minjoo; Kim, Hyekwon; Han, Sangyoon; An, Dongjun; Oh, Jinsik; Kim, Jongman; Park, Bongkyun; Kang, Bokyu

    2011-01-05

    Avian origin canine influenza virus was reported in Korea. The dog to dog contact transmission of the avian origin canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N2 and CIV H3N8 was shown by experimental contact transmission. This study was focused on viral excretion and fever in order to elucidate the epidemiological associations which might be helpful to control the disease transmissions in CIV outbreak in dogs. An influenza seronegative 10-week-old Beagle dog was experimentally inoculated with the canine influenza virus A/canine/01/2007, subtype H3N2. Eight hours after inoculation, the infected dog was cohoused with seven uninfected Beagle dogs. Clinical signs including fever were recorded for 14 days post inoculation. The infected dog and four of seven contact dogs in the study showed clinical signs (sneezing, nasal discharge and coughing) during the study. Viral shedding occurred in all of the animals tested and began on 1 to 6 DPI in dogs with clinical signs. Elevated body temperatures above 39.5 °C (geometric mean temperature of 39.86 °C ± 0.49) were observed in all symptomatic dogs. The mean viral titer during fever was 2.99 log EID₅₀/ml, which was significantly higher than the viral titer detected in the non fever. The data show that contact dogs with a canine influenza infected dog shed different levels of virus in their nasal excretions and demonstrate that clinical signs, including fever, significantly correlate with the viral shedding.

  1. Association between nasal shedding and fever that influenza A (H3N2 induces in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Jinsik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian origin canine influenza virus was reported in Korea. The dog to dog contact transmission of the avian origin canine influenza virus (CIV H3N2 and CIV H3N8 was shown by experimental contact transmission. This study was focused on viral excretion and fever in order to elucidate the epidemiological associations which might be helpful to control the disease transmissions in CIV outbreak in dogs. Methods An influenza seronegative 10-week-old Beagle dog was experimentally inoculated with the canine influenza virus A/canine/01/2007, subtype H3N2. Eight hours after inoculation, the infected dog was cohoused with seven uninfected Beagle dogs. Clinical signs including fever were recorded for 14 days post inoculation. Results The infected dog and four of seven contact dogs in the study showed clinical signs (sneezing, nasal discharge and coughing during the study. Viral shedding occurred in all of the animals tested and began on 1 to 6 DPI in dogs with clinical signs. Elevated body temperatures above 39.5°C (geometric mean temperature of 39.86°C±0.49 were observed in all symptomatic dogs. The mean viral titer during fever was 2.99 log EID50/ml, which was significantly higher than the viral titer detected in the non fever. Conclusions The data show that contact dogs with a canine influenza infected dog shed different levels of virus in their nasal excretions and demonstrate that clinical signs, including fever, significantly correlate with the viral shedding.

  2. Carbon-coated Li3 N nanofibers for advanced hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guanglin; Li, Dan; Chen, Xiaowei; Tan, Yingbin; Tang, Ziwei; Guo, Zaiping; Liu, Huakun; Liu, Zongwen; Yu, Xuebin

    2013-11-20

    3D porous carbon-coated Li3 N nanofibers are successfully fabricated via the electrospinning technique. The as-prepared nanofibers exhibit a highly improved hydrogen-sorption performance in terms of both thermodynamics and kinetics. More interestingly, a stable regeneration can be achieved due to the unique structure of the nanofibers, over 10 cycles of H2 sorption at a temperature as low as 250 °C. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. TM grating coupler on low-loss LPCVD based Si3N4 waveguide platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabos, G.; Manolis, A.; Giesecke, A. L.; Porschatis, C.; Chmielak, B.; Wahlbrink, T.; Pleros, N.; Tsiokos, D.

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, a fully etched TM grating coupler for low-loss Low-Pressure-Chemical-Vapor-Deposition (LPCVD) based silicon nitride platform with a coupling loss of 6.5 dB at 1541 nm and a 1 dB bandwidth of 55 nm, addressing applications where TM polarization is a pre-requisite. The proposed GC and the 360 nm × 800 nm strip based Si3N4 waveguides have been fabricated by optical projection lithography using an i-line stepper tool enabling low-cost and mass manufacturing of photonic-integrated-circuits.

  4. Generalization of trinification to theories with 3N SU(3) gauge groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, Christopher D.

    2005-01-01

    We consider a natural generalization of trinification to theories with 3N SU(3) gauge groups. These theories have a simple moose representation and a gauge boson spectrum that can be interpreted via the deconstruction of a 5D theory with unified symmetry broken on a boundary. Although the matter and Higgs sectors of the theory have no simple extra-dimensional analog, gauge unification retains features characteristic of the 5D theory. We determine possible assignments of the matter and Higgs fields to unified multiplets and present theories that are viable alternatives to minimal trinified GUTs

  5. Synthesis of Cu3N from CuO and NaNH2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Miura

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the low-temperature synthesis of submicron-sized Cu3N powder produced from CuO and NaNH2 powder mixture by heating at 150–190 °C in a Teflon-sealed autoclave. The structure was the anti-RuO3 type with a lattice parameter of 0.3814(1 nm, and strong optical absorption was observed below ∼1.9 eV. This synthesis method has the potential of facile control of the reaction with less use of ammonia sources.

  6. Evaluation of nutrients removal (NO3-N, NH3-N and PO4-P) with Chlorella vulgaris, Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus cereus and a consortium of these microorganisms in the treatment of wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Guzmán, Abril; Jiménez-Magaña, Sergio; Guerra-Rentería, A Suggey; Gómez-Hermosillo, César; Parra-Rodríguez, F Javier; Velázquez, Sergio; Aguilar-Uscanga, Blanca Rosa; Solis-Pacheco, Josue; González-Reynoso, Orfil

    2017-07-01

    In this research removal of NH 3 -N, NO 3 -N and PO 4 -P nutrients from municipal wastewater was studied, using Chlorella vulgaris, Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus cereus and an artificial consortium of them. The objective is to analyze the performance of these microorganisms and their consortium, which has not been previously studied for nutrient removal in municipal wastewater. A model wastewater was prepared simulating the physicochemical characteristics found at the wastewater plant in Chapala, Mexico. Experiments were carried out without adding an external carbon source. Results indicate that nutrient removal with Chlorella vulgaris was the most efficient with a removal of 24.03% of NO 3 -N, 80.62% of NH 3 -N and 4.30% of PO 4 -P. With Bacillus cereus the results were 8.40% of NO 3 -N, 28.80% of NH 3 -N and 3.80% of PO 4 -P. The removals with Pseudomonas putida were 2.50% of NO 3 -N, 41.80 of NH 3 -N and 4.30% of PO 4 -P. The consortium of Chlorella vulgaris-Bacillus cereus-Pseudomonas putida removed 29.40% of NO 3 -N, 4.2% of NH 3 -N and 8.4% of PO 4 -P. The highest biomass production was with Bacillus cereus (450 mg/l) followed by Pseudomonas putida (444 mg/l), the consortium (205 mg/l) and Chlorella vulgaris (88.9 mg/l). This study highlights the utility of these microorganisms for nutrient removal in wastewater treatments.

  7. Novel β-C3N4/CuO nanoflakes: facile synthesis and unique photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lan-Rong; Huang, Gui-Fang; Li, Dong-Feng; Tian, Qing-Nan; Yang, Ke; Si, Yuan; Chang, Shengli; Zhang, Xue-Ao; Huang, Wei-Qing

    2017-09-01

    For the first time, novel β-C3N4/CuO composites with superior photocatalytic activity are successfully fabricated via a facile reflux method followed by a thermal process. The morphologies, particle size and microstructure of the synthesized β-C3N4/CuO composites largely depended upon copper chloride and the volume ratio of V water:V ethanol in the mixed precursors. The fabricated β-C3N4/CuO nanoflakes exhibited obviously enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) with an  ˜3.4 and 1.9 fold increase in efficiency over that of pure g-C3N4 and commercial P25, respectively. The β-C3N4/CuO composite photocatalyst also showed photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange (MO). Moreover, the β-C3N4/CuO nanoflakes showed almost no loss of photocatalytic activity after three recycles of the degradation of the MB. A multiple synergetic mechanism in β-C3N4/CuO nanoflakes, which is featured by the highly reactive {0 0 2} facets, exposed many active sites of nanoflakes and the efficient charge separation are proposed to account for the distinguished photocatalytic activity. This work provides a facile and cost-effective strategy for designing novel β-C3N4/CuO photocatalysts for application in environmental purification.

  8. Magnetic Fe@g-C3N4: A Photoactive Catalyst for the Hydrogenation of Alkenes and Alkynes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A photoactive catalyst, Fe@g-C3N4, has been developed for the hydrogenation of alkenes and alkynes using hydrazine hydrate as a source of hydrogen. The magnetically separable Fe@g-C3N4 eliminates the use of high pressure hydrogenation and the reaction can be accomplished using vi...

  9. Germanium growth on electron beam lithography patterned Si3N4/Si(001) substrate using molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Subhendu Sinha; Katiyar, Ajit K.; Sarkar, Arijit; Dhar, Achintya; Rudra, Arun; Khatri, Ravinder K.; Ray, Samit Kumar

    2018-04-01

    It is important to investigate the growth dynamics of Ge adatoms under different surface stress regimes of the patterned dielectric to control the selective growth of self-assembled Ge nanostructures on silicon. In the present work, we have studied the growth of Ge by molecular beam epitaxy on nanometer scale patterned Si3N4/Si(001) substrates generated using electron beam lithography. The pitch of the patterns has been varied to investigate its effect on the growth of Ge in comparison to un-patterned Si3N4. For the patterned Si3N4 film, Ge did not desorbed completely from the Si3N4 film and hence no site selective growth pattern is observed. Instead, depending upon the pitch, Ge growth has occurred in different growth modes around the openings in the Si3N4. For the un-patterned substrate, the morphology exhibits the occurrence of uniform 3D clustering of Ge adatoms on Si3N4 film. This variation in the growth modes of Ge is attributed to the variation of residual stress in the Si3N4 film for different pitch of holes, which has been confirmed theoretically through Comsol Multiphysics simulation. The variation in stress for different pitches resulted in modulation of surface energy of the Si3N4 film leading to the different growth modes of Ge.

  10. Ammonia Synthesis using Ti and Nb Nitride Nano-particles Prepared by Mesoporous Graphitic C3N4

    KAUST Repository

    Kumagai, Hiromu; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    TiN and NbN nanoparticles were synthesized from mesoporous graphitic C3N4 (mpg-C3N4) as a reactive template and used as the catalyst for ammonia synthesis. The obtained TiN and NbN nanoparticles possess high surface areas of 299 and 275 m2 g-1

  11. Constructing effective photocatalytic purification system with P-introduced g-C3N4 for elimination of UO22+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xi; Jiang, Shujuan; Song, Shaoqing; Sun, Chuanzhi

    2018-02-01

    Due to the inherent defects of precursor molecular structure, the limited effect of structure in the formed g-C3N4 will weaken the extension of delocalization of π electrons between the adjacent tri-s-triazine or heptazine units of g-C3N4, which thus leads to poor visible-light absorption, low utilization efficiency of charge carrier. Herein, P-introduced g-C3N4 (PC3N4) photocatalysts were constructed by partially replacing C with tributyl phosphate as precursor, and the as-designed PC3N4 photocatalysts were used to eliminate aqueous uranyl ion by photocatalytic reduction technology under visible-light irradiation. Experimental and DFT revealed that introduction of P into g-C3N4 significantly modified its electronic structure, as reflected by the narrowed band gap, enhanced visible-light absorption as well as improved transfer capability of photogenerated charge. Therefore, photocatalytic activity of PC3N4 was much better than that of pristine g-C3N4 and conventional reducing-type photocatalysts. This study suggests an efficient strategy for construct effective visible-light-responsive photocatalysts for radioactive environmental remediation.

  12. Chloroacetaldehyde-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli: The role of AlkB protein in repair of 3,N4-ethenocytosine and 3,N4-α-hydroxyethanocytosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciejewska, Agnieszka M.; Ruszel, Karol P.; Nieminuszczy, Jadwiga; Lewicka, Joanna; Sokolowska, Beata; Grzesiuk, Elzbieta; Kusmierek, Jaroslaw T.

    2010-01-01

    Etheno (ε) adducts are formed in reaction of DNA bases with various environmental carcinogens and endogenously created products of lipid peroxidation. Chloroacetaldehyde (CAA), a metabolite of carcinogen vinyl chloride, is routinely used to generate ε-adducts. We studied the role of AlkB, along with AlkA and Mug proteins, all engaged in repair of ε-adducts, in CAA-induced mutagenesis. The test system used involved pIF102 and pIF104 plasmids bearing the lactose operon of CC102 or CC104 origin (Cupples and Miller (1989) ) which allowed to monitor Lac + revertants, the latter arose by GC → AT or GC → TA substitutions, respectively, as a result of modification of guanine and cytosine. The plasmids were CAA-damaged in vitro and replicated in Escherichia coli of various genetic backgrounds. To modify the levels of AlkA and AlkB proteins, mutagenesis was studied in E. coli cells induced or not in adaptive response. Formation of εC proceeds via a relatively stable intermediate, 3,N 4 -α-hydroxyethanocytosine (HEC), which allowed to compare repair of both adducts. The results indicate that all three genes, alkA, alkB and mug, are engaged in alleviation of CAA-induced mutagenesis. The frequency of mutation was higher in AlkA-, AlkB- and Mug-deficient strains in comparison to alkA + , alkB + , and mug + controls. Considering the levels of CAA-induced Lac + revertants in strains harboring the pIF plasmids and induced or not in adaptive response, we conclude that AlkB protein is engaged in the repair of εC and HEC in vivo. Using the modified TTCTT 5-mers as substrates, we confirmed in vitro that AlkB protein repairs εC and HEC although far less efficiently than the reference adduct 3-methylcytosine. The pH optimum for repair of HEC and εC is significantly different from that for 3-methylcytosine. We propose that the protonated form of adduct interact in active site of AlkB protein.

  13. An AgI@g-C3N4 hybrid core@shell structure: Stable and enhanced photocatalytic degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Qi, Yuehong; Yang, Jinyi; Cui, Wenquan; Li, Xingang; Zhang, Zisheng

    2015-12-01

    A novel visible-light-active material AgI@g-C3N4 was prepared by ultrasonication/chemisorption method. The core@shell structure AgI@g-C3N4 catalyst showed high efficiency for the degradation of MB under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). Nearly 96.5% of MB was degraded after 120 min of irradiation in the presence of the AgI@g-C3N4 photocatalyst. Superior stability was also observed in the cyclic runs indicating that the as prepared hybrid composite is highly desirable for the remediation of organic contaminated wastewaters. The improved photocatalytic performance is due to synergistic effects at the interface of AgI and g-C3N4 which can effectively accelerate the charge separation and reinforce the photostability of hybrid composite. The possible mechanism for the photocatalytic activity of AgI@g-C3N4 was tentatively proposed.

  14. Vanadium impurity effects on optical properties of Ti3N2 mono-layer: An ab-initio study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuchehr Babaeipour

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work is investigated the effect of vanadium impurity on electronic and optical properties of Ti3N2 monolayer by using density function theory (DFT implemented in Wien2k code. In order to study optical properties in two polarization directions of photons, namely E||x and E||z, dielectric function, absorption coefficient, optical conductivity, refraction index, extinction index, reflectivity, and energy loss function of Ti3N2 and Ti3N2-V monolayer have been evaluated within GGA (PBE approximation. Although, Ti3N2 monolayer is a good infrared reflector and can be used as an infrared mirror, introducing V atom in the infrared area will decrease optical conductivity because optical conductivity of a pure form of a material is higher than its doped form. Keywords: Dielectric function, Optical conductivity, DFT, Ti3N2: V mono-layer

  15. Lepton mixing from Δ(3n2 and Δ(6n2 and CP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Hagedorn

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We perform a detailed study of lepton mixing patterns arising from a scenario with three Majorana neutrinos in which a discrete flavor group Gf=Δ(3n2 or Gf=Δ(6n2 and a CP symmetry are broken to residual symmetries Ge=Z3 and Gν=Z2×CP in the charged lepton and neutrino sectors, respectively. While we consider all possible Z3 and Z2 generating elements, we focus on a certain set of CP transformations. The resulting lepton mixing depends on group theoretical indices and one continuous parameter. In order to study the mixing patterns comprehensively for all admitted Ge and Gν, it is sufficient to discuss only three types of combinations. One of them requires as flavor group Δ(6n2. Two types of combinations lead to mixing patterns with a trimaximal column, while the third one allows for a much richer structure. For the first type of combinations the Dirac phase as well as one of the Majorana phases are trivial, whereas the other two types of combinations predict in general all CP phases to be non-trivial and also non-maximal. Already for small values of the index n of the group, n≤11, experimental data on lepton mixing can be accommodated well for particular choices of the parameters of the theory. We also comment on the relation of the used CP transformations to the automorphisms of Δ(3n2 and Δ(6n2.

  16. Stability of [MeBu3N][Tf2N] under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosse, Emilie; Berthon, Laurence; Zorz, Nicole; Monget, Julie; Berthon, Claude; Bisel, Isabelle; Legand, Solene; Moisy, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    The stability of the ionic liquid [MeBu 3 N][Tf 2 N], dry or after contact with water (where [MeBu 3 N] + is the methyl-tributyl-ammonium cation and [Tf 2 N] - is the bistriflimide anion), was studied under 137 Cs gamma irradiation in argon and in air. In a quantitative study with an absorbed dose of 2 MGy this ionic liquid was highly stable regardless of the radiolysis conditions. The radiolytic disappearance yields determined by ESI-MS were -0.38 and -0.25 μmol*J -1 for the cation and anion, respectively. ESI-MS, NMR, and liquid chromatography coupled with ESI-MS identified a large number of degradation products in very small quantities for the same dose. The cation radicals were formed by the loss of a Bu . group, the Me . group, or two H . atoms to form a double bond with the butyl chain. Radiolysis of the anion produced mainly F . and CF 3 . radicals. The anion radicals recombined with the cation to form a wide range of secondary degradation products regardless of the radiolysis conditions. (authors)

  17. Water-containing derivative phases of the Srn+1FenO3n+1 series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtimaeki, M.; Hirasa, A.; Matvejeff, M.; Yamauchi, H.; Karppinen, M.

    2007-01-01

    The n=1, 2, 3 and ∞ members of the homologous series Sr n+1 Fe n O 3n+1 of layered iron oxides are investigated for their tendency to accept additional layers of water in their crystals. The phases possess a Ruddlesden-Popper-type SrO-(SrO-FeO 2 ) n crystal structure, where the n=∞ limit is nothing but the perovskite structure. It is revealed that the n=1, 2 and 3 phases readily accommodate one or two layers of water between adjacent SrO layers, whereas the n=∞ member which lacks the SrO-SrO double-layer unit remains intact in the presence of water. The speed of the water intercalation process is found to decrease with increasing n. Among the layered water derivatives, the n=2 phase with two water molecules per formula unit, i.e. Sr 3 Fe 2 O 7 .2H 2 O, was found to be most stable. - Graphical abstract: Water-containing derivative phases obtained from the homologous series of Sr n+1 Fe n O 3n+1 Ruddlesden-Popper phases through topotactic water intercalation

  18. Airworthiness Certification of Fe-Si3N4-graphite Brake Composites for Military Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Prabhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal matrix hybrid composites are usually preferred for high energy aircraft (1-10 MJ brake pads (HEABP applications. The report focuses mainly on the evaluation of the wear and braking performance of the composite for the military aircraft applications. In this paper, the design and processing of a typical HEABP composite have been discussed in detail. The airworthiness qualification tests for the HEABP and the brake units are outlined with details. Also, brake testing parameters calculations derived from the typical aircraft data are presented for both the laboratory and full scale dynamometer tests. A case study of Fe-Si3N4- graphite composite pads is presented to exemplify the steps involved in the design, development, and airworthiness certification of HEABPs for the 8 MJ energy military aircraft. From the microstructure and wear surface morphology analysis and the results of brake performance parameters, functional tests and aircraft trials, it is concluded that the Fe-Si3N4- graphite composite has a minimum life of 200 normal energy landings with excellent braking performances.

  19. Stability of [MeBu{sub 3}N][Tf{sub 2}N] under gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosse, Emilie; Berthon, Laurence; Zorz, Nicole; Monget, Julie; Berthon, Claude; Bisel, Isabelle; Legand, Solene; Moisy, Philippe [CEA Marcoule, DCRP/SCPS, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    The stability of the ionic liquid [MeBu{sub 3}N][Tf{sub 2}N], dry or after contact with water (where [MeBu{sub 3}N]{sup +} is the methyl-tributyl-ammonium cation and [Tf{sub 2}N]{sup -} is the bistriflimide anion), was studied under {sup 137}Cs gamma irradiation in argon and in air. In a quantitative study with an absorbed dose of 2 MGy this ionic liquid was highly stable regardless of the radiolysis conditions. The radiolytic disappearance yields determined by ESI-MS were -0.38 and -0.25 {mu}mol*J{sup -1} for the cation and anion, respectively. ESI-MS, NMR, and liquid chromatography coupled with ESI-MS identified a large number of degradation products in very small quantities for the same dose. The cation radicals were formed by the loss of a Bu{sup .} group, the Me{sup .} group, or two H{sup .} atoms to form a double bond with the butyl chain. Radiolysis of the anion produced mainly F{sup .} and CF{sub 3}{sup .} radicals. The anion radicals recombined with the cation to form a wide range of secondary degradation products regardless of the radiolysis conditions. (authors)

  20. Exotic ferromagnetism in the two-dimensional quantum material C3N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Cheng; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiaosong

    2018-04-01

    The search for and study of exotic quantum states in novel low-dimensional quantum materials have triggered extensive research in recent years. Here, we systematically study the electronic and magnetic structures in the newly discovered two-dimensional quantum material C3N within the framework of density functional theory. The calculations demonstrate that C3N is an indirect-band semiconductor with an energy gap of 0.38 eV, which is in good agreement with experimental observations. Interestingly, we find van Hove singularities located at energies near the Fermi level, which is half that of graphene. Thus, the Fermi energy easily approaches that of the singularities, driving the system to ferromagnetism, under charge carrier injection, such as electric field gating or hydrogen doping. These findings not only demonstrate that the emergence of magnetism stems from the itinerant electron mechanism rather than the effects of local magnetic impurities, but also open a new avenue to designing field-effect transistor devices for possible realization of an insulator-ferromagnet transition by tuning an external electric field.

  1. Nanowires and nanotubes of BN, GaN and Si3N4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deepak, F.L.; Gundiah, G.; Govindaraj, A.; Rao, C.N.

    2002-01-01

    Simple methods of synthesizing nanotubes and nanowires of boron nitride, gallium nitride and silicon nitride have been investigated. The nanotubes and nanowires have been examined by electron microscopy and other techniques. In the case of BN, activated carbon or multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) was heated with boric acid in the presence of NH 3 . With activated carbon, BN nanowires constitute the primary products, but good yields of BN nanotubes are obtained with MWNTs. Aligned BN nanotubes are obtained when aligned MWNTs are employed as the starting material suggesting templating role of carbon nanotubes. Single crystal gallium nitride nanowires have been obtained by heating carbon nanotubes coated with gallium acetylacetonate in NH 3 vapor at 910 o C. Single walled carbon nanotubes were used as templated to reduce the diameter of the GaN nanowires. The growth direction of the GaN nanowires is nearly perpendicular to the [100] planes and the nanowires exhibit satisfactory photoluminescence spectra. Si 3 N 4 nanowires have been synthesized by heating multi-walled carbon nanotubes with silica gel at 1360 o C in an atmosphere of NH 3 . Si 3 N 4 nanotubes are found occasionally when aligned multi-walled nanotubes are employed as templates. (author)

  2. Electrochemical behavior of low phosphorus electroless Ni-P-Si3N4 composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaraju, J.N.; Ezhil Selvi, V.; Rajam, K.S.

    2010-01-01

    In the present investigation the electroless Ni-P-Si 3 N 4 composite coatings were prepared by using a low phosphorus bath containing submicron size silicon nitride particles. Plain Ni-P deposits were also prepared for comparison. The phosphorus contents present in electroless plain Ni-P and Ni-P-Si 3 N 4 coatings are 3.7 and 3.4 wt.%, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images obtained for composite coatings (cross-sections) showed that the second phase particles are uniformly distributed throughout the thickness of the deposits. It was found that nodularity increased with particle codeposition in Ni-P matrix. To find out the electrochemical behavior of plain Ni-P and composite coatings, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance (EIS) studies were carried out in 3.5 wt.% sodium chloride solution in non-deaerated condition. Second phase particle incorporation in Ni-P matrix indicated a marginal decrease in corrosion current density compared to the plain Ni-P deposits. This was further confirmed by EIS studies and SEM analysis of the corroded samples.

  3. Stability of [MeBu3N][Tf2N] under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosse, E.; Berthon, L.; Zorz, N.; Monget, J.; Berthon, C.; Bisel, I.; Legand, S.; Moisy, P.

    2008-01-01

    The stability of the ionic liquid [MeBu 3 N][Tf 2 N], dry or after contact with water (where [MeBu 3 N] + is the methyl-tributyl-ammonium cation and [Tf 2 N] - is the bistriflimide anion), was studied under 137 Cs gamma irradiation in argon and in air. In a quantitative study with an absorbed dose of 2 MGy this ionic liquid was highly stable regardless of the radiolysis conditions. The radiolytic disappearance yields determined by ESI-MS were -0.38 and -0.25 μmolJ -1 for the cation and anion, respectively. ESI-MS, NMR, and liquid chromatography coupled with ESI-MS identified a large number of degradation products in very small quantities for the same dose. The cation radicals were formed by the loss of a Bu-radical group, the Me-radical group, or two H-radical atoms to form a double bond with the butyl chain. Radiolysis of the anion produced mainly F-radical and CF 3 -radicals. The anion radicals recombined with the cation to form a wide range of secondary degradation products regardless of the radiolysis conditions. (authors)

  4. Fundamentals of Passive Oxidation In SiC and Si3N4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Ogbuji, Linus U.

    1998-01-01

    The very slow oxidation kinetics of silicon carbide and silicon nitride, which derive from their adherent and passivating oxide films, has been explored at length in a broad series of studies utilizing thermogravimetric analysis, electron and optical micrography, energy dispersive spectrometry, x-ray diffractometry, micro-analytical depth profiling, etc. Some interesting microstructural phenomena accompanying the process of oxidation in the two materials will be presented. In Si3N4 the oxide is stratified, with an SiO2 topscale (which is relatively impervious to O2)underlain by a coherent subscale of silicon oxynitride which is even less permeable to O2- Such "defence in depth" endows Si3N4 with what is perhaps the highest oxidation resistance of any material, and results in a unique set of oxidation processes. In SiC the oxidation reactions are much simpler, yet new issues still emerge; for instance, studies involving controlled devitrification of the amorphous silica scale confirmed that the oxidation rate of SiC drops by more than an order of magnitude when the oxide scale fully crystallizes.

  5. Synthesis and photocatalytic performance of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets via liquid phase stripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Jilin [Industry & Equipment Technology Institute of Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Xu, Guangqing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials and Devices of Anhui Province, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Liu, Jiaqin [Industry & Equipment Technology Institute of Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials and Devices of Anhui Province, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Lv, Jun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials and Devices of Anhui Province, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Wu, Yucheng [Industry & Equipment Technology Institute of Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials and Devices of Anhui Province, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Well dispersed g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets were prepared by exfoliating the bulk g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} in concentrated sulfuric acid. Phase structures, morphologies and elemental compositions were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer, respectively. Optical absorption and photoluminescence were also used to explain the optical performances of samples. NaI, BQ and IPA were used as the sacrificial agents for studying the surface reactions in the photocatalytic process. By the precipitation of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets in ethanol with different ratios between concentrated sulfuric acid and ethyl alcohol, well dispersed g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets with high specific surface area can be obtained. The optimized g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (1:10) nanosheets achieve the highest photocatalytic activities under UV light illumination, which can degrade 10 mg/L RhB about 98% in 60 min, which is 6 times that of bulk g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} under UV light. - Graphical Abstract: The schematic diagram of photocatalysis and excellent photocatalytic performance of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets. - Highlights: • Well dispersed g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} were prepared via Liquid Phase Stripping. • The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} is in a sheet like structure after being exfoliated. • The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets possess high photocatalytic performances.

  6. Mechanistic Characteristics of Surface Modified Organic Semiconductor g-C3N4 Nanotubes Alloyed with Titania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Ching Sim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The visible-light-driven photocatalytic degradation of Bisphenol A (BPA was investigated using the binary composite of alkaline treated g-C3N4 (HT-g-C3N4 deposited over commercial TiO2 (Evonik Degussa GmbH, Essen, Germany. The existence and contribution of both TiO2 and g-C3N4/HT-g-C3N4 in the composite was confirmed through various analytical techniques including powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis-DRS, and photoluminescence (PL analysis. The results showed that the titania in the binary composite exhibited both pure rutile and anatase phases. The morphological analysis indicated that the spongy “morel-like” structure of g-C3N4 turned to nanotube form after alkaline hydrothermal treatment and thereby decreased the specific surface area of HT-g-C3N4. The low surface area of HT-g-C3N4 dominates its promising optical property and effective charge transfer, resulting in a deprived degradation efficiency of BPA two times lower than pure g-C3N4. The binary composite of HT-g-C3N4/TiO2 exhibited excellent degradation efficiency of BPA with 2.16 times higher than the pure HT-g-C3N4. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was mainly due to the promising optical band gap structure with heterojunction interface, favorable specific surface area, and good charge separation.

  7. Mechanistic Characteristics of Surface Modified Organic Semiconductor g-C3N4 Nanotubes Alloyed with Titania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Lan Ching; Tan, Wei Han; Leong, Kah Hon; Bashir, Mohammed J. K.; Saravanan, Pichiah; Surib, Nur Atiqah

    2017-01-01

    The visible-light-driven photocatalytic degradation of Bisphenol A (BPA) was investigated using the binary composite of alkaline treated g-C3N4 (HT-g-C3N4) deposited over commercial TiO2 (Evonik Degussa GmbH, Essen, Germany). The existence and contribution of both TiO2 and g-C3N4/HT-g-C3N4 in the composite was confirmed through various analytical techniques including powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis-DRS), and photoluminescence (PL) analysis. The results showed that the titania in the binary composite exhibited both pure rutile and anatase phases. The morphological analysis indicated that the spongy “morel-like” structure of g-C3N4 turned to nanotube form after alkaline hydrothermal treatment and thereby decreased the specific surface area of HT-g-C3N4. The low surface area of HT-g-C3N4 dominates its promising optical property and effective charge transfer, resulting in a deprived degradation efficiency of BPA two times lower than pure g-C3N4. The binary composite of HT-g-C3N4/TiO2 exhibited excellent degradation efficiency of BPA with 2.16 times higher than the pure HT-g-C3N4. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was mainly due to the promising optical band gap structure with heterojunction interface, favorable specific surface area, and good charge separation. PMID:28772387

  8. Characterization of Nd{sub 2}AlO{sub 3}N and Sm{sub 2}AlO{sub 3}N oxynitrides synthesized by carbothermal reduction and nitridation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevire, Francois, E-mail: francois.chevire@univ-rennes1.fr [UMR CNRS 6226 ' Sciences Chimiques de Rennes' , Equipe Verres et Ceramiques, Groupe Materiaux Azotes et Ceramiques, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Pallu, Arthur; Ray, Erwan; Tessier, Franck [UMR CNRS 6226 ' Sciences Chimiques de Rennes' , Equipe Verres et Ceramiques, Groupe Materiaux Azotes et Ceramiques, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2011-05-12

    Research highlights: > Carbothermal reduction and nitridation leads to rare earth aluminum oxynitride starting from oxide mixture. > Absorption shifts towards visible in Nd{sub 2}AlO{sub 3}N (orange) and Sm{sub 2}AlO{sub 3}N (yellow). > Oxynitrides are stable up to 600 deg. C in air. > The so-called 'intermediate phase' phenomenon is evidenced in Sm{sub 2}AlO{sub 3}N. - Abstract: The Nd{sub 2}AlO{sub 3}N and Sm{sub 2}AlO{sub 3}N oxynitrides with the K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4}-type structure have been prepared from oxide mixture at 1250 deg. C using the carbothermal reduction and nitridation route (CRN). Optimization of the process is discussed to prevent surface oxidation of the oxynitrides during the synthesis. The absorption of Nd{sub 2}AlO{sub 3}N and Sm{sub 2}AlO{sub 3}N, orange and yellow respectively, has been characterized by diffuse reflectance as well as their thermal stability versus oxidation by thermogravimetric analyses.

  9. Fabrication and photoelectrochemical properties of silicon nanowires/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} core/shell arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhen [Institute of Electronic Paper Displays, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Institute of Advanced Materials, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Ma, Ge [Institute of Electronic Paper Displays, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Chen, Zhihong, E-mail: chenzhihong1227@sina.com [Shenyang Institute of Automation, Guangzhou, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 511458 (China); Zhang, Yongguang [Research Institute for Energy Equipment Materials, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Materials Laminating Fabrication and Interface Control Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Zhang, Zhe [Institute of Electronic Paper Displays, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Gao, Jinwei [Institute of Advanced Materials, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Meng, Qingguo; Yuan, Mingzhe [Shenyang Institute of Automation, Guangzhou, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 511458 (China); Wang, Xin, E-mail: wangxin@scnu.edu.cn [Institute of Electronic Paper Displays, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Liu, Jun-ming [Institute of Advanced Materials, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Zhou, Guofu [Institute of Electronic Paper Displays, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A novel Silicon Nanowires/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} core/shell arrays photoanode prepared by a mild and inexpensive metal-catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE) process followed by liquid atomic layer deposition (LALD), wiich is a facile and low-cost method. • In comparison with FTO/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Si NWs samples, the Si NWs/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} samples showed significantly enhanced photocurrent which could be attributed to the SiNWs-based core/shell structure. • A systematical PEC mechanism of the Si NWs/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was proposed is this manuscript. - Abstract: A photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell made of metal-free carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) @siliconnanowire(Si NW) arrays (denoted as Si NWs/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) is presented in this work. The as-prepared photoelectrodes with different mass contents of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} have been synthesized via a metal-catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE), liquid atomic layer deposition (LALD) and annealing methods. The amount of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} on the Si NW arrays can be controlled by tuning the concentration of the cyanamide solution used in the LALD procedure. The dense and vertically aligned Si NWs/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} core/shell nanostructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In comparison with FTO/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Si NW samples, the Si NWs/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} samples showed significantly enhanced photocurrents over the entire potential sweep range. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was conducted to investigate the properties of the charge transfer process, and the results indicated that the enhanced PEC performance may be due to the increased photo-generated interfacial charge transfer between the Si NWs and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The photocurrent density reached 45 μA/cm{sup 2} under 100 mW/cm{sup 2} (AM 1.5 G) illumination at 0 V (vs. Pt) in neutral Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution (pH ∼ 7

  10. Plastic Deformation Induced by Nanoindentation Test Applied on ZrN/Si3N4 Multilayer Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengtao Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ZrN/Si3N4 multilayer coating that alternates with either nanocrystalline ZrN or amorphous Si3N4 interlayers was fabricated by reactively magnetron sputtering in an Ar-N2 mixture atmosphere. The thicknesses of the nanocrystalline ZrN and the amorphous Si3N4 interlayers are ~12.5 and 2.5 nm, respectively. The ZrN/Si3N4 coating exhibits a promoted hardness of 28.6 ± 1.2 GPa when compared to the binary ZrN. Microstructure evolution just underneath the nanoindentation impression of the ZrN/Si3N4 multilayer coating has been investigated. The result indicates that both ZrN nanograin rotations and plastic flow of the Si3N4 interlayers contribute to the permanent deformation of the multilayer coating induced by the nanoindentation. In addition, the introduction of the a-Si3N4 interlayers hinders both the initiation and propagation of microcracks when the multilayer coating was applied to the scratch test. The propagation deflection of the microcracks was observed attributed to the heterogenous interface, which produces the hardness promotion of the multilayer coating eventually.

  11. Facile synthesis of graphitic C3N4 nanoporous-tube with high enhancement of visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruiru; Gao, Jianping; Mei, Shunkang; Wu, Yongli; Wang, Xiaoxue; Zhai, Xiangang; Yang, Jiangbing; Hao, Chaoyue; Yan, Jing

    2017-12-01

    A simple and convenient method was used to synthesize a graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanoporous-tube by using SiO2 nanoparticles as pore formers. The structure of the g-C3N4 nanoporous-tube was characterized by the SEM and TEM images. Taking photodegradation of RhB as an example, the photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared g-C3N4 nanoporous-tube was investigated. It can photodegrade 90% RhB in 40 min under visible-light irradiation and obtain a k value of 0.04491 min-1, which is 8.16 times that of bulk g-C3N4, 3.09 times that of tubular g-C3N4 and 1.48 times that of tubular g-C3N4-SiO2. The significant enhancement in photocatalytic efficiency is due to the edge effect of the pores and the special structure of the tubes. In addition, the possible mechanism of photocatalytic degradation of RhB was also proposed based on the trapping experiment of active species, which indicated that the superoxide radicals ({{{{O}}}2}\\bullet -) and the holes (h +) were the main reactive species in this photocatalyst. This work may open up a new idea of innovation in g-C3N4 structure and inspire its follow-up study.

  12. Ab initio calculation of the electronic structure and spectroscopic properties of spinel γ-Sn3N4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching, W. Y.; Rulis, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The electronic structure and physical properties of γ-Sn 3 N 4 in the spinel structure are investigated by first-principles calculations. The calculated band structure, electronic bonding, and optical properties are compared with two well-studied spinel nitrides γ-Si 3 N 4 and γ-Ge 3 N 4 . γ-Sn 3 N 4 is a semiconductor with a direct band gap of 1.40 eV and an attractive small electron effective mass of 0.17. Its optical properties are different from that of γ-Si 3 N 4 and γ-Ge 3 N 4 because of the difference in the conduction band minimum. The Sn K, Sn L 3 , Sn M 5 , and N K edges of the x-ray-absorption near-edge structure spectra in γ-Sn 3 N 4 are calculated using a supercell approach and are found to be rich in structures. These spectra are discussed in the context of the electronic structure of the unoccupied conduction band in the presence of the electron core-hole interaction. These calculated spectra can be used for the characterization of this novel compound

  13. One-step synthesis of graphitic-C 3 N 4 /ZnS composites for enhanced supercapacitor performance

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Binbin

    2017-11-24

    A series of graphitic-C3N4/ZnS (g-C3N4/ZnS) supercapacitor electrode materials have been prepared via a one-step calcination process of zinc acetate/thiourea with different mass ratios under nitrogen atmosphere. The optimized g-C3N4/ZnS composite shows a highest specific capacitance of 497.7 F/g at 1 A/g and good cycling stability with capacitance retention of 80.4% at 5 A/g after 1000 cycles. Moreover, g-C3N4/ZnS composites display an improved supercapacitor performance in terms of specific capacitance compared to the pure g-C3N4 and ZnS. In addition, our designed symmetric supercapacitor device based on g-C3N4/ZnS composite electrodes can exhibit an energy density of 10.4 Wh/kg at a power density of 187.3 W/kg. As a result, g-C3N4/ZnS composites are expected to be a prospective material for supercapacitors and other energy storage applications.

  14. Accompanying growth and room-temperature ferromagnetism of η-Mn3N2 thin films by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Fengmei; Liu, Yajing; Yang, Mei; Wu, Shuxiang; Zhou, Wenqi; Li, Shuwei

    2013-01-01

    η-phase manganese nitride films have been grown on LaAlO 3 (100) and LaSrAlO 4 (001) substrates by using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. On the basis of reflective high energy electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, it is confirmed that two types of η-Mn 3 N 2 with different lattice constants coexist in the films due to the lattice mismatches between the Mn 3 N 2 films and the substrates. Magnetic properties of the films were characterized by a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer at room temperature. The Mn 3 N 2 films on LaAlO 3 substrate were found to have room-temperature ferromagnetism. Two potential interaction mechanisms are proposed regarding the origin of the observed ferromagnetism. - Highlights: ► The films of two types of η-Mn 3 N 2 have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy. ► Mn 3 N 2 A and Mn 3 N 2 B coexisted in the films on LaAlO 3 and LaSrAlO 4 . ► The room-temperature ferromagnetism of the Mn 3 N 2 films on LaAlO 3 was obtained

  15. One-step synthesis of graphitic-C 3 N 4 /ZnS composites for enhanced supercapacitor performance

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Binbin; Liang, Hanfeng; Wang, Rongrong; Zhang, Dongfang; Qi, Zhengbing; Wang, Zhoucheng

    2017-01-01

    A series of graphitic-C3N4/ZnS (g-C3N4/ZnS) supercapacitor electrode materials have been prepared via a one-step calcination process of zinc acetate/thiourea with different mass ratios under nitrogen atmosphere. The optimized g-C3N4/ZnS composite shows a highest specific capacitance of 497.7 F/g at 1 A/g and good cycling stability with capacitance retention of 80.4% at 5 A/g after 1000 cycles. Moreover, g-C3N4/ZnS composites display an improved supercapacitor performance in terms of specific capacitance compared to the pure g-C3N4 and ZnS. In addition, our designed symmetric supercapacitor device based on g-C3N4/ZnS composite electrodes can exhibit an energy density of 10.4 Wh/kg at a power density of 187.3 W/kg. As a result, g-C3N4/ZnS composites are expected to be a prospective material for supercapacitors and other energy storage applications.

  16. Development and characterization of AlCrN coated Si3N4 ceramic cutting tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.V.C.; Nono, M.C.A.; Machado, J.P.B.; Silva, O.M.M.; Sa, F.C.L.

    2010-01-01

    Ceramic cutting tools are showing a growing market perspective in terms of application on machining operations due to their high hardness, wear resistance, and machining without a cutting fluid, therefore are good candidates for cast iron and Nickel superalloys machining. The objective of the present paper was the development of Si 3 N 4 based ceramic cutting insert, characterization of its physical and mechanical properties, and subsequent coating with AlCrN using a PVD method. The characterization of the coating was made using an optical profiler, XRD, AFM and microhardness tester. The results showed that the tool presented a fracture toughness of 6,43 MPa.m 1/2 and hardness of 16 GPa. The hardness reached 31 GPa after coating. The machining tests showed an improvement on work piece roughness when machining with coated insert, in comparison with the uncoated cutting tool. Probably this fact is related to hardness, roughness and topography of AlCrN. (author)

  17. Moessbauer study of the magnetic phase transformations in SnMn3N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, D.L.; Zimmer, G.J.; Lohner, T.; Senateur, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    Moessbauer measurements were performed on SnMn 3 N with the aim of verifying the magnetic phase transformations at 175 and 230 K and the Neel transition at 475 K as well as of seeking an explanation for the anomalous peak in magnetic susceptibility about 380 K. Moessbauer spectra were taken at several temperatures between 83 and 475 K and evaluated by a least square fitting program. Abrupt changes in the hyperfine field were found at 175, 230 and 350 K indicating first-order magnetic phase transformations at these temperatures; the 350 K transformation is certainly related to the anomaly in susceptibility. About 475 only a smooth change in the hyperfine field was found suggesting the Neel transition to be of the second order. An attempt is made to explain the relatively high hyperfine field in the cubic antiferromagnetic phase. (A.K.)

  18. Cryogenic deformation microstructures of 32Mn-7Cr-1Mo-0.3N austenitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Ruidong; Qiu Liang; Wang Tiansheng; Wang Cunyu; Zheng Yangzeng

    2005-01-01

    The cryogenic deformation microstructures of impact and tensile specimens of 32Mn-7Cr-1Mo-0.3N austenitic steel were investigated using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the deformation microstructures of the impact specimens are mainly composed of stacking faults, network dislocation, slip bands, and a few mechanical twins and ε-martensite. These microstructures cross with each other in a crystal angle. The deformation microstructures of the tensile specimens consist only of massive slip bands, in which a few mechanical twins and ε-martenite are located. Because of the larger plastic deformation the slip band traces become bent. All the deformation microstructures are formed on the {111} planes and along the orientation

  19. The adhesion and tribology analysis of polycrystalline diamond coated on Si3N4 substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzah, E.; Purniawan, A.

    2007-01-01

    Cauliflower and octahedral structure of polycrystalline diamond was deposited on silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ) substrate by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPACVD). In our earlier work, the effects of deposition parameters namely, % Methane (CH 4 ) diluted in hydrogen (H 2 ), microwave power and chamber pressure on surface morphology were studied. In the present work the polycrystalline diamond coating adhesion and tribology behaviour were investigated. Rockwell C hardness tester and pin-on-disk tribometer were used to determine the adhesion and tribology properties on diamond coating, respectively. The morphology of the diamond before and after indentation was observed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Based on the adhesion analysis results, it was found that octahedral morphology has better adhesion than cauliflower structure. It was indicated by few cracks and less peel-off than cauliflower structure of polycrystalline diamond after indentation. Based on tribology analysis, polycrystalline diamond coated on substrate has better tribology properties than uncoated substrate. (author)

  20. Magnetron sputtered Cu{sub 3}N/NiTiCu shape memory thin film heterostructures for MEMS applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Navjot; Choudhary, Nitin [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Functional Nanomaterials Research Lab, Department of Physics and Centre of Nanotechnology (India); Goyal, Rajendra N. [Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Department of Chemistry (India); Viladkar, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Functional Nanomaterials Research Lab, Department of Physics and Centre of Nanotechnology (India); Matai, I.; Gopinath, P. [Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Centre for Nanotechnology (India); Chockalingam, S. [Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, Department of Biotechnology (India); Kaur, Davinder, E-mail: dkaurfph@iitr.ernet.in [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Functional Nanomaterials Research Lab, Department of Physics and Centre of Nanotechnology (India)

    2013-03-15

    In the present study, for the first time, Cu{sub 3}N/NiTiCu/Si heterostructures were successfully grown using magnetron sputtering technique. Nanocrystalline copper nitride (Cu{sub 3}N with thickness {approx}200 nm) thin films and copper nanodots were subsequently deposited on the surface of 2-{mu}m-thick NiTiCu shape memory thin films in order to improve the surface corrosion and nickel release properties of NiTiCu thin films. Interestingly, the phase transformation from martensite phase to austenite phase has been observed in Cu{sub 3}N/NiTiCu heterostructures with corresponding change in texture and surface morphology of top Cu{sub 3}N films. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope images of the heterostructures reveals the formation of 20-nm-sized copper nanodots on NiTiCu surface at higher deposition temperature (450 Degree-Sign C) of Cu{sub 3}N. Cu{sub 3}N passivated NiTiCu films possess low corrosion current density with higher corrosion potential and, therefore, better corrosion resistance as compared to pure NiTiCu films. The concentration of Ni released from the Cu{sub 3}N/NiTiCu samples was observed to be much less than that of pure NiTiCu film. It can be reduced to the factor of about one-ninth after the surface passivation resulting in smooth, homogeneous and highly corrosion resistant surface. The antibacterial and cytotoxicity of pure and Cu{sub 3}N coated NiTiCu thin films were investigated through green fluorescent protein expressing E. coli bacteria and human embryonic kidney cells. The results show the strong antibacterial property and non cytotoxicity of Cu{sub 3}N/NiTiCu heterostructure. This work is of immense technological importance due to variety of BioMEMS applications.

  1. Silicon-incorporated diamond-like coatings for Si3N4 mechanical seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, S.S.; Gomes, J.R.; Carrapichano, J.M.; Silva, R.F.; Achete, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC) and silicon-incorporated diamond-like carbon films (DLC-Si) were evaluated as protective and friction reduction coatings onto Si 3 N 4 rings. Unlubricated tribological tests were performed with a pin-on-disk apparatus against stainless steel pins with loads ranging from 3 to 55 N and sliding velocities from 0.2 to 1.0 m/s under ambient air and 50-60% relative humidity. At the lowest loads, a-SiC coatings present a considerable improvement with respect to the behavior of uncoated disks since the friction coefficient is reduced to about 0.2 and the system is able to run stably for thousands of meters. At higher loads, however, a-SiC coatings fail. DLC-Si-coated rings, on the other hand, presented for loads up to 10 N a steady-state friction coefficient below 0.1 and very low wear rates. The lowest steady-state mean friction coefficient value of only 0.055 was obtained with a sliding velocity of 0.5 m/s. For higher loads in the range of 20 N, the friction coefficient drops to values around 0.1 but no steady state is reached. For the highest loads of over 50 N, a catastrophic behavior is observed. Typically, wear rates below 5x10 -6 and 2x10 -7 mm 3 /N m were obtained for the ceramic rings and pins, respectively, with a load of 10 N and a sliding velocity of 0.5 m/s. Analysis of the steel pin contact surface by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and Auger spectroscopy revealed the formation of an adherent tribo-layer mainly composed by Si, C and O. The unique structure of DLC-Si films is thought to be responsible for the formation of the tribo-layer

  2. Socio-economic factors associated with a healthy diet: results from the E3N study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affret, Aurélie; Severi, Gianluca; Dow, Courtney; Rey, Grégoire; Delpierre, Cyrille; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy

    2017-06-01

    To identify individual and contextual socio-economic factors associated with a healthy diet. Dietary data from a large cohort study were used to derive two mutually exclusive dietary patterns through a latent class analysis. Associations between dietary patterns and socio-economic factors were studied with logistic regression. E3N, a French prospective cohort study composed of women recruited from a national health insurance plan covering people working in the national education system. E3N participants (n 73 031) with dietary and socio-economic data available. The 'Healthy' pattern was characterized by a large consumption of fruits and vegetables and the 'Less Healthy' pattern by a large consumption of pizza and processed meat. When all socio-economic factors were analysed together, all of the individual factors considered were associated with a healthy diet (e.g. women with three or more children were less likely to follow a healthy diet v. women with no children, OR (95 % CI): 0·70 (0·66, 0·75)) while the contextual factors associated with a healthy diet included the size of the agglomeration of residence and the area of birth and residence (e.g. women living in the West of France were less likely to follow a healthy diet v. those living in the South of France: 0·78 (0·72, 0·83)). We demonstrated that individual and contextual factors are both associated with diet. Rather than focusing only on individual factors, we recommend future studies or public health and nutritional strategies on diet to consider both types of factors.

  3. KV4.3 N-terminal deletion mutant Δ2–39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovind, Laura J; Skerritt, Matthew R

    2011-01-01

    Gating transitions in the KV4.3 N-terminal deletion mutant Δ2–39 were characterized in the absence and presence of KChIP2b. We particularly focused on gating characteristics of macroscopic (open state) versus closed state inactivation (CSI) and recovery. In the absence of KChIP2b Δ2–39 did not significantly alter the steady-state activation “a4” relationship or general CSI characteristics, but it did slow the kinetics of deactivation, macroscopic inactivation and macroscopic recovery. Recovery kinetics (for both WT KV4.3 and Δ2–39) were complicated and displayed sigmoidicity, a process which was enhanced by Δ2–39. Deletion of the proximal N-terminal domain therefore appeared to specifically slow mechanisms involved in regulating gating transitions occurring after the channel open state(s) had been reached. In the presence of KChIP2b Δ2–39 recovery kinetics (from both macroscopic and CSI) were accelerated, with an apparent reduction in initial sigmoidicity. Hyperpolarizing shifts in both “a4” and isochronal inactivation “i” were also produced. KChIP2b-mediated remodeling of KV4.3 gating transitions was therefore not obligatorily dependent upon an intact N-terminus. To account for these effects we propose that KChIP2 regulatory domains exist in KV4.3 α subunit regions outside of the proximal N-terminal. In addition to regulating macroscopic inactivation, we also propose that the KV4.3 N-terminus may act as a novel regulator of deactivation-recovery coupling. PMID:21057209

  4. Tumor budding is a strong and reproducible prognostic marker in T3N0 colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wang, Lai Mun

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumor budding along the advancing front of colorectal adenocarcinoma is an early event in the metastatic process. A reproducible, prognostic budding scoring system based on outcomes in early stage colorectal cancer has not been established. DESIGN: One hundred twenty-eight T3N0M0 colorectal carcinoma patients with known outcome were identified. Tumor budding was defined as isolated tumor cells or clusters of <5 cells at the invasive tumor front. Tumor bud counts were generated in 5 regions at 200x by 2 pathologists (conventional bud count method). The median bud count per case was used to divide cases into low (median=0) and high budding (median > or =1) groups. Forty cases were reevaluated to assess reproducibility using the conventional and a novel rapid bud count method. RESULTS: Fifty-seven (45%) carcinomas had high and 71 (55%) had low budding scores. High budding was associated with an infiltrative growth pattern (P<0.0001) and lymphovascular invasion (P=0.005). Five-year cancer-specific survival was significantly poorer in high compared with low budding groups: 63% versus 91%, respectively, P<0.0001. Multivariate analysis demonstrated tumor budding to be independently prognostic (hazard ratio=4.76, P<0.001). Interobserver agreement was at least equivalent comparing the conventional to the rapid bud count methods: 87.5% agreement (kappa=0.75) versus 92.5% agreement (kappa=0.85), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Tumor budding is a strong, reproducible, and independent prognostic marker of outcome that is easily assessed on hematoxylin and eosin slides. This may be useful for identifying the subset of T3N0M0 patients at high risk of recurrence who may benefit from adjuvant therapy.

  5. The effect of n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on acute reflux esophagitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ze-Hao; Xie, Jing-Jing; Wei, Jing-Jing; Tang, Du-Peng; Yang, Li-Yong

    2016-10-04

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play various roles in inflammation. However, the effect of PUFAs in the development of reflux esophagitis (RE) is unclear. This study is to investigate the potential effect of n-3/n-6 PUFAs on acute RE in rats along with the underlying protective mechanisms. Forty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 in each group). RE model was established by pyloric clip and section ligation. Fish oil- and soybean oil-based fatty emulsion (n-3 and n-6 groups), or normal saline (control and sham operation groups) was injected intraperitoneally 2 h prior to surgery and 24 h postoperatively (2 mL/kg, respectively). The expressions of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, IL-6 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) in esophageal tissues were evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry after 72 h. The malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression in the esophageal tissues were determined to assess the oxidative stress. The mildest macroscopic/microscopic esophagitis was found in the n-3 group (P < 0.05). The expression of IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6 and MyD88 were increased in all RE groups, while the lowest and highest expression were found in n-3 and n-6 group, respectively (P < 0.05). The MDA levels were increased in all groups (P < 0.05), in an ascending trend from n-3, n-6 groups to control group. The lowest and highest SOD levels were found in the control and n-3 group, respectively (P < 0.05). n-3 PUFAs may reduce acute RE in rats, which may be due to inhibition of the MyD88-NF-kB pathway and limit oxidative damage.

  6. Growth and microstructure of iron nitride layers and pore formation in {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middendorf, C.; Mader, W. [Univ. Bonn, Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie, Bonn (Germany)

    2003-03-01

    Layers of {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N and {gamma}'-Fe{sub 4}N on ferrite were produced by nitriding iron single crystals or rolled sheets of iron in flowing ammonia at 520 C. The nitride layers were characterised using X-ray diffraction, light microscopy as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The compound layer consists of {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N at the surface and of {gamma}'-Fe{sub 4}N facing the ferrite. After 4 h of nitriding, pores develop in the near surface region of {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N showing more or less open porosity. Growth of the entire compound layer as well as of the massive and the porous {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N sublayer is diffusion-controlled and follows a parabolic growth rate. The {gamma}'-Fe{sub 4}N layer is formed as a transition phase within a narrow interval of nitrogen activity, and it shows little growth in thickness. The transformation of {gamma}'-Fe{sub 4}N to {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N is topotactic, where the orientation of the closed-packed iron layers of the crystal structures is preserved. Determination of lattice plane spacings was possible by X-ray diffraction, and this was correlated to the nitrogen content of {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N. While the porous layer exhibits an enhanced nitrogen content corresponding to the chemical composition Fe{sub 3}N{sub 1.1}, the massive e Fe{sub 3}N layer corresponds to Fe{sub 3}N{sub 1.0}. The pore formation in {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N{sub 1.1} is concluded to be the result of excess nitrogen atoms on non-structural sites, which have a high mobility. Therefore, recombination of excess nitrogen to molecular N{sub 2} at lattice defects is preferred in {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N with high nitrogen content compared to stoichiometric {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N{sub 1.0} with nitrogen on only structural sites. (orig.)

  7. Seroprevalence of three influenza A viruses (H1N1, H3N2, and H3N8) in pet dogs presented to a veterinary hospital in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyesun; Jackson, Yasmine K; Daniels, Joshua B; Ali, Ahmed; Kang, Kyung-Il; Elaish, Mohamed; Lee, Chang-Won

    2017-08-31

    The prevalence of canine H3N8 influenza and human H1N1 and H3N2 influenza in dogs in Ohio was estimated by conducting serologic tests on 1,082 canine serum samples. In addition, risk factors, such as health status and age were examined. The prevalences of human H1N1, H3N2, and canine H3N8 influenzas were 4.0%, 2.4%, and 2.3%, respectively. Two samples were seropositive for two subtypes (H1N1 and H3N2; H1N1 and canine influenza virus [CIV] H3N8). Compared to healthy dogs, dogs with respiratory signs were 5.795 times more likely to be seropositive against H1N1 virus ( p = 0.042). The prevalence of human flu infection increased with dog age and varied by serum collection month. The commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay used in this study did not detect nucleoprotein-specific antibodies from many hemagglutination inhibition positive sera, which indicates a need for the development and validation of rapid tests for influenza screening in canine populations. In summary, we observed low exposure of dogs to CIV and human influenza viruses in Ohio but identified potential risk factors for consideration in future investigations. Our findings support the need for establishment of reliable diagnostic standards for serologic detection of influenza infection in canine species.

  8. Potential of Transition Metal Atoms Embedded in Buckled Monolayer g-C3N4 as Single-Atom Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Shu-Long

    2017-10-27

    We use first-principles calculations to systematically explore the potential of transition metal atoms (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Ir, Pt, and Au) embedded in buckled monolayer g-C3N4 as single-atom catalysts. We show that clustering of Sc and Ti on g-C3N4 is thermodynamically impeded and that V, Cr, Mn, and Cu are much less susceptible to clustering than the other TM atoms under investigation. Strong bonding of the transition metal atoms in the cavities of g-C3N4 and high diffusion barriers together are responsible for single-atom fixation. Analysis of the CO oxidation process indicates that embedding of Cr and Mn in g-C3N4 gives rise to promising single-atom catalysts at low temperature.

  9. Potential of Transition Metal Atoms Embedded in Buckled Monolayer g-C3N4 as Single-Atom Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Shu-Long; Kan, Xiang; Yin, Hui; Gan, Li-Yong; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Zhao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    We use first-principles calculations to systematically explore the potential of transition metal atoms (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Ir, Pt, and Au) embedded in buckled monolayer g-C3N4 as single-atom catalysts. We show that clustering of Sc and Ti on g-C3N4 is thermodynamically impeded and that V, Cr, Mn, and Cu are much less susceptible to clustering than the other TM atoms under investigation. Strong bonding of the transition metal atoms in the cavities of g-C3N4 and high diffusion barriers together are responsible for single-atom fixation. Analysis of the CO oxidation process indicates that embedding of Cr and Mn in g-C3N4 gives rise to promising single-atom catalysts at low temperature.

  10. Magnetic Fe@g‑C3N4: A Photoactive Catalyst for the Hydrogenation of Alkenes and Alkynes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A photoactive catalyst, Fe@g-C3N4, has been developed for the hydrogenation of alkenes and alkynes using hydrazine hydrate as a source of hydrogen. The magnetically...

  11. In situ synthesis and properties of self-reinforced Si3N4–SiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    reinforced glass–ceramic composites were obtained without any β -Si 3 N 4 seed crystal. These composites with different compositions were prepared in a nitrogenatmosphere for comparison of phase transformation and mechanical properties.

  12. Polymer-Bound 3-N,N-(Dimethylamino)-2-isocyanoacrylate for the Synthesis of Thiazoles via a Multicomponent Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkel, Bernd; Westner, Benedikt; Dömling, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis of resin-bound 3-N,N-(dimethylamino)-2-isocyanoacrylate is described. This bifunctional reagent can be used for the synthesis of thiazoles via a multicomponent reaction. Several examples are reported.

  13. Formation and control of zinc nitride in a molten LiCl-KCl-Li3N system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Takuya; Toyoura, Kazuaki; Tsujimura, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yasuhiko

    2004-01-01

    We investigated a possibility of electrochemical formation and control of zinc nitride in a molten LiCl-KCl-Li 3 N system at 673 K. Zinc nitride films were obtained by means of potentiostatic electrolysis of zinc electrodes in the melt. From XRD analysis, it was confirmed that obtained films consisted of Zn 3 N 2 and LiZnN and that the composition of each film was effected by the applied potential value. In the potential range from 0.75 to 1.6 V (versus Li + /Li), the ratio of Zn 3 N 2 increased as the applied potential was more positive. Based on the result, we achieved the formation of Zn 3 N 2 film (3-5 μm) in anti-scandium oxide structure (a = 0.977 nm) by means of potentiostatic electrolysis at 1.6 V for 3 h

  14. Development of Ta3N5 as an Efficient Visible Light-responsive Photocatalyst for Water Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Nurlaela, Ela

    2015-09-01

    Along with many other solar energy conversion processes, research on photocatalytic water splitting to generate hydrogen and oxygen has experienced rapid major development over the past years. Developing an efficient visible-light-responsive photocatalyst has been one of the targets of such research efforts. In this regard, nitride materials, particularly Ta3N5, have been the subject of investigation due to their promising properties. This dissertation focuses on the fundamental parameters involved in the photocatalytic processes targeting overall water splitting using Ta3N5 as a model photocatalyst. The discussion primarily focuses on relevant parameters that are involved in photon absorption, exciton separation, carrier diffusion, carrier transport, and catalytic efficiency. A collection of theoretical and experimental studies of properties associated with Ta3N5 have been utilized to obtain a comprehensive understanding of this material. The fundamental structural and optoelectronic properties of Ta3N5 have been addressed. From the electronic properties, the dielectric constant and effective masses have been calculated. Because of its high dielectric constant and relatively low effective masses, Ta3N5 is promising for photocatalytic reaction applications. Studies of lattice dynamics, optical properties, and band positions have been able to clearly show that the synthesized Ta3N5 is essentially non-stoichiometric and that a truly pure phase of Ta3N5 has never been achieved, even though XRD has shown a pure phase sample. The photophysical properties of Ta3N5, such as the absorption coefficient, carrier mobility, and carrier lifetime, have been experimentally measured by synthesizing Ta3N5 thin films. Very low kinetic properties with very low transport properties and fast carrier recombination explained why overall water splitting has never been achieved with Ta3N5 as a photocatalyst to date. The extent to which the surface states of Ta3N5 photocatalysts affect

  15. Vanadium impurity effects on optical properties of Ti3N2 mono-layer: An ab-initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeipour, Manuchehr; Eslam, Farzaneh Ghafari; Boochani, Arash; Nezafat, Negin Beryani

    2018-06-01

    The present work is investigated the effect of vanadium impurity on electronic and optical properties of Ti3N2 monolayer by using density function theory (DFT) implemented in Wien2k code. In order to study optical properties in two polarization directions of photons, namely E||x and E||z, dielectric function, absorption coefficient, optical conductivity, refraction index, extinction index, reflectivity, and energy loss function of Ti3N2 and Ti3N2-V monolayer have been evaluated within GGA (PBE) approximation. Although, Ti3N2 monolayer is a good infrared reflector and can be used as an infrared mirror, introducing V atom in the infrared area will decrease optical conductivity because optical conductivity of a pure form of a material is higher than its doped form.

  16. Quantifying selection and diversity in viruses by entropy methods, with application to the haemagglutinin of H3N2 influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Keyao; Deem, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Many viruses evolve rapidly. For example, haemagglutinin (HA) of the H3N2 influenza A virus evolves to escape antibody binding. This evolution of the H3N2 virus means that people who have previously been exposed to an influenza strain may be infected by a newly emerged virus. In this paper, we use Shannon entropy and relative entropy to measure the diversity and selection pressure by an antibody in each amino acid site of H3 HA between the 1992–1993 season and the 2009–2010 season. Shannon entropy and relative entropy are two independent state variables that we use to characterize H3N2 evolution. The entropy method estimates future H3N2 evolution and migration using currently available H3 HA sequences. First, we show that the rate of evolution increases with the virus diversity in the current season. The Shannon entropy of the sequence in the current season predicts relative entropy between sequences in the current season and those in the next season. Second, a global migration pattern of H3N2 is assembled by comparing the relative entropy flows of sequences sampled in China, Japan, the USA and Europe. We verify this entropy method by describing two aspects of historical H3N2 evolution. First, we identify 54 amino acid sites in HA that have evolved in the past to evade the immune system. Second, the entropy method shows that epitopes A and B on the top of HA evolve most vigorously to escape antibody binding. Our work provides a novel entropy-based method to predict and quantify future H3N2 evolution and to describe the evolutionary history of H3N2. PMID:21543352

  17. Studies of the pressure-induced phase transition of C sub 3 N sub 6 H sub 6

    CERN Document Server

    Ma Hong An; Cui Qi Liang; Pan Yue Wu; Zhu Pin Wen; Guo Wei; Chen Li Xue; Ren Guo Zheng; Zou Guang Tian; LiuJing

    2002-01-01

    In situ high pressure energy dispersive X-ray diffraction experiments have been carried out on C sub 3 N sub 6 H sub 6 by using diamond anvil cell (DAC) device with synchrotron radiation source. Two structural phase transitions of C sub 3 N sub 6 H sub 6 have been observed within 14.7 GPa pressure range, from monoclinic to triclinic structure at 1.3 GPa and from triclinic to orthorhombic structure at 8.2 GPa, respectively

  18. Sintering behaviour and phase relationships of Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] ceramics in the Si[sub 3]N[sub 4]-SiO[sub 2]-MgO-Y[sub 2]O[sub 3] system. Sinterverhalten und Phasenbeziehungen von Si[sub 3]N[sub 4]-Keramiken im System Si[sub 3]N[sub 4]-SiO[sub 2]-MgO-Y[sub 2]O[sub 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, F.M.

    1992-10-12

    The aim of this work is the investigation of the sintering or crystallisation behaviour of Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] ceramics depending on the additive composition in the Si[sub 3]N[sub 4]-SiO[sub 2]-MgO-Y[sub 2]O[sub 3] system. With regard to the complicated manufacturing process of sintered and heat-treated Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] ceramics, one should first determine which additive compositions make complete compression possible. The effect of the composition on the volume and the viscosity of the melting phase should be cleared up, where determining the Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] solubility relative to the additive composition is of special importance. The phase relationships between Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] and the possible crystalline secondary phases should be determined for the crystallisation behaviour. Due to the very fine distribution of only a 5-15% proportion of additive in conventional Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] samples, a characterisation of the secondary phases is difficult to carry out with X-ray or REM/EDX analysis. Therefore, experiments with oxy-nitridic model samples were carried out in this work, which have the same phase relationships as conventional Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] compositions, but with an appreciably higher proportion of additive. The possibility of transferring the results of the model samples were tested on examples of three Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] ceramics. (orig.)

  19. Seroprotective antibodies to 2011 variant influenza A(H3N2v) and seasonal influenza A(H3N2) among three age groups of US Department of Defense service members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Jennifer M; Hawksworth, Anthony W; Ortiguerra, Ryan G; Brice, Gary T

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, a new variant of influenza A(H3N2) emerged that contained a recombination of genes from swine H3N2 viruses and the matrix (M) gene of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. New combinations and variants of pre-existing influenza viruses are worrisome if there is low or nonexistent immunity in a population, which increases chances for an outbreak or pandemic. Sera collected in 2011 were obtained from US Department of Defense service members in three age groups: 19-21 years, 32-33 years, and 47-48 years. Pre- and post-vaccination samples were available for the youngest age group, and postvaccination samples for the two older groups. Specimens were tested using microneutralization assays for antibody titers against H3N2v (A/Indiana/10/2011) and seasonal H3N2 virus (A/Perth/16/2009). The youngest age group had significantly (p<0.05) higher geometric mean titers for H3N2v with 165 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 105-225) compared with the two older groups, aged 32-33 and 47-48 years, who had geometric mean titers of 68 (95% CI: 55-82) and 46 (95% CI: 24-65), respectively. Similarly, the youngest age group also had the highest geometric mean titers for seasonal H3N2. In the youngest age group, the proportion of patients who seroconverted after vaccination was 12% for H3N2v and 27% for seasonal H3N2. Our results were similar to previous studies that found highest seroprotection among young adults and decreasing titers among older adults. The proportion of 19- to 21-year-olds who seroconverted after seasonal vaccination was low and similar to previous findings. Improving our understanding of H3N2v immunity among different age groups in the United States can help inform vaccination plans if H3N2v becomes more transmissible in the future.

  20. Combining magnetic nanoparticle with biotinylated nanobodies for rapid and sensitive detection of influenza H3N2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Hu, Yonghong; Li, Guirong; Ou, Weijun; Mao, Panyong; Xin, Shaojie; Wan, Yakun

    2014-09-01

    Our objective is to develop a rapid and sensitive assay based on magnetic beads to detect the concentration of influenza H3N2. The possibility of using variable domain heavy-chain antibodies (nanobody) as diagnostic tools for influenza H3N2 was investigated. A healthy camel was immunized with inactivated influenza H3N2. A nanobody library of 8 × 108 clones was constructed and phage displayed. After three successive biopanning steps, H3N2-specific nanobodies were successfully isolated, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. Sequence analysis of the nanobodies revealed that we possessed four classes of nanobodies against H3N2. Two nanobodies were further used to prepare our rapid diagnostic kit. Biotinylated nanobody was effectively immobilized onto the surface of streptavidin magnetic beads. The modified magnetic beads with nanobody capture specifically influenza H3N2 and can still be recognized by nanobodies conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugates. Under optimized conditions, the present immunoassay exhibited a relatively high sensitive detection with a limit of 50 ng/mL. In conclusion, by combining magnetic beads with specific nanobodies, this assay provides a promising influenza detection assay to develop a potential rapid, sensitive, and low-cost diagnostic tool to screen for influenza infections.

  1. Co-Designing a Collaborative Chronic Care Network (C3N) for Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Development of Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellal, George; Peterson, Laura E; Provost, Lloyd; Gloor, Peter A; Fore, David Livingstone; Margolis, Peter A

    2018-01-01

    Background Our health care system fails to deliver necessary results, and incremental system improvements will not deliver needed change. Learning health systems (LHSs) are seen as a means to accelerate outcomes, improve care delivery, and further clinical research; yet, few such systems exist. We describe the process of codesigning, with all relevant stakeholders, an approach for creating a collaborative chronic care network (C3N), a peer-produced networked LHS. Objective The objective of this study was to report the methods used, with a diverse group of stakeholders, to translate the idea of a C3N to a set of actionable next steps. Methods The setting was ImproveCareNow, an improvement network for pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. In collaboration with patients and families, clinicians, researchers, social scientists, technologists, and designers, C3N leaders used a modified idealized design process to develop a design for a C3N. Results Over 100 people participated in the design process that resulted in (1) an overall concept design for the ImproveCareNow C3N, (2) a logic model for bringing about this system, and (3) 13 potential innovations likely to increase awareness and agency, make it easier to collect and share information, and to enhance collaboration that could be tested collectively to bring about the C3N. Conclusions We demonstrate methods that resulted in a design that has the potential to transform the chronic care system into an LHS. PMID:29472173

  2. Interfacial microstructure of partial transient liquid phase bonded Si3N4-to-Inconel 718 joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Joong; Park, Jin-Woo; Eagar, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    This work presents transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the interfacial microstructure in Si 3 N 4 -to-Inconel 718 joints with Ni interlayers produced by partial transient liquid phase bonding (PTLPB). Ti and Cu microfoils have been inserted between Si 3 N 4 and the Ni interlayer and joining has been performed at lower temperatures than previous PTLPBs of Si 3 N 4 with the same insert metals. The TEM work is focused on phase identification of the reaction layers between the Si 3 N 4 and the Ni interlayer. According to the TEM analysis, most of the Cu precipitates without reacting with Ti and Ni. Si diffused in the filler metal and thin reaction layer formed at the interface between Si 3 N 4 and the filler metal producing good bond-formation and hence, high interfacial strength. No interfacial fractures occurred after cooling from the bonding temperature of 900 deg. C, which supports the results observed in the TEM analysis. This work confirms that this joining process can produce a more heat resistant Si 3 N 4 -to-Inconel 718 joint than active brazing using Ag-Cu-Ti alloys

  3. Disordered crystal structure of 20H-AlON, Al10O3N8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banno, Hiroki; Funahashi, Shiro; Asaka, Toru; Hirosaki, Naoto; Fukuda, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    The disordered crystal structure of 20H-AlON (Al 10 O 3 N 8 ) was determined by combined use of X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The title compound is hexagonal with space group P6 3 /mmc (Z=2) and the unit-cell dimensions are a=0.307082(5) nm, c=5.29447(8) nm and V=0.432376(12) nm 3 . The structural model showed the positional disordering of three of the six Al sites in the unit cell. The reliability indices calculated from the Rietveld method were R wp =6.97%, S (=R wp /R e )=1.68, R p =5.45%, R B =5.13% and R F =4.56%. We interpreted the disordered structure of 20H-AlON as a statistical average of six different types of ordered structural configurations, which are composed of an octahedral [Al(O, N) 6 ] layer and tetrahedral [Al(O, N) 4 ] layers. We demonstrated the high correlations between the hexagonal unit-cell dimensions and the octahedral layer concentrations for AlON and SiAlON polytypoids. - Graphical abstract: Variations of a and c/(n O +n T ) with n O /(n O +n T ). The a and c are the hexagonal unit-cell dimensions of AlON, SiAlON and AlN. The n O and n T are, respectively, the numbers of octahedral and tetrahedral layers in the unit cells. The unit-cell dimensions in literature are plotted in black plus for AlON and black cross for SiAlON. The unit-cell dimensions of AlN are a=0.3110 nm and c=0.4980 nm. - Highlights: • Crystal structure of Al10O3N8 is determined by laboratory X-ray powder diffraction. • The atom arrangements are represented by the split-atom model. • Six types of ordered atom arrangements are derived from the disordered structure. • Hexagonal unit-cell dimensions changed systematically for AlON and SiAlON compounds

  4. Origins and Evolutionary Dynamics of H3N2 Canine Influenza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Henan; Hughes, Joseph; Murcia, Pablo R

    2015-05-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are maintained mainly in wild birds, and despite frequent spillover infections of avian IAVs into mammals, only a small number of viruses have become established in mammalian hosts. A new H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) of avian origin emerged in Asia in the mid-2000s and is now circulating in dog populations of China and South Korea, and possibly in Thailand. The emergence of CIV provides new opportunities for zoonotic infections and interspecies transmission. We examined 14,764 complete IAV genomes together with all CIV genomes publicly available since its first isolation until 2013. We show that CIV may have originated as early as 1999 as a result of segment reassortment among Eurasian and North American avian IAV lineages. We also identified amino acid changes that might have played a role in CIV emergence, some of which have not been previously identified in other cross-species jumps. CIV evolves at a lower rate than H3N2 human influenza viruses do, and viral phylogenies exhibit geographical structure compatible with high levels of local transmission. We detected multiple intrasubtypic and heterosubtypic reassortment events, including the acquisition of the NS segment of an H5N1 avian influenza virus that had previously been overlooked. In sum, our results provide insight into the adaptive changes required by avian viruses to establish themselves in mammals and also highlight the potential role of dogs to act as intermediate hosts in which viruses with zoonotic and/or pandemic potential could originate, particularly with an estimated dog population of ∼ 700 million. Influenza A viruses circulate in humans and animals. This multihost ecology has important implications, as past pandemics were caused by IAVs carrying gene segments of both human and animal origin. Adaptive evolution is central to cross-species jumps, and this is why understanding the evolutionary processes that shape influenza A virus genomes is key to elucidating

  5. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Michael E R; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Patience, John F; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2015-12-16

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority.

  6. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Michael E.R.; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D.; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Patience, John F.; Aalhus, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority. PMID:26694475

  7. Catalytic performance of heterogeneous Rh/C3N4 for the carbonylation of methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiman, Anatta Wahyu; Choi, Myoung Jae; Nur, Adrian

    2018-02-01

    The excess of water in homogeneous the carbonylation of methanol system could increase the amount of by-products formed through water-gas shift reaction and could accelerate the rusting of equipment. Many scientists tried to decrease the content of water in the carbonylation of methanol system by using lithium and iodide promoter that results a moderate catalytic activity in the water content at 2wt%. The heterogenized catalyst offers several distinct advantages such as it was enables increased catalyst concentration in the reaction mixture, which is directly proportional to acetic acid production rate, without the addition of an alkali iodide salt promoter. The heterogeneous catalyst also results in reduced by-product formation. This study is aimed to produce a novel catalyst (Rh/C3N4) with a high selectivity of acetic acid in a relatively lower water and halide content. This novel catalyst performs high conversion and selectivity of acetic acid as the result of the strong ionic bonding of melamine and rhodium complex species that was caused by the presence of methyl iodide species. The CO2 in feed gas significantly decreases the catalytic activity of Rh-melamine because of its inert characteristics. The kinetic test was performed as that the first order kinetic equation. The kinetic tests revealed the reaction route of the the carbonylation of methanol in this system was performed trough the methyl acetate.

  8. Thermochemical characteristics of La n+1Ni nO3n+1 oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikov, D.O.; Safronov, A.P.; Cherepanov, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    Lanthanum nickelates: La 2 NiO 4+δ , La 3 Ni 2 O 7-δ , La 4 Ni 3 O 10-δ and LaNiO 3-δ the members of Ruddlesden-Popper series La n+1 Ni n O 3n+1 were prepared using citrate route. Dissolution enthalpies of complex oxides as well as a number of subsidiary substances were measured by means of Calvet calorimeter in 1 M solution of hydrochloric acid at 25 deg. C. The dissolution scheme of complex oxides in hydrochloric acid was proposed and enthalpies of formation of the complex oxides from binary oxides were calculated considering oxygen nonstoichiometry of these substances. Enthalpies of step-by-step oxidation were evaluated. Partial enthalpy contribution of LaO layers was calculated endothermic equals to 30.9 J/mol while partial enthalpy contribution of perovskite LaNiO 3 layers was negative equals to -97.0 J/mol. Enthalpy of formation of any complex oxide of Ruddlesden-Popper series fits very well to the linear regression based on these values

  9. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3 Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E.R. Dugan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6 to omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices. A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority.

  10. Stress in ion-implanted CVD Si3N4 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EerNisse, E.P.

    1977-01-01

    The compressive stress buildup caused in chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) Si 3 N 4 films by ion implantation is shown to be caused entirely by atomic collision effects, ionization effects being unimportant. The stress introduction rate is shown to be independent of CVD processing variables and O content of the film. The maximum attainable compressive stress change is 3.5 x 10 10 dyn/cm 2 , resulting in a maximum net compressive stress of 2 x 10 10 dyn/cm 2 for films on Si where the as-deposited films inherently have 1.5 x 10 10 dyn/cm 2 tensile stress before ion implantation. Results are presented which show that O in the films inhibits thermal annealing of the ion-implantation-induced compressive stress. Results for introduction rate and annealing effects are presented in normalized form so that workers can use the effects for intentional stress level adjustment in the films to reduce probability of cracking and detachment

  11. Multichannel detection of ionic currents through two nanopores fabricated on integrated Si3N4 membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Itaru; Akahori, Rena; Aoki, Mayu; Harada, Kunio; Takeda, Ken-Ichi

    2016-08-16

    Integration of solid-state nanopores and multichannel detection of signals from each nanopore are effective measures for realizing high-throughput nanopore sensors. In the present study, we demonstrated fabrication of Si3N4 membrane arrays and the simultaneous measurement of ionic currents through two nanopores formed in two adjacent membranes. Membranes with thicknesses as low as 6.4 nm and small nanopores with diameters of less than 2 nm could be fabricated using the poly-Si sacrificial-layer process and multilevel pulse-voltage injection. Using the fabricated nanopore membranes, we successfully achieved simultaneous detection of clear ionic-current blockades when single-stranded short homopolymers (poly(dA)60) passed through two nanopores. In addition, we investigated the signal crosstalk and leakage current among separated chambers. When two nanopores were isolated on the front surface of the membrane, there was no signal crosstalk or leakage current between the chambers. However, when two nanopores were isolated on the backside of the Si substrate, signal crosstalk and leakage current were observed owing to high-capacitance coupling between the chambers and electrolysis of water on the surface of the Si substrate. The signal crosstalk and leakage current could be suppressed by oxidizing the exposed Si surface in the membrane chip. Finally, the observed ionic-current blockade when poly(dA)60 passed through the nanopore in the oxidized chip was approximately half of that observed in the non-oxidized chip.

  12. Random walk generated by random permutations of {1, 2, 3, ..., n + 1}

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshanin, G; Voituriez, R

    2004-01-01

    We study properties of a non-Markovian random walk X (n) l , l = 0, 1, 2, ..., n, evolving in discrete time l on a one-dimensional lattice of integers, whose moves to the right or to the left are prescribed by the rise-and-descent sequences characterizing random permutations π of [n + 1] = {1, 2, 3, ..., n + 1}. We determine exactly the probability of finding the end-point X n = X (n) n of the trajectory of such a permutation-generated random walk (PGRW) at site X, and show that in the limit n → ∞ it converges to a normal distribution with a smaller, compared to the conventional Polya random walk, diffusion coefficient. We formulate, as well, an auxiliary stochastic process whose distribution is identical to the distribution of the intermediate points X (n) l , l < n, which enables us to obtain the probability measure of different excursions and to define the asymptotic distribution of the number of 'turns' of the PGRW trajectories

  13. Ti-decorated graphitic-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} monolayer: A promising material for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weibin [Department of Physics, Dongguk University, Seoul 04620 (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Zhijun [Department of Physics, Dongguk University, Seoul 04620 (Korea, Republic of); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhang, Fuchun [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Yan’an University, Yan’an 716000 (China); Yang, Woochul, E-mail: wyang@dongguk.edu [Department of Physics, Dongguk University, Seoul 04620 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Ti atoms are stably decorated at the triangular N hole in g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} with an adsorption energy of −7.58 eV. • Electron redistribution of Ti-adsorbed porous g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} significantly enhanced hydrogen adsorption up to five H{sub 2} molecules at each Ti atom. • The hydrogen capacity of the Ti-decorated g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} system reaches up to 9.70 wt%. • All H{sub 2} absorbed in the Ti/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} system can be released at 393 K according to the molecular dynamic analysis. • Ti/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} as a hydrogen storage system is suitable and reversible at the temperature range required for practical applications. - Abstract: Ti-decorated graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) monolayer as a promising material system for high-capacity hydrogen storage is proposed through density functional theory calculations. The stability and hydrogen adsorption of Ti-decorated g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} is analyzed by computing the adsorption energy, the charge population, and electronic density of states. The most stable decoration site of Ti atom is the triangular N hole in g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} with an adsorption energy of −7.58 eV. The large diffusion energy barrier of the adsorbed Ti atom of ∼6.00 eV prohibits the cluster formation of Ti atoms. The electric field induced by electron redistribution of Ti-adsorbed porous g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} significantly enhanced hydrogen adsorption up to five H{sub 2} molecules at each Ti atom with an average adsorption energy of −0.30 eV/H{sub 2}. The corresponding hydrogen capacity reaches up to 9.70 wt% at 0 K. In addition, the hydrogen capacity is predicted to be 6.30 wt% at 233 K and all adsorbed H{sub 2} are released at 393 K according to molecular dynamics simulation. Thus, the Ti-decorated g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} monolayer is suggested to be a promising material for hydrogen storage suggested by the DOE for commercial applications.

  14. Cross-Species Infectivity of H3N8 Influenza Virus in an Experimental Infection in Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solórzano, Alicia; Foni, Emanuela; Córdoba, Lorena; Baratelli, Massimiliano; Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Bilato, Dania; Martín del Burgo, María Ángeles; Perlin, David S; Martínez, Jorge; Martínez-Orellana, Pamela; Fraile, Lorenzo; Chiapponi, Chiara; Amadori, Massimo; del Real, Gustavo; Montoya, María

    2015-11-01

    Avian influenza A viruses have gained increasing attention due to their ability to cross the species barrier and cause severe disease in humans and other mammal species as pigs. H3 and particularly H3N8 viruses, are highly adaptive since they are found in multiple avian and mammal hosts. H3N8 viruses have not been isolated yet from humans; however, a recent report showed that equine influenza A viruses (IAVs) can be isolated from pigs, although an established infection has not been observed thus far in this host. To gain insight into the possibility of H3N8 avian IAVs to cross the species barrier into pigs, in vitro experiments and an experimental infection in pigs with four H3N8 viruses from different origins (equine, canine, avian, and seal) were performed. As a positive control, an H3N2 swine influenza virus A was used. Although equine and canine viruses hardly replicated in the respiratory systems of pigs, avian and seal viruses replicated substantially and caused detectable lesions in inoculated pigs without previous adaptation. Interestingly, antibodies against hemagglutinin could not be detected after infection by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) test with avian and seal viruses. This phenomenon was observed not only in pigs but also in mice immunized with the same virus strains. Our data indicated that H3N8 IAVs from wild aquatic birds have the potential to cross the species barrier and establish successful infections in pigs that might spread unnoticed using the HAI test as diagnostic tool. Although natural infection of humans with an avian H3N8 influenza A virus has not yet been reported, this influenza A virus subtype has already crossed the species barrier. Therefore, we have examined the potential of H3N8 from canine, equine, avian, and seal origin to productively infect pigs. Our results demonstrated that avian and seal viruses replicated substantially and caused detectable lesions in inoculated pigs without previous adaptation. Surprisingly, we

  15. Characterization of Si3N4-Al interface after corrosion tests Caracterização da interface Si3N4-Al após testes de corrosão

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    C. dos Santos

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nitride is a covalent ceramic material of high corrosion resistance and mechanical stability at elevated temperatures. Due to these properties, its use in metallurgical processes, such as the casting of alloys, is increasing. Therefore, the characterization of the interface between Si3N4 and the casted metal is of great importance to investigate possible interactions, which might deteriorate the ceramic mould or contaminate the metal. In this work, the use of Si3N4 as crucible material for Al-casting has been studied, by investigating the corrosion attack of liquid Al at a temperature of 1150 ºC during 30 days in air. The interface was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. It has been found that due to superficial oxidation two oxide layers form - SiO2 on Si3N4 and Al2O3 on Al - which effectively hinder further reactions under the conditions studied, confering high corrosion resistance to the Si3N4 crucible.Nitreto de silício (Si3N4 é um material cerâmico covalente de elevada resistência à corrosão e estabilidade mecânica em temperaturas elevadas. Devido a essas propriedades, sua utilização em processos metalúrgicos, tais como em fundição de ligas metálicas, é crescente. Desta forma, a caracterização da interface entre Si3N4 e metais fundidos é de grande interesse para investigar possíveis interações as quais poderão deteriorar o material cerâmico e/ou contaminar o metal. Nesse trabalho o uso de Si3N4 como material base de cadinhos para fundição de alumínio foi estudado, pela investigação do ataque corrosivo de Al líquido a 1150 ºC durante 30 dias, ao ar. A interface foi caracterizada por difração de raios X, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e espectroscopia de energia dispersiva. É encontrado que devido à oxidação superficial dois óxidos se formam - SiO2 no Si3N4 e Al2O3 no Al - os quais evitam possíveis reações sob as condi

  16. DSC法研究MMA/纳米Si3N4体系的聚合过程%STUDY ON POLYMERIZATION PROCESS OF MMA/NANO-SI3N4 BY DSC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小东

    2011-01-01

    Polymerization process of MMA/nano-Si3N4 was studied by DSC. Effects of polymerization temperature, nano-Si3N4 amount and initator concentration of AIBN on polymerization rate were investigated in this article. The results showed that with the polymerization temperature rising,the rate of polymerization increased;the initiatior concentration could effectually improve the polymerization rate; but with the increasing of nano-Si3N4 amount, the polymerization rate was decreased.%利用差示扫描量热仪(DSC)对MMA/纳米Si3N4体系的聚合过程进行研究,着重考察了聚合温度,纳米Si2N4粉体加入量及引发剂AIBN用量对体系聚合速率的影响.结果表明:升高聚合反应温度,增大引发剂用量,均可使体系的凝胶效应提前出现,聚合速率增大;而纳米Si3N4粉体的加入对体系的聚合起到延缓的作用,且随着加入量的增加,聚合速率逐渐降低.

  17. Life course evolution of body size and breast cancer survival in the E3N cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    His, Mathilde; Le Guélennec, Marine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Dossus, Laure

    2018-04-15

    Although adult obesity has been associated with poor breast cancer survival, data on adiposity at different periods in life and its lifelong evolution are scarce. Our aims were to assess the associations between breast cancer survival and body size during childhood, puberty and early adulthood and body size trajectories from childhood to adulthood. Self-assessed body size at age 8, at puberty, at age 20-25 and at age 35-40 and trajectories of body size of 4,662 breast cancer survivors from the prospective E3N cohort were studied in relation to risk of death from any cause, death from breast cancer and second invasive cancer event using multivariate Cox regression models. Four trajectories of body size were identified (T1 "moderate increase," T2 "stable/low increase," T3 "increase at puberty" and T4 "constantly high"). Compared with stable body size, an increase in body size during adult life was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause (HR T1 vs. T2 = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.01-1.60) and an increased risk of second invasive cancer event (HR T1 vs. T2 = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.06-1.47). Silhouettes at various ages were not associated with survival. Our results suggest that the evolution of body size from childhood to adulthood has a long-term influence on breast cancer survival. Although these results need to be confirmed, this work sheds light on the need to combine lifelong approaches to current BMI to better identify breast cancer survivors who are at higher risk of recurrence or second primary cancer, or of death. © 2017 UICC.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of influenza A/H3N2 viruses circulating in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis K Byarugaba

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of complete influenza virus genomes is deepening our understanding of influenza evolutionary dynamics and facilitating the selection of vaccine strains. However, only one complete African influenza virus sequence is available in the public domain. Here we present a complete genome analysis of 59 influenza A/H3N2 viruses isolated from humans in Uganda during the 2008 and 2009 season. Isolates were recovered from hospital-based sentinel surveillance for influenza-like illnesses and their whole genome sequenced. The viruses circulating during these two seasons clearly differed from each other phylogenetically. They showed a slow evolution away from the 2009/10 recommended vaccine strain (A/Brisbane/10/07, instead clustering with the 2010/11 recommended vaccine strain (A/Perth/16/09 in the A/Victoria/208/09 clade, as observed in other global regions. All of the isolates carried the adamantane resistance marker S31N in the M2 gene and carried several markers of enhanced transmission; as expected, none carried any marker of neuraminidase inhibitor resistance. The hemagglutinin gene of the 2009 isolates differed from that of the 2008 isolates in antigenic sites A, B, D, and to a lesser extent, C and E indicating evidence of an early phylogenetic shift from the 2008 to 2009 viruses. The internal genes of the 2009 isolates were similar to those of one 2008 isolate, A/Uganda/MUWRP-050/2008. Another 2008 isolate had a truncated PB1-F2 protein. Whole genome sequencing can enhance surveillance of future seasonal changes in the viral genome which is crucial to ensure that selected vaccine strains are protective against the strains circulating in Eastern Africa. This data provides an important baseline for this surveillance. Overall the influenza virus activity in Uganda appears to mirror that observed in other regions of the southern hemisphere.

  19. Vaccination has minimal impact on the intrahost diversity of H3N2 influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Debbink

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While influenza virus diversity and antigenic drift have been well characterized on a global scale, the factors that influence the virus' rapid evolution within and between human hosts are less clear. Given the modest effectiveness of seasonal vaccination, vaccine-induced antibody responses could serve as a potent selective pressure for novel influenza variants at the individual or community level. We used next generation sequencing of patient-derived viruses from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of vaccine efficacy to characterize the diversity of influenza A virus and to define the impact of vaccine-induced immunity on within-host populations. Importantly, this study design allowed us to isolate the impact of vaccination while still studying natural infection. We used pre-season hemagglutination inhibition and neuraminidase inhibition titers to quantify vaccine-induced immunity directly and to assess its impact on intrahost populations. We identified 166 cases of H3N2 influenza over 3 seasons and 5119 person-years. We obtained whole genome sequence data for 119 samples and used a stringent and empirically validated analysis pipeline to identify intrahost single nucleotide variants at ≥1% frequency. Phylogenetic analysis of consensus hemagglutinin and neuraminidase sequences showed no stratification by pre-season HAI and NAI titer, respectively. In our study population, we found that the vast majority of intrahost single nucleotide variants were rare and that very few were found in more than one individual. Most samples had fewer than 15 single nucleotide variants across the entire genome, and the level of diversity did not significantly vary with day of sampling, vaccination status, or pre-season antibody titer. Contrary to what has been suggested in experimental systems, our data indicate that seasonal influenza vaccination has little impact on intrahost diversity in natural infection and that vaccine-induced immunity may be only a

  20. Enhancing Light-Driven Production of Hydrogen Peroxide by Anchoring Au onto C3N4 Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Chang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Light-driven production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is a green and sustainable way to achieve solar-to-chemical energy conversion. During such a conversion, both the high activity and the stability of catalysts were critical. We prepared an Au-supported C3N4 catalyst—i.e., Au/C3N4-500(N2—by strongly anchoring Au nanoparticles (~5 nm onto a C3N4 matrix—which simultaneously enhanced the activity towards the photosynthesis of H2O2 and the stability when it was reused. The yield of H2O2 reached 1320 μmol L−1 on Au/C3N4-500(N2 after 4 h of light irradiation in an acidic solution (pH 3, which was higher than that (1067 μmol L−1 of the control sample Au/C3N4-500(Air and 2.3 times higher than that of the pristine C3N4. Particularly, the catalyst Au/C3N4-500(N2 retained a much higher stability. The yield of H2O2 had a marginal decrease on the spent catalyst—i.e., 98% yield was kept. In comparison, only 70% yield was obtained from the spent control catalyst. The robust anchoring of Au onto C3N4 improved their interaction, which remarkably decreased the Au leaching when it was used and avoided the aggregation and aging of Au particles. Minimal Au leaching was detected on the spent catalyst. The kinetic analyses indicated that the highest formation rate of H2O2 was achieved on the Au/C3N4-500(N2 catalyst. The decomposition tests and kinetic behaviors of H2O2 were also carried out. These findings suggested that the formation rate of H2O2 could be a determining factor for efficient production of H2O2.

  1. Angular dependence of Si3N4 etch rates and the etch selectivity of SiO2 to Si3N4 at different bias voltages in a high-density C4F8 plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin-Kwan; Lee, Gyeo-Re; Min, Jae-Ho; Moon, Sang Heup

    2007-01-01

    The dependence of Si 3 N 4 etch rates and the etch selectivity of SiO 2 to Si 3 N 4 on ion-incident angles was studied for different bias voltages in a high-density C 4 F 8 plasma. A Faraday cage and specially designed substrate holders were used to accurately control the angles of incident ions on the substrate surface. The normalized etch yield (NEY), defined as the etch yield obtained at a given ion-incident angle normalized to that obtained on a horizontal surface, was unaffected by the bias voltage in Si 3 N 4 etching, but it increased with the bias voltage in SiO 2 etching in the range of -100 to -300 V. The NEY changed showing a maximum with an increase in the ion-incident angle in the etching of both substrates. In the Si 3 N 4 etching, a maximum NEY of 1.7 was obtained at 70 deg. in the above bias voltage range. However, an increase in the NEY at high ion-incident angles was smaller for SiO 2 than for Si 3 N 4 and, consequently, the etch selectivity of SiO 2 to Si 3 N 4 decreased with an increase in the ion-incident angle. The etch selectivity decreased to a smaller extent at high bias voltage because the NEY of SiO 2 had increased. The characteristic changes in the NEY for different substrates could be correlated with the thickness of a steady-state fluorocarbon (CF x ) film formed on the substrates

  2. Comparison of NH4+-N and NO3--N nutrition in hybrid and conventional rice at the late growth stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaoe; Sun Xi

    1990-01-01

    The difference of NH 4 + -N/NO 3 - -N nutrition between hybrid and conventional rice varieties at the late growth stage was studied by using 15 N-tracer technique. The results showed that the nitrate fertilizer utilization efficiency by the hybrid rice after anthesis was 7.8% higher than that by the ordinary rice variety, and the nitrate fertilizer recovery fraction by the former was 13.2% greater than that by the latter. The varietal difference in NO 3 - -N uptake and utilization was almost twice as that in NH 4 + -N. It was also showed that 15 N distribution in ear of the hybrid rice was about 20% greater than that of the conventional variety, but there were no obvious differences between NO 3 - -N and NH 4 + -N. However, 15 N distribution in the lower node leaves and root was found to be significant higher with NO 3 - -N than that with NH 4 + -N in both rice varieties, particularly in the hybrid rice. Compared with NH 4 + -N, NO 3 - -N top-dressing before anthesis was observed to have much greater positive effects on the uptake of calcium and magnesium and the growth of the superficial root and the grain yield of the tested rice varieties, especially of the hybrid rice

  3. Carbon/CuO nanosphere-anchored g-C3N4 nanosheets as ternary electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattikuti, S. V. Prabhakar; Reddy, B. Purusottam; Byon, Chan; Shim, Jaesool

    2018-06-01

    Novel electrode materials for supercapacitors comprised of carbon and copper oxide (CuO) nanospheres on graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets, denoted as C/CuO@g-C3N4 are self-assembled via a one-step co-pyrolysis decomposition method. The pure g-C3N4 and C/CuO@g-C3N4 were confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N2 adsorption/desorption studies and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The specific capacitance was 247.2 F g-1 in 0.5 M NaOH at a current density of 1 A g-1, and more than 92.1% of the capacitance was retained after 6000 cycles. The property enhancement was ascribed to the synergistic effects of the three components in the composite. These results suggest that C/CuO@g-C3N4 possessed an excellent cyclic stability with respect to their capacity performance as electrode materials.

  4. Influence of Si ion implantation on structure and morphology of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varalakshmi, B.; Sreenivasulu, K.V. [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology (SEST), University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Asokan, K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, Near Vasant Kunj, New Delhi 110067 (India); Srikanth, V.V.S.S., E-mail: vvsssse@uohyd.ernet.in [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology (SEST), University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

    2016-07-15

    Effect of Si ion implantation on structural and morphological features of graphite-like carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) was investigated. g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was prepared by using a simple atmospheric thermal decomposition process. The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} pellets were irradiated with a Si ion beam of energy 200 keV with different fluencies. Structural, morphological and elemental, and phase analysis of the implanted samples in comparison with the pristine samples was carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques, respectively. The observations revealed that Si ion implantation results in a negligible change in the crystallite size and alteration of the network-like to the sheet-like morphology of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Si ions in the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} network.

  5. Photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical performance of Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} microcolumn films fabricated using facile reactive sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Der-Hwa [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1 University Road, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Chang, Kao-Shuo, E-mail: kschang@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1 University Road, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Promotion Center for Global Materials Research, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1 University Road, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-21

    This paper presents the photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} microcolumn films. The highlights include (1) overcoming the fundamental barrier of standard reactive sputtering for fabricating microcolumns; (2) preventing unnecessary complexity from complicating facile sputtering; (3) an alternative but effective approach for fabricating Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} without using caustic NH{sub 3} gases; (4) investigating morphology tuning for favorable photocatalysis and PEC reactions; and (5) elucidating the relationships of the structures, morphologies, and properties of Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} microcolumns. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selective-area electron diffraction verified the polycrystallinity of Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} microcolumns, of which the elemental compositions and stoichiometry were measured using electron-probe energy dispersive spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The corresponding band gap was determined to be approximately 2.1 eV. The sample exhibited a superior photodegradation capability; the photodegradation rate constant k was determined to be approximately 1.4 times higher than that of P25 under UV irradiation. A photocatalytic and PEC cycling test indicated the photodegradation reusability and photostability of the Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} microcolumns. The incident photon-to-current efficiency performance reached 6%, suggesting that these microcolumns hold potential for application in PEC devices.

  6. Coating of Si3N4 fine particles with AlN by fluidized bed-CVD; Ryudoso CVD ho ni yoru Si3N4 biryushi no AlN hifuku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, S.; Oyama, Y. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan); Harima, K.; Kondo, K.; Shinohara, K. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-03-10

    Agglomerates of 100-250 {mu}m consisting of Si3N4 primary particles of 0.76 {mu}m were made with a rotary vibrating sieve. Si3N4 fine particles were coated with AlN by gas phase reaction with AlCl3 and NH3 in some fluidized beds of the agglomerates. The cross sectional distribution of AlN in the agglomerate was measured by EPMA analysis. As a result, uniform deposition of AlN was obtained at a relatively low reaction temperature and low gas velocity. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Efecto de la microestructura en el comportamiento tribológico de materiales monolíticos de Si3N4 y de compuestos Si3N4–SiC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva, R. F.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The tribological behaviour of various Si3N4 based materials, including Si3N4/SiC composites, has been analysed from room temperature up to 700ºC, and for sliding speeds between 0.5 and 2 m/s. Materials have been prepared by hot pressing at 1750ºC in nitrogen atmosphere, varying α-Si3N4 phase content, microstructure coarseness and shape and size of the SiC particles. Wear tests were performed in self-mated pairs using a pin on disc tribometer, without lubrication and at a fixed load of 5 N. Pin and disc worn surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS. Debris generated during tests was analysed by SEM-EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Results showed friction, f, and wear coefficients, K, above 0.3 y 10-6 mm3N-1m-1, respectively. Wear mechanism depended on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the materials.Se ha analizado el comportamiento tribológico de materiales de Si3N4 y de compuestos Si3N4/SiC, desde temperatura ambiente hasta 700ºC y en el rango de velocidades 0.5-2 m/s. Los materiales se han preparado mediante prensado en caliente a 1750ºC en atmósfera de nitrógeno, variando el contenido en fase α-Si3N4, el tamaño medio de grano, y la morfología de las partículas de SiC adicionadas. Los ensayos se han realizado en pares homólogos utilizando un tribómetro del tipo punta sobre disco, sin lubricación y a una carga constante de 5 N. Las superficies de desgaste de las puntas y los discos se observaron en un microscopio electrónico de barrido con capacidad analítica (MEB-EDX. Los residuos generados durante los ensayos se analizaron mediante MEB-EDX y difracción de rayos X (DRX. Los resultados obtenidos en los ensayos daban valores de coeficiente de fricción, f, y de desgaste, K, superiores a 0.3 y 10-6 mm3N-1m-1, respectivamente. El mecanismo de desgaste predominante dependía de la microestructura y de las propiedades mecánicas del material ensayado.

  8. Fluorocarbon based atomic layer etching of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and etching selectivity of SiO{sub 2} over Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chen [Department of Physics, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Metzler, Dominik; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S., E-mail: oehrlein@umd.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Lai, Chiukin Steven; Hudson, Eric A. [Lam Research Corporation, 4400 Cushing Parkway, Fremont, California 94538 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Angstrom-level plasma etching precision is required for semiconductor manufacturing of sub-10 nm critical dimension features. Atomic layer etching (ALE), achieved by a series of self-limited cycles, can precisely control etching depths by limiting the amount of chemical reactant available at the surface. Recently, SiO{sub 2} ALE has been achieved by deposition of a thin (several Angstroms) reactive fluorocarbon (FC) layer on the material surface using controlled FC precursor flow and subsequent low energy Ar{sup +} ion bombardment in a cyclic fashion. Low energy ion bombardment is used to remove the FC layer along with a limited amount of SiO{sub 2} from the surface. In the present article, the authors describe controlled etching of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and SiO{sub 2} layers of one to several Angstroms using this cyclic ALE approach. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} etching and etching selectivity of SiO{sub 2} over Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} were studied and evaluated with regard to the dependence on maximum ion energy, etching step length (ESL), FC surface coverage, and precursor selection. Surface chemistries of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} were investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) after vacuum transfer at each stage of the ALE process. Since Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} has a lower physical sputtering energy threshold than SiO{sub 2}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} physical sputtering can take place after removal of chemical etchant at the end of each cycle for relatively high ion energies. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} to SiO{sub 2} ALE etching selectivity was observed for these FC depleted conditions. By optimization of the ALE process parameters, e.g., low ion energies, short ESLs, and/or high FC film deposition per cycle, highly selective SiO{sub 2} to Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} etching can be achieved for FC accumulation conditions, where FC can be selectively accumulated on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} surfaces. This highly selective etching is explained by a lower carbon consumption of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} as compared to Si

  9. Magnetic Fe@g??C3N4: A Photoactive Catalyst for the Hydrogenation of Alkenes and Alkynes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A photoactive catalyst, Fe@g-C3N4, has been developed for the hydrogenation of alkenes and alkynes using hydrazine hydrate as a source of hydrogen. The magnetically separable Fe@g-C3N4 eliminates the use of high pressure hydrogenation, and the reaction can be accomplished using visible light without the need for external sources of energy.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Baig, N., S. Verma, R. Varma , and M. Nadagouda. Magnetic Fe@g-C3N4: A Photoactive Catalyst for the Hydrogenation of Alkenes and Alkynes. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA, 4(3): 1661-1664, (2016).

  10. Improved solar light stimulated charge separation of g-C3N4 through self-altering acidic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Kah Hon; Lim, Ping Feng; Sim, Lan Ching; Punia, Varun; Pichiah, Saravanan

    2018-02-01

    Herein, we report the use of acid treatment to treat g-C3N4 nanostructured by a direct and facile synthesis route. The adopted treatment enhanced photoactivity of g-C3N4 and reflected in the removal of recalcitrant organic pollutant, Bisphenol A under direct sunlight. A complete removal of Bisphenol A was attained in a short duration (225 min) as compared to pure g-C3N4. The analysis clearly substantiated the robustness of acid exfoliation that promoted a blue shift, extended the conjugated length of its respective conduction and valance band. It also drastically prolonged the recombination rate of charge carriers, by producing excess of unpaired electrons in the conduction band for active radicals' generation. Thus, this new findings could offer a new sight of self-alteration in improving the photoactivity of complex organic pollutants for sustainable environmental remediation.

  11. Advanced LiTi2(PO4)3@N-doped carbon anode for aqueous lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Zhangxing; Jiang, Yingqiao; Meng, Wei; Zhu, Jing; Liu, Yang; Dai, Lei; Wang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @N-doped carbon anode was prepared by in-situ coating approach for aqueous lithium ion batteries. • The well-proportioned N-doped carbon layer and loose nanoporous structure was obtained using urea as nitrogen source and pore former. • LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @N-doped carbon demonstrates excellent rate performance and good cycling stability. - Abstract: In this paper, LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @N-doped carbon anode has been synthesized by in situ carbon coating approach. The well-proportioned N-doped carbon layer and loose nanoporous structure was obtained by using urea as nitrogen source and pore former. LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @N-doped carbon as anode demonstrates much better rate capability than LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @carbon in ALIBs. The optimized anode delivers the discharge capacity of 93.7 mAh g −1 and 74.2 mAh g −1 at rates of 10C and 20C, 22.5 mAh g −1 and 50.0 mAh g −1 larger than that of LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @carbon. Moreover, LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @N-doped carbon exhibits excellent cycling performance with capacity retention of 84.3% at 5C after 1000 cycles. As verified, the well-proportioned N-doped carbon layer could reduce charge transfer resistance and improve electrical conductivity. The loose nanoporous structure could shorten pathway and facilitate diffusion for Li ion. Therefore, LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 @N-doped carbon gets the superior electrochemical properties benefiting from those two characteristics.

  12. Effect of low-pathogenicity influenza virus H3N8 infection on Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipkovits, Laszlo; Egyed, Laszlo; Palfi, Vilmos; Beres, Andrea; Pitlik, Ervin; Somogyi, Maria; Szathmary, Susan; Denes, Bela

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma infection is still very common in chicken and turkey flocks. Several low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses are circulating in wild birds that can be easily transmitted to poultry flocks. However, the effect of LPAI on mycoplasma infection is not well understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the infection of LPAI virus H3N8 (A/mallard/Hungary/19616/07) in chickens challenged with Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Two groups of chickens were aerosol challenged with M. gallisepticum. Later one of these groups and one mycoplasma-free group were aerosol challenged with the LPAI H3N8 virus. The birds were observed for clinical signs for 8 days, then euthanized, and examined for the presence of M. gallisepticum in the trachea, lung, air sac, liver, spleen, kidney and heart, and for developing anti-mycoplasma and anti-viral antibodies. The LPAI H3N8 virus did not cause any clinical signs but M. gallisepticum infection caused clinical signs, reduction of body weight gain and colonization of the inner organs. These parameters were more severe in the birds co-infected with M. gallisepticum and LPAI H3N8 virus than in the group challenged with M. gallisepticum alone. In addition, in the birds infected with both M. gallisepticum and LPAI H3N8 virus, the anti-mycoplasma antibody response was reduced significantly when compared with the group challenged with M. gallisepticum alone. Co-infection with LPAI H3N8 virus thus enhanced pathogenesis of M. gallisepticum infection significantly.

  13. Enhanced photocatalytic property of BiFeO_3/N-doped graphene composites and mechanism insight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Pai; Li, Lei; Xu, Maji; Chen, Qiang; He, Yunbin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A hydrothermal process was used to prepare BiFeO_3/N-doped graphene composites. • BiFeO_3/N-doped graphene exhibits superior photocatalytic activity and stability. • The energy band of BiFeO_3 bends downward by ∼1.0 eV at the composite interface. • Downward band bending leads to rapid electron transfer at the composite interface. • Holes and ·OH are predominant active species in the photo-degradation process. - Abstract: A series of BiFeO_3/(N-doped) graphene composites are prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. BiFeO_3/N-doped graphene shows photocatalytic performance superior to that of BiFeO_3/graphene and pristine BiFeO_3. The enhanced photo-degradation performance of BiFeO_3/N-doped graphene are mainly attributable to the improved light absorbance of the composite, abundant active adsorption sites and high electrical charge mobility of N-doped graphene, and the downward band bending of BiFeO_3 at the composite interface. In particular, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses reveal that the electron energy band of BiFeO_3 is downward bent by 1.0 eV at the interface of BiFeO_3/N-doped graphene, because of different work functions of both materials. This downward band bending facilitates the transfer of photogenerated electrons from BiFeO_3 to N-doped graphene and prompts the separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs, leading eventually to the enhanced photocatalytic performance.

  14. Identification of candidates for postmastectomy radiotherapy in patients with pT3N0M0 breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Yasushi; Ohsumi, Shozo; Aogi, Kenjiro; Takashima, Shigemitsu; Shinohara, Shuichi; Nakajima, Naomi; Kataoka, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    There is still controversy concerning the indication of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) for pT3N0M0 breast cancer. To identify the candidates for PMRT in this subset, we investigated failure patterns, and searched for risk factors for isolated locoregional failure in pT3N0M0 breast cancer after mastectomy without PMRT. Among 1,176 patients who received mastectomy without PMRT for untreated unilateral breast cancer between 1990 and 2002, 64 patients (5%) had pT3N0M0 breast cancer (age 30-81 years; median 52.5 years). Isolated locoregional failure as the initial failure occurred in three patients. For all 64 patients, the 8-year failure-free survival rate, the isolated locoregional failure-free rate, and the distant failure-free rate were 76, 93, and 82%, respectively. Incidence of isolated locoregional failure as the initial failure was 18% (2/11) for patients 40 years or younger and 2% (1/53) for patients older than 40 years. The 8-year isolated locoregional failure-free rates were 73% for patients 40 years or younger and 98% for patients older than 40 years (p=0.0135). Concerning pT3N0M0 breast cancer, incidence of isolated locoregional failure was comparatively low after mastectomy without PMRT. Routine use of PMRT for all pT3N0M0 patients seemed to be unacceptable. PMRT may be useful for younger patients because of the comparatively high incidence of isolated locoregional failure. Because of the small number of cases in our series, further studies are necessary to determine the usefulness of PMRT for younger patients with pT3N0M0 breast cancer. (author)

  15. Improvement of photoluminescence from Ge layer with patterned Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} stressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Katsuya, E-mail: Katsuya.Oda.cb@hitachi.com; Okumura, Tadashi; Tani, Kazuki; Saito, Shin-ichi; Ido, Tatemi

    2014-04-30

    Lattice strain applied by patterned Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} stressors in order to improve the optical properties of Ge layers directly grown on a Si substrate was investigated. Patterned Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} stressors were fabricated by various methods and their effects on the strain and photoluminescence were studied. Although we found that when the stressor was fabricated by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD), the Ge waveguide was tensilely and compressively strained in the edge and center positions, respectively, and photoluminescence (PL) could be improved by decreasing the width of the waveguide, the crystallinity of the Ge waveguide was degraded by the thermal impact of the deposition process. Low-temperature methods were therefore used to make the patterned stressors. The tensile strain of the Ge layer increased from 0.14% to 0.2% when the stressor was grown by plasma enhanced CVD at 350 °C, but the effects of the increased tensile strain could not be confirmed because the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} layer was unstable when irradiated with the excitation light used in photoluminescence measurements. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} stressors grown by inductively coupled plasma CVD at room temperature increased the tensile strain of the Ge layer up to 0.4%, thus red-shifting the PL peak and obviously increasing the PL intensity. These results indicate that the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} stressors fabricated by the room-temperature process efficiently improve the performance of Ge light-emitting devices. - Highlights: • Ge layers were directly grown on a Si substrate by low-temperature epitaxial growth. • Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} stressors were fabricated on the Ge layers by various methods. • Tensile strain of the Ge layers was improved by the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} stressors. • Photoluminescence (PL) intensity was increased with the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} stressors. • Red-shift of the PL spectra was observed from the tensile strained Ge layers.

  16. Natural co-infection of influenza A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm09 viruses resulting in a reassortant A/H3N2 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rith, Sareth; Chin, Savuth; Sar, Borann; Y, Phalla; Horm, Srey Viseth; Ly, Sovann; Buchy, Philippe; Dussart, Philippe; Horwood, Paul F

    2015-12-01

    Despite annual co-circulation of different subtypes of seasonal influenza, co-infections between different viruses are rarely detected. These co-infections can result in the emergence of reassortant progeny. We document the detection of an influenza co-infection, between influenza A/H3N2 with A/H1N1pdm09 viruses, which occurred in a 3 year old male in Cambodia during April 2014. Both viruses were detected in the patient at relatively high viral loads (as determined by real-time RT-PCR CT values), which is unusual for influenza co-infections. As reassortment can occur between co-infected influenza A strains we isolated plaque purified clonal viral populations from the clinical material of the patient infected with A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm09. Complete genome sequences were completed for 7 clonal viruses to determine if any reassorted viruses were generated during the influenza virus co-infection. Although most of the viral sequences were consistent with wild-type A/H3N2 or A/H1N1pdm09, one reassortant A/H3N2 virus was isolated which contained an A/H1N1pdm09 NS1 gene fragment. The reassortant virus was viable and able to infect cells, as judged by successful passage in MDCK cells, achieving a TCID50 of 10(4)/ml at passage number two. There is no evidence that the reassortant virus was transmitted further. The co-infection occurred during a period when co-circulation of A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm09 was detected in Cambodia. It is unclear how often influenza co-infections occur, but laboratories should consider influenza co-infections during routine surveillance activities. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. High-capacity hydrogen storage in Li-adsorbed g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jianfeng; Huang, Chengxi; Wu, Haiping, E-mail: mrhpwu@njust.edu.cn; Kan, Erjun, E-mail: ekan@njust.edu.cn

    2016-09-01

    Since hydrogen is a kind of potential source of efficient and pollution-free energy, it has attracted great research interests in recent years. However, the lack of safe and efficient hydrogen storage materials has blocked the rapid development of hydrogen energy. Here, we explored the possibility of Li-decorated g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} as a kind of potential hydrogen storage materials based on first-principles calculations. Our results demonstrated that the adsorption energy of Li atoms on g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} is much larger than the cohesive energy of bulk Li. Importantly, we find that the binding energy of each H{sub 2} molecule is about 0.29 eV, which is quite suitable for hydrogen storage. Furthermore, the estimated hydrogen storage capacity is around 9.2 wt %, which beyonds the goal of DOE. Thus, we predicted that Li-decorated g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} may act as the potential hydrogen storage materials. - Highlights: • We explored the possibility of Li-decorated g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} as a kind of potential hydrogen storage material. • We demonstrated the binding energy of each H{sub 2} molecule is 0.29 eV, which is quite suitable for hydrogen storage materials. • The hydrogen storage capacity is estimated around 9.2 wt %.

  18. Generalization of first-principles thermodynamic model: Application to hexagonal close-packed ε-Fe3N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakkedal, Morten B.; Shang, Shu- Li; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2016-01-01

    A complete first-principles thermodynamic model was developed and applied to hexagonal close-packed structure ε-Fe3N. The electronic structure was calculated using density functional theory and the quasiharmonic phonon approximation to determine macroscopic thermodynamic properties at finite...

  19. Surface texturing of Si3N4–SiC ceramic tool components by pulsed laser machining

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tshabalala, LC

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional abrasive techniques such as grinding and lapping have long been used in the surface conditioning of engineering materials. However, in the processing of hard and brittle materials like silicon nitride (Si(sub3)N(sub4)), machining...

  20. Light coupling and distribution for Si3N4/SiO2 integrated multichannel single-mode sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaźmierczak, Andrzej; Dortu, Fabian; Schrevens, Olivier; Giannone, Domenico; Bouville, David; Cassan, Eric; Gylfason, Kristinn B.; Sohlström, Hans; Sanchez, Benito; Griol, Amadeu; Hill, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We present an efficient and highly alignment-tolerant light coupling and distribution system for a multichannel Si3N4/SiO2 single-mode photonics sensing chip. The design of the input and output couplers and the distribution splitters is discussed. Examples of multichannel data obtained with the system are given.

  1. Syntheses of 18F-labeled reduced haloperidol and 11C-labeled reduced 3-N-methylspiperone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravert, H.T.; Dannals, R.F.; Wilson, A.A.; Wong, D.F.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    18 F-Labeled reduced haloperidol and 11 C-labeled reduced 3-N-methylspiperone were synthesized in a convenient and quantitative one step reduction from 18 F-labeled haloperidol and 11 C-labeled N-methylspiperone, respectively. Both products were purified by semipreparative HPLC and were obtained at high specific activity and radiochemical purity. (author)

  2. Syntheses of sup 18 F-labeled reduced haloperidol and sup 11 C-labeled reduced 3-N-methylspiperone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravert, H T; Dannals, R F; Wilson, A A; Wong, D F; Wagner, Jr, H N [Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (USA)

    1991-03-01

    {sup 18}F-Labeled reduced haloperidol and {sup 11}C-labeled reduced 3-N-methylspiperone were synthesized in a convenient and quantitative one step reduction from {sup 18}F-labeled haloperidol and {sup 11}C-labeled N-methylspiperone, respectively. Both products were purified by semipreparative HPLC and were obtained at high specific activity and radiochemical purity. (author).

  3. Evolution of canine and equine influenza (H3N8) viruses co-circulating between 2005 and 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivailler, Pierre; Perry, Ijeoma A.; Jang Yunho; Davis, C. Todd; Chen Limei; Dubovi, Edward J.; Donis, Ruben O.

    2010-01-01

    Influenza virus, subtype H3N8, was transmitted from horses to greyhound dogs in 2004 and subsequently spread to pet dog populations. The co-circulation of H3N8 viruses in dogs and horses makes bi-directional virus transmission between these animal species possible. To understand the dynamics of viral transmission, we performed virologic surveillance in dogs and horses between 2005 and 2008 in the United States. The genomes of influenza A H3N8 viruses isolated from 36 dogs and horses were sequenced to determine their origin and evolution. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that H3N8 influenza viruses from horses and dogs were monophyletic and distinct. There was no evidence of canine influenza virus infection in horses with respiratory disease or new introductions of equine influenza viruses into dogs in the United States. Analysis of a limited number of equine influenza viruses suggested substantial separation in the transmission of viruses causing clinically apparent influenza in dogs and horses.

  4. Mechanical response of cross-ply Si3N4/BN fibrous monoliths under uniaxial and biaxial loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Cruse, T. A.; Hermanson, D. J.; Goretta, K. C.; Zok, F. W.; McNulty, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    Mechanical properties of hot-pressed Si 3 N 4 /BN fibrous monoliths (FMs) were evaluated under ambient conditions in four-point and biaxial flexure modes. Effects of cell orientation, 0degree/90degree and ±45degree, on elastic modulus and fracture strength of the FMs were investigated. Fracture surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy

  5. CDC Recommendations to Reduce the Risk of H3N2v Flu Virus Infection for Fairgoers and Swine Exhibitors

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-10

    In this podcast, Dr. Lyn Finelli discusses CDC’s recommendations for reducing the risk of infection with H3N2v flu viruses for fairgoers and swine exhibitors.  Created: 9/10/2012 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/10/2012.

  6. Modified Wagner model for the active-to-passive transition in the oxidation of Si3N4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junjie; Zhang Litong; Zeng Qingfeng; Cheng Laifei; Xu Yongdong

    2008-01-01

    Si 3 N 4 is used as the coating material of space shuttle structures which receive very high thermal fluxes during the atmospheric re-entry phase. Two main regimes govern the oxidation of Si 3 N 4 : the passive oxidation, with the formation of a protective silica layer leading generally to a mass gain, and the active oxidation, with vaporization of SiO leading to a mass loss of the sample. To ensure that silicon nitride will efficiently protect a material in given oxidizing environments, its own oxidation behaviour must be previously known. Therefore, the active-to-passive transition of Si 3 N 4 oxidation is a problem of deep scientific importance and of wide technological relevance. In this paper, a modified Wager model for the active-to-passive transition in the oxidation of Si 3 N 4 is presented, which includes the non-equilibrium effects caused by the mass transfer. The present theoretical calculations satisfactorily explained the reported experimental and theoretical data. The influence of flow rate on the active-to-passive transition boundary has been explained using our model. The rate controlling mechanism of the oxidation at the active-to-passive transition point is proposed

  7. Surface texturing of Si3N4–SiC ceramic tool components by pulsed laser machining

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tshabalala, LC

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available texturing of Si(sub3)N(sub4)–SiC composites in the fabrication of machining tool inserts for various tribological applications. The samples were machined at varied laser energy (0.1–0.6 mJ) and lateral pulse overlap (50–88%) in order to generate a sequence...

  8. Formation and control of zinc nitride in a molten LiCl-KCl-Li{sub 3}N system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Takuya; Toyoura, Kazuaki; Tsujimura, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yasuhiko

    2004-08-25

    We investigated a possibility of electrochemical formation and control of zinc nitride in a molten LiCl-KCl-Li{sub 3}N system at 673 K. Zinc nitride films were obtained by means of potentiostatic electrolysis of zinc electrodes in the melt. From XRD analysis, it was confirmed that obtained films consisted of Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} and LiZnN and that the composition of each film was effected by the applied potential value. In the potential range from 0.75 to 1.6 V (versus Li{sup +}/Li), the ratio of Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} increased as the applied potential was more positive. Based on the result, we achieved the formation of Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} film (3-5 {mu}m) in anti-scandium oxide structure (a = 0.977 nm) by means of potentiostatic electrolysis at 1.6 V for 3 h.

  9. Corrosion resistant coatings for SiC and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Thierry; Shaokai Yang; J.J. Brown

    1998-09-01

    It is the goal of this program to (1) develop coatings for SiC and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} that will enhance their performance as heat exchangers under coal combustion conditions and (2) to conduct an in-depth evaluation of the cause and severity of ceramic heat exchanger deterioration and failure under coal combustion conditions.

  10. Integrated mechano-optical hydrogen gas sensor using cantilever bending readout with a Si3N4 grated waveguide.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Van So, P.V.S.; Dijkstra, Mindert; van Wolferen, Hendricus A.G.M.; Pollnau, Markus; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Hoekstra, Hugo

    We demonstrate a proof of concept of a novel and compact integrated mechano-optical sensor for H2 detection based on a microcantilever suspended above a Si3N4 grated waveguide. The fabricated devices are mechanically and optically modeled and characterized. Sensing operation of the sensor is

  11. Magnetism and unconventional superconductivity in CenMmIn3n+2m heavy-fermion crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.D.; Nicklas, M.; Bianchi, A.; Movshovich, R.; Llobet, A.; Bao, W.; Malinowski, A.; Hundley, M.F.; Moreno, N.O.; Pagliuso, P.G.; Sarrao, J.L.; Nakatsuji, S.; Fisk, Z.; Borth, R.; Lengyel, E.; Oeschler, N.; Sparn, G.; Steglich, F.

    2003-01-01

    We review magnetic, superconducting and non-Fermi-liquid properties of the structurally layered heavy-fermion compounds Ce n M m In 3n+2m (M=Co,Rh,Ir). These properties suggest d-wave superconductivity and proximity to an antiferromagetic quantum-critical point

  12. Direct, rapid and convenient synthesis of esters and thioesters using PPh{sub 3}/N-chlorobenzotriazole system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouhi-Saadabad, Hamed; Akhlaghinia, Batool, E-mail: akhlaghinia@um.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    We have developed an efficient method for esterification and thioesterification of various carboxylic acids with different alcohols and thiols using PPh{sub 3}/N-chlorobenzotriazole mixed reagent in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} at room temperature. (author)

  13. H1N1, H3N2 et B à Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    English Title: Comparative analysis of the epidemiological and clinical profiles of influenza infection due to 2009 pH1N1, H1N1, H3N2 and B viruses in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. English Abstract. Influenza can have various epidemiological and clinical characteristics. This study compares the epidemio-clinical profiles of ...

  14. Trends in (LaMnO3)n/(SrTiO3)m superlattices with varying layer thicknesses

    KAUST Repository

    Jilili, J.; Cossu, Fabrizio; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the thickness dependence of the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of (LaMnO3)n/(SrTiO3)m (n, m = 2, 4, 6, 8) superlattices using density functional theory. The electronic structure turns out to be highly sensitive

  15. Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 into hydrocarbon solar fuels over g-C3N4-Pt nanocomposite photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiaguo; Wang, Ke; Xiao, Wei; Cheng, Bei

    2014-06-21

    Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 into renewable hydrocarbon fuels is an alternative way to develop reproducible energy, which is also a promising way to solve the problem of the greenhouse effect. In this work, graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was synthesized by directly heating thiourea at 550 °C and then a certain amount of Pt was deposited on it to form g-C3N4-Pt nanocomposites used as catalysts for photocatalytic reduction of CO2 under simulated solar irradiation. The main products of photocatalysis were CH4, CH3OH and HCHO. The deposited Pt acted as an effective cocatalyst, which not only influenced the selectivity of the product generation, but also affected the activity of the reaction. The yield of CH4 first increased upon increasing the amount of Pt deposited on the g-C3N4 from 0 to 1 wt%, then decreased at 2 wt% Pt loading. The production rates of CH3OH and HCHO also increased with the content of Pt increasing from 0 to 0.75 wt% and the maximum yield was observed at 0.75 wt%. The Pt nanoparticles (NPs) could facilitate the transfer and enrichment of photogenerated electrons from g-C3N4 to its surface for photocatalytic reduction of CO2. At the same time, Pt was also used a catalyst to promote the oxidation of products. The transient photocurrent response further confirmed the proposed photocatalytic reduction mechanism of CO2. This work indicates that the deposition of Pt is a good strategy to improve the photoactivity and selectivity of g-C3N4 for CO2 reduction.

  16. Fabrication of conductive and high-dispersed Ppy@Ag/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite photocatalysts for removing various pollutants in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zhi; Tang, Xu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University (China); Ma, Changchang [School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University (China); Song, Minshan [School of Mathematics and Physics, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology (China); Gao, Nailing; Wang, Youshan; Huo, Pengwei [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University (China); Lu, Ziyang, E-mail: mrzhuzhi007@163.com [School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University (China); Yan, Yongsheng, E-mail: gchxz206@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • The high-dispersed Ag modified g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (Ag/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) was successfully synthesized in situ deposited on the surface of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} during calcined melamine. • The as-prepared Ppy@Ag/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} could remove of various organic pollutants in water. • The enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ppy@Ag/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} comes from π conjugated electronic structures of Ppy and Ag species as the electron transfer mediator between Ppy and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • The Ppy@Ag/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} sample also showed a relatively good recycling stability. - Abstract: The ternary conductive Ppy@Ag/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite photocatalysts was successfully synthesized by polymerization process and surface polymerization technique. And the as-prepared Ppy@Ag/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} sample exhibited the higher photocatalytic activity for various pollutant (MO, DM, TC, CIP, GFLX and EH) remove than that of pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Ag/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} under visible light irradiation. It mainly originated from the Ag nanoparticles anchored between g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Ppy acted as electron transfer mediator that facilitated the charge carrier separation and then expending the lifetime of the carriers. Meanwhile, the obtained Ppy@Ag/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} sample also showed a relatively good recycling stability which was the crucial factor for photocatalyst practical application. This work provided a new facile strategy for improving photo-degradation activity of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalyst.

  17. Microstructure evolution of the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} joints brazed using Au-Ni-V filler alloys with different V content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang, J., E-mail: hitzhangjie@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang, H.W.; Fan, G.H.; He, Y.M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2011-08-18

    Highlights: > Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic was brazed using Au-Ni-V filler alloy with different V content. > The microstructure evolution of the joint was study in detail in the paper. > The polygonal Ni{sub 2}SiV{sub 3} and Ni{sub 3}V phase in the joint were investigated by TEM. > The formation of different compounds and alloys in joint was detailed discussed. - Abstract: Au-Ni-V filler alloys with different vanadium contents were designed to braze Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic at 1373 K for 30 min, and the microstructures of brazing seams were investigated by SEM and TEM. When the Au-Ni-V filler alloy contains 5 at.% V, round-like Ni[Si, V, Au] precipitates form in the Au[Ni] solid solution matrix and a VN reaction layer with 0.5 {mu}m thickness appears on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} interface. When the V content increases to 10 at.%, a new polygonal Ni{sub 2}SiV{sub 3} phase occurs in the seam, and the Ni[Si, V, Au] precipitate coarsens and VN layer thickens. With increase of V contents to 15 and 20 at.%, laminar Ni[Au] and polygonal Ni{sub 3}V precipitates form. With 25 at.% V content in the filler alloy, the Ni{sub 2}SiV{sub 3} and Ni{sub 3}V precipitates distribute homogenously in the brazing seam. These microstructure evolutions were attributed to the reaction between Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and vanadium, which forms VN reaction layer and releases Si into the molten alloy.

  18. In situ loading of Ag_2WO_4 on ultrathin g-C_3N_4 nanosheets with highly enhanced photocatalytic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yunfeng; Jin, Renxi; Fang, Xu; Yang, Yang; Yang, Man; Liu, Xianchun; Xing, Yan; Song, Shuyan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ultrathin g-C_3N_4 nanosheets (g-C_3N_4−NS) with improved electron transport ability and large number of active sites are employed instead of bulk g-C_3N_4 to prepare the Ag_2WO_4/g-C_3N_4−NS heterostructured photocatalysts, which exhibit remarkable photocatalytic activity for wastewater treatment. - Highlights: • Ag2WO4/g-C3N4-NS photocatalysts were obtained by a deposition-precipitation method. • Ag2WO4/g-C3N4-NS possess large surface areas and increased lifetime of charges. • Ag2WO4/g-C3N4-NS exhibit enhanced activity on degradation of RhB and MO. • The photocatalytic mechanism of the Ag2WO4/g-C3N4-NS system were investigated. - Abstract: The g-C_3N_4 nanosheets (g-C_3N_4−NS) exhibit more excellent property than common bulk g-C_3N_4 (g-C_3N_4-B) due to their large surface areas, improved electron transport ability and well dispersion in water. In this work, ultrathin g-C_3N_4−NS with a thickness of about 2.7 nm have been synthesized by a simple thermal exfoliation of bulk g-C_3N_4, and then Ag_2WO_4 nanoparticles are in situ loaded on their surface to construct the Ag_2WO_4/g-C_3N_4−NS heterostructured photocatalysts. Due to their unique physicochemical properties, the as-prepared heterostructures possess a fast interfacial charge transfer and increased lifetime of photo-excited charge carriers, and exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity. Under visible light irradiation, the optimum photocatalytic activity of Ag_2WO_4/g-C_3N_4−NS composites is almost 53.6 and 26.5 times higher than that of pure g-C_3N_4-B and Ag_2WO_4/g-C_3N_4-B heterostructures towards the degradation of rhodamine B, respectively, and is almost 30.6 and 9.8 times higher towards the degradation of methyl orange, respectively. In addition, the natural sunlight photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared samples are also investigated.

  19. Facile in situ hydrothermal synthesis of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SnS{sub 2} composites with excellent visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Fang; Zhao, Lina; Pei, Xule [Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Persistent Pollutants Control and Resources Recycle, Nanchang 330063 (China); College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Luo, Xubiao, E-mail: luoxubiao@126.com [Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Persistent Pollutants Control and Resources Recycle, Nanchang 330063 (China); College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Luo, Shenglian, E-mail: sllou@hnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Persistent Pollutants Control and Resources Recycle, Nanchang 330063 (China); College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)

    2017-03-01

    The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SnS{sub 2} composites were prepared by in situ hydrothermal method, and the effect of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} content on the physical and chemical properties, and photocatalytic performance of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SnS{sub 2} composites was investigated. The introduction of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} enhanced the visible-light absorption of SnS{sub 2}, and reduced the recombination rate of electron-hole pairs. The photocatalytic performance of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SnS{sub 2} composites was also obviously influenced by g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} content, and it was found that 15% g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SnS{sub 2} composite exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity and excellent regeneration, which was attributed to the most efficient charge separation, the largest specific surface area and the formation of dominant active species (h{sup +} and ·O{sub 2}{sup −} radicals) during the photocatalytic process. - Graphical abstract: Photocatalytic mechanism of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SnS{sub 2} composites. - Highlights: • g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SnS{sub 2} composites were fabricated by a in situ hydrothermal process. • g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} content was optimized, and the optimal g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} content is 15%. • 15% g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SnS{sub 2} shows the highest visible-light photocatalytic activity. • g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SnS{sub 2} composites exhibit excellent reusability.

  20. Welding procedure specification for arc welding of St 52-3N steel plates with covered electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetkovski, S.; Slavkov, D.; Magdeski, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the results of approval welding technology for arc welding of plates made of St 52-3N steel are presented. Metal arc welding with covered electrode is used welding process. Test specimens are butt welded in different welding positions P A , P F , P C and P D . Before start welding preliminary welding procedure was prepared. After welding of test specimens non destructive and destructive testing was performed. Obtained results were compared with standard DIN 17100 which concerns to chemical composition and mechanical properties of base material. It was confirmed that in all cases mechanical properties of welded joint are higher than those of base material, so preliminary welding procedure (pWTS) can be accepted as welding procedure specification WPS for metal arc welding of St52-3N steel. (Original)

  1. Micro/nanoscale mechanical characterization and in situ observation of cracking of laminated Si3N4/BN composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaodong; Zou Linhua; Ni Hai; Reynolds, Anthony P.; Wang Changan; Huang Yong

    2008-01-01

    Micro/nanoscale mechanical characterization of laminated Si 3 N 4 /BN composites was carried out by nanoindentation techniques. A custom-designed micro mechanical tester was integrated with an optical microscope and an atomic force microscope to perform in situ three-point bending tests on notched Si 3 N 4 /BN composite bend specimens where the crack initiation and propagation were imaged simultaneously with the optical microscope and atomic force microscope during bending loading. The whole fracture process was in situ captured. It was found that crack deflection was initiated/induced by the pre-existing microvoids and microcracks in BN interfacial layers. New fracture mechanisms were proposed to provide guidelines for the design of biomimetic nacre-like composites

  2. Photocatalysis and self-cleaning from g-C3N4 coated cotton fabrics under sunlight irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yunde; Zhou, Ji; Zhang, Jin; Lou, Yaqin; Huang, Zhenwu; Ye, Yong; Jia, Li; Tang, Bin

    2018-05-01

    Graphite-like carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets have been facilely assembled via electrostatic interaction onto cotton fabrics for achieving multi-functionalities. The surface morphologies, chemical composition and optical features of the g-C3N4-coated fabrics were characterized. The treated cotton fabrics exhibited remarkable photocatalytic degradation activity and superior self-cleaning performance. A complete degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and removal of stains were accomplished under simulated sunlight irradiation. More importantly, the modified fabrics can be reused in catalysis reactions with great durability. The practical treatment approach demonstrated from this work has great potential to be applied in textile industry for functional fabrics manufacture.

  3. Intergranular phase of the Si3 N4 hot pressed with Mg O/Y2 O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Celio A.; Todd, Judith A.

    1997-01-01

    Monolithic and composite Si 3 N 4 hot-pressed with 3% Mgo or 6% Y 2 O 3 were analyzed with X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed materials to be composed of β-Si 3 N 4 grains and an intergranular phase which was partially crystalline and partially amorphous. For the materials sintered with Mg O, the identification of the intergranular phase was not conclusive. For the materials sintered with Y 2 O 3 . It was observed that the amount of intergranular crystalline phase decreased as whiskers were added to the material and the intergranular crystalline part had a crystallographic structure similar to yttrium-silicon-oxide-nitride family. (author)

  4. XANES study on Ruddlesdan-Popper phase, Lan+1NinO3n+1 (n = 1, 2 and ∞)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung-Chul; Kim, Dong-Kuk; Byeon, Song-Hu; Kim, Don

    2001-01-01

    Ruddlesden-Popper phase, La n+1 Ni n O 3n+ 1 (n = 1, 2, and ∞) compounds were prepared by citrate sol-gel method. We revealed the origin of the variation of the electrical conductivities in La n+1 Ni n O 3n+1 (n= 1, 2, and ∞) using resistivity measurements, Rietveld analysis, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. According to the XANES spectra, it is found that the degree of 4pπ - 4pσ energy splitting between 8345 eV and 8350 eV is qualitatively proportional to the elongation of the out-of-plane Ni-O bond length. With the decrease of 4pπ-4pσ splitting, the strong hybridization of the σ-bonding between Ni-3d and O-2p orbitals creates narrow antibonding σ bands, which finally results in the lower electrical resistivity. (au)

  5. Gold-coated iron nanoparticles in transparent Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} matrix thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Marcos, J. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (Spain); Cespedes, E. [Keele University, Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Guy Hilton Research Centre (United Kingdom); Jimenez-Villacorta, F. [Northeastern University, Department of Chemical Engineering (United States); Munoz-Martin, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Centro de Microanalisis de Materiales (Spain); Prieto, C., E-mail: cprieto@icmm.csic.es [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (Spain)

    2013-06-15

    A new method to prepare thin films containing gold-coated iron nanoparticles is presented. The ternary Fe-Au-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} system prepared by sequential sputtering has revealed a progressive variation of microstructures from Au/Fe/Au/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} multilayers to iron nanoparticles. Microstructural characterization by transmission electron microscopy, analysis of the magnetic properties and probing of the iron short-range order by X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirm the existence of a gold-coated iron nanoparticles of 1-2 nm typical size for a specific range of iron and gold contents per layer in the transparent silicon nitride ceramic matrix.

  6. The effect of Si content on the fracture toughness of CrAlN/Si3N4 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.; Wheeler, J. M.; Davis, C. E.; Clegg, W. J.; Zeng, X. T.

    2016-01-01

    CrAlN/Si 3 N 4 nanocomposite coatings with different Si contents were deposited to understand how Si influences the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of the coatings, in particular, the fracture toughness. The coating composition, chemical bonding, microstructure, and mechanical properties were studied by energy dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation, respectively. Using a micro double cantilever beam sample, it was found that the fracture toughness of CrAlN/Si 3 N 4 coatings was higher than that of both the CrN and CrAlN coatings and increased with increasing Si content. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy suggested that this was caused by the suppression of cracking at columnar boundaries

  7. Tribological Behavior of Babbitt Alloy Rubbing Against Si3N4 and Steel Under Dry Friction Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xianbing; Chen, Yinxia

    2016-03-01

    The tribological behavior of Babbitt alloy rubbing with Si3N4 ball and steel ball with various sliding speeds at dry friction condition was investigated. It was found that B88 alloy rubbing with Si3N4 ball and steel ball possesses a low sliding wear resistance at dry friction. The wear rate is above 10-4 mm3/Nm, and the friction coefficient is from 0.2 to 0.4. At low sliding speed of 0.05-0.1 m/s, the mainly wear mechanisms are microgroove and fatigue wear, while at high sliding speed of 0.5 m/s, the wear mechanisms depend on plastic deformation and delamination. The high wear rate indicates that it is needed to prevent Babbitt alloy from working at dry friction conditions, while the low friction coefficient suggests that it is not easy to the occurrence of cold weld.

  8. Predicting the growth of S i3N4 nanowires by phase-equilibrium-dominated vapor-liquid-solid mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongliang; Cai, Jing; Yang, Lijun; Wu, Qiang; Wang, Xizhang; Hu, Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Nanomaterial synthesis is experiencing a profound evolution from empirical science ("cook-and-look") to prediction and design, which depends on the deep insight into the growth mechanism. Herein, we report a generalized prediction of the growth of S i3N4 nanowires by nitriding F e28S i72 alloy particles across different phase regions based on our finding of the phase-equilibrium-dominated vapor-liquid-solid (PED-VLS) mechanism. All the predictions about the growth of S i3N4 nanowires, and the associated evolutions of lattice parameters and geometries of the coexisting Fe -Si alloy phases, are experimentally confirmed quantitatively. This progress corroborates the general validity of the PED-VLS mechanism, which could be applied to the design and controllable synthesis of various one-dimensional nanomaterials.

  9. XPS analysis for cubic boron nitride crystal synthesized under high pressure and high temperature using Li3N as catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaofei; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Wen; Cai, Zhichao; Wen, Zhenxing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The cBN was synthesized by Li 3 N as catalyst under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT). • The film coated on the as-grown cBN crystals was studied by XPS. • The electronic structure variation in the film was investigated. • The growth mechanism of cubic boron nitride crystal was analyzed briefly. - Abstract: Cubic boron nitride (cBN) single crystals are synthesized with lithium nitride (Li3N) as catalyst under high pressure and high temperature. The variation of electronic structures from boron nitride of different layers in coating film on the cBN single crystal has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Combining the atomic concentration analysis, it was shown that from the film/cBN crystal interface to the inner, the sp 2 fractions are decreasing, and the sp 3 fractions are increasing in the film at the same time. Moreover, by transmission electron microscopy, a lot of cBN microparticles are found in the interface. For there is no Li 3 N in the film, it is possible that Li 3 N first reacts with hexagonal boron nitride to produce Li 3 BN 2 during cBN crystals synthesis under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT). Boron and nitrogen atoms, required for cBN crystals growth, could come from the direct conversion from hexagonal boron nitride with the catalysis of Li 3 BN 2 under high pressure and high temperature, but not directly from the decomposition of Li 3 BN 2

  10. Processing, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties of Si3N4/SiC Nanocomposites from Precursor Derived Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Kevin Thomas, Jr.

    Polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs) provides a unique processing route to create Si3N4/SiC composites. Silazane precursor polyureasilazane (Ceraset PURS20) produce's an amorphous SiCN ceramic at temperatures of ~800 -- 1200 °C and crystallizes to a Si3N4/SiC nanocomposite at temperatures >1500 °C. A novel processing technique was developed where crosslinked polymers were heat-treated in a reactive NH3 atmosphere to control the stoichiometry of the pyrolyzed SiCN ceramic. Using this technique processing parameters were established to produce SiCN powders that resulted in nanocomposites with approximately 0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 vol. % SiC. Lu2O3 was added to these powders as a sintering aid and were densified using Hot Pressing and Field Assisted Sintering. The sintered nanocomposites resulted in microstructures with multiple-length scales. These length-scales included Si3N4 (0.1 -- 5 microm), SiC (10 -- 100 nm) and the intergranular grain boundary phase (<1 nm). Using a combination of SEM and TEM it was possible to quantify some of these microstructural features such as the size and location of the SiC. Hardness and fracture toughness testing was conducted to compared the room temperature mechanical properties of these resultant microstructures. This research was intended to develop robust processing approaches that can be used to control the nanostructures of Si3N4/SiC composites with significant structural features at multiple length scales. The control of their features and the investigation of their affect on the properties of composites can be used to simulate the affect of the structure on properties. These models can then be used to design optimal microstructures for specific applications.

  11. Morphology and surface-plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles sandwiched between Si3N4 and BN layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toudert, J.; Camelio, S.; Babonneau, D.; Denanot, M.-F.; Girardeau, T.; Espinos, J.P.; Yubero, F.; Gonzalez-Elipe, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    Nanocermet trilayered thin films consisting of silver nanoclusters sandwiched between two dielectric layers (the buffer and the cap) have been synthesized by ion-beam sputtering with an alternate deposition of the metal and the dielectric species. The influence of the amount of silver, the nature of the buffer and the cap (BN or Si 3 N 4 ), and a time delay before the cap deposition on clusters morphology and repartition have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. It has been observed that the clusters display truncated ellipsoidal shapes in which the height to diameter ratio H/D decreases as the amount of deposited silver increases. For a given amount of silver, this ratio is lower in the case of a Si 3 N 4 cap, whatever the nature of the buffer. Two explanations are proposed to account for this 'cap effect' on clusters morphology: the first one is based on a calculation of the H/D minimizing the surface free energy of the clusters embedded between the buffer and the cap; the second one holds on the shape relaxation of the coalesced nonequilibrium clusters towards their equilibrium shape with the buffer, this process occurring until clusters are fully covered with the cap. Because of the higher deposition rate of Si 3 N 4 compared to BN, a Si 3 N 4 cap would allow a less efficient reshaping and consequently lead to flatter clusters. This explanation is supported by the temporal evolution of clusters morphology and repartition observed during the time delay before deposition of the cap. The evolution of the spectral position of the surface-plasmon resonance (SPR) of the trilayers as a function of their structure has also been investigated by optical transmittance measurements. The influence of cluster morphology, as well as the nature of the buffer and the cap on the SPR spectral position are discussed

  12. Transmission electron microscopy studies of C3N4H4 treated at high pressure and high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, R C; Chen, L C; Zhu, J L; Li, F Y; Liu, Z X; Qin, Z C; Yu, T N; Jin, C Q; Duan, X F; Zhang, Z

    2002-01-01

    C 3 N 4 H 4 was treated at 6.0 GPa and 1500 deg C for 2.5 min. Powder x-ray measurement shows that the sample is decomposed and a hexagonal graphite phase forms. Transmission electron microscopy studies show that small amounts of diamond and amorphous carbon phase coexist with the graphite phase. Parallel electron energy-loss spectroscopy analysis was also carried out for these phases

  13. The location of locoregional recurrence in pathologic T3N0, non-irradiated lower rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Sun; Keum, Ki Chang; Rhee, Woo Joong; Kim, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Ji; Choi, Seo Hee; Nam, Ki Chang; Koom, Woong Sub

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the patterns of locoregional recurrence of pathologic T3N0 (pT3N0) lower rectal cancer omitting postoperative radiotherapy (RT) and explore the potential of modification of a RT field. From Jan 2003 to Nov 2011, 35 patients omitting preoperative or postoperative RT for pT3N0 lower rectal cancer were included. We defined the lower rectal cancer as the tumor with the inferior margin located below the virtual line-a convergent level between rectal wall and levator ani muscle. All patients had radiologic examinations for recurrence evaluation during the follow-up duration. The median follow-up duration was 66.4 months (range, 1.4 to 126.1 months). Eight (22.9%) of the 35 patients had recurrence. Three (8.6%) was local recurrence (LR) only, 3 (8.6%) was distant metastasis (DM) only, and 2 (5.7%) was LR with DM. All LR were located at primary tumor sites. The overall survival rate, LR-free survival rate, and DM-free survival rate at 5 years was 79.8%, 83%, and 87%, respectively. All LR developed from tumors over 5 cm. However, there was no statistical significance (p = 0.065). There was no other risk factor for LR. Even though the patients included in this study had pathologically favorable pT3N0 rectal cancer, LR developed in 14.3% of patients. Most of the LR was located at primary tumor sites prior to surgery. Based on these findings, it might seem reasonable to consider postoperative RT with a smaller radiation field to the primary tumor site rather than the conventional whole pelvic irradiation.

  14. Effects of surface passivation on α-Si_3N_4 nanobelts: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Li; Dai, Jianhong; Song, Yan; Wen, Guangwu; Qin, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The stability and electronic properties of α-Si_3N_4 nanobelts are theoretically studied. • The surface of α-Si_3N_4 nanobelts are passivated with H, OH, F and Cl atoms. • The structural stability of nanobelts decreases in the order of OH, F, Cl, and H passivations. • The surface passivation greatly changes the electronic structures of α-Si_3N_4 nanobelts. - Abstract: The energetic stability and electronic structures of H, OH, F, or Cl passivated α-Si_3N_4 nanobelts orientating along various directions are systematically investigated via first-principles calculations. The results show that the stability of nanobelts is more sensitive to the surface passivation than growth direction. It decreases in the order of (100% OH), (50% H, 50% OH), (50% H, 50% F), (100% F), (50% H, 50% Cl), (100% Cl), (100% H), and unpassivation. H atoms prefer to bond with surface N atoms of nanobelts, while OH, F and Cl prefer to bond with Si atoms of nanobelts. In addition, the surface passivation greatly changes the electronic structures of nanobelts. The OH and F passivations result in the larger band gaps than the Cl passivation. While the coverage of OH, F or Cl increases to 100%, their band gaps decrease significantly, indicating an improvement of electrical properties, which is good agreement with the experimental findings. The 100% Cl-passivated nanobelt orientating along the [011] direction possesses the smallest band gap of 1.038 eV. The band gaps are found to be affected by a competition between quantum confinement effect and the role of the surface passivated groups or atoms at the band-gap edges.

  15. Complete Genomic Sequences of H3N8 Equine Influenza Virus Strains Used as Vaccine Strains in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Manabu; Yamanaka, Takashi; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Kokado, Hiroshi

    2018-03-22

    We sequenced the eight segments of influenza A virus strains A/equine/Ibaraki/1/2007 and A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010, which are strains of the Florida sublineage clades 1 and 2 of the H3N8 subtype equine influenza virus. These strains have been used as vaccine strains in Japan since 2016 in accordance with World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) recommendations. Copyright © 2018 Nemoto et al.

  16. Estimated dietary dioxin exposure and breast cancer risk among women from the French E3N prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjou, Aurélie M N; Fervers, Béatrice; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Philip, Thierry; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dossus, Laure

    2015-03-17

    Dioxins are environmental and persistent pollutants mostly emitted from combustion facilities (e.g. waste incinerators, metal and cement industries). Known to be endocrine disrupting chemicals, dioxins are suspected to increase breast cancer (BC) risk. Although diet is considered the primary source of dioxin exposure, no previous study has been published on dietary dioxin exposure in relation to BC risk. We aimed to assess dietary dioxin exposure among women from the E3N cohort and estimate BC risk associated with this exposure. The study included 63,830 women from the E3N cohort who completed a diet history questionnaire (DHQ) in 1993 and were followed until 2008. Dietary dioxin exposure was estimated by combining consumption data from the E3N DHQ and food dioxin contamination data from a French national monitoring program. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox models adjusted for BC risk factors. Mean dietary dioxin exposure was estimated at 1.3 ± 0.4 pg/kg body weight (BW)/day. A 0.4 pg/kg BW/d increase in dioxin intake was not associated with overall BC risk (HR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.05). A significant decrease in risk of estrogen receptor negative (ER-)/progesterone receptor negative (PR-) tumors was observed among post-menopausal women in the upper quartile of estimated dioxin intake (HR for Q4 vs. Q1: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.96; P for trend across quartiles = 0.0463). Overall, no association between estimated dietary dioxin exposure and BC risk was found among E3N women. Further studies should include both dietary and environmental exposures to determine whether low-dose dioxin exposure is associated with BC risk.

  17. Patterns of predicted T-cell epitopes associated with antigenic drift in influenza H3N2 hemagglutinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Jane Homan

    Full Text Available Antigenic drift allowing escape from neutralizing antibodies is an important feature of transmission and survival of influenza viruses in host populations. Antigenic drift has been studied in particular detail for influenza A H3N2 and well defined antigenic clusters of this virus documented. We examine how host immunogenetics contributes to determination of the antibody spectrum, and hence the immune pressure bringing about antigenic drift. Using uTOPE™ bioinformatics analysis of predicted MHC binding, based on amino acid physical property principal components, we examined the binding affinity of all 9-mer and 15-mer peptides within the hemagglutinin 1 (HA1 of 447 H3N2 virus isolates to 35 MHC-I and 14 MHC-II alleles. We provide a comprehensive map of predicted MHC-I and MHC-II binding affinity for a broad array of HLA alleles for the H3N2 influenza HA1 protein. Each HLA allele exhibited a characteristic predicted binding pattern. Cluster analysis for each HLA allele shows that patterns based on predicted MHC binding mirror those described based on antibody binding. A single amino acid mutation or position displacement can result in a marked difference in MHC binding and hence potential T-helper function. We assessed the impact of individual amino acid changes in HA1 sequences between 10 virus isolates from 1968-2002, representative of antigenic clusters, to understand the changes in MHC binding over time. Gain and loss of predicted high affinity MHC-II binding sites with cluster transitions were documented. Predicted high affinity MHC-II binding sites were adjacent to antibody binding sites. We conclude that host MHC diversity may have a major determinant role in the antigenic drift of influenza A H3N2.

  18. Combined experimental and theoretical assessments of the lattice dynamics and optoelectronics of TaON and Ta3N5

    KAUST Repository

    Nurlaela, Ela; Harb, Moussab; Del Gobbo, Silvano; Vashishta, Manish; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Presented herein is a detailed discussion of the properties of the lattice dynamic and optoelectronic properties of tantalum(V) oxynitride (TaON) and tantalum(V) nitride (Ta3N5), from experimental and theoretical standpoint. The active Raman and infra red (IR) frequencies of TaON and Ta3N5 were measured using confocal Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopies (FTIR) and calculated using the linear response method within the density functional perturbation theory (DFPT). The detailed study leads to an exhaustive description of the spectra, including the symmetry of the vibrational modes. Electronic structures of these materials were computed using DFT within the range-separated hybrid HSE06 exchange–correlation formalism. Electronic and ionic contributions to the dielectric constant tensors of these materials were obtained from DFPT within the linear response method using the PBE functional. Furthermore, effective mass of photogenerated holes and electrons at the band edges of these compounds were computed from the electronic band structure obtained at the DFT/HSE06 level of theory. The results suggest that anisotropic nature in TaON and Ta3N5 is present in terms of dielectric constant and effective masses.

  19. Pressure effect on the mechanical and electronic properties of B3N3: A first-principle study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Mohammad; Faez, Rahim

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we perform Self-Consistent Field (SCF) energy calculation of Tetragonal B3N3 in the homogenous pressure range of -30 GPa to +160 GPa. Also, we study mechanical and electronic properties of this compound as a potential candidate for a conventional phonon-mediated superconductor with a high transition temperature. To do this, the volume changes of B3N3, and its bulk modulus, due to applying pressure in the range of -30 GPa to +160 GPa are calculated and analyzed. The calculated Bulk modulus of B3N3 at 230 GPa in the relaxed condition indicates the strength of bonds and its low compressibility. We calculated and analyzed the electronic effective mass in both XM and MA directions and anisotropy parameter in these two directions in the relaxed condition and under pressure in the range of -30 GPa to +160 GPa. It is shown that in overall, the direction in which the transport of electrons is parallel to the two perpendicular honeycomb planes has less effective mass and better conductivity than the other direction, in which the electronic transport is perpendicular to at least one of the hexagonal structure planes.

  20. Combined experimental and theoretical assessments of the lattice dynamics and optoelectronics of TaON and Ta3N5

    KAUST Repository

    Nurlaela, Ela

    2015-06-15

    Presented herein is a detailed discussion of the properties of the lattice dynamic and optoelectronic properties of tantalum(V) oxynitride (TaON) and tantalum(V) nitride (Ta3N5), from experimental and theoretical standpoint. The active Raman and infra red (IR) frequencies of TaON and Ta3N5 were measured using confocal Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopies (FTIR) and calculated using the linear response method within the density functional perturbation theory (DFPT). The detailed study leads to an exhaustive description of the spectra, including the symmetry of the vibrational modes. Electronic structures of these materials were computed using DFT within the range-separated hybrid HSE06 exchange–correlation formalism. Electronic and ionic contributions to the dielectric constant tensors of these materials were obtained from DFPT within the linear response method using the PBE functional. Furthermore, effective mass of photogenerated holes and electrons at the band edges of these compounds were computed from the electronic band structure obtained at the DFT/HSE06 level of theory. The results suggest that anisotropic nature in TaON and Ta3N5 is present in terms of dielectric constant and effective masses.

  1. Interaction of silicene with β-Si3N4(0001)/Si(111) substrate; energetics and electronic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippone, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The free-standing, quasi-2D layer of Si is known as silicene, in analogy with graphene. Much effort is devoted in the study of silicene, since, similarly to graphene, it shows a very high electron mobility. The interaction of silicene with a hybrid substrate, β-Si 3 N 4 (0001)/Si(111), exposing the β-Si 3 N 4 (0001) surface, has been studied by means of Density Functional calculations, with van der Waals interactions included. Once deepened the most important structural and electronic features of the hybrid substrate, we demonstrated that an electron transfer occurs from the substrate to the silicene layer. In turn, such an electron transfer can be modulated by the doping of the substrate. The β-Si 3 N 4 /silicene interaction appears to be strong enough to ensure adequate adsorption stability. It is also shown that electronic states of substrate and adsorbate still remain decoupled, paving the way for the exploitation of the peculiar electron mobility properties of the silicene layer. A detailed analysis in both direct and reciprocal space is reported. (paper)

  2. Large scale synthesis of α-Si3N4 nanowires through a kinetically favored chemical vapour deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Huang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Fang, Minghao; Liu, Yan-gai; Wu, Xiaowen; Min, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the kinetic barrier and driving force for crystal nucleation and growth is decisive for the synthesis of nanowires with controllable yield and morphology. In this research, we developed an effective reaction system to synthesize very large scale α-Si3N4 nanowires (hundreds of milligrams) and carried out a comparative study to characterize the kinetic influence of gas precursor supersaturation and liquid metal catalyst. The phase composition, morphology, microstructure and photoluminescence properties of the as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and room temperature photoluminescence measurement. The yield of the products not only relates to the reaction temperature (thermodynamic condition) but also to the distribution of gas precursors (kinetic condition). As revealed in this research, by controlling the gas diffusion process, the yield of the nanowire products could be greatly improved. The experimental results indicate that the supersaturation is the dominant factor in the as-designed system rather than the catalyst. With excellent non-flammability and high thermal stability, the large scale α-Si3N4 products would have potential applications to the improvement of strength of high temperature ceramic composites. The photoluminescence spectrum of the α-Si3N4 shows a blue shift which could be valued for future applications in blue-green emitting devices. There is no doubt that the large scale products are the base of these applications.

  3. BO2-functionalized B3N3C54 heterofullerene as a possible candidate for molecular spintronics and nonlinear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar; Pandey, Sarvesh Kumar; Misra, Neeraj

    2016-04-01

    BO2-substituted B3N3C54 heterofullerene was studied using density functional theory, and its electronic, magnetic and nonlinear optical properties are discussed. The substitution was considered at the B and N sites of the heterofullerene, in lower and higher spin states. We notice that BO2 substitution at the B sites of B3N3C54 heterofullerene leads to interesting properties, such as a smaller energy gap (0.66 eV) and a high spin magnetic moment (3 μ B). The density-of-states curves, molecular orbitals and spin density surfaces have been used to explain these facts. In addition, the first-order mean hyperpolarizability of B3N3C54 heterofullerene has been found to be significantly large (3.6 × 103 a.u.), which is due to smaller transition energy in the crucial excited state. This is reflected by the absorption spectra calculated using the time-dependent density functional theory method. These findings may be exploited to design novel materials for possible spintronic and electro-optical applications.

  4. Nanostructures based in boro nitride thin films deposited by PLD onto Si/Si3N4/DLC substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, W S; Riascos, H; Caicedo, J C; Ospina, R; Tirado-MejIa, L

    2009-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon and boron nitride were deposited like nanostructered bilayer on Si/Si 3 N 4 substrate, both with (100) crystallographic orientation, these films were deposited through pulsed laser technique (Nd: YAG: 8 Jcm -2 , 9ns). Graphite (99.99%) and boron nitride (99.99%) targets used to growth the films in argon atmosphere. The thicknesses of bilayer were determined with a perfilometer, active vibration modes were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), finding bands associated around 1400 cm -1 for B - N bonding and bands around 1700 cm -1 associated with C=C stretching vibrations of non-conjugated alkenes and azometinic groups, respectively. The crystallites of thin films were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and determinated the h-BN (0002), α-Si 3 N 4 (101) phases. The aim of this study is to relate the dependence on physical and chemical characteristics of the system Si/Si 3 N 4 /DLC/BN with gas pressure adjusted at the 1.33, 2.67 and 5.33 Pa values.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of influenza A viruses (H3N2 circulating in Zhytomyr region during 2013–2014 epidemic season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyalska O. G.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To perform phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of influenza A(H3N2 viruses circulating in the Zhytomyr region during 2013–2014 epidemic season. To make comparison of the HA and NA genes sequences of the Zhytomyr region isolates with the HA and NA genes sequences of influenza viruses circulating in the world. Methods. Laboratory diagnosis was conducted by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. In this study the sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were carried out. Results. For the first time the genes of influenza A(H3N2 viruses isolated in the Zhytomyr region during 2013–2014 epidemic season, coding hemagglutinin and neuraminidase were compared with their orthologs. According to the results of this comparison the phylogenetic tree was constructed. Additionally, the amino acid substitutions of the influenza viruses circulating in Ukraine and worldwide were analyzed. Conclusions. The nucleotide sequences of the influenza A(H3N2 viruses genes HA and NA isolated in the Zhytomyr region were identified. Based on the nucleotide sequences of HA and NA we constructed the influenza virus phylogenetic tree demonstrating that the virus isolated in the Zhytomyr region was closely related to the Ukrainian isolate from Kharkov and in the world to the isolates from Germany, Romania, Italy.

  6. Surface modification of g-C3N4 by hydrazine: Simple way for noble-metal free hydrogen evolution catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yin

    2015-11-02

    The graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) usually is thought to be an inert material and it’s difficult to have the surface terminated NH2 groups functionalized. By modifying the g-C3N4 surface with hydrazine, the diazanyl group was successfully introduced onto the g-C3N4 surface, which allows the introduction with many other function groups. Here we illustrated that by reaction of surface hydrazine group modified g-C3N4 with CS2 under basic condition, a water electrolysis active group C(=S)SNi can be implanted on the g-C3N4 surface, and leads to a noble metal free hydrogen evolution catalyst. This catalyst has 40% hydrogen evolution efficiency compare to the 3 wt% Pt photo precipitated g-C3N4, with only less than 0.2 wt% nickel.

  7. Surface modification of g-C3N4 by hydrazine: Simple way for noble-metal free hydrogen evolution catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yin; Lin, Bin; Wang, Hong; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Haibo; Yu, Weili; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) usually is thought to be an inert material and it’s difficult to have the surface terminated NH2 groups functionalized. By modifying the g-C3N4 surface with hydrazine, the diazanyl group was successfully introduced onto the g-C3N4 surface, which allows the introduction with many other function groups. Here we illustrated that by reaction of surface hydrazine group modified g-C3N4 with CS2 under basic condition, a water electrolysis active group C(=S)SNi can be implanted on the g-C3N4 surface, and leads to a noble metal free hydrogen evolution catalyst. This catalyst has 40% hydrogen evolution efficiency compare to the 3 wt% Pt photo precipitated g-C3N4, with only less than 0.2 wt% nickel.

  8. Enhanced visible light-driven photocatalytic performance of ZnO–g-C_3N_4 coupled with graphene oxide as a novel ternary nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Clament Sagaya Selvam, N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Prepared novel ternary nanocomposite consisting of ZnO, g-C_3N_4, and graphene oxide. • ZnO nanospheres disperse evenly and embed on porous g-C_3N_4-coupled graphene oxide. • Heterojunction of ternary composite account for the enhanced photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: This article reports a novel ternary nanocomposite consisting of ZnO, g-C_3N_4, and graphene oxide (GO) that provides enhanced photocatalytic performance and stability. The ZnO nanospheres disperse evenly and embed themselves in the porous g-C_3N_4. Composites with various g-C_3N_4 and GO to ZnO weight ratios were synthesized and characterized systematically. The results indicated that the absorption of binary g-C_3N_4/ZnO nanocomposites shifted to a lower energy compared to pure ZnO in a fashion consistent with the loading content of g-C_3N_4. Notably, the loading content of GO in the ZnO–g-C_3N_4 composite resulted in increased absorption in the visible range and improved charge separation efficiency, thereby drastically improving photocatalytic activity. Successful hybridization of ternary nanocomposite was confirmed by drastic quenching of fluorescence and broader visible light absorption. The optimal content of g-C_3N_4 in the ZnO–g-C_3N_4 composite was 50%, which exhibited the effective hybridization between ZnO and g-C_3N_4, and high photocatalytic efficiency. However, the photocatalytic degradation of the ternary nanocomposite showed performance that was two times greater than ZnO–g-C_3N_4, exhibiting 99.5% degradation efficiency after just 15 min of light irradiation. The combined heterojunction and synergistic effects of this composite account for the improved photocatalytic activity.

  9. Comparative pathology of pigs infected with Korean H1N1, H1N2, or H3N2 swine influenza A viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Lyoo, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Jung, Kwonil; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Song, Daesub

    2014-01-01

    Background The predominant subtypes of swine influenza A virus (SIV) in Korea swine population are H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2. The viruses are genetically close to the classical U.S. H1N1 and triple-reassortant H1N2 and H3N2 viruses, respectively. Comparative pathogenesis caused by Korean H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 SIV was evaluated in this study. Findings The H3N2 infected pigs had severe scores of gross and histopathological lesions at post-inoculation days (PID) 2, and this then progressively decrease...

  10. Photoassisted oxygen reduction reaction on mpg-C3N4: The effects of elements doping on the performance of ORR

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiuchen; Zhou, Feng; Zhan, Su; Huang, Naibao; Tian, Yu

    2018-02-01

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is a crux step in the fuel cells, which is limited to the catalysts. Low-cost nonmetal inorganic catalysts were considered to be the best prospect that may replace platinum. Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), which has wide prospect in photocatalysis, was found with the activity of ORR. In calculation work, we used the elements of the VIA family (O, S, and Se) to dope g-C3N4 and investigated the electronic properties and the ability of O2 adsorption in details based on the first principle. The result suggested that the performance of ORR of g-C3N4 may be enhanced by O doping, which can uplift the Fermi level of g-C3N4 and weaken the OH- absorption ability to enhance the O2 adsorption ability. After that, we synthetised O/g-C3N4 and S/g-C3N4 to test their ORR performance. According to the result, O doping can significantly enhance the performance of ORR of g-C3N4 which correspond with the calculation result. Then, the photo-assistant method was used to further enhance the ORR of g-C3N4 which was caused by the transition of the photo-induced electrons of g-C3N4 from VB to CB.

  11. Antigenic and genetic analysis of H3N8 influenza viruses isolated from horses in Japan and Mongolia, and imported from Canada and Belgium during 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoshima, Masayuki; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Asakura, Shingo; Kuribayashi, Saya; Sengee, Sugar; Batchuluun, Damdinjav; Ito, Mika; Maeda, Yukiko; Eto, Mariko; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Sodnomdarjaa, Ruuragchaa; Kida, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    A/equine/Kanazawa/1/2007 (H3N8), A/equine/Hokkaido/I828/2008 (H3N8) and A/equine/Mongolia/1/2008 (H3N8) were isolated from infected horses. A/equine/Yokohama/aq19/2009 (H3N8) and A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010 (H3N8) were isolated from horses imported from Canada and Belgium examined at the Animal Quarantine Service in Yokohama, Japan. In the present study, these five isolates were genetically and antigenically analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes showed that three isolates from horses in Japan and imported from Canada belonged to the same branch, clade 1 of the Florida sublineage, while the isolates from horses in Mongolia and imported from Belgium belonged to another branch, clade 2 of the Florida sublineage. Reactivity patterns of a panel of monoclonal antibodies to the HA of A/equine/Kanazawa/1/2007 (H3N8) with the five isolates indicate that the HAs of these viruses were antigenically similar to each other and to the reference strains A/equine/La Plata/1/1993 (H3N8) and A/equine/Avesta/1/1993 (H3N8). The present findings indicate that extensive antigenic variation has not accumulated among H3N8 influenza viruses in horses.

  12. Insights into the photocatalytic mechanism of mediator-free direct Z-scheme g-C3N4/Bi2MoO6(010) and g-C3N4/Bi2WO6(010) heterostructures: A hybrid density functional theory study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Opoku, F

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphite-like carbon nitride (g-C3N4)-based heterostructures have received much attention due to their prominent photocatalytic activity. The g-C3N4/Bi2WO6 and g-C3N4/Bi2MoO6 heterostructures, which follow a typical hetero-junction charge transfer...

  13. E3N, a French cohort study on cancer risk factors. E3N Group. Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de l'Education Nationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel-Chapelon, F; van Liere, M J; Giubout, C; Niravong, M Y; Goulard, H; Le Corre, C; Hoang, L A; Amoyel, J; Auquier, A; Duquesnel, E

    1997-10-01

    This paper describes the design of E3N, a prospective cohort study conducted in France on risk factors for female cancers. The cohort comprises 100,000 women, aged 40-65 years at baseline in 1990. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires every 18 months. The main hypotheses studied concern the relationship between diet and cancer and between hormonal treatments and cancer. All cancers diagnosed are registered, together with other diseases (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis). The study population and the follow-up procedure are described.

  14. Photocatalytic decomposition of N{sub 2}O over TiO{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalysts heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kočí, K., E-mail: kamila.koci@vsb.cz [Institute of Environmental technologies, VŠB Technical University of Ostrava 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 00 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Reli, M.; Troppová, I.; Šihor, M. [Institute of Environmental technologies, VŠB Technical University of Ostrava 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 00 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Kupková, J. [Nanotechnology center, VŠB Technical University of Ostrava 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 00 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Kustrowski, P. [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University in Kraków, ul. Ingardena 3, 30-060 Kraków (Poland); Praus, P. [Institute of Environmental technologies, VŠB Technical University of Ostrava 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 00 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Department of Chemistry, VŠB Technical University of Ostrava 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 00 Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalysts with the various TiO{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} weight ratios. • N{sub 2}O photocatalytic decomposition under UVC and UVA irradiation. • Heterojunction on the TiO{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} interface play an important role. • Optimal ratio of TiO{sub 2}:g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was 1:2 for the highest activity at UVA irradiation. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalysts with the various TiO{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} weight ratios from 1:2 to 1:6 were fabricated by mechanical mixing in water suspension followed by calcination. Pure TiO{sub 2} was prepared by thermal hydrolysis and pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was prepared from commercial melamine by thermal annealing at 620 °C. All the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, photoelectrochemical measurements and nitrogen physisorption. The prepared mixtures along with pure TiO{sub 2} and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} were tested for the photocatalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide under UVC (λ = 254 nm), UVA (λ = 365 nm) and Vis (λ > 400 nm) irradiation. The TiO{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposites showed moderate improvement compared to pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} but pure TiO{sub 2} proved to be a better photocatalyst under UVC irradiation. However, under UVA irradiation conditions, the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (1:2) nanocomposite exhibited an increase compared to pure TiO{sub 2}. Nevertheless, further increase of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} amount leads/led to a decrease in reactivity. These results are suggesting the nanocomposite with the optimal weight ratio of TiO{sub 2} and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} have shifted absorption edge energy towards longer wavelengths and decreased the recombination rate of charge carriers compared to pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. This is

  15. Fabrication and high visible-light-driven photocurrent response of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} film: The role of thiourea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Lijuan; Chen, Shijian, E-mail: sjchen@cqu.edu.cn

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Thiourea promotes the growth and crystalline of the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} films on ITO. • Thiourea introduces S dopants into the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} films. • The obtained S-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} thin films show high VLD photocurrent response. • Three heterojunction structure types based on the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} films are proposed. - Abstract: We report on a convenient CVD fabrication of the uniform, compact and reproducible g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} solid films on indium-tin oxide substrates. It is found that mixing quantitative thiourea into melamine as co-precursor prompts the deposition of greenish-yellow, transparent and smooth g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} thin films. The thiourea apparently affects the crystalline, the surface morphologies and the energy band structures of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} films by modulating the polymerization process of the precursors, and simultaneously introduces S dopants into the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} films. Due to these roles of thiourea, the obtained S-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} films as a photoelectrode show a high and stable visible-light-driven photocurrent response. To further improve the photocurrent, the construction of three heterojunction structure types based on g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} films is proposed and the corresponding charge transfer mechanisms are well discussed. The successful fabrication of high quality g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} films in this work provides a footstone to construct the heterojunction film structures based on the carbon nitrides for the photoelectrochemical overall water splitting.

  16. Improving g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalysis for NO{sub x} removal by Ag nanoparticles decoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yanjuan [Air Environmental Modelling and Pollution Controlling Key Laboratory of Sichuan Higher Education Institutes, College of Resources and Environment, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu 610225 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Functional Organic Molecules, College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing 400067 (China); Xiong, Ting; Ni, Zilin [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Functional Organic Molecules, College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing 400067 (China); Liu, Jie [Air Environmental Modelling and Pollution Controlling Key Laboratory of Sichuan Higher Education Institutes, College of Resources and Environment, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu 610225 (China); Dong, Fan, E-mail: dfctbu@126.com [Air Environmental Modelling and Pollution Controlling Key Laboratory of Sichuan Higher Education Institutes, College of Resources and Environment, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu 610225 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Functional Organic Molecules, College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing 400067 (China); Zhang, Wei, E-mail: andyzhangwei@163.com [Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714 (China); Ho, Wing-Kei [Department of Science and Environmental Studies, The Centre for Education in Environmental Sustainability, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Ag/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposites were prepared via a facile method for enhanced photocatalytic NO{sub x} removal due to surface plasmon resonance of Ag. - Highlights: • The Ag/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposites were prepared using urea as the precursor. • The Ag/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposites were applied in removal of NO{sub x} in air. • The Ag nanoparticles enhanced the photocatalytic activity of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • The surface plasmon resonance of Ag played a key role in photocatalysis. - Abstract: In order to overcome the intrinsic drawback of pristine g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, we prepared g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets with enhanced photocatalytic performance by Ag nanoparticles decoration using urea as the precursor. It was revealed that the monodispersed Ag nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets. The Ag/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposites were applied in removal of NO{sub x} in air under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the decoration of Ag nanoparticles not only enhanced the photocatalytic activity of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets, but also benefited the oxidation of NO to final products. The increased visible light absorption arising from the surface plasmon resonance of Ag and improved separation and transfer of photoinduced carriers over Ag/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites were demonstrated by the UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra and photoluminescence spectra, respectively. It was therefore proposed that the enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites could be attributed to the extended light response range and enhanced charge separation due to the introduction of Ag nanoparticles.

  17. Synthesis of porous carbon-doped g-C_3N_4 nanosheets with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Nan; Hu, Xinde; Zhang, Qingzhe; Miao, Xinhan; Jie, Xiuyan; Zhou, Shuai

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • NSs-APAM photocatalysts were synthesized by a green and handy route. • APAM was used as the intercalator and carbon source in the preparation. • The combination of photo-induced charge carriers was greatly restrained. • Significantly enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity was witnessed. • The NSs-APAM also showed a good recycling stability. - Abstract: The porous carbon-doped g-C_3N_4 nanosheets photocatalysts (NSs-APAM) were synthesized using anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) as the intercalator and carbon source via the thermal treatment method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nitrogen adsorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis diffuse reflectance absorption spectra (UV-DRS) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The results indicate that the APAM can effectively induce the formation of high-quality nanosheets (NSs) with narrowed bandgap. The specific surface area of NSs-APAM is 118.6 m"2/g, which is 5-fold larger than bulk g-C_3N_4. The carbon doping could narrow the bandgap, from 2.75 eV of g-C_3N_4 NSs without carbon doping (NSs-Water) to 2.41 eV of NSs-APAM. The two-dimensional NSs structure facilitates the charge separation by shortening the diffusion distance to the surface of photocatalysts. The synergic effects of the carbon doping and unique structural properties contributed to the superior photocatalytic activity of NSs-APAM with 95% degradation rate towards X–3 B after 30 min visible-light irradiation.

  18. Study of gaseous interactions in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors through selective Si3N4 passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Ning; Zhang Qing; Tan, O K; Marzari, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanotube field-effect transistors with Si 3 N 4 passivated source and drain contacts and exposed carbon nanotube channel show n-type characteristics in air. In contrast, by passivating only the source contact, a diode-like behavior with a maximum current rectification ratio of 4.6 x 10 3 is observed. The rectifying characteristic vanishes in a vacuum but recovers once the devices are exposed to air. From our experiments, key parameters, such as critical gas pressure, adsorption energy of oxygen molecules and the contact barrier height modulation, can be obtained for studying the gaseous interaction in the carbon nanotube devices.

  19. Design of a crystalline undulator based on patterning by tensile Si3N4 strips on a Si crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidi, V.; Lanzoni, L.; Mazzolari, A.; Martinelli, G.; Tralli, A.

    2007-01-01

    A crystalline undulator consists of a crystal with a periodic deformation in which channeled particles undergo oscillations and emit coherent undulator radiation. Patterning by an alternate series of tensile Si 3 N 4 strips on a Si crystal is shown to be a tractable method to construct a crystalline undulator. The method allows periodic deformation of the crystal with the parameters suitable for implementation of a crystalline undulator. The resulting periodic deformation is present in the bulk of the Si crystal with an essentially uniform amplitude, making the entire volume of the crystal available for channeling and in turn for emission of undulator radiation

  20. Electron density distribution and crystal structure of 27R-AlON, Al9O3N7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaka, Toru; Banno, Hiroki; Funahashi, Shiro; Hirosaki, Naoto; Fukuda, Koichiro

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structure of Al 9 O 3 N 7 was characterized by laboratory X-ray powder diffraction (CuKα 1 ). The title compound is trigonal with space group R3-bar m (centrosymmetric). The hexagonal unit-cell dimensions (Z=3) are a=0.30656(2) nm, c=7.2008(3) nm and V=0.58605(5) nm 3 . The initial structural model was derived by the powder charge-flipping method and subsequently refined by the Rietveld method. The final structural model showed the positional disordering of two of the five types of Al sites. The maximum-entropy method-based pattern fitting method was used to confirm the validity of the split-atom model, in which conventional structure bias caused by assuming intensity partitioning was minimized. The disordered crystal structure was successfully described by overlapping five types of domains with ordered atom arrangements. The distribution of atomic positions in one of the five types of domains can be achieved in the space group R3 ¯ m. The atom arrangements in the four other domains are noncentrosymmetric with the space group R3m. Two of the four types of domains are related by a pseudo-symmetry inversion, and the two remaining domains also have each other the inversion pseudo-symmetry. The very similar domain structure has been also reported for 21R-AlON (Al 7 O 3 N 5 ) in our previous study. - Graphical abstract: A bird’s eye view of electron densities up to 50% (0.074 nm −3 ) of the maximum on the plane parallel to (110) with the corresponding atomic arrangements of Al 9 O 3 N 7 . Highlights: • Crystal structure of Al 9 O 3 N 7 is determined by laboratory X-ray powder diffraction. • The atom arrangements are represented by the split-atom model. • The maximum-entropy method-based pattern fitting method is used to confirm the validity of the model. • The disordered structure is described by overlapping five types of domains with ordered atom arrangements

  1. Fabrication of Z-scheme plasmonic photocatalyst Ag@AgBr/g-C3N4 with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yuxin; Guo, Wan; Guo, Yingna; Zhao, Yahui; Yuan, Xing; Guo, Yihang

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Z-scheme plasmonic photocatalyst of Ag@AgBr/g-C 3 N 4 is prepared for the first time. • Ag@AgBr/g-C 3 N 4 shows enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity. • Photocatalytic mechanism based on the experimental results is revealed. • Photocatalytic degradation pathway of MO is put forward. - Abstract: A series of Ag@AgBr grafted graphitic carbon nitride (Ag@AgBr/g-C 3 N 4 ) plasmonic photocatalysts are fabricated through photoreducing AgBr/g-C 3 N 4 hybrids prepared by deposition–precipitation method. The phase and chemical structures, electronic and optical properties as well as morphologies of Ag@AgBr/g-C 3 N 4 heterostructures are well-characterized. Subsequently, the photocatalytic activity of Ag@AgBr/g-C 3 N 4 is evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) and rhodamin B (RB) under visible-light irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag@AgBr/g-C 3 N 4 compared with g-C 3 N 4 and Ag@AgBr is obtained and explained in terms of the efficient visible-light utilization efficiency as well as the construction of Z-scheme, which keeps photogenerated electrons and holes with high reduction and oxidation capability, evidenced by photoelectrochemical tests and free radical and hole scavenging experiments. Based on the intermediates identified in the reaction system, the photocatalytic degradation pathway of MO is put forward

  2. Changes in genetically drifted H3N2 influenza A viruses and vaccine effectiveness in adults 65 years and older during the 2016/17 season in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Fischer, Thea K; Krause, Tyra Grove

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Denmark, influenza A virus of the subtype H3N2 has been dominating the 2016/17 season, as in most countries of the Northern Hemisphere. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted as part of the Danish seasonal influenza surveillance programme to genetically characterize circulating H3N2...

  3. Magnetically Separable Fe2O3/g-C3N4 Nanocomposites with Cocoon-Like Shape: Magnetic Properties and Photocatalytic Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaojia; Yang, Xiaoyu; Li, Guang

    2018-01-01

    We report magnetically separable Fe2O3/g-C3N4 nanocomposites as a photocatalyst under visible-light irradiation in this study. The Fe2O3/g-C3N4 nanocomposites were synthesized through a two-step hydrothermal method. The Fe2O3 with cocoon-like shape was obviously dispersed on the surface of g-C3N4 with porous and layered nanostructure as seen from micrographs of the particles. Furthermore, the magnetic conversion of the samples was studied via vibrating sample magnetometer technology. It was found that the saturated magnetization Ms of the Fe2O3/g-C3N4 nanoparticles obviously decreased in the presence of g-C3N4, and the photocatalytic activity of the samples investigated by degrading Rhodamine B suggested that the Fe2O3/g-C3N4 photocatalyst was prior to the pure Fe2O3 and g-C3N4 samples. In addition, the magnetically separable ability of Fe2O3/g-C3N4 nanocomposites was efficiently exhibited by an external magnet.

  4. Influenza A (H3N2) virus in swine at agricultural fairs and transmission to humans, Michigan and Ohio, USA, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    An 18 case outbreak of variant H3N2 influenza A occurred during 2016 after exposure to influenza-infected swine at seven agricultural fairs. Sixteen cases were infected with a reassortant between 2010-2011 human seasonal H3N2 strains and viruses endemic in North American swine, a viral lineage incre...

  5. Nuclear Hyperfine Structure in the Donor – Acceptor Complexes (CH3)3N-BF3 and (CH)33N-B(CH3)3

    Science.gov (United States)

    The donor-acceptor complexes (CH3)3N-BF3 and (CH3)3N-B(CH3)3 have been reinvestigated at high resolution by rotational spectroscopy in a supersonic jet. Nuclear hyperfine structure resulting from both nitrogen and boron has been resolved and quadrupole coupling constants have bee...

  6. Unique bar-like sulfur-doped C3N4/TiO2 nanocomposite: Excellent visible light driven photocatalytic activity and mechanism study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Xu, Shiping; Sun, Xiang; Xu, Xing; Gao, Baoyu

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a nanocomposite of TiO2 nanoparticles coupled with sulfur-doped C3N4 (S-C3N4) laminated layer was successfully fabricated using a facile impregnation method and the nanocomposite exhibited superior photocatalytic activity in pollutant removal under visible light irradiation, compared to bare TiO2, g-C3N4 and binary C3N4-TiO2 nanocomposite. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was benefited from the efficient migration and transformation of electron-hole (e--h+) pairs, improved visible light absorption capability, and relatively large specific surface area induce by sulfur doping. Interestingly, the introduction of sulfur changes regulated the morphology of g-C3N4 leading to the formation of ultrathin g-C3N4 layer nanosheet assemblies and unique bar-like g-C3N4/TiO2 nanocomposite, which is beneficial for the outstanding performance of the product. In addition, trapping experiment was carried out to identify the main active species in the photocatalytic reaction over the S-C3N4/TiO2 photocatalyst, and functional mechanism of the composite was proposed. This work may provide new ideas for the fabrication and utilization of highly efficient photocatalyst with excellent visible light response in environmental purification applications.

  7. Mechanical properties and electronic structure of anti-ReO3 structured cubic nitrides, M3N, of d block transition metals M: An ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xiuquan; Gall, Daniel; Khare, Sanjay V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We use DFT to model the anti-ReO 3 structured transition metal nitrides M 3 N. • We predict their lattice constants, electronic structures and mechanical properties. • We correlate the metal d and nitrogen 2p orbitals with stability and hardness. • We established a high-throughput database for materials design. - Abstract: We report a systematic study of the anti-ReO 3 structured transition metal nitrides, M 3 N, using ab initio density functional theory computations in the local density approximation. Here M denotes all the 3d, 4d and 5d transition metals. Our calculations indicate that all M 3 N compounds except V 3 N of group 5 and Zn 3 N and Hg 3 N of group 12 are mechanically stable. For the stable M 3 N compounds, we report a database of predictions for their lattice constants, electronic properties and mechanical properties including bulk modulus, Young’s modulus, shear modulus, ductility, hardness and Debye temperature. It is found that most M 3 N compounds exhibit ductility with Vickers hardness between 0.4 GPa and 11.2 GPa. Our computed lattice constant for Cu 3 N, the only M 3 N compound where experiments exist, agrees well with the experimentally reported values. We report ratios of the melting points of all M 3 N compounds to that of Cu 3 N. The local density of states for all M 3 N compounds are obtained, and electronic band gaps are observed only for M of group 11 (Cu, Ag and Au) while the remaining M 3 N compounds are metallic without band gaps. Valence electron density along with the hybridization of the metal d and nitrogen 2p orbitals play an important role in determining the stability and hardness of different compounds. Our high-throughput databases for the cubic anti-ReO 3 structured transition metal nitrides should motivate future experimental work and shorten the time to their discovery

  8. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic H{sub 2} evolution of metal-free g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiC heterostructured photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Biao, E-mail: wangbiao@fjirsm.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Jingtao, E-mail: zhangjtao@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Huang, Feng, E-mail: huangfeng@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiC composite was prepared by synthesizing g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} on the surface of SiC. • g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiC composites exhibit much higher H{sub 2} production activity than pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiC heterojunction mainly accounts for improved photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} has been attracting much attention for application in visible light photocatalytic water splitting due to its suitable band structure, and high thermal and chemical stability. However, the rapid recombination of photogenerated carriers has inhibited its wide use. For this reason, novel g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiC composites were prepared via in situ synthesis of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} on the surface of SiC, with which g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} shows tight interaction (chemical bonding). The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiC composites exhibit high stability in H{sub 2} production under irradiation with visible light (λ ≥ 420 nm), demonstrating a maximum of 182 μmol g{sup −1} h{sup −1}, being 3.4 times higher than that of pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The enhanced photocatalytic H{sub 2} production ability for g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiC photocatalysts is primarily ascribed to the combined effects of enhanced separation of photogenerated carriers through efficient migration of electron and enlarged surface areas, in addition to the possible contributions of increased hydrophilicity of SiC and polymerization degree of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. This study may provide new insights into the development of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based composites as stable and efficient photocatalysts for H{sub 2} production from water splitting.

  9. A Cost-Effective Solid-State Approach to Synthesize g-C3N4 Coated TiO2 Nanocomposites with Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Fu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4 coated TiO2 nanocomposites were prepared by a facile and cost-effective solid-state method by thermal treatment of the mixture of urea and commercial TiO2. Because the C3N4 was dispersed and coated on the TiO2 nanoparticles, the as-prepared g-C3N4/TiO2 nanocomposites showed enhanced absorption and photocatalytic properties in visible light region. The as-prepared g-C3N4 coated TiO2 nanocomposites under 450°C exhibited efficient visible light photocatalytic activity for degradation of aqueous MB due to the increased visible light absorption and enhanced MB adsorption. The g-C3N4 coated TiO2 nanocomposites would have wide applications in both environmental remediation and solar energy conversion.

  10. The PB2-K627E mutation attenuates H3N2 swine influenza virus in cultured cells and in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao-Qian; Ruan, Bao-Yang; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Xiu-Hui; Wang, Qi; Shan, Tong-Ling; Tong, Wu; Zhou, Yan-Jun; Li, Guo-Xin; Zheng, Hao; Tong, Guang-Zhi; Yu, Hai

    2018-04-01

    PB2-627K is an important amino acid that determines the virulence of some influenza A viruses. However, it has not been experimentally investigated in the H3N2 swine influenza virus. To explore the potential role of PB2-K627E substitution in H3N2 swine influenza virus, the growth properties and pathogenicity between H3N2 swine influenza virus and its PB2-K627E mutant were compared. For the first time, our results showed that PB2-K627E mutation attenuates H3N2 swine influenza virus in mammalian cells and in mice, suggesting that PB2-627K is required for viral replication and pathogenicity of H3N2 swine influenza virus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Short communication: isolation and phylogenetic analysis of an avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus in dog shelter, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shuo; Yuan, Ziguo; Chen, Jidang; Xie, Jiexiong; Li, Huatao; Huang, Zhen; Zhang, Minze; Du, Guohao; Chen, Zhongming; Tu, Liqing; Zou, Yufei; Miao, Junhao; Wang, Hui; Jia, Kun; Li, Shoujun

    2013-06-01

    A H3N2 canine influenza virus, A/canine/Guangdong/3/2011 (H3N2), was isolated from roaming dogs in rural China. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of eight gene segments revealed that the A/canine/Guangdong/3/2011 (H3N2) was most similar to a recent H3N2 canine influenza virus isolated in cats from South Korea, which originated from an avian strain. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an avian-origin H3N2 CIV which was isolated from roaming dogs in China. The epidemiologic information provided herein suggests that continued study is required to determine if this virus could be established in the roaming dog population in rural China and pose potential threats to public health.

  12. Effect of Si3N4 Addition on Oxidation Resistance of ZrB2-SiC Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manab Mallik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation behavior of ZrB2-20 vol % SiC and ZrB2-20 vol % SiC-5 vol % Si3N4 composites prepared by hot-pressing and subjected to isothermal exposure at 1200 or 1300 °C for durations of 24 or 100 h in air, as well as cyclic exposure at 1300 °C for 24 h, have been investigated. The oxidation resistance of the ZrB2-20 vol % SiC composite has been found to improve by around 20%–25% with addition of 5 vol % Si3N4 during isothermal or cyclic exposures at 1200 or 1300 °C. This improvement in oxidation resistance has been attributed to the formation of higher amounts of SiO2 and Si2N2O, as well as a greater amount of continuity in the oxide scale, because these phases assist in closing the pores and lower the severity of cracking by exhibiting self-healing type behavior. For both the composites, the mass changes are found to be higher during cyclic exposure at 1300 °C by about 2 times compared to that under isothermal conditions.

  13. Crystal structure refinement of α-Si3N4 using synchrotron radiation powder diffraction data: unbiased refinement strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toraya, H.

    2000-01-01

    The crystal structure of α-silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ) was refined by the Rietveld method using synchrotron radiation powder diffraction data (wavelength = 1.2 A) collected at station BL-4B2 in the photon factory. A refinement procedure that adopted a new weight function, w = 1/Y o e (Y o is the observed profile intensity and e ≅ 2), for the least-squares fitting [Toraya (1998). J. Appl. Cryst. 31, 333-343] was studied. The most reasonable structural parameters were obtained with e = 1.7. Crystal data of α-Si 3 N 4 : trigonal, P31c, a = 7.75193 (3), c = 5.61949 (4) A, V = 292.447 (3) A 3 , Z = 4; R p = 5.08, R wp = 6.50, R B = 3.36, R F = 2.26%. The following five factors are considered equally important for deriving accurate structural parameters from powder diffraction data: (i) sufficiently large sin θ/λ range of >0.8 A -1 ; (ii) adequate counting statistics; (iii) correct profile model; (iv) proper weighting on observations to give a uniform distribution of the mean weighted squared residuals; (v) high-angular-resolution powder diffraction data. (orig.)

  14. [Ag(NH3)2]Ag(OsO3N)2: a new nitridoosmate(VIII)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickleder, M.S.; Pley, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Dark brown single crystals of [Ag(NH 3 ) 2 ]Ag(OsO 3 N) 2 were obtained from the reaction of Ag 2 CO 3 , OsO 4 , and NH 3 in aqueous solution. The crystal structure was solved in the monoclinic space group C2/m, with the following unit-cell dimensions: a=1962.5(3), b=633.1(1), c=812.6(1) pm, β=96.71(1) deg. The final reliability factor was R=0.0256 for 1034 reflections with I>2σ(I). Linear [Ag(NH 3 ) 2 ] + ions are present oriented perpendicular to the [010] direction, leading to short Ag + -Ag + distances of 316 pm. A second type of Ag + ions in the crystal structure present coordination number '6+1' and are surrounded by oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the nitridoosmate groups. Within the first of the two crystallographically distinguishable anions one can clearly differentiate between oxygen and nitrogen atoms while the second one exhibits a N/O disorder over two positions. The infrared spectrum of [Ag(NH 3 ) 2 ]Ag(OsO 3 N) 2 shows the typical absorptions which can be attributed to the complex anions and the NH 3 ligands

  15. New routes to nitrogen-rich transition metal nitrides: Synthesis of novel polymorphs of Hf3N4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Ashkan; Hector, A.; Gray, B.; Kimber, S.; Bouvier, P.; McMillan, P.

    2013-06-01

    One of the most obvious features of transition metal nitride chemistry is that the maximum formal oxidation state of the metal is rarely as high as in the corresponding oxides or fluorides. Much of the interest in the high oxidation phases stems from the desire to identify the next generation of photocatalytic materials with tuneable bandgaps. Experiments in the laser heated diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) between the direct reaction of metals and nitrogen have previously produced a number of important new main group nitride phases. This technique has also demonstrated its potential for formation of new nitrogen-rich transition metal nitride phases. Alternative methods with the development of ``soft'' routes to new phases with high nitrogen content also offer the possibility of obtaining metastable phases through topotactic conversions. Using LHDAC in situ with synchrotron angle dispersive diffraction techniques we have crystallised at high pressures and temperatures two novel polymorphs of Hf3N4. Starting with an amide-derived nanocrystalline Hf3N4 sample we have identified a novel tetragonal (I4/ m) polymorph at 15 GPa and 1500K and a second high pressure orthorhombic (Pnma) polymorph at 30 GPa and 2000 K. This study demonstrates that the combination of precursor-based synthesis and high-pressure crystallization could be very productive in synthesis of such nitrogen-rich phases.

  16. Theoretical study on the spectroscopic properties of CO3(*-).nH2O clusters: extrapolation to bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Arup K; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Maity, Dilip K

    2008-10-24

    Vertical detachment energies (VDE) and UV/Vis absorption spectra of hydrated carbonate radical anion clusters, CO(3)(*-).nH(2)O (n=1-8), are determined by means of ab initio electronic structure theory. The VDE values of the hydrated clusters are calculated with second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation (MP2) and coupled cluster theory using the 6-311++G(d,p) set of basis functions. The bulk VDE value of an aqueous carbonate radical anion solution is predicted to be 10.6 eV from the calculated weighted average VDE values of the CO(3)(*-).nH(2)O clusters. UV/Vis absorption spectra of the hydrated clusters are calculated by means of time-dependent density functional theory using the Becke three-parameter nonlocal exchange and the Lee-Yang-Parr nonlocal correlation functional (B3LYP). The simulated UV/Vis spectrum of the CO(3)(*-).8H(2)O cluster is in excellent agreement with the reported experimental spectrum for CO(3)(*-) (aq), obtained based on pulse radiolysis experiments.

  17. Mechanism of NO Photocatalytic Oxidationon g-C3N4 Was Changed by Pd-QDs Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhan Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dot (QD sensitization can increase the light absorption and electronic transmission of photocatalysts. However, limited studies have been conducted on the photocatalytic activity of photocatalysts after modification by noble metal QDs. In this study, we developed a simple method for fabricating Pd-QD-modified g-C3N4. Results showed that the modification of Pd-QDs can improve the NO photocatalytic oxidation activity of g-C3N4. Moreover, Pd-QD modification changed the NO oxidation mechanism from the synergistic action of h+ and O2− to the single action of ·OH. We found that the main reason for the mechanism change was that Pd-QD modification changed the molecular oxygen activation pathway from single-electron reduction to two-electron reduction. This study can not only develop a novel strategy for modifying Pd-QDs on the surface of photocatalysts, but also provides insight into the relationship between Pd-QD modification and the NO photocatalytic oxidation activity of semiconductor photocatalysts.

  18. Material development in the SI sub 3 N sub 4 system using glass encapsulated Hip'ing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbin, N.D.; Sundberg, G.J.; Siebein, K.N.; Willkens, C.A.; Pujari, V.K.; Rossi, G.A.; Hansen, J.S.; Chang, C.L.; Hammarstrom, J.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report covers a two-year program to develop fully dense Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} matrix SiC whisker composites with enhanced properties over monolithic Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} materials. The primary goal was to develop a composite with a fracture toughness > 10 MPa{radical}m, capable of using high pressure glass encapsulated HIP'ing. Coating methods were developed to apply thin (<150nm) stoichiometric BN layers to SiC whiskers and also to apply a dual coating of SiC over carbon to the whiskers. Fracture toughness of the composites was determined to increase as the quantity of whiskers (or elongated grains) with their axis perpendicular to the crack plane increased. Of the interface compositions evaluated in this effort, carbon was determined to be the most effective for increasing toughness. The highest toughnesses (6.8--7.0 MPa{radical}m) were obtained with uniaxially aligned carbon coated whiskers. There was no evidence of the carbon coating compromising the oxidation resistance of the composites at 1370{degree}C.

  19. Ammonia Synthesis using Ti and Nb Nitride Nano-particles Prepared by Mesoporous Graphitic C3N4

    KAUST Repository

    Kumagai, Hiromu

    2015-01-22

    TiN and NbN nanoparticles were synthesized from mesoporous graphitic C3N4 (mpg-C3N4) as a reactive template and used as the catalyst for ammonia synthesis. The obtained TiN and NbN nanoparticles possess high surface areas of 299 and 275 m2 g-1, respectively, making them attractive in the use of catalysis and support. Although most of the TiN and NbN particles show no measurable activity for ammonia formation, the nanoparticles enabled an ammonia synthesis rate of 31 μmol h-1 g-cat-1 at 673 K and 0.1 MPa of synthesis gas (N2 + 3H2) for both TiN and NbN catalysts. It is evident that the formation of nanoparticles with high nitride surface area is essential for the materials to function as catalysts in ammonia synthesis. The addition of Fe to TiN enhanced the ammonia synthesis activity, whereas it had detrimental effects on the catalytic activity of NbN. The properties of these catalysts in ammonia synthesis are discussed.

  20. Serological characterization of guinea pigs infected with H3N2 human influenza or immunized with hemagglutinin protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushnell Ruth V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent and previous studies have shown that guinea pigs can be infected with, and transmit, human influenza viruses. Therefore guinea pig may be a useful animal model for better understanding influenza infection and assessing vaccine strategies. To more fully characterize the model, antibody responses following either infection/re-infection with human influenza A/Wyoming/03/2003 H3N2 or immunization with its homologous recombinant hemagglutinin (HA protein were studied. Results Serological samples were collected and tested for anti-HA immunoglobulin by ELISA, antiviral antibodies by hemagglutination inhibition (HI, and recognition of linear epitopes by peptide scanning (PepScan. Animals inoculated with infectious virus demonstrated pronounced viral replication and subsequent serological conversion. Animals either immunized with the homologous HA antigen or infected, showed a relatively rapid rise in antibody titers to the HA glycoprotein in ELISA assays. Antiviral antibodies, measured by HI assay, were detectable after the second inoculation. PepScan data identified both previously recognized and newly defined linear epitopes. Conclusions Infection and/or recombinant HA immunization of guinea pigs with H3N2 Wyoming influenza virus resulted in a relatively rapid production of viral-specific antibody thus demonstrating the strong immunogenicity of the major viral structural proteins in this animal model for influenza infection. The sensitivity of the immune response supports the utility of the guinea pig as a useful animal model of influenza infection and immunization.

  1. Electrical properties of MBE grown Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-cubic GaN MIS structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zado, A.; Lischka, K.; As, D.J. [University of Paderborn, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Warburger Str. 100, 33098 Paderborn (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    In this work we report on the electrical characterization of non-polar cubic GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} layers were deposited in-situ on top of cubic GaN grown on 3C-SiC (001) substrates. The electric characteristics of the MIS structures are measured by capacitance and admittance spectroscopy techniques. From the hysteresis in the capacitance-voltage curves and the peak height of the conductance G{sub p} -{omega} frequency curves the interface state densities are calculated. We find interface traps about 0.3 eV below the conduction band. The density of these traps is D{sub it} = 2.5x10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}eV{sup -1}. This is one order of magnitude lower than in MIS structures with a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} insulator produced by plasma enhanced vapour deposition and two orders of magnitude lower than in MIS structures on c-GaN with SiO{sub 2} as insulator (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Analysis of the properties of silicon nitride based ceramic (Si_3N_4) cutting tool using different addictive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Joaquim Lopes; Souza, Jose Vitor Candido de; Raymundo, Emerson Augusto; Silva, Oliverio Macedo Moreira

    2013-01-01

    The constant search for new materials is part of the scientific and technological development of the industries. Ceramic been presenting important developments in terms of scientific and technological development, highlighting the predominance of covalent ceramics, which has important applications where abrasion resistance and hardness are required. Between covalent materials, several research papers in search of property improvements and cost reduction. However the production of ceramics of silicon nitride (Si_3N_4) with a reduced cost is possible only if used methods and different additives. The aim of this work is the development of compositions based on silicon nitride (Si_3N_4) using different additives such as Y_2O_3, CeO_2, Al_2O_3 , and CTR_2O_3 in varying amounts. For the development of ceramics, the mixtures were homogenized, dried, compacted and sintered using the sintering process of 1850°C for 1 hour, with a heating rate of 25°C/min. The characterizations were performed as a function of relative density by Archimedes method, the mass loss measured before and after sintering, phase analysis by X-ray diffraction, microstructure by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and hardness and fracture toughness indentation method. The results showed relative density 97-98, Vickers hardness 17-19 GPa, fracture toughness from 5.6 to 6.8 MPa.m"1"/"2. The different phases were obtained depending on the types of additives used. The obtained results are promising for tribological applications. (author)

  3. Cu-modified alkalinized g-C3N4 as photocatalytically assisted heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qimei; Chen, Yingying; Wang, Lingli; Ai, Shasha; Ding, Hanming

    2017-12-01

    Alkalinized graphitic carbon nitride (CNK-OH) has been synthesized by one-step thermal poly-condensation method, and Cu-modified alkalinized g-C3N4 (Cu-CNK-OH) has been prepared by impregnation approach over CNK-OH. These copper species in Cu-CNK-OH are embedded in the frame of CNK-OH mostly via the Cu-N bonds. Cu-CNK-OH has been employed as a heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst to degrade rhodamine B (RhB). Both the production efficiency of hydroxyl radicals and the transformation rate of Cu(II)/Cu(I) redox pair increase under visible-light irradiation. As a result, Cu-CNK-OH exhibits improved Fenton-like catalytic activity on the degradation of RhB. The synergetic interaction between Fenton-like process and photocatalytic process also contributes such improvement. The hydroxyl radicals and holes are the major reactive species in the photocatalytically assisted Fenton-like process. This study provides a valuable strategy for metal modification of alkalinized g-C3N4 with enhanced Fenton-like catalytic performance for the degradation of organic contaminants.

  4. Bottom-up substitution assembly of AuF4-n0,-+nPO3 (n = 1-4): a theoretical study of novel oxyfluoride hyperhalogen molecules and anions AuF4-n(PO3)n0,-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-fan; Cui, Zhong-hua; Ding, Yi-hong

    2014-06-01

    Compounds with high electron affinity, i.e. superhalogens, have continued to attract chemists' attention, due to their potential importance in fundamental chemistry and materials science. It has now proven very effective to build up novel superhalogens with multi-positively charged centres, which are usually called 'hyperhalogens'. Herein, using AuF4- and PO3 as the model building blocks, we made the first attempt to design the Au,P-based hyperhalogen anions AuF4-n(PO3)n- (n = 1-4) at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d)&SDD and CCSD(T)/6-311+G(d)&SDD (single-point) levels (6-311+G(d) for O, F, P and SDD for Au). Notably, for all the considered Au,P systems, the ground state bears a dioxo-bonded structure with n ≤ 3, which is significantly more stable than the usually presumed mono-oxo-bonded one. Moreover, the clustering of the -PO3 moieties becomes energetically favoured for n ≥ 3. The ground states of AuP4O120,- are the first reported cage-like oxide hyperhalogens. Thus, the -PO3 moiety cannot be retained during the 'bottom-up' assembly. The vertical detachment energy (VDE) value of the most stable AuF4-n(PO3)n- (n = 1-4) ranges from 7.16 to 8.20 eV, higher than the VDE values of the corresponding building blocks AuF4- (7.08 eV) and PO3- (4.69 eV). The adiabatic detachment energy values of these four hyperhalogens exceed 6.00 eV. Possible generation routes for AuF4-n(PO3)n- (n = 1-4) were discussed. The presently designed oxyfluorides not only enriches the family of hyperhalogens, but also demonstrates the great importance of considering the structural transformation during the superhalogen → hyperhalogen design such as for the present Au-P based systems.

  5. Synthesis of MoS_2/g-C_3N_4 nanosheets as 2D heterojunction photocatalysts with enhanced visible light activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Juan; Liu, Enzhou; Ma, Yongning; Hu, Xiaoyun; Wan, Jun; Sun, Lin; Fan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: TEM image and schematic diagram of photocatalytic mechanism of 2D MoS_2/g-C_3N_4 composites. - Highlights: • g-C_3N_4 nanosheets coupled with MoS_2 nanosheets as 2D heterojunction photocatalysts were synthesized successfully. • The 2D MoS_2/g-C_3N_4 heterojunctions show higher photocatalytic activity than pure g-C_3N_4. • The photocatalytic mechanism of the 2D MoS_2/g-C_3N_4 heterojunction was described. - Abstract: g-C_3N_4 nanosheets coupled with MoS_2 nanosheets as 2D heteroconjuction were prepared via a facile impregnation and calcination method. The structure characterization clearly indicated that MoS_2 nanosheets were successfully horizontal loaded on g-C_3N_4 nanosheets. The investigation indicated that the formation of 2D heterojunction between the g-C_3N_4 nanosheets and MoS_2 nanosheets promoted the charge transfer and enhanced separation efficiency of photoinduced electron–hole pairs. Furthermore, the measurement of photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B and methyl orange revealed that the as-prepared 2D MoS_2/g-C_3N_4 heterojunction exhibited the significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity and considerable stability under visible light irradiation. The 2D MoS_2/g-C_3N_4 heterojunction prepared with 3 wt% of MoS_2 exhibited the optimal photodegradable efficiency. The present work shows that the formation of 2D heterojunction should be a good strategy to design efficient photocatalysts.

  6. Survival of T4aN0 and T3N+ laryngeal cancer patients: a retrospective institutional study and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoueir, Nadim; Matar, Nayla; Farah, Chadi; Francis, Evana; Tabchy, Bassam; Haddad, Amine

    2015-01-01

    We aim to assess the correlation of tumor and nodal staging to survival in pT3N+ and T4aN0 laryngeal cancer with subgroup analysis within stage IVa (pT4N0 and pT3N2). Retrospective cohort study with systematic review of the literature. Hotel Dieu de France University Hospital (tertiary referral center). Laryngeal cancer patients' registries were reviewed from 1998 to 2012 selecting pT3N+ and pT4aN0 patients treated by primary total layngectomy. Overall survivals were compared using Log rank and Kaplan-Meier analysis. A systematic review was performed by 2 reviewers including all the articles reporting the outcome of these categories of patients. Online databases, including PubMed and EMBASE, were used. Reference sections of identified studies were examined for additional articles. Thirteen T3N+ patients and 19 T4aN0 patients treated by primary total laryngectomy were included. Five-year overall survival for T3N+, T3N2 and T4aN0 was respectively 33%, 32.1% and 73.7%. Due to the small sample, the difference was not significant. The systematic review revealed three articles reporting overall survival outcome for the T4N0 group and 6 articles for the T3N+. At 5years, the survival ranged from 62.5% to 73% in T4N0 and from 32.2% to 77% in T3N+. In advanced stage laryngeal cancer, T4aN0 tends toward a better survival than T3N+ especially when compared to T3N2 although they are grouped in the same TNM stage IVa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhanced genetic characterization of influenza A(H3N2) viruses and vaccine effectiveness by genetic group, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Brendan; Zimmerman, Richard K.; Gubareva, Larisa V.; Garten, Rebecca J.; Chung, Jessie R.; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Jackson, Michael L.; Jackson, Lisa A.; Monto, Arnold S.; Ohmit, Suzanne E.; Belongia, Edward A.; McLean, Huong Q.; Gaglani, Manjusha; Piedra, Pedro A.; Mishin, Vasiliy P.; Chesnokov, Anton P.; Spencer, Sarah; Thaker, Swathi N.; Barnes, John R.; Foust, Angie; Sessions, Wendy; Xu, Xiyan; Katz, Jacqueline; Fry, Alicia M.

    2018-01-01

    Background During the 2014–15 US influenza season, expanded genetic characterization of circulating influenza A(H3N2) viruses was used to assess the impact of genetic variability of influenza A(H3N2) viruses on influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). Methods A novel pyrosequencing assay was used to determine genetic group based on hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences of influenza A(H3N2) viruses from patients enrolled US Flu Vaccine Effectiveness network sites. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated using a test-negative design comparing vaccination among patients infected with influenza A(H3N2) viruses and uninfected patients. Results Among 9710 enrollees, 1868 (19%) tested positive for influenza A(H3N2); genetic characterization of 1397 viruses showed 1134 (81%) belonged to one HA genetic group (3C.2a) of antigenically drifted H3N2 viruses. Effectiveness of 2014–15 influenza vaccination varied by A(H3N2) genetic group from 1% (95% confidence interval [CI], −14% to 14%) against illness caused by antigenically drifted A(H3N2) group 3C.2a viruses versus 44% (95% CI, 16% to 63%) against illness caused by vaccine-like A(H3N2) group 3C.3b viruses. Conclusion Effectiveness of 2014–15 influenza vaccination varied by genetic group of influenza A(H3N2) virus. Changes in hemagglutinin genes related to antigenic drift were associated with reduced vaccine effectiveness. PMID:27190176

  8. Calorimetric determination of enthalpy changes for the proton ionization of 3-[N-morpholino]propanesulfonic acid (MOPS), 4-[N-morpholino]butanesulfonic acid (MOBS) and 3-[N-morpholino]-2-hydroxypropanesulfonic acid (MOPSO) in water-methanol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jumean, F.H.; Abdo, N.M.; Khamis, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Two-stage proton ionizations for three N-substituted sulfonic acid derivatives of morpholine. → ΔH 1 and ΔH 2 in x methanol = 0-0.360 measured for MOPS, MOBS and MOPSO. → In water, ΔH 1 = ±1.2 kJ mol -1 , ΔH 2 range 20.7-26.3 kJ mol -1 . → Methanol addition had little effect on ΔH 1 but ΔH 2 rose steadily to 32.2 kJ mol -1 . → Results related to molecular and solvent parameters. - Abstract: Proton ionization enthalpies for three structurally related biological buffers, each with two ionizable protons, were determined using solution calorimetry. These buffers are 3-[N-morpholino]propanesulfonic acid (MOPS), 4-[N-morpholino]butanesulfonic acid (MOBS) and 3-[N-morpholino]-2-hydroxypropanesulfonic acid (MOPSO). Enthalpies were obtained in water-methanol mixtures with methanol mole fraction (X m ) from 0 to 0.360. The first ionization enthalpy (ΔH 1 ) of all buffers was small (±1.2 kJ mol -1 ) at all solvent compositions. The second ionization enthalpy (ΔH 2 ) increased steadily with X m , rising from 20.7 to 25.6 kJ mol -1 for MOPS, 26.3-31.0 kJ mol -1 for MOBS and 23.5-32.2 kJ mol -1 for MOPSO. The results were compared to those for related biological buffers. The observed variations were interpreted in terms of solvent-solvent and solvent-solute interactions.

  9. Construction of g-C_3N_4/Al_2O_3 hybrids via in-situ acidification and exfoliation with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiao-jing; Liu, Chao; Li, Xu-li; Li, Fa-tang; Li, Yu-pei; Zhao, Jun; Liu, Rui-hong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultrathin g-C_3N_4/Al_2O_3 hybrids are prepared via in-situ reaction. • The structure modification role of in-situ formed HNO_3 for g-C_3N_4 is found. • The ultrathin g-C_3N_4 nanosheets are formed by the acidified melamine and Al(OH)_3. • In-situ calcination of melamine and Al(OH)_3 benefits the contact of C_3N_4 and Al_2O_3. • The activity of g-C_3N_4/Al_2O_3 is 16.6 times that of pristine g-C_3N_4 in degrading RhB. - Abstract: Homogeneous ultrathin g-C_3N_4 nanosheets/Al_2O_3 heterojunctions are synthesized using melamine and Al(NO_3)_3 via in-situ reaction and the following thermal polymerization approach. The in-situ reaction between melamine and Al(NO_3)_3 results in the existence of HNO_3-acidified melamine and Al(OH)_3 aggregates via the hydrolysis of Al(NO_3)_3. After thermal polymerization, the aggregates are converted to g-C_3N_4/Al_2O_3 composites. The thermal polymerization of acidified melamine and the support effect of aluminum hydroxide for g-C_3N_4 during the calcination process lead to highly dispersed amrophous Al_2O_3 on ultrathin g-C_3N_4 nanosheets, which is beneficial for the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in the heterojunction. The degradation rate for Rhodamine B (RhB) over the most activie sample is 16.6 times than that of pristine g-C_3N_4 under visible light irradiation, which can be attributed to the high specific surface area, highly dispersion of amorphous Al_2O_3 on ultrathin g-C_3N_4 nanosheet, and the effective electrons transfer from g-C_3N_4 to the amorphous Al_2O_3.

  10. The inverse perovskite nitrides (Sr{sub 3}N{sub 2/3-x})Sn, (Sr{sub 3}N{sub 2/3-x})Pb, and (Sr{sub 3}N)Sb. Flux crystal growth, crystal structures, and physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, Manisha; Bobnar, Matej; Ormeci, Alim; Prots, Yurii; Hoehn, Peter [Chemische Metallkunde, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Dresden (Germany); Stoiber, Dominik; Niewa, Rainer [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    Black single crystals with metallic luster of (Sr{sub 3}N{sub 2/3-x})E (E = Sn, Pb) and (Sr{sub 3}N)Sb were grown in lithium flux from strontium nitride, Sr{sub 2}N, and tin, lead, or antimony, respectively. Nitrogen deficiency in the tin and the lead compound is a result of the higher ionic charge of the tetrelide ions E{sup 4-} as compared to the antimonide ion Sb{sup 3-}. In contrast to microcrystalline samples from solid state sinter reactions obtained earlier, the flux synthesis induces nitrogen order in the nitrogen deficient tetrelides. The antimony compound crystallizes as inverse cubic perovskite [a = 517.22(5) pm, Z = 1, space group Pm3m, no. 221] with fully occupied nitrogen site, whereas the nitrogen deficient tin and lead compounds exhibit partially ordered arrangements and a certain phase width in respect to nitrogen contents. For the tetrelides, the nitrogen order leads to a cubic 2 x 2 x 2 superstructure [E = Sn: a = 1045.64(8) pm for x = 0, a = 1047.08(7) pm for x = 0.08; and E = Pb: a = 1050.7(1) pm for x = 0, space group Fm3m, no. 225] as derived from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The metallic tetrelides show diamagnetic behavior, which is consistent with electronic structure calculations. (copyright 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Role of Neck Dissection in Clinical T3N0M0 Lesion of Oral Cavity: Changing Trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Arjun; Singhal, Surinder K; Punia, Rps; Gupta, Nitin; Verma, Hitesh; Budhiraja, Shilpi; Salaria, Minakshi

    2017-08-01

    Neck dissection is an important part in the management of head and neck malignancies especially in terms of control of nodal metastasis. The study is focused on evaluating the profile of lymph nodes in T 3 N 0 M 0 lesion of different subsides of oral cavity. To evaluate the utility of neck dissection in T 3 N 0 M 0 stage of carcinomas of the different region of oral cavity. Ninety patients aged 20 to 70 years underwent treatment for carcinoma of the oral cavity at our center between 2005 and 2013. Of these, 39 patients were stage T 3 N 0 M 0 and underwent excision of the primary lesion with neck dissection. The data were collected retrospectively from hospital record library. These patients were evaluated clinically, radiologically and compared with intra operative finding. Addition of radiotherapy was decided on final histopathology. Out of 39 patients, the site of primary tumour in 21 patients was tongue, in 13 patients was Buccal Mucosa (BM), in 2 patients was lip and in 3 patients was Floor of Mouth (FOM) with tongue. In patients with clinically negative neck nodes, ultrasonography and intra-operative examination revealed the presence of suspicious nodes in 35.9% and 30.7% cases respectively. Occult metastasis in the nodes was identified on histopathological examination in 15 patients (38.5%). A total of 14 patients of carcinoma of tongue and one patient of BM showed positive nodes on histopathology. These patients with positive neck nodes on histopathology, were sent for postoperative radiotherapy. At follow up examination, four patients showed local and distal recurrence and they were managed accordingly. Out of 39 patients, 11 patients of BM, 2 patients of lip, 1 patient of FOM and 6 patients of tongue were disease free in last follow up. Selective neck dissection is an effective therapeutic intervention in patients without clinically involved neck nodes. It can upstage the tumour and additional treatment may be advised. In patients with carcinoma of buccal

  12. Photoluminescence related to Gd3+:N-vacancy complex in GaN:Gd multi-quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almokhtar, Mohamed; Emura, Shuichi; Koide, Akihiro; Fujikawa, Takashi; Asahi, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We grew Gd-doped GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) with quantum layer thickness of one nm by MBE. • The X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra observed at Gd LIII-edge indicate a nitrogen vacancy adjacent to Gd substituting the Ga ion in Gd-doped GaN MQW. • The photoluminescence of the samples is discussed considering the formation of a Gd 3+ :Nitrogen-vacancy complex. • A model is presented considering exciton-polaron formation trapped in defect sites around the Gd 3+ :N-vacancy complex in Gd-doped GaN MQWs. - Abstract: The photoluminescence of Gd-doped GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) is presented and discussed considering the formation of a Gd 3+ :Nitrogen-vacancy (N-vacancy) complex. A lower energy photoluminescence peak was observed for the Gd-doped GaN MQW sample with respect to the main peak assigned to a neutral donor bound exciton (D 0 X) of the undoped GaN MQW sample. The X-ray absorption near edge structure spectrum observed at Gd L III -edge indicates a nitrogen vacancy adjacent to the Gd substituting the Ga ion in Gd-doped GaN MQW sample. Local stresses around the Gd dopants in Gd-doped GaN matrix generated due to the larger diameter of the Gd 3+ ion with respect to the Ga 3+ ion can be relieved by the creation of vacancies. The lower formation energy of N-vacancies in GaN matrix introduce them as a preferred candidate to relieve the generated stresses. A Gd 3+ :N-vacancy complex consisting of a Gd 3+ ion and the created nitrogen vacancy adjacent to the Gd 3+ dopant is likely to form in GaN:Gd matrix. The lower photoluminescence peak energy observed in the Gd-doped GaN MQW sample is assigned to the recombination of an exciton captured at the Gd 3+ :N-vacancy complex forming a small polaron-like state. A model is presented considering the small exciton-polaron population in defect sites captured around the Gd 3+ ions in the Gd-doped GaN

  13. Computational study on the half-metallicity in transition metal—oxide-incorporated 2D g-C3N4 nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qian; Wang, Hui-Li; Zhang, Li-Fu; Hu, Shuang-Lin; Hu, Zhen-Peng

    2018-06-01

    In this study, based on the first-principles calculations, we systematically investigated the electronic and magnetic properties of the transition metal-oxide-incorporated 2D g-C3N4 nanosheet (labeled C3N4-TM-O, TM = Sc-Mn). The results suggest that the TM-O binds to g-C3N4 nanosheets strongly for all systems. We found that the 2D C3N4-TM-O framework is ferromagnetic for TM = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, while it is antiferromagnetic for TM = Mn. All the ferromagnetic systems exhibit the half-metallic property. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulations based on the Heisenberg model suggest that the Curie temperatures ( T c ) of the C3N4-TM-O (TM = Sc, Ti, V, Cr) framework are 169 K, 68 K, 203 K, and 190 K, respectively. Based on Bader charge analysis, we found that the origin of the half-metallicity at Fermi energy can be partially attributed to the transfer of electrons from TM atoms to the g-C3N4 nanosheet. In addition, we found that not only electrons but also holes can induce half-metallicity for 2D g-C3N4 nanosheets, which may help to understand the origin of half-metallicity for graphitic carbon nitride.

  14. UV-light-assisted ethanol sensing characteristics of g-C3N4/ZnO composites at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jiali; Wang, Tao; Wang, Chuang; Liu, Dechen

    2018-05-01

    A highly efficient UV-light-assisted room temperature sensor based on g-C3N4/ZnO composites were prepared by an in situ precipitation method. The thermostability, composition, structure, and morphology properties of the as-prepared g-C3N4/ZnO composites were characterized by TGA, XRD, FT-IR, TEM, and XPS, respectively. And then, we studied the ethanol (C2H5OH) sensing performance of the g-C3N4/ZnO composites at the room temperature. Compared with pure ZnO and g-C3N4, the gas sensing activity of g-C3N4/ZnO composites was greatly improved at room temperature, for example, the g-C3N4/ZnO-8% composites showed an obvious response of 121-40 ppm C2H5OH at room temperature, which was 60 times higher than the pure ZnO based on the sensors under the same condition. The great enhancement of the C2H5OH sensing properties of composites can be understood by the efficient separation of photogenerated charge carriers of g-C3N4/ZnO heterogeneous and the UV-light catalytic effect. Finally, a possible mechanism for the gas sensing activity was proposed.

  15. Corrosion behavior of nanostructured Ni-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite films: A study of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.M.; Cai, C.; Xue, M.Z.; Liu, Y.G. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Yin, J.Y.; Zhang, Z. [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory for Light Alloy Materials Technology, JiaXing (China); Li, J.F. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha (China); Yang, J.F. [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University (China)

    2012-07-15

    Ni-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposite films with both the consecutive Ni crystallites and dispersed Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} particles in the nanometer range have been fabricated using DC electroplating technique, and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The corrosion resistance of the Ni-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposite film has been compared to that of pure Ni coating through polarization. Meanwhile, the corrosion process of Ni-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposite film in neutral 3.5% NaCl solution has been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that the Ni-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposite film is more resistant to corrosion than the pure Ni coating. The corrosion of Ni-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposite film is controlled by electrochemical step, and the whole corrosion process is divided into two sequential stages. The main corrosion type of Ni-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposite films in neutral 3.5% NaCl solution is pitting. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Enhanced photocatalytic property of hybrid graphitic C3N4 and graphitic ZnO nanocomposite: the effects of interface and doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jie; Liang, Shuhua; Sun, Shaodong; Zheng, Xing; Zhang, Jianmin

    2018-05-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we present a potential new way to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of the g-C3N4 sheet by coupling with the g-ZnO sheet to form heterojunction nanostructure followed by the addition of N atom at an atomic level. The result indicates the g-C3N4/g-ZnO heterojunction is a staggered band alignment (type II) structure and a polarized field is generated by the electrons transfer across the interface simultaneously, which facilitate the separation of e‑–h+ pairs and promote the photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, a great difference in energy levels between redox potentials and band edges of the C3N4/g-ZnO nanocomposite ensures that the water splitting/CO2 reduction reaction is energetically favored. In addition, through the incorporation of nitrogen dopant, the g-C3N4/N-g-ZnO nanocomposite displays desirable properties. The N-derived doping peak causes a decrease of the band gap width of the g-C3N4/g-ZnO nanocomposite, resulting in the enhanced optical absorption from UV into visible light. This theoretical predictions provide insightful outlooks in understanding the effects of interface and doping on the enhanced photocatalytic property of the g-C3N4/g-ZnO nanocomposites, which will assist in engineering highly efficient g-C3N4-based photocatalysts.

  17. Highly Enhanced Photoreductive Degradation of Polybromodiphenyl Ethers with g-C3N4/TiO2 under Visible Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Ye

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of high activity photocatalysts g-C3N4-TiO2 were synthesized by simple one-pot thermal transformation method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET surface area, and ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis-DRS. The g-C3N4-TiO2 samples show highly improved photoreductive capability for the degradation of polybromodiphenyl ethers compared with g-C3N4 under visible light irradiation. Among all the hybrids, 0.02-C3N4-TiO2 with 2 wt % g-C3N4 loaded shows the highest reaction rate, which is 15 times as high as that in bare g-C3N4. The well-matched band gaps in heterojunction g-C3N4-TiO2 not only strengthen the absorption intensity, but also show more effective charge carrier separation, which results in the highly enhanced photoreductive performance under visible light irradiation. The trapping experiments show that holetrapping agents largely affect the reaction rate. The rate of electron accumulation in the conductive band is the rate-determining step in the degradation reaction. A possible photoreductive mechanism has been proposed.

  18. Trends in (LaMnO3)n/(SrTiO3)m superlattices with varying layer thicknesses

    KAUST Repository

    Jilili, J.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the thickness dependence of the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of (LaMnO3)n/(SrTiO3)m (n, m = 2, 4, 6, 8) superlattices using density functional theory. The electronic structure turns out to be highly sensitive to the onsite Coulomb interaction. In contrast to bulk SrTiO3, strongly distorted O octahedra are observed in the SrTiO3 layers with a systematic off centering of the Ti atoms. The systems favour ferromagnetic spin ordering rather than the antiferromagnetic spin ordering of bulk LaMnO3 and all show half-metallicity, while a systematic reduction of the minority spin band gaps as a function of the LaMnO3 and SrTiO3 layer thicknesses originates from modifications of the Ti dxy states.

  19. From ionic liquid to electrolyte solution: dynamics of 1-N-butyl-3-N-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/dichloromethane mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Johannes; Stoppa, Alexander; Buchner, Richard; Hefter, Glenn

    2008-10-16

    Dielectric spectra have been measured at 25 degrees C for mixtures of the room temperature ionic liquid 1- N-butyl-3- N-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (IL) with dichloromethane (DCM) over the entire composition range at frequencies 0.2 less than or approximately nu/GHz < or = 89. The spectra could be satisfactorily fitted by assuming only two relaxation modes: a Cole-Cole process at lower frequencies and a Debye process at higher frequencies. However, detailed analysis indicated that both spectral features contain additional modes, which could not be resolved due to overlaps. The spectra indicate that the IL appears to retain its chemical character to extraordinarily high levels of dilution ( x IL greater than or approximately 0.5) in DCM. At even higher dilutions ( x IL less than or approximately 0.3), the IL behaves as a conventional but strongly associated electrolyte.

  20. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 3}N{sub 2}(0 0 1) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Sánchez, J., E-mail: guerrero@ifuap.buap.mx [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Instituto de Física “Ing Luis Rivera Terrazas”, Apartado Postal J-48, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Mandru, Andrada-Oana; Wang, Kangkang [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Takeuchi, Noboru [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 14, Ensenada, Baja California, Codigo Postal 22800 (Mexico); Cocoletzi, Gregorio H. [Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Instituto de Física “Ing Luis Rivera Terrazas”, Apartado Postal J-48, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Smith, Arthur R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Spin-polarized first-principles total energy calculations have been performed to study the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 3}N{sub 2}(0 0 1) surfaces. It is found that three surface terminations are energetically stable, in agreement with previous scanning tunneling microscopy experiments that have found three different electronic contrasts in their images. It is also found that in all three cases, the topmost layer has a MnN stoichiometry. Density of states calculations show a metallic behavior for all the stable structures with the most important contribution close to the Fermi level coming from the Mn-d orbitals. Our Tersoff–Hamann scanning tunneling microscopy simulations are in good agreement with previous experimental results.

  1. Electrochemical formation of AlN in molten LiCl-KCl-Li{sub 3}N systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Takuya [Department of Fundamental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: goto@energy.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Iwaki, Takayuki [Department of Fundamental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Ito, Yasuhiko [Department of Fundamental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2005-01-30

    Electrochemical formation of aluminum nitride was investigated in molten LiCl-KCl-Li{sub 3}N systems at 723 K. When Al was anodically polarized at 1.0 V (versus Li{sup +}/Li), oxidation of nitride ions proceeded to form adsorbed nitrogen atoms, which reacted with the surface to form AlN film. The obtained nitrided film had a thickness of sub-micron order. The obtained nitrided layer consisted of two regions; the outer layer involving AlN and aluminum oxynitride and the inner layer involving metallic Al and AlN. When Al electrode was anodically polarized at 2.0 V, anodic dissolution of Al electrode occurred to give aluminum ions, which reacted with nitride ions in the melt to produce AlN particles (1-5 {mu}m of diameter) of wurtzite structure.

  2. Negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy of solvated electron cluster anions, (H2O)n- and (NH3)n-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, G.H.; Arnold, S.T.; Eaton, J.G; Sarkas, H.W.; Bowen, K.H.; Ludewigt, C.; Haberland, H.

    1991-01-01

    The photodetachment spectra of (H 2 O) - n=2-69 and (NH 3 ) - n=41-1100 have been recorded, and vertical detachment energies (VDEs) were obtained from the spectra. For both systems, the cluster anion VDEs increase smoothly with increasing sizes and most species plot linearly with n -1/3 , extrapolating to a VDE (n = ∞) value which is very close to the photoelectric threshold energy for the corresponding condensed phase solvated electron system. The linear extrapolation of this data to the analogous condensed phase property suggests that these cluster anions are gas phase counterparts to solvated electrons, i.e. they are embryonic forms of hydrated and ammoniated electrons which mature with increasing cluster size toward condensed phase solvated electrons. (orig.)

  3. Negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy of solvated electron cluster anions, (H2O){/n -} and (NH3){/n -}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G. H.; Arnold, S. T.; Eaton, J. G.; Sarkas, H. W.; Bowen, K. H.; Ludewigt, C.; Haberland, H.

    1991-03-01

    The photodetachment spectra of (H2O){/n =2-69/-} and (NH3){/n =41-1100/-} have been recorded, and vertical detachment energies (VDEs) were obtained from the spectra. For both systems, the cluster anion VDEs increase smoothly with increasing sizes and most species plot linearly with n -1/3, extrapolating to a VDE ( n=∞) value which is very close to the photoelectric threshold energy for the corresponding condensed phase solvated electron system. The linear extrapolation of this data to the analogous condensed phase property suggests that these cluster anions are gas phase counterparts to solvated electrons, i.e. they are embryonic forms of hydrated and ammoniated electrons which mature with increasing cluster size toward condensed phase solvated electrons.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and metal adsorption properties of the new ion exchanger polymer 3-n-propyl(4-methylpyridinium) silsesquioxane chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magosso, H A; Panteleimonov, A V; Kholin, Y V; Gushikem, Y

    2006-11-01

    The preparation and anion exchange properties of 3-n-propyl(4-methylpyridinium) silsesquioxane chloride polymer are described. This new polymer was prepared by the sol-gel processing method and is designated as SiPic+Cl-. It is insoluble in water and showed an anion exchange capacity of 1.46x10(-3) mol g-1. The adsorption isotherms of ZnCl2, CdCl2 and HgCl2 were determined from aqueous solutions and the adsorption equilibria simulations fit the model of fixed bidentate centers with the absence of lateral interactions and energetic heterogeneity between them. The metal ions diffuse into the solid solution interface and are dominantly present as MCl2-(4) species for Zn(II), MCl(2-)4 and MCl-3 species for Cd(II) and MCl-3 species for Hg(II).

  5. ynthesis, theoretical study on Zinc (II and Ni(II complexes of 5-methoxyisatin 3-[N-(4-chlorophenyl thiosemicarbazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Kandemirli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Zinc(II and nickel(II-complexes of 5-methoxyisatin 3-[N-(4-chlorophenyl thiosemicarbazone] (H2MICP were synthesized and characterized by infrared, ultraviolet and 1H-NMR spectroscopies as well as elemental analysis. Model of H2MICP and its zinc(II and nickel(II-complexes were optimized with B3LYP method using 6-31G(d,p, 6-311G(d,p, 6-311++G(d,p, 6-311++G(2d,2p basis sets. The calculated 1H-NMR, UV and IR spectra data were compared with experimental results. In addition to the Natural Bond Orbital (NBO analysis of H2MICP and its Zinc(II and Nickel(II complexes, Fukui functions of H2MICP were also reported.

  6. Ultra-thin g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets wrapped silicon nanowire array for improved chemical stability and enhanced photoresponse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Beibei; Yu, Hongtao; Quan, Xie, E-mail: quanxie@dlut.edu.cn; Chen, Shuo

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, as an oxygen free and metal free protective material for Si, was proposed. • g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets wrapped Si nanowire array was synthesized. • SiNW/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} exhibited enhancement of photoelectrochemical stability and photocurrent. - Abstract: In order to inhibit the oxidation of Si materials in aqueous solution, Si nanowire array was wrapped by ultra-thin g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets via an electrophoresis process. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets were evenly distributed on the surface of Si nanowire array. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that Si nanowire array/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets were composed of Si (4 0 0 crystal plane) and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (0 0 2 and 1 0 0 crystal planes). The cyclic voltammetry curves revealed that the corrosion of Si nanowire array was restrained under the protection of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets. Furthermore, the photocurrent density of Si nanowire array/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets increased by nearly 3 times compared to that of bare Si nanowire array due to the effective charge separation caused by the built-in electric field at the interface. This work will facilitate the applications of Si materials in aqueous solution, such as solar energy harvest and photocatalytic pollution control.

  7. Effect of template-induced surface species on electronic structure and photocatalytic activity of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yu; Guo, Xiaojuan; Bo, Xiangkun; Wang, Yongzheng [Key Lab of Mesoscopic Chemistry MOE, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Guo, Xiangke [Key Lab of Mesoscopic Chemistry MOE, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Processing and Application of Catalytic Materials, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000 (China); Xie, Mingjiang, E-mail: xiemingjiang@hotmail.com [Key Lab of Mesoscopic Chemistry MOE, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Guo, Xuefeng, E-mail: guoxf@nju.edu.cn [Key Lab of Mesoscopic Chemistry MOE, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Processing and Application of Catalytic Materials, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • The effect of template on the surface chemistry of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} were investigated. • Template induces more non-graphitic species (sp{sup 3}−C−C− and −NH{sub x}) on g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • Non-graphitic species influence electronic structure and performance of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. - Abstract: In view of the fact that the photocatalytic activity of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) is greatly influenced by its electronic structure, herein, effect of templates induced surface species variation on the electronic structure and photocatalytic activity of the templated g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was investigated. By mixing the precursor of cyanamide with different templates (SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and template-free) in the preparation of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}), carbon nitrides with different surface species were obtained. The obtained carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-Si) templated by SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles exhibits enlarged band gap (3.26 eV) and enhanced photo-degradation ability towards Methyl Orange (MO) compared to that of bulk g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (2.67 eV) synthesized from direct condensation/carbonization of melamine and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-templated g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-Al (2.76 eV). Detailed characterizations confirm that the introduction of templates in the synthesis process resulted in more non-graphitic species (sp{sup 3}−C−C− and −NH{sub x}) on the surface of the derived carbon nitrides, exerting remarkable effect on the electronic structure and photocatalytic performance.

  8. A weak-light-responsive TiO2/g-C3N4 composite film: photocatalytic activity under low-intensity light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peifang; Guo, Xiang; Rao, Lei; Wang, Chao; Guo, Yong; Zhang, Lixin

    2018-05-10

    A TiO 2 /g-C 3 N 4 composite photocatalytic film was prepared by in situ synthesis method and its photocatalytic capability under weak-visible-light condition was studied. The co-precursor with different ratio of melamine and TiO 2 sol-gel precursor were treated using ultrasonic mixing, physical deposition, and co-sintering method to form the smooth, white-yellow, and compact TiO 2 /g-C 3 N 4 composite films. The prepared TiO 2 /g-C 3 N 4 materials were characterized by SEM, TEM, EDS, XRD, BET, VBXPS, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The results of composite showed that TiO 2 and g-C 3 N 4 have close interfacial connections which are favorable to charge transfer between these two semiconductors with suitable band structure, g-C 3 N 4 retard the anatase-to-rutile phase transition of TiO 2 significantly, the specific surface area were increased with g-C 3 N 4 ratio raised. Under weak-light irradiation, composite films photocatalytic experiments exhibited RhB removal efficiency approaching 90% after three recycles. Powders suspension degradation experiments revealed the removal efficiency of TiO 2 /g-C 3 N 4 (90.8%) was higher than pure TiO 2 (52.1%) and slightly lower than pure g-C 3 N 4 (96.6%). By control experiment, the enhanced photocatalysis is ascribed to the combination of TiO 2 and g-C 3 N 4 , which not only produced thin films with greater stability but also formed heterojunctions that can be favorable to charge transfer between these two semiconductors with suitable band structure. This study presents the potential application of photocatalytic film in the wastewater treatment under weak-light situation.

  9. An oxygen-vacancy-rich Z-scheme g-C3N4/Pd/TiO2 heterostructure for enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanru; Xiao, Limin; Zhang, Min; Li, Qiuye; Yang, Jianjun

    2018-05-01

    An oxygen-vacancy-rich Z-scheme g-C3N4/Pd/TiO2 ternary nanocomposite was fabricated using nanotubular titanic acid as precursors via a simple photo-deposition of Pd nanoparticles and calcination process. The prepared nanocomposites were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. For g-C3N4/TiO2 binary nanocomposites, at the optimal content of g-C3N4 (2%), the apparent photocatalytic activity of 2%g-C3N4/TiO2 was 9 times higher than that of pure TiO2 under visible-light illumination. After deposition of Pd (1 wt%) at the contact interface between g-C3N4 and TiO2, the 2%g-C3N4/Pd/TiO2 ternary nanocomposites demonstrated the highest visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity for the degradation of gaseous propylene, which was 16- and 2-fold higher activities than pure TiO2 and 2%g-C3N4/TiO2, respectively. The mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic performance of the g-C3N4/Pd/TiO2 photo-catalyst is proposed to be based on the efficient separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs through Z-scheme system, in which uniform dispersity of Pd nanoparticles at contact interface between g-C3N4 and TiO2 and oxygen vacancies promote charge separation.

  10. Molecular and antigenic characterization of reassortant H3N2 viruses from turkeys with a unique constellation of pandemic H1N1 internal genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Berhane

    Full Text Available Triple reassortant (TR H3N2 influenza viruses cause varying degrees of loss in egg production in breeder turkeys. In this study we characterized TR H3N2 viruses isolated from three breeder turkey farms diagnosed with a drop in egg production. The eight gene segments of the virus isolated from the first case submission (FAV-003 were all of TR H3N2 lineage. However, viruses from the two subsequent case submissions (FAV-009 and FAV-010 were unique reassortants with PB2, PA, nucleoprotein (NP and matrix (M gene segments from 2009 pandemic H1N1 and the remaining gene segments from TR H3N2. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA and NA genes placed the 3 virus isolates in 2 separate clades within cluster IV of TR H3N2 viruses. Birds from the latter two affected farms had been vaccinated with a H3N4 oil emulsion vaccine prior to the outbreak. The HAl subunit of the H3N4 vaccine strain had only a predicted amino acid identity of 79% with the isolate from FAV-003 and 80% for the isolates from FAV-009 and FAV-0010. By comparison, the predicted amino acid sequence identity between a prototype TR H3N2 cluster IV virus A/Sw/ON/33853/2005 and the three turkey isolates from this study was 95% while the identity between FAV-003 and FAV-009/10 isolates was 91%. When the previously identified antigenic sites A, B, C, D and E of HA1 were examined, isolates from FAV-003 and FAV-009/10 had a total of 19 and 16 amino acid substitutions respectively when compared with the H3N4 vaccine strain. These changes corresponded with the failure of the sera collected from turkeys that received this vaccine to neutralize any of the above three isolates in vitro.

  11. Polymerase discordance in novel swine influenza H3N2v constellations is tolerated in swine but not human respiratory epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Powell

    Full Text Available Swine-origin H3N2v, a variant of H3N2 influenza virus, is a concern for novel reassortment with circulating pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09 in swine because this can lead to the emergence of a novel pandemic virus. In this study, the reassortment prevalence of H3N2v with H1N1pdm09 was determined in swine cells. Reassortants evaluated showed that the H1N1pdm09 polymerase (PA segment occurred within swine H3N2 with ∼ 80% frequency. The swine H3N2-human H1N1pdm09 PA reassortant (swH3N2-huPA showed enhanced replication in swine cells, and was the dominant gene constellation. Ferrets infected with swH3N2-huPA had increased lung pathogenicity compared to parent viruses; however, swH3N2-huPA replication in normal human bronchoepithelial cells was attenuated - a feature linked to expression of IFN-β and IFN-λ genes in human but not swine cells. These findings indicate that emergence of novel H3N2v influenza constellations require more than changes in the viral polymerase complex to overcome barriers to cross-species transmission. Additionally, these findings reveal that while the ferret model is highly informative for influenza studies, slight differences in pathogenicity may not necessarily be indicative of human outcomes after infection.

  12. Polymerase Discordance in Novel Swine Influenza H3N2v Constellations Is Tolerated in Swine but Not Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joshua D.; Dlugolenski, Daniel; Nagy, Tamas; Gabbard, Jon; Lee, Christopher; Tompkins, Stephen M.; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2014-01-01

    Swine-origin H3N2v, a variant of H3N2 influenza virus, is a concern for novel reassortment with circulating pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09) in swine because this can lead to the emergence of a novel pandemic virus. In this study, the reassortment prevalence of H3N2v with H1N1pdm09 was determined in swine cells. Reassortants evaluated showed that the H1N1pdm09 polymerase (PA) segment occurred within swine H3N2 with ∼80% frequency. The swine H3N2-human H1N1pdm09 PA reassortant (swH3N2-huPA) showed enhanced replication in swine cells, and was the dominant gene constellation. Ferrets infected with swH3N2-huPA had increased lung pathogenicity compared to parent viruses; however, swH3N2-huPA replication in normal human bronchoepithelial cells was attenuated - a feature linked to expression of IFN-β and IFN-λ genes in human but not swine cells. These findings indicate that emergence of novel H3N2v influenza constellations require more than changes in the viral polymerase complex to overcome barriers to cross-species transmission. Additionally, these findings reveal that while the ferret model is highly informative for influenza studies, slight differences in pathogenicity may not necessarily be indicative of human outcomes after infection. PMID:25330303

  13. Novel Z-scheme BiOBr/reduced graphene oxide/protonated g-C3N4 photocatalyst: Synthesis, characterization, visible light photocatalytic activity and mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yongchao; Chen, Kezheng

    2018-04-01

    The novel BiOBr/reduced graphene oxide/protonated g-C3N4 (BiOBr/RGO/pg-C3N4) composites were successfully synthesized by using a facile solvothermal synthesis method. The structure, morphology, optical and electronic properties were explored by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and photoelectrochemical measurement. The photocatalytic activities of as-synthesized samples were evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B (Rh B) and tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) aqueous solution under visible light irradiation (λ > 420nm). Compared with BiOBr, protonated g-C3N4 (pg-C3N4), BiOBr/pg-C3N4 and RGO/pg-C3N4, BiOBr/RGO/pg-C3N4 composites exhibited higher photocatalytic activity. The total organic carbon (TOC) removal ratios of Rh B and TC over 10% BiOBr/RGO/pg-C3N4 were 88% and 59%, respectively. The excellent photcatalytic performance was investigated by photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), the radical quenching and electron spin resonance experiments. A Z-scheme charge transfer mechanism was proposed, in which RGO acted as an electron transfer mediator. It was worth pointing out that the closely contacted two-dimensional interface among the BiOBr, the RGO and pg-C3N4 promoted the separation and transfer of photo-generated charge carriers, and thus enhanced the photocatalytic efficiency.

  14. Survey Observations to Study Chemical Evolution from High-mass Starless Cores to High-mass Protostellar Objects. I. HC3N and HC5N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kotomi; Saito, Masao; Sridharan, T. K.; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro

    2018-02-01

    We carried out survey observations of HC3N and HC5N in the 42‑45 GHz band toward 17 high-mass starless cores (HMSCs) and 35 high-mass protostellar objects (HMPOs) with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope. We have detected HC3N from 15 HMSCs and 28 HMPOs, and HC5N from 5 HMSCs and 14 HMPOs, respectively. The average values of the column density of HC3N are found to be (5.7+/- 0.7) × {10}12 and (1.03+/- 0.12)×{10}13 cm‑2 in HMSCs and HMPOs, respectively. The average values of the fractional abundance of HC3N are derived to be (6.6+/- 0.8)× {10}-11 and (3.6+/- 0.5)× {10}-11 in HMSCs and HMPOs, respectively. We find that the fractional abundance of HC3N decreases from HMSCs to HMPOs using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. On the other hand, its average value of the column density slightly increases from HMSCs to HMPOs. This may imply that HC3N is newly formed in dense gas in HMPO regions. We also investigate the relationship between the column density of HC3N in HMPOs and the luminosity-to-mass ratio (L/M), a physical evolutional indicator. The column density of HC3N tends to decrease with the increase of the L/M ratio, which suggests that HC3N is destroyed by the stellar activities.

  15. Epidemiology and Genetic Characterization of H3N8 Equine Influenza Virus Responsible for Clinical Disease in Algeria in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laabassi, F; Lecouturier, F; Amelot, G; Gaudaire, D; Mamache, B; Laugier, C; Legrand, L; Zientara, S; Hans, A

    2015-12-01

    An outbreak of equine influenza (EI) was reported in Algeria between May and July, 2011. The outbreak started in Tiaret, in west province of Algeria, and spread to the other parts of the country affecting almost 900 horses in many provinces. The population studied was composed of 325 horses from different groups of age. Clinical sign expression was age dependent. Indeed, a morbidity rate of 14.9% was observed in horses under 15 months old and a rate of 4.95% in horses over 8 years old. Interestingly, the morbidity rate raised sharply to reach 100% in horses aged between 18 months and 7 years. The virus (H3N8) was detected in nasopharyngeal swabs (n = 11) from non-vaccinated horses using a qRT-PCR targeting a portion of the gene encoding the matrix protein (M). The virus isolates were identified as H3N8 by sequencing the haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes and were named from A/equine/Tiaret/1/2011 to A/equine/Tiaret/10/2011. Alignment of HA1 amino acid sequence confirmed that viruses belong to Clade 2 of the Florida sublineage in the American lineage. Moreover, they are closely related to A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010, A/equine/Eyragues/1/2010, A/equine/Bokel/2011 and A/equine/Lichtenfeld/2012. Our data indicate that this strain was also circulating in the European horse population in 2010, 2011 and 2012. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Enhanced visible light-driven photocatalytic performance of ZnO–g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} coupled with graphene oxide as a novel ternary nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Clament Sagaya Selvam, N., E-mail: clamentloy@gmail.com

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Prepared novel ternary nanocomposite consisting of ZnO, g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and graphene oxide. • ZnO nanospheres disperse evenly and embed on porous g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-coupled graphene oxide. • Heterojunction of ternary composite account for the enhanced photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: This article reports a novel ternary nanocomposite consisting of ZnO, g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and graphene oxide (GO) that provides enhanced photocatalytic performance and stability. The ZnO nanospheres disperse evenly and embed themselves in the porous g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Composites with various g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and GO to ZnO weight ratios were synthesized and characterized systematically. The results indicated that the absorption of binary g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/ZnO nanocomposites shifted to a lower energy compared to pure ZnO in a fashion consistent with the loading content of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Notably, the loading content of GO in the ZnO–g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite resulted in increased absorption in the visible range and improved charge separation efficiency, thereby drastically improving photocatalytic activity. Successful hybridization of ternary nanocomposite was confirmed by drastic quenching of fluorescence and broader visible light absorption. The optimal content of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} in the ZnO–g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite was 50%, which exhibited the effective hybridization between ZnO and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and high photocatalytic efficiency. However, the photocatalytic degradation of the ternary nanocomposite showed performance that was two times greater than ZnO–g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, exhibiting 99.5% degradation efficiency after just 15 min of light irradiation. The combined heterojunction and synergistic effects of this composite account for the improved photocatalytic activity.

  17. Effect of phosphorus doping on electronic structure and photocatalytic performance of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}: Insights from hybrid density functional calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jianjun, E-mail: jjliu@chnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Information, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, Anhui 235000 (China)

    2016-07-05

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}), as a promising visible-light photocatalyst, has wide applications on water splitting, pollutants decomposition and CO{sub 2} reduction. Herein, we investigated the electronic and optical property of pure and P doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} using Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE06) hybrid functional method. The valuable features such as, the band structure, density of states, band decomposed charged density and optical absorption were computed to explore the role of phosphorus substitute N2 and C1 sites of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}.The results indicated that pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} has an indirect band gap of about 2.73 eV, which is in good agreement with the experimental value. By doping P into N2 and C1 sites of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, the band gap reduces to 2.03 and 2.22 eV, respectively. Optical absorption intensity of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} had a greatly enhancement in the visible region by doping P. Though narrowing the energy band of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} by doping P, conduction band and valance band edge of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} doping system still had enough potential to split water. Therefore, phosphorus doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} is effective strategy to improve visible light response photocatalytic performance of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. - Highlights: • For the first time, calculated band structure of P doped g-C{sub 3N}4 by Hybrid DFT method. • P doped g-C{sub 3N}4 narrowed band gap and enhanced optical absorption. • P doped g-C3{sub N4} enhanced the oxidation capacity of the valence band edge.

  18. Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic decomposition of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid over ZnIn_2S_4/g-C_3N_4 photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Pengxiang; Yao, Jinhua; Chen, Huan; Jiang, Fang; Xie, Xianchuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel flower-on-sheet ZnIn_2S_4/g-C_3N_4 nanocomposite was synthesized. • ZnIn_2S_4/g-C_3N_4 showed high visible light catalytic activity for 2,4-D degradation. • The photocatalytic degradation pathway of 2,4-D was investigated. - Abstract: ZnIn_2S_4/g-C_3N_4 heterojunction photocatalyst was successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method and applied to visible-light photocatalytic decomposition of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) from aqueous phase. The flower-like ZnIn_2S_4 particles were dispersed on the surface of g-C_3N_4 nanosheets in the ZnIn_2S_4/g-C_3N_4 composite. The composite showed higher separation rate of electron-hole pairs as compared to ZnIn_2S_4 and g-C_3N_4. Consequently, the ZnIn_2S_4/g-C_3N_4 composite exhibited enhanced visible light photocatalytic decomposition efficiency of 2,4-D, within 20% ZnIn_2S_4/g-C_3N_4 composite owning the highest photocatalytic efficiency and initial rate. The initial rates of 2,4-D degradation on g-C_3N_4, ZnIn_2S_4, and 20% ZnIn_2S_4/g-C_3N_4 were 1.23, 0.57 and 3.69 mmol/(g_c_a_t h), respectively. The h"+ and O_2"·"− were found to be the dominant active species for 2,4-D decomposition. The photocatalytic degradation pathways of 2,4-D by ZnIn_2S_4/g-C_3N_4 under visible light irradiation were explored. The ZnIn_2S_4/g-C_3N_4 composite displayed high photostability in recycling tests, reflecting its promising potential as an effective visible light photocatalyst for 2,4-D treatment.

  19. Synthesis of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/CeO{sub 2} nanocomposites with improved catalytic activity on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Linghua, E-mail: tanlinghua@njit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Institute of Technology, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Structural Materials and Application Technology, Jiangsu (China); Xu, Jianhua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Institute of Technology, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Xiaojuan [School of Material Engineering, Jinling Institute of Technology, Nanjing 211169 (China); Hang, Zusheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Institute of Technology, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Structural Materials and Application Technology, Jiangsu (China); Jia, Yongqiang; Wang, Shanbin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Institute of Technology, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: The CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles were uniformly loaded on the surface of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} via a simple mixing-calcination method, and the heterostructure construction of resulting from g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/CeO{sub 2} nanocomposites effectively suppressed the charge recombination. Interestingly, g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/CeO{sub 2} nanocomposites showed an enhanced catalytic activity for thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate. - Highlights: • Novel g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/CeO{sub 2} nanocomposites were synthesized through a simple mixing-calcination method. • The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/CeO{sub 2} nanocomposites were applied in catalyzing the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate. • The synergetic effect of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and CeO{sub 2} was the origin of the high catalytic activity. • The catalytic mechanism of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/CeO{sub 2} nanocomposites to the thermal decomposition of AP was investigated. - Abstract: Novel g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/CeO{sub 2} nanocomposites were synthesized through a simple mixing-calcination method. The structure, morphology and composition of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/CeO{sub 2} nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles with a diameter of 50–100 nm were uniformly loaded on the surface of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4.} Furthermore, the catalytic effect of our prepared novel g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/CeO{sub 2} nanocomposites on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) was investigated by utilizing thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG-DTA). Compared with pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and CeO{sub 2}, the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/CeO{sub 2} nanocomposites were proved to catalyze the thermal decomposition

  20. Visible light driven photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue using novel camphor sulfonic acid doped polycarbazole/g-C3N4 nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveena, P.; Dhanavel, S.; Sangamithirai, D.; Narayanan, V.; Stephen, A.

    2018-04-01

    A novel polycabazole(PCz)/graphitic carbon nitride(g-C3N4) nanocomposite was synthesized via chemical oxidative polymerization method. In the present work, camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) was used as a dopantand ammonium peroxydisulphate (APS) was used as an oxidizing agent. The PCz/g-C3N4 nanocompositewas characterizedusing X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The obtained results confirm the successful formation of PCz/g-C3N4 nanocomposite. Visible light induced photocatalytic activity of the novel catalyst was demonstrated using methylene blue as a target pollutant. The results suggestthat PCz/g-C3N4 nanocomposite can be used as an effective catalyst for the degradation of organic pollutants from waste water.

  1. Decoration of TiO_2 nanotube arrays by graphitic-C_3N_4 quantum dots with improved photoelectrocatalytic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Bo; Lu, Na; Su, Yan; Yu, Hongtao; Meng, Xiangyu; Gao, Zhanming

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO_2 nanotube arrays/graphitic-C_3N_4 quantum dots heterojunction was prepared via a facile dipping method. • The optimized dipping duration and concentration of heterojunction were investigated. • The prepared heterojunction extends optical absorption and reduces the recombination of charge carriers. • The photocurrent generated by the optimal g-C_3N_4 QDs/TNTAs photoanode is 4.3 times that of pristine TNTAs. • 98.6% of phenol is degraded in 120 min and the degradation rate is 4.9 times as great as that of pristine TNTAs. - Abstract: In this paper, we present a novel method to improve the photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) property of TiO_2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs) by way of decorating it with visible-light-respond graphitic-C_3N_4 quantum dots (g-C_3N_4 QDs). The g-C_3N_4 QDs/TNTAs heterojunction is successfully prepared using a facile dipping method. The optimal condition of preparing g-C_3N_4 QDs/TNTAs heterojunction is found as 60 min of dipping duration and 0.2 mg mL"−"1 of g-C_3N_4 QDs dipping solution. The fabricated g-C_3N_4 QDs/TNTAs heterojunction shows improved PEC activity comparing to TNTAs due to its better separation capability of photo-generated charges and wider optical absorption. And the photocurrent generated by the optimal g-C_3N_4 QDs/TNTAs photoanode is 4.3 times than that of pristine TNTAs. Besides, the g-C_3N_4 QDs/TNTAs heterojunction also exhibits superior PEC activities in degradation of phenol. 98.6% of phenol is successfully degraded in 120 min and the pseudo-first-order kinetic constant of phenol degradation is 4.9 times as great as that of pristine TNTAs. This work indicates that the g-C_3N_4 QDs/TNTAs heterojunction is expected to be a promising nanomaterial for pollutant degradation and further application in solar energy conversion.

  2. Decoration of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays by graphitic-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} quantum dots with improved photoelectrocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Bo [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Lu, Na, E-mail: luna@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, School of Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Su, Yan, E-mail: susu@dlut.edu.cn [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Yu, Hongtao, E-mail: yuhongtao@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Meng, Xiangyu; Gao, Zhanming [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays/graphitic-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} quantum dots heterojunction was prepared via a facile dipping method. • The optimized dipping duration and concentration of heterojunction were investigated. • The prepared heterojunction extends optical absorption and reduces the recombination of charge carriers. • The photocurrent generated by the optimal g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} QDs/TNTAs photoanode is 4.3 times that of pristine TNTAs. • 98.6% of phenol is degraded in 120 min and the degradation rate is 4.9 times as great as that of pristine TNTAs. - Abstract: In this paper, we present a novel method to improve the photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) property of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TNTAs) by way of decorating it with visible-light-respond graphitic-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} quantum dots (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} QDs). The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} QDs/TNTAs heterojunction is successfully prepared using a facile dipping method. The optimal condition of preparing g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} QDs/TNTAs heterojunction is found as 60 min of dipping duration and 0.2 mg mL{sup −1} of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} QDs dipping solution. The fabricated g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} QDs/TNTAs heterojunction shows improved PEC activity comparing to TNTAs due to its better separation capability of photo-generated charges and wider optical absorption. And the photocurrent generated by the optimal g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} QDs/TNTAs photoanode is 4.3 times than that of pristine TNTAs. Besides, the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} QDs/TNTAs heterojunction also exhibits superior PEC activities in degradation of phenol. 98.6% of phenol is successfully degraded in 120 min and the pseudo-first-order kinetic constant of phenol degradation is 4.9 times as great as that of pristine TNTAs. This work indicates that the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} QDs/TNTAs heterojunction is expected to be a promising nanomaterial for pollutant degradation and further application in solar energy conversion.

  3. Critical role of the semiconductor-electrolyte interface in photocatalytic performance for water-splitting reactions using Ta3N5 particles

    KAUST Repository

    Nurlaela, Ela

    2014-08-26

    Distinct photocatalytic performance was observed when Ta3N 5 was synthesized from commercially available Ta2O 5 or from Ta2O5 prepared from TaCl5 via the sol-gel route. With respect to photocatalytic O2 evolution with Ag+ as a sacrificial reagent, the Ta3N5 produced from commercial Ta2O5 exhibited higher activity than the Ta3N5 produced via the sol-gel route. When the Ta3N5 photocatalysts were decorated with Pt nanoparticles in a similar manner, the Ta3N5 from the sol-gel route exhibited higher photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity from a 10% aqueous methanol solution than Ta3N5 prepared from commercial Ta2O5 where no hydrogen can be detected. Detailed surface and bulk characterizations were conducted to obtain fundamental insight into the resulting photocatalytic activities. The characterization techniques, including XRD, elemental analysis, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and surface-area measurements, revealed only negligible differences between these two photocatalysts. Our thorough characterization of the surface properties demonstrated that the very thin outermost layer of Ta3N5, with a thickness of a few nanometers, consists of either the reduced state of tantalum (TaN) or an amorphous phase. The extent of this surface layer was likely dependent on the nature of precursor oxide surfaces. DFT calculations based on partially oxidized Ta3N4.83O0.17 and N deficient Ta3N4.83 consisting of reduced Ta species well described the optoelectrochemical properties obtained from the experiments. Electrochemical and Mott-Schottky analyses demonstrated that the surface layer drastically affects the energetic picture at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which can consequently affect the photocatalytic performance. Chemical etching of the surface of Ta3N5 particles to remove this surface layer unites the photocatalytic properties with the photocatalytic performance of these two materials. Mott-Schottky plots of these chemically etched Ta3N5 materials

  4. Ab-initio electronic structure calculations and properties of [Si{sub x}Sn{sub 1−x}]{sub 3}N{sub 4} ternary nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavloudis, Th. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Zervos, M. [Nanostructured Materials and Devices Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, PO Box 20537, Nicosia 1678 (Cyprus); Komninou, Ph. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kioseoglou, J., E-mail: sifisl@auth.gr [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2016-08-31

    We carry out ab initio electronic structure calculations of (Si{sub x}Sn{sub 1−x}){sub 3}N{sub 4} using density functional theory with projector augmented-wave potentials under the generalized gradient approximation. We find that the energetically favorable structure of Sn{sub 3}N{sub 4} is the face-centered cubic spinel structure, followed by the hexagonal structure which has energy band gaps of 1.85 eV and 1.44 eV respectively. The (Si{sub x}Sn{sub 1−x}){sub 3}N{sub 4} ternary compound can exhibit both cubic and hexagonal crystal structures over the full range of x. However, the cubic structure is found to be energetically favorable for x < 0.3 above which the hexagonal structure of (Si{sub x}Sn{sub 1−x}){sub 3}N{sub 4} dominates. The energy band gap can be tuned continuously from 1.44 eV up to 5.8 eV in the case of the hexagonal crystal structure of (Si{sub x}Sn{sub 1−x}){sub 3}N{sub 4} and from 1.85 eV to 4.82 eV in the case of cubic (Si{sub x}Sn{sub 1−x}){sub 3}N{sub 4}. Nevertheless the energy gap of (Si{sub x}Sn{sub 1−x}){sub 3}N{sub 4} is direct only for x < 0.3 when it is cubic and for x < 0.5 when hexagonal. - Highlights: • (Si{sub x}Sn{sub 1−x}){sub 3}N{sub 4} exhibits both cubic and hexagonal crystal structures. • The cubic structure is favorable for x < 0.3 and the hexagonal structure for x > 0.3. • The bandgap of hexagonal (Si{sub x}Sn{sub 1−x}){sub 3}N{sub 4} may be tuned from 1.44 eV up to 5.8 eV. • The bandgap may be tuned from 1.85 eV to 4.82 eV for the cubic (Si{sub x}Sn{sub 1−x}){sub 3}N{sub 4}. • Bandgaps are direct for x < 0.3 (cubic) and for x < 0.5 3 (hexagonal (Si{sub x}Sn{sub 1−x}){sub 3}N{sub 4}).

  5. Hierarchical hybrid of Ni{sub 3}N/N-doped reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as a noble metal free catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qi; Li, Yingjun; Li, Yetong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Huang, Keke [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang, Qin, E-mail: qinwang@imu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Inner Mongolia Key Lab. of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Zhang, Jun, E-mail: cejzhang@imu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Inner Mongolia Key Lab. of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid of Ni{sub 3}N/N-RGO catalysts are synthesized by using a two-step method. • The catalysts manifest superior catalytic activity towards the ORR. • High activities are attributed to enhanced electron density and synergistic effects. - Abstract: Novel nickel nitride (Ni{sub 3}N) nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (N-RGOs) are synthesized via a facile strategy including hydrothermal and subsequent calcination methods, in which the reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (RGOs) are simultaneously doped with nitrogen species. By varying the content of the RGOs, a series of Ni{sub 3}N/N-RGO nanocomposites are obtained. The Ni{sub 3}N/N-RGO-30% hybrid nanocomposite exhibits superior catalytic activity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) under alkaline condition (0.1 M KOH). Furthermore, this hybrid catalyst also demonstrates high tolerance to methanol poisoning. The RGO containing rich N confers the nanocomposite with large specific surface area and high electronic conduction ability, which can enhance the catalytic efficiency of Ni{sub 3}N nanoparticles. The enhanced catalytic activity can be attributed to the synergistic effect between Ni{sub 3}N and nitrogen doped reduced graphene oxide. In addition, the sufficient contact between Ni{sub 3}N nanoparticles and the N-RGO nanosheets simultaneously promotes good nanoparticle dispersion and provides a consecutive activity sites to accelerate electron transport continuously, which further enhance the ORR performance. The Ni{sub 3}N/N-RGO may be further an ideal candidate as efficient and inexpensive noble metal-free ORR electrocatalyst in fuel cells.

  6. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity in SnO{sub 2}@g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} core-shell structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Hao; Zhao, Xiaoru, E-mail: xrzhao@nwpu.edu.cn; Duan, Libing; Liu, Ruidi; Li, Hui

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Novel SnO{sub 2}@g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} core-shell structures were successfully synthesized. • The core-shell structures exhibited enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity. • The enhanced photocatalytic activity was due to synergic action of SnO{sub 2} and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. - Abstract: SnO{sub 2}@g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} core-shell structures were successfully synthesized by simple calcination of SnO{sub 2} microspheres and urea in a muffle furnace. The investigation of morphologies and microstructures showed that g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was wrapped tightly on the surface of SnO{sub 2} microspheres with large intimate interface contact areas between the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} shells and SnO{sub 2} cores. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results and photoluminescence spectra demonstrated that the intimate interface contacts could facilitate the transfer and separation of the photogenerated charge carriers at their interface, thus the recombination of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs was impeded. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized composites was evaluated by the photodegradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation. It was found that SnO{sub 2}@g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} exhibited higher photodegradation rate (k = 0.013 min{sup −1}) than that of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (k = 0.008 min{sup −1}) and pure SnO{sub 2}. The enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the synergic action of SnO{sub 2} and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}.

  7. Evaluation of cross sections for 197Au(n,3n) and 197Au(n,4n) reactions from threshold to 50 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Baosheng; Shen Qingbiao; Cai Dunjiu

    1994-01-01

    The measured data of cross sections for 197 Au(n,3n) and 197 Au(n,4n) reactions were collected and analysed. The theoretical calculations of above mentioned reactions were carried out to predict the data in higher energy region. The sets of cross sections for 197 Au(n,3n) and 197 Au(n,4n) reactions from threshold to 50 MeV were recommended on the basis of the experimental and calculated data. (2 figs)

  8. [Effect of NH4(+) -N/NO3(-)-N ratio in applied supplementary fertilizer on nitrogen metabolism and main chemical composition of Pinellia ternata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Long-Jiao; Wang, Kang-Cai; Li, Can-Wen

    2013-07-01

    To study the effect of nitrogen forms on nitrogen metabolism and main chemical composition of Pinellia ternate. Through the soilless cultivation experiment and based at the same nitrogen level and different NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratios, nitrate reductase (NR) activity, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, the content of nitrate nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen in different parts of P. ternate were determined. The contents of total alkaloid, free total organic acids and guanosine in the tuber were determined. The yield of bulbil and tuber was calculated. The test results showed that, with the NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio increasing, the activity of nitrate reductase decreased, the content of nitrate nitrogen in the leaves, petioles and tuber increasing initially, then decreased, and the content of nitrate nitrogen in the root decreased. Meanwhile, with the NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio increasing, the activity of glutamine synthetase in the leaves, petioles and root increased, the activity of glutamine synthetase in the tuber increasing initially, then decreased. The contents of ammonium nitrogen in the leaves, tuber and root increased initially, then decreased, and the contents of ammonium nitrogen in the petioles increased with the NH4(+)(-N/NO3(-)-N ratio increasing. The yield of bulbil and tuber were the highest at the NH4(+)-N/NO3(-) -N ratio of 75: 25. The content of total alkaloid and guanosine in the tuber were the highest at the NH4(+)-N/NO3(-) -N ratio of 0: 100, and the contents were 0.245% and 0.0197% respectively. With the NH4(+)-N/NO3(-) -N ratio of 50: 50, the content of free total organic acids was the highest, it reached 0.7%, however, the content of free total organic acids was the lowest at the NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio of 0: 100. Nitrogen fertilization significant influences the nitrogen metabolism, the yield and main chemical composition of P. ternate.

  9. [Effects of different NO3--N/NH4+-N ratios on cucumber seedlings growth, nitrogen absorption and metabolism under suboptimal temperature and light intensity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao Cui; Liu, Yu Mei; Bai, Long Qiang; He, Chao Xing; Yu, Xian Chang; Li, Yan Su

    2016-08-01

    Cucumber (cv. Zhongnong 26) was used as material, the effects of NO 3 - -N/NH 4 + -N ratios on growth and physiological characteristics of cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature and light intensity (18 ℃/10 ℃,180 ± 20 μmol·m -2 ·s -1 ) were studied. Total nitrogen in the nutrient solution was equal and three NO 3 - -N/NH 4 + -N ratios, 26:2, 21:7 and 14:14, were applied as treatments. The results showed that cucumber treated by NO 3 - -N/NH 4 + -N=21:7 had the longest total root length, the biggest root volume and root surface area, and the maximum number of root tips. H + -ATPase activity and relative expression of genes encoding nitrate transporter (NRT) and ammonium transporter (AMT) in cucumber roots were increased significantly by the treatment of NO 3 - -N/NH 4 + -N=21:7. In addition, nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in cucumber leaves under the treatment of NO 3 - -N/NH 4 + -N=21:7 were higher. As a result, the nitrogen content and biomass of cucumber were significantly increased. Compared with the plants under the treatment of NO 3 - -N/NH 4 + -N=26:2 or 14:14, cucumber seedlings under the treatment of NO 3 - -N/NH 4 + -N=21:7 had the highest biomass and total dry mass (DM) which were increased by 14.0% and 19.3% respectively under suboptimal temperature and light intensity. In conclusion, under suboptimal environmental conditions, NO 3 - -N/NH 4 + -N ratio could be adjusted to increase nitrogen absorption and metabolism of cucumber and alleviate the de-trimental effects caused by suboptimal conditions and promoted the cucumber growth.

  10. Collective excitations with chiral NN+3N interactions from coupled-cluster and in-medium SRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trippel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    A broad variety of many-body methods exists for the investigation of ground-state properties, ranging from sophisticated ab initio approaches to traditional, phenomenological models. The description of low-lying excited states of medium-mass nuclei with ab initio methods has also become possible through recent progress in many-body theory. For collective modes at higher energies, however, these methods usually cannot be applied. Therefore, when describing collective excitations either completely phenomenological, macroscopic models are employed or microscopic models using phenomenological interactions. One of the microscopic models well suited for the calculation of collective properties is the random-phase approximation (RPA). In the past, the use of phenomenological interactions for RPA has shown promising results. However, the application of chiral NN interactions yielded transitions at significantly too high energies, far from agreement with experimental data. This thesis focuses on the description of collective modes using both RPA and its second-order extension, SRPA. In contrast to previous research endeavors, we employ chiral NN+3N interactions. The use of chiral interactions is an important first step for describing ground-state, excitation and collective properties on an equal foundation. We find that the inclusion of 3N terms is crucial for RPA calculations and the prediction for collective modes is drastically improved through the 3N terms. For SRPA we show first-ever results with chiral interactions, again leading to an improvement in the predictions. For a successful ab initio description of ground-state properties the inclusion of correlations is of paramount importance. Past RPA calculations have been performed using the quasi-boson approximation, effectively neglecting ground-state correlations. Using RPA, the next step along the path towards an ab initio description of collective properties will, therefore, be the inclusion of correlations. To

  11. Collective excitations with chiral NN+3N interactions from coupled-cluster and in-medium SRG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippel, Richard

    2016-12-19

    A broad variety of many-body methods exists for the investigation of ground-state properties, ranging from sophisticated ab initio approaches to traditional, phenomenological models. The description of low-lying excited states of medium-mass nuclei with ab initio methods has also become possible through recent progress in many-body theory. For collective modes at higher energies, however, these methods usually cannot be applied. Therefore, when describing collective excitations either completely phenomenological, macroscopic models are employed or microscopic models using phenomenological interactions. One of the microscopic models well suited for the calculation of collective properties is the random-phase approximation (RPA). In the past, the use of phenomenological interactions for RPA has shown promising results. However, the application of chiral NN interactions yielded transitions at significantly too high energies, far from agreement with experimental data. This thesis focuses on the description of collective modes using both RPA and its second-order extension, SRPA. In contrast to previous research endeavors, we employ chiral NN+3N interactions. The use of chiral interactions is an important first step for describing ground-state, excitation and collective properties on an equal foundation. We find that the inclusion of 3N terms is crucial for RPA calculations and the prediction for collective modes is drastically improved through the 3N terms. For SRPA we show first-ever results with chiral interactions, again leading to an improvement in the predictions. For a successful ab initio description of ground-state properties the inclusion of correlations is of paramount importance. Past RPA calculations have been performed using the quasi-boson approximation, effectively neglecting ground-state correlations. Using RPA, the next step along the path towards an ab initio description of collective properties will, therefore, be the inclusion of correlations. To

  12. Synthesis and Enhanced Ethanol Gas Sensing Properties of the g-C3N4 Nanosheets-Decorated Tin Oxide Flower-Like Nanorods Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Flower-like SnO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method by using SnCl4·5H2O and urea as the precursor. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized samples were characterized by using the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, electron microscopy (FESEM and TEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR techniques. SnO2 displays the unique 3D flower-like microstructure assembled with many uniform nanorods with the lengths and diameters of about 400–600 nm and 50–100 nm, respectively. For the SnO2/g-C3N4 composites, SnO2 flower-like nanorods were coupled by a lamellar structure 2D g-C3N4. Gas sensing performance test results indicated that the response of the sensor based on 7 wt. % 2D g-C3N4-decorated SnO2 composite to 500 ppm ethanol vapor was 150 at 340 °C, which was 3.5 times higher than that of the pure flower-like SnO2 nanorods-based sensor. The gas sensing mechanism of the g-C3N4nanosheets-decorated SnO2 flower-like nanorods was discussed in relation to the heterojunction structure between g-C3N4 and SnO2.

  13. High-performance for hydrogen evolution and pollutant degradation of reduced graphene oxide/two-phase g-C3N4 heterojunction photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chengjie; Fan, Mingshan; Shi, Weidong; Wang, Wei

    2018-05-01

    We have successfully synthesized the composites of two-phase g-C 3 N 4 heterojunction photocatalysts by one-step method. And the reduced graphene oxide/two-phase g-C 3 N 4 heterojunction photocatalyst was fabricated via a facile hydrothermal reduction method. The characterization results indicated that the two-phase g-C 3 N 4 was integrated closely, and the common phenomenon of agglomeration for g-C 3 N 4 was significantly reduced. Moreover, the oxidized graphene was reduced successfully in the composites and the graphene was overlaid on the surface or the interlayers of g-C 3 N 4 heterojunction composite uniformly. In addition, we have carried out the photocatalytic activity experiments by H 2 evolution and rhodamine B removal, tetracycline removal under the visible light irradiation. The results revealed that the composite has improved the separation efficiency a lot than the pure photocatalyst. The photocurrent test demonstrated that the recombination of electrons and holes were efficiently inhibited as well as enhanced the photocatalytic activity. The 0.4% rGO loaded samples, 0.4% rGOCN2, own the best performance. Its rate of H 2 evolution was 15 times as high as that of the pure g-C 3 N 4 .

  14. Nanocomposite of exfoliated bentonite/g-C3N4/Ag3PO4 for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic decomposition of Rhodamine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianfeng; Huang, Daiqin; Zhang, Wenyi; Zou, Jing; Kong, Yong; Zhu, Jianxi; Komarneni, Sridhar

    2016-11-01

    Novel visible-light-driven heterojunction photocatalyst comprising exfoliated bentonite, g-C3N4 and Ag3PO4 (EB/g-C3N4/Ag3PO4) was synthesized by a facile and green method. The composites EB/g-C3N4/Ag3PO4 were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area method. Under visible light irradiation, EB/g-C3N4/Ag3PO4 composites displayed much higher photocatalytic activity than that of either pure g-C3N4 or pure Ag3PO4 in the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB). Among the hybrid photocatalysts, EB/g-C3N4/Ag3PO4 composite containing 20 wt% Ag3PO4 exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for the decolorization of RhB. Under the visible-light irradiation, the RhB dye was completely decolorized in less than 60 min. The enhanced photocatalytic performance is attributed to the stable structure, enlarged surface area, strong adsorbability, strong light absorption ability, and high-efficiency separation rate of photoinduced electron-hole pairs. Our finding paves a way to design highly efficient and stable visible-light-induced photocatalysts for practical applications in wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Interface engineered construction of porous g-C3N4/TiO2 heterostructure for enhanced photocatalysis of organic pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Nan; Chen, Zhao-Yang; Wang, Min-Qiang; Zhang, Long-zhen; Bao, Shu-Juan

    2018-05-01

    A porous g-C3N4/TiO2 with hierarchical heterostructure has been successfully fabricated through a in situ assembling of small needle-like TiO2 on the surface of ultrathin g-C3N4 sheets. The ultrathin g-C3N4 sheets with carbon vacancies and rich hydroxyl groups were found to facilitate the nucleation and in situ growth of TiO2 and also to modulate the surface chemical activity of the g-C3N4/TiO2 hierarchical heterostructure. The as-designed photocatalytic heterojunction degraded Acid Orange with 82% efficiency after 10 min under simulated solar light, and possessed excellent cycle stability. Relative physical characterizations and photochemical experiments reveal that engineering the interface/surface of g-C3N4 plays a vital role in effectively constructing heterostructures of g-C3N4/TiO2, thus realizing efficient photoinduced electron-hole separation during photocatalytic process.

  16. Facile synthesis of highly reactive and stable Fe-doped g-C3N4 composites for peroxymonosulfate activation: A novel nonradical oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yong; Liao, Changzhong; Kong, Lingjun; Wu, Deli; Liu, Yiming; Lee, Po-Heng; Shih, Kaimin

    2018-07-15

    Ferrous ions (Fe 2+ ) are environmentally friendly materials but show extremely inefficient persulfate activation. Polymeric graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) has recently shown potential to activate persulfates, but the process requires intense light irradiation. To overcome these drawbacks, we designed an innovative heterogeneous iron catalyst by doping Fe into g-C 3 N 4 (Fe-g-C 3 N 4 ) and used it to activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for degradation of pollutant phenol. The catalysts synthesized were fully characterized with various techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Fe was found to be coordinated with the framework of g-C 3 N 4 . Approximately 100% degradation of phenol was achieved with Fe-g-C 3 N 4 after 20 min of reaction, whereas less than 5% degradation of phenol was achieved with Fe 2+ . Fe-g-C 3 N 4 -PMS had a wide effective pH range, and its reactivity was nearly independent of natural illumination. In contrast to the previously proposed radical mechanisms, quenching experiments revealed that nonradical oxidation contributed to the observed degradation. The OO bond in the activated PMS likely underwent heterolysis, producing high-valence iron species (Fe IV O) as the primary active species. These findings have important implications for the development of a selective heterogeneous nonradical-oxidation process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Broadband sensitized white light emission of g-C_3N_4/Y_2MoO_6:Eu"3"+ composite phosphor under near ultraviolet excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bing; Xue, Yongfei; Li, Pengju; Zhang, Jingtao; Zhang, Jie; Shi, Hengzhen

    2015-01-01

    The g-C_3N_4/Y_2MoO_6:Eu"3"+ composite phosphors were synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet visible diffuse reflection spectra, photoluminescence spectra and luminescence decay curves. Under the excitation of 360 nm near ultraviolet light, these composite phosphors show tunable emission from blue to red region, in which white light emission can be obtained in term of appropriate quality proportion of Y_2MoO_6:Eu"3"+ relative to g-C_3N_4/Y_2MoO_6:Eu"3"+. In addition, the emission color can be also dependent on the excitation wavelength in g-C_3N_4/Y_2MoO_6:Eu"3"+ composite phosphor. - Graphical abstract: Under the excitation of 360 nm near ultraviolet light, the g-C_3N_4/Y_2MoO_6:Eu"3"+ composite phosphors show tunable emission from blue to red region, in which white light emission can be obtained. - Highlights: • The g-C3N4/Y2MoO6:Eu"3"+ composite phosphors were synthesized and characterized. • White light emission was realized in the g-C3N4/Y2MoO6:Eu"3"+ composites under UV excitation. • A novel idea to realize the broadband sensitized white light emission in phosphors was provided.

  18. Probing π-π stacking modulation of g-C3N4/graphene heterojunctions and corresponding role of graphene on photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinguo; Wei, Yang; Wei, Zhen; He, Hua; Huang, Chuyun; Zhu, Yongfa

    2017-12-15

    The photoelectrochemical properties of g-C 3 N 4 sheet are modified by the π-π stacking interaction with graphene, and the corresponding role of graphene on the surface chemical reactions is investigated by density functional theory. The calculated cohesive energies and the lattice mismatch energies indicate that g-C 3 N 4 and graphene are in parallel contact and can form a stable heterojunction. According to our calculated energy band structures and work functions of g-C 3 N 4 /graphene heterojunctions, the band edge modulations by graphene are discussed and corresponding photoinduced charge transfer processes are analyzed in detail. It is found that the incorporating of graphene into g-C 3 N 4 facilitates the separation of photoinduced e - /h + pairs and the oxidation capacity enhancement of the photoinduced holes with the downshifting of the valence band edge of g-C 3 N 4 layer. It is identified that the inhomogeneous onsite energies between interlayer and the band edge modulations are induced by the inhomogeneous charge redistribution between interlayer caused by graphene. Further, the initial dynamic reaction processes of oxygen atoms in g-C 3 N 4 /graphene heterojunctions also confirm the significant role of graphene on the surface chemical reactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. One-pot synthesis of K-doped g-C3N4 nanosheets with enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production under visible-light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanyun; Zhao, Shuo; Zhang, Yiwei; Fang, Jiasheng; Zhou, Yuming; Yuan, Shenhao; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Wenxia

    2018-05-01

    Graphite carbon nitride (g-C3N4), as a promising low cost, visible light driven conjugated polymer semiconductor photocatalyst, has attracted wide attentions from researchers. However, low light absorption efficiency and inadequate charge separation limit the potential applications of g-C3N4. This paper exhibits K-doped g-C3N4 prepared by a facile thermal polymerization with KBr as the K source. The experiments of photocatalytic hydrogen evolution demonstrate that KBr content strongly affects the activity of the catalyst. XRD, FT-IR, XPS, SEM, TEM, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, photoluminescence (PL) characterization methods are used to study the effects of potassium on the catalyst performance. The results find that K-modified g-C3N4 has a narrower band gap and enhanced light harvesting properties. Moreover, the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate (HER) of the optimized K-doped g-C3N4 nanosheets (10 wt % KBr) reaches 1337.2 μmol g-1h-1, which is about 5.6 times in comparison with that of pure g-C3N4 (239.8 μmol g-1h-1). The doping of the potassium may increase the π-conjugated systems and accelerate the electron transport rate, then improve the photocatalytic properties. Based on the results of the analysis, a possible mechanism is proposed.

  20. Facile synthesis of Fe3O4/g-C3N4/HKUST-1 composites as a novel biosensor platform for ochratoxin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuisheng; Ouyang, Wenjun; Guo, Longhua; Lin, Zhenyu; Jiang, Xiaohua; Qiu, Bin; Chen, Guonan

    2017-06-15

    A fluorescent biosensor for ochratoxin A was fabricated on the basis of a new nanocomposite (Fe 3 O 4 /g-C 3 N 4 /HKUST-1 composites). Fe 3 O 4 /g-C 3 N 4 /HKUST-1 was synthesized in this work for the first time, which combined HKUST-1 with g-C 3 N 4 to improve its chemical stability. Fe 3 O 4 /g-C 3 N 4 /HKUST-1 composites have strong adsorption capacity for dye-labeled aptamer and are able to completely quench the fluorescence of the dye through the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) mechanism. In the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA), it can bind with the aptamer with high affinity, causing the releasing of the dye-labeled aptamer from the Fe 3 O 4 /g-C 3 N 4 /HKUST-1 and therefore results in the recovery of fluorescence. The fluorescence intensity of the biosensor has a linear relationship with the OTA concentration in the range of 5.0-160.0ng/mL. The LOD of sensor is 2.57ng/mL (S/N=3). This fluorescence sensor based on the Fe 3 O 4 /g-C 3 N 4 /HKUST-1 composites has been applied to detect OTA in corn with satisfying results. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Metal organic framework g-C3N4/MIL-53(Fe) heterojunctions with enhanced photocatalytic activity for Cr(VI) reduction under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenyuan; Liu, Ning; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wu, Minghong; Tang, Liang

    2017-12-01

    In this study, hybrid nanocomposites based on Fe-based MOF and graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) were developed by a facile solvothermal method. The as-prepared materials were characterized by XRD, FESEM, TEM, XPS and PL analysis. It was showed that the introduction of a certain amount of g-C3N4 on the surface of MIL-53(Fe) would improve the separation and migration rate of photo-induced charges, consequently resulting in the boost of photocatalytic efficiency. Compared with g-C3N4 and MIL-53(Fe), the CMFe composites displayed more excellent visible light-resposive photocatalytic activity for the reduction of Cr(VI). The optimal doping content of g-C3N4 in g-C3N4/MIL-53(Fe) composite was determined to be 3.0 wt%, and it showed about 2.1 and 2.0 times as high photocatalytic efficiency for the reduction of Cr(VI) as that of pure g-C3N4 and MIL-53(Fe), respectively. Meanwhile, the composite exhibited good reusability and stability in the process of cyclic experiments. A possible photocatalytic reaction mechanism was also investigated in detail by the related electrochemical analysis.

  2. Unique Determinants of Neuraminidase Inhibitor Resistance among N3, N7, and N9 Avian Influenza Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min-Suk; Marathe, Bindumadhav M; Kumar, Gyanendra; Wong, Sook-San; Rubrum, Adam; Zanin, Mark; Choi, Young-Ki; Webster, Robert G; Govorkova, Elena A; Webby, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    Human infections with avian influenza viruses are a serious public health concern. The neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs) are the frontline anti-influenza drugs and are the major option for treatment of newly emerging influenza. Therefore, it is essential to identify the molecular markers of NAI resistance among specific NA subtypes of avian influenza viruses to help guide clinical management. NAI-resistant substitutions in NA subtypes other than N1 and N2 have been poorly studied. Here, we identified NA amino acid substitutions associated with NAI resistance among influenza viruses of N3, N7, and N9 subtypes which have been associated with zoonotic transmission. We applied random mutagenesis and generated recombinant influenza viruses carrying single or double NA substitution(s) with seven internal genes from A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) virus. In a fluorescence-based NA inhibition assay, we identified three categories of NA substitutions associated with reduced inhibition by NAIs (oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir): (i) novel subtype-specific substitutions in or near the enzyme catalytic site (R152W, A246T, and D293N, N2 numbering), (ii) subtype-independent substitutions (E119G/V and/or D and R292K), and (iii) substitutions previously reported in other subtypes (Q136K, I222M, and E276D). Our data show that although some markers of resistance are present across NA subtypes, other subtype-specific markers can only be determined empirically. The number of humans infected with avian influenza viruses is increasing, raising concerns of the emergence of avian influenza viruses resistant to neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs). Since most studies have focused on NAI-resistance in human influenza viruses, we investigated the molecular changes in NA that could confer NAI resistance in avian viruses grown in immortalized monolayer cells, especially those of the N3, N7, and N9 subtypes, which have caused human infections. We identified not only numerous NAI

  3. Preparation of WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites and their application in oxidative desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Rongxiang, E-mail: zylhzrx@126.com; Li, Xiuping, E-mail: lilili_171717@126.com; Su, Jianxun; Gao, Xiaohan

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was successfully synthesized through simple calcination. • The process is simple and the cost raw materials is cheap. • The WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} firstly applied to ODS. • The desulpurization rate of WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} may attach to 91.2%. • Five recycles of WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} still attach to 89.5% due to heterogeneous catalysis. - Abstract: WO{sub 3}/graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) composites were successfully synthesized through direct calcining of a mixture of WO{sub 3} and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} at 400 °C for 2 h. The WO{sub 3} was prepared by calcination of phosphotungstic acid at 550 °C for 4 h, and the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was obtained by calcination of melamine at 520 °C for 4 h. The WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Brunner−Emmett−Teller analysis (BET). The WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites exhibited stronger XRD peaks of WO{sub 3} and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} than the WO{sub 3} and pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. In addition, two WO{sub 3} peaks at 25.7° and 26.6° emerged for the 36% −WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite. This finding indicated that WO{sub 3} was highly dispersed on the surface of the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets and interacted with the nanosheets, which resulted in the appearance of (012) and (022) planes of WO{sub 3}. The WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite also exhibited a larger specific surface area and higher degree of crystallization than WO{sub 3} or pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, which resulted in high catalytic activity of the catalyst. Desulfurization experiments demonstrated that the desulfurization rate of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in model oil reached 91.2% under optimal conditions. Moreover, the activity of the catalyst was not significantly decreased after five recycles.

  4. Enhanced NO2 abatement by alkaline-earth modified g-C3N4 nanocomposites for efficient air purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papailias, Ilias; Todorova, Nadia; Giannakopoulou, Tatiana; Karapati, Sofia; Boukos, Nikos; Dimotikali, Dimitra; Trapalis, Christos

    2018-02-01

    The emission of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a major problem encountered in photocatalytic NOx removal for air purification. Although the oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) has been extensively studied, the elimination of NO2 byproduct is still in preliminary stage. In this work, alkaline-earth modified graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is proposed for efficient NOx removal by minimizing the emission of NO2 during the NO oxidation process. The novel photocatalysts were synthesized by annealing mixtures of melamine and various alkaline-earth acetates (magnesium, calcium and barium acetate) at 550 °C for 3 h. The specific surface area of the photocatalysts varied between 4.65 and 11.81 m2/g. The formation of MgO, CaCO3 and BaCO3 was demonstrated by XPS and FT-IR analyses. The initial concentration of each alkaline-earth precursor was 5 and 10 wt%, while the final metal concentration in the nanocomposites was in the range of 7.19-22.39 wt%. The modified photocatalysts showed slightly reduced NO oxidation ability. However, the overall air quality was significantly improved by restraining the NO2 emission. The results were related to the basic character of the nanocomposites due to the presence of alkaline-earths and their enhanced NO2 adsorption capability.

  5. Infrared spectroscopy of physisorbed and chemisorbed N-2 in the Pt(111)(3x3)N-2 structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, K.; Karlberg, Gustav; Andersson, Sven

    2007-01-01

    Using infrared spectroscopy and low electron energy diffraction, we have investigated the adsorption of N-2, at 30 K, on the Pt(111) and the Pt(111)(1x1)H surfaces. At monolayer coverage, N-2 orders in commensurate (3x3) structures on both surfaces, and we propose that the unit cells contain four...... molecules in each case. The infrared spectra reveal that N-2 exclusively physisorbs on the Pt(111)(1x1)H surface, while both physisorbed and chemisorbed N-2 is detected on the Pt(111) surface. Physisorbed N-2 is the majority species in the latter case, and the two adsorption states show an almost identical...... uptake behavior, which indicates that they are intrinsic constituents of the growing (3x3) N-2 islands. An analysis of the infrared absorbance data, based on a simple scaling concept suggested by density functional theory calculations, supports a model in which the (3x3) unit cell contains one...

  6. A genotype network reveals homoplastic cycles of convergent evolution in influenza A (H3N2) haemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Andreas

    2014-07-07

    Networks of evolving genotypes can be constructed from the worldwide time-resolved genotyping of pathogens like influenza viruses. Such genotype networks are graphs where neighbouring vertices (viral strains) differ in a single nucleotide or amino acid. A rich trove of network analysis methods can help understand the evolutionary dynamics reflected in the structure of these networks. Here, I analyse a genotype network comprising hundreds of influenza A (H3N2) haemagglutinin genes. The network is rife with cycles that reflect non-random parallel or convergent (homoplastic) evolution. These cycles also show patterns of sequence change characteristic for strong and local evolutionary constraints, positive selection and mutation-limited evolution. Such cycles would not be visible on a phylogenetic tree, illustrating that genotype network analysis can complement phylogenetic analyses. The network also shows a distinct modular or community structure that reflects temporal more than spatial proximity of viral strains, where lowly connected bridge strains connect different modules. These and other organizational patterns illustrate that genotype networks can help us study evolution in action at an unprecedented level of resolution. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Superspace formulation in a three-algebra approach to D=3, N=4, 5 superconformal Chern-Simons matter theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Famin; Wu Yongshi

    2010-01-01

    We present a superspace formulation of the D=3, N=4, 5 superconformal Chern-Simons Matter theories, with matter supermultiplets valued in a symplectic 3-algebra. We first construct an N=1 superconformal action and then generalize a method used by Gaitto and Witten to enhance the supersymmetry from N=1 to N=5. By decomposing the N=5 supermultiplets and the symplectic 3-algebra properly and proposing a new superpotential term, we construct the N=4 superconformal Chern-Simons matter theories in terms of two sets of generators of a (quaternion) symplectic 3-algebra. The N=4 theories can also be derived by requiring that the supersymmetry transformations are closed on-shell. The relationship between the 3-algebras, Lie superalgebras, Lie algebras, and embedding tensors (proposed in [E. A. Bergshoeff, O. Hohm, D. Roest, H. Samtleben, and E. Sezgin, J. High Energy Phys. 09 (2008) 101.]) is also clarified. The general N=4, 5 superconformal Chern-Simons matter theories in terms of ordinary Lie algebras can be re-derived in our 3-algebra approach. All known N=4, 5 superconformal Chern-Simons matter theories can be recovered in the present superspace formulation for super-Lie algebra realization of symplectic 3-algebras.

  8. Effect of mesoporous g-C3N4 substrate on catalytic oxidation of CO over Co3O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Heng; Lv, Kangle; Zhu, Junjiang; Li, Qin; Tang, Dingguo; Ho, Wingkei; Li, Mei; Carabineiro, Sónia A. C.

    2017-04-01

    Mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride (mpg-CN) was synthesized using Triton X-100, a surfactant containing a hydrophilic polyethylene oxide group and a tert-octyl-phenyl hydrophobic moiety, as a soft template. The obtained mpg-CN was used as a support for Co3O4, and this supported catalyst was used for CO oxidation. The effects of the amount of Triton X-100, weight ratio of Co3O4 to mpg-CN and calcination temperature on the catalytic performances for CO oxidation of Co3O4/mpg-CN composites were systematically studied. It was found that the presence of Triton X-100 not only retarded the polymerization of dicyandiamide, but also affected the microstructure of Co3O4. Bubbles formed because of the hydrophobic group of the surfactant Triton X-100 can be act as a soft template for the synthesis of mesoporous g-C3N4. The enhanced catalytic activity of Co3O4/mpg-CN was attributed to a synergistic effect, enlarged BET surface areas, increased Co3+ and lattice oxygen contents, and the porous structure of mpg-CN support. The high stability of 12.5% Co3O4/mpg-CN(1.0) makes it a promising catalyst for practical applications.

  9. Crystallography of sigma phase precipitation in superaustenitic Fe-22Cr-21Ni-6Mo-0.3N stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Ho; Jung, Yun Chul; Kim, Sung Joon

    1999-01-01

    The crystallographic features of sigma phase precipitation in super austenitic Fe-22Cr-21Ni-6Mo-(0.3N) stainless steels during isothermal aging were investigated utilizing transmission electron microscopy. The sigma phase precipitated along the austenite grain boundaries even after solution treatment due to higher Mo contents and remained stable throughout aging at 900 .deg. C up to 168 hours. The sigma phase observed in this study was found to be ternary Fe-Cr-Mo sigma phase and had tetragonal structure with lattice parameters of a=9.17A and c=4.74A. The orientation relationships between the sigma phase and austenite were determined from the analyses of selected area diffraction patterns taken by various zone axes and stereo graphic analyses. The orientation relationships between sigma and austenite phases obtained in this study were as follows; 1) (110) γ ll (110) σ , [111] γ ll [001] σ and (112) γ ll (110) σ , [111] γ ll [001] σ and 2) (110) γ ll (110) σ , [112] γ ll [113] σ and (111) γ ll (332) σ , [112] γ ll [113] σ . However, the former orientation relationship was predominant throughout aging and the latter orientation relationship was scarcely observed in very limited aging condition

  10. Surface modeling and chemical solution deposition of SrO(SrTiO3)n Ruddlesden-Popper phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zschornak, M.; Gemming, S.; Gutmann, E.; Weissbach, T.; Stoecker, H.; Leisegang, T.; Riedl, T.; Traenkner, M.; Gemming, T.; Meyer, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Strontium titanate (STO) is a preferred substrate material for functional oxide growth, whose surface properties can be adjusted through the presence of Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases. Here, density functional theory (DFT) is used to model the (1 0 0) and (0 0 1) surfaces of SrO(SrTiO 3 ) n RP phases. Relaxed surface structures, electronic properties and stability relations have been determined. In contrast to pure STO, the near-surface SrO-OSr stacking fault can be employed to control surface roughness by adjusting SrO and TiO 2 surface rumpling, to stabilize SrO termination in an SrO-rich surrounding or to increase the band gap in the case of TiO 2 termination. RP thin films have been epitaxially grown on (0 0 1) STO substrates by chemical solution deposition. In agreement with DFT results, the fraction of particular RP phases n = 1-3 changes with varying heating rate and molar ratio Sr:Ti. This is discussed in terms of bulk formation energy.

  11. Twin defects engineered Pd cocatalyst on C3N4 nanosheets for enhanced photocatalytic performance in CO2 reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Qingqing; Hu, Wenli; Zhou, Penghui; Huang, Tianlong; Zhong, Shuxian; Yang, Lining; Chen, Jianrong; Bai, Song

    2017-12-01

    Photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to value-added chemicals, a potential route to addressing the depletion of fossil fuels and anthropogenic climate change, is greatly limited by the low-efficient semiconductor photocatalyst. The integration of cocatalyst with light-harvesting semiconductor is a promising approach to enhancing the photocatalytic performance in CO2 reduction reaction. The enhancement is greatly determined by the catalytic active sites on the surface of cocatalyst. Herein, we demonstrate that the photocatalytic performance in the CO2 reduction reaction is greatly promoted by twin defects engineered Pd cocatalyst. In this work, Pd nanoicosahedrons with twin defects were in situ grown on C3N4 nanosheets, which effectively improve the photocatalytic performance in reduction of CO2 to CO and CH4 in comparison with Pd nanotetrahedrons without twin defects. It is proposed that the twin boundary (TB) terminations on the surface of Pd cocatalysts are highly catalytic active sites for CO2 reduction reaction. Based on the proposed mechanism, the photocatalytic activity and selectivity in CO2 reduction were further advanced through reducing the size of Pd icosahedral cocatalyst resulted from the increased surface density of TB terminations. The defect engineering on the surface of cocatalyst represents a novel route in realizing high-performance photocatalytic applications.

  12. Cobalt(II phthalocyanine bonded to 3-n-propylimidazole immobilized on silica gel surface: preparation and electrochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujiwara Sergio T.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-Phthalocyanine complex was immobilized on 3-n-propylimidazole groups grafted on a porous SiO2 surface (specific surface area S BET = 500 m² g-1 and efficiently electrocatalyzed the oxalic acid oxidation on a carbon paste electrode surface made of this material. Intermolecular interactions of the complex species which can normally interfere in the redox process practically are not observed in the present case because of a low average surface density, delta = 4.7 x 10-13 mol cm-2 (delta = Nf/S BET, where Nf is the amount of adsorbed Co-phtalocyanine per gram of modified silica gel of the complex species material prepared. The linear response of the electrode to oxalic acid concentration, between 6.5 x 10-4 and 3.2 x 10-3 mol L-1, associated with its high chemical stability makes the covalently immobilized Co-phtalocyanine complex material very attractive in preparing a new class of chemical sensors.

  13. Quantification of the whole-body distribution of PET radiopharmaceuticals, applied to 3-N-([18F]fluoroethyl)spiperone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, H.; Kuwert, T.; Langen, K.J.; Feinendegen, L.E.; Coenen, H.H.

    1990-01-01

    Using a multi slice whole body PET scanner PC4096-15WB, diagnostic measurements of the cerebral distribution of the D 2 receptor ligand 3-N-([ 18 F]fluoroethyl)spiperone were extended to quantify the biodistribution of this PET radiopharmaceutical. As a rotating line source was used for measured attenuation correction, transmission scans could be combined with emission scans even after injection of the tracer. Only 1% of the total administered dose (TAD) was found in the whole brain at 180 min, but the striatum and pituitary were still excellently delineated. Urinary bladder, gall bladder, and liver were the organs with the highest TAD ranging from 6% to 25%. The gall bladder is the critical organ with an absorbed dose of about 200 mGy/kBq followed by the urinary bladder and liver with 83 and 66 mGy/kBq, respectively. In the rest of the body radioactivity was evenly distributed. The total body dose was found to be 11.9 mGy/kBq. (orig.)

  14. Effects of substrate pretreatments on diamond synthesis for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} based ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibuya, Y. [Prefectural Industrial Research Inst., Shizuoka (Japan); Takaya, M. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Tsudanuma 2-chome, Narashino-shi, 275 (Japan)

    1998-07-08

    Diamond synthesis for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramics after various substrate pretreatments has been carried out by the microwave-plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method using a mixture of methane and hydrogen gases. Four types of pretreatments for various substrates were performed as follows: scratching with diamond powder (I), applying O{sub 2}-C{sub 2}H{sub 2} combustion flames (II), polishing with alumina (III), and platinum vapor deposition (IV). The products deposited on the substrate were examined with micro-Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). It was found that the application of O{sub 2}-C{sub 2}H{sub 2} flames as a pretreatment of the substrate in diamond synthesis was suitable, because a higher density of diamond nucleation could be obtained, and a film-like diamond could be formed on the surface in a shorter time than without applying them. The diamond could be synthesized on the surface for all four types of substrate pretreatments performed in the present study. The effects of the substrate pretreatments on the surface morphology of grown diamond were that a film-like diamond for (I) or (II), a particle-like diamond for (III) and a particle and/or a film-like diamond for (IV) were formed on the surface. The surface morphology of grown diamond depended very much on the substrate temperature under deposition. (orig.) 18 refs.

  15. Fabrication of AgFeO{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocatalyst with enhanced and stable photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Dandan [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); Hubei Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for High Efficient Utilization of Vanadium Resources, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhang, Gaoke, E-mail: gkzhang@whut.edu.cn [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); Hubei Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for High Efficient Utilization of Vanadium Resources, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • AgFeO{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocatalyst was synthesized via a facile precipitation method. • The composite displays superior e{sup ∧}/h{sup +} pair separation compared to AgFeO{sub 2} and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • The composite shows high and stable photocatalytic activity both in water and air. • The active h{sup +} plays the dominate role in the degradation process. - Abstract: This work reported a novel AgFeO{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite with enhanced photocatalytic activity, which was fabricated by a simple precipitation method. The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} sheets with thickness of 2• 4 nm were successfully loaded on the surface of the AgFeO{sub 2} particles. As compared to pure AgFeO{sub 2} and pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, the as-prepared AgFeO{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalysts exhibited superior absorption in the visible-light region and displayed promising visible-light photocatalytic performance in the degradation of organic contaminations both in water and in air. About 94% of Acid red G (ARG) can be degraded by the optimized AgFeO{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} sample, which is ∱/47.5 and ∱/410.7 times higher than that by pure AgFeO{sub 2} and pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, respectively. Meanwhile, it can also effectively degrade ∱/487% of gaseous formaldehyde to CO{sub 2} within 9 h. The enhanced photocatalytic property and stability of the AgFeO{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite can be attributed to its specific nanostructure, effective electron-hole separation and the formation of Z-scheme heterostructure between AgFeO{sub 2} and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. This work could provide new and helpful insights into the photocatalytic application of Ag-based delafossite materials.

  16. Enhanced visible light activity on direct contact Z-scheme g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan [National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Nano Functional Materials and Applications of Henan Province, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); Zhang, Min [National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Nano Functional Materials and Applications of Henan Province, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); Li, Qiuye, E-mail: qiuyeli@henu.edu.cn [National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Nano Functional Materials and Applications of Henan Province, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); Yang, Jianjun, E-mail: yangjianjun@henu.edu.cn [National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Nano Functional Materials and Applications of Henan Province, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} composites were obtained by simple solid state sintering. • The composites were direct contact Z-scheme without an electron mediator. • TiO{sub 2} with large amount of SETOV was obtained by dehydration of NTA. - Abstract: Direct contact Z-scheme g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites without an electron mediator are prepared via simple annealing the mixture of bulk g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and nanotube titanic acid (NTA) in air at 600 °C for 2 h. In the process of annealing, the bulk g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} transformed to ultra-thin g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets, and NTA converted to a novel anatase TiO{sub 2}, then the two components formed a close interaction. The XPS result reveals that some amount of nitrogen is doped into this novel-TiO{sub 2}, and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets exist in the composites. The results of XRD, TEM and TG indicate that the thickness of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets is very thin. The ESR spectrum shows the existence of Ti{sup 3+} and single-electron-trapped oxygen vacancy in the 30%g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} composites. In photocatalytic activity test, the 30%g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites showed an excellent photo-oxidation activity of propylene under visible light irradiation (λ≥ 420 nm), and the removal efficiency of propylene reached as high as 56.6%, and the activity kept nearly 82% after four consecutive recycles. Photoluminescence (PL) result using terephthalic acid (TA) as a probe molecule indicated that the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites displayed a Z-sheme photocatalytic reaction system and this should be the main reason for the high photocatalytic activity. A possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed on the basis of PL result and transient photocurrent-time curves.

  17. An Advanced Semimetal-Organic Bi Spheres-g-C3N4 Nanohybrid with SPR-Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Performance for NO Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fan; Zhao, Zaiwang; Sun, Yanjuan; Zhang, Yuxin; Yan, Shuai; Wu, Zhongbiao

    2015-10-20

    To achieve efficient photocatalytic air purification, we constructed an advanced semimetal-organic Bi spheres-g-C3N4 nanohybrid through the in-situ growth of Bi nanospheres on g-C3N4 nanosheets. This Bi-g-C3N4 compound exhibited an exceptionally high and stable visible-light photocatalytic performance for NO removal due to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) endowed by Bi metal. The SPR property of Bi could conspicuously enhance the visible-light harvesting and the charge separation. The electromagnetic field distribution of Bi spheres involving SPR effect was simulated and reaches its maximum in close proximity to the Bi particle surface. When the Bi metal content was controlled at 25%, the corresponding Bi-g-C3N4 displayed outstanding photocatalytic capability and transcended those of other visible-light photocatalysts. The Bi-g-C3N4 exhibited a high structural stability under repeated photocatalytic runs. A new visible-light-induced SPR-based photocatalysis mechanism with Bi-g-C3N4 was proposed on the basis of the DMPO-ESR spin-trapping. The photoinduced electrons could transfer from g-C3N4 to the Bi metal, as revealed with time-resolved fluorescence spectra. The function of Bi semimetal as a plasmonic cocatalyst for boosting visible light photocatalysis was similar to that of noble metals, which demonstrated a great potential of utilizing the economically feasible Bi element as a substitute for noble metals for the advancement of photocatalysis efficiency.

  18. Facile preparation of Z-scheme WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite photocatalyst with enhanced photocatalytic performance under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Lifeng, E-mail: lifeng.cui@gmail.com [School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Guangdong 523808 (China); Ding, Xiang; Wang, Yangang; Shi, Huancong; Huang, Lihua; Zuo, Yuanhui [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Kang, Shifei, E-mail: sfkang@usst.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites were synthesized through a facile mixing-and-heating method. • The composite showed improved visible light response. • The composite showed high activity for MB degradation. • Z-scheme charge carrier transfer pathways in the composite are proposed. - Abstract: Visible-light-driven WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites photocatalysts were synthesized via a facile one-step simultaneously heating procedure with urea as the main precursor. These prepared catalyst samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy (UV–vis), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), photoluminescence (PL) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The photocatalytic activity of the WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites was evaluated by the photo-degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. The results indicated that the composites with 25 wt.% WO{sub 3} content exhibited highest photocatalytic activity compared to pure WO{sub 3}, bare g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and other WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites. The favorable photocatalytic activity of WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites was mainly attributed to the excellent surface properties, enhanced visible-light absorption and the desirable band positions. A possible Z-scheme photocatalytic mechanism was proposed based on structure and electrochemical characterizations results, which can well explain the enhanced migration rate of photogenerated electrons and holes in WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} heterojunctions.

  19. Compressible and Recyclable Monolithic g-C3N4/Melamine Sponge: A Facile Ultrasonic-coating Approach and Enhanced Visible-light Photocatalytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Ruiyang; Ran, Tao; Wan, Wenchao; Zhou, Ying

    2018-05-01

    Powdery photocatalysts seriously restrict their practical application due to the difficult recycle and low photocatalytic activity. In this work, a monolithic g-C3N4/melamine sponge (g-C3N4/MS) was successfully fabricated by a cost-effective ultrasonic-coating route, which is easy to achieve the uniform dispersion and firm loading of g-C3N4 on MS skeleton. The monolithic g-C3N4/MS entirely inherits the porous structure of MS and results in a larger specific surface area (SSA) than its powdery counterpart. Benefit from this monolithic structure, g-C3N4/MS gains more exposed active sites, enhanced visible-light absorption and separation of photogenerated carriers, thus achieving noticeable photocatalytic activity on nitric oxide (NO) removal, rhodamine B (RhB) degradation and CO2 reduction. Specifically, NO removal ratio is as high as 78.6% which is 4.5 times higher than that of the powdery g-C3N4, while RhB degradation rate reaches 97.88%, and yield rate of CO and CH4 attains 7.48 and 3.93 μmol g-1 h-1. Importantly, the features of low-density, high porosity, good elasticity and firmness, not only endow g-C3N4/MS with flexibility in various environmental applications, but also make it easy to recycle and stable for long-time application. Our work provides a feasible approach to fabricate novel monolithic photocatalysts with large-scale production and application.

  20. Prognostic stratification of patients with T3N1M0 non-small cell lung cancer: which phase should it be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicgun, Ali; Tanriverdi, Ozgur; Turna, Akif; Metin, Muzaffer; Sayar, Adnan; Solak, Okan; Urer, Nur; Gurses, Atilla

    2012-06-01

    In the 1997 revision of the TNM staging system for lung cancer, patients with T3N0M0 disease were moved from stage IIIA to stage IIB since these patients have a better prognosis. Despite this modification, the local lymph node metastasis remained the most important prognostic factor in patients with lung cancer. The present study aimed to evaluate the prognosis of patients with T3N1 disease as compared with that of patients with stages IIIA and IIB disease. During 7-year period, 313 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (297 men, 16 women) who had resection were enrolled. The patients were staged according the 2007 revision of Lung Cancer Staging by American Joint Committee on Cancer. The Kaplan-Meier statistics was used for survival analysis, and comparisons were made using Cox proportional hazard method. The 5-year survival of patients with stage IIIA disease excluding T3N1 patients was 40%, whereas the survival of the patients with stage IIB disease was 66% at 5 years. The 5-year survival rates of stage III T3N1 patients (single-station N1) was found to be higher than those of patients with stage IIIA disease (excluding pT3N1 patients, P = 0.04), while those were found to be similar with those of patients with stage IIB disease (P = 0.4). Survival of the present cohort of patients with T3N1M0 disease represented the survival of IIB disease rather than IIIA non-small cell lung cancer. Further studies are needed to suggest further revisions in the recent staging system regarding T3N1MO disease.

  1. Comparative pathology of pigs infected with Korean H1N1, H1N2, or H3N2 swine influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyoo, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Jung, Kwonil; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Song, Daesub

    2014-09-24

    The predominant subtypes of swine influenza A virus (SIV) in Korea swine population are H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2. The viruses are genetically close to the classical U.S. H1N1 and triple-reassortant H1N2 and H3N2 viruses, respectively. Comparative pathogenesis caused by Korean H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 SIV was evaluated in this study. The H3N2 infected pigs had severe scores of gross and histopathological lesions at post-inoculation days (PID) 2, and this then progressively decreased. Both the H1N1 and H1N2 infected pigs lacked gross lesions at PID 2, but they showed moderate to severe pneumonia on PID 4, 7 and 14. The pigs infected with H1N1 had significant scores of gross and histopathological lesions when compared with the other pigs infected with H1N2, H3N2, and mock at PID 14. Mean SIV antigen-positive scores were rarely detected for pigs infected with H1N2 and H3N2 from PID 7, whereas a significantly increased amount of viral antigens were found in the bronchioles and alveolar epithelium of the H1N1infected pigs at PID 14. We demonstrated that Korean SIV subtypes had different pulmonary pathologic patterns. The Korean H3N2 rapidly induced acute lung lesions such as broncho-interstitial pneumonia, while the Korean H1N1 showed longer course of infection as compared to other strains.

  2. Surface modification of TiO2 with g-C3N4 for enhanced UV and visible photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Juying; Chen, Ying; Shen, Fan; Wang, Lingzhi; Liu, Yongdi; Zhang, Jinlong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 was prepared by a one-step preparation under mild conditions. • Photocatalysts showed excellent activity under both UV and visible light. • A neat surface modification process is proved, excluding influence of N doping. • Two photocatalytic mechanisms under different wavelengths are proposed. • A wide range of available wavelengths would greatly improve practicability of TiO 2 . - Abstract: g-C 3 N 4 modified TiO 2 composites were prepared through a simple calcination process of anatase and cyanamide. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry (DRS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetry differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), proving a successful modification of TiO 2 with g-C 3 N 4 . Photodegradation of acid orange 7 (AO7) was used to evaluate the photocatalytic activities of the composites, showing excellent activity of them under both visible and UV light. In addition, base treatment was then introduced to investigate the interaction between g-C 3 N 4 and TiO 2 . After removing the g-C 3 N 4 modified on TiO 2 by base, no nitrogen doping is found in TiO 2 lattice, demonstrating the g-C 3 N 4 was surface attached on TiO 2 and attributing all improvement of photocatalytic activity of g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 composite to the synergy between the two semiconductors

  3. Surface reconstruction of titania with g-C3N4 and Ag for promoting efficient electrons migration and enhanced visible light photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, Kah Hon; Liu, Sze Ling; Sim, Lan Ching; Saravanan, Pichiah; Jang, Min; Ibrahim, Shaliza

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Visible light responsive TiO 2 was reconstructed with g-C 3 N 4 and Ag by simple route. • g-C 3 N 4 simultaneously promoted electrons migration and tuned energy gap of TiO 2 . • Ag facilitated electron junction and enhanced the visible light through SPR. • Reconstructed TiO 2 showed an excellent photocatalytic performance by removing AMX. - Abstract: The developments of heterogeneous photocatalysts are one among the competent reconstruction approach to enrich the visible light responsiveness of conventional TiO 2 . In the present work the TiO 2 was reconstructed with graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) and silver (Ag) to form a ternary (g-C 3 N 4 )–Ag/TiO 2 . The graphitic carbon nitride an intriguing material was prepared through a facile pyrolysis by using urea as a precursor. The silver (Ag) that plays a role as electron-conduction mobiliser in the ternary was synthesised through solar mediated photodeposition method. The synthesised ternary composite characteristics were thoroughly investigated through various physical and chemical analyses. The presence of g-C 3 N 4 in the ternary photocatalysts promoted the formation of interface between the Ag/TiO 2 and g-C 3 N 4 and stimulated the electron transfer between them. These electrons migration acknowledged by the synergic effect prolonged the lifetime of charge carriers. The g-C 3 N 4 also significantly tuned the energy band of conventional TiO 2 . The prepared ternary exhibited significantly high visible light photocatalytic performance by degrading Amoxicillin (AMX) a poor photosensitising pollutant at highest rate.

  4. Surface reconstruction of titania with g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Ag for promoting efficient electrons migration and enhanced visible light photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, Kah Hon; Liu, Sze Ling [Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Sim, Lan Ching [Faculty of Engineering and Green Technology, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak (Malaysia); Saravanan, Pichiah, E-mail: saravananpichiah@um.edu.my [Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Center (NANOCAT), University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jang, Min [Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Center (NANOCAT), University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ibrahim, Shaliza [Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Visible light responsive TiO{sub 2} was reconstructed with g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Ag by simple route. • g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} simultaneously promoted electrons migration and tuned energy gap of TiO{sub 2}. • Ag facilitated electron junction and enhanced the visible light through SPR. • Reconstructed TiO{sub 2} showed an excellent photocatalytic performance by removing AMX. - Abstract: The developments of heterogeneous photocatalysts are one among the competent reconstruction approach to enrich the visible light responsiveness of conventional TiO{sub 2}. In the present work the TiO{sub 2} was reconstructed with graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and silver (Ag) to form a ternary (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4})–Ag/TiO{sub 2}. The graphitic carbon nitride an intriguing material was prepared through a facile pyrolysis by using urea as a precursor. The silver (Ag) that plays a role as electron-conduction mobiliser in the ternary was synthesised through solar mediated photodeposition method. The synthesised ternary composite characteristics were thoroughly investigated through various physical and chemical analyses. The presence of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} in the ternary photocatalysts promoted the formation of interface between the Ag/TiO{sub 2} and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and stimulated the electron transfer between them. These electrons migration acknowledged by the synergic effect prolonged the lifetime of charge carriers. The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} also significantly tuned the energy band of conventional TiO{sub 2}. The prepared ternary exhibited significantly high visible light photocatalytic performance by degrading Amoxicillin (AMX) a poor photosensitising pollutant at highest rate.

  5. Construction of g-C3N4/CeO2/ZnO ternary photocatalysts with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Gui-Fang; Hu, Wang-Yu; Xiong, Dan-Ni; Zhou, Bing-Xin; Chang, Shengli; Huang, Wei-Qing

    2017-07-01

    Promoting the spatial separation of photoexcited charge carriers is of paramount significance for photocatalysis. In this work, binary g-C3N4/CeO2 nanosheets are first prepared by pyrolysis and subsequent exfoliation method, then decorated with ZnO nanoparticles to construct g-C3N4/CeO2/ZnO ternary nanocomposites with multi-heterointerfaces. Notably, the type-II staggered band alignments existing between any two of the constituents, as well as the efficient three-level transfer of electron-holes in unique g-C3N4/CeO2/ZnO ternary composites, leads to the robust separation of photoexcited charge carriers, as verified by its photocurrent increased by 8 times under visible light irradiation. The resulting g-C3N4/CeO2/ZnO ternary nanocomposites unveil appreciably increased photocatalytic activity, faster than that of pure g-C3N4, ZnO and g-C3N4/CeO2 by a factor of 11, 4.6 and 3.7, respectively, and good stability toward methylene blue (MB) degradation. The remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4/CeO2/ZnO ternary heterostructures can be interpreted in terms of lots of active sites of nanosheet shapes and the efficient charge separation owing to the resulting type-II band alignment with more than one heterointerface and the efficient three-level electron-hole transfer. A plausible mechanism is also elucidated via active species trapping experiments with various scavengers, which indicating that the photogenerated holes and •OH radicals play a crucial role in photodegradation reaction under visible light irradiation. This work suggest that the rational design and construction of type II multi-heterostructures is powerful for developing highly efficient and reusable visible-light photocatalysts for environmental purification and energy conversion.

  6. Effect of the structure distortion on the high photocatalytic performance of C{sub 60}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiaojuan; Li, Xinru; Li, Mengmeng; Ma, Xiangchao; Yu, Lin, E-mail: yu-lin@sdu.edu.cn; Dai, Ying, E-mail: daiy60@sina.com

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • The adsorption of C{sub 60} can induce an irreversible structure distortion for g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} from flat to wrinkle. • The structure distortion of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} plays a crucial role in enhancing photocatalytic performances. • Stability, optical absorption and band edge all have positive correlations with wrinkle degree for g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} monolayers. - Abstract: C{sub 60}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite was reported experimentally to be of high photocatalytic activity in degrading organics. To investigate the underlying mechanism of high photocatalytic performance, the structural and electronic properties of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} monolayers with adsorbing and removing fullerene C{sub 60} are studied by means of density functional theory calculations. After 25 possible configurations examination, it is found that C{sub 60} prefers to stay upon the “junction nitrogen” with the carbon atom of fullerene being nearest to monolayers. Correspondingly, a type-I band alignment appears. Our results further demonstrate that the adsorption of C{sub 60} can lead to an irreversible structure distortion for g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} from flat to wrinkle, which plays a crucial role in improving photocatalytic performance other than the separation of carriers at interface due to the formation of type-II heterojunctions as previous report. Compared to flat one, the light absorption of wrinkled structure shows augmented, the valence band maximum shifts towards lower position along with a stronger photo-oxidation capability. Interestingly, the results indicate that the energy, light absorption and band edge all have a particular relationship with wrinkle degree. The work presented here can be helpful to understand the mechanism behind the better photocatalytic performance for C{sub 60} modified g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}.

  7. Ammonia-evaporation-induced construction of three-dimensional NiO/g-C3N4 composite with enhanced adsorption and visible light-driven photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzvetkov, George; Tsvetkov, Martin; Spassov, Tony

    2018-07-01

    Novel visible light-driven heterostructured NiO/g-C3N4 photocatalyst has been designed and successfully prepared via ammonia-evaporation-induced method. The synthetic strategy consists of grafting the surface of g-C3N4 with Ni(NH3)62+ complex followed by its hydrolysis at lower pH to form nano-wrinkled thin film of α-Ni(OH)2. The final NiO/g-C3N4 hybrid was obtained after calcination of the Ni(OH)2/g-C3N4 precursor at 350 °C. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, FTIR, N2 adsorption/desorption, UV-vis diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy were used to characterize the resulting material. Our results revealed the formation of meso-/macroporous three-dimensional hierarchical honeycomb-like structure with high BET surface area (141 m2 g-1). The photocatalytic performance of the composite under visible light (λ > 400 nm) irradiation was evaluated through degradation of Malachite Green (MG) from aqueous medium at room temperature (25 °C). For the sake of comparison, the physico-chemical and photocatalytic properties of the pristine g-C3N4 and nanostructured NiO were also examined. Results indicated that NiO/g-C3N4 is much more active than pristine g-C3N4 and NiO in the photodegradation of MG. The enhanced photocatalytic performance of the composite was mainly attributed to the combination of high adsorption capacity which facilitates the direct redox reactions of dye and the efficient inhibition of photo-generated electron-hole pair recombination. Superoxide radicals (•O2-) and photo-generated holes (h+) were found to be the main active species in the process.

  8. MR spectroscopy in diagnosis of local recurrence of T3N0M0 of prostate cancer after cryotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ming; Guo Zhi; Si Tongguo; Wang Haitao; Xiao Bohan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in detecting local recurrence in patients with T 3 N 0 M 0 prostate cancer after cryotherapy. Methods: Sixty-five patients with T 3 N 0 M 0 prostate cancer underwent cryotherapy. The preoperative data of conventional MRI, MRS, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy were collected. After cryotherapy, the prostate specific antigen (PSA) of all patients was detected monthly.If PSA >5 μg/L, MRI, MRS, and TRUS-guided prostate biopsy were planned within a week. If PSA was unremarkable, MRI, MRS, and TRUS-guided prostate biopsy were planned 12 months after cryotherapy. The prostate was divided 6 regions and the cancerous and noncancerous were marked. The signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of choline (Cho), citrate (Cit) and the ratios of Cho + creatine (Cre)/Cit of each regions were measured in pre-operation and postoperation. The patients were divided into non-recurrence and recurrence group according to TRUS-guided biopsy. The S/N of Cho, Cit, and the ratio of Cho + Cre/Cit were compared between the groups before and after cryotherapy by using independent samples t-test. Results: (1) Fifteen patients were confirmed local recurrence 12 months after cryotherapy, including 11 patients with an evaluate PSA level and 4 patients with PSA unremarkable. (2) The S/N of Cho, Cit and the ratios of Cho + Cre/Cit in the cancerous and noncancerous regions before cryotherapy in the sixty-five patients were 25±9, 11±5, and 18±5, and 39 ±12, 2.33±0.60, and 0.53 ± 0.19. There had significant difference between that of two groups (t values were 11.36, 9.81, and 13.39, respectively, P=0.00). (3) In the patients with non-recurrence, The S/N of Cho, Cit in the cancerous and noncancerous regions were 4 ± 2 and 3 ± 2 (t=1.024, P=0.305), and 2±2 and 4 ±3 (t=1.147, P=0.178) and no difference was found. In necrotic area,the ratios of Cho + Cre/Cit could not be calculated because of low level of the

  9. Structural basis for the inhibition of human alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG) by 3,N4-ethenocytosine-containing DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingaraju, Gondichatnahalli M; Davis, C Ainsley; Setser, Jeremy W; Samson, Leona D; Drennan, Catherine L

    2011-04-15

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, generated by neutrophils and macrophages in chronically inflamed tissues, readily damage DNA, producing a variety of potentially genotoxic etheno base lesions; such inflammation-related DNA damage is now known to contribute to carcinogenesis. Although the human alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG) can specifically bind DNA containing either 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine (εA) lesions or 3,N(4)-ethenocytosine (εC) lesions, it can only excise εA lesions. AAG binds very tightly to DNA containing εC lesions, forming an abortive protein-DNA complex; such binding not only shields εC from repair by other enzymes but also inhibits AAG from acting on other DNA lesions. To understand the structural basis for inhibition, we have characterized the binding of AAG to DNA containing εC lesions and have solved a crystal structure of AAG bound to a DNA duplex containing the εC lesion. This study provides the first structure of a DNA glycosylase in complex with an inhibitory base lesion that is induced endogenously and that is also induced upon exposure to environmental agents such as vinyl chloride. We identify the primary cause of inhibition as a failure to activate the nucleotide base as an efficient leaving group and demonstrate that the higher binding affinity of AAG for εC versus εA is achieved through formation of an additional hydrogen bond between Asn-169 in the active site pocket and the O(2) of εC. This structure provides the basis for the design of AAG inhibitors currently being sought as an adjuvant for cancer chemotherapy.

  10. Pathogenicity and transmission of triple reassortant H3N2 swine influenza A viruses is attenuated following Turkey embryo propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Shobana; Pudupakam, Raghavendra Sumanth; Deventhiran, Jagadeeswaran; Tevatia, Rahul; Leroith, Tanya

    2017-03-01

    Genetic lineages of swine influenza A viruses (SIVs) have recently been established in Turkeys in the United States. To identify molecular determinants that are involved in virulence and transmission of SIVs to Turkeys, we sequentially passaged two triple reassortant H3N2 SIV isolates from Minnesota in ten day old specific-pathogen free (SPF) Turkey embryos and tested them in seven-day old Turkey poults. We found that SIV replication in Turkey embryos led to minimal mutations in and around the receptor binding and antigenic sites of the HA molecule, while other gene segments were unchanged. The predominant changes associated with Turkey embryo passage were A223V, V226A and T248I mutations in the receptor-binding and glycosylation sites of the HA molecule. Furthermore, Turkey embryo propagation altered receptor specificity in SIV strain 07-1145. Embryo passaged 07-1145 virus showed a decrease in α2, 6 sialic acid receptor binding compared to the wild type virus. Intranasal infection of wild type SIVs in one-week-old Turkey poults resulted in persistent diarrhea and all the infected birds seroconverted at ten days post infection. The 07-1145 wild type virus also transmitted to age matched in-contact birds introduced one-day post infection. Turkeys infected with embryo passaged viruses displayed no clinical signs and were not transmitted to in-contact poults. Our results suggest that Turkey embryo propagation attenuates recent TR SIVs for infectivity and transmission in one week old Turkeys. Our findings will have important implications in identifying molecular determinants that control the transmission and virulence of TR SIVs in Turkeys and other species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Anisotropic thermal expansion of La(n)(Ti,Fe)(n)O(3n + 2) (n = 5 and 6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfel, Alexander; Dorscht, Philipp; Lichtenberg, Frank; van Smaalen, Sander

    2013-04-01

    Crystal structures are reported for two perovskite-related compounds with nominal compositions La5(Ti(0.8)Fe(0.2))5O17 and La6(Ti(0.67)Fe(0.33))6O20 at seven different temperatures between 90 and 350 K. For both compounds no evidence of a structural phase transition in the investigated range of temperatures was found. The thermal expansions are found to be anisotropic, with the largest thermal expansion along a direction parallel to the slabs of these layered compounds. The origin of this anisotropy is proposed to be a temperature dependence of tilts of the octahedral (Ti,Fe)O6 groups. It is likely that the same mechanism will determine similar anisotropic thermal behaviour of other compounds A(n)B(n)O(3n + 2). The crystal structures have revealed partial chemical order of Ti/Fe over the B sites, with iron concentrated towards the centers of the slabs. Local charge compensation is proposed as the driving force for the chemical order, where the highest-valent cation moves to sites near the oxygen-rich borders of the slabs. A linear dependence on the site occupation fraction by Fe of the computed valences leads to extrapolated valence values close to the formal valence of Ti(4+) for sites fully occupied by Ti, and of Fe(3+) for sites fully occupied by Fe. These results demonstrate the power of the bond-valence method, and they show that refined oxygen positions are the weighted average of oxygen positions in TiO6 and FeO6 octahedral groups.

  12. Relations between Structure, Activity and Stability in C3N4 Based Photocatalysts Used for Solar Hydrogen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh P. Sivasankaran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar hydrogen production from water could be a sustainable and environmentally friendly alternative to fossil energy carriers, yet so far photocatalysts active and stable enough for large-scale applications are not available, calling for advanced research efforts. In this work, H2 evolution rates of up to 1968 and 5188 μmol h−1 g−1 were obtained from aqueous solutions of triethanolamine (TEOA and oxalic acid (OA, respectively, by irradiating composites of AgIn5S8 (AIS, mesoporous C3N4 (CN, surface area >150 m2/g and ≤2 wt.% in-situ photodeposited Pt nanoparticles (NPs with UV-vis (≥300 nm and pure visible light (≥420 nm. Structural properties and electron transport in these materials were analyzed by XRD, STEM-HAADF, XPS, UV-vis-DRS, ATR-IR, photoluminescence and in situ-EPR spectroscopy. Initial H2 formation rates were highest for Pt/CN, yet with TEOA this catalyst deactivated by inclusion of Pt NPs in the matrix of CN (most pronounced at λ ≥ 300 nm while it remained active with OA, since in this case Pt NPs were enriched on the outermost surface of CN. In Pt/AIS-CN catalysts, Pt NPs were preferentially deposited on the surface of the AIS phase which prevents them from inclusion in the CN phase but reduces simultaneously the initial H2 evolution rate. This suggests that AIS hinders transport of separated electrons from the CN conduction band to Pt NPs but retains the latter accessible by protons to produce H2.

  13. Dietary antioxidant capacity and risk of type 2 diabetes in the large prospective E3N-EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Francesca Romana; Affret, Aurélie; Dow, Courtney; Balkau, Beverley; Bonnet, Fabrice; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy

    2018-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The diet, and especially fruit and vegetables, contains a variety of compounds with antioxidant activity, which may have cumulative/synergistic antioxidant effects. The total antioxidant capacity, an index derived from dietary intake, is a single estimate of antioxidant capacity from all dietary antioxidants. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between total antioxidant capacity and risk of type 2 diabetes. Among 64,223 women (mean age 52 ± 7 years) from the French E3N-European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, 1751 women had validated type 2 diabetes during 15 years of follow-up. The total antioxidant capacity was estimated with the ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) method. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate HRs and 95% CIs for the associations between total antioxidant capacity and type 2 diabetes risk, adjusted for potential confounders. In multivariable models, higher levels of total antioxidant capacity were associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Compared with women in the lowest quintile, women in the third, fourth and fifth quintiles for total antioxidant capacity had HRs of 0.74 (95% CI 0.63, 0.86), 0.70 (95% CI 0.59, 0.83) and 0.73 (95% CI 0.60, 0.89), respectively. The inverse association between total antioxidant capacity and risk of type 2 diabetes was linear up to values of 15 mmol/day, after which the effect reached a plateau. Our findings suggest that the total antioxidant capacity may play an important role in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged women. More studies are warranted to better understand the biological mechanisms underlying this inverse association.

  14. Dl-3-n-Butylphthalide Treatment Enhances Hemodynamics and Ameliorates Memory Deficits in Rats with Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Xiong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study has revealed that chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH activates a compensatory vascular mechanism attempting to maintain an optimal cerebral blood flow (CBF. However, this compensation fails to prevent neuronal death and cognitive impairment because neurons die prior to the restoration of normal CBF. Therefore, pharmacological invention may be critical to enhance the CBF for reducing neurodegeneration and memory deficit. Dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP is a compound isolated from the seeds of Chinese celery and has been proven to be able to prevent neuronal loss, reduce inflammation and ameliorate memory deficits in acute ischemic animal models and stroke patients. In the present study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques, immunohistochemistry and Morris water maze (MWM to investigate whether NBP can accelerate CBF recovery, reduce neuronal death and improve cognitive deficits in CCH rats after permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO. Rats were intravenously injected with NBP (5 mg/kg daily for 14 days beginning the first day after BCCAO. The results showed that NBP shortened recovery time of CBF to pre-occlusion levels at 2 weeks following BCCAO, compared to 4 weeks in the vehicle group, and enhanced hemodynamic compensation through dilation of the vertebral arteries (VAs and increase in angiogenesis. NBP treatment also markedly reduced reactive astrogliosis and cell apoptosis and protected hippocampal neurons against ischemic injury. The escape latency of CCH rats in the MWM was also reduced in response to NBP treatment. These findings demonstrate that NBP can accelerate the recovery of CBF and improve cognitive function in a rat model of CCH, suggesting that NBP is a promising therapy for CCH patients or vascular dementia.

  15. Tumor characteristics and family history in relation to mammographic density and breast cancer: The French E3N cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Dartois, Laureen; Delaloge, Suzette; Hopper, John; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura

    2017-08-01

    Mammographic density is a known heritable risk factor for breast cancer, but reports how tumor characteristics and family history may modify this association are inconsistent. Dense and total breast areas were assessed using Cumulus™ from pre-diagnostic mammograms for 820 invasive breast cancer cases and 820 matched controls nested within the French E3N cohort study. To allow comparisons across models, percent mammographic density (PMD) was standardized to the distribution of the controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of breast cancer risk for mammographic density were estimated by conditional logistic regression while adjusting for age and body mass index. Heterogeneity according to tumor characteristic and family history was assessed using stratified analyses. Overall, the OR per 1 SD for PMD was 1.50 (95% CI, 1.33-1.69). No evidence for significant heterogeneity by tumor size, lymph node status, grade, and hormone receptor status (estrogen, progesterone, and HER2) was detected. However, the association of PMD was stronger for women reporting a family history of breast cancer (OR 1SD =2.25; 95% CI, 1.67-3.04) than in women reporting none (OR 1SD =1.41; 95% CI, 1.24-1.60; p heterogeneity =0.002). Similarly, effect modification by FHBC was observed using categories of PMD (p heterogeneity =0.02) with respective ORs of 15.16 (95% CI, 4.23-54.28) vs. 3.14 (95% CI, 1.89-5.22) for ≥50% vs. breast cancer risk with a family history supports the hypothesis of shared genetic factors responsible for familial aggregation of breast cancer and the heritable component of mammographic density. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rational construction of Z-scheme Ag_2CrO_4/g-C_3N_4 composites with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Jin; Zhou, Xiaosong; Ma, Lin; Xu, Xuyao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel visible-light driven Ag_2CrO_4/g-C_3N_4 composites were synthesized. • Ag_2CrO_4/g-C_3N_4 exhibited enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity. • The reasons for the enhanced photocatalytic activity were revealed. - Abstract: Novel visible-light driven Z-scheme Ag_2CrO_4/g-C_3N_4 composites with different contents of Ag_2CrO_4 were fabricated by a facile chemical precipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical measurements. Compared with individual g-C_3N_4 and Ag_2CrO_4, the Ag_2CrO_4/g-C_3N_4 composites displayed much larger photocatalytic activities for the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) solution at room temperature under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). Importantly, the optimum photodegradation rate constant of the Ag_2CrO_4/g-C_3N_4 composite at a theoretical weight content of 8.0% Ag_2CrO_4 for the photodegradation of MO was 0.0068 min"−"1, which was 5.7 and 4.3 times higher than that of pure g-C_3N_4 and Ag_2CrO_4, respectively. Such enormous enhancement in photocatalytic performance was predominantly ascribed to the efficient separation and transfer of photogenerated electrons and holes at the Ag_2CrO_4/g-C_3N_4 interface imparted through the Z-scheme electron transfer. Furthermore, radical trap experiments depicted that both the holes and superoxide radical anions were thought to dominate oxidative species of the Ag_2CrO_4/g-C_3N_4 composite for MO degradation under visible light irradiation. Ultimately, a tentative Z-scheme photodegradation mechanism was proposed. This work may be useful for the rational design of new types of Z-scheme photocatalysts and provide some illuminate insights into the Z-scheme transfer mechanism for application in energy

  17. PtNi Alloy Cocatalyst Modification of Eosin Y-Sensitized g-C3N4/GO Hybrid for Efficient Visible-Light Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zong, Lanlan; Guan, Zhongjie; Li, Qiuye; Yang, Jianjun

    2018-02-01

    An economic and effective Pt-based alloy cocatalyst has attracted considerable attention due to their excellent catalytic activity and reducing Pt usage. In this study, PtNi alloy cocatalyst was successfully decorated on the g-C3N4/GO hybrid photocatalyst via a facile chemical reduction method. The Eosin Y-sensitized g-C3N4/PtNi/GO-0.5% composite photocatalyst yields about 1.54 and 1178 times higher hydrogen evolution rate than the Eosin Y-sensitized g-C3N4/Pt/GO-0.5% and g-C3N4/Ni/GO-0.5% samples, respectively. Mechanism of enhanced performance for the g-C3N4/PtNi/GO composite was also investigated by different characterization, such as photoluminescence, transient photocurrent response, and TEM. These results indicated that enhanced charge separation efficiency and more reactive sites are responsible for the improved hydrogen evolution performance due to the positive synergetic effect between Pt and Ni. This study suggests that PtNi alloy can be used as an economic and effective cocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Novel ternary g-C3N4/Ag3VO4/AgBr nanocomposites with excellent visible-light-driven photocatalytic performance for environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, Javid; Habibi-Yangjeh, Aziz; Akhundi, Anise; Vadivel, S.

    2018-04-01

    Novel visible-light-induced photocatalysts were fabricated by integration of Ag3VO4 and AgBr semiconductors with graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) through a facile refluxing method. The fabricated photocatalysts were extensively characterized by XRD, EDX, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, UV-vis DRS, BET, TGA, and PL instruments. The photocatalytic performance of these samples was studied by degradations of three dye contaminants under visible-light exposure. Among the ternary photocatalysts, the g-C3N4/Ag3VO4/AgBr (10%) nanocomposite displayed the maximum activity for RhB degradation with rate constant of 1366.6 × 10-4 min-1, which is 116, 7.23, and 38.5 times as high as those of the g-C3N4, g-C3N4/AgBr (10%), and g-C3N4/Ag3VO4 (30%) photocatalysts, respectively. The effects of synthesis time and calcination temperature were also investigated and discussed. Furthermore, according to the trapping experiments, it was found that superoxide anion radicals were the predominant reactive species in this system. Finally, the ternary photocatalyst displayed superlative activity in removal of the contaminants under visible-light exposure, displaying great potential of this ternary photocatalyst for environmental remediation, because of a facile synthesis route and outstanding photocatalytic performance.

  19. Graphitic-C(3)N(4)-hybridized TiO(2) nanosheets with reactive {001} facets to enhance the UV- and visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liuan; Wang, Jingyu; Zou, Zhijuan; Han, Xijiang

    2014-03-15

    AnataseTiO(2)nanosheets with dominant {001} facets were hybridized with graphitic carbon nitride (g-C(3)N(4)) using a facile solvent evaporation method. On top of the superior photocatalytic performance of highly reactive {001} facets, the hybridization with g-C(3)N(4) is confirmed to further improve the reactivity through degrading a series of organic molecules under both UV- and visible-light irradiation. It is proposed that an effective charge separation between g-C(3)N(4) and TiO2 exists in the photocatalytic process, i.e., the transferring of photogenerated holes from the valence band (VB) of TiO(2) to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of g-C(3)N(4), and the injecting of electrons from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of g-C(3)N(4) to the conduction band (CB) of TiO(2). Due to this synergistic effect, the enhancement of UV- and visible-light photoactivity over the hybrid is achieved. Furthermore, it has been revealed that holes were the main factor for the improved photoactivity under UV-light, while the OH radicals gained the predominance for degrading organic molecules under visible-light. Overall, this work would be significant for fabricating efficient UV-/visible-photocatalysts and providing deeper insight into the enhanced mechanisms of π-conjugated molecules hybridized semiconductors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecule-Level g-C3N4 Coordinated Transition Metals as a New Class of Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Electrode Reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yao

    2017-02-21

    Organometallic complexes with metal-nitrogen/carbon (M-N/C) coordination are the most important alternatives to precious metal catalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions (ORR and OER) in energy conversion devices. Here, we designed and developed a range of molecule-level graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) coordinated transition metals (M-C3N4) as a new generation of M-N/C catalysts for these oxygen electrode reactions. As a proof-of-concept example, we conducted theoretical evaluation and experimental validation on a cobalt-C3N4 catalyst with a desired molecular configuration, which possesses comparable electrocatalytic activity to that of precious metal benchmarks for the ORR and OER in alkaline media. The correlation of experimental and computational results confirms that this high activity originates from the precise M-N2 coordination in the g-C3N4 matrix. Moreover, the reversible ORR/OER activity trend for a wide variety of M-C3N4 complexes has been constructed to provide guidance for the molecular design of this promising class of catalysts.

  1. An efficient top-down approach for the fabrication of large-aspect-ratio g-C3N4 nanosheets with enhanced photocatalytic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jincheng; Zhang, Li; Li, Fei; Li, Mingming; Cao, Shaokui

    2015-09-28

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets with large aspect ratios were fabricated from bulk g-C3N4 through an efficient top-down approach of moderate disintegration-exfoliation using diluted H2SO4 as an "efficient knife". By prior disintegration in a diluted H2SO4 solution, the exfoliation of bulk g-C3N4 was effectively accelerated. The as-prepared g-C3N4 nanosheets possess a two-dimensional (2D) thin-layer structure with seven-atom thickness, a large lateral size of about 1 μm, and a high specific surface area of 80 m(2) g(-1). Compared with the bulk precursor, the g-C3N4 nanosheets showed much higher efficiency of photogenerated charge transfer and separation, and consequently exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity toward hydrogen evolution and pollutant decomposition under both full-sunlight and visible-light irradiation.

  2. Perspectives of the Si3N4-TiN ceramic composite as a biomaterial and manufacturing of complex-shaped implantable devices by electrical discharge machining (EDM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciotti, Francesco; Mazzocchi, Mauro; Bellosi, Alida

    2010-01-01

    In this work we investigated the suitability of electroconductive silicon nitride/titanium nitride composite for biomedical implantable devices with particular attention on the processing route that allows the net-shaping of complex components by electrical discharge machining (EDM). The composite, constituted mainly of a beta-Si3N4, dispersed TiN grains and a glassy grain boundary phase, exhibited a low density and high hardness, strength and toughness. Bulk, surface characteristics and properties of the Si3N4-TiN composite were analyzed. After the EDM process, the microstructure of the machined surface was examined. The obtained results showed that the Si3N4-TiN ceramic composite together with the EDM manufacturing process might potentially play a key role in implantable load-bearing prosthesis applications.

  3. Enhancement of acid treated g-C3N4sbnd Cu2O photocatalytic activity by PEG under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Shiyu; Xu, Haiming; Liao, Wei; Sun, Lei; Li, Qiang; Zan, Jie; Zhang, Binyang; Li, Dongya; Xia, Dongsheng

    2018-05-01

    In this study, g-C3N4sbnd Cu2O was successfully synthesized in the presence of PEG-400 surfactant via an acid treatment hydrothermal method and a high-temperature calcination method. The structures and properties of as-synthesized samples were characterized using a range of techniques, such as XPS, TEM, PL and BET. The g-C3N4sbnd Cu2O heterojunction exhibits the enhanced photocatalytic performance and high stability. It is revealed that the addition of PEG can promote the heterojunction effect of g-C3N4sbnd Cu2O, effectively improving the crystallinity and specific surface area of the photocatalyst, separation efficiency of photocarriers, and light absorption, thus enhancing the photocatalytic performance.

  4. Using multiple linear regression and physicochemical changes of amino acid mutations to predict antigenic variants of influenza A/H3N2 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Haibo; Wei, Xiaomei; Huang, Yu; Hu, Bin; Fang, Yaping; Wang, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Among human influenza viruses, strain A/H3N2 accounts for over a quarter of a million deaths annually. Antigenic variants of these viruses often render current vaccinations ineffective and lead to repeated infections. In this study, a computational model was developed to predict antigenic variants of the A/H3N2 strain. First, 18 critical antigenic amino acids in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein were recognized using a scoring method combining phi (ϕ) coefficient and information entropy. Next, a prediction model was developed by integrating multiple linear regression method with eight types of physicochemical changes in critical amino acid positions. When compared to other three known models, our prediction model achieved the best performance not only on the training dataset but also on the commonly-used testing dataset composed of 31878 antigenic relationships of the H3N2 influenza virus.

  5. Microstructure, mechanical and tribological performance of hybrid A359/(SiC  +  Si3N4) composites for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Essam A. M.; Churyumov, Alexander Yu

    2017-11-01

    In this study, microstructure analysis, yield strength at high temperatures and wear rate of hybrid A359/(SiC  +  Si3N4) composites were investigated. Different weight percent of (SiC  +  Si3N4) particles were introduced to synthesis the composites using stir/squeeze process. XRD, SEM, TEM and EDS were utilized to investigate the distribution of particles throughout the matrix, and the interfacial reaction at matrix/particle interface. It confirmed the existence of MgAl2O4 which enhances the wettability between the particles and the matrix, and the absence of particle agglomeration. The (SiC  +  Si3N4) addition not only enhances the hardness measurements but also leads to a reduction in the dendritic arm spacing (DAS). Moreover, it develops the wear performance and the yield strength at high temperatures. The developed composites provide a promising material suitable for automotive industries.

  6. A pseudoatom in a cage: trimetallofullerene Y(3)@C(80) mimics y(3)n@c(80) with nitrogen substituted by a pseudoatom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Alexey A; Zhang, Lin; Dunsch, Lothar

    2010-02-23

    Y(3)C(80) obtained in the synthesis of nitride clusterfullerenes Y(3)N@C(2n) (2n = 80-88) by the reactive atmosphere method is found to be a genuine trimetallofullerene, Y(3)@C(80), with low ionization potential and divalent state of yttrium atoms. DFT studies of the electronic structure of Y(3)@C(80) show that this molecule mimics Y(3)N@C(80) with the pseudoatom (PA) instead of the nitrogen atom. Topology analysis of the electron density and electron localization function show that yttrium atoms form Y-PA bonds rather than direct Y-Y bonds. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the Y(3)PA cluster is as rigid as Y(3)N and rotates inside the fullerene cage as a single entity.

  7. Residual stresses and mechanical properties of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liua, S.; Lia, Y.; Chena, P.; Lia, W.; Gaoa, S.; Zhang, B.; Yeb, F.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of residual stresses on the strength, toughness and work of fracture of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers has been investigated. It may be an effective way to design and optimize the mechanical properties of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites by controlling the properties of SiC layers. Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers were fabricated by aqueous tape casting and pressureless sintering. Residual stresses were calculated by using ANSYS simulation, the maximum values of tensile and compressive stresses were 553.2MPa and −552.1MPa, respectively. Step-like fracture was observed from the fracture surfaces. Fraction of delamination layers increased with the residual stress, which can improve the reliability of the materials. Tensile residual stress was benefit to improving toughness and work of fracture, but the strength of the composites decreased. [es

  8. Total Ionizing Dose Effects of Si Vertical Diffused MOSFET with SiO2 and Si3N4/SiO2 Gate Dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiongjiong Mo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The total ionizing dose irradiation effects are investigated in Si vertical diffused MOSFETs (VDMOSs with different gate dielectrics including single SiO2 layer and double Si3N4/SiO2 layer. Radiation-induced holes trapping is greater for single SiO2 layer than for double Si3N4/SiO2 layer. Dielectric oxidation temperature dependent TID effects are also studied. Holes trapping induced negative threshold voltage shift is smaller for SiO2 at lower oxidation temperature. Gate bias during irradiation leads to different VTH shift for different gate dielectrics. Single SiO2 layer shows the worst negative VTH at VG=0 V, while double Si3N4/SiO2 shows negative VTH shift at VG=-5 V, positive VTH shift at VG=10 V, and negligible VTH shift at VG=0 V.

  9. Hybrid density functional study on the mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic properties of the ultrathin hybrid layered nanocomposite g-C3N4/BiOCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wenzhi; Zhang, Jihua; Wang, Yuanxu; Ren, Fengzhu

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the origin of the high photocatalytic performance of experimentally synthesized g-C3N4/ BiOCl, we studied its geometry structure, electronic structure, and photocatalytic properties by means of hybrid density-functional theory (DFT). The calculated band alignment of g-C3N4 and few-layer BiOCl sheets clearly shows that g-C3N4/ BiOCl is a standard type-II nanocomposite. The density of states, Bader charge, partial charge density, charge density difference, and the effective masses show that electron-hole pair can be effectively separated in the g-C3N4/BiOCl interface. The calculated absorption coefficients indicate an obvious redshift of the absorption edge. The band gap of g-C3N4/BiOCl can be modulated by external electric field, and a semiconductor-semimetal transition is observed. The type-II vdW heterostructure is still maintained during the changes of external electric field. Especially, when the electric field reaches to +0.7 V/Å, the impurity states have been eliminated with the band gap of 2.3 eV. An analysis of optical properties shows that the absorption coefficient in the visible-light region is enhanced considerably as the electric-field strength increases. Our calculation results suggest that the ultrathin hybrid layered g-C3N4/BiOCl nanocomposite may have significant advantages for visible-light photocatalysis.

  10. Joining of Si3N4 ceramic using PdCo(NiSiB–V system brazing filler alloy and interfacial reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Xiong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The wettability of V-active PdCo-based alloys on Si3N4 ceramic was studied with the sessile drop method. And the alloy of Pd50.0–Co33.7–Ni4.0–Si2.0–B0.7–V9.6 (wt%, was developed for Si3N4 ceramic joining in the present investigation. The rapidly-solidified brazing foils were fabricated by the alloy Pd50.0–Co33.7–Ni4.0–Si2.0–B0.7–V9.6. The average room-temperature three-point bend strength of the Si3N4/Si3N4 joints brazed at 1453 K for 10 min was 205.6 MPa, and the newly developed braze gives joint strengths of 210.9 MPa, 206.6 MPa and 80.2 MPa at high temperatures of 973 K, 1073 K and 1173 K respectively. The interfacial reaction products in the Si3N4/Si3N4 joint brazed at 1453 K for 10 min were identified to be VN and Pd2Si by XRD analysis. Based on the XEDS analysis result, the residual brazing alloy existing at the central part of the joint was verified as Co-rich phases, in which the concentration of element Pd was high up to 18.0–19.1 at%. The mechanism of the interfacial reactions was discussed. Pd should be a good choice as useful alloying element in newer high-temperature braze candidates for the joining of Si-based ceramics.

  11. Room-temperature in situ fabrication of Bi2O3/g-C3N4 direct Z-scheme photocatalyst with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Rongan; Zhou, Jiaqian; Fu, Huiqing; Zhang, Shiying; Jiang, Chuanjia

    2018-02-01

    Constructing direct Z-scheme heterojunction is an effective approach to separating photogenerated charge carriers and improving the activity of semiconductor photocatalysts. Herein, a composite of bismuth(III) oxide (Bi2O3) and graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was in situ fabricated at room temperature by photoreductive deposition of Bi3+ and subsequent air-oxidation of the resultant metallic Bi. Quantum-sized ω-Bi2O3 nanoparticles approximately 6 nm in diameter were uniformly distributed on the surface of mesoporous g-C3N4. The as-prepared Bi2O3/g-C3N4 composite exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than pure Bi2O3 and g-C3N4 for photocatalytic degradation of phenol under visible light. Reactive species trapping experiments revealed that superoxide radicals and photogenerated holes played important roles in the photocatalytic degradation of phenol. The enhanced photocatalytic activity, identification of reactive species and higher rate of charge carrier recombination (as indicated by stronger photoluminescence intensity) collectively suggest that the charge migration within the Bi2O3/g-C3N4 composite followed a Z-scheme mechanism. Photogenerated electrons on the conduction band of Bi2O3 migrate to the valence band of g-C3N4 and combine with photogenerated holes therein. At the cost of these less reactive charge carriers, the Z-scheme heterojunction enables efficient charge separation, while preserving the photogenerated electrons and holes with stronger redox abilities, which is beneficial for enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  12. One-step synthesis of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} hierarchical porous structure nanosheets with dramatic ultraviolet light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jing; Wang, Yong; Huang, Jianfeng, E-mail: huangjfsust@126.com; Cao, Liyun; Li, Jiayin; Hai, Guojuan; Bai, Zhe

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets with hierarchical porous structure were synthesized via one step. • The band gap of the nanosheets was wider and investigated in detail. • The nanosheets can degrade almost all of the RhB within 9 min. • The photocurrent of the nanosheets is 5.97 times as high as that of the P-25. - Abstract: Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) nanosheets with hierarchical porous structure were synthesized via one-step thermal condensation-oxidation process. The microstructure of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was characterized to explain the dramatic ultraviolet light photocatalytic activity. The results showed that g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} hierarchical aggregates were assembled by nanosheets with a length of 1–2 μm and a thickness of 20–30 nm. And the N{sub 2}-adsorption/desorption isotherms further informed the presence of fissure form mesoporous structure. An enhanced photocurrent of 37.2 μA was obtained, which is almost 5 times higher than that of P-25. Besides, the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets displayed the degradation of Rhodamine B with 99.4% removal efficiency in only 9 min. Such highly photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the nano platelet morphology which improves electron transport ability along the in-plane direction. In addition, the hierarchical porous structure adapted a wider band gap of C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Therefore, the photoinduced electron-hole pairs have a stronger oxidation-reduction potential for photocatalysis.

  13. Synthesis and properties of Ag/ZnO/g-C3N4 ternary micro/nano composites by microwave-assisted method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zijie; Li, Xuexue; Chen, Haitao; Shao, Gang; Zhang, Rui; Lu, Hongxia

    2018-01-01

    Ag/ZnO/g-C3N4 ternary micro/nanocomposites, as novel visible-light-driven photocatalysts, were prepared by a simple and convenient microwave-assisted method. The resulting ternary structure micro/nano composites were characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and infrared radiation techniques to examine its phase structure, valence state, morphological, thermal and optical properties. Well crystallized Ag/ZnO/g-C3N4 ternary micro/nano composites were synthesized under microwave-radiation for 15 min with the output of 240 W. Further experiments indicated Ag(5.0mol%)/ZnO/g-C3N4 photocatalyst in degradation of methylene blue exhibited an outstanding photocatalytic activity and its reaction rate constant (k, 0.0084 min-1) is 7.5, 2.4 2.9 and 3.5 times higher than that of monolithic ZnO (k, 0.0011 min-1), ZnO/g-C3N4(k, 0.0035 min-1), Ag(5 mol%)/ZnO(k, 0.0029 min-1) and Ag(5mol%)/g-C3N4 (k, 0.0024 min-1) respectively. Finally, a possible photocatalytic mechanism of Ag/ZnO/g-C3N4 photocatalyst in degradation process was proposed. This work provides a feasible strategy to synthesize an efficient ZnO-based photocatalyst which combines structure and properties of different dimensional components and made this ternary system an exciting candidate for sunlight-driven photocatalytic water treatment.

  14. Photocatalytic reductive dechlorination of 2-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin by Pd modified g-C3N4 photocatalysts under UV-vis irradiation: Efficacy, kinetics and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jiafeng; Long, Gaoyuan; Luo, Yang; Sun, Runze; Chen, Mengxia; Li, Yajun; Zhou, Yanfang; Xu, Xinhua; Zhao, Weirong

    2018-05-09

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), as a group of notorious anthropogenic environmental toxicants, are arguably ubiquitous in nature. In this study, we investigated the photocatalytic reductive dechlorination of 2-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2-CDD) over Pd/g-C 3 N 4 catalysts under UV-vis irradiation. The g-C 3 N 4 and a series of Pd/g-C 3 N 4 catalysts were prepared by thermal polymerization and mechanical mixing-illumination method and characterized by XRD, TEM, BET, SEM and UV-vis DRS analyses. Among all the samples, the Pd/g-C 3 N 4 (5 wt%) yielded the optimal dechlorination activity with a total 2-CDD conversion of 54% within 4 h, and 76% of those converted 2-CDD were evolved to dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD). The kinetics of dechlorination could be described as pseudo-first-order decay model (R 2  > 0.84). Corresponding rate constants (k) increased from 0.052 to 0.17 h -1 with Pd contents up to 5 wt% and decreased to 0.13 h -1 with a 10 wt% of Pd. The enhanced activities originated from the surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) effect of Pd nanoparticles and the formation of Schottky barrier between Pd and g-C 3 N 4 , which extend the spectrum responsive range and suppress the charge recombination of g-C 3 N 4 . This is the first report on the photocatalytic reductive removal of PCDDs and may provide a new approach for PCDDs pollution control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation of MoO2/g-C3N4 composites with a high surface area and its application in deep desulfurization from model oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Liang-pei; Zhao, Rong-xiang; Li, Xiu-ping; Gao, Xiao-han

    2018-03-01

    A series of catalysts of composition X-MoO2/g-C3N4 (X = 0, 0.5, 1, 3, 5 wt.%) were successfully synthesized by calcination of a mixture of (NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O and g-C3N4. Oxidative desulfurization experiments were conducted using X-MoO2/g-C3N4 as a catalyst, H2O2 as an oxidant, and ionic liquids (ILs) as extraction agents. Catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis (BET). Characterization results suggested that MoO2 was present in the catalyst and its crystallinity improved with increased Mo-loading. The catalysts had a larger specific surface area due to the presence of MoO2 dispersed on g-C3N4. Experimental results showed that 3%-MoO2/g-C3N4 had the highest catalytic activity among all the catalysts tested. A desulfurization rate of 96.0% was achieved under optimal conditions. Through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, it was shown that dibenzothoiphene sulfone was the sole product of the oxidation desulfurization reaction. An apparent activation energy of 61.1 kJ/mol was estimated based on Arrhenius equation. The activity of 3%-MoO2/g-C3N4 slightly decreased after six runs. A possible mechanism for the reaction has been proposed.

  16. g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} Modified biochar as an adsorptive and photocatalytic material for decontamination of aqueous organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pi, Liu, E-mail: 626956077@qq.com; Jiang, Rui, E-mail: jumrychem@163.com; Zhou, Wangchi, E-mail: 931860337@qq.com; Zhu, Hua, E-mail: zhuhua333@126.com; Xiao, Wei, E-mail: gabrielxiao@whu.edu.cn; Wang, Dihua, E-mail: wangdh@whu.edu.cn; Mao, Xuhui, E-mail: clab@whu.edu.cn

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Composite material consisting of photo-responsive C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and biochar was studied. • Interconnection of C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and biochar was fulfilled via a condensation reaction. • The adsorption properties of composite were governed by the biochar. • The composite exhibited decontamination capability even after saturated. • Adsorption and photo-induced regeneration were mutual beneficial in composite. - Abstract: Converting the waste biomasses with high-carbon content into value-added materials is an environmental-friendly way for their utilization. In this study, a leaf-derived biochar is modified with graphitic C{sub 3}N{sub 4} to fulfill an affordable composite material capable of removing organic pollutants via adsorptive and photocatalytic processes simultaneously. The preparation process includes a carbonization process of chestnut leaf biomass and a followed condensation reaction of melamine at 520 °C. The characterization shows that biochar and C{sub 3}N{sub 4} existed in the composites in their pristine status, and the effective connection of C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and biochar was established. The adsorptive performance of the composites is governed by the biochar content in the composite, thus showing favorable performance for the removal of cationic dye methylene blue (MB). The condensation reaction of the melamine precursor has a coalescing effect on the dispersed biochar, resulting in the growth of particle size of composite. The composites prepared at different biochar/melamine ratios all show a photocatalytic activity on decolorization of MB. In terms of the specific photocatalytic activity of C{sub 3}N{sub 4} in the composite, biochar/melamine ratio of 0.5:1 is the best. Unlike the conventional adsorptive carbon materials which have saturated adsorption capacity, the composite in this study retain a sustaining decontamination capability due to the photocatalytic degradation of adsorbed organic

  17. Neuraminidase-mediated haemagglutination of recent human influenza A(H3N2) viruses is determined by arginine 150 flanking the neuraminidase catalytic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mögling, Ramona; Richard, Mathilde J; Vliet, Stefan van der; Beek, Ruud van; Schrauwen, Eefje J A; Spronken, Monique I; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2017-06-01

    Over the last decade, an increasing proportion of circulating human influenza A(H3N2) viruses exhibited haemagglutination activity that was sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors. This change in haemagglutination as compared to older circulating A(H3N2) viruses prompted an investigation of the underlying molecular basis. Recent human influenza A(H3N2) viruses were found to agglutinate turkey erythrocytes in a manner that could be blocked with either oseltamivir or neuraminidase-specific antisera, indicating that agglutination was driven by neuraminidase, with a low or negligible contribution of haemagglutinin. Using representative virus recombinants it was shown that the haemagglutinin of a recent A(H3N2) virus indeed had decreased activity to agglutinate turkey erythrocytes, while its neuraminidase displayed increased haemagglutinating activity. Viruses with chimeric and mutant neuraminidases were used to identify the amino acid substitution histidine to arginine at position 150 flanking the neuraminidase catalytic site as the determinant of this neuraminidase-mediated haemagglutination. An analysis of publicly available neuraminidase gene sequences showed that viruses with histidine at position 150 were rapidly replaced by viruses with arginine at this position between 2005 and 2008, in agreement with the phenotypic data. As a consequence of neuraminidase-mediated haemagglutination of recent A(H3N2) viruses and poor haemagglutination via haemagglutinin, haemagglutination inhibition assays with A(H3N2) antisera are no longer useful to characterize the antigenic properties of the haemagglutinin of these viruses for vaccine strain selection purposes. Continuous monitoring of the evolution of these viruses and potential consequences for vaccine strain selection remains important.

  18. Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine effective against influenza A(H3N2) variant viruses in children during the 2014/15 season, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Norio; Shinjoh, Masayoshi; Kawakami, Chiharu; Yamaguchi, Yoshio; Yoshida, Makoto; Baba, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Mayumi; Kono, Mio; Sekiguchi, Shinichiro; Kimiya, Takahisa; Mitamura, Keiko; Fujino, Motoko; Komiyama, Osamu; Yoshida, Naoko; Tsunematsu, Kenichiro; Narabayashi, Atsushi; Nakata, Yuji; Sato, Akihiro; Taguchi, Nobuhiko; Fujita, Hisayo; Toki, Machiko; Myokai, Michiko; Ookawara, Ichiro; Takahashi, Takao

    2016-01-01

    The 2014/15 influenza season in Japan was characterised by predominant influenza A(H3N2) activity; 99% of influenza A viruses detected were A(H3N2). Subclade 3C.2a viruses were the major epidemic A(H3N2) viruses, and were genetically distinct from A/New York/39/2012(H3N2) of 2014/15 vaccine strain in Japan, which was classified as clade 3C.1. We assessed vaccine effectiveness (VE) of inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in children aged 6 months to 15 years by test-negative case–control design based on influenza rapid diagnostic test. Between November 2014 and March 2015, a total of 3,752 children were enrolled: 1,633 tested positive for influenza A and 42 for influenza B, and 2,077 tested negative. Adjusted VE was 38% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 28 to 46) against influenza virus infection overall, 37% (95% CI: 27 to 45) against influenza A, and 47% (95% CI: -2 to 73) against influenza B. However, IIV was not statistically significantly effective against influenza A in infants aged 6 to 11 months or adolescents aged 13 to 15 years. VE in preventing hospitalisation for influenza A infection was 55% (95% CI: 42 to 64). Trivalent IIV that included A/New York/39/2012(H3N2) was effective against drifted influenza A(H3N2) virus, although vaccine mismatch resulted in low VE. PMID:27784529

  19. Fabrication of modified g-C3N4 nanorod/Ag3PO4 nanocomposites for solar-driven photocatalytic oxygen evolution from water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lin; Xian, Xiaozhai; Cui, Xingkai; Tang, Hua; Yang, Xiaofei

    2018-02-01

    Semiconductor-based photocatalysis has been considered as one of the most effective techniques to achieve the conversion of clean and sustainable sunlight to solar fuel, in which the construction of novel solar-driven photocatalytic systems is the key point. Here, we report initially the synthesis of modified graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanorods via the calcination of intermediates obtained from the co-polymerization of precursors, and the in-situ hybridization of Ag3PO4 with as-prepared modified g-C3N4 to produce g-C3N4 nanorod/Ag3PO4 composite materials. The diameter of modified rod-like g-C3N4 materials is determined to be around 1 μm. Subsequently the morphological features, crystal and chemical structures of the assembled g-C3N4 nanorod/Ag3PO4 composites were systematically investigated by SEM, XRD, XPS, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). Furthermore, the use of as-prepared composite materials as the catalyst for photocatalytic oxygen evolution from water splitting was studied. The oxygen-generating results showed that the composite photocatalyst modified with 600 mg rod-like g-C3N4 demonstrates 2.5 times higher efficiency than that of bulk Ag3PO4. The mechanism behind the enhancement in the oxygen-evolving activity is proposed on the basis of in-situ electron spin resonance (ESR) measurement as well as theoretical analysis. The study provides new insights into the design and development of new photocatalytic composite materials for energy and environmental applications.

  20. Evolution and Divergence of H3N8 Equine Influenza Viruses Circulating in the United Kingdom from 2013 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Rash

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza viruses (EIV are a major cause of acute respiratory disease in horses worldwide and occasionally also affect vaccinated animals. Like other influenza A viruses, they undergo antigenic drift, highlighting the importance of both surveillance and virus characterisation in order for vaccine strains to be kept up to date. The aim of the work reported here was to monitor the genetic and antigenic changes occurring in EIV circulating in the UK from 2013 to 2015 and to identify any evidence of vaccine breakdown in the field. Virus isolation, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and sequencing were performed on EIV-positive nasopharyngeal swab samples submitted to the Diagnostic Laboratory Services at the Animal Health Trust (AHT. Phylogenetic analyses were completed for the haemagglutinin-1 (HA1 and neuraminidase (NA genes using PhyML and amino acid sequences compared against the current World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE-recommended Florida clade 2 vaccine strain. Substitutions between the new isolates and the vaccine strain were mapped onto the three-dimensional structure protein structures using PyMol. Antigenic analyses were carried out by haemagglutination inhibition assay using a panel of post-infection ferret antisera. Sixty-nine outbreaks of equine influenza in the UK were reported by the AHT between January 2013 and December 2015. Forty-seven viruses were successfully isolated in eggs from 41 of the outbreaks. Only three cases of vaccine breakdown were identified and in each case the vaccine used contained a virus antigen not currently recommended for equine influenza vaccines. Nucleotide sequencing of the HA and NA genes revealed that all of the viruses belonged to the Florida clade 2 sub-lineage of H3N8 EIV. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses showed that the two sub-populations, previously identified within clade 2, continued to circulate and had accrued further amino acid substitutions. Antigenic

  1. Dispersing Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} at high solids loading - applied to protein forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyckfeldt, O.; Palmqvist, L. [Swedish Ceramic Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Poeydemenge, F. [ENSCI, Limoges (France)

    2002-07-01

    The dispersing of a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder (UBE SN-E10) at high solids loading in aqueous media was investigated. The powder was used in the as-received (raw) state, after thermal (calcinations) and/or mechanical pre-treatments (ball milling{yields}freeze granulation{yields}freeze-drying). Slips were prepared using pH adjustment with NH{sub 4}OH or an addition of Tiron (low-M{sub w} sulphonic acid). Zeta potential measurements of diluted systems and rheological evaluations of concentrated suspensions were conducted. The effect of adding whey protein concentrate (WPC) was also studied. Zeta potential measurements showed a clear decrease in pH{sub iep} by calcination, whereas Tiron slightly increased the pH{sub iep} of calcined powder and decreased the pH{sub iep} of the as-received powder. Rheological data showed that pH adjustment to 10 was more efficient in stabilising the as-received powder than the calcined powder. pH adjustment was also considered to be the most important effect of adding small amounts of Tiron (0.08 wt%). However, for calcined powder, Tiron was shown to be equally efficient as pH adjustment. Pre-milling followed by freeze granulation/freeze-drying resulted in de-agglomerated powders with improved ability to rapidly disperse and, hence, extend the possibility of achieving extreme solids loadings. When approaching the practical limits in solids loading of these pre-milled powders, slips with 49.5 vol% of as-received and 46.6 vol% of calcined powders displayed clear shear thickening behaviour. However, addition of WPC (12 wt% based on water) significantly decreased the degree of shear thickening although the viscosity at lower shear rates increased. The gelling of WPC was distinct and rapid in suspensions with the two pre-milled powders, as-received stabilised at pH 10 and calcined stabilised with Tiron. (orig.)

  2. Quantitative and Qualitative Involvement of P3N-PIPO in Overcoming Recessive Resistance against Clover Yellow Vein Virus in Pea Carrying the cyv1 Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun Hee; Hagiwara-Komoda, Yuka; Atsumi, Go; Shimada, Ryoko; Hisa, Yusuke; Naito, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    In pea carrying cyv1, a recessive gene for resistance to Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV), ClYVV isolate Cl-no30 was restricted to the initially infected cells, whereas isolate 90-1 Br2 overcame this resistance. We mapped the region responsible for breaking of cyv1-mediated resistance by examining infection of cyv1 pea with chimeric viruses constructed from parts of Cl-no30 and 90-1 Br2. The breaking of resistance was attributed to the P3 cistron, which is known to produce two proteins: P3, from the main open reading frame (ORF), and P3N-PIPO, which has the N-terminal part of P3 fused to amino acids encoded by a small open reading frame (ORF) called PIPO in the +2 reading frame. We introduced point mutations that were synonymous with respect to the P3 protein but nonsynonymous with respect to the P3N-PIPO protein, and vice versa, into the chimeric viruses. Infection of plants with these mutant viruses revealed that both P3 and P3N-PIPO were involved in overcoming cyv1-mediated resistance. Moreover, P3N-PIPO quantitatively affected the virulence of Cl-no30 in cyv1 pea. Additional expression in trans of the P3N-PIPO derived from Cl-no30, using White clover mosaic virus as a vector, enabled Cl-no30 to move to systemic leaves in cyv1 pea. Susceptible pea plants infected with chimeric ClYVV possessing the P3 cistron of 90-1 Br2, and which were therefore virulent toward cyv1 pea, accumulated more P3N-PIPO than did those infected with Cl-no30, suggesting that the higher level of P3N-PIPO in infected cells contributed to the breaking of resistance by 90-1 Br2. This is the first report showing that P3N-PIPO is a virulence determinant in plants resistant to a potyvirus. PMID:23616656

  3. Highly selective hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol over Pt nanoparticles supported on g-C3N4 nanosheets catalysts in water

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiufang; Zhang, Ligang; Zhang, Bo; Guo, Xingcui; Mu, Xindong

    2016-01-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets were investigated for developing effective Pt catalyst supports for selective hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol in water. The nanosheets with an average thickness of about 3 nm were synthesized by a simple and green method through thermal oxidation etching of bulk g-C3N4 in air. Combined with the unique feature of nitrogen richness and locally conjugated structure, the g-C3N4 nanosheets with a high surface area of 142?m2 g?1 were demonstrated to...

  4. Combined experimental and theoretical assessments of the lattice dynamics and optoelectronics of TaON and Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurlaela, Ela; Harb, Moussab [Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering, KAUST Catalysis Center (KCC), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), 4700 KAUST, Thuwal 23955-6900 Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia); Gobbo, Silvano del [Solar and Photovoltaic Engineering Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Vashishta, Manish [Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering, KAUST Catalysis Center (KCC), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), 4700 KAUST, Thuwal 23955-6900 Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia); Takanabe, Kazuhiro, E-mail: kazuhiro.takanabe@kaust.edu.sa [Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering, KAUST Catalysis Center (KCC), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), 4700 KAUST, Thuwal 23955-6900 Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-09-15

    Presented herein is a detailed discussion of the properties of the lattice dynamic and optoelectronic properties of tantalum(V) oxynitride (TaON) and tantalum(V) nitride (Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}), from experimental and theoretical standpoint. The active Raman and infra red (IR) frequencies of TaON and Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} were measured using confocal Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopies (FTIR) and calculated using the linear response method within the density functional perturbation theory (DFPT). The detailed study leads to an exhaustive description of the spectra, including the symmetry of the vibrational modes. Electronic structures of these materials were computed using DFT within the range-separated hybrid HSE06 exchange–correlation formalism. Electronic and ionic contributions to the dielectric constant tensors of these materials were obtained from DFPT within the linear response method using the PBE functional. Furthermore, effective mass of photogenerated holes and electrons at the band edges of these compounds were computed from the electronic band structure obtained at the DFT/HSE06 level of theory. The results suggest that anisotropic nature in TaON and Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} is present in terms of dielectric constant and effective masses. - Graphical abstract: Detailed investigation has been conducted from combined experimental and theoretical approaches on Raman and IR spectroscopies, electronic structures, dielectric constants and effective masses of TaON and Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}. - Highlights: • Crystal structures of TaON and Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} are discussed based on XRD and DFT calculation. • Raman and IR spectra of TaON and Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} materials are measured and computed by DFPT method. • Optoelectronic properties of TaON and Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} are discussed. • Dielectric constant and effective masses of TaON and Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} are calculated.

  5. P3N-PIPO, a Frameshift Product from the P3 Gene, Pleiotropically Determines the Virulence of Clover Yellow Vein Virus in both Resistant and Susceptible Peas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Haruka; Miyashita, Yuri; Choi, Sun Hee; Hisa, Yusuke; Rihei, Shunsuke; Shimada, Ryoko; Jeon, Eun Jin; Abe, Junya; Uyeda, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Peas carrying the cyv1 recessive resistance gene are resistant to clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) isolates No.30 (Cl-No.30) and 90-1 (Cl-90-1) but can be infected by a derivative of Cl-90-1 (Cl-90-1 Br2). The main determinant for the breaking of cyv1 resistance by Cl-90-1 Br2 is P3N-PIPO produced from the P3 gene via transcriptional slippage, and the higher level of P3N-PIPO produced by Cl-90-1 Br2 than by Cl-No.30 contributes to the breaking of resistance. Here we show that P3N-PIPO is also a major virulence determinant in susceptible peas that possess another resistance gene, Cyn1, which does not inhibit systemic infection with ClYVV but causes hypersensitive reaction-like lethal systemic cell death. We previously assumed that the susceptible pea cultivar PI 226564 has a weak allele of Cyn1. Cl-No.30 did not induce cell death, but Cl-90-1 Br2 killed the plants. Our results suggest that P3N-PIPO is recognized by Cyn1 and induces cell death. Unexpectedly, heterologously strongly expressed P3N-PIPO of Cl-No.30 appears to be recognized by Cyn1 in PI 226564. The level of P3N-PIPO accumulation from the P3 gene of Cl-No.30 was significantly lower than that of Cl-90-1 Br2 in a Nicotiana benthamiana transient assay. Therefore, Cyn1-mediated cell death also appears to be determined by the level of P3N-PIPO. The more efficiently a ClYVV isolate broke cyv1 resistance, the more it induced cell death systemically (resulting in a loss of the environment for virus accumulation) in susceptible peas carrying Cyn1, suggesting that antagonistic pleiotropy of P3N-PIPO controls the resistance breaking of ClYVV. IMPORTANCE Control of plant viral disease has relied on the use of resistant cultivars; however, emerging mutant viruses have broken many types of resistance. Recently, we revealed that Cl-90-1 Br2 breaks the recessive resistance conferred by cyv1, mainly by accumulating a higher level of P3N-PIPO than that of the nonbreaking isolate Cl-No.30. Here we show that a

  6. Rare-earth element doped Si3N4/SiC micro/nano-composites-RT and HT mechanical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lojanová, Š.; Tatarko, P.; Chlup, Zdeněk; Hnatko, M.; Dusza, J.; Lenčéš, Z.; Šajgalík, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 9 (2010), s. 1931-1944 ISSN 0955-2219 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Si3N4 * SiC * Nano-composites * Fracture toughness * Hardness * Strength * Creep Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 2.574, year: 2010

  7. Synthesis and structure of a 1,6-hexyldiamine heptaborate, [H3N(CH2)6NH3][B7O10(OH)3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Sihai; Li Guobao; Tian Shujian; Liao Fuhui; Xiong Ming; Lin Jianhua

    2007-01-01

    A new 1,6-hexyldiamine heptaborate, [H 3 N(CH 2 ) 6 NH 3 ][B 7 O 10 (OH) 3 ] (1), has been solvothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, FTIR, elemental analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. Compound 1 crystallizes in monoclinic system, space group P2 1 /n with a=8.042(2) A, b=20.004(4) A, c=10.103(2) A, and β=90.42(3) deg. The anionic [B 7 O 10 (OH) 3 ] n 2n- layers are interlinked via hydrogen bonding to form a 3D supramolecular network containing large channels, in which the templated [H 3 N(CH 2 ) 6 NH 3 ] 2+ cations are located. - Graphical abstract: A layered 1,6-hexyldiamine heptaborate, [H 3 N(CH 2 ) 6 NH 3 ][B 7 O 10 (OH) 3 ], was solvothermally synthesized at 150 deg. C. It is a layer borate and crystallized in monoclinic space group P2 1 /n with a=8.042(2) A, b=20.004(4) A, c=10.103(2) A, β=90.42(3) deg

  8. Photocatalytic hydrogen production using visible-light-responsive Ta 3N5 photocatalyst supported on monodisperse spherical SiO2 particulates

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Lan; Domen, Kazunari; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Fine nanoparticles of Ta3N5 (10-20 nm) were synthesized on the surfaces of SiO2 spheres with a diameter of ∼550 nm. A sol-gel method was used to modify the surface of SiO2 with Ta2O5 from TaCl5 dissolved in ethanol in the presence of citric acid

  9. The temperature dependence of the Young's modulus of MgSiN2, AlN and Si3N4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruls, R.J.; Hintzen, H.T.J.M.; With, de G.; Metselaar, R.

    2001-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the Young's modulus of MgSiN2 and AlN was measured between 293 and 973 K using the impulse excitation method and compared with literature data reported for Si3N4. The data could be fitted with . The values of the fitting parameters E0 and T0 are related to the Debye

  10. Double Z-scheme ZnO/ZnS/g-C3N4 ternary structure for efficient photocatalytic H2 production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhifang; Wu, Yan; Thirugnanam, Natarajan; Li, Gonglin

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, a novel ZnO/ZnS/g-C3N4 ternary nanocomposite with double Z-scheme heterojunction has been designed via a two-step facile chemical conversion route. The spherical ZnS nanoparticles were uniformly loaded onto ZnO nanoflowers surface. And then the ZnO/ZnS nanocomposite was further hybridized with g-C3N4 nanosheets. Ternary ZnO/ZnS/g-C3N4 nanocomposite displays the largest specific surface area (about 76.2 m2/g), which provides plentiful activated sites for photocatalytic reaction. Furthermore, the ternary material exhibits the highest methylene blue photodegradation rate of about 0.0218 min-1 and the optimum photocatalytic H2 production (1205 μmol/g) over water splitting at 4 h under solar light irradiation. Moreover, it showed the highest photocurrent effect and the minimum charge-transfer resistance. These results implied that the higher photoactivity of ZnO/ZnS/g-C3N4 nanocomposite could be attributed to the multi-steps charge transfer and effective electron-hole separation in the double Z-scheme system.

  11. Highly active GaN-stabilized Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} thin-film photoanode for solar water oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Miao; Hisatomi, Takashi; Sasaki, Yutaka; Nakabayashi, Mamiko; Shibata, Naoya; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Katayama, Masao; Yamada, Taro; Domen, Kazunari [School of Engineering, the University of Tokyo (Japan); Japan Technological Research Association of Artificial Photosynthetic Chemical Process, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Sayaka; Teshima, Katsuya [Faculty of Engineering, Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan)

    2017-04-18

    Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} is a very promising photocatalyst for solar water splitting because of its wide spectrum solar energy utilization up to 600 nm and suitable energy band position straddling the water splitting redox reactions. However, its development has long been impeded by poor compatibility with electrolytes. Herein, we demonstrate a simple sputtering-nitridation process to fabricate high-performance Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} film photoanodes owing to successful synthesis of the vital TaO{sub δ} precursors. An effective GaN coating strategy is developed to remarkably stabilize Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} by forming a crystalline nitride-on-nitride structure with an improved nitride/electrolyte interface. A stable, high photocurrent density of 8 mA cm{sup -2} was obtained with a CoPi/GaN/Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} photoanode at 1.2 V{sub RHE} under simulated sunlight, with O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} generated at a Faraday efficiency of unity over 12 h. Our vapor-phase deposition method can be used to fabricate high-performance (oxy)nitrides for practical photoelectrochemical applications. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Surface Functionalization of g-C 3 N 4 : Molecular-Level Design of Noble-Metal-Free Hydrogen Evolution Photocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yin; Lin, Bin; Yu, Weili; Yang, Yong; Bashir, Shahid M.; Wang, Hong; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Idriss, Hicham; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    A stable noble-metal-free hydrogen evolution photocatalyst based on graphite carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was developed by a molecular-level design strategy. Surface functionalization was successfully conducted to introduce a single nickel active site

  13. A liquid-based eutectic system: LiBH4·NH 3-nNH3BH3 with high dehydrogenation capacity at moderate temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Yingbin; Guo, Yanhui; Li, Shaofeng; Sun, Weiwei; Zhu, Yihan; Li, Qi; Yu, Xuebin

    2011-01-01

    A novel eutectic hydrogen storage system, LiBH4·NH 3-nNH3BH3, which exists in a liquid state at room temperature, was synthesized through a simple mixing of LiBH 4·NH3 and NH3BH3 (AB). In the temperature range of 90-110 °C, the eutectic system

  14. Asymmetric Baylis-Hillman Reaction between Chiral Activated Alkenes and Aromatic Aldehydes in Me3N/H2O/Solvent Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke HE; Zheng Hong ZHOU; Hong Ying TANG; Guo Feng ZHAO; Chu Chi TANG

    2005-01-01

    Chiral activated alkene, L-menthyl acrylate and (+)-N-α-phenylethyl acrylamide,induced asymmetric Baylis-Hillman reaction of aromatic aldehydes was realized at 25℃ for 7 days in Me3N/H2O/solvent homogeneous medium. The corresponding Baylis-Hillman adducts were obtained in good chemical yield with moderate to excellent diastereoselectivity (up to 99% de).

  15. Constructing Solid-Gas-Interfacial Fenton Reaction over Alkalinized-C3N4 Photocatalyst To Achieve Apparent Quantum Yield of 49% at 420 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunxiang; Ouyang, Shuxin; Xu, Hua; Wang, Xin; Bi, Yingpu; Zhang, Yuanfang; Ye, Jinhua

    2016-10-03

    Efficient generation of active oxygen-related radicals plays an essential role in boosting advanced oxidation process. To promote photocatalytic oxidation for gaseous pollutant over g-C 3 N 4 , a solid-gas interfacial Fenton reaction is coupled into alkalinized g-C 3 N 4 -based photocatalyst to effectively convert photocatalytic generation of H 2 O 2 into oxygen-related radicals. This system includes light energy as power, alkalinized g-C 3 N 4 -based photocatalyst as an in situ and robust H 2 O 2 generator, and surface-decorated Fe 3+ as a trigger of H 2 O 2 conversion, which attains highly efficient and universal activity for photodegradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Taking the photooxidation of isopropanol as model reaction, this system achieves a photoactivity of 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than that of pristine g-C 3 N 4 , which corresponds to a high apparent quantum yield of 49% at around 420 nm. In-situ electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and sacrificial-reagent incorporated photocatalytic characterizations indicate that the notable photoactivity promotion could be ascribed to the collaboration between photocarriers (electrons and holes) and Fenton process to produce abundant and reactive oxygen-related radicals. The strategy of coupling solid-gas interfacial Fenton process into semiconductor-based photocatalysis provides a facile and promising solution to the remediation of air pollution via solar energy.

  16. Spark plasma sintering of α-Si3N4 ceramics with Al2O3 and Y2O3 as additives and its morphology transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceja-Cardenas, L.; Lemus-Ruiz, J.; Jaramillo-Vigueras, D.; Torre, S.D. de la

    2010-01-01

    The spark plasma sintering SPS technique has been used to densify pure α-Si 3 N 4 commercial powder, having Y 2 O 3 and Al 2 O 3 additions; from 0, 2.5 and 5.0 wt% to 0, 1.5 and 3 wt%, respectively. Such powder admixtures were previously spray-dried at 160 o C in such a way that powder was thoroughly homogenized. Set sintering treatment included: 0-20 min holding time and 38 MPa axial load, sintering temperature of 1500 o C and heating rate of 300 o C/min. The maximum relative density developed on studied specimens ranged from 99.4 to 99.8% and could only be attained once the β-phase nucleated from the α-silicon nitride matrix. Obtained Si 3 N 4 composites combine both α- and β-phases. The later phase becomes evident trough the rod-like geometry, which forms throughout the presence of a liquid face. The largest hardness value developed (1588 Hv (20kgf) ) on studied ceramics (3M-series - 3 min) matched close to the corresponding counterpart found in literature (1600 Hv), the former developed in much shorter sintering times. Using X-ray diffraction XRD and scanning electron microscope SEM analyses, the two major phases of Si 3 N 4 were identified in the resultant microstructures. The morphology evolution of Si 3 N 4 particles as occurred upon SPS-sintering is analyzed.

  17. Self-assembled hierarchical direct Z-scheme g-C3N4/ZnO microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic CO2 reduction performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ning; Zhang, Liuyang; Fu, Junwei; Cheng, Bei; Yu, Jiaguo

    2018-05-01

    Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 into hydrocarbon fuels has been regarded as a promising approach to ease the greenhouse effect and the energy shortage. Herein, an electrostatic self-assembly method was exploited to prepare g-C3N4/ZnO composite microsphere. This method simply utilized the opposite surface charge of each component, achieving a hierarchical structure with intimate contact between them. A much improved photocatalytic CO2 reduction activity was attained. The CH3OH production rate was 1.32 μmol h-1 g-1, which was 2.1 and 4.1 times more than that of the pristine ZnO and g-C3N4, respectively. This facile design bestowed the g-C3N4/ZnO composite an extended light adsorption caused by multi-light scattering effect. It also guaranteed the uniform distribution of g-C3N4 nanosheets on the surface of ZnO microspheres, maximizing their advantage and synergistic effect. Most importantly, the preeminent performance was proposed and validated based on the direct Z-scheme. The recombination rate was considerably suppressed. This work features the meliority of constructing hierarchical direct Z-scheme structures in photocatalytic CO2 reduction reactions.

  18. Microstructure and properties of thick nanocomposite TiN/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} coatings on Vanadis 23 HS steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskalewicz, Tomasz; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, Aleksandra [AGH Univ. of Science and Technology, Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); Zimowski, Slawomir [AGH Univ. of Science and Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics, Krakow (Poland); Wendler, Bogdan; Progalskiy, Ivan [Lodz Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2015-07-15

    The microstructure and selected micro-mechanical properties of a 13.4 μm thick nanocomposite TiN/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} coating deposited onto Vanadis 23 HS steel by a new gas pulsed magnetron sputtering technique were investigated. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were employed to investigate the detailed microstructure of the coating. It was found that the coating exhibited a fully nanocrystalline structure and was composed of two zones: the outer zone with columnar structure and the inner one with equiaxed, fine columnar structure. Both zones consisted mainly of the δ-TiN nanocrystallites with a small amount of α-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and β-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. In order to increase coating adhesion to the substrate, a graded intermediate layer consisting of three different phases (pure Cr, CrN and Cr2N) was applied. The hardness of the as-deposited TiN/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} coating was equal to 48 GPa, whereas it was equal to 40 GPa after annealing. The coatings exhibited very good adhesion to the underlying steel substrate.

  19. Confined Catalysis in the g-C3N4/Pt(111) Interface: Feasible Molecule Intercalation, Tunable Molecule-Metal Interaction, and Enhanced Reaction Activity of CO Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujiao; Feng, Yingxin; Yu, Ming'an; Wan, Qiang; Lin, Sen

    2017-09-27

    The deposition of a two-dimensional (2D) atomic nanosheet on a metal surface has been considered as a new route for tuning the molecule-metal interaction and surface reactivity in terms of the confinement effect. In this work, we use first-principles calculations to systematically explore a novel nanospace constructed by placing a 2D graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) nanosheet over a Pt(111) surface. The confined catalytic activity in this nanospace is investigated using CO oxidation as a model reaction. With the inherent triangular pores in the g-C 3 N 4 overlayer being taken advantage of, molecules such as CO and O 2 can diffuse to adsorb on the Pt(111) surface underneath the g-C 3 N 4 overlayer. Moreover, the mechanism of intercalation is also elucidated, and the results reveal that the energy barrier depends mainly on the properties of the molecule and the channel. Importantly, the molecule-catalyst interaction can be tuned by the g-C 3 N 4 overlayer, considerably reducing the adsorption energy of CO on Pt(111) and leading to enhanced reactivity in CO oxidation. This work will provide important insight for constructing a promising nanoreactor in which the following is observed: The molecule intercalation is facile; the molecule-metal interaction is efficiently tuned; the metal-catalyzed reaction is promoted.

  20. Understanding the anchoring effect of Graphene, BN, C2N and C3N4 monolayers for lithium-polysulfides in Li-S batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanping; Li, Huanhuan; Yuan, Haiyan; Fan, Honghong; Li, Wenliang; Zhang, Jingping

    2018-03-01

    Recently, Li-S batteries with a high theoretical specific energy have attracted significant attention. However, their practical application is still seriously hindered by the shuttling effect of lithium polysulfides (LiPSs) in the Li-S batteries system. Introducing anchoring materials into the cathode or separator, which can strongly attract LiPSs because of advisable binding energies, has been demonstrated as an effective strategy to alleviate the shuttling effect for achieving the excellent cycling performance of Li-S batteries. In this work, the complete mechanistic understanding of the interaction between non-metallic monolayer materials (N-MMLMs, including Graphene, BN, C2N and C3N4) and LiPSs is given in detail with the aid of density functional theory. The calculation results show that N-MMLM can combine the chemical interaction and the physical entrapment of sulfur species to suppress the shuttling effect. C3N4 and C2N are predicted to trap LiPSs via stronger interfacial interaction and alleviate the interactions between LiPSs and solvents as well as the consequent dissolution. The strong anchoring effect of C3N4/C2N comes from the bonding of Li-N/C-S and charge transfer. Further charge transfer study reveals that the C3N4/C2N can serve as an electrocatalyst, which effectively accelerates the kinetics of LiPSs redox reactions.

  1. The removal of COD and NH3-N from atrazine production wastewater treatment using UV/O3: experimental investigation and kinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Liang; Chen, Bing; Wen, Diya; Zheng, Jisi; Zhang, Baiyu

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a UV/O 3 hybrid advanced oxidation system was used to remove chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N), and atrazine (ATZ) from ATZ production wastewater. The removal of COD and NH 3 -N, under different UV and O 3 conditions, was found to follow pseudo-first-order kinetics with rate constants ranging from 0.0001-0.0048 and 0.0015-0.0056 min -1 , respectively. The removal efficiency of ATZ was over 95% after 180 min treatment, regardless the level of UV power. A kinetic model was further proposed to simulate the removal processes and to quantify the individual roles and contributions of photolysis, direct O 3 oxidation, and hydroxyl radical (OH·) induced oxidation. The experimental and kinetic modeling results agreed reasonably well with deviations of 12.2 and 13.1% for the removal of COD and NH 3 -N, respectively. Photolysis contributed appreciably to the degradation of ATZ, while OH· played a dominant role for the removal of both COD and NH 3 -N, especially in alkaline environments. This study provides insights into the treatment of ATZ containing wastewater using UV/O 3 and broadens the knowledge of kinetics of ozone-based advanced oxidation processes.

  2. Investigation of the fabrication processes of AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs with in situ Si3N4 passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomosh, K. N.; Pavlov, A. Yu.; Pavlov, V. Yu.; Khabibullin, R. A.; Arutyunyan, S. S.; Maltsev, P. P.

    2016-01-01

    The optimum mode of the in situ plasma-chemical etching of a Si 3 N 4 passivating layer in C 3 F 8 /O 2 medium is chosen for the case of fabricating AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs. It is found that a bias of 40–50 V at a high-frequency electrode provides anisotropic etching of the insulator through a resist mask and introduces no appreciable radiation-induced defects upon overetching of the insulator films in the region of gate-metallization formation. To estimate the effect of in situ Si 3 N 4 growth together with the heterostructure in one process on the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT characteristics, transistors with gates without the insulator and with gates through Si 3 N 4 slits are fabricated. The highest drain current of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT at 0 V at the gate is shown to be 1.5 times higher in the presence of Si 3 N 4 than without it.

  3. A facile modification of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} with enhanced photocatalytic activity for degradation of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Fei, E-mail: feichang@usst.edu.cn [School of Environment and Architecture, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Xie, Yunchao; Li, Chenlu; Chen, Juan; Luo, Jieru [School of Environment and Architecture, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Hu, Xuefeng, E-mail: xfhu@yic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Shen, Jiaowen [School of Urban Development and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Second Polytechnic University, Shanghai 201209 (China)

    2013-09-01

    In this investigation, a facile modification of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} through co-pyrolysis of melamine and sodium nitrate or potassium nitrate was reported and the as-synthesized samples were characterized by a collection of techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption–desorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Based upon the analysis, we speculated that the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} framework was partially destroyed to produce cyano-containing fragments, which resulted into the variation of physical and optical properties, further affecting the adsorption and photocatalytic performance of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} on the dye methylene blue. Furthermore, we found that nitrate anions rather than sodium or potassium ions had important effect on the structure and photocatalytic performance of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. In addition, the photocatalysis mechanism and reusability test were also investigated and discussed in the study.

  4. Multi-stage En/decoders integrated in low loss Si3N4-SiO2 for incoherent spectral amplitude OCDMA on PON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiszoon, B.; Leinse, Arne; Geuzebroek, D.H.; Augustin, L.M.; Klein, E.J.; de Waardt, H.; Khoe, G.D.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Emplit, Ph.; Delqué, M.; Gorza, S.-P.; Kockaert, P.; Leijtens, X

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we show and analyze, for the first time, the static performance of integrated multi-stage cascade and tree spectral amplitude OCDMA en/decoders (E/Ds) which are fabricated in the low loss Si3N4–SiO2 material system. Combined with incoherent broad spectral sources these E/Ds enable

  5. Trivalent influenza vaccine in patients on haemodialysis: impaired seroresponse with differences for A-H3N2 and A-H1N1 vaccine components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.E.Ph. Beyer (Walter); D.J. Versluis; P. Kramer; P.P.N.M. Diderich (Philip); W. Weimar (Willem); N. Masurel (Nic)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractOne hundred and one patients on haemodialysis, 21 patients on peritoneal dialysis and 30 healthy controls received a trivalent split vaccine containing 15 micrograms haemagglutinin of a recent influenza A-H3N2, influenza A-H1N1 and influenza B strain, respectively. Antibody production

  6. A theoretical study of pressure-induced phase transitions and electronic band structure of anti-A-sesquioxide type γ-Be3N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paliwal, Uttam; Joshi, Kunj Bihari

    2011-01-01

    Structural parameters and electronic band structure of anti-A-sesquioxide (aAs) type γ-Be 3 N 2 are presented following the first-principles linear combination of atomic orbitals method within the framework of a posteriori density-functional theory implemented in the CRYSTAL code. Pressure-induced phase transitions among the four polymorphs α, β, cubic-γ and aAs-γ of Be 3 N 2 are examined. Enthalpy-pressure curves do not show the possibility of pressure-induced structural phase transition to the cubic-γ phase. However, α → aAs-γ and β → aAs-γ structural phase transitions are observed at 139 GPa and 93 GPa, respectively. Band structure calculations predict that aAs-γ Be 3 N 2 is an indirect semiconductor with 4.73 eV bandgap at L point. Variation of bandgap with pressure and deformation potentials are studied for the α, β and aAs-γ polymorphs. Pressure-dependent band structure calculations reveal that, within the low-pressure limit, bandgaps of β and aAs-γ increase with pressure unlike α-Be 3 N 2 .

  7. Blue-emitting LaSi3N5:Ce3+ fine powder phosphor for UV-converting white light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, Takayuki; Hirosaki, Naoto; Xie, Rong-Jun; Sato, Tsugio

    2009-08-01

    We have synthesized the pure ternary nitride phosphor, LaSi3N5:Ce3+ from the multicomponent oxide system La2O3-CeO2-SiO2, by using the gas-reduction-nitridation method. Highly pure, single-phase LaSi3N5:Ce3+ powders possessing particle sizes of ˜0.4-0.6 μm were obtained with the processing temperature ≤1500 °C. The synthesized LaSi3N5:Ce3+ exhibits tunable blue broadband emission with the dominant wavelength of 464-475 nm and the external quantum efficiency of ˜34%-67% under excitation of 355-380 nm. A high thermal stability of LaSi3N5:Ce3+ compared to the existing La-Si-O-N hosts was demonstrated, indicating the promising applicability as a blue-emitting phosphor for UV-converting white light-emitting diodes.

  8. Investigation of the fabrication processes of AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs with in situ Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} passivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomosh, K. N., E-mail: sky77781@mail.ru; Pavlov, A. Yu.; Pavlov, V. Yu.; Khabibullin, R. A.; Arutyunyan, S. S.; Maltsev, P. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultra-High-Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    The optimum mode of the in situ plasma-chemical etching of a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} passivating layer in C{sub 3}F{sub 8}/O{sub 2} medium is chosen for the case of fabricating AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs. It is found that a bias of 40–50 V at a high-frequency electrode provides anisotropic etching of the insulator through a resist mask and introduces no appreciable radiation-induced defects upon overetching of the insulator films in the region of gate-metallization formation. To estimate the effect of in situ Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} growth together with the heterostructure in one process on the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT characteristics, transistors with gates without the insulator and with gates through Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} slits are fabricated. The highest drain current of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT at 0 V at the gate is shown to be 1.5 times higher in the presence of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} than without it.

  9. Kinetics and thermochemistry of the reversible gas phase reaction HONO+NH3->3N-HONO studied by infrared diode laser spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, P.; Ratajczak, E.; Sillesen, A.

    1994-01-01

    The kinetics of the reversible reaction HONO+NH3 reversible H3N-HONO (1) was studied by monitoring trans-HONO relaxation kinetics. The rate of approach towards equilibrium was studied as a function of the ammonia concentration to obtain values of the rate constants for the forward and reverse rea...

  10. Solar photocatalytic water oxidation over Ag3PO4/g-C3N4 composite materials mediated by metallic Ag and graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xingkai; Tian, Lin; Xian, Xiaozhai; Tang, Hua; Yang, Xiaofei

    2018-02-01

    Solar-driven water splitting over semiconductor-based photocatalysts provides direct conversion of solar energy to chemical energy, in which electron-hole separation and charge transport are critical for enhancing the photocatalytic activity of semiconducting materials. Moreover, the search for active photocatalysts that efficiently oxidize water remains a challenging task. Here, we demonstrate that a series of Ag3PO4/Ag/graphene/graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) heterostructured materials can drive photocatalytic water oxidation efficiently under LED illumination. The water oxidation behavior of as-prepared composite photocatalysts in relation to the added amount of g-C3N4 and the roles of electron mediators was investigated in detail. Based on the illuminated Z-scheme photocatalytic mechanism, the photogenerated electrons and holes can be separated effectively and the electron-hole recombination of bulk material is suppressed. The reduced metallic Ag nanoparticles were found to function as the center for the accumulation of electrons from Ag3PO4 and holes from g-C3N4. By exploiting the proper addition of g-C3N4 into the composite, photocatalytic oxygen evolution performance over the heterostructured materials could be suitably tuned, which resulted in highly efficient water oxidation.

  11. Factors on prognosis in patients of stage pT3N0M0 thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after two-field esophagectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: For patients of pT3N0M0 thoracic ESCC, the independent factors were the site of a lesion for OS and PFS, Hb levels, small LN in CT, and number of removed LN for OS. The value of postoperative adjuvant therapy need be further proved.

  12. Degradation of Acid Orange 7 by peroxymonosulfate activated with the recyclable nanocomposites of g-C3N4 modified magnetic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Furong; Lu, Jiahua; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Aiqing; Cai, Yingjie; Wang, Qiang

    2018-08-01

    Carbon-based catalysts have attracted high attention since they are greener and cheaper, while magnetic nanomaterials are very useful in environmental application because of the easy recovery and operation given by the magnetic separability. Therefore, graphitic carbon nitride modified magnetic carbon nanocomposites Fe 3 O 4 @C/g-C 3 N 4 was prepared herein for the first time as a new carbon-based catalyst for the activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS). The catalytic properties of Fe 3 O 4 @C/g-C 3 N 4 in activating PMS for the degradation of Acid Orange 7 (AO 7), a model organic pollutant, were investigated. AO 7 degradation efficiency was significantly enhanced after modification of Fe 3 O 4 @C with g-C 3 N 4 , and the composite Fe 3 O 4 @C/g-C 3 N 4 from loading of 5 wt% g-C 3 N 4 and calcined at 300 °C for 30 min exhibited the best performance. AO 7 could be efficiently decolorized using the "Fe 3 O 4 @C/C 3 N 4 (5%) + PSM" system within the pH range of 2-6, and 97% of AO 7 could be removed in 20 min without pH adjustment (pH = 4). Radical quenching and EPR studies confirmed that both sulfate and hydroxyl radicals produced from PMS activation were the active species responsible for the oxidation of AO 7. The degradation mechanism was suggested based on the experimental results and XPS analyses. It was proposed that the CO groups on the carbon surface of Fe 3 O 4 @C rather than the CO in g-C 3 N 4 played a key role as the active sites for PMS activation. The catalyst was magnetically separable and displayed good stability and reusability, thus providing a potentially green catalyst for sustainable remediation of organic pollutants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Surface and bulk electronic structures of unintentionally and Mg-doped In0.7Ga0.3N epilayer by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, Masataka; Tsuda, Shunsuke; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Takahiro; Banal, Ryan G.; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Yang, AnLi; Yamashita, Yoshiyuki; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Koide, Yasuo; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Kaneko, Masamitsu; Uematsu, Nao; Wang, Ke; Araki, Tsutomu; Nanishi, Yasushi

    2018-03-01

    The surface and bulk electronic structures of In0.7Ga0.3N epilayers are investigated by angle-resolved hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HX-PES) combined with soft X-PES. The unintentionally and Mg-doped In0.7Ga0.3N (u-In0.7Ga0.3N and In0.7Ga0.3N:Mg, respectively) epilayers are grown by radio-frequency plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Here three samples with different Mg concentrations ([Mg] = 0, 7 × 1019, and 4 × 1020 cm-3) are chosen for comparison. It is found that a large downward energy band bending exists in all samples due to the formation of a surface electron accumulation (SEA) layer. For u-In0.7Ga0.3N epilayer, band bending as large as 0.8 ± 0.05 eV occurs from bulk to surface. Judged from the valence band spectral edge and numerical analysis of energy band with a surface quantum well, the valence band maximum (VBM) with respect to Fermi energy (EF) level in the bulk is determined to be 1.22 ± 0.05 eV. In contrast, for In0.7Ga0.3N:Mg epilayers, the band bending increases and the VBM only in the bulk tends to shift toward the EF level owing to the Mg acceptor doping. Hence, the energy band is considered to exhibit a downward bending structure due to the coexistence of the n+ SEA layer and Mg-doped p layer formed in the bulk. When [Mg] changes from 7 × 1019 to 4 × 1020 cm-3, the peak split occurs in HX-PES spectra under the bulk sensitive condition. This result indicates that the energy band forms an anomalous downward bending structure with a singular point due to the generation of a thin depleted region at the n+ p interface. For In0.7Ga0.3N:Mg epilayers, the VBM in the bulk is assumed to be slightly lower than EF level within 0.1 eV.

  14. Photocatalytic hydrogen production using visible-light-responsive Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} photocatalyst supported on monodisperse spherical SiO{sub 2} particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoming [Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering, KAUST Catalysis Center (KCC), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), 4700 KAUST, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Zhao, Lan [Advanced Nanofabrication, Imaging and Characterization Core Lab, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), 4700 KAUST, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Domen, Kazunari [Department of Chemical System Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Takanabe, Kazuhiro, E-mail: kazuhiro.takanabe@kaust.edu.sa [Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering, KAUST Catalysis Center (KCC), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), 4700 KAUST, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A simple and effective sol–gel process followed by nitridation in an NH{sub 3} flow has been developed to deposit Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} semiconductor photocatalyst layers onto monodisperse spherical SiO{sub 2} particles. The obtained Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} particles maintain an original spherical morphology of SiO{sub 2} and a sub-micrometer size with a narrow size distribution and without aggregation. The presence of SiO{sub 2} support shows at least no detrimental effects on photocatalytic activity, but tunes the secondary particle size to control dispersibility of the photocatalyst in the solution. - Highlights: • Fine nanoparticles of Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} were immobilized on the surfaces of SiO{sub 2} giving SiO{sub 2}@Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} core–shell spheres successfully produced H{sub 2} from methanol solution under visible light. • The presence of support (SiO{sub 2}) ensures the dispersion of the particulate in solution maintaining high photocatalytic activity of Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}. • The obtained supported photocatalyst gives uniform size distribution and control the degree of dispersibility in the solution, which may control nature of light absorption and reflection of the photoreactor. - Abstract: Fine nanoparticles of Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} (10–20 nm) were synthesized on the surfaces of SiO{sub 2} spheres with a diameter of ∼550 nm. A sol–gel method was used to modify the surface of SiO{sub 2} with Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} from TaCl{sub 5} dissolved in ethanol in the presence of citric acid and polyethylene glycol. The resulting oxide composites were treated in an NH{sub 3} flow at 1123 K to form core–shell structured Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} sub-microspheres. The obtained samples were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and

  15. Fabrication of 2D SnS2/g-C3N4 heterojunction with enhanced H2 evolution during photocatalytic water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enzhou; Chen, Jibing; Ma, Yongning; Feng, Juan; Jia, Jia; Fan, Jun; Hu, Xiaoyun

    2018-08-15

    In this work, the 2D SnS 2 /g-C 3 N 4 heterojunctions were successfully prepared by heating the homogeneous dispersion of SnS 2 nanosheets and g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets using a microwave muffle. SEM, TEM and HRTEM images indicated that the SnS 2 nanosheets were loaded on the surface of the g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets. The UV-vis spectra show that the absorption intensity of the as-prepared samples was increased and the absorption range was also extended from 420 nm to approximately 600 nm. The H 2 production rate over 5 wt% SnS 2 /g-C 3 N 4 can reach 972.6 μmol·h -1 ·g -1 under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm) using TEOA as the sacrifice agent and Pt as the electron trap, which is 2.9 and 25.6 times higher than those of the pristine g-C 3 N 4 and SnS 2 , respectively. According to the obtained PL spectra, photocurrent and EIS spectra, the enhanced performance for H 2 generation over the heterojunctions is primarily ascribed to the rapid charge transfer arising from the suitable band gap positions leading to an improved photocatalytic performance. The recycling experiments indicated that the as-prepared composites exhibit good stability in H 2 production. Additionally, a possible enhanced mechanism for H 2 evolution was deduced based on the results obtained by various characterization techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fabrication of novel ternary Au/CeO2@g-C3N4 nanocomposite: kinetics and mechanism investigation of 4-nitrophenol reduction, and benzyl alcohol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohantorabi, Mona; Gholami, Mohammad Reza

    2018-06-01

    Au nanoparticles supported on cerium oxide/graphitic carbon nitride (CeO2@g-C3N4) was synthesized and used as heterogeneous catalyst in redox reaction. The catalyst was characterized by different techniques such as FT-IR, XRD, FE-SEM, EDS, TEM, BET, TGA, and ICP. The as-prepared ternary nanocomposite was used as an effective catalyst for the reduction of toxic 4-nitrophenol to useful 4-aminophenol by NaBH4. The rate constant value of reduction reaction reached up to 0.106 s-1 by Au/CeO2@g-C3N4, which was 3.8, and 8.8 times higher than that of Au@CeO2 (0.028 s-1), and Au@g-C3N4 (0.012 s-1) nanocomposites, respectively. The superior catalytic performance of as-prepared catalyst in 4-NP reduction can be attributed to synergistic effect between Au nanoparticles and CeO2@g-C3N4 support, and efficient electron transfer. The reduction reaction was carried out at different temperatures, and the energy of activation ({Ea}), and thermodynamic parameters including, activation of entropy (Δ S^ ≠), enthalpy (Δ H^ ≠), and Gibbs free energy (Δ G^ ≠) were determined. Additionally, the mechanism of reaction was studied in details, and equilibrium constants of 4-NP ( K 4-NP), and {BH}4^{ - } ({K_{{BH}4^{{ - }} }}) were calculated using Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Furthermore, this nanocomposite exhibited excellent catalytic activity in oxidation of benzyl alcohol by molecular oxygen as a green oxidant. This study revealed that the ternary Au/CeO2@g-C3N4 nanocomposite is an attractive candidate for catalytic applications.

  17. Seroprevalence of H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2 influenza viruses in pigs in seven European countries in 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reeth, Kristien; Brown, Ian H; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Labarque, Geoffrey; Lenihan, Patrick; Maldonado, Jaime; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pensaert, Maurice; Pospisil, Zdenek; Koch, Guus

    2008-05-01

    Avian-like H1N1 and human-like H3N2 swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been considered widespread among pigs in Western Europe since the 1980s, and a novel H1N2 reassortant with a human-like H1 emerged in the mid 1990s. This study, which was part of the EC-funded 'European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs 1', aimed to determine the seroprevalence of the H1N2 virus in different European regions and to compare the relative prevalences of each SIV between regions. Laboratories from Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, Ireland, Poland and Spain participated in an international serosurvey. A total of 4190 sow sera from 651 farms were collected in 2002-2003 and examined in haemagglutination inhibition tests against H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2. In Belgium, Germany, Italy and Spain seroprevalence rates to each of the three SIV subtypes were high (> or =30% of the sows seropositive) to very high (> or =50%), except for a lower H1N2 seroprevalence rate in Italy (13.8%). Most sows in these countries with high pig populations had antibodies to two or three subtypes. In Ireland, the Czech Republic and Poland, where swine farming is less intensive, H1N1 was the dominant subtype (8.0-11.7% seropositives) and H1N2 and H3N2 antibodies were rare (0-4.2% seropositives). Thus, SIV of H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2 subtype are enzootic in swine producing regions of Western Europe. In Central Europe, SIV activity is low and the circulation of H3N2 and H1N2 remains to be confirmed. The evolution and epidemiology of SIV throughout Europe is being further monitored through a second 'European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs'.

  18. Effects of Si content on microstructure and mechanical properties of TiAlN/Si3N4-Cu nanocomposite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Changjie; Hu, Shuilian; Jiang, Yuanfei; Wu, Namei; Li, Mingsheng; Xin, Li; Zhu, Shenglong; Wang, Fuhui

    2014-11-01

    TiAlN/Si3N4-Cu nanocomposite coatings of various Si content (0-5.09 at.%) were deposited on AISI-304 stainless steel by DC reactive magnetron sputtering technique. The chemical composition, microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of these coatings were systematically investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), nanoindentation tester, a home-made indentation system, a scratch tester and a wear tester. Results indicated that with increasing Si content in these coatings, a reduction of grain size and surface roughness, a transformation of the (1 1 1) preferred orientation was detected by XRD and FESEM. Furthermore the hardness of these coatings increase from 9.672 GPa to 18.628 GPa, and the elastic modulus reveal the rising trend that increase from 224.654 GPa to 251.933 GPa. However, the elastic modulus of TiAlN/Si3N4-Cu coating containing 3.39 at.% Si content dropped rapidly and changed to about 180.775 GPa. The H3/E2 ratio is proportional to the film resistance to plastic deformation. The H3/E2 ratio of the TiAlN/Si3N4-Cu coating containing 3.39 at.% Si content possess of the maximum of 0.11 GPa, and the indentation test indicate that few and fine cracks were observed from its indentation morphologies. The growth pattern of cracks is mainly bending growing. The present results show that the best toughness is obtained for TiAlN/Si3N4-Cu nanocomposite coating containing 3.39 at.% Si content. In addition, the TiAlN/Si3N4-Cu coating containing 3.39 at.% Si content also has good adhesion property and superior wear resistance, and the wear mechanism is mainly adhesion wear.

  19. High radiochemical yield synthesis of [18F]FLT from 3'-O-nosylated thymidine and its 3-N-BOC-protected analogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, M. K.; Oh, S. J.; Ryu, J. S.; Moon, D. H.

    2002-01-01

    We synthesized 3'-O-nosylate and its 3-N-BOC-protected thymidine derivatives as two precursors for high radiochemical yield synthesis of [ 18 F]FLT and optimized [ 18 F]fluorination conditions. (5'-O-DMTr-2'-deoxy-3'-O-nosyl-β-D-threo-pentofuranosyl)thymidine and its s 3-N-BOD-protected analogue were prepared with 54% and 28% yield, respectively. After drying of [ 18 F]F-, 3'-O-nosylate(10-30 mg) or its 3-N-BOC-protected(11-34 mg) precursor was added to 500 μl of CH3CN, respectively. The mixtures were heated at 100-130 .deg. C for 5-30 min. For hydrolysis, 250-500 μl 1N HCl at 50 .deg. C for 5 min condition was used and 1.5ml of 2M sodium acetate was used for neutralization. Reaction mixture was purified by HPLC. The optimal [ 18 F]fluorination yield of 3'-O-nosylate precursor was 85±5.4% with 34 mg of precursor and a reaction time of 5 min at 130 .deg. C. For 3-N-BOC-protected analogue, [ 18 F]fluorination yield was 82±5.4% with 34 mg of precursor and a reaction time of 5 min at 110. deg. C. After HPLC purification, overall radiochemical yield using each precursors were 40±5.2% and 42±5.4% and radiochemical purity were 98±0.5% and 97±2.1% for two precursors, respectively. Preparation time was 60±10.5 min including HPLC purification for two precursors. From these two precursors, [ 18 F]FLT can be easily prepared with high radiochemical yield. 3-N-BOC-protected precursor required milder [ 18 F]fluorination conditions than 3'-O-nosylate precursor

  20. Photocatalytic hydrogen production using visible-light-responsive Ta 3N5 photocatalyst supported on monodisperse spherical SiO2 particulates

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Fine nanoparticles of Ta3N5 (10-20 nm) were synthesized on the surfaces of SiO2 spheres with a diameter of ∼550 nm. A sol-gel method was use