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Sample records for wulfen lamouroux rhodophyta

  1. Diatomáceas epífitas em Galaxaura rugosa (J. Ellis & Solander J.V. Lamouroux (Rhodophyta no Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, PE, Nordeste do Brasil Epiphytic diatoms on Galaxaura rugosa (J. Ellis & Solander J.V. Lamouroux (Rhodophyta in Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil

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    Manoel Messias da Silva Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Exemplares de Galaxaura rugosa (J. Ellis & Solander J.V. Lamouroux foram coletados nos meses de junho/2006 e junho/2007, em três localidades do Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha (Atalaia, Porto e Cagarras, com o objetivo de identificar a flora das diatomáceas epífitas que habita o talo da alga. Foram identificados 52 táxons distribuídos nas classes: Coscinodiscophyceae (19%, Fragilariophyceae (21% e Bacillariophyceae (60% denotando uma dominância de indivíduos com simetria bilateral, os quais corresponderam a 81% da flora identificada. As seguintes espécies caracterizaram a estrutura florística das diatomáceas, pois foram encontradas em mais de 70% das amostras analisadas: Amphora sp., Biddulphia biddulphiana (J.E. Smith Boyer, Cocconeis scutellum Ehrenberg, Diploneis bombus Ehrenberg, Grammatophora marina (Lyngbye Kützing, Mastogloia binotata (Grunow Cleve, Navicula longa Grunow, Nitzschia sp., Psammodiscus nitidus (Gregory Round in Mann, Rhabdonema adriaticum Kützing, Trachyneis aspera (Ehrenberg Cleve e Tryblionella coarctata (Grunow Mann. A diversidade específica variou entre média à alta, com os menores valores correspondendo aos florescimentos de Amphora sp. (49,3%, Mastogloia binotata (42,1% e Nitzschia sp. (62,5%.Specimens of Galaxaura rugosa (J. Ellis & Solander J.V. Lamouroux were collected in June 2006 and June 2007 at three localities in Fernando de Noronha Archipelago (Atalaia, Porto and Cagarras, aiming to identify the epiphytic diatom flora that inhabits the algae thallus. A total of 52 taxa were identified, distributed in the classes Coscinodiscophyceae (19%, Fragilariophyceae (21% and Bacillariophyceae (60% with 81% dominance of individuals with pinnate symmetry. The following species characterized the floristic diatom structure being considered very frequent: Amphora sp., Biddulphia biddulphiana (J.E. Smith Boyer, Cocconeis scutellum Ehrenberg, Diploneis bombus Ehrenberg, Grammatophora marina (Lyngbye K

  2. Macroalgas bentônicas associadas a bancos de Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamour. (Rhodophyta - Gigartinales em duas praias do litoral baiano Macroalgae associated with banks of Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamour. (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales on two beaches on the coast of Bahia

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    Iara Oliveira Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho caracteriza a estrutura e dinâmica das comunidades de macroalgas bentônicas associadas a populações de H. musciformis ocorrentes em formações recifais nas praias de Stella Maris (Salvador e Itacimirim (Camaçari. As coletas ocorreram entre agosto de 2007 e junho de 2008. As formações recifais foram divididas em compartimentos com base no hidrodinamismo. Utilizou-se três transectos em cada compartimento, onde foram dispostos cinco quadrados de 20 x 20 cm. Foram obtidos dados de riqueza, biomassa, percentual de importância (Pi%, diversidade (H' e equitabilidade (J'. Na área estudada ocorreram 60 espécies: 30 Rhodophyta, 20 Chlorophyta e 10 Ochrophyta; biomassa média de 136 g.m-² (peso seco; e índices médios de H' e J' de 2,7 e 0,97, respectivamente. Houve predominância das rodofíceas, tanto em riqueza específica quanto em valores de biomassa. Foi encontrada maior contribuição do grupo morfo-funcional de algas corticadas. Dentre a flora associada, Gelidiella acerosa, Sargassum cymosum e Palisada perforata apresentaram maiores valores de biomassa. O compartimento recifal mais representativo em riqueza específica e biomassa foi a região frontal do recife. As comunidades das praias estudadas foram consideradas distintas devido à fisionomia das formações recifais.This study characterized the structure and dynamics of macroalgae communities associated with benthic populations of H. musciformis occurring in reef formations on the beaches of Stella Maris (Salvador and Itacimirim (Camaçari, Bahia. The samples were collected between August 2007 and June 2008. The reef formations were divided into compartments based on hydrodynamics. Three transects where made for each compartment, and each of these had five quadrants of 20 x 20cm. Data about the richness, biomass, percentage of importance (Pi%, diversity (H' and evenness (J' was collected. The study recorded 60 species, 30 Rhodophyta, 20 Chlorophyta and 10 Ochrophyta

  3. Effect of Rhodophyta extracts on ruminal fermentation characteristics, methanogenesis and microbial populations

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    Shin Ja Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Due to the threat of global warming, the livestock industry is increasingly interested in exploring how feed additives may reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, especially from ruminants. This study investigated the effect of Rhodophyta supplemented bovine diets on in vitro rumen fermentation and rumen microbial diversity. Methods Cannulated Holstein cows were used as rumen fluid donors. Rumen fluid:buffer (1:2; 15 mL solution was incubated for up to 72 h in six treatments: a control (timothy hay only, along with substrates containing 5% extracts from five Rhodophyta species (Grateloupia lanceolata [Okamura] Kawaguchi, Hypnea japonica Tanaka, Pterocladia capillacea [Gmelin] Bornet, Chondria crassicaulis Harvey, or Gelidium amansii [Lam.] Lamouroux. Results Compared with control, Rhodophyta extracts increased cumulative gas production after 24 and 72 h (p = 0.0297 and p = 0.0047. The extracts reduced methane emission at 12 and 24 h (p<0.05. In particular, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that at 24 h, ciliate-associated methanogens, Ruminococcus albus and Ruminococcus flavefaciens decreased at 24 h (p = 0.0002, p<0.0001, and p<0.0001, while Fibrobacter succinogenes (F. succinogenes increased (p = 0.0004. Additionally, Rhodophyta extracts improved acetate concentration at 12 and 24 h (p = 0.0766 and p = 0.0132, as well as acetate/propionate (A/P ratio at 6 and 12 h (p = 0.0106 and p = 0.0278. Conclusion Rhodophyta extracts are a viable additive that can improve ruminant growth performance (higher total gas production, lower A/P ratio and methane abatement (less ciliate-associated methanogens, Ruminococcus albus and Ruminococcus flavefaciens and more F. succinogenes.

  4. Phycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye using silver (Ag) nanoparticles synthesized from Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V. Lamouroux

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    Ganapathy Selvam, G.; Sivakumar, K.

    2015-06-01

    In the present investigation, simple and eco-friendly chemical reaction for the synthesis reported on biological synthesis of nano-sized silver and biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Hypnea musciformis at room temperature along with photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye. The nanoparticles of silver were formed by the reduction of silver nitrate to aqueous silver metal ions during exposure to the extract of red alga H. musciformis. The optical properties of the obtained silver nanoparticles were characterized by applying UV-visible absorption and room temperature photoluminescence. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were in the cubic phase. The existence of functional groups was identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The morphology and size of the synthesized particles were studied with atomic force microscope measurements. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange was measured spectrophotometrically by using silver as nanocatalyst under visible light illumination. The results revealed that biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using H. musciformis was found to be impressive in degrading methyl orange.

  5. Effects of salinity, temperature and phosphorus concentration on the chemical composition of Gelidium crinale (Turner Lamouroux (Gelidiaceae, Rhodophyta

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    Lúcia Rebello Dillenburg

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different culture conditions (temperature, salinity and dissolved inorganic phosphorus were investigated for seven days, under controlled conditions. The maximum production of proteins occurred in cultures where the temperature was 25°C, with concentrations of 5.0 and 10.0 µM of dissolved inorganic phosphorus and salinity between 15 and 20 psu, with values varying from 2.62 to 2.83% of algae dry weight. For carbohydrates, a third-order interaction was not observed in the statistical analysis; only a second order interaction was observed between temperature and inorganic phosphorus concentrations Efeito dos parâmetros abióticos em cultivo de G. crinale (P < 0.005 and between temperature and salinity (P < 0.000. The greatest phosphorus increase in the thalli (0.80 % occurred in the lowest temperature (15 °C, associated with low salinity (10 psu and high inorganic phosphorus concentration (10.0 µM. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient revealed positive correlations (P < 0.001 among protein content, temperature and inorganic phosphorus available in the growth medium. For carbohydrates, correlations were positive with all three abiotic parameters. For tissue phosphorus, a positive correlation occurred only with dissolved inorganic phosphorus; with temperature and salinity, the correlations were negative. Among the chemical components present in the algae, proteins and carbohydrates showed a positive correlation, while tissue phosphorus presented a negative correlation with both, although this correlation was not significant with regard to protein.

  6. Potencial para maricultura da carragenófita Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamour. (Gigartinales - Rhodophyta na Ilha da Marambaia, Baía de Sepetiba, RJ, Brasil Mariculture potential of carragenophyta Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamour. (Gigartinales - Rhodophyta on Marambaia Island, Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Renata Perpetuo Reis

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A falta da prática de cultivo comercial de macroalgas no Brasil junto com a crescente demanda do mercado nacional de ficocolóides é suprida pela importação de algas e colheita em bancos naturais, principalmente na costa nordestina. Na busca de um cultivo em pequena escala para uso das comunidades litorâneas foi implantado um cultivo experimental com H. musciformis, na Ilha da Marambaia, RJ (43º59'35" W e 23º04'00" S. Ao todo foram testadas nove técnicas de fixação da alga nas unidades experimentais de maricultura (UEM. Nos experimentos realizados entre a primavera de 2003 e o outono de 2004, as taxas de crescimento geralmente foram negativas. Entre os invernos de 2004 e 2005, foram na maioria positivas. O fitobentos próximo à UEM foi analisado para verificar o crescimento dessa espécie na assembléia e no cultivo. Observou-se maior percentual de anfípodas e de matéria orgânica nas UEM e a presença de carposporófitos em épocas de baixa salinidade em ambos os locais. Atribuiu-se o baixo rendimento da taxa de crescimento aos fatores ambientais como: ressacas, aderência de matéria orgânica nas algas, herbivoria e danos as UEM por ação antrópica. Constatou-se que o tratamento fixando a muda com abraçadeira foi o de mais fácil manuseio e baixo custo e que somente com a conscientização da comunidade litorânea e remuneração salarial para esta atividade será possível exercer o cultivo de H. musciformis com sucesso.Lack of practice in commercial cultivation of macroalgae in Brazil allied with an increased demand for phycocolloids in the national market is met by importing algae and cropping from natural beds, especially on the Northeastern coast. Seeking to establish small scale cultivation for the use of coastal communities, experimental cultivation was implanted with H. musciformis on Marambaia Island, Rio de Janeiro (43º59'35'' W - 23º04'00'' S. Nine different techniques for fixation of algae to ropes were tested in the experimental mariculture units (EMU. Experiments carried out from spring 2003 to fall 2004 yielded generally negative growth rates while experiments conducted from winter 2004 to winter 2005 yielded positive growth rates. Phytobenthos near the EMU were analyzed to verify the growth of this species in the assemblage and in cultivation. A higher percentage of amphipods and of organic matter was observed in the EMU as well as the presence of carposporophytes during low salinity periods at both sites. This low yield was attributed to environmental factors such as rough seas, adherence of organic matter to the algae, herbivory and EMU damages caused by anthropic activities. Fixing the algae with a clamp was the easiest and cheapest technique. Successful cultivation of H. musciformis can only be achieved through consciousness raising in the coastal community and payment for this activity.

  7. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta

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    Noer Kasanah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported such as bromophycolides and neurymenolides. In summary, red seaweeds are potential sources for antibacterial agents and can serve as lead in synthesis of new natural medicines.

  8. Evaluation of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Brazilian red macroalgae organic extracts

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    Levi P. Machado

    Full Text Available Abstract Alzheimer's disease affects nearly 36.5 million people worldwide, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition is currently considered the main therapeutic strategy against it. Seaweed biodiversity in Brazil represents one of the most important sources of biologically active compounds for applications in phytotherapy. Accordingly, this study aimed to carry out a quantitative and qualitative assessment of Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamouroux, Ochtodes secundiramea (Montagne M.A. Howe, and Pterocladiella capillacea (S.G. Gmelin Santelices & Hommersand (Rhodophyta in order to determine the AChE effects from their extracts. As a matter of fact, the O. secundiramea extract showed 48% acetylcholinesterase inhibition at 400 μg/ml. The chemical composition of the bioactive fraction was determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS; this fraction is solely composed of halogenated monoterpenes, therefore allowing assignment of acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity to them.

  9. Batrachospermum atrum (Rhodophyta – first record in Poland

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    Kowalski Wojciech A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives new data on the occurrence of Batrachospermum atrum (Hudson Harvey, a freshwater Rhodophyta species rare in Poland. It was found growing on stony bottom in a small stream in northwestern Poland; at this site it was associated mainly with Potamogeton nodosus Poir., green algae Cladophora glomerata (L. Kützing and Mougeotia sp. Its occurrence in Poland and some ecological data are discussed, and original photographs of the plant and its habitat are presented.

  10. Effects of nitrate and phosphate availabilities on growth, photosynthesis and pigment and protein contents in colour strains of Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu. J.V. Lamour. (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta

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    Aline P. Martins

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, Hypnea musciformis is the main raw material for carrageenan production and the knowledge of nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism in algae is critical for the success of cultivation because these elements can limit seaweed productivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of nitrate (zero to 100 μM and nitrate plus phosphate (zero to 25 μM availabilities on the growth, the contents of photosynthetic pigments (phycobiliproteins and chlorophyll a and proteins, and the photosynthesis and respiration of the brown (BR and light green (LG strains of H. musciformis. The results revealed metabolic differences between the colour strains of H. musciformis for nitrogen metabolism: upon nitrate addition, the LG strain stored nitrogen mainly as proteins, while the BR strain stored it as proteins and pigments. Moreover, the respiration of the LG strain and the photosynthesis of the BR strain increased with nitrate concentrations, indicating that the BR strain fixed more photosynthetic carbon than the LG strain.

  11. Effects of nitrate and phosphate availabilities on growth, photosynthesis and pigment and protein contents in colour strains of Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu. J.V. Lamour. (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta

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    Aline P. Martins

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, Hypnea musciformis is the main raw material for carrageenan production and the knowledge of nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism in algae is critical for the success of cultivation because these elements can limit seaweed productivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of nitrate (zero to 100 μM and nitrate plus phosphate (zero to 25 μM availabilities on the growth, the contents of photosynthetic pigments (phycobiliproteins and chlorophyll a and proteins, and the photosynthesis and respiration of the brown (BR and light green (LG strains of H. musciformis. The results revealed metabolic differences between the colour strains of H. musciformis for nitrogen metabolism: upon nitrate addition, the LG strain stored nitrogen mainly as proteins, while the BR strain stored it as proteins and pigments. Moreover, the respiration of the LG strain and the photosynthesis of the BR strain increased with nitrate concentrations, indicating that the BR strain fixed more photosynthetic carbon than the LG strain.

  12. Geographic variation in thermal traits in Digenea simplex and Champia parvula (Rhodophyta) in relation to present and glacial temperature regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orfanidis, S; Breeman, AM

    1999-01-01

    Geographic variation in temperature responses (survival and growth) was investigated in two red algae: Digenea simplex (Wulfen) C. Agardh and Champia parvula (C. Agardh) Harvey. D. simplex has a tropical to warm temperate distribution; C. parvula extends from the tropics into the cold temperate

  13. Colonisation of a Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal mixture induces changes in heavy metal and nutrient uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pongrac, Paula [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kump, Peter [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Necemer, Marijan [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Regvar, Marjana [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: marjana.regvar@bf.uni-lj.si

    2006-01-15

    Plants of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen (Brassicaceae) inoculated or not with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal mixture were grown in a highly Cd, Zn and Pb contaminated substrate in order to evaluate the functionality of symbiosis and assess the possible impact of AM colonisation on heavy metal uptake and tolerance. The results suggest AM development in the metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox is favoured at elevated nutrient demands, e.g. during the reproductive period. AM colonisation parameters positively correlated with total soil Cd and Pb. Colonised plants showed significantly improved nutrient and a decreased Cd and Zn uptake as revealed by TRXRF, thus confirming the functionality of the symbiosis. Reduced heavy metal uptake, especially at higher soil metal contents, indicates a changed metal tolerance strategy in colonised T. praecox plants. This is to our knowledge the first report on AM colonisation of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator T. praecox in a greenhouse experiment. - Colonisation of a Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi resulted in improved nutrient and reduced Cd and Zn uptake.

  14. Induction de la métamorphose de la coquille Saint-Jacques Pecten maximus L. par des dérives de la tyrosine extraits de l'algue Delesseria sanguinea Lamouroux ou synthétiques

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    Cochard, Jean-claude; Chevolot, L.; Yvin, J.c.; Chevolot-magueur, A. M.

    1987-01-01

    King scallop Pecten maximus L. larvae reared in stagnant sea water generally show a delayed metamorphosis. These larvae do not seem to look for a specific fixation substrate, but introduced Delesseria sanguinea Lamouroux aqueous extracts bring about a significant rise in the metamorphosis rates and the mortalities according to the concentration of extracts in the water. A series of experiments enabled the identification of the inducing agent of Delesseria sanguinea extracts: jacaranone. This ...

  15. NUCLEAR TRANSFER IN TIER CELLS OF BOSTRYCHIA-RADICANS (RHODOMELACEAE, RHODOPHYTA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GOFF, LJ; WEST, JA; OLSEN, JL

    1992-01-01

    In the male gametophytes of the marine alga Bostrychia radicans (Montagne) Montagne (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta), axial cells and the initial pericentral cells are uninucleate (4C DNA value). Each pericentral cell of axial segment 5 cuts off a uninucleate (2C) tier cell from the upper surface. In

  16. Production and characterization of antimicrobial active substance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linnaeus) Lamouroux; Ulva fasciata Delile and Sargassum vulgare C. Agardh] belonging to Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae, respectively, were collected seasonally in 2007 to 2008 from Abu-Qir bay (Alexandria, Egypt).

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of the apolar extract from the seaweed Galaxaura marginata (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales

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    E. Rozas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The red seaweed Galaxaura marginata (Ellis & Solander Lamouroux, well known by the antibacterial activity of its polar extract and the cytotoxic activity of its oxygenated desmosterol, showed anti-inflammatory action in its apolar fraction. Topical anti-inflammatory activity was observed in samples collected at São Sebastião channel, northern littoral of São Paulo State, Brazil. The apolar extract and its fractions obtained through Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC reduced the topical inflammation produced by croton oil in mouse ear. Such data indicated that the apolar extract from the marine red alga G. marginata displayed anti-inflammatory activity (since 1mg/ear extract reduced 95±0.5% inflammation, which could be the result of the synergic activity of the four fractions present in the apolar extract.

  18. Dereplication and Chemotaxonomical Studies of Marine Algae of the Ochrophyta and Rhodophyta Phyla

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    Robert Brkljača

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dereplication and chemotaxonomic studies of six marine algae of the Ochrophyta and one of the Rhodophyta phyla resulted in the detection of 22 separate compounds. All 16 secondary metabolites, including four new compounds (16–19, could be rapidly dereplicated using HPLC-NMR and HPLC-MS methodologies in conjunction with the MarinLit database. This study highlights the advantages of using NMR data (acquired via HPLC-NMR for database searching and for the overall dereplication of natural products.

  19. Biosorption OF Cu (II) by pretreated marina algae Grateloupia doryophora (Rhodophyta)

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera P., Jilver; Departamento de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Química e lng. Química, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Tapia H., Nelson; Departamento de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Química e lng. Química, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú; Córdova C., César; Facultad de Biología. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú; Yarango R., Alejandro; Departamento de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Química e lng. Química, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú; Torres D., Francisco; Departamento de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Química e lng. Química, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú; Rojas P., Nora; Departamento de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Química e lng. Química, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú; Caja R., Víctor; Departamento de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Química e lng. Química, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú; Galarreta D., Hugo; Departamento de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Química e lng. Química, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    Copper (11) adsorption properties of pre-treated biomass of marina algae Grateloupia doryophora (Rhodophyta) were investigated. The native biomass was treated with 0.2 M CaCl2, solution for 24 h under slow stirring. The solution pH was kept constant at pH = 5.0 using 0.1 M NaOH. The treated biomass was dried in an oven at 40ºC for 24 h. The adsorption capacity of the biomass strongly depends on equilibrium solution pH. At solution pH between 4 and 4,5 were observed the maximum adsorptive capa...

  20. Micropropagation as a tool for sustainable utilization and conservation of populations of Rhodophyta

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    Nair S. Yokoya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation as a tool for sustainable utilization and conservation of populations of Rhodophyta. Micropropagation, or in vitro clonal propagation, allows the production of a large number of individuals within a short period. These micropropagated clones could be used as seedlings for seaweed cultivation, avoiding collection from natural beds. Consequently, there has been an increasing interest in micropropagation as a tool for preservation of populations of marine red algae on the Brazilian coast and for the sustainable production of raw material for commercial exploration. This paper reviews the literature on tissue culture and micropropagation of red algae published during the three last decades. Based on the literature, we can conclude that the regeneration process is complex and diversified in different species of Rhodophyta and that the success of micropropagation depends on this process. Species belonging to the orders Bangiales and Ceramiales showed low potential for regeneration, while Gigartinales species showed the highest potential for regeneration. Micropropagation of commercially important red algae is fundamental for the conservation of natural populations by providing seedlings for cultivation and for germplasm collections, both for the conservation of genetic diversity and for biotechnological applications.

  1. Epiphytic flora on Gelidium corneum (Rhodophyta: Gelidiales in relation to wave exposure and depth

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    Endika Quintano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The canopy-forming macroalga Gelidium corneum (Hudson J.V. Lamouroux plays a major role in the functioning of the subtidal ecosystem of the Cantabrian Sea (northern Spain. Despite its importance, little is known about the factors that may potentially affect the distribution pattern of its epiphytic flora. Here we examine two indirect factors: coastal orientation (N and NW and depth (3 and 7 m, as proxies for wave exposure and light availability, respectively. We test their effects on the total epiphytic load, alpha diversity (species richness, Shannon, Simpson and evenness measures and multivariate structure of the epiphytic flora growing on G. corneum in subtidal waters off the Basque coast. Plocamium cartilagineum, Dictyota dichotoma and Acrosorium ciliolatum were found to be the most common epiphytes. Significant interactive effect of coastal orientation and depth were observed for species composition and abundance of epiphytic flora. Increased wave exposure resulted in a lower epiphyte load and a less diverse community, suggesting that under high hydrodynamic conditions epiphytes were more likely to become dislodged from hosts. However, light availability only had a significant effect on the distribution of epiphytes below a certain threshold of wave action, with the epiphytic load being 30-40% greater on shallow bottoms.

  2. Taxonomic biodiversity of geniculate coralline red algae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) from the Macaronesian region: summary and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Alquicira, Edgar F.; Riosmena-Rodríguez, Rafael; Afonso-Carrillo, Julio; Neto, Ana I.

    2011-06-01

    A catalog and critical review of species and infraspecific taxa of non-fossil geniculate coralline red algae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) previously reported from the Macaronesian region are presented along with an assessment of species diversity in the region. Published records of geniculate coralline algae are included along with comments relating to type material. Within the catalog, taxa are organized alphabetically by genus and within this by final epithet. From the 31 taxa recorded, 4 are based on type collections from Macaronesian localities. The types of most species and infraspecific taxa reported from the region have yet to be re-examined in a modern context, and most Macaronesian records require verification. The biodiversity of Macaronesian geniculate coralline algae may be lower than current information indicates.

  3. Presencia simultánea de las fases tetraspororangial y carposporangial sobre el mismo talo en Polysiphonia scopulorum var. villum (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta Mixed phases tetrasporangial and carposporangial on the same thallus in Polysiphonia scopulorum var. villum (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta

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    Raúl Aguilar-Rosas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describe por primera vez la presencia simultánea de las fases tetrasporangial (tetrasporangios y carposporangial (cistocarpos sobre el mismo talo en Polysiphonia scopulorum W.H. Harvey var. villum (J. Agardh Hollenberg. El material fue recolectado en la zona intermareal rocosa de Playa Saldamando, Baja California, México, durante octubre de 2004.Mixed tetrasporangial (tetrasporangia and carposporangial (cistocarps phases on the same thallus in Polysiphonia scopulorum W.H. Harvey var. villum (J. Agardh Hollenberg (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta are described for the first time. The material was collected on Octuber, 2004 in the intertidal zone in Playa Saldamando, Baja California, Mexico.

  4. Distribución y variación morfológica de Amphiroa beauvoisii (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) en México Distribution and morphological variation of Amphiroa beauvoisii (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Luz Elena Mateo-Cid; Raúl Aguilar-Rosas; A. Catalina Mendoza-González; Luis E. Aguilar-Rosas

    2008-01-01

    Se realizaron muestreos de Amphiroa beauvoisii (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) en diversas localidades de las costas del Pacífico y Caribe mexicano de 1994 a 2007 y se efectuó una extensa revisión bibliográfica de los trabajos en los que se cita Amphiroa beauvoisii. Asimismo, se revisaron los ejemplares depositados en herbarios nacionales y extranjeros, con el propósito de determinar la distribución latitudinal, y la variación morfológica y reproductiva de esta especie. El análisis de la informaci...

  5. DNA barcode assessment of Ceramiales (Rhodophyta) in the intertidal zone of the northwestern Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guoying; Wu, Feifei; Guo, Hao; Xue, Hongfan; Mao, Yunxiang

    2015-05-01

    A total of 142 specimens of Ceramiales (Rhodophyta) were collected each month from October 2011 to November 2012 in the intertidal zone of the northwestern Yellow Sea. These specimens covered 21 species, 14 genera, and four families. Cluster analyses show that the specimens had a high diversity for the three DNA markers, namely, partial large subunit rRNA gene (LSU), universal plastid amplicon (UPA), and partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). No intraspecific divergence was found in our collection for these markers, except for a 1-3 bp divergence in the COI of Ceramium kondoi, Symphyocladia latiuscula, and Neosiphonia japonica. Because short DNA markers were used, the phylogenetic relationships of higher taxonomic levels were hard to evaluate with poor branch support. More than half species of our collection failed to find their matched sequences owing to shortage information of DNA barcodes for macroalgae in GenBank or BOLD (Barcode of Life Data) Systems. Three specimens were presumed as Heterosiphonia crispella by cluster analyses on DNA barcodes assisted by morphological identification, which was the first record in the investigated area, implying that it might be a cryptic or invasive species in the coastal area of northwestern Yellow Sea. In the neighbor-joining trees of all three DNA markers, Heterosiphonia japonica converged with Dasya spp. and was distant from the other Heterosiphonia spp., implying that H. japonica had affinities to the genus Dasya. The LSU and UPA markers amplified and sequenced easier than the COI marker across the Ceramiales species, but the COI had a higher ability to discriminate between species.

  6. Inhibition of photosynthesis in the microalga Chaetoceros curvisetus (Bacillariophyta) by macroalga Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Changpeng; Zhang, Mengcheng; Yang, Yufeng

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the effects of dried macroalga Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) on photosynthesis of the bloom-forming microalga Chaetoceros curvisetus. C. curvisetus was cultured with different amounts of dried G. lemaneiformis under controlled laboratory conditions. We measured the photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate and established the chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (OJIP) curve coupled with its specific parameters. We observed concentration-dependent and time-dependent relationships between dried G. lemaneiformis and inhibition of photosynthesis in C. curvisetus. Co-culture with dried G. lemaneiformis also resulted in a decrease in the light-saturated maximum photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate ( P max) in C. curvisetus, and a decrease in the OJIP curve along with its specific parameters; the maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII ( F v / F m), the amount of active PSII reaction centers per excited cross section at t=0 and t= t FM (RC/CS0 and RC/CSm, respectively), the absorption flux per excited cross section at t =0 (ABS/ CS0), and the efficiency with which a trapped exciton moves an electron into the electron transport chain ( ψ 0). The dark respiration rate ( R d) increased in C. curvisetus co-cultured with dried G. lemaneiformis. The JIP-test and the oxygen evolution results indicated that dried G. lemaneiformis decreased the number of active reaction centers, blocked the electron transport chain, and damaged the oxygen-evolving complex of C. curvisetus. This result indicated that dried fragments of G. lemaneiformis could effectively inhibit photosynthesis of C. curvisetus, and thus, could serve as a functional product to control and mitigate C. curvisetus blooms.

  7. Gracilaria, Subgenus Textoriella (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta in the Gulf of Mexico and the Mexican Caribbean Gracilaria, subgénero Textoriella (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta en el golfo de México y el Caribe mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt M. Dreckmann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Four species of Gracilaria (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta with textorii-type spermatangial conceptacles (subgenus Textoriella Yamamoto are recorded for the Gulf of Mexico and the Mexican Caribbean: Gracilaria blodgettii, G. cervicornis, G. mammillaris, and G. tikvahiae. The general distribution of the subgenus for Central America, both Pacific and Atlantic, displays a disjunct pattern explainable based on the geologic vicariant events that interrupted the connection between Pacific and Atlantic at the Isthmuses of Panama (closed 3.1-2.8 million years ago, and Tehuantepec (southern Mexico, closed 4-3.5 million years ago. Gracilaria cuneata/G. crispata, and G. mammillaris (G. hayi/G. veleroae are 2 pairs of sibling species, or sister taxa, that diverged as a result of the final emergence of the Isthmus, and of the same age as the Central American Isthmus itself.Se registran 4 especies de Gracilaria (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta con conceptáculos espematangiales tipo textorii- (subgénero Textoriella Yamamoto para el golfo de México y Caribe mexicano: Gracilaria blodgettii, G. cervicornis, G. mammillaris y G. tikvahiae. La distribución general del subgénero para Atlántico y Pacífico de Centroamérica despliega un patrón disyunto explicable por los eventos geológicos vicariantes que interrumpieron la conexión entre Pacífico y Atlántico en los istmos de Panamá (cerrado hace aprox. 3.1-2.8 millones de años y Tehuantepec (sur de México, cerrado hace aprox. 4-3.5 millones de años. Gracilaria cuneata/G. crispata y G. mammillaris (= G. hayi/ G. veleroae corresponden a 2 pares de especies hermanas que divergieron como resultado de la emersión del istmo, y con aproximadamente la misma edad del istmo centroamericano.

  8. The regulation of coralline algal physiology, an in situ study of Corallina officinalis (Corallinales, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Christopher James; Perkins, Rupert; Voller, Matthew; Yallop, Marian Louise; Brodie, Juliet

    2017-10-01

    Calcified macroalgae are critical components of marine ecosystems worldwide, but face considerable threat both from climate change (increasing water temperatures) and ocean acidification (decreasing ocean pH and carbonate saturation). It is thus fundamental to constrain the relationships between key abiotic stressors and the physiological processes that govern coralline algal growth and survival. Here we characterize the complex relationships between the abiotic environment of rock pool habitats and the physiology of the geniculate red coralline alga, Corallina officinalis (Corallinales, Rhodophyta). Paired assessment of irradiance, water temperature and carbonate chemistry, with C. officinalis net production (NP), respiration (R) and net calcification (NG) was performed in a south-western UK field site, at multiple temporal scales (seasonal, diurnal and tidal). Strong seasonality was observed in NP and night-time R, with a Pmax of 22.35 µmol DIC (g DW)-1 h-1, Ek of 300 µmol photons m-2 s-1 and R of 3.29 µmol DIC (g DW)-1 h-1 determined across the complete annual cycle. NP showed a significant exponential relationship with irradiance (R2 = 0.67), although was temperature dependent given ambient irradiance > Ek for the majority of the annual cycle. Over tidal emersion periods, dynamics in NP highlighted the ability of C. officinalis to acquire inorganic carbon despite significant fluctuations in carbonate chemistry. Across all data, NG was highly predictable (R2 = 0.80) by irradiance, water temperature and carbonate chemistry, providing a NGmax of 3.94 µmol CaCO3 (g DW)-1 h-1 and Ek of 113 µmol photons m-2 s-1. Light NG showed strong seasonality and significant coupling to NP (R2 = 0.65) as opposed to rock pool water carbonate saturation. In contrast, the direction of dark NG (dissolution vs. precipitation) was strongly related to carbonate saturation, mimicking abiotic precipitation dynamics. Data demonstrated that C. officinalis is adapted to both long

  9. Thermal pollution and settlement of new tropical alien species: The case of Grateloupia yinggehaiensis (Rhodophyta) in the Venice Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M. A.; Sfriso, A.; Moro, I.

    2014-06-01

    The Venice Lagoon has become increasingly affected by the introduction of allochthonous macroalgae mainly coming from the Indo-Pacific area. In consequence to the recent climate changes and temperature increase, such species could simply find numerous habitats suitable for their growth. One local process that contributes to water temperature changes is thermal pollution. In this study we used the DNA barcoding method to identify a new alien macroalgal species, Grateloupia yinggehaiensis Wang et Luan (Rhodophyta), found near the industrial area of Porto Marghera (Venice, Italy) hosting the Fusina thermoelectric power plant. The microclimate of this area has enabled the spread of this species native of the tropical area of the Hainan Province (China) and probably introduced in the Mediterranean Sea via shellfish transfers.

  10. Concentration of Inorganic Elements Content in Benthic Seaweeds of Fernando de Noronha Archipelago by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SRTXRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Leandro De Santis; Lopes, Rosana Peporine; Ulbrich, Mabel Norma Costas; Guaratini, Thais; Colepicolo, Pio; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Garla, Ricardo Clapis; Oliveira Filho, Eurico Cabral; Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Zucchi, Orghêda Luiza Araújo Domingues

    2012-01-01

    SRTXRF was used to determine As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn in eleven seaweed species commonly found in Fernando de Noronha: Caulerpa verticillata (J. Agardh) (Chlorophyta), Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile), Dictyurus occidentalis (J. Agardh), Galaxaura rugosa (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux, G. obtusata (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux, G. marginata (J. Ellis & Solander) J. V. Lamouroux (Rhodophyta), Dictyota cervicornis (Kützing), Dictyopteris justii (J. V. Lamouroux), Dictyopteris plagiogramma (Montagne) Vickers, Padina gymnospora (Kützing) Sonder, and a Sargassum sp. (Phaeophyta). Data obtained were compared to those from the analysis of other parts of the world seaweeds using different analytical techniques and were found to be in general agreement in terms of major and minor elemental components. Results provide baseline information about the absorption and accumulation of these elements by macroalgae in the area. PMID:22505917

  11. Distribución y variación morfológica de Amphiroa beauvoisii (Corallinales, Rhodophyta en México Distribution and morphological variation of Amphiroa beauvoisii (Corallinales, Rhodophyta in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Elena Mateo-Cid

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron muestreos de Amphiroa beauvoisii (Corallinales, Rhodophyta en diversas localidades de las costas del Pacífico y Caribe mexicano de 1994 a 2007 y se efectuó una extensa revisión bibliográfica de los trabajos en los que se cita Amphiroa beauvoisii. Asimismo, se revisaron los ejemplares depositados en herbarios nacionales y extranjeros, con el propósito de determinar la distribución latitudinal, y la variación morfológica y reproductiva de esta especie. El análisis de la información nos indica que se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en la costa del Pacífico desde islas Coronados, Baja California hasta La Ventosa, Oaxaca, siendo muy frecuente en el golfo de California y en los estados de Jalisco, Guerrero y Oaxaca, mientras que en la costa atlántica su distribución se encuentra restringida a los arrecifes coralinos de Yucatán y Quintana Roo. Se describen en forma detallada los caracteres morfo-anatómicos y reproductivos. En general se observó que los talos tetrasporangiales y bisporangiales son frecuentes, de mayor talla y más ramificados que las plantas gametangiales. El material examinado mostró que en la costa del Pacifico se encuentran los talos tetrasporangiales, bisporangiales y gametangiales, mientras que en la costa del Caribe mexicano sólo se presentan poblaciones tetrasporangiales. Se registra por primera vez la fase gametofitica masculina y femenina de A. beauvoisii en poblaciones mexicanas.Several samples of Amphiroa beauvoisii (Corallinales, Rhodophyta were collected in different localities along the Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Mexican from 1994 to 2007. An extensive review of Amphiroa beauvoisii recorded from Mexico was carried out. Specimens of different herbaria were examined to determine its geographic distribution, as well as morphological and reproductive data for this taxon. Analysis of this information showed that this species is distributed along the Pacific coast from Islas Coronados, Baja

  12. Variations in morphology and PSII photosynthetic capabilities during the early development of tetraspores of Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiujun; Wang, Guangce; Pan, Guanghua; Gao, Shan; Xu, Pu; Zhu, Jianyi

    2010-04-28

    Red algae are primitive photosynthetic eukaryotes, whose spores are ideal subjects for studies of photosynthesis and development. Although the development of red alga spores has received considerable research attention, few studies have focused on the detailed morphological and photosynthetic changes that occur during the early development of tetraspores of Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Herein, we documented these changes in this species of red algae. In the tetraspores, we observed two types of division, cruciate and zonate, and both could develop into multicellular bodies (disks). During the first 84 hours, tetraspores divided several times, but the diameter of the disks changed very little; thereafter, the diameter increased significantly. Scanning electron microscopy observations and analysis of histological sections revealed that the natural shape of the disk remains tapered over time, and the erect frond grows from the central protrusion of the disk. Cultivation of tissue from excised disks demonstrated that the central protrusion of the disk is essential for initiation of the erect frond. Photosynthetic (i.e., PSII) activities were measured using chlorophyll fluorescence analysis. The results indicated that freshly released tetraspores retained limited PSII photosynthetic capabilities; when the tetraspores attached to a substrate, those capabilities increased significantly. In the disk, the PSII activity of both marginal and central cells was similar, although some degree of morphological polarity was present; the PSII photosynthetic capabilities in young germling exhibited an apico-basal gradient. Attachment of tetraspores to a substrate significantly enhanced their PSII photosynthetic capabilities, and triggered further development. The central protrusion of the disk is the growth point, may have transfer of nutritive material with the marginal cells. Within the young germling, the hetero-distribution of PSII

  13. Variations in morphology and PSII photosynthetic capabilities during the early development of tetraspores of Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi Papenfuss (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta

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    Gao Shan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Red algae are primitive photosynthetic eukaryotes, whose spores are ideal subjects for studies of photosynthesis and development. Although the development of red alga spores has received considerable research attention, few studies have focused on the detailed morphological and photosynthetic changes that occur during the early development of tetraspores of Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi Papenfuss (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta. Herein, we documented these changes in this species of red algae. Results In the tetraspores, we observed two types of division, cruciate and zonate, and both could develop into multicellular bodies (disks. During the first 84 hours, tetraspores divided several times, but the diameter of the disks changed very little; thereafter, the diameter increased significantly. Scanning electron microscopy observations and analysis of histological sections revealed that the natural shape of the disk remains tapered over time, and the erect frond grows from the central protrusion of the disk. Cultivation of tissue from excised disks demonstrated that the central protrusion of the disk is essential for initiation of the erect frond. Photosynthetic (i.e., PSII activities were measured using chlorophyll fluorescence analysis. The results indicated that freshly released tetraspores retained limited PSII photosynthetic capabilities; when the tetraspores attached to a substrate, those capabilities increased significantly. In the disk, the PSII activity of both marginal and central cells was similar, although some degree of morphological polarity was present; the PSII photosynthetic capabilities in young germling exhibited an apico-basal gradient. Conclusions Attachment of tetraspores to a substrate significantly enhanced their PSII photosynthetic capabilities, and triggered further development. The central protrusion of the disk is the growth point, may have transfer of nutritive material with the marginal cells. Within

  14. The regulation of coralline algal physiology, an in situ study of Corallina officinalis (Corallinales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Williamson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcified macroalgae are critical components of marine ecosystems worldwide, but face considerable threat both from climate change (increasing water temperatures and ocean acidification (decreasing ocean pH and carbonate saturation. It is thus fundamental to constrain the relationships between key abiotic stressors and the physiological processes that govern coralline algal growth and survival. Here we characterize the complex relationships between the abiotic environment of rock pool habitats and the physiology of the geniculate red coralline alga, Corallina officinalis (Corallinales, Rhodophyta. Paired assessment of irradiance, water temperature and carbonate chemistry, with C. officinalis net production (NP, respiration (R and net calcification (NG was performed in a south-western UK field site, at multiple temporal scales (seasonal, diurnal and tidal. Strong seasonality was observed in NP and night-time R, with a Pmax of 22.35 µmol DIC (g DW−1 h−1, Ek of 300 µmol photons m−2 s−1 and R of 3.29 µmol DIC (g DW−1 h−1 determined across the complete annual cycle. NP showed a significant exponential relationship with irradiance (R2 = 0.67, although was temperature dependent given ambient irradiance  > Ek for the majority of the annual cycle. Over tidal emersion periods, dynamics in NP highlighted the ability of C. officinalis to acquire inorganic carbon despite significant fluctuations in carbonate chemistry. Across all data, NG was highly predictable (R2 = 0.80 by irradiance, water temperature and carbonate chemistry, providing a NGmax of 3.94 µmol CaCO3 (g DW−1 h−1 and Ek of 113 µmol photons m−2 s−1. Light NG showed strong seasonality and significant coupling to NP (R2 = 0.65 as opposed to rock pool water carbonate saturation. In contrast, the direction of dark NG (dissolution vs. precipitation was strongly related to carbonate saturation, mimicking

  15. Morfología y distribución de Porphyra hollenbergii (Bangiaceae, Rhodophyta en la costa del Pacífico de México Morphology and distribution of Porphyra hollenbergii (Bangiaceae, Rhodophyta in the Pacific coast of México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Aguilar-Rosas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Se registra la presencia y estacionalidad de Porphyra hollenbergii (Bangiaceae, Rhodophyta para la costa del Pacífico de México, con base en material recolectado durante el periodo de enero a mayo del 2003 y un análisis de ejemplares depositados en herbarios nacionales y extranjeros. Se describen en forma detallada los caracteres morfológicos y reproductores de los talos, así como su hábitat y distribución geográfica en el área de estudio. La estacionalidad de la fase macroscópica de P. hollenbergii comprende de febrero a mayo (invierno-primavera.Occurrence and seasonality of Porphyra hollenbergii (Bangiaceae, Rhodophyta is reported for the Pacific coast of Mexico, based on sampling conducted in 2003 and those deposited in national and foreign herbarium. We describe details of morphology and reproductive characters of the thallus, as well as its habitat and geographic distribution. We determined that P. hollenbergii is a seasonal species in its macroscopic phase from February to May (winter - spring.

  16. (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    18 Kisakasaka ' Kisakasaka,Unguja X X X. 20 Komonda island Fumba, South Unguja X X X. 22 k Nunge Bagamoyo, Coast X X. 24 Mlingotini Bagamoyo, Coast X. 26 Juani isaland Mafia island, Coast 4 7 X X. Msasani~Masaki. 42 Mkungu Mtwara Town Council X X X. 44 Msanga Mkuu Mikindani Bay, Mtwara X X X X ...

  17. var. puiggarianum (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta

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    María Cecilia Gauna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionó Batrachospermum atrum var. puiggarianum por primera vez en la provincia de Buenos Aires. La identificación de las muestras se basó en el análisis de la morfología microscópica y en el número cromosómico de cada una de las generaciones de su ciclo de vida bajo cultivo. Los talos se estudiaron con microscopio óptico, y la cariología, por medio de la técnica de carmín acético. El ciclo de vida presentó tres generaciones: una gametofítica haploide, una carposporófitica diploide que originó la última fase Chantransia diploide. Los talos gametófitos estuvieron formados por verticilos separados por zonas internodales, cada uno de ellos constituidos por ramas primarias densamente comprimidas. Entre éstas se observaron ramas portadoras de espermatangios y de carpogonios. Las zonas internodales estuvieron constituidas por células corticales y axiales. Los carposporófitos ovoideos estuvieron formados por filamentos gonimoblásticos portadores de carposporangios terminales. El estado Chantransia se caracterizó por presentar filamentos cortos con pocas células. El material estudiado presentó un número haploide n = 4 y diploide 2n = 8.

  18. Grateloupia ramosa Wang & Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta), a new species from China based on morphological evidence and comparative rbcL sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Cuicui; Liu, Miao; Guo, Shaoru; Zhao, Dan; Luan, Rixiao; Wang, Hongwei

    2016-03-01

    Grateloupia ramosa Wang & Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta) is newly described from Hainan Province, southern China. The organism has the following morphological features: (1) purplish red, cartilaginous and lubricous thalli 5-10 cm in height; (2) compressed percurrent axes bearing abundant branches with opposite arrangement; (3) claw-like apices on top, constricted to 2-4 cm at the base; (4) cortex consisting of 3-6 layers of elliptical or anomalous cells and a medulla covered by compact medullary filaments; (5) reproductive structures distributed throughout the thallus, especially centralized at the bottom of the end portion of the branches; and (6) 4-celled Carpogonial branches and 3-celled auxiliary-cell branches, both of the Grateloupia-type. The morphological diff erences were supported by molecular phylogenetics based on ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase ( rbcL) gene sequence analysis. There was only a 1 bp divergence between specimens collected from Wenchang and Lingshui of Hainan province. The new species was embedded in the large Grateloupia clade of the Halymeniaceae. The pairwise distances between G. ramosa and other species within Grateloupia ranged from 26 to 105 bp, within pairwise distances of 13-111 bp between species of the large genus Grateloupia in Halymeniaceae. Thus, we propose this new species as G. ramosa Wang & Luan sp. nov.

  19. Spreading and autoecology of the invasive species Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) in the lagoons of the north-western Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfriso, A.; Wolf, M. A.; Maistro, S.; Sciuto, K.; Moro, I.

    2012-12-01

    Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss, an invasive Rhodophyta recently recorded in the Po Delta lagoons (May 2008), was also found in the Venice lagoon in March 2009 and successively in Pialassa della Baiona (Emilia-Romagna Region) in May 2009. The species has colonized the eutrophic and confined areas of Venice by pleustophytic tangled populations (5-15 kg fwt m-2), replacing the allochthonous species whereas it is absent in the areas characterized by low nutrient availability and high water exchange. In contrast, in the Po Delta lagoons and in Pialassa della Baiona it is present everywhere, also with high water renewal, because of the eutrophication caused by the Po river and the industrial area of Ravenna. This study presents the autoecology and distribution of G. vermiculophylla in the above environments, according to their different eutrophication status, showing its relationship with physico-chemical parameters and nutrient concentrations in water column, pore-water, surface sediments and particulate matter collected by traps in a station of the Venice lagoon (Teneri) sampled monthly during one year. Furthermore, we give new information on its morphology and the high dimorphism between female and male gametophytes and tetrasporophytes.

  20. Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta, a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia

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    Brigitte Gavio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350 000km². However, recent surveys have shown a diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta, Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5mm in length, its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae, its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions.

  1. Growth and accumulation of carotenoids and nitrogen compounds in Gracilaria domingensis (Kütz. Sonder ex Dickie (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta cultured under different irradiance and nutrient levels

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    Fernanda Ramlov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the interaction of irradiance and nutrient levels on growth and contents of photosynthetic pigments, carotenoids and proteins in Gracilaria domingensis (Kütz. Sonder ex Dickie (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta were investigated experimentally. Nutrient availability provided by dilutions of the nutrient solution of von Stosch (25 and 50%, which corresponded to nitrate concentrations of 125 and 250 μmol, respectively and two photon flux densities [low PFD (50±5 and high PFD (100±5 μmol photons.m-2.s-1] were tested. Growth rates of G. domingensis were stimulated by high PFD. The interaction between high nutrient availability (50% VSES and high PFD stimulated the accumulation of total soluble protein. Phycobiliprotein concentrations (phycoerythrin, phycocyanin, and allophycocyanin and carotenoid contents were influenced by irradiance levels. Phycobiliprotein concentrations were higher at low PFD and high irradiances stimulated carotenoid accumulation. These results reflect the function of these pigments in photoprotection and the acclimation of G. domingensis to changes in irradiance levels. Our results indicate that light is a limiting factor for G. domingensis growth, that variations in phycobiliprotein contents under different irradiance levels are related to photoacclimation process, and that higher carotenoid contents at high irradiances are due to a photoprotection mechanism.

  2. The genus Callophyllis (Kallymeniaceae, Rhodophyta from the central-south Chilean coast (33° to 41° S, with the description of two new species El género Callophyllis (Kallymeniaceae, Rhodophyta de la costa central y sur de Chile (33° a 41° S, con la descripción de dos nuevas especies

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    NATALIA ARAKAKI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic status of the species in the genus Callophyllis Kützing (Kallymeniaceae, Rhodophyta from central-south Chile (33° to 41° S is examined on the basis of morphological and molecular evidence. Of the four species originally cited for central Chile, C. variegata, C. pinnata, C. atrosanguinea and C. laciniata, only the presence of C. variegata has been confirmed in this study. C. pinnata reported from Chile is found to be different from C. pinnata described from California, and it is here newly described as C. concepcionensis sp. nov. C. atrosanguinea from southern Chile (including C. linguata from the Antarctic Peninsula is distinct from the species called C. atrosanguinea from central-south Chile, the latter which is here described as C. macrostiolata sp. nov. C. variegata, C. concepcionensis and C. macrostiolata are distinguished from one another by their external habit, the nature and distribution of their cystocarps, and the female reproductive morphology. Comparative rbcL sequence analysis corroborates the distinction of these taxa from central-south Chile and their relationships to other species worldwide.Se examina el estatus taxonómico de las especies del género Callophyllis Kützing (Kallymeniaceae, Rhodophyta de la costa centro-sur de Chile (33° a 41° S en base a caracteres morfológicos y moleculares. De las cuatro especies citadas para Chile central, C. variegata, C. pinnata, C. atrosanguinea y C. laciniata, solo la presencia de C. variegata ha sido confirmada en este estudio. C. pinnata de Chile muestra diferencias con C. pinnata descrita para California y con el resto de las especies de Callophyllis hasta ahora conocidas, constituyendo así una nueva especie, C. concepcionensis sp. nov. C. atrosanguinea del sur de Chile (incluyendo C. linguata de la Península Antártica muestra diferencias con la especie llamada C. atrosanguinea de la costa centro-sur de Chile, esta última especie es descrita como C. macrostiolata

  3. Production of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids from Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Rhodophyta) Cultured Through One Year in an Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló-Villalobos, Marta; Figueroa, Félix L; Korbee, Nathalie; Álvarez-Gómez, Félix; Abreu, Maria H

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluates the production of biomass and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) throughout the year in Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Rhodophyta) collected in Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). The algae were grown in outdoor tanks in seawater with the addition of fishpond effluents under two different water flows (100 and 200 L h(-1)) in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) system (tanks 1200 L; 1.5 m(2)) and different algal densities (3, 5, and 7 kg m(-2)). MAA content in IMTA seaweeds was significantly affected by the interaction of time and stocking density, but not by the water flow. The highest MAA content was observed in April (about 3.13 mg g(-1) DW) followed by May (1.79 mg g(-1) DW). Seaweed biomass productivity was higher in May (372.06 g DW m(-2) week(-1)) than in April (353.40 g DW m(-2) week(-1)). Four MAAs were identified by HPLC and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in G. vermiculophylla: Porphyra-334, Shinorine, Palythine and Asterina-330. The highest levels of Porphyra-334 and Shinorine were reached from November to January and the Palythine + Asterina-330 from April to August. Taking into account the average biomass and MAA production of G. vermiculophylla growing in this IMTA system (8.56 g of MAA in 18 m(2) culture along 8 months; 35.5% produced in April), a total amount of 71.33 g MAA year(-1) could be produced in this system by scaling up to 100 m(2). MAAs could be further used as photoprotector and antioxidant compounds in cosmetic products.

  4. Group I introns and associated homing endonuclease genes reveals a clinal structure for Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta along the Eastern coast of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matioli Sergio R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group I introns are found in the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA of some species of the genus Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta. Size polymorphisms in group I introns has been interpreted as the result of the degeneration of homing endonuclease genes (HEG inserted in peripheral loops of intron paired elements. In this study, intron size polymorphisms were characterized for different Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia (PSA populations on the Southern Brazilian coast, and were used to infer genetic relationships and genetic structure of these PSA populations, in addition to cox2-3 and rbcL-S regions. Introns of different sizes were tested qualitatively for in vitro self-splicing. Results Five intron size polymorphisms within 17 haplotypes were obtained from 80 individuals representing eight localities along the distribution of PSA in the Eastern coast of South America. In order to infer genetic structure and genetic relationships of PSA, these polymorphisms and haplotypes were used as markers for pairwise Fst analyses, Mantel's test and median joining network. The five cox2-3 haplotypes and the unique rbcL-S haplotype were used as markers for summary statistics, neutrality tests Tajima's D and Fu's Fs and for median joining network analyses. An event of demographic expansion from a population with low effective number, followed by a pattern of isolation by distance was obtained for PSA populations with the three analyses. In vitro experiments have shown that introns of different lengths were able to self-splice from pre-RNA transcripts. Conclusion The findings indicated that degenerated HEGs are reminiscent of the presence of a full-length and functional HEG, once fixed for PSA populations. The cline of HEG degeneration determined the pattern of isolation by distance. Analyses with the other markers indicated an event of demographic expansion from a population with low effective number. The different degrees of

  5. Gracilaria chilensis(Gracilariales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano D. Garcia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gracilaria chilensis es un alga roja agarófita perteneciente a la clase Florideophyceae. En este estudio se describe la formación de pelos en talos mantenidos en cultivo en agua de mar enriquecida, bajo condiciones controladas de luz y temperatura. La inducción de los pelos fue realizada colocando porciones de talos en un medio de cultivo carente de compuestos nitrogenados. Se emplearon técnicas de microscopía óptica y electrónica de transmisión y barrido. Los pelos se desarrollan a partir de células corticales ovoides grandes. Estas células formadoras de pelos (CFPs son multinucleadas, poseen pequeños plástidos y una abundante red de retículo endoplasmático de disposición apical. La formación de los pelos comienza con el desarrollo de una protuberancia, inicialmente cubierta por una pared multilaminar, la cual se rompe junto con la pared del talo, con la consecuente elongación de la protuberancia. El pelo queda establecido cuando se produce una citocinesis en la base de la protuberancia, formándose una conexión citoplasmática obliterada o “pit plug” asimétrica entre la base del pelo y la CFP. Los pelos son unicelulares, poseen una vacuola y numerosos núcleos. Tienen un crecimiento activo dejando, al caerse, una cicatriz de forma concéntrica en la pared. Se compara este proceso con el descrito en otras especies de la clase. En medios de cultivo carentes de nitrógeno, el crecimiento del talo de G. chilensis fue menor, aumentando el número de pelos.

  6. Algae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    900 Soto Paulo, SP. Brazil;. 3Institate of Marine Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam, P. 0. Box 668, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Key words: Gracilaria, Gracilariales, taxonomy, distribution,Tanzania. Abstract: This paper reviews the taxonomical ...

  7. Enzymatic regulation of photosynthetic and light-independent carbon fixation in Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta and Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta Regulación enzimática de la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en obscuridad por Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta e Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO CABELLO-PASINI

    2001-06-01

    carboxikinasa (PEPCK y fosfoenolpiruvato carboxilasa (PEPC en la Phaeophyta Laminaria setchellii, la Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca y la Rhodophyta Iridaea cordata. Los niveles de clorofila-a no variaron en U. lactuca e I. cordata. Sin embargo, los niveles de pigmentos fueron significativamente menores en la región meristemática de L. setchellii probablemente debido a una falta de diferenciación de los cloroplastos de esta región. De una manera similar, la fotosíntesis neta no varió en el talo de U. lactuca e I. cordata, mientras que se incrementó desde el estipe y el meristemo hacia la lámina de L. setchellii. En contraste con la fotosíntesis, la fijación de carbono en oscuridad fue significantemente mayor en la zona meristemática de L. setchellii sugiriendo un mecanismo para la compensación de la incorporación de carbono en tejido fotosintéticamente limitado. La actividad enzimática de RUBISCO y PEPCK se comportó de una manera similar a los procesos carboxilantes in vivo, indicando que la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en oscuridad son reguladas por la actividad de las enzimas carboxilantes a lo largo del talo de L. setchellii

  8. Oxidative stress tolerance in intertidal red seaweed Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) in relation to environmental components

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Maharana, D.; Das, P.B.; Verlecar, X.N.; Pise, N.M.; Gauns, M.

    integrity. This could be in the form of enzymatic antioxidants such as SOD, CAT and GPX. SOD dismutates reactive O2●– to H2O2 which is reduced to water and molecular oxygen by CAT. Similarly, GPX catalyzes the reduction of H2O2 to water and organic...). The homogenate was centrifuged at 10,000 ×g for 15 min at 4oC, and the supernatants were used for enzyme assays. Catalase (CAT) The activity of CAT was measured by slightly modifying the method of Aebi (1974). The assay mixture contained 2.9 mL of 15 mM H2O2...

  9. Oxidative stress tolerance in intertidal red seaweed Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) in relation to environmental components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharana, Dusmant; Das, Priya Brata; Verlecar, Xivanand N; Pise, Navnath M; Gauns, Manguesh

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress parameters in relation to temperature and other factors have been analysed in Hypnea musciformis, the red seaweed from Anjuna beach, Goa, with an aim to understand its susceptibility to the changing seasons. The results indicate that elevated temperature, sunshine and dessication during peak summer in May enhanced the activity of lipid peroxide, hydrogen peroxide and antioxidants such as catalase, glutathione and ascorbic acid. Statistical tests using multivariate analysis of variance and correlation analysis showed that oxidative stress and antioxidants maintain significant relation with temperature, salinity, sunshine and pH at an individual or interactive level. The dissolved nitrates, phosphates and biological oxygen demand in ambient waters and the trace metals in seaweeds maintained sufficiently low values to provide any indication that could exert contaminant oxidative stress responses. The present field studies suggest that elevated antioxidant content in H. musciformis offer sufficient relief to sustain against harsh environmental stresses for its colonization in the rocky intertidal zone.

  10. Antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory activity of Carrageenan from Hypnea musciformis Wulfen

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Solimabi; Das, B.

    Pharmacological studies on K-carrageenan extracted from Hypnea musciformis have shown that it antagonizes histamine-induced spasm in guineapig ielum and possesses anti-inflammatory activity against rat hind paw oedema induced by commercial...

  11. A revision of the genus Muricea Lamouroux, 1821 (Anthozoa, Octocorallia) in the eastern Pacific. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breedy, Odalisca; Guzman, Hector M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The species of the genus Muricea were mainly described from 1846 to 1870. After that very few contributions were published. Although the highest richness of Muricea species is in the eastern Pacific shallow waters, a comprehensive systematic study of the genus does not exist. Recently we started a taxonomic review of the genus in order to validate the status of four species previously included in the genus Eumuricea. Herein we present the second part of the Muricea revision dealing with the species-group characterised by shelf-like calyces instead of tubular-like calyces (the Muricea squarrosa-group). Original type material was morphologically analysed and illustrated using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Comparative character tables are provided for the genus. The taxonomic status of the species was analysed and established by designating lectotypes, alternatively by recognising a holotype by monotypy. We conclude that the genus Muricea comprises 20 valid species, including the previous four in the Muricea squarrosa-group. We propose 10 lectotypes, a new combination and three more species groups for the genus based on morphology: the Muricea fruticosa-group, Muricea plantaginea-group and Muricea austera-group. PMID:27199581

  12. A taxonomic revision of Indonesian Gelidiales (Rhodophyta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatta, A.M.; Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    In this study 12 taxa are treated, belonging to four different genera of Gelidiales (i.e. Gelidiella, Gelidium, Pterocladia, and Porphyroglossum) as well as one species of Wurdemannia, a genus of unknown affinity. One new species, Gelidium amboniense, and a new forma, Gelidium latifolium forma

  13. Recent radiation of the Palmariaceae (rhodophyta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindstrom, S.C; Olsen, J.L.; Stam, W.T.

    Molecular phylogenetic studies on the evolution of the red algae indicate that this ancient division has many lineages that have recently undergone radiations. One such example is the cold-temperate family Palmariaceae. In this study, sequences from the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer

  14. Fate of Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulfen) J. Agardh and its spores in darkness: Implications for ballast water management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kolwalkar, J.P.; Sawant, S.S.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    area of Vagator, Goa, India and brought to the laboratory in a plastic container in seawater. It was cleaned thoroughly to remove any loosely held material including organisms and used immediately for experimental purpose. 3 2.1.Effect of darkness...

  15. Effect of temperature, salinity and biofilm on the zoospores settlement of Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulfen) J.Agardh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Imchen, T.

    – 397. 19 Michael T & Smith C M, Lectins probe molecular films in biofouling: Characterization of early films on non-living and living surfaces. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser., 119 (1995) 229-236. 20 Dillon P S, Maki J S, Mitchell R, Adhesion of Enteromorpha...

  16. Comparison of extraction and transesterification methods on the determination of the fatty acid contents of three Brazilian seaweed species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline P. Martins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are photosynthetic organisms important to their ecosystem and constitute a source of compounds with several different applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and biotechnology industries, such as triacylglycerols, which can be converted to fatty acid methyl esters that make up biodiesel, an alternative source of fuel applied in economic important areas. This study evaluates the fatty acid profiles and concentrations of three Brazilian seaweed species, Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamouroux (Rhodophya, Sargassum cymosum C. Agardh (Heterokontophyta, and Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophyta, comparing three extraction methods (Bligh & Dyer - B&D; AOAC Official Methods - AOM; and extraction with methanol and ultrasound - EMU and two transesterification methods (7% BF3 in methanol - BF3; and 5% HCl in methanol - HCl. The fatty acid contents of the three species of seaweeds were significantly different when extracted and transesterified by the different methods. Moreover, the best method for one species was not the same for the other species. The best extraction and transesterification methods for H. musciformis, S. cymosum and U. lactuca were, respectively, AOM-HCl, B&D-BF3 and B&D-BF3/B&D-HCl. These results point to a matrix effect and the method used for the analysis of the fatty acid content of different organisms should be selected carefully.

  17. Comparison of extraction and transesterification methods on the determination of the fatty acid contents of three Brazilian seaweed species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline P. Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are photosynthetic organisms important to their ecosystem and constitute a source of compounds with several different applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and biotechnology industries, such as triacylglycerols, which can be converted to fatty acid methyl esters that make up biodiesel, an alternative source of fuel applied in economic important areas. This study evaluates the fatty acid profiles and concentrations of three Brazilian seaweed species, Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamouroux (Rhodophya, Sargassum cymosum C. Agardh (Heterokontophyta, and Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophyta, comparing three extraction methods (Bligh & Dyer - B&D; AOAC Official Methods - AOM; and extraction with methanol and ultrasound - EMU and two transesterification methods (7% BF3 in methanol - BF3; and 5% HCl in methanol - HCl. The fatty acid contents of the three species of seaweeds were significantly different when extracted and transesterified by the different methods. Moreover, the best method for one species was not the same for the other species. The best extraction and transesterification methods for H. musciformis, S. cymosum and U. lactuca were, respectively, AOM-HCl, B&D-BF3 and B&D-BF3/B&D-HCl. These results point to a matrix effect and the method used for the analysis of the fatty acid content of different organisms should be selected carefully.

  18. Dewatering treatments to increase dry matter content of the brown seaweed, kelp (Laminaria digitata ((Hudson) JV Lamouroux))

    OpenAIRE

    Joe A Gallagher; Lesley B Turner; Adams, Jessica M.M.; Dyer, Philip W.; Theodorou, Michael K.

    2017-01-01

    Macroalgal water content is an on-going problem for the use of readily accessible seaweeds in sustainable\\ud biorefining,including fuel production. Silage is a reduced\\ud -water, compactable, easily stored,transportable material. Ensiling could establish a non-seasonal supply of preserved algal biomass,but requires high initial dry matter content to mitigate environmental pollution risks from effluent. \\ud This study investigated potential dewatering methods for kelp harvested throughout the ...

  19. Dewatering treatments to increase dry matter content of the brown seaweed, kelp (Laminaria digitata ((Hudson) JV Lamouroux)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Joe A; Turner, Lesley B; Adams, Jessica M M; Dyer, Philip W; Theodorou, Michael K

    2017-01-01

    Macroalgal water content is an on-going problem for the use of readily accessible seaweeds in sustainable biorefining, including fuel production. Silage is a reduced-water, compactable, easily stored, transportable material. Ensiling could establish a non-seasonal supply of preserved algal biomass, but requires high initial dry matter content to mitigate environmental pollution risks from effluent. This study investigated potential dewatering methods for kelp harvested throughout the year. Treatments included air-drying, osmotic media and acids. Significant interactions between treatment and harvest-time were observed for traits of interest. Fresh weight loss during treatment was composed of changes in water and dry matter content. Air-drying gave reliable increase in final dry matter content; in summer and autumn 30% dry matter content was reached after 24h. Dilute hydrochloric acid reduced stickiness and rendered material suitable for dewatering by screw-pressing; it may be possible to use the consequent pH reduction to promote efficient preservation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Biosorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) onto brown seaweed, Lobophora variegata (Lamouroux): kinetic and equilibrium studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Bhavanath; Basha, Shaik; Jaiswar, Santlal; Mishra, Biswajit; Thakur, Mukund C

    2009-02-01

    The present work deals with the biosorption performance of raw and chemically modified biomass of the brown seaweed Lobophora variegata for removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solution. The biosorption capacity was significantly altered by pH of the solution delineating that the higher the pH, the higher the Cd(II) and Pb(II) removal. Kinetic and isotherm experiments were carried out at the optimal pH 5.0. The metal removal rates were conspicuously rapid wherein 90% of the total sorption occurred within 90 min. Biomass treated with CaCl(2) demonstrated the highest potential for the sorption of the metal ions with the maximum uptake capacities i.e. 1.71 and 1.79 mmol g(-1) for Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively. Kinetic data were satisfactorily manifested by a pseudo-second order chemical sorption process. The process mechanism consisting of both surface adsorption and pore diffusion was found to be complex. The sorption data have been analyzed and fitted to sorption isotherm of the Freundlich, Langmuir, and Redlich-Peterson models. The regression coefficient for both Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherms were higher than those secured for Freundlich isotherm implying that the biosorption system is possibly monolayer coverage of the L. variegata surface by the cadmium and lead ions. FT-IR studies revealed that Cd(II) and Pb(II) binding to L. variegata occurred primarily through biomass carboxyl groups accompanied by momentous interactions of the biomass amino and amide groups. In this study, we have observed that L. variegata had maximum biosorption capacity for Cd(II) and Pb(II) reported so far for any marine algae.

  1. A revision of the genus Muricea Lamouroux, 1821 (Anthozoa, Octocorallia) in the eastern Pacific. Part I: Eumuricea Verrill, 1869 revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breedy, Odalisca; Guzman, Hector M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Muricea is an amphi-American genus. Verrill proposed dividing the species from the Pacific Ocean into three genera and established the genus Eumuricea for five eastern Pacific species with tubular calyces. Eumuricea is basically characterized by colonies with elongate, cylindrical calyces with truncate margins and star-like opercula, and the occurrence of unilateral spinous spindles. According to these characteristics, Eumuricea does not show enough difference from Muricea to be treated as a separate genus. Original type material of Eumuricea was morphologically analysed and illustrated using optical and scanning electron microscopy. We conclude that the eastern Pacific species should be placed in the genus Muricea and form a group characterised by tubular calyces that comprises four species at present, Muricea acervata, Muricea hispida, Muricea squarrosa, and Muricea tubigera and a dubious species Muricea horrida. Lectotypes were designated for Muricea squarrosa and Muricea hispida to establish their taxonomic status. The genus Eumuricea has also been misunderstood by former authors who erroneously assigned species to it. For these species we propose new combinations: Swiftia pusilla, Astrogorgia splendens and Astrogorgia ramosa. PMID:26798234

  2. ANALYSIS OF ANCIENT DNA FROM FOSSIL CORALLINES (CORALLINALES, RHODOPHYTA)(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughey, Jeffery R; Braga, Juan C; Aguirre, Julio; Woelkerling, William J; Webster, Jody M

    2008-04-01

    The field of molecular paleontology has recently made significant contributions to anthropology and biology. Hundreds of ancient DNA studies have been published, but none has targeted fossil coralline algae. Using regions of the SSU gene, we analyzed rDNA from fossil coralline algae of varying ages and states of preservation from Spain, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Specimens from PNG, GBR, and some localities from Spain did not contain endogenous ancient DNA. Reproducible sequence data were obtained from specimens ∼550 years old from near Cadiz, Spain, and from rocky-shore deposits in Carboneras, Almeria Province of Spain (∼78,000 years before present [YBP]). Based on BLAST searches and a phylogenetic analysis of sequences, an undescribed coralline alga belonging to the Melobesioideae was discovered in the Carboneras material as well as the following coralline genera: Jania, Lithophyllum, Lithothamnion, Mesophyllum, and Phymatolithon. DNA from fleshy brown and red macroalgae was also discovered in the specimens from Carboneras. The coralline algae identified using molecular techniques were in agreement with those based on morphological methods. The identified taxa are common in the present-day southeastern Spain littoral zone. Amino acid racemization, concentration ratios, and specific concentrations failed to show a correlation between biomolecular preservation and PCR amplification success. Results suggest that molecular investigations on fossil algae, although limited by technical difficulties, are feasible. Validity of our results was established using authentication criteria and a self-critical approach to compliance. © 2008 Phycological Society of America.

  3. Sponge-seaweed associations in species of Ptilophora (Gelidiaceae, Rhodophyta)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tronchin, E

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available sponge supplies the nitrogen requirements of its rhodophyte part- ner. J. Exp. Biol. 205: 3505–11. Grant, A. J. and Hinde, R. T. 1999. Evidence of transfer of photosynthate from a red algal macrophyte to its symbiotic sponge. Mem. Queens. Mus. 44... and its macroalgal symbiont. Mem. Queens. Mus. 44: 606. Trautman, D. A., Hinde, R. and Borowitzka, M. A. 2000. Population dynamics of an association between a coral reef sponge and a red macroalga. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 244: 67–86. Tronchin, E. M...

  4. Timing of the evolutionary history of Corallinaceae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösler, Anja; Perfectti, Francisco; Peña, Viviana; Aguirre, Julio; Braga, Juan Carlos

    2017-06-01

    The temporal dimension of the most recent Corallinaceae (order Corallinales) phylogeny was presented here, based on first occurrence time estimates from the fossil record. Calibration of the molecular clock of the genetic marker SSU entailed a separation of Corallinales from Hapalidiales in the Albian (Early Cretaceous ~105 mya). Neither the calibration nor the fossil record resolved the succession of appearance of the first three emerging subfamilies: Mastophoroideae, Corallinoideae, and Neogoniolithoideae. The development of the tetra/bisporangial conceptacle roofs by filaments surrounding and interspersed among the sporangial initials was an evolutionary novelty emerging at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (~66 mya). This novelty was shared by the subfamilies Hydrolithoideae, Metagoniolithoideae, and Lithophylloideae, which diverged in the early Paleogene. Subclades within the Metagoniolithoideae and Lithophylloideae diversified in the late Oligocene-middle Miocene (~28-12 mya). The most common reef corallinaceans (Hydrolithon, Porolithon, Harveylithon, "Pneophyllum" conicum, and subclades within Lithophylloideae) appeared in this interval in the Indo-Australian Archipelago. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  5. (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) from the Canary Islands, eastern Atlantic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Osmundea is a strongly supported monophyletic group within the Laurencia complex and shows a disjunct distribution occurring in the North-East and South-West Pacific, the Indian and Atlantic oceans and the Mediterranean Sea. Its phenotypic plasticity on the Canary Islands may be the result of the high ...

  6. Notas sobre tres especies de Gigartinaceae (Rhodophyta del litoral peruano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Calderón

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available La gran variabilidad morfológica de la familia Gigartinaceae ha producido constantes cambios taxonómicos en sus especies miembros. Tradicionalmente su taxonomía ha estado basada en caracteres de la morfología externa; sin embargo, recientes estudios morfológicos, respaldados con trabajos moleculares, han delimitado los géneros en base a al desarrollo del cistocarpo y de los tetrasporangios. El presente trabajo revisa y comenta sobre las estructuras morfológicas vegetativas y reproductivas de tres especies presentes en Perú: Chondracanthus chamissoi, Mazzaella denticulata y Chondrus canaliculatus.

  7. Occurrence of Porphyra vietnamensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) along the Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Agadi, V.V.; Untawale, A.G.

    The occurrence of a red alga, Porphyra vietnamensis has been studied along the Goa Coast (west coast of India). The growth period was observed during the monsoon (July-October) and optimum growth was recorded during August, when temperature...

  8. The sex and sex determination in Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Pyropia haitanensis has a biphasic life cycle with macroscopic gametophytic blade (n and microscopic filamentous conchocelis (2n phase. Its gametophytic blades have long been believed to be mainly dioecious. However, when crossing the red mutant (R, ♀ with the wild type (W, ♂, the parental colors were segregated in F1 blades, of which 96.1% were linearly sectored with 2-4 color sectors. When color sectors were excised from the color-sectored blades and cultured singly, 99.7% of the color sectors appeared to be unisexual with an equal sex ratio. Although the sex of color sector did not genetically link with its color, the boundaries of both sex and color sectors coincided precisely. About 87.9% of the examined color-sectored blades were monoecious and the percentage increased with the number of color sectors of a blade. The gametophytic blades from each conchocelis strain produced by parthenogenesis of the excised color sectors were unisexual and unicolor, showing the same sex and color as their original sectors. These results indicate that most of the sexually reproduced Py. haitanensis blades are monoecious, and their sex is controlled by segregation of a pair of alleles during meiosis of conchospore, forming a sex-sectored tetrad. During the subsequent development of blades, one or two lower cell(s of the tetrad contribute mainly to rhizoid formation, and rarely show their sexual phenotype, leading to reduced frequency of full sex phenotype of the meiotic blades. Moreover, the aberrant segregations of sex genes or color genes in a few of F1 blades were probably due to gene conversions, but there was no sex transfer in Py. haitanensis.

  9. The sex and sex determination in Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Yan, Xing-hong; Aruga, Yusho

    2013-01-01

    Pyropia haitanensis has a biphasic life cycle with macroscopic gametophytic blade (n) and microscopic filamentous conchocelis (2n) phase. Its gametophytic blades have long been believed to be mainly dioecious. However, when crossing the red mutant (R, ♀) with the wild type (W, ♂), the parental colors were segregated in F1 blades, of which 96.1% were linearly sectored with 2-4 color sectors. When color sectors were excised from the color-sectored blades and cultured singly, 99.7% of the color sectors appeared to be unisexual with an equal sex ratio. Although the sex of color sector did not genetically link with its color, the boundaries of both sex and color sectors coincided precisely. About 87.9% of the examined color-sectored blades were monoecious and the percentage increased with the number of color sectors of a blade. The gametophytic blades from each conchocelis strain produced by parthenogenesis of the excised color sectors were unisexual and unicolor, showing the same sex and color as their original sectors. These results indicate that most of the sexually reproduced Py. haitanensis blades are monoecious, and their sex is controlled by segregation of a pair of alleles during meiosis of conchospore, forming a sex-sectored tetrad. During the subsequent development of blades, one or two lower cell(s) of the tetrad contribute mainly to rhizoid formation, and rarely show their sexual phenotype, leading to reduced frequency of full sex phenotype of the meiotic blades. Moreover, the aberrant segregations of sex genes or color genes in a few of F1 blades were probably due to gene conversions, but there was no sex transfer in Py. haitanensis.

  10. Speciation in the marine crop Pyropia yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Kyosuke; Kobiyama, Atsushi

    2014-10-01

    In the marine red alga Pyropia yezoensis, commonly known in Japan as nori, sympatric occurrence of two cryptic species Pyropia sp. 2 and Pyropia sp. 3 on the same rock in a natural habitat has been confirmed by molecular analysis and detailed morphological observations. To confirm whether Pyropia sp. 2 and Pyropia sp. 3 were reproductively isolated in the sympatric population, 170 blades that had previously been studied using a maternally inherited plastid marker were examined with a nuclear gene marker. The results suggested that Pyropia sp. 2 and Pyropia sp. 3 with identical morphological features were reproductively isolated in the sympatric population and that they were different species based on the biological species concept. Although gametophytic blades of Pyropia were usually assumed to be haploid, 18 of 170 blades possessed both of the two genotypes derived from Pyropia sp. 2 and from Pyropia sp. 3. These results inferred that allodiploid blades were generated from the interspecific hybridization between these two cryptic species. The present findings provide insights for future studies on the speciation mechanism in seaweeds, particularly for genera that contain numerous species. © 2014 Phycological Society of America.

  11. Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta macroalgae: a source of health promoting phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sonia A O; Vilela, Carla; Freire, Carmen S R; Abreu, Maria H; Rocha, Silvia M; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2015-09-15

    A detailed study of the lipophilic composition of Codium tomentosum, Ulva lactuca, Gracilaria vermiculophylla and Chondrus crispus macroalgae cultivated in the Portuguese coast was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry before and after alkaline hydrolysis. Their long-chain aliphatic alcohols and monoglycerides compositions are reported for the first time. Additionally, other new compounds were also identified: phytol and neophytadiene in C. tomentosum, U. lactuca and G. vermiculophylla and stigmasterol, α-tocopherol and 24-methylenecholesterol in C. tomentosum. The lipophilic fraction of the studied macroalgae are mainly constituted by fatty acids (110.1-1030.5mgkg(-1) of dry material) and sterols (14.8-1309.1mgkg(-1) of dry material). C. tomentosum showed to be a valuable source of stigmasterol (1229.0mgkg(-1) of dry material) and α-tocopherol (21.8mgkg(-1) of dry material). These results are a relevant contribution for the valorisation of these macroalgae species as sources of valuable phytochemicals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Seasonal variations in the biochemical composition of some common seaweed species from the coast of Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M. Khairy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Variations in protein, carbohydrate, lipid, ash, moisture, fatty acid and aminoacid contents of the seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta,Jania rubens (Linnaeus J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin Bornet(Rhodophyta were studied seasonally from spring to autumn 2010. The seaweeds were collected from a rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya on the coast of Abu Qir Bay east of Alexandria, Egypt. Remarkable seasonal variations were recorded in the levels of the studied parameters in the three species. Pterocladia capillacea was characterized by the highest protein andcarbohydrate content throughout the different seasons, whereas Ulva lactuca contained more lipids (4.09 ± 0.2% than J. rubens and P. capillacea. The highest total fatty acids were recorded in J. rubens during the three seasons, while saturated fatty acids were predominant in P. capillacea during spring. This is due mainly to the presence of palmitic acid(C16:0, which made up 74.3% of the saturated fatty acids. The highest level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in these algae was measured in J. rubens; DHA (22:6ω3 was the main acid, making up 26.4% of the total fatty acids especiallyduring summer. Proline was the major component of the amino acids in the three algal species, with maximum amounts in U. lactuca.

  13. Taxonomia e distribuição do gênero Caulerpa Lamouroux (Bryopsidales - Chlorophyta na costa de Pernambuco e Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, Brasil Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Caulerpa Lamouroux (Bryopsidales - Chlorophyta on the coast of Pernambuco State and Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen Brayner

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho identifica e fornece a distribuição do gênero Caulerpa na costa de Pernambuco (07º30' S e 09º00' W e no Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha (03º51' S e 32º25' W. As coletas foram realizadas em 32 praias da costa de Pernambuco no período entre abril/2004 a novembro/2005, na região entre-marés. Em Fernando de Noronha as coletas foram feitas em junho/2006, na região entre marés e no infralitoral (10, 15 e 21 m de profundidade, em oito praias. Foram, também, analisadas as exsicatas de Caulerpa depositadas no Herbário Professor Vasconcelos Sobrinho (PEUFR da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco. Os resultados mostram que o gênero Caulerpa está representado na costa de Pernambuco, por 19 táxons infragenéricos. Algumas espécies apresentaram distribuição restrita como C. kempfii Joly & Pereira, C. lanuginosa J. Agardh e C. serrulata (Forssk. J. Agardh. Para o Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha foram registrados três táxons infragenéricos.This paper analyzes the taxonomy and distribution of the genus Caulerpa on the coast of Pernambuco (07º30'S; 09º00'W and in the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago (03º51'S; 32º25'W. Sampling was carried out on the coast of Pernambuco from April/2004 to November/2005, in the intertidal zone of 32 beaches. On Fernando de Noronha collections were made in June/2006 in the intertidal and infralittoral (10, 15 and 21m depth regions of eight beaches. Exsiccata of Caulerpa from the Professor Vasconcelos Sobrinho Herbarium (PEUFR were also examined. The results showed that the genus Caulerpa is represented on the coast of Pernambuco state by 19 infrageneric taxa. Some species had restricted distributions such as C. kempfii Joly & Pereira, C. lanuginosa J. Agardh and C. serrulata (Forssk. J. Agardh. Three infrageneric taxa were registered for the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago.

  14. Role of the NO/K ATP pathway in the protective effect of a sulfated-polysaccharide fraction from the algae Hypnea musciformis against ethanol-induced gastric damage in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara R. B. Damasceno

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are the most abundant source of polysaccharides such as alginates and agar, as well as carrageenans. This study aimed to investigate the gastroprotective activity and the mechanism underlying this activity of a sulfated-polysaccharide fraction extracted from the algae Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamour. (Gigartinales-Rhodophyta. Mice were treated with sulfated-polysaccharide fraction (3, 10, 30, and 90 mg/kg, p.o. and, after 30 min, they were administered 50% ethanol (0.5 mL/25 g, p.o.. After 1 h, gastric damage was measured using a planimeter. In addition, samples of the stomach tissue were obtained for histopathological examination and for assays to determine the glutathione and malondialdehyde levels. Other groups of mice were pretreated with N G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 mg/kg, i.p., aminoguanidine (100 mg/kg, i.p., or glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, i.p.. After 30 min to the aminoguanidine group and 1 h to the other groups, sulfated-polysaccharide fraction (30 mg/kg, p.o. was administered and gastric damage was induced as described above. Sulfated-polysaccharide fraction prevented ethanol-induced gastric injury in a dose-dependent manner. However, treatment with L-NAME or glibenclamide reversed this gastroprotective effect. Administration of aminoguanidine did not influence the effect of sulfated-polysaccharide fraction. Our results suggest that sulfated-polysaccharide fraction exerts a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric damage via activation of the NO/K ATP pathway.

  15. Serpula lacrymans, The Dry Rot Fungus and Tolerance Towards Copper-Based Wood Preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Clausen, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most (Wulfen : Fries) Schröterthe dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based...

  16. Antioxidant activity and mineral composition of three Mediterranean common seaweeds from Abu-Qir Bay, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Hanan M.; El-Sheikh, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant activity and mineral composition were evaluated seasonally from spring to autumn 2010 in the three common seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta), Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin) Bornet (Rhodophyta). The antioxidant activity was measured with β-carotene, total phenol content and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Seaweeds were collected from the rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya Abu-Qir Bay of Alexandria, Egypt. The results showed maximum increase of β-carotene in P. capillacea during summer. A significant increase in total phenolic content at P ⩽ 0.05 was found in the red alga (J. rubens) during summer. Also, U. lactuca showed the maximum antioxidant scavenging activity especially during summer. Minerals in all investigated samples were higher than those in conventional edible vegetables. Na/K ratio ranged between 0.78 and 2.4 mg/100 g, which is a favorable value. All trace metals exceeded the recommended doses by Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI). During summer season, it was found that Cu = 2.02 ± 0.13 and Cr = 0.46 ± 0.14 mg/100 g in U. lactuca and Fe had a suitable concentration (18.37 ± 0.5 mg/100 g) in P. capillacea. The studied species were rich in carotenoids, phenolic compounds, DPPH free radicals and minerals, therefore, they can be used as potential source of health food in human diets and may be of use to food industry. PMID:26288568

  17. Screening for antifungal activities of extracts of the brazilian seaweed genus Laurencia (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika M. Stein

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of pathogens to commonly used antibiotics has enhanced morbidity and mortality and has triggered the search for new drugs. Several species of the red alga genus Laurencia are very interesting candidates as potential sources of natural products with pharmaceutical activity because they are known to produce a wide range of chemically interesting halogenated secondary metabolites. This is an initial report of the antifungal activities of the secondary metabolites of five species of Laurencia, collected in the state of Espírito Santo, against three strains of pathogenic fungi: Candida albicans (CA, Candida parapsilosis (CP, and Cryptococcus neoformans (CN. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the algal extracts were determined by serial dilution method in RPMI 1640 Medium in 96-well plates according to the NCCLS and microbial growth was determined by absorbance at 492nm. A result showing maintenance or reduction of the inoculum was defined as fungistatic, while fungicidal action was no observed growth in the 10 µL fungistatic samples subcultured in Sabouraud Agar. Our results indicate that apolar extracts of Laurencia species possess antifungal properties and encourage continued research to find new drugs for therapy of infectious diseases in these algae.

  18. Checklist and Bibliography of Benthic Marine Macroalgae Recorded from Northern Australia. I. Rhodophyta,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Paris, Rey et Gravier, 626 pp. Dory de Saint Vincent, J.B. (1828). "Histoire naturelle botanique . Cryptogamie.0 In Voyage autour du monde ... sur la...corvette ... "La Coquille" (L.I. Duperrey), Paris, A. Bertrand, 97-136. Dory de Saint Vincent, J.B. (1829). "Histoire naturelle botanique . Cryptogamie...Voyage au Pole Skd et dans l’Oceanie sur les Corvettes "l’Astrolabe" et la "Ze16e", Botanique , I. Plantes Cellulaires, Paris. Montagne, J.F.C. (1846

  19. Molecular mechanisms underlying Grateloupia imbricata (Rhodophyta) carposporogenesis induced by methyl jasmonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Jimenez, Pilar; Montero-Fernández, Montserrat; Robaina, Rafael R

    2017-12-01

    When applied in vitro, methyl jasmonate is sensed by the red seaweed Grateloupia imbricate, substantially and visually affecting its carposporogenesis. However, although there is some understanding of the morphological changes induced by methyl jasmonate in vitro, little is known about the genes that are involved in red seaweed carposporogenesis and how their protein products act. For the work reported herein, the expression of genes in red seaweed that encode enzymes involved in the synthesis of methyl jasmonate (jasmonic acid carboxyl methyl transferase and a putative methyl transferase) was monitored. Additionally the genes involved in oxidation (cytochrome P450 and WD40), jasmonate synthesis, signal transduction, and regulation of reactive oxygen species (MYB), and reproduction (ornithine decarboxylase) were monitored. To determine when or if the aforementioned genes were expressed during cystocarp development, fertilized and fertile thalli were exposed to methyl jasmonate and gene expression was measured after 24 and 48 h. The results showed that methyl jasmonate promoted differential gene expression in fertilized thalli by 24 h and upregulated expression of the ornithine decarboxylase gene only by 48 h in fertile thalli (0.75 ± 003 copies · μL-1 at 24 h vs. 1.11 ± 0.04 copies · μL-1 at 48 h). We conclude that Ornithine decarboxylase expression involves methyl jasmonate signaling as well as development and maturation of cystocarps. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  20. New data on distribution and ecology of Batrachospermum (Rhodophyta in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić B. Snežana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the distribution and ecology of populations of the genus Batrachospermum collected in Serbia from 2006 to 2015 at 10 sites, all of which represent new localities of Batrachospermum in Serbia. The records of this genus in the Boračka River and in a spring near Kragujevac (Cerovac are the first in Central Serbia. Batrachospermum was recorded at altitudes of from 235 to 1600 m at localities mainly in partial or full shade on stone, gravel or concrete substrata in cold water (10.50 - 15.40oC that was neutral to weakly alkaline (pH 7.2 – 8.65 with conductivity of from 55 to 539 μS/cm. Species of the genus Batrachospermum in Serbia have to date been recorded in clean, well-aerated waters with a low concentration of biogenic salts and in habitats without anthropogenic impact. Any factors altering abiotic parameters of their habitats can lead to changes and the loss of populations of the sensitive species of this genus.

  1. Coeloseira compressa Hollenb. (Champiaceae, Rhodophyta) - a new marine algal species from Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Untawale, A.G.

    Occurrence of a red algal species Coeloseira is recorded from Bambolim coast, Goa along the central west coast of India. The genus is characterised by the presence of polysporangia, stoloniferous pattern branching, separate secondary branches and a...

  2. Screening for antifungal activities of extracts of the brazilian seaweed genus Laurencia (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika M. Stein

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of pathogens to commonly used antibiotics has enhanced morbidity and mortality and has triggered the search for new drugs. Several species of the red alga genus Laurencia are very interesting candidates as potential sources of natural products with pharmaceutical activity because they are known to produce a wide range of chemically interesting halogenated secondary metabolites. This is an initial report of the antifungal activities of the secondary metabolites of five species of Laurencia, collected in the state of Espírito Santo, against three strains of pathogenic fungi: Candida albicans (CA, Candida parapsilosis (CP, and Cryptococcus neoformans (CN. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the algal extracts were determined by serial dilution method in RPMI 1640 Medium in 96-well plates according to the NCCLS and microbial growth was determined by absorbance at 492nm. A result showing maintenance or reduction of the inoculum was defined as fungistatic, while fungicidal action was no observed growth in the 10 µL fungistatic samples subcultured in Sabouraud Agar. Our results indicate that apolar extracts of Laurencia species possess antifungal properties and encourage continued research to find new drugs for therapy of infectious diseases in these algae.

  3. Routine DNA barcoding of Canadian Gracilariales (Rhodophyta) reveals the invasive species Gracilaria vermiculophylla in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Gary W

    2009-05-01

    As part of an extensive DNA-based floristic survey of marine macroalgae in Canadian waters, an unexpected sequence for a Gracilaria sp. was generated from British Columbia. Before further molecular analyses and corresponding morphological/anatomical observations this mystery sequence was temporarily entered into our database as Gracilaria BCsp. Continued sampling uncovered this species from four additional locations. A timely collaboration with international colleagues introduced sequences from the invasive Gracilaria vermiculophylla into our cytochrome c oxidase I alignments - these a perfect match to BCsp indicating that this species occurs in British Columbia. A discussion of the origin of this taxon in Canadian waters, whether natural or introduced, is provided. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Postglacial recolonization and the biogeography of Palmaria mollis (Rhodophyta) along the Northeast Pacific coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindstrom, S.C; Olsen, J.L.; Stam, W.T.

    1997-01-01

    We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to examine the distribution of genotypes of Palmaria mollis (Setchell et Gardner) van der Meer et Bird, a red alga. We sampled populations along the Northeast Pacific coast from northern Washington to southwestern Alaska, an area extensively

  5. First record of Dichotomaria obtusata (Ellis & Solander Lamarck (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. HOFFMAN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change is causing the Mediterranean coastal area of Israel to gradually acquire tropical characteristics. Rising sea surface temperatures in the eastern Mediterranean basin have facilitated the introduction, settlement and establishment of hundreds of alien species (Zenetos et al. 2012. The vast majority of these exotic species are of Indo-Pacific origin. We report the occurrence of the genus Dichotomaria in the eastern Mediterranean on the basis of specimens identified as Dichotomaria cf. obtusata (J. Ellis & Solander Lamarck. Tetrasporophytes with sporangial initials were identified morphologically and confirmed molecularly using plastid rbcL sequences. We also discuss possible paths of introduction of this and other alien species into the Levantine Sea.

  6. The genus Trematocarpus (Sarcodiaceae, Rhodophyta in southern Africa and the exclusion of Sphaerococcus (Chondrus scutellatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Simons

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available Trematocarpus Kützing in southern Africa is found to comprise four taxa in three species: newly described is T.  fragilis (Ag. De Toni var. divaricatus Simons, var. nov. Two of the species, T. flabellatus (J. Ag. De Toni and T.  affinis (J. Ag. De Toni are restored to independent specific rank after being regarded as synonyms of T.  scutellatus (Her. Searles. It is shown that  Sphaerococcus (Chondrus scutellatus Her., the basionym of  T.  scutellatus refers to a species of Gigartina, therefore a new combination Gigartina scutellata (Her. Simons is made for this species which was formerly known as G. fastigiata J. Ag. and G. scabiosa (Kiitz. Papenf. Trematocarpus elongatus Kiitz. is relegated to synonymy under T. fragilis var.  divaricatus.

  7. Toxic effect of metal cation binary mixtures to the seaweed Gracilaria domingensis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Luiz Fernando; Stevani, Cassius Vinicius; Zambotti-Villela, Leonardo; Yokoya, Nair Sumie; Colepicolo, Pio

    2014-01-01

    The macroalga Gracilaria domingensis is an important resource for the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and biotechnology industries. G. domingensis is at a part of the food web foundation, providing nutrients and microelements to upper levels. As seaweed storage metals in the vacuoles, they are considered the main vectors to magnify these toxic elements. This work describes the evaluation of the toxicity of binary mixtures of available metal cations based on the growth rates of G. domingensis over a 48-h exposure. The interactive effects of each binary mixture were determined using a toxic unit (TU) concept that was the sum of the relative contribution of each toxicant and calculated using the ratio between the toxicant concentration and its endpoint. Mixtures of Cd(II)/Cu(II) and Zn(II)/Ca(II) demonstrated to be additive; Cu(II)/Zn(II), Cu(II)/Mg(II), Cu(II)/Ca(II), Zn(II)/Mg(II), and Ca(II)/Mg(II) mixtures were synergistic, and all interactions studied with Cd(II) were antagonistic. Hypotheses that explain the toxicity of binary mixtures at the molecular level are also suggested. These results represent the first effort to characterize the combined effect of available metal cations, based on the TU concept on seaweed in a total controlled medium. The results presented here are invaluable to the understanding of seaweed metal cation toxicity in the marine environment, the mechanism of toxicity action and how the tolerance of the organism.

  8. Transcriptomic analysis of the red seaweed Laurencia dendroidea (Florideophyceae, Rhodophyta) and its microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Louisi Souza; Gregoracci, Gustavo Bueno; Silva, Genivaldo Gueiros Zacarias; Salgado, Leonardo Tavares; Filho, Gilberto Amado; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2012-09-17

    Seaweeds of the Laurencia genus have a broad geographic distribution and are largely recognized as important sources of secondary metabolites, mainly halogenated compounds exhibiting diverse potential pharmacological activities and relevant ecological role as anti-epibiosis. Host-microbe interaction is a driving force for co-evolution in the marine environment, but molecular studies of seaweed-associated microbial communities are still rare. Despite the large amount of research describing the chemical compositions of Laurencia species, the genetic knowledge regarding this genus is currently restricted to taxonomic markers and general genome features. In this work we analyze the transcriptomic profile of L. dendroidea J. Agardh, unveil the genes involved on the biosynthesis of terpenoid compounds in this seaweed and explore the interactions between this host and its associated microbiome. A total of 6 transcriptomes were obtained from specimens of L. dendroidea sampled in three different coastal locations of the Rio de Janeiro state. Functional annotations revealed predominantly basic cellular metabolic pathways. Bacteria was the dominant active group in the microbiome of L. dendroidea, standing out nitrogen fixing Cyanobacteria and aerobic heterotrophic Proteobacteria. The analysis of the relative contribution of each domain highlighted bacterial features related to glycolysis, lipid and polysaccharide breakdown, and also recognition of seaweed surface and establishment of biofilm. Eukaryotic transcripts, on the other hand, were associated with photosynthesis, synthesis of carbohydrate reserves, and defense mechanisms, including the biosynthesis of terpenoids through the mevalonate-independent pathway. This work describes the first transcriptomic profile of the red seaweed L. dendroidea, increasing the knowledge about ESTs from the Florideophyceae algal class. Our data suggest an important role for L. dendroidea in the primary production of the holobiont and the role of Bacteria as consumers of organic matter and possibly also as nitrogen source. Furthermore, this seaweed expressed sequences related to terpene biosynthesis, including the complete mevalonate-independent pathway, which offers new possibilities for biotechnological applications using secondary metabolites from L. dendroidea.

  9. Morphology, distribution and ecology of the freshwater red algae Paralemanea (Batrachospermaceae, Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Snežana B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the morphology, distribution and ecology of 15 populations of Paralemanea collected from 2004 to 2011 in 12 rivers in Serbia. On the basis of morphological and reproductive characteristics, two species were identified: P. annulata (12 populations and P. catenata (3 populations. Morphological (presence of a stalk, thalli length, nodal diameter (ND, internodal diameter (ID, node and internode diameter ratio (ND:ID and reproductive (arrangement of spermatangial sori, length and diameter of carpospores, presence of Chantransia stage features described in the literature are generally confirmed in the populations from Serbia. True branching was observed in six populations of P. annulata in the gametophyte stage. False branching (whorled branching occurred in five populations of both species observed. In the Pčinja (P2, Ibar (IB5 and Crnovrška rivers (CR10, the number of whorled branching was 6-11 (P. annulata. For P. catenata the number of such branching was 3-5 in the Nišava River (N8 and Sokobanjska Moravica River (SM12. False branching appears at damaged thalli, somewhat repairing it. Algae belonging to the Paralemanea genus were found at altitudes from 160 to 780 m (P. annulata, and from 240 to 400 m (P. catenata, at water temperatures ranging from 11.5 to 29°C (P. annulata and from 12.6 to 17.4°C (P. catenata, in neutral and weakly alkaline waters, with a high level of oxygen concentration, with conductivity ranging from 70 to 433 μS/cm for P. annulata, and 260 to 440 μS /cm for P. catenata. It was also observed that P. annulata and P. catenata often grow in oligotrophic conditions and rarely in eutrophic conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43002 and by the European Communities 7th Framework Program Funding, Grant Agreement No. 603629-ENV-2013-6.2.1-Globaqua

  10. Ultrasound assisted methods for enhanced extraction of phycobiliproteins from marine macro-algae, Gelidium pusillum (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rochak; Tavanandi, Hrishikesh A; Mantri, Vaibhav A; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2017-09-01

    Extraction of phycobiliproteins (R-phycoerythrin, R-PE and R-phycocyanin, R-PC) from macro-algae is difficult due to the presence of large polysaccharides (agar, cellulose etc.) present in the cell wall which offer major hindrance for cell disruption. The present study is aimed at developing most suitable methodology for the primary extraction of R-PE and R-PC from marine macro-algae, Gelidium pusillum(Stackhouse) Le Jolis. Such extraction of phycobiliproteins by using ultrasonication and other conventional methods such as maceration, maceration in presence of liquid nitrogen, homogenization, and freezing and thawing (alone and in combinations) is reported for the first time. Standardization of ultrasonication for different parameters such as ultrasonication amplitude (60, 90 and 120µm) and ultrasonication time (1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10mins) at different temperatures (30, 35 and 40°C) was carried out. Kinetic parameters were estimated for extraction of phycobiliproteins by ultrasonication based on second order mass transfer kinetics. Based on calorimetric measurements, power, ultrasound intensity and acoustic power density were estimated to be 41.97W, 14.81W/cm2 and 0.419W/cm3, respectively. Synergistic effect of ultrasonication was observed when employed in combination with other conventional primary extraction methods. Homogenization in combination with ultrasonication resulted in an enhancement in efficiency by 9.3% over homogenization alone. Similarly, maceration in combination with ultrasonication resulted in an enhancement in efficiency by 31% over maceration alone. Among all the methods employed, maceration in combination with ultrasonication resulted in the highest extraction efficiency of 77 and 93% for R-PE and R-PC, respectively followed by homogenization in combination with ultrasonication (69.6% for R-PE and 74.1% for R-PC). HPLC analysis was carried out in order to ensure that R-PE was present in the extract and remained intact even after processing. Microscopic studies indicated a clear relation between the extraction efficiency of phycobiliproteins and degree of cell disruption in a given primary extraction method. These combination methods were found to be effective for extraction of phycobiliproteins from rigid biomass of Gelidium pusillum macro-algae and can be employed for downstream processing of biomolecules also from other macro-algae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of temperature and irradiance on early development of Chondrus ocellatus Holm (Gigartinaceae, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Zhao, Peng; Wang, Gaoge; Li, Dapeng; Wang, Jicheng; Duan, Delin

    2010-05-01

    Chondrus is a type of commercially produced red seaweed that widely used for food and carrageen extraction. Although the natural life history of the alga had been well understood, the factors influencing development of the tetraspore and carpospore remain poorly understood. In the perspective of seedling resources, the regulation of early development is crucial for the seedling nursing; therefore, it is necessary to understand the physiological influences during its early development. In this study, we studied the effects of temperature and irradiance on the early development of Chondrus ocellatus Holm under laboratory conditions. The released tetraspores and carpospores were cultivated at different temperatures (10-28°C) and irradiances (10, 60 μmol photons m-2s-1) with a photoperiod of 12L:12D. The results indicate that both tetraspores and carpospores are tolerant to temperatures of 10-25°C, and have the highest relative growth rate at 20°C. Irradiance variances influenced the growth of the discoid crusts, and the influence was more significant with increasing temperature; 60 μmol photons m-2s-1 was more suitable than 10 μmol photons m-2s-1. The optimum temperature and irradiance for the development of seedlings was 20°C and 60 μmol photons m-2s-1, respectively.

  12. The genus Trematocarpus (Sarcodiaceae, Rhodophyta in southern Africa and the exclusion of Sphaerococcus (Chondrus scutellatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Simons

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Trematocarpus Kützing in southern Africa is found to comprise four taxa in three species: newly described is T.  fragilis (Ag. De Toni var. divaricatus Simons, var. nov. Two of the species, T. flabellatus (J. Ag. De Toni and T.  affinis (J. Ag. De Toni are restored to independent specific rank after being regarded as synonyms of T.  scutellatus (Her. Searles. It is shown that  Sphaerococcus (Chondrus scutellatus Her., the basionym of  T.  scutellatus refers to a species of Gigartina, therefore a new combination Gigartina scutellata (Her. Simons is made for this species which was formerly known as G. fastigiata J. Ag. and G. scabiosa (Kiitz. Papenf. Trematocarpus elongatus Kiitz. is relegated to synonymy under T. fragilis var.  divaricatus.

  13. Differential responses of tetrasporophytes and gametophytes of Mazzaella laminarioides (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) under solar UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Nelso P; Figueroa, Félix L; Korbee, Nathalie; Mansilla, Andrés; Plastino, Estela M

    2016-06-01

    The effects of solar UV radiation on mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), growth, photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, phycobiliproteins), soluble proteins (SP), and C and N content of Mazzaella laminarioides tetrasporophytes and gametophytes were investigated. Apical segments of tetrasporophytes and gametophytes were exposed to solar radiation under three treatments (PAR [P], PAR+UVA [PA], and PAR+UVA+UVB [PAB]) during 18 d in spring 2009, Punta Arenas, Chile. Samples were taken after 2, 6, 12, and 18 d of solar radiation exposure. Most of the parameters assessed on M. laminarioides were significantly influenced by the radiation treatment, and both gametophytes and tetrasporophytes seemed to respond differently when exposed to high UV radiation. The two main effects promoted by UV radiation were: (i) higher synthesis of MAAs in gametophytes than tetrasporophytes at 2 d, and (ii) a decrease in phycoerythrin, phycocyanin, and SPs, but an increase in MAA content in tetrasporophytes at 6 and 12 d of culture. Despite some changes that were observed in biochemical parameters in both tetrasporophytes and gametophytes of M. laminarioides when exposed to UVB radiation, these changes did not promote deleterious effects that might interfere with the growth in the long term (18 d). The tolerance and resistance of M. laminarioides to higher UV irradiance were expected, as this intertidal species is exposed to variation in solar radiation, especially during low tide. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  14. The bladed Bangiales (Rhodophyta) of the South Eastern Pacific: Molecular species delimitation reveals extensive diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Contreras-Porcia, Loretto; Ramírez, María Eliana; Macaya, Erasmo C; Contador, Cristian Bulboa; Woods, Helen; Wyatt, Christopher; Brodie, Juliet

    2016-01-01

    A molecular taxonomic study of the bladed Bangiales of the South Eastern Pacific (coast of Chile) was undertaken based on sequence data of the mitochondrial COI and chloroplast rbcL for 193 specimens collected from Arica (18°S) in the north to South Patagonia (53°S) in the south. The results revealed for the first time that four genera, Porphyra, Pyropia, Fuscifolium and Wildemania were present in the region. Species delimitation was determined based on a combination of a General Mixed Yule Coalescence model (GMYC) and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) coupled with detection of monophyly in tree reconstruction. The overall incongruence between the species delimitation methods within each gene was 29%. The GMYC method led to over-splitting groups, whereas the ABGD method had a tendency to lump groups. Taking a conservative approach to the number of putative species, at least 18 were recognized and, with the exception of the recently described Pyropia orbicularis, all were new to the Chilean flora. Porphyra and Pyropia were the most diverse genera with eight 'species' each, whereas only a 'single' species each was found for Fuscifolium and Wildemania. There was also evidence of recently diverging groups: Wildemania sp. was distinct but very closely related to W. amplissima from the Northern Hemisphere and raises questions in relation to such disjunct distributions. Pyropia orbicularis was very closely related to two other species, making species delimitation very difficult but provides evidence of an incipient speciation. The difference between the 'species' discovered and those previously reported for the region is discussed in relation to the difficulty of distinguishing species based on morphological identification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A taxonomic, phylogenetic and biogeographic study of the genus Acanthophora (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Yde S.D.M.; Hitipeuw, Creusa; Prud’homme van Reine, Willem F.

    1999-01-01

    A cladistic analysis, based on a taxonomic revision is carried out for 7 Acanthophora species using 19 characters. Hypotheses on species affinities are based primarily on morphological characters. Because most species show only few distinctive characters, emphasis was placed on features of spine

  16. Genetic and morphological variation in an ecosystem engineer, Lithophyllum byssoides (Corallinales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzolesi, Laura; Falace, Annalisa; Kaleb, Sara; Hernandez-Kantun, Jazmin J; Cerrano, Carlo; Rindi, Fabio

    2017-02-01

    Lithophyllum byssoides is a common coralline alga in the intertidal zone of Mediterranean coasts, where it produces biogenic concretions housing a high algal and invertebrate biodiversity. This species is an ecosystem engineer and is considered a target for conservation efforts, but designing effective conservation strategies currently is impossible due to lack of information about its population structure. The morphological and molecular variation of L. byssoides was investigated using morphoanatomy and DNA sequences (psbA and cox2,3) obtained from populations at 15 localities on the Italian and Croatian coasts. Lithophyllum byssoides exhibited a high number of haplotypes (31 psbA haplotypes and 24 cox2,3 haplotypes) in the central Mediterranean. The psbA and cox2,3 phylogenies were congruent and showed seven lineages. For most of these clades, the distribution was limited to one or a few localities, but one of them (clade 7) was widespread across the central Mediterranean, spanning the main biogeographic boundaries recognized in this area. The central Mediterranean populations formed a lineage separate from Atlantic samples; psbA pair-wise divergences suggested that recognition of Atlantic and Mediterranean L. byssoides as different species may be appropriate. The central Mediterranean haplotype patterns of L. byssoides were interpreted as resulting from past climatic events in the hydrogeological history of the Mediterranean Sea. The high haplotype diversity and the restricted spatial distribution of the seven lineages suggest that individual populations should be managed as independent units. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  17. Micropropagation and protein profile analysis by SDS-PAGE of Gracilaria changii (Rhodophyta, Solieriaceae

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    Lin Wei Jong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Gracilaria changii seaweed is primarily important as a source of agar with wide applications in food industries. The high demand of agar led to gradual depletion of G. changii in natural resources. Establishment of in vitro culture of G. changii has an important role and allowing G. changii explants to grow optimally under controlled conditions to provide constant, continuous and sufficient seedlings supply for Gracilaria farming. This study focused on micropropagation culture of G. changii in which different exogenous factors influencing seaweed growth were investigated: strength of chosen medium Provasoli’s enriched seawater (PES, types and concentration of fertilizers/biostimulant, supplementation of plant growth regulators and seawater salinity. The results were presented in daily growth rate of explants and data analysis was carried out using one-way ANOVA. The results demonstrated high growth rate of G. changii in 25% of PES supplemented with 5 mg L−1 AMPEP, and seawater salinity range between 30 and 40 ppt, respectively. Protein profiles of tissue-cultured and farm cultivated G. changii were produced by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The results demonstrated no remarkable difference in the protein profiles and indicated the suitability of the culture condition for the growth of G. changii.

  18. UVR defense mechanisms in eurytopic and invasive Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roleda, Michael Y; Nyberg, Cecilia D; Wulff, Angela

    2012-10-01

    The invasive success of Gracilaria vermiculophylla has been attributed to its wide tolerance range to different abiotic factors, but its response to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is yet to be investigated. In the laboratory, carpospores and vegetative thalli of an Atlantic population were exposed to different radiation treatments consisting of high PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) only (P), PAR+UV-A (PA) and PAR+UV-A+UV-B (PAB). Photosynthesis of carpospores was photoinhibited under different radiation treatments but photosystem II (PSII) function was restored after 12 h under dim white light. Growth of vegetative thalli was significantly higher under radiation supplemented with UVR. Decrease in chlorophyll a (Chl a) under daily continuous 16-h exposure to 300 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) of PAR suggests preventive accumulation of excited chlorophyll molecules within the antennae to minimize the generation of dangerous reactive oxygen species. Moreover, an increase in total carotenoids and xanthophyll cycle pigments (i.e. violaxanthin, antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin) further suggests effective photoprotection under UVR. The presence of the ketocarotenoid β-cryptoxanthin also indicates protection against UVR and oxidative stress. The initial concentration of total mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in freshly-released spores increased approximately four times after 8-h laboratory radiation treatments. On the other hand, initial specific MAAs in vegetative thalli changed in composition after 7-day exposure to laboratory radiation conditions without affecting the total concentration. The above responses suggest that G. vermiculophylla have multiple UVR defense mechanisms to cope with the dynamic variation in light quantity and quality encountered in its habitat. Beside being eurytopic, the UVR photoprotective mechanisms likely contribute to the current invasive success of the species in shallow lagoons and estuaries exposed to high solar radiation. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships of corallinaceae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta): taxonomic implications for reef-building corallines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösler, Anja; Perfectti, Francisco; Peña, Viviana; Braga, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-01

    A new, more complete, five-marker (SSU, LSU, psbA, COI, 23S) molecular phylogeny of the family Corallinaceae, order Corallinales, shows a paraphyletic grouping of seven well-supported monophyletic clades. The taxonomic implications included the amendment of two subfamilies, Neogoniolithoideae and Metagoniolithoideae, and the rejection of Porolithoideae as an independent subfamily. Metagoniolithoideae contained Harveylithon gen. nov., with H. rupestre comb. nov. as the generitype, and H. canariense stat. nov., H. munitum comb. nov., and H. samoënse comb. nov. Spongites and Pneophyllum belonged to separate clades. The subfamily Neogoniolithoideae included the generitype of Spongites, S. fruticulosus, for which an epitype was designated. Pneophyllum requires reassesment. The generitype of Hydrolithon, H. reinboldii, was a younger heterotypic synonym of H. boergesenii. The evolutionary novelty of the subfamilies Hydrolithoideae, Metagoniolithoideae, and Lithophylloideae was the development of tetra/bisporangial conceptacle roofs by filaments surrounding and interspersed among the sporangial initials. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  20. Organization of plastid genomes in the freshwater red algal order Batrachospermales (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiano, Monica Orlandi; Del Cortona, Andrea; Costa, Joana F; Liu, Shao-Lun; Verbruggen, Heroen; De Clerck, Olivier; Necchi, Orlando

    2017-10-27

    Little is known about genome organization in members of the order Batrachospermales, and the infra-ordinal relationship remains unresolved. Plastid (cp) genomes of seven members of the freshwater red algal order Batrachospermales were sequenced, with the following aims: 1) to describe the characteristics of cp genomes and compare these with other red algal groups; 2) to infer the phylogenetic relationships among these members to better understand the infra-ordinal classification. Cp genomes of Batrachospermales are large, with several cases of gene loss, they are gene-dense (high gene content for the genome size and short intergenic regions) and have highly conserved gene order. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated nucleotide genome data roughly supports the current taxonomic system for the order. Comparative analyses confirm data for members of the class Florideophyceae that cp genomes in Batrachospermales is highly conserved, with little variation in gene composition. However, relevant new features were revealed in our study: genome sizes in members of Batrachospermales are close to the lowest values reported for Florideophyceae; differences in cp genome size within the order are large in comparison to other orders (Ceramiales, Gelidiales, Gracilariales, Hildenbrandiales and Nemaliales); and members of Batrachospermales have the lowest number of protein coding genes among the Florideophyceae. In terms of gene loss, apcF, which encodes the allophycocyanin beta subunit, is absent in all sequenced taxa of Batrachospermales. We reinforce that the interordinal relationships between the freshwater orders Batrachospermales and Thoreales within the Nemaliophycidae is not well resolved due to limited taxon sampling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Ecotypic variation in Cystoclonium purpureum (Rhodophyta) synchronizes life history events in different regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, F.J; Breeman, Arno; Venekamp, L.A.H.

    Temperature and daylength responses were determined in culture for isolates of the red alga Cystoclonium purpureum (Hudson) Batters from Nova Scotia (NS, Canada), Helgoland (HE, Germany), and Roscoff (RO, France). Most isolates survived temperatures of -1.5 degrees/-2 degrees to 23 degrees C,

  2. Seasonal changes in the pigment composition of natural population of Gracilaria domingensis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinaelza Castelo Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of phycobiliproteins (phycoerythrin and phycocyanin, chlorophyll-a and total soluble proteins were determined monthly in three strains (red, green and brown of Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing Sonder ex Dickie, collected from natural populations on the coast of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. In all the strains, pigment and protein concentrations were higher in the months of less sunlight and greater nitrogen availability and decreased gradually with increased sunlight and decreased nutrient concentration. The red strain showed higher concentrations of phycoerythrin and total soluble proteins. The difference in the concentration of biochemical components over the course of the year indicates species acclimation to different environmental conditions.

  3. Effects of light quality on reproduction, growth and pigment content of Gracilaria birdiae (Rhodophyta: Gracilariales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bonomi Barufi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gracilaria species are the main source of agar worldwide. Since laboratory cultivation is an important means of sustaining such production, this study aimed to assess the influence of two fundamental strategies of physiological algae adjustment, photoacclimation and photomorphogenesis, on G. birdiae physiology. Specifically, the effects of different spectral light qualities on reproduction, growth, and pigment content in two distinct photoperiods (8 and 14 hours were examined. Tetrasporophytes and gametophytes were submitted to different light qualities: white, green, red, and blue over the course of nine weeks. At the end of this period, chlorophyll a, allophycocyanin, phycocyanin, and phycoerythrin contents were analysed. Gametophytes showed reproductive structures only under monochromatic radiation. A stimulatory effect on tetrasporangium differentiation was mainly observed under red light, but this high fertility was negatively correlated with growth rate, i.e. algae cultivated under red light showed the lowest growth rate. However, while growth rates were higher in algae exposed to white light, they were similar to those observed in algae subjected to green light and 14 hours of daylight. PE was the predominant pigment, irrespective of light quality. Phycocyanin and phycoerythrin concentration increased when algae were cultivated under green and blue light. Therefore, considering future management prospects for G. birdiae mariculture, we suggest that red light could be utilized as a reproductive inductor to produce tetraspores. Furthermore, if the aim is to achieve high phycoerythrin content, continuous blue light could be applied during a short photoperiod. Indeed, the combination of different wavelengths could allow better economic resource exploitation.

  4. Discovery of the mineral brucite (magnesium hydroxide) in the tropical calcifying alga Polystrata dura (Peyssonneliales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Merinda C; Russell, Bayden D; Dixon, Kyatt R; Liu, Minglu; Xu, Huifang

    2015-06-01

    Red algae of the family Peyssonneliaceae typically form thin crusts impregnated with aragonite. Here, we report the first discovery of brucite in a thick red algal crust (~1 cm) formed by the peyssonnelioid species Polystrata dura from Papua New Guinea. Cells of P. dura were found to be infilled by the magnesium-rich mineral brucite [Mg(OH)2 ]; minor amounts of magnesite and calcite were also detected. We propose that cell infill may be associated with the development of thick (> ~5 mm) calcified red algal crusts, integral components of tropical biotic reefs. If brucite infill within the P. dura crust enhances resistance to dissolution similarly to crustose coralline algae that infill with dolomite, then these crusts would be more resilient to future ocean acidification than crusts without infill. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  5. Population Studies and Carrageenan Properties in Eight Gigartinales (Rhodophyta) from Western Coast of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Leonel

    2013-01-01

    Eight carrageenophytes, representing seven genera and three families of Gigartinales (Florideophyceae), were studied for 15 months. The reproductive status, dry weight, and carrageenan content have been followed by a monthly random sampling. The highest carrageenan yields were found in Chondracanthus acicularis (61.1%), Gigartina pistillata (59.7%), and Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus (58.0%). Species of Cystocloniaceae family produces predominantly iota-carrageenans; Gigartinaceae family produces hybrid kappa-iota carrageenans (gametophytic plants) and lambda-family carrageenans (sporophytic plants); Phyllophoraceae family produces kappa-iota-hybrid carrageenans. Quadrate destructive sampling method was used to determine the biomass and line transect. Quadrate nondestructive sampling method, applied along a perpendicular transect to the shoreline, was used to calculate the carrageenophytes cover in two periods: autumn/winter and spring/summer. The highest cover and biomass were found in Chondrus crispus (3.75%–570 g/m2), Chondracanthus acicularis (3.45%–99 g/m2), Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus (2.45%–207.5 g/m2), and Mastocarpus stellatus (2.02%–520 g/m2). PMID:24288514

  6. Population Studies and Carrageenan Properties in Eight Gigartinales (Rhodophyta from Western Coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight carrageenophytes, representing seven genera and three families of Gigartinales (Florideophyceae, were studied for 15 months. The reproductive status, dry weight, and carrageenan content have been followed by a monthly random sampling. The highest carrageenan yields were found in Chondracanthus acicularis (61.1%, Gigartina pistillata (59.7%, and Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus (58.0%. Species of Cystocloniaceae family produces predominantly iota-carrageenans; Gigartinaceae family produces hybrid kappa-iota carrageenans (gametophytic plants and lambda-family carrageenans (sporophytic plants; Phyllophoraceae family produces kappa-iota-hybrid carrageenans. Quadrate destructive sampling method was used to determine the biomass and line transect. Quadrate nondestructive sampling method, applied along a perpendicular transect to the shoreline, was used to calculate the carrageenophytes cover in two periods: autumn/winter and spring/summer. The highest cover and biomass were found in Chondrus crispus (3.75%–570 g/m2, Chondracanthus acicularis (3.45%–99 g/m2, Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus (2.45%–207.5 g/m2, and Mastocarpus stellatus (2.02%–520 g/m2.

  7. Two new growth inhibition tests with the filamentous algae Ceramium strictum and C. tenuicorne (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Ellen; Eklund, Britta

    2003-01-01

    Two growth inhibition tests using the red marine macroalgae Ceramium strictum and the brackish water relative C. tenuicorne have been developed. Besides using phenol as a reference substance, the toxicity of a metal, a flame retardant and a complex effluent water were assayed. The two methods are reliable and repeatable bioassays for salinities between 4 and 30 per thousandth. The coefficients of variation (CV) for toxicity of the reference substance phenol were 15% for the Stereo Microscope Analysis test and between 24 and 51% for the Computer Image Analysis test (n=5). Ceramium spp. are common and important primary producers in temperate coastal waters and are thus relevant as test organisms. Both algae grow well in laboratorial conditions and tests can be performed all year around.

  8. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS WITHIN THE STYLONEMATALES (STYLONEMATOPHYCEAE, RHODOPHYTA): BIOGEOGRAPHIC PATTERNS DO NOT APPLY TO STYLONEMA ALSIDII(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarello, Giuseppe C; West, John A; Kikuchi, Norio

    2008-04-01

    The Stylonematales is the sole order of the Stylonematophyceae. The order consists of a mixture of filamentous or unicellular taxa that are small, grow on various surfaces, and are described from many floras, indicating that they may be cosmopolitan. Such ubiquity has been proposed to be due to properties of microorganisms, such as large population sizes, rather than human-derived phenomena. While their small nature makes most records fortuitous, we targeted these red algae to get a better understanding of their global distribution, genetic variation, and phylogeographic relationships. Our results indicated that the genera are mostly well supported, except for the position of Stylonema cornu-cervi with Goniotrichopsis reniformis, while intergeneric relationships are mostly unsupported. The most commonly isolated species was Stylonema alsidii. Within this species, several well-supported clades were present. The phylogeographic relationships in S. alsidii showed no obvious biogeographic pattern, with supported clades containing samples from disparate locations, and multiple samples from the same area not grouping together. Some clades showed little genetic variation and wide distributions, possibly indicating human-derived dispersal. Other clades, also with wide distribution, showed more genetic structure and could be candidates for groups formed by natural long-distance dispersal. While all issues on ubiquity cannot be answered with this data set, it would appear that at least S. alsidii is a true ubiquitous taxon. The sister relationship of Rufusia pilicola to the remaining Stylonematophyceae, the presence of the carbohydrate floridoside, and this species' unusual habitat indicate that it belongs to a new order, Rufusiales. © 2008 Phycological Society of America.

  9. Physiological responses of macroalga Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) to UV-B radiation exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Xiao, Hui; Wang, Ying; Jian, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Zhipeng; Zhang, Huanxin; Tang, Xuexi

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVBR) on Gracilaria lemaneiformis, a commercial red macroalga and an important source of agar. To study the in-vitro effect of UVBR on G. lemaneiformis, this plant was cultivated and exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 40 μmol photons/(m2 ·s) and enhanced UVBR (0, 0.36, 0.72, 1.08, 1.44, and 1.80 kJ/(m2 ·d)) for 13 days. The samples were processed for histochemical analysis, and the growth rate, photosynthetic pigment contents, photosynthetic performance, reactive oxygen species levels, membrane permeability, malonyl dialdehyde contents and antioxidant capacity of G. lemaneiformis were investigated. After 13 days of exposure to PAR+UVBR, G. lemaneiformis showed photodamage and photoinhibition of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin), leading to a decreased photosynthetic efficiency. Further, there was a corresponding decrease in the relative growth rates and depigmentation and partial necrosis of the apical segments were noted after exposure to PAR+UVBR. Additionally, UVBR induced excess production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide, eliciting a marked cellular membrane damage and antioxidative response.

  10. Rheological behavior and non-enzymatic degradation of a sulfated galactan from Halymenia durvillei (Halymeniales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoradosoa, Taratra André; Laroche, Céline; Delattre, Cedric; Dulong, Virginie; Le Cerf, Didier; Picton, Luc; Michaud, Philippe

    2012-07-01

    The rheological behavior of a sulfated galactan extracted from Halymenia durvillei, a red seaweed collected in the coastal waters of a small island of Madagascar (Nosy-be in Indian Ocean), was investigated in dilute and semi-dilute solutions. In dilute solution with NaCl at 0.3 M, the polysaccharide adopted a coil conformation whereas, at higher concentrations, the polymer had the behavior of shear-thinning fluid, typical of polymer with high molar mass or semi-rigid conformation. Degradations of this lambda carrageenan-like, using radical depolymerization, and high-pressure homogenization led to several samples of various and controlled molar masses. The measure of their intrinsic viscosities permitted the determination of the relationship of Mark-Houwink-Sakurada.

  11. Insights into the red algae and eukaryotic evolution from the genome of Porphyra umbilicalis (Bangiophyceae, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawley, Susan H; Blouin, Nicolas A; Ficko-Blean, Elizabeth; Wheeler, Glen L; Lohr, Martin; Goodson, Holly V; Jenkins, Jerry W; Blaby-Haas, Crysten E; Helliwell, Katherine E; Chan, Cheong Xin; Marriage, Tara N; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Klein, Anita S; Badis, Yacine; Brodie, Juliet; Cao, Yuanyu; Collén, Jonas; Dittami, Simon M; Gachon, Claire M M; Green, Beverley R; Karpowicz, Steven J; Kim, Jay W; Kudahl, Ulrich Johan; Lin, Senjie; Michel, Gurvan; Mittag, Maria; Olson, Bradley J S C; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L; Peng, Yi; Qiu, Huan; Shu, Shengqiang; Singer, John T; Smith, Alison G; Sprecher, Brittany N; Wagner, Volker; Wang, Wenfei; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Yan, Juying; Yarish, Charles; Zäuner-Riek, Simone; Zhuang, Yunyun; Zou, Yong; Lindquist, Erika A; Grimwood, Jane; Barry, Kerrie W; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Schmutz, Jeremy; Stiller, John W; Grossman, Arthur R; Prochnik, Simon E

    2017-08-01

    Porphyra umbilicalis (laver) belongs to an ancient group of red algae (Bangiophyceae), is harvested for human food, and thrives in the harsh conditions of the upper intertidal zone. Here we present the 87.7-Mbp haploid Porphyra genome (65.8% G + C content, 13,125 gene loci) and elucidate traits that inform our understanding of the biology of red algae as one of the few multicellular eukaryotic lineages. Novel features of the Porphyra genome shared by other red algae relate to the cytoskeleton, calcium signaling, the cell cycle, and stress-tolerance mechanisms including photoprotection. Cytoskeletal motor proteins in Porphyra are restricted to a small set of kinesins that appear to be the only universal cytoskeletal motors within the red algae. Dynein motors are absent, and most red algae, including Porphyra, lack myosin. This surprisingly minimal cytoskeleton offers a potential explanation for why red algal cells and multicellular structures are more limited in size than in most multicellular lineages. Additional discoveries further relating to the stress tolerance of bangiophytes include ancestral enzymes for sulfation of the hydrophilic galactan-rich cell wall, evidence for mannan synthesis that originated before the divergence of green and red algae, and a high capacity for nutrient uptake. Our analyses provide a comprehensive understanding of the red algae, which are both commercially important and have played a major role in the evolution of other algal groups through secondary endosymbioses.

  12. ECOTYPIC VARIATION IN PHYLLOPHORA PSEUDOCERANOIDES (RHODOPHYTA) ENSURES WINTER REPRODUCTION THROUGHOUT ITS GEOGRAPHIC RANGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOLENAAR, FJ; BREEMAN, AM

    Responses to temperature and daylength were determined in laboratory culture for isolates of the red alga Phyllophora pseudoceranoides (Gmelin) Newroth et A.R.A. Taylor from Nova Scotia, Iceland, Roscoff (France), and Helgoland (Germany). All isolates grew from 3 degrees to 25 degrees C and survived

  13. A NEW LOOK AT AN ANCIENT ORDER: GENERIC REVISION OF THE BANGIALES (RHODOPHYTA)(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Judith E; Lindstrom, Sandra C; Nelson, Wendy A; Brodie, Juliet; Lynch, Michael D J; Hwang, Mi Sook; Choi, Han-Gu; Miyata, Masahiko; Kikuchi, Norio; Oliveira, Mariana C; Farr, Tracy; Neefus, Chris; Mols-Mortensen, Agnes; Milstein, Daniela; Müller, Kirsten M

    2011-10-01

    The red algal order Bangiales has been revised as a result of detailed regional studies and the development of expert local knowledge of Bangiales floras, followed by collaborative global analyses based on wide taxon sampling and molecular analyses. Combined analyses of the nuclear SSU rRNA gene and the plastid RUBISCO LSU (rbcL) gene for 157 Bangiales taxa have been conducted. Fifteen genera of Bangiales, seven filamentous and eight foliose, are recognized. This classification includes five newly described and two resurrected genera. This revision constitutes a major change in understanding relationships and evolution in this order. The genus Porphyra is now restricted to five described species and a number of undescribed species. Other foliose taxa previously placed in Porphyra are now recognized to belong to the genera Boreophyllum gen. nov., Clymene gen. nov., Fuscifolium gen. nov., Lysithea gen. nov., Miuraea gen. nov., Pyropia, and Wildemania. Four of the seven filamentous genera recognized in our analyses already have generic names (Bangia, Dione, Minerva, and Pseudobangia), and are all currently monotypic. The unnamed filamentous genera are clearly composed of multiple species, and few of these species have names. Further research is required: the genus to which the marine taxon Bangia fuscopurpurea belongs is not known, and there are also a large number of species previously described as Porphyra for which nuclear SSU ribosomal RNA (nrSSU) or rbcL sequence data should be obtained so that they can be assigned to the appropriate genus. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  14. Pyropia plicata sp. nov. (Bangiales, Rhodophyta: naming a common intertidal alga from New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Nelson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A commonly found red alga of the upper intertidal zone of New Zealand rocky coasts is described for the first time as Pyropia plicata sp. nov. This species has been incorrectly known as Porphyra columbina Mont. (now Pyropia columbina (Mont. W.A.Nelson for many years. Pyropia plicata is widespread and common, and it is readily distinguished from other species of bladed Bangiales in New Zealand by its distinctive morphology, with pleated blades attached by a central rhizoidal holdfast.

  15. Different responses to heat shock stress revealed heteromorphic adaptation strategy of Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun Luo

    Full Text Available Pyropia has a unique heteromorphic life cycle with alternation stages between thallus and conchocelis, which lives at different water temperatures in different seasons. To better understand the different adaptation strategies for temperature stress, we tried to observe comparative biochemical changes of Pyropia haitanensis based on a short term heat shock model. The results showed that: (1 At normal temperature, free-living conchocelis contains significantly higher levels of H2O2, fatty acid-derived volatiles, the copy number of Phrboh and Phhsp70 genes,the activities of NADPH oxidase and floridoside than those in thallus. The released H2O2 and NADPH oxidase activity of conchocelis were more than 7 times higher than those of thallus. The copy number of Phrboh in conchocelis was 32 times that in thallus. (2 After experiencing heat shock at 35°C for 30 min, the H2O2 contents, the mRNA levels of Phrboh and Phhsp70, NADPH oxidase activity and the floridoside content in thallus were all significantly increased. The mRNA levels of Phrboh increased 5.78 times in 5 min, NADPH oxidase activity increased 8.45 times in 20 min. (3 Whereas, in conchocelis, the changes in fatty acids and their down-stream volatiles predominated, significantly increasing levels of saturated fatty acids and decreasing levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids occurred, and the 8-carbon volatiles were accumulated. However, the changes in H2O2 content and expression of oxidant-related genes and enzymatic activity were not obvious. Overall, these results indicate that conchocelis maintains a high level of active protective apparatus to endure its survival at high temperature, while thallus exhibit typical stress responses to heat shock. It is concluded that Pyropia haitanensis has evolved a delicate strategy for temperature adaptation for its heteromorphic life cycle.

  16. Pyropia plicata sp. nov. (Bangiales, Rhodophyta): naming a common intertidal alga from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Wendy A

    2013-01-01

    A commonly found red alga of the upper intertidal zone of New Zealand rocky coasts is described for the first time as Pyropia plicata sp. nov. This species has been incorrectly known as Porphyra columbina Mont. (now Pyropia columbina (Mont.) W.A.Nelson) for many years. Pyropia plicata is widespread and common, and it is readily distinguished from other species of bladed Bangiales in New Zealand by its distinctive morphology, with pleated blades attached by a central rhizoidal holdfast.

  17. Minimally destructive sampling of type specimens of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) recovers complete plastid and mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughey, Jeffery R; Gabrielson, Paul W; Rohmer, Laurence; Tortolani, Jacquie; Silva, Mayra; Miller, Kathy Ann; Young, Joel D; Martell, Craig; Ruediger, Erik

    2014-06-04

    Plant species, including algae and fungi, are based on type specimens to which the name of a taxon is permanently attached. Applying a scientific name to any specimen therefore requires demonstrating correspondence between the type and that specimen. Traditionally, identifications are based on morpho-anatomical characters, but recently systematists are using DNA sequence data. These studies are flawed if the DNA is isolated from misidentified modern specimens. We propose a genome-based solution. Using 4 × 4 mm(2) of material from type specimens, we assembled 14 plastid and 15 mitochondrial genomes attributed to the red algae Pyropia perforata, Py. fucicola, and Py. kanakaensis. The chloroplast genomes were fairly conserved, but the mitochondrial genomes differed significantly among populations in content and length. Complete genomes are attainable from 19(th) and early 20(th) century type specimens; this validates the effort and cost of their curation as well as supports the practice of the type method.

  18. Identification of proteins involved in desiccation tolerance in the red seaweed Pyropia orbicularis (Rhodophyta, Bangiales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cristoffanini, Camilo; Zapata, Javier; Gaillard, Fanny; Potin, Philippe; Correa, Juan A; Contreras-Porcia, Loretto

    2015-12-01

    Extreme reduction in cellular water content leads to desiccation, which, if persistent, affects the physiology of organisms, mainly through oxidative stress. Some organisms are highly tolerant to desiccation, including resurrection plants and certain intertidal seaweeds. One such species is Pyropia orbicularis, a rhodophycean that colonizes upper intertidal zones along the Chilean coast. Despite long, daily periods of air exposure due to tides, this alga is highly tolerant to desiccation. The present study examined the proteome of P. orbicularis by 2DE and LC-MS/MS analyses to determine the proteins associated with desiccation tolerance (DT). The results showed that, under natural conditions, there were significant changes in the protein profile during low tide as compared to naturally hydrated plants at high tide. These changes were mainly in newly appeared proteins spots such as chaperones, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and manganese superoxide dismutase, among others. Previously undescribed proteins under desiccation conditions included phycobiliproteins, glyoxalase I, and phosphomannomutase. These changes evidenced that several physiological responses involved in DT are activated during low tide, including decreased photosynthetic activity, increased antioxidant capacity, and the preservation of cell physiology by regulating water content, cell wall structure, and cell volume. Similar responses have been observed in resurrection plants and bryophytes exposed to desiccation. Therefore, the coordinated activation of different desiccation tolerance pathways in P. orbicularis could explain the successful biological performance of this seaweed in the upper intertidal rocky zones. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Identification and characterization of a DnaJ gene from red alga Pyropia yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiao; Li, Xianchao; Tang, Xuexi; Zhou, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Members of the DnaJ family are proteins that play a pivotal role in various cellular processes, such as protein folding, protein transport and cellular responses to stress. In the present study, we identified and characterized the full-length DnaJ cDNA sequence from expressed sequence tags of Pyropia yezoensis ( PyDnaJ) via rapid identification of cDNA ends. This cDNA encoded a protein of 429 amino acids, which shared high sequence similarity with other identified DnaJ proteins, such as a heat shock protein 40/DnaJ from Pyropia haitanensis. The relative mRNA expression level of PyDnaJ was investigated using real-time PCR to determine its specific expression during the algal life cycle and during desiccation. The relative mRNA expression level in sporophytes was higher than that in gametophytes and significantly increased during the whole desiccation process. These results indicate that PyDnaJ is an authentic member of the DnaJ family in plants and red algae and might play a pivotal role in mitigating damage to P. yezoensis during desiccation.

  20. Different responses to heat shock stress revealed heteromorphic adaptation strategy of Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qijun; Zhu, Zhenggang; Zhu, Zhujun; Yang, Rui; Qian, Feijian; Chen, Haimin; Yan, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    Pyropia has a unique heteromorphic life cycle with alternation stages between thallus and conchocelis, which lives at different water temperatures in different seasons. To better understand the different adaptation strategies for temperature stress, we tried to observe comparative biochemical changes of Pyropia haitanensis based on a short term heat shock model. The results showed that: (1) At normal temperature, free-living conchocelis contains significantly higher levels of H2O2, fatty acid-derived volatiles, the copy number of Phrboh and Phhsp70 genes,the activities of NADPH oxidase and floridoside than those in thallus. The released H2O2 and NADPH oxidase activity of conchocelis were more than 7 times higher than those of thallus. The copy number of Phrboh in conchocelis was 32 times that in thallus. (2) After experiencing heat shock at 35°C for 30 min, the H2O2 contents, the mRNA levels of Phrboh and Phhsp70, NADPH oxidase activity and the floridoside content in thallus were all significantly increased. The mRNA levels of Phrboh increased 5.78 times in 5 min, NADPH oxidase activity increased 8.45 times in 20 min. (3) Whereas, in conchocelis, the changes in fatty acids and their down-stream volatiles predominated, significantly increasing levels of saturated fatty acids and decreasing levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids occurred, and the 8-carbon volatiles were accumulated. However, the changes in H2O2 content and expression of oxidant-related genes and enzymatic activity were not obvious. Overall, these results indicate that conchocelis maintains a high level of active protective apparatus to endure its survival at high temperature, while thallus exhibit typical stress responses to heat shock. It is concluded that Pyropia haitanensis has evolved a delicate strategy for temperature adaptation for its heteromorphic life cycle.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC PERFORMANCE OF PORPHYRA YEZOENSIS (BANGIALES, RHODOPHYTA) IN CONCHOCELIS PHASE(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Qiao, Hongjin; Zhu, Jianyi; Xu, Pu; Liang, Chengwei; Zhang, Xiaowen; Ye, Naihao; Yang, Wanxin

    2012-04-01

    Photosynthetic characteristics of four Porphyra yezoensis Ueda [a taxonomic synonym of Pyropia yezoensis (Ueda) M. S. Hwang et H. G. Choi] strains in conchocelis phase were investigated and compared with one wildtype of P. yezoensis and two strains of Porphyra haitanensis T. J. Chang et B. F. Zheng [a taxonomic synonym of Pyropia haitanensis (T. J. Chang et B. F. Zheng) N. Kikuchi et M. Miyata]. Results showed that experimental strains had higher contents of chl a and carotenoids, but a lower content of total phycobiliproteins than the wildtype. Meanwhile, photochemical efficiency of PSII was measured using pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorometry technology. The value of PSII photosynthetic parameters of P. yezoensis strains were all higher than the wild strain, and the maximal quantum yields (Fv /Fm ), effective quantum yields Y(II), and relative photosynthetic electron transport rates (rETR) of P. haitanensis were higher than those of P. yezoensis. The present study verified the possibility of selective breeding of P. yezoensis using the filamentous sporophyte instead of the gametophytic thallus, the advantages being (i) nonrequirement of control of life cycle and (ii) direct and rapid cultivar improvement by artificial selection. We consider the method to be a promising technique for selective breeding of P. yezoensis cultivars. © 2012 Phycological Society of America.

  2. Differential gene expression in Pyropia columbina (Bangiales, Rhodophyta under natural hydration and desiccation conditions

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    Loretto Contreras-Porcia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In rocky shores, desiccation is triggered by daily tide changes, and experimental evidence suggests that local distribution of algal species across the intertidal rocky zone is related to their capacity to tolerate desiccation. In this context, the permanence of Pyropia columbina in the high intertidal rocky zone is explained by its exceptional physiological tolerance to desiccation. This study explored the metabolic pathways involved in tolerance to desiccation in the Chilean P. columbina, by characterizing its transcriptome under contrasting conditions of hydration. We obtained 1,410 ESTs from two subtracted cDNA libraries in naturally hydrated and desiccated fronds. Results indicate that transcriptome from both libraries contain transcripts from diverse metabolic pathways related to tolerance. Among the transcripts differentially expressed, 15% appears involved in protein synthesis, processing and degradation, 14.4% are related to photosynthesis and chloroplast, 13.1% to respiration and mitochondrial function (NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome c oxidase proteins, 10.6% to cell wall metabolism, and 7.5% are involved in antioxidant activity, chaperone and defense factors (catalase, thioredoxin, heat shock proteins, cytochrome P450. Both libraries highlight the presence of genes/proteins never described before in algae. This information provides the first molecular work regarding desiccation tolerance in P. columbina, and helps, to some extent, explaining the classical patterns of ecological distribution described for algae across the intertidal zone.

  3. CHIMERAS WITH MOSAIC PATTERN IN ARCHEOSPORE GERMLINGS OF PYROPIA YEZOENSIS UEDA (BANGIALES, RHODOPHYTA)(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Kyosuke; Abe, Tomoko

    2012-06-01

    In the marine crop Pyropia yezoensis (Ueda) M. S. Hwang et H. G. Choi, it is known that conchospores from heterozygous conchocelis develop into sectored gametophytic blades (chimeras), but archeospores asexually released from haploid blades do not usually grow into chimeric blades. In this study, chimeras with mosaic pattern consisting of the green and wildtype colors were developed from archeospores that were released from a blade piece containing a cell cluster of green color induced by heavy-ion beam irradiation. To make clear whether these archeospores were produced from the green-colored cells or the wildtype-colored cells, cell clusters of the green mutant, wildtype, and mosaic pattern were cut out from the grown chimera, and archeospores were released from each of the three blade pieces. Archeospores from the green-mutant blade piece and from the wildtype blade piece developed into only green-mutant blades and wildtype blades, respectively. In contrast, archeospores from the blade piece with mosaic pattern developed into green-mutant blades, wildtype blades, and chimeric blades with mosaic pattern of the two colors, although the frequency of the chimeras was low. Because each gametophytic cell possesses a single plastid, it is difficult to explain the occurrence of the new chimeras as a mutation of the plastid DNA. Thus, the new chimeras are considered to be due to transposable elements in Pyropia. © 2012 Phycological Society of America.

  4. Identification of a new marine algal species Pyropia nitida sp. nov. (Bangiales: Rhodophyta) from Monterey, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Leeanne K; Morales, Karina M; Hughey, Jeffery R

    2016-07-01

    An unidentified marine red algal species classified in Pyropia J. Agardh was discovered from Monterey, CA. Morphological, barcode, and complete mitochondrial genome analysis of the alga support its recognition as a new species, Pyropia nitida sp. nov. The species is a high-intertidal, winter annual that is lanceolate in shape, monostromatic, and dioecious. Based on CO1 sequences, P. nitida is closely allied with the P. nereocystis clade. The mitogenome of P. nitida is 35 313 bp in length and contains 53 genes, including two ribosomal RNAs, 24 transfer RNAs, four ribosomal proteins, two ymfs, four ORFs, and 17 genes involved in electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. The results support the recognition of P. nitida as distinct from the morphologically similar P. lanceolata.

  5. A SURVEY OF BANGIALES (RHODOPHYTA) BASED ON MULTIPLE MOLECULAR MARKERS REVEALS CRYPTIC DIVERSITY(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Hana; Saunders, Gary W

    2012-08-01

    The Bangiales is a diverse order consisting of 28 species in Canada. Morphological simplicity and similarity among species has led to taxonomic confusion and the need for molecular techniques for species identification. This study is the first to employ the standardized DNA barcode marker COI-5P in a broad floristic survey of the Bangiales in Canadian marine waters. A total of 37 species were ultimately sequenced, 29 of which occurred in Canada. Molecular results led to the synonymization of Wildemania cuneiformis with W. amplissima, as well as the description of two new species: Porphyra corallicola sp. nov. and Pyropia peggicovensis sp. nov., and discovery of another five putative new species. Comparison of the performance of COI-5P as a species identification tool relative to rbcL (large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase) and the UPA (universal plastid amplicon) revealed that, although each marker had strengths and weaknesses, the COI-5P showed the highest species-discriminatory power due to its high level of interspecific variation. The rbcL was further used to place the new species into a phylogenetic context, whereas UPA was not recommended for species identification in the Bangiales owing to within-individual heterogeneity between the two copies present in the plastid genomes in some lineages. © 2012 Phycological Society of America.

  6. Pyropia plicata sp. nov. (Bangiales, Rhodophyta): naming a common intertidal alga from New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy Nelson

    2013-01-01

    A commonly found red alga of the upper intertidal zone of New Zealand rocky coasts is described for the first time as Pyropia plicata sp. nov. This species has been incorrectly known as Porphyra columbina Mont. (now Pyropia columbina (Mont.) W.A.Nelson) for many years. Pyropia plicata is widespread and common, and it is readily distinguished from other species of bladed Bangiales in New Zealand by its distinctive morphology, with pleated blades attached by a central rhizoidal holdfast.

  7. Reproductive pattern of Pterocladiella capillacea (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta at Canary Islands (Spain, Atlantic Ocean

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    Mascha Stroobant

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To record the reproductive pattern of a natural population of Pterocladiella capillacea from G áldar (Canary Islands, Spain from February to August in relation to temperature, irradiance and photoperiod environmental conditions. Methods: Field observation of reproductive thalli was used at different seasons in the year. Results: Tetrasporophytes and vegetative thalli were observed during all the period of study, while female gametophytes bearing cystocarps have been found from May to August in correspondence with the highest water temperature and irradiance values. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the temperature may be the determining factor which regulates the presence of tetrasporophytes in the field. The constant presence of tetrasporophytes could depend on the low excursion range of water temperature (4-5 °C throughout the period of study, with the highest abundance in February at 20 °C.

  8. New Insights on the Terpenome of the Red Seaweed Laurencia dendroidea (Florideophyceae, Rhodophyta

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    Louisi Souza de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The red seaweeds belonging to the genus Laurencia are well known as halogenated secondary metabolites producers, mainly terpenoids and acetogennins. Several of these chemicals exhibit important ecological roles and biotechnological applications. However, knowledge regarding the genes involved in the biosynthesis of these compounds is still very limited. We detected 20 different genes involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoid precursors, and 21 different genes coding for terpene synthases that are responsible for the chemical modifications of the terpenoid precursors, resulting in a high diversity of carbon chemical skeletons. In addition, we demonstrate through molecular and cytochemical approaches the occurrence of the mevalonate pathway involved in the biosynthesis of terpenes in L. dendroidea. This is the first report on terpene synthase genes in seaweeds, enabling further studies on possible heterologous biosynthesis of terpenes from L. dendroidea exhibiting ecological or biotechnological interest.

  9. Formation and early development of tetraspores of Polysiphonia urceolata (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianting; Li, Dapeng; Yu, Shenhui; Liu, Jidong; Duan, Delin

    2009-05-01

    Polysiphonia urceolata is one type of potential commercial red seaweeds used for breeding and cultivation, because of its significant biochemical and biomedical application. However, the information of breeding and seedling incubation for cultivation is limited, especially the early development. In this study, tetrasporohyte and gametophyte of P. urceolata were taken as the study materials in Huiquan Bay, Qingdao, China. The cleaned and sterilized tetrasporophytes and gametophytes were pre-cultured in sterilized seawater, then nurtured at 18°C, 25 μmol photons m-2 s-1 in 12:12 h (light:dark) photoperiod. Continuous observation under microscope showed that the early development consists of bipolar division stage and seedling stage. In the division stage, tetraspores germinate into bipolar sporelings that further differentiate into a colorless rhizoidal portion and a lightly pigmented upright shoot. The lightly pigmented rhizoidal cell develops to a rhizoid and the larger pigmented cell transforms to an erect axis. In the seedling stage, several quasi-protuberances appear on the erect axis and form juvenile seedlings. The results demonstrate the culture of P. urceolata from tetraspores under laboratory conditions.

  10. Transcriptomic analysis of the red seaweed Laurencia dendroidea (Florideophyceae, Rhodophyta and its microbiome

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    de Oliveira Louisi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seaweeds of the Laurencia genus have a broad geographic distribution and are largely recognized as important sources of secondary metabolites, mainly halogenated compounds exhibiting diverse potential pharmacological activities and relevant ecological role as anti-epibiosis. Host-microbe interaction is a driving force for co-evolution in the marine environment, but molecular studies of seaweed-associated microbial communities are still rare. Despite the large amount of research describing the chemical compositions of Laurencia species, the genetic knowledge regarding this genus is currently restricted to taxonomic markers and general genome features. In this work we analyze the transcriptomic profile of L. dendroidea J. Agardh, unveil the genes involved on the biosynthesis of terpenoid compounds in this seaweed and explore the interactions between this host and its associated microbiome. Results A total of 6 transcriptomes were obtained from specimens of L. dendroidea sampled in three different coastal locations of the Rio de Janeiro state. Functional annotations revealed predominantly basic cellular metabolic pathways. Bacteria was the dominant active group in the microbiome of L. dendroidea, standing out nitrogen fixing Cyanobacteria and aerobic heterotrophic Proteobacteria. The analysis of the relative contribution of each domain highlighted bacterial features related to glycolysis, lipid and polysaccharide breakdown, and also recognition of seaweed surface and establishment of biofilm. Eukaryotic transcripts, on the other hand, were associated with photosynthesis, synthesis of carbohydrate reserves, and defense mechanisms, including the biosynthesis of terpenoids through the mevalonate-independent pathway. Conclusions This work describes the first transcriptomic profile of the red seaweed L. dendroidea, increasing the knowledge about ESTs from the Florideophyceae algal class. Our data suggest an important role for L. dendroidea in the primary production of the holobiont and the role of Bacteria as consumers of organic matter and possibly also as nitrogen source. Furthermore, this seaweed expressed sequences related to terpene biosynthesis, including the complete mevalonate-independent pathway, which offers new possibilities for biotechnological applications using secondary metabolites from L. dendroidea.

  11. Comparison growth of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Solieriaceae cultivation in floating cage and longline in Indonesia

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    Ma’ruf Kasim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, cultivation using cages for Kappaphycus alvarezii was limited reported before. This study aims to reveal growth of K. alvarezii cultivated in floating cages and longline. The study was conducted in one of cultivation areas in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Total gross weight, propagule growth rate and specific growth rate were performing in this study. During our field experiment, total gross weight of K. alvarezii after 40 days, from 5 kg was growth to 22.5 ± 1.40 kg and 38.8 ± 1.6 kg on longline and floating cages, respectively. Propagule growth rate after 40 days, from 50 g was 107.8 ± 7.0 g and 152.5 ± 7.9 g during April, and 132.0 ± 8.0 g and 218.8 ± 8.6 g during August, on longline and floating cage, respectively. Specific growth rate of K. alvarezii was high during August, 2.43% day−1 and 3.69% day−1 cultivated in longline and floating cage, respectively. Propagule morphology was white and damage in 40% cultivated by longline and no damage by using floating cage particular in August and September while high dense of herbivorous fish surrounding the experimental sites.

  12. Mechanisms of metal tolerance in marine macroalgae, with emphasis on copper tolerance in Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moenne, Alejandra; González, Alberto; Sáez, Claudio A

    2016-07-01

    Green and red macroalgae are closely related organisms, and with terrestrial plants, and constitute the base of marine food webs in coastal ecosystems. Green and red seaweeds, as all living organisms, require essential metals, such as copper, iron, zinc, which can act as co-factors for several proteins and enzymes; however, these metals in excess can induce stress and impair cell viability. Most important negative effects of metal excess are related to the induction of an oxidative stress condition, characterized by the over-accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). In this respect, copper, abundant in wastewaters disposed to coastal environments from domestic and industrial activities, has been one of the most studied metals. Different investigations have provided evidence that green and red macroalgae display several defenses against copper excess to prevent, or at least reduce, stress and damage, among which are cellular exclusion mechanisms, synthesis of metal-chelating compounds, and the activation of the antioxidant system. Most important defense mechanisms identified in green and red seaweed involve: metal-binding to cell wall and epibionts; syntheses of metallothioneins and phytochelatins that accumulate in the cytoplasm; and the increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase, and greater production of antioxidant metabolites as glutathione and ascorbate in organelles and the cytoplasm. In this review, we go through historical records, latest advances, and pending tasks aiming to expand our current knowledge on defense mechanisms to copper excess in green and red macroalgae, with emphasis on biochemical and molecular aspects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficient photoreactivation of UVBR-induced DNA damage in the sublittoral macroalga Rhodymenia pseudopalmata (Rhodophyta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pakker, H; Beekman, C.A C; Breeman, Arno

    Repair of DNA damage induced by ultraviolet-B radiation (UVBR) was investigated in the sublittoral red alga Rhodymenia pseudopalmata at different temperatures, using immunofluorescent detection of thymine dimers. Photoreactivation of thymine dimers was completed within about 3 h at 6, 12 and 18

  14. Eukaryotic Life Inhabits Rhodolith-forming Coralline Algae (Hapalidiales, Rhodophyta), Remarkable Marine Benthic Microhabitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayesky-Self, Sherry; Schmidt, William E.; Phung, Delena; Henry, Caroline; Sauvage, Thomas; Camacho, Olga; Felgenhauer, Bruce E.; Fredericq, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Rhodoliths are benthic calcium carbonate nodules accreted by crustose coralline red algae which recently have been identified as useful indicators of biomineral changes resulting from global climate change and ocean acidification. This study highlights the discovery that the interior of rhodoliths are marine biodiversity hotspots that function as seedbanks and temporary reservoirs of previously unknown stages in the life history of ecologically important dinoflagellate and haptophyte microalgae. Whereas the studied rhodoliths originated from offshore deep bank pinnacles in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, the present study opens the door to assess the universality of endolithic stages among bloom-forming microalgae spanning different phyla, some of public health concerns (Prorocentrum) in marine ecosystems worldwide.

  15. Zonação de comunidade bêntica do entremarés em molhes sob diferente hidrodinamismo na costa norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Zonation of intertidal benthic communities on breakwaters of different hydrodynamics in the north coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno P. Masi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo pretende comparar a distribuição vertical da comunidade bêntica na zona entremarés em dois locais compostos por matacões graníticos caracterizados por hidrodinâmica distinta, reflexo da diferença na orientação dos molhes nas praias do Farol de São Tomé (Píer e na Barra do Furado (Barra, norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Quadrados de 400 cm² foram sobrepostos ao longo de três perfis verticais de ambos os sítios e amostrados através do método de fotoquadrats, desde o nível 0,2 m da maré até o limite superior de Littorina spp. O limite superior dos organismos marinhos foi ampliado na Barra (3,8 m em relação ao Píer (2,2 m. Quanto à composição taxonômica, nove espécies foram comuns. Chaetomorpha sp., Chondracanthus teedii (Mertens ex Roth Fredericq e Grateloupia sp. foram exclusivas na Barra, enquanto Tetraclita stalactifera (Lamarck, 1818, Fissurella clench, Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing Sonder ex Dickie e Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu. Lamouroux ocorreram somente no Píer. Em ambos os locais, a riqueza e a diversidade de espécies foram superiores nos quadrados intermediários. Os maiores valores foram registrados na Barra. As maiores diferenças nos agrupamentos entre faixas equivalentes de locais distintos ocorreram na faixa eulitorânea superior, seguida pela faixa eulitorânea inferior e franja sublitorânea. Apenas a orla litorânea não revelou diferença significativa entre os locais, mas uma maior extensão desta franja e da faixa eulitorânea superior era bastante evidente. As demais faixas na Barra do Furado foram caracterizadas em grande parte por espécies típicas de ambientes mais expostos como Chaetomorpha sp. na faixa eulitorânea superior e Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758 na eulitorânea inferior, além de C. teedii e Ulva fasciata Delile, 1813 na franja sublitorânea. No Píer, as diferentes faixas apresentavam distribuição eqüitativa, refletindo um ambiente menos

  16. Distribución y variación morfológica de Amphiroa beauvoisii (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) en México Distribution and morphological variation of Amphiroa beauvoisii (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) in Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luz Elena Mateo-Cid; Raúl Aguilar-Rosas; A. Catalina Mendoza-González; Luis E. Aguilar-Rosas

    2008-01-01

    ... Pacífico desde islas Coronados, Baja California hasta La Ventosa, Oaxaca, siendo muy frecuente en el golfo de California y en los estados de Jalisco, Guerrero y Oaxaca, mientras que en la costa atlántica su...

  17. Comparison of RNA expression profiles on generations of Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta, based on suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH

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    Shen Songdong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porphyra yezoensis Ueda is one of the most important edible seaweed, with a dimorphic life cycle which consists of gametophyte as macroscopical blade and sporophyte as microscopic filamentous. Conspicuous differences exist in the two generations, such as morphology, cell structure, biochemistry, physiology, and so on. The developmental process of Porphyra yezoensis has been studied thoroughly, but the mechanism is still ambiguous and few studies on genetic expression have been carried out. In this study, the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH method conducted to generate large-scale expressed sequence tags (EST is designed to identify gene candidates related to the morphological and physiological differences between the gametophytic and sporophytic generations of Porphyra yezoensis Ueda. Findings Each 300 clones of sporophyte and gametophyte cells were dipped onto the membrane for hybridization. The result of dot-blot suggested there were 222 positive clones in gametophyte library and 236 positive clones in sporophyte library. 383 positive clones of strongest signals had been sequenced, and 191 EST sequences of gametophyte and 192 of sporophyte were obtained. A total of 196 genes were obtained, within which 104 genes were identified from the gametophyte and 92 from the sporophyte. Thirty-nine genes of the gametophyte and 62 genes of the sporophyte showed sequence similarity to those genes with known or putative functions which were classified according to their putative biological roles and molecular functions. The GO annotation showed about 58% of the cellular component of sporophyte and gametophyte cells were mainly located in cytoplasm and nucleus. The special genes were located in Golgi apparatus, and high expression in plastid, ribosome and endoplasmic reticulum. The main biological functions of gametophyte cells contributed to DNA repair/replication, carbohydrate metabolism, transport and transcription, especially in response to heat and oxidative stress. The sporophyte cell expresses more genes in transcription, transport, carbohydrate metabolism, particularly in signal transduction, DNA and protein modification, protein and nucleotide metabolism. Four genes are expressed on both gametophyte and sporophyte cells and eighteen genes have not been annotated. Conclusion According to the information of GO annotation, the gametophyte tends to growth and self- protection while the sporophyte tends to be more active in development. Interpretation of the differentially expressed genes revealed new insights into the molecular processes of the generation alternation of Porphyra yezoensis. Further investigation are needed due to insufficiency of functional genes research and indeterminancy of the functions of many sequences.

  18. Divergence time, historical biogeography and evolutionary rate estimation of the order Bangiales (Rhodophyta) inferred from multilocus data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuipeng; Tang, Xianghai; Wang, Lu; Yu, Xinzi; Sun, Peipei; Mao, Yunxiang

    2017-08-01

    Bangiales is the only order of the Bangiophyceae and has been suggested to be monophyletic. This order contains approximately 190 species and is distributed worldwide. Previous molecular studies have produced robust phylogenies among the red algae, but the divergence times, historical biogeography and evolutionary rates of Bangiales have rarely been studied. Phylogenetic relationships within the Bangiales were examined using the concatenated gene sets from all available organellar genomes. This analysis has revealed the topology ((( Bangia, Porphyra ) Pyropia ) Wildemania ). Molecular dating indicates that Bangiales diversified approximately 246.40 million years ago (95% highest posterior density (HPD)= 194.78u2013318.24 Ma, posterior probability (PP)=0.99) in the Late Permian and Early Triassic, and that the ancestral species most likely originated from eastern Gondwanaland (currently New Zealand and Australia) and subsequently began to spread and evolve worldwide. Based on pairwise comparisons, we found a slower rate of nucleotide substitutions and lower rates of diversification in Bangiales relative to Florideophyceae. Compared with Viridiplantae (green algae and land plants), the evolutionary rates of Bangiales and other Rhodophyte groups were found to be dramatically faster, by more than 3-fold for plastid genome (ptDNA) and 15-fold for mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). In addition, an average 2.5-fold lower dN/dS was found for the algae than for the land plants, which indicates purifying selection of the algae.

  19. A molecular phylogeny of the bladed Bangiales (Rhodophyta) in China provides insights into biodiversity and biogeography of the genus Pyropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-En; Zhou, Wei; Hu, Chuan-Ming; Deng, Yin-Yin; Xu, Guang-Ping; Zhang, Tao; Russell, Stephen; Zhu, Jian-Yi; Lu, Qin-Qin; Brodie, Juliet

    2017-11-24

    A molecular taxonomic study was undertaken for the first time of the bladed Bangiales of the mainland coast of China (Northwest Pacific) based on sequence data of 201 plastid rbcL and 148 nuclear 18S sequences of historical and contemporary specimens. The results revealed that only one genus of bladed Bangiales, Pyropia, was present along Chinese coast. Species delimitation was determined using two empirical methods: the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) and General Mixed Yule Coalescence (GMYC) coupled with detection of monophyly in tree reconstruction. At least fourteen species of Pyropia were recovered. Six species were confirmed that had been recorded previously based on morphology (Py. suborbiculata, Py. yezoensis, Py. haitanensis, Py. katadae, Py. tenera and Py. acanthophora), three species were recorded from China for the first time (Py. kinositae, Py. pseudolinearis and Py. tanegashimensis), and five cryptic species that did not match any molecular sequences were also discovered. The phylogeny of the concatenated rbcL and 18S dataset resolved three singletons and four clades. Each clades has a strong trend towards occupying a biogeographic region, but they are not confined to them. A transoceanic and antitropical pattern of distribution was found for Pyropia at both the subgeneric and species level. This together with high biodiversity (ca. 30% of all known Pyropia species) indicates that the Northwest Pacific might act as a centre of origin for modern distribution of Pyropia since the early Cenozoic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of UV-B irradiation on isoforms of antioxidant enzymes and their activities in red alga Grateloupia filicina (Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiqiang; Li, Lixia

    2014-11-01

    Macroalgae in a littoral zone are inevitably exposed to UV-B irradiance. We analyzed the effects of UV-B on isoenzyme patterns and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) of red algae Grateloupia filicina (Lamour.) C. Agardh. The activities of SOD, CAT, and APX changed in response to UV-B in a time- and dose-dependent manner. POX activity increased significantly under all three UV-B treatments. The enzymatic assay showed three distinct bands of SODI (Mn-SOD), SODII (Fe-SOD), and SODIII (CuZn-SOD) under a low (Luv) and medium (Muv) dose of UV-B irradiation, while SODI and SODIII activities decreased significantly when exposed to a high dose of UV-B irradiation (Huv). The activity of POX isoenzymes increased significantly after exposure to UV-B, which is consistent with the total activity. In addition, a clear decrease in activity of CATIV was detected in response to all the three doses of UV treatments. Some bands of APX isoenzyme were also clearly influenced by UV-B irradiation. Correspondingly, the daily growth rate declined under all the three exposure doses, and was especially significant under Muv and Huv treatments. These data suggest that, although the protection mechanisms of antioxidant defense system are partly inducible by UV-B to prevent the damage, G. filicina has incomplete tolerance to higher UV-B irradiation stress.

  1. The coralline genera Sporolithon and Heydrichia (Sporolithales, Rhodophyta) clarified by sequencing type material of their generitypes and other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Joseph L; Sauvage, Thomas; Schmidt, William E; Fredericq, Suzanne; Hughey, Jeffery R; Gabrielson, Paul W

    2017-10-01

    Interspecific systematics in the red algal order Sporolithales remains problematic. To re-evaluate its species, DNA analyses were performed on historical type material and recently collected specimens assigned to the two genera Sporolithon and Heydrichia. Partial rbcL sequences from the lectotype specimens of Sporolithon ptychoides (the generitype species) and Sporolithon molle, both from El Tor, Egypt, are exact matches to field-collected topotype specimens. Sporolithon crassum and Sporolithon erythraeum also have the same type locality; material of the former appears to no longer exist, and we were unable to PCR amplify DNA from the latter. A new species, Sporolithon eltorensis, is described from the same type locality. We have not found any morpho-anatomical characters that distinguish these three species. No sequenced specimens reported as S. ptychoides from other parts of the world represent this species, and likely reports of S. ptychoides and S. molle based on morpho-anatomy are incorrect. A partial rbcL sequence from the holotype of Sporolithon dimotum indicates it is not a synonym of S. ptychoides, and data from the holotype of S. episporum confirm its specific recognition. DNA sequences from topotype material of Heydrichia woelkerlingii, the generitype species, and isotype material of Heydrichia cerasina confirm that these are distinct species; the taxon reported to be H. woelkerlingii from New Zealand is likely an undescribed species. Type specimens of all other Sporolithon and Heydrichia species need to be sequenced to confirm that they are distinct species; morpho-anatomical studies have proved inadequate for this task. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  2. Expression of the phycoerythrin gene of Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) in E. coli and evaluation of the bioactivity of recombinant PE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ruobing; Sui, Zhenghong; Zhang, Xuecheng; Zhang, Shuang; Qin, Song

    2007-10-01

    Phycoerythrin (PE) is one of the most important proteins involved in light capturing during photosynthesis in red algae. Its potential biological activities had gained wide concerns. In the present study, tumor cytotoxic and hydroxyl radical assay were preformed to detect the bioactivity of recombinant PE. Recombinant plasmids pGEX-PE and pBGL were transformed into E. coli BL21 to make two recombinant strains BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL). PE expressing in BEX (pGEX-PE) was validated by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the PE-GST fusion protein was mostly inclusion bodies. Specific expression of PE was confirmed by Western blotting analysis. The recombinant E. coli BEX (pGEX-PE) cells were collected and sonicated. The supernatants were reserved for the tumor cytotoxic experiments. The result of tumor cytotoxic assay indicated that the supernatants containing PE had the activity of inhibiting the growth of Hela cells and with the increase of protein concentration, the inhibiting rate increased from 37.31% to 63.26%, which showed significant difference from the control. Hydroxyl radical scavenging effect was tested with supernatants of BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL) cell lysates treated with sonication and heating. For the sonication samples, the scavenging rates of the supernatants of BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL) cell lysates were significantly higher than the negative control BL21(pGEX-4T) ( Prates increased slowly following the increase of the protein content. For the heating samples, except for the 0.2 mg mL-1 BGL (pBGL) products, the scavenging effects of the supernatants of BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL) cell lysates were stronger than that of negative control BL21(pGEX-4T). However, the effect intensity was not positively correlated with the increase of the protein concentration. Though a partially decreased hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was led by heating, the biological activity was still retained and conspicuous. This research showed that phycoerythrin protein expressing in E. coli has the potential medical and sanitarian value.

  3. Ocean acidification alleviates low-temperature effects on growth and photosynthesis of the red alga Neosiphonia harveyi (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olischläger, Mark; Wiencke, Christian

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to examine interactive effects between ocean acidification and temperature on the photosynthetic and growth performance of Neosiphonia harveyi. N. harveyi was cultivated at 10 and 17.5 °C at present (~380 µatm), expected future (~800 µatm), and high (~1500 µatm) pCO2. Chlorophyll a fluorescence, net photosynthesis, and growth were measured. The state of the carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) was examined by pH-drift experiments (with algae cultivated at 10 °C only) using ethoxyzolamide, an inhibitor of external and internal carbonic anhydrases (exCA and intCA, respectively). Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of acetazolamide (an inhibitor of exCA) and Tris (an inhibitor of the acidification of the diffusive boundary layer) on net photosynthesis was measured at both temperatures. Temperature affected photosynthesis (in terms of photosynthetic efficiency, light saturation point, and net photosynthesis) and growth at present pCO2, but these effects decreased with increasing pCO2. The relevance of the CCM decreased at 10 °C. A pCO2 effect on the CCM could only be shown if intCA and exCA were inhibited. The experiments demonstrate for the first time interactions between ocean acidification and temperature on the performance of a non-calcifying macroalga and show that the effects of low temperature on photosynthesis can be alleviated by increasing pCO2. The findings indicate that the carbon acquisition mediated by exCA and acidification of the diffusive boundary layer decrease at low temperatures but are not affected by the cultivation level of pCO2, whereas the activity of intCA is affected by pCO2. Ecologically, the findings suggest that ocean acidification might affect the biogeographical distribution of N. harveyi.

  4. Sesquiterpenes from the essential oil of Laurencia dendroidea (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta: isolation, biological activities and distribution among seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Gressler

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Two known sesquiterpenes (1R*,2S*,3R*,5S*,8S*,9R*-2,3,5,9-tetramethyltricyclo[6.3.0.0(1,5]undecan-2-ol and (1S*,2S*,3S*,5S*,8S*,9S*-2,3,5,9-tetramethyltricyclo-[6.3.0.0(1,5]undecan-2-ol were isolated for the first time from the essential oil of the red seaweed Laurencia dendroidea collected in the Brazilian coast. These compounds were not active against eight bacteria strains and the yeast Candida albicans, but showed some antioxidant activity. Both compounds were also found in other seaweed species showing that they are not exclusive taxonomic markers to the genus Laurencia.

  5. Comparative analysis of the corps en cerise in several species of Laurencia (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta from the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutue T. Fujii

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Different species of Laurencia have proven to be a rich source of natural products yielding interesting bioactive halogenated secondary metabolites, such as terpenoids and acetogenins. It is shown that such compounds are accumulated in the spherical, reniform to claviform refractive inclusions called corps en cerise (CC, which are intensively osmiophilic and located mainly in the cortical cells of the thalli and also in trichoblast cells. Up to now, it was believed that CC were present only in these two kinds of cells. Recently, however, a species of Laurencia, L. marilzae, with CC in all cells of the thallus, i.e., cortical, medullary, including the pericentral and axial cells, as well as in the trichoblasts, was described from the Canary Islands, and subsequently also reported to Brazil and Mexico. Within the Laurencia complex, only Laurencia species produce CC. Since the species of Laurencia are targets of interest for the prospection of bioactive substances due to their potential antibacterial, antifungal, anticholinesterasic, antileishmanial, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities, the present paper carries out a comparative analysis of the corps en cerise in several species of Laurencia from the Atlantic Ocean to obtain basic information that can support natural product bioprospection projects. Our results show that the number and size of the CC are constant within a species, independent of the geographical distribution, corroborating their use for taxonomical purposes to differentiate groups of species that present a lower number from those that have a higher number. In this regard, there was a tendency for the number of CC to be higher in some species of Laurencia from the Canary Islands. The presence of CC can also be used to distinguish species in which these organelles are present in all cells of the thallus from those in which CC are restricted to the cortical cells. Among the species analyzed, L. viridis displayed the most varied secondary metabolites composition, such as sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, all of which showed potent antiviral, cytotoxic, and antitumoral activities, including protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A inhibitory effects.

  6. Molecular phylogenies support taxonomic revision of three species of Laurencia (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta, with the description of a new genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Rousseau

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The systematics of the Laurencia complex was investigated using a taxon-rich data set including the chloroplast ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL gene only and a character-rich data set combining mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI-5P, the rbcL marker, and the nuclear large subunit of the ribosomal operon (LSU. Bayesian and ML analyses of these data sets showed that three species hitherto placed in the genus Laurencia J.V.Lamour. were not closely related to Laurencia s. str. Laurencia caspica Zinova & Zaberzhinskaya was the sister group of the remaining Osmundea Stackh. species, L. crustiformans McDermid joined Palisada and L. flexilis Setch. consisted of an independent lineage. In light of these results a new genus, Ohelopapa F.Rousseau, Martin-Lescanne, Payri & L.Le Gall gen. nov., is proposed to accommodate L. flexilis. This new genus is morphologically characterized by four pericentral cells in each vegetative axial segment; however, it lacks ‘corps en cerise’ in cortical cells and secondary pit connections between cortical cells, which are characteristic of Laurencia. Three novel combinations are proposed to render the classification closer to a natural system: Ohelopapa flexilis (Setch. F.Rousseau, Martin-Lescanne, Payri & L.Le Gall comb. nov., Osmundea caspica (Zinova & Zaberzhinskaya Maggs & L.M.McIvor comb. nov. and Palisada crustiformans (McDermid A.R.Sherwood, A.Kurihara & K.W.Nam comb. nov.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of Bangiadulcis atropurpurea (A. Roth W.A. Nelson and Bangia fuscopurpurea (Dillwyn Lyngbye (Bangiales, Rhodophyta in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou Jui-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of the freshwater red algae, Bangiadulcis atropurpurea, collected from the mountain waterfalls and its close species, Bangia fuscopurpurea, collected from coasts, were phylogenetically analyzed. The sequences of the rbcL gene and RuBisCO spacer region of the freshwater Bangiadulcis atropurpurea species were identical or similar to those of B. atropurpurea from Japan, North America and Europe. This result indicated that the freshwater Bangiadulcis species from Taiwan shared a common ancestor with the three above-mentioned populations and formed a distinct clade from the marine Bangia species in the phylogenetic trees. It is suggested that all the previous records on marine Bangia species should be revised and the name B. fuscopurpurea be used for the marine species in Taiwan. In this study, the freshwater alga B. atropurpurea presents a new record in the algal flora of Taiwan. This finding is important for the protection of the biodiversity of red algal flora, and provides useful information on the ecological conservation of the species in Taiwan.

  8. Radiation of the red algal parasite Congracilaria babae onto a secondary host species, Hydropuntia sp. (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poh-Kheng Ng

    Full Text Available Congracilaria babae was first reported as a red alga parasitic on the thallus of Gracilaria salicornia based on Japanese materials. It was circumscribed to have deep spermatangial cavities, coloration similar to its host and the absence of rhizoids. We observed a parasitic red alga with morphological and anatomical features suggestive of C. babae on a Hydropuntia species collected from Sabah, East Malaysia. We addressed the taxonomic affinities of the parasite growing on Hydropuntia sp. based on the DNA sequence of molecular markers from the nuclear, mitochondrial and plastid genomes (nuclear ITS region, mitochondrial cox1 gene and plastid rbcL gene. Phylogenetic analyses based on all genetic markers also implied the monophyly of the parasite from Hydropuntia sp. and C. babae, suggesting their conspecificity. The parasite from Hydropuntia sp. has a DNA signature characteristic to C. babae in having plastid rbcL gene sequence identical to G. salicornia. C. babae is likely to have evolved directly from G. salicornia and subsequently radiated onto a secondary host Hydropuntia sp. We also recommend the transfer of C. babae to the genus Gracilaria and propose a new combination, G. babae, based on the anatomical observations and molecular data.

  9. Delimiting the species Neosiphonia yendoi (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) based on COI and rbcL genetic variation in Korea and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeongseok; Yang, Mi Yeon; Kim, Myung Sook

    2016-09-01

    Although the marine red algal genus Neosiphonia is well characterized, many species of Neosiphonia are poorly understood. To correctly define the species delimitation of Neosiphonia yendoi using genetic variation, owing to the confusion over identification with " N. sphaerocarpa" from Korea, we investigated intensively the haplotype network of the mitochondrial COI and the plastid rbcL genes of specimens collected from Korea and Japan. The molecular analyses indicated that specimens collected in different sites of Korea and Japan belong to the same species, Neosiphonia yendoi and " Neosiphonia sphaerocarpa" from Korea, which is distinguished from N. sphaerocarpa from Florida and is allied with N. yendoi collected from the type locality, Muroran of Japan. A total of 29 COI and 13 rbcL haplotypes were found and the COI haplotype network shows evidence of a clear break between specimens from Jeju Island and all other locations of Korea, suggesting the possibility of cryptic diversity within N. yendoi.

  10. Reproductive phenology of three species of Gelidiales (Rhodophyta in two macroalgal communities from Tenerife (Atlantic Ocean, Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polifrone, Milena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive phenology of three species of Gelidiales, Gelidium canariense, Gelidium arbuscula and Pterocladiella capillacea, was analysed seasonally for a period of one year in two localities on the West coast of Tenerife (Atlantic Ocean, Canary Islands, Spain. Considerations are provided on sex ratio, maximum length and branch order of uprights and on the length of the thalli for each sexual and asexual phase of the Canary Islands populations. The three species were characterized by a high percentage of tetrasporophytes, while female and male gametophytes have been observed only in little proportion. Only G. canariense showed gametophytes in all seasons while the occurrence of gametophytes in G. arbuscula and Pterocladiella capillacea demonstrated a clear seasonality.

    La fenología reproductiva de tres especies de Gelidiales, Gelidium canariense, Gelidium arbuscula y Pterocladiella capillacea, ha sido analizada estacionalmente por un periodo de un año en dos localidades de la costa este de Tenerife (Oceano Atlántico, Islas Canarias, España. Se realizan consideraciones sobre sex ratio, longitud máxima y orden de ramificación de los ramets y se aporta información sobre la longitud del talo por cada fase sexual y asexual de las poblaciones canarias. Las tres especies se caracterizan por presentar un elevado porcentaje de tetrasporofitos, mientras que los gametofitos masculinos y femeninos han sido observados en proporciones reducidas. Sólo G. canariense presenta gametofitos en todas las estaciones, mientras que en G. arbuscula y Pterocladiella capillacea demostraban una clara estacionalidad.

  11. Effects of temperature on the photoreactivation of ultraviolet-B-induced DNA damage in Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pakker, H; Martins, R.S T; Boelen, P.; Buma, A.G.J.; Nikaido, O; Breeman, Arno

    The accumulation of DNA damage (thymine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts) induced by ultraviolet-B radiation was studied in Palmaria palmata (L.) O. Kuntze under different light and temperature conditions, using specific monoclonal antibodies and subsequent chemiluminescent detection. Both types of

  12. Notes on some Ceramiaceae (Rhodophyta) from Curaçao, especially those from the exposed northeast coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegenga, H.; Vroman, M.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-five species of the red algal family Ceramiaceae are reported from the exposed northeast coast of the Caribbean island of Curaçao. Some of the more interesting finds are discussed in some detail, and one species, Spermothamnion antillarum, is described as new to science. Twelve species are

  13. Metamastophora flabellata (Sonder) Setchell (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta) a new addition to the coaral reef flora, from the Andaman Sea (Indian Ocean)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Chaugule, B.B.

    Stray occurrence of Metamastophora flabellata is recorded, for the first time from the Andaman Sea, India. Earlier this alga was reported to be confined only to the coasts of southern Australia and Africa. The specimen is smaller than that described...

  14. Unusual algal turfs associated with the rhodophyta Phyllophora crispa: Benthic assemblages along a depth gradient in the Central Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Andrea; Ventura, Daniele; Gravina, Maria Flavia; Lasinio, Giovanna Jona; Belluscio, Andrea; Ardizzone, Gian Domenico

    2017-02-01

    Macroalgal assemblages dominated by the turf-forming alga Phyllophora crispa are described in detail for the first time in the Central Mediterranean Sea. This particular form of algal growth, which comprises an upper mixed layer of multiple algal species with a basal stratum formed by entangled thalli of P. crispa, was observed for the first time in 2012 along the promontory of Punta del Lazzaretto (Giglio Island, Italy). In this study, this assemblage was analysed to document the diversity of macroalgae and invertebrate associated communities and assess their distribution along a depth gradient. The algae forming turfs grow directly on the rock at low depth up to 10-15 m depth, while they grow above P. crispa from 15 m to 35 m depth, resulting in luxuriant beds covering up to 100% of the substrate. Multivariate analysis revealed clear differences regarding algae and invertebrate species richness and abundance between shallow and deep strata because of the dominance of Phyllophora crispa at depths greater than 20 m. The long laminal thalli of P. crispa favoured sessile fauna colonization, while the vagile species were principally linked to the architectural complexity of the turf layer created by the P. crispa, which increased the microhabitat diversity and favoured sediment deposition within the turf layer. The complex structures of these turf assemblages and their widespread distribution along the whole coast of the island suggest a well-established condition of the communities linked to the high natural sedimentation rate observed in the area.

  15. Chemical compositions of the marine algae Gracilaria salicornia (Rhodophyta) and Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) as a potential food source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarsa, Mehdi; Rezaei, Masoud; Ramezanpour, Zohreh; Waaland, Joseph Robert

    2012-09-01

    The nutritional compositions of two edible red (Gracilaria salicornia) and green (Ulva lactuca) seaweeds were determined to evaluate their possible uses as potential food ingredients. In general, these species contained limited amounts of lipids ranging between 0.99 and 2.00 g 100 g(-1) dry weight) and considerably high amount of minerals, especially in G. salicornia (38.91 g 100 g(-1) d.w.). The crude protein values varied between 9.58 and 10.69 g 100 g(-1) d.w. Amounts for total amino acids were 889.78 ± 22.64 mg g(-1) protein d.w. in G. salicornia and 543.3 ± 15.14 mg g(-1) protein d.w. in U. lactuca. The most abundant fatty acids were C12:0, C16:0, C20:4 ω6 and C22:5 ω3, in addition to C18:1 in G. salicornia. Both seaweed species were balanced sources of ω3 and ω6 fatty acids with a ratio of ω6/ω3 that varied between 1.2 and 1.17. Between the seaweeds investigated, high levels of K (2414.02-11 380.06 mg 100 g(-1) d.w.) were observed and the amounts of Ca, Na and Fe were higher than those reported for land plants. Thus, G. salicornia and U. lactuca may be utilised as value-added products for human nutrition purposes. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Patterns of genetic diversity of the cryptogenic red alga Polysiphonia morrowii (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) suggest multiple origins of the Atlantic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, Alexandre; Destombe, Christophe; Kim, Byeongseok; Mauger, Stéphane; Raffo, María Paula; Kim, Myung Sook; Le Gall, Line

    2016-08-01

    The red alga Polysiphonia morrowii, native to the North Pacific (Northeast Asia), has recently been reported worldwide. To determine the origin of the French and Argentine populations of this introduced species, we compared samples from these two areas with samples collected in Korea and at Hakodate, Japan, the type locality of the species. Combined analyses of chloroplastic (rbcL) and mitochondrial (cox1) DNA revealed that the French and Argentine populations are closely related and differ substantially from the Korean and Japanese populations. The genetic structure of P. morrowii populations from South Atlantic and North Atlantic, which showed high haplotype diversity compared with populations from the North Pacific, suggested the occurrence of multiple introduction events from areas outside of the so-called native regions. Although similar, the French and Argentine populations are not genetically identical. Thus, the genetic structure of these two introduced areas may have been modified by cryptic and recurrent introduction events directly from Asia or from other introduced areas that act as introduction relays. In addition, the large number of private cytoplasmic types identified in the two introduced regions strongly suggests that local populations of P. morrowii existed before the recent detection of these invasions. Our results suggest that the most likely scenario is that the source population(s) of the French and Argentine populations was not located only in the North Pacific and/or that P. morrowii is a cryptogenic species.

  17. Effects of global change factors on fatty acids and mycosporine-like amino acid production in Chroothece richteriana (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Silvera, Daniel; Pérez, Sandra; Korbee, Nathalie; Figueroa, Félix L; Asencio, Antonia D; Aboal, Marina; López-Jiménez, José Ángel

    2017-10-01

    Under natural conditions, Chroothece richteriana synthesizes a fairly high proportion of fatty acids. However, nothing is known about how environmental changes affect their production, or about the production of protective compounds, when colonies develop under full sunshine with high levels of UV radiation. In this study, wild colonies of C. richteriana were subjected to increasing temperature, conductivity, ammonium concentrations and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and UV radiations to assess the potential changes in lipid composition and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) concentration. The PERMANOVA analysis detected no differences for the whole fatty acid profile among treatments, but the percentages of α-linolenic acid and total polyunsaturated fatty acids increased at the lowest assayed temperature. The percentages of linoleic and α-linolenic acids increased with lowering temperature. γ-linolenic and arachidonic acids decreased with increasing conductivity, and a high arachidonic acid concentration was related with increased conductivity. The samples exposed to UVB radiation showed higher percentages of eicosapentaenoic acid and total monounsaturated fatty acids, at the expense of saturated fatty acids. MAAs accumulation increased but not significantly at the lowest conductivity, and also with the highest PAR and UVR exposure, while ammonium and temperature had no effect. The observed changes are probably related with adaptations of both membrane fluidity to low temperature, and metabolism to protect cells against UV radiation damage. The results suggest the potential to change lipid composition and MAAs concentration in response to environmental stressful conditions due to climate change, and highlight the interest of the species in future research about the biotechnological production of both compound types. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  18. Dietary Supplementation with the Microalga Galdieria sulphuraria (Rhodophyta Reduces Prolonged Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Carfagna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of ten-day 1% Galdieria sulphuraria dietary supplementation on oxidative damage and metabolic changes elicited by acute exercise (6-hour swimming determining oxygen consumption, lipid hydroperoxides, protein bound carbonyls in rat tissue (liver, heart, and muscle homogenates and mitochondria, tissue glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, glutathione content, and rates of H2O2 mitochondrial release. Exercise increased oxidative damage in tissues and mitochondria and decreased tissue content of reduced glutathione. Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria. G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations. Conversely, alga supplementation was not able to modify the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial release rate of hydrogen peroxide and in liver and heart antioxidant enzyme activities. The alga capacity to reduce lipid oxidative damage without reducing mitochondrial H2O2 release can be due to its high content of C-phycocyanin and glutathione, which are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals and contribute to phospholipid hydroperoxide metabolism, respectively. In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion.

  19. Studies on phycobiliproteins in Algae. VI. Light-harvesting phycobiliprotein pigments in some Rhodophyta from the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phycobiliprotein content in 5 species of red algae from the coast of the Adriatic Sea' was studied by chromatography on Sephadex G-100. The phycobiliproteins, R-phycoerythrin, C-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin were identified. The total content of phycobiliproteins ranged from 0.152 (Phyllophora nervosa to 1.874 mg•g-1 dry wt. (Plocamium cartilagineum. The dominant phycobiliproteins were found to belong to the phycocyanin group, this resulting from complementary chromatic adaptation.

  20. Insights into species diversity of associated crustose coralline algae (Corallinophycidae, Rhodophyta with Atlantic European maerl beds using DNA barcoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pardo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding in combination with morpho-anatomical analysis was applied to study the diversity of crustose coralline algae associated to two maerl beds from two protected Atlantic European areas from Brittany and Galicia —France and Spain, respectively—. Given the records of gametophytes of the maerl species Phymatolithon calcareum under crustose growth-forms, and that associated crustose coralline algae appear to be involved in the recruitment of new maerl plants, we compared the species composition between the associated crustose coralline algae to Breton and Galician maerl beds with the maerl species identified in these beds in previous DNA barcoding surveys. Our molecular results revealed higher species diversity in associated crustose coralline algae than in maerl-forming species. Nine taxa of crustose coralline algae were found in both study areas: four in Brittany and five in Galicia. Three species from Brittany were identified as Phymatolithon calcareum, Phymatolithon lamii, and Lithophyllum hibernicum. The remaining six ones were assigned to the genera Phymatolithon and Mesophyllum, along with Lithothamnion and Lithophyllum. Morpho-anatomical examination of diagnostic characters corroborated our molecular identification. Our results showed that the most representative genus of crustose coralline algae in Brittany was Phymatolithon, while in Galicia was Mesophyllum. In Brittany, Phymatolithon calcareum was found under both growth-forms, maerl and crustose coralline algae, the latter assigned to the gametophyte stage by the presence of uniporate conceptacles. The recruitment of new maerl plants involving associated crustose coralline algae with maerl beds may occur, but only we can affirm it for Phymatolithon calcareum in Brittany. By contrast, the different species composition between both growth-forms in the Galician maerl beds would indicate that the fragmentation of own free-living maerl species appears to be the most common propagation mechanism.

  1. Chemical Profile and Biological Potential of Non-Polar Fractions from Centroceras clavulatum (C. Agardh Montagne (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosana M. Debonsi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS evaluation of the hexanes and dichloromethane fractions from extracts of the red alga Centroceras clavulatum (C. Agardh Montagne. Twenty three compounds were identified, totaling ca. 42% of both fractions (0.18 g mass extract. The main constituents of the fractions were hexadecanoic acid (17.6% and pentadecanoic acid (15.9%. Several secondary metabolites with interesting biological activity, such as (--loliolide, neophytadiene, phytol were identified. In addition, several classes of secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds (e.g., phenylacetic acid, terpene derivatives, fatty acids, halogenated compound (e.g., 2-chlorocyclohexenol, lignoids, steroids, esters, amides (e.g., hexadecanamide, ketones, carboxylic acids, aldehydes and alcohols were observed. The occurrence of several of these structural classes is described for the first time in this species. The same fractions analyzed by GC-MS, and a separate set of polar fractions, were evaluated against two life cycle stages (epimastigote and trypomastigote forms of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and against phytopatogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporiodes and C. sphaerospermum. The dichloromethane fraction was active against both T. cruzi forms (epimastigote IC50 = 19.1 μg.mL−1 and trypomastigote IC50 = 76.2 μg.mL−1. The hexanes and ethyl acetate fractions also displayed activity against both fungi species (200 μg by TLC-bioautography.

  2. Uma revisita à taxonomia de algas calcárias crostosas epífitas (Corallinophycidae, Rhodophyta)

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Vanessa Poletto

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia de Fungos, Algas e Plantas, Florianópolis, 2014. As algas calcárias apresentam características que tornam o grupo um dos mais difíceis de realizar um estudo taxonômico dentre as algas vermelhas. Devido sua ampla plasticidade fenotípica decorrente de suas adaptações aos diferentes ambientes em que vivem, a sua morfologia externa não pode ser utilizada como ca...

  3. The Significance of New Records of Benthic Red Algae (Rhodophyta for Hainan Island (and China between 1990 and 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara V. Titlyanova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We present an annotated list of new finds of red algae from Hainan Island, Southern China, including those found in 1990 and 1992 during the German-Chinese expeditions to Hainan Island and in 2008–2016 by Titlyanova, Titlyanov, and Li. Between 1990 and 1992, a total of 64 taxa of red algae were newly recorded for Hainan Island. Of these 15 species were new records for China. During the period 2008–2016, a further 54 taxa were newly recorded for Hainan Island, of which 20 were new records for China. The full list of new taxa includes taxonomic forms, dates, and locales, together with known biogeographical distributions. During both periods, the apparent enrichment of red algal marine flora has occurred in a similar way—mainly at the expense of epiphytes with filamentous, thin-filamentous, and finely branched forms. We believe that the changes in the flora of Hainan Island have been influenced by both anthropogenic and natural factors including in particular exploitation of herbivores, nutrient pollution, and coral bleaching.

  4. Overview of coralline red algal crusts and rhodolith beds (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) and their possible ecological importance in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensbye, Helle; Halfar, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Coralline red algae are a globally distributed and abundant group of shallow marine benthic calcifiers. They can form important ecosystems that provide a three-dimensional habitat to a large variety of marine organisms. While the study of coralline red algae has traditionally been focused on warm...... to their function as spawning areas and nursery grounds for commercially important fish and invertebrates.......Coralline red algae are a globally distributed and abundant group of shallow marine benthic calcifiers. They can form important ecosystems that provide a three-dimensional habitat to a large variety of marine organisms. While the study of coralline red algae has traditionally been focused on warm...

  5. NH4+ enrichment and UV radiation interact to affect the photosynthesis and nitrogen uptake of Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiguang; Gao, Kunshan

    2012-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm) is known to inhibit the photosynthesis of macroalgae, whereas nitrogen availability may alter the sensitivity of the algae to UVR. Here, we show that UV-B (280-315 nm) significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate of Gracilaria lemaneiformis. This inhibition was alleviated by enrichment with ammonia, which also caused a decrease in dark respiration. The presence of both UV-A (315-400 nm) and UV-B stimulated the accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds. However, this stimulation was not affected by enrichment with ammonia. The content of phycoerythrin (PE) was increased by the enrichment of ammonia only in the absence of UVR. Ammonia uptake and the activity of nitrate reductase were repressed by UVR. However, exposure to UVR had an insignificant effect on the rate of nitrate uptake. In conclusion, increased PE content associated with ammonia enrichment played a protective role against UVR in this alga, and UVR differentially affected the uptake of nitrate and ammonia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of two precipitation methods on the yield, structural features and activity of sulfated polysaccharides from Gracilaria cornea (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Basto Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The global demand for natural products from seaweeds has increased worldwide; however, no description of the use of isoamly alcohol (IAA for obtaining of sulfated polysaccharides (SPs has been reported. We investigated the efficiency of two precipitation methods (M in obtaining SPs from the red seaweed Gracilaria cornea. SPs enzymatically isolated were concentrated with cetylpyridinium chloride (M I or IAA (M II and extracts were examined with regard to their yield, structural features and in vitro effects on the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT using normal human plasma and standard heparin (193 IU mg-1. Yield difference reached 12.99%. Quantitative determination of sulfate was similar between the two methods (̴ 26%, but extracts revealed different pattern on charge density by agarose gel electrophoresis. Whereas both extracts revealed as agarocolloids, alternative M II was also efficient for lipids, proteins and nucleic acids according to the infrared analysis. Extracts had virtually no effect on APPT (1.95 and 2 IU mg-1 for M I and M II, respectively. The results revealed IAA as an alternative solvent for obtaining SPs from the red seaweed G. cornea, depending on the industry’ usage criterion.

  7. NON-GENICULATE CORALLINE ALGAE (CORALLINALES, RHODOPHYTA FROM THE LOWER OLIGOCENE OF POLJŠICA PRI PODNARTU (NORTHERN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUKA GALE

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite their increasing importance in sedimentology and palaeoecology, non-geniculate coralline algae remain virtually overlooked in Slovenia. Though these plants are present or even abundant in the Cretaceous and Cainozoic strata, they have never been studied in detail with notable exception of corallines from the Lower Oligocene beds in the area of Gornji Grad. Poljšica pri Podnartu is another locality where Lower Oligocene beds are exposed, considered as equivalent to the former. The studied profile consists of pebbly limestone, mudstone, sandstone and limestone. Limestones contain abundant non-geniculate coralline algae. Nine species from six genera of these corallines have been identified: Lithoporella melobesioides (Foslie Foslie, 1909, Neogoniolithon contii (Mastrorilli Quaranta et al., 2007, Spongites sp., Lithothamnion sp. 1, Lithothamnion sp. 2, Mesophyllum sp. 1, Mesophyllum sp. 2, Mesophyllum sp. 3 and Sporolithon sp. Some of these species are described from Slovenia for the first time. 

  8. Comparison of RNA expression profiles on generations of Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta), based on suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Songdong; Zhang, Gaochuan; Li, Yanyan; Wang, Li; Xu, Pu; Yi, Lefei

    2011-10-20

    Porphyra yezoensis Ueda is one of the most important edible seaweed, with a dimorphic life cycle which consists of gametophyte as macroscopical blade and sporophyte as microscopic filamentous. Conspicuous differences exist in the two generations, such as morphology, cell structure, biochemistry, physiology, and so on. The developmental process of Porphyra yezoensis has been studied thoroughly, but the mechanism is still ambiguous and few studies on genetic expression have been carried out.In this study, the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method conducted to generate large-scale expressed sequence tags (EST) is designed to identify gene candidates related to the morphological and physiological differences between the gametophytic and sporophytic generations of Porphyra yezoensis Ueda. Each 300 clones of sporophyte and gametophyte cells were dipped onto the membrane for hybridization. The result of dot-blot suggested there were 222 positive clones in gametophyte library and 236 positive clones in sporophyte library. 383 positive clones of strongest signals had been sequenced, and 191 EST sequences of gametophyte and 192 of sporophyte were obtained.A total of 196 genes were obtained, within which 104 genes were identified from the gametophyte and 92 from the sporophyte. Thirty-nine genes of the gametophyte and 62 genes of the sporophyte showed sequence similarity to those genes with known or putative functions which were classified according to their putative biological roles and molecular functions. The GO annotation showed about 58% of the cellular component of sporophyte and gametophyte cells were mainly located in cytoplasm and nucleus. The special genes were located in Golgi apparatus, and high expression in plastid, ribosome and endoplasmic reticulum. The main biological functions of gametophyte cells contributed to DNA repair/replication, carbohydrate metabolism, transport and transcription, especially in response to heat and oxidative stress. The sporophyte cell expresses more genes in transcription, transport, carbohydrate metabolism, particularly in signal transduction, DNA and protein modification, protein and nucleotide metabolism. Four genes are expressed on both gametophyte and sporophyte cells and eighteen genes have not been annotated. According to the information of GO annotation, the gametophyte tends to growth and self- protection while the sporophyte tends to be more active in development. Interpretation of the differentially expressed genes revealed new insights into the molecular processes of the generation alternation of Porphyra yezoensis. Further investigation are needed due to insufficiency of functional genes research and indeterminancy of the functions of many sequences.

  9. Bioactive extracts of red seaweeds Pterocladiella capillacea and Osmundaria obtusiloba (Floridophyceae: Rhodophyta) with antioxidant and bacterial agglutination potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel Barroso de Alencar; Alexandre Holanda Sampaio; Oscarina Viana de Sousa; Silvana Saker-Sampaio; Rosa Helena Rebouças; Daniel Rodrigues dos Santos; Rebeca Larangeira de Lima; Bárbara Mendes Baracho; Rayssa Mendes Bezerra; Francisco Arnaldo Viana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant, antibacterial and bacterial cell agglutination activities of the hexane (Hex) and 70% ethanol (70% EtOH) extracts of two species of red seaweeds Pterocladiella capillacea (P. capillacea) and Osmundaria obtusiloba. Methods: In vitro antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay, ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay, ferrous ion chelating assay, β-carotene bleaching assay and total phenolic content quantification. Antimicrobial activity was tested using the method of disc diffusion on Mueller-Hinton medium. The ability of algal extracts to agglutinate bacterial cells was also tested. Results: The 70% EtOH extract of the two algae showed the highest values of total phenolic content compared to the Hex extract. The results of DPPH for both extracts (Hex, 70% EtOH) of Osmundaria obtusiloba (43.46% and 99.47%) were higher than those of P. capillacea (33.04% and 40.81%) at a concentration of 1000 μg/mL. As for the ferrous ion chelating, there was an opposite behavior, extracts of P. capillacea had a higher activity. The extracts showed a low ferric-reducing antioxidant power, with optical density ranging from 0.054 to 0.180. Antioxidant activities of all extracts evaluated for β-carotene bleaching were above 40%. There was no antibacterial activity against bacterial strains tested. However, the extracts of both species were able to agglutinate bacterial Gram positive cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative cells of Escherichia coli, multidrug-resistant Salmonella and Vibrio harveyi. Conclusions: This is the first report of the interaction between these algal extracts, rich in natural compounds with antioxidant potential, and Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial cells.

  10. New insights into the biodiversity and generic relationships of foliose Bangiales (Rhodophyta) in Iceland and the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols-Mortensen, Agnes; Neefus, Christopher D.; Nielsen, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    two-gene global phylogeny. Boreophyllum birdiae, Porphyra dioica, P. linearis, P. purpurea, P. umbilicalis, Pyropia ?leucosticta? A, Pyropia njordii Mols-Mortensen, J. Brodie Porphyra sp. FO and Pyropia elongata were reported from the Faroe Islands but not from Iceland. Boreophyllum birdiae...... is reported for the first time for Iceland and Porphyra sp. FO is reported for the first time for the Faroe Islands. Pyropia njordii is described from the Faroe Islands and is also recorded for Iceland, Greenland, New England, USA and Nova Scotia, Canada. A total of 25 foliose Bangiales species are now...

  11. The complete chloroplast genome of Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) gives new insight into the evolution of family Gracilariaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qingwei; Bi, Guiqi; Mao, Yunxiang; Sui, Zhenghong

    2016-06-01

    The complete chloroplast genome of Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis was recovered from a Next Generation Sequencing data set. Without quadripartite structure, this chloroplast genome (183,013 bp, 27.40% GC content) contains 202 protein-coding genes, 34 tRNA genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 1 tmRNA gene. Synteny analysis showed plasmid incorporation regions in chloroplast genomes of three species of family Gracilariaceae and in Grateloupia taiwanensis of family Halymeniaceae. Combined with reported red algal plasmid sequences in nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, we postulated that red algal plasmids may have played an important role in ancient horizontal gene transfer among nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial genomes. Substitution rate analysis showed that purifying selective forces maintaining stability of protein-coding genes of nine red algal chloroplast genomes over long periods must be strong and that the forces acting on gene groups and single genes of nine red algal chloroplast genomes were similar and consistent. The divergence of Gp. lemaneiformis occurred ~447.98 million years ago (Mya), close to the divergence time of genus Pyropia and Porphyra (443.62 Mya). © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  12. Four new species of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from the west coast of North America: the Pyropialanceolata species complex updated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Sandra C; Hughey, Jeffery R; Rosas, Luis E Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Recent molecular studies indicate that the Pyropialanceolata species complex on the west coast of North America is more speciose than previously thought. Based on extensive rbcL gene sequencing of representative specimens we recognize seven species in the complex, three of which are newly described: Pyropiamontereyensis sp. nov., Pyropiacolumbiensis sp. nov., and Pyropiaprotolanceolata sp. nov. The new species are all lanceolate, at least when young, and occur in the upper mid to high intertidal zone primarily in winter and early spring. Pyropiamontereyensis and Pyropiacolumbiensis are sister taxa that are distributed south and north of Cape Mendocino, respectively, and both occur slightly lower on the shore than Pyropialanceolata or Pyropiapseudolanceolata. Pyropiaprotolanceolata is known thus far only from Morro Rock and the Monterey Peninsula, California; it occurs basally to the other species in the complex in the molecular phylogeny. A fourth newly described species, Pyropiabajacaliforniensis sp. nov., is more closely related to Pyropianereocystis than to species in this complex proper. It is a thin species with undulate margins known only from Moss Landing, Monterey Bay, California, and northern Baja California; it also occurs in the high intertidal in spring. Porphyramumfordii, a high intertidal winter species that has frequently been confused with species in the Pyropialanceolata complex, has now been confirmed to occur from Calvert Island, British Columbia, to Pescadero State Park, California.

  13. Four new species of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from the west coast of North America: the Pyropia lanceolata species complex updated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Sandra C.; Hughey, Jeffery R.; Rosas, Luis E. Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent molecular studies indicate that the Pyropia lanceolata species complex on the west coast of North America is more speciose than previously thought. Based on extensive rbcL gene sequencing of representative specimens we recognize seven species in the complex, three of which are newly described: Pyropia montereyensis sp. nov., Pyropia columbiensis sp. nov., and Pyropia protolanceolata sp. nov. The new species are all lanceolate, at least when young, and occur in the upper mid to high intertidal zone primarily in winter and early spring. Pyropia montereyensis and Pyropia columbiensis are sister taxa that are distributed south and north of Cape Mendocino, respectively, and both occur slightly lower on the shore than Pyropia lanceolata or Pyropia pseudolanceolata. Pyropia protolanceolata is known thus far only from Morro Rock and the Monterey Peninsula, California; it occurs basally to the other species in the complex in the molecular phylogeny. A fourth newly described species, Pyropia bajacaliforniensis sp. nov., is more closely related to Pyropia nereocystis than to species in this complex proper. It is a thin species with undulate margins known only from Moss Landing, Monterey Bay, California, and northern Baja California; it also occurs in the high intertidal in spring. Porphyra mumfordii, a high intertidal winter species that has frequently been confused with species in the Pyropia lanceolata complex, has now been confirmed to occur from Calvert Island, British Columbia, to Pescadero State Park, California. PMID:26312033

  14. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CATALASE GENE PyCAT FROM THE RED ALGA PYROPIA YEZOENSIS (BANGIALES, RHODOPHYTA)(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian C; Xing, Yong Z; Jiang, Xue; Qiao, Jing; Tan, Hai L; Tian, Yu; Zhou, Bin

    2012-06-01

    Catalase is an antioxidant enzyme that plays a significant role in protection against oxidative stress by reducing hydrogen peroxide. The full-length catalase cDNA sequence as isolated from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Pyropia yezoensis (Ueda) M. S. Hwang et H. G. Choi (PyCAT) through rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was identified and characterized. It encoded a polypeptide of 529 amino acids, which shared 36%-44% similarity with other known catalase proteins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PyCAT was closer to the catalases from plants than from other organisms. The PyCAT mRNA expression was investigated using real-time PCR to determine life-cycle-specific expression and the expression pattern during desiccation. The mRNA expression level in gametophytes was significantly higher than in sporophytes, and the mRNA expression level of PyCAT was significantly up-regulated during the desiccation process. The recombinant PyCAT protein was purified and analyzed biochemically. The recombinant PyCAT protein exhibited high enzymatic activity (28,000 U·mg(-1) ) with high thermal stability and a broad pH range. All these results indicate that the PyCAT is a typical member of the plant and algal catalase family and may play a significant role in minimizing the effect of oxidative damage in P. yezoensis during desiccation. © 2012 Phycological Society of America.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE GENE IN PORPHYRA YEZOENSIS (RHODOPHYTA) AND CYANIDE-RESISTANT RESPIRATION ANALYSIS(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao Y; He, Lin W; Jia, Zhao J; Wang, Guang C; Peng, Guang

    2012-06-01

    The full-length cDNA of the alternative oxidase (AOX) gene from Porphyra yezoensis Ueda (PyAOX) [currently assigned as Pyropia yezoensis (Ueda) M. S. Hwang et H. G. Choi (http://www.algaebase.org)] an ancient member of the Rhodphyta, was cloned by electronic cloning, rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and reverse transcription PCR. The nucleotide sequence of PyAOX consists of 1,650 bp, including a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 170 bp, a 3' UTR of 148 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,332 bp that can be translated into a 443-amino-acid residue with a molecular mass of 47.33 kDa and a putative isoelectric point (pI) of 9.71. The putative amino acids had 50%-61% identity with AOX genes in Eukaryota and higher plants and had AOX-like characteristics. The expression of PyAOX mRNA in different stages of the life cycle, conchospores, filamentous thalli (conchocelis stage), and leafy thalli, was detected by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The highest level of expression, which was observed in filamentous thalli, was three times higher than that observed in leafy thalli. The next highest level, which was observed in the conchospores, was twice as high as that observed in leafy thalli. We showed that an alternative respiration pathway existed in P. yezoensis with a noninvasive microsensing system. The contribution of the alternative pathway to total respiration in filamentous thalli was greater than that in leafy thalli. This result was consistent with the level of AOX gene expression observed in different stages of the life cycle. © 2012 Phycological Society of America.

  16. Characterization of the global transcriptome for Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) and development of cSSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chaotian; Li, Bing; Xu, Yan; Ji, Dehua; Chen, Changsheng

    2013-02-16

    Pyropia haitanensis is an economically important mariculture crop in China and is also valuable in life science research. However, the lack of genetic information of this organism hinders the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of specific traits. Thus, high-throughput sequencing is needed to generate a number of transcriptome sequences to be used for gene discovery and molecular marker development. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was used to analyze the global transcriptome of P. haitanensis. Approximately 103 million 90 bp paired-end reads were generated using an Illumina HiSeq 2000. De novo assembly with paired-end information yielded 24,575 unigenes with an average length of 645 bp. Based on sequence similarity searches with known proteins, a total of 16,377 (66.64%) genes were identified. Of these annotated unigenes, 5,471 and 9,168 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. Searching against the KEGG database indicated that 12,167 (49.51%) unigenes mapped to 124 KEGG pathways. Among the carbon fixation pathways, almost all the essential genes related to the C3- and C4-pathways for P. haitanensis were discovered. Significantly different expression levels of three key genes (Rubisco, PEPC and PEPCK) in different lifecycle stages of P. haitanensis indicated that the carbon fixation pathway in the conchocelis and thallus were different, and the C4-like pathway might play important roles in the conchocelis stage. In addition, 2,727 cSSRs loci were identified in the unigenes. Among them, trinucleotide SSRs were the dominant repeat motif (87.17%, 2,377) and GCC/CCG motifs were the most common repeats (60.07%, 1,638). High quality primers to 824 loci were designed and 100 primer pairs were randomly evaluated in six strains of P. haitanensis. Eighty-seven primer pairs successfully yielded amplicons. This study generated a large number of putative P. haitanensis transcript sequences, which can be used for novel gene discovery and gene expression profiling analyses under different physiological conditions. A number of the cSSR markers identified can be used for molecular markers and will facilitate marker assisted selection in P. haitanensis breeding. These sequences and markers will provide valuable resources for further P. haitanensis studies.

  17. Four new species of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta from the west coast of North America: the Pyropia lanceolata species complex updated

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    Sandra C. Lindstrom

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent molecular studies indicate that the Pyropia lanceolata species complex on the west coast of North America is more speciose than previously thought. Based on extensive rbcL gene sequencing of representative specimens we recognize seven species in the complex, three of which are newly described: Py. montereyensis sp. nov., Py. columbiensis sp. nov., and Py. protolanceolata sp. nov. The new species are all lanceolate, at least when young, and occur in the upper mid to high intertidal zone primarily in winter and early spring. Pyropia montereyensis and Py. columbiensis are sister taxa that are distributed south and north of Cape Mendocino, respectively, and both occur slightly lower on the shore than Py. lanceolata or Py. pseudolanceolata. Pyropia protolanceolata is known thus far only from Morro Rock and the Monterey Peninsula, California; it occurs basally to the other species in the complex in the molecular phylogeny. A fourth newly described species, Pyropia bajacaliforniensis sp. nov., is more closely related to Py. nereocystis than to species in this complex proper. It is a thin species with undulate margins known only from Moss Landing, Monterey Bay, California, and northern Baja California; it also occurs in the high intertidal in spring. Porphyra mumfordii, a high intertidal winter species that has frequently been confused with species in the Py. lanceolata complex, has now been confirmed to occur from Calvert Island, British Columbia, to Pescadero State Park, California.

  18. Four new species of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from the west coast of North America: the Pyropia lanceolata species complex updated

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstrom, Sandra C.; Hughey, Jeffery R.; Aguilar Rosas, Luis E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent molecular studies indicate that the Pyropia lanceolata species complex on the west coast of North America is more speciose than previously thought. Based on extensive rbcL gene sequencing of representative specimens we recognize seven species in the complex, three of which are newly described: Pyropia montereyensis sp. nov., Pyropia columbiensis sp. nov., and Pyropia protolanceolata sp. nov. The new species are all lanceolate, at least when young, and occur in the upper mid to...

  19. Assessment of four molecular markers as potential DNA barcodes for red algae Kappaphycus Doty and Eucheuma J. Agardh (Solieriaceae, Rhodophyta.

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    Ji Tan

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding has been a major advancement in the field of taxonomy, seeing much effort put into the barcoding of wide taxa of organisms, macro and microalgae included. The mitochondrial-encoded cox1 and plastid-encoded rbcL has been proposed as potential DNA barcodes for rhodophytes, but are yet to be tested on the commercially important carrageenophytes Kappaphycus and Eucheuma. This study gauges the effectiveness of four markers, namely the mitochondrial cox1, cox2, cox2-3 spacer and the plastid rbcL in DNA barcoding on selected Kappaphycus and Eucheuma from Southeast Asia. Marker assessments were performed using established distance and tree-based identification criteria from earlier studies. Barcoding patterns on a larger scale were simulated by empirically testing on the commonly used cox2-3 spacer. The phylogeny of these rhodophytes was also briefly described. In this study, the cox2 marker which satisfies the prerequisites of DNA barcodes was found to exhibit moderately high interspecific divergences with no intraspecific variations, thus a promising marker for the DNA barcoding of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma. However, the already extensively used cox2-3 spacer was deemed to be in overall more appropriate as a DNA barcode for these two genera. On a wider scale, cox1 and rbcL were still better DNA barcodes across the rhodophyte taxa when practicality and cost-efficiency were taken into account. The phylogeny of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma were generally similar to those earlier reported. Still, the application of DNA barcoding has demonstrated our relatively poor taxonomic comprehension of these seaweeds, thus suggesting more in-depth efforts in taxonomic restructuring as well as establishment.

  20. Antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of three red seaweeds (Division: Rhodophyta) harvested from the Gulf of Mannar of Peninsular India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Joseph, Deepu; Praveen, Nammunayathuputhenkotta Krishnankartha

    2015-04-01

    The antioxidant activities of methanol extract and its solvent fractions (n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate) of three red seaweeds (Hypnea musciformis, H. valentiae, and Jania rubens) collected from the Gulf of Mannar of South eastern coast of India were evaluated, using different in vitro systems, viz., DPPH, ABTS, HO radical scavenging activities, H2O2 scavenging ability, Fe(2+) ion chelating ability and reducing potential. Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content of the extracts/fractions, and the results were expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g of the seaweed extracts/fractions. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) inhibition assay was employed to assess the ability of the seaweed extracts/fractions to inhibit lipid oxidation. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fractions of H. musciformis exhibited significantly higher total phenolic content (205.5 mg GAE/g), DPPH· scavenging activity (IC50 0.6 mg/mL), ABTS(.+) scavenging activity (IC50 0.51 μg/mL), Fe(2+) chelating ability (IC50 0.70 mg/mL), H2O2 scavenging activity (IC50 0.39 mg/mL), reducing ability (Abs700 nm 1.46) and lipid peroxidation inhibitory ability (2.71 MDAEC/kg) (P red seaweeds, in particular, H. musciformis as candidate species to be used as food supplement for increasing the shelf-life of food industry, and candidates in combating carcinogenesis and inflammatory diseases.

  1. Antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of three red seaweeds (Division: Rhodophyta) harvested from the Gulf of Mannar of Peninsular India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Joseph, Deepu; Praveen, Nammunayathuputhenkotta Krishnankartha

    2015-01-01

    ...) of three red seaweeds (Hypnea musciformis, H. valentiae, and Jania rubens) collected from the Gulf of Mannar of South eastern coast of India were evaluated, using different in vitro systems, viz...

  2. Notes on the Keroeididae (Anthozoa: Gorgonacea) collected in 1963 and 1964 by the International Indian Ocean Expedition of the R/V 'Anton Bruun', in the Indian Ocean, with the description of a new species, Lignella hartogi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ofwegen, van L.P.

    1990-01-01

    Keroeides koreni Wright & Studer, 1889, is diagnosed and the sclerites are figured. Lignella hartogi spec. nov. is described; its sclerites are figured and compared with those of Lignella richardii (Lamouroux, 1816).

  3. Phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of Ptilophora (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) with descriptions of P. aureolusa, P. malagasya, and P. spongiophila from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Ga Hun; Gall, Line Le; Hwang, Il Ki; Miller, Kathy Ann; Boo, Sung Min

    2018-01-05

    The genus Ptilophora currently includes 16 species occurring mostly in subtidal habitats of the Indo-Pacific Ocean, but its global diversity and biogeography are poorly understood. We analyzed mitochondrial cox1, plastid rbcL and plastid psbA sequences from specimens collected in southern Madagascar during the 2010 Atimo Vatae expedition and studied their morphologies. Both morphological and molecular data sets demonstrated the presence of five species in southern Madagascar: Ptilophora hildebrandtii, P. pterocladioides, and three new species described here, P. aureolusa, P. malagasya, and P. spongiophila. Ptilophora aureolusa is distinguished by its compound pinnae with uniformly spaced pinnules. Ptilophora malagasya has an indistinct midrib and irregularly spaced pinnules. Ptilophora spongiophila, heavily coated with sponges, has cylindrical to flattened main axes, lateral and surface proliferations, and spatulate tetrasporangial sori. The species of Ptilophora found in Madagascar are endemic, except P. hildebrandtii, which also occurs in eastern Africa. Ptilophora comprises four phylogenetic groups that map to eastern Australia, Japan, western Australia/Southeast Asia/Madagascar/eastern Africa, and Madagascar/eastern Africa/Aegean Sea. Biogeographical analysis revealed that the ancestor of Ptilophora originated in Australia, but most of the species radiated from Madagascar. © 2018 Phycological Society of America.

  4. Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta: A New Species from South China Sea Based on Morphological Observation and rbcL Gene Sequences Analysis

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    Ling Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. is a new species described from Lingshui, Hainan Province, South China Sea. Based on the external form and internal structure, combined with rbcL gene sequence analysis, Grateloupia tenuis is distinct from other Grateloupia species as follows: (1 thalli is slippery and cartilaginous in texture; possess fewer branches, relatively slight main axes, and two or three dichotomous branches; (2 cortex is 5-6 layers; medulla is solid when young, but hollow in old branches; reproductive structures are dispersed in main axes of thalli and lower portions of branchlets; exhibits Grateloupia-type auxiliary cell ampullae; (3 the four studied G. tenuis sequences were positioned in a large Grateloupia clade of Halymeniaceae, which included sister group generitype G. filicina with 68 bp differences; G. tenuis was determined to be a sister taxon to the G. catenata, G. ramosissima, G. orientalis, and G. filiformis subclade. The pairwise distances between G. tenuis and these species were 39 to 50 bp. The sequences of G. tenuis differed by 81–108 bp from the sequences of other samples in Grateloupia; there are 114–133 bp changes between G. tenuis and other genera of Halymeniaceae. In final analysis, we considered Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. to be a new species of genus Grateloupia.

  5. Molluscs associated with the macroalgae of the genus Gracilaria (Rhodophyta): importance of algal fronds as microhabitat in a hypersaline mangrove in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, R N M; Dias, T L P

    2014-08-01

    The fronds of marine macroalgae play an important role in coastal ecosystems because the algae banks are utilized as a microhabitat by different taxa, including molluscs, one of the most abundant and diverse animals of marine ecosystems. In this study, we characterized the malacofauna associated with the macroalgae Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing) Sonder ex Dickie 1874 and Gracilaria cuneata Areschoug 1854 of a hypersaline mangrove on the northern coast of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil. The first alga dominates in the rainy season and it is substituted by second one in the dry period. A total of 1,490 molluscs were surveyed, representing 56 species in 29 families: 1,081 were associated with G. domingensis and 409 with G. cuneata, the latter showing the greater diversity (H'=1.25). Columbellidae, Neritidae, Pyramidellidae and Cerithiidae were among the most representative families in the number of species and individuals. The micromolluscs were dominant in the algal microhabitat, constituting 74.63% of the malacofauna recorded. The columbellid Parvanachis obesa (C. B. Adams, 1845) was the dominant species followed by the neritid Neritina virginea (Linnaeus, 1758) in both algae. In spite of the annual alternated succession of the algae species, at least 15 mollusc species are common for these algae. Furthermore, juveniles of P. obesa were recorded in both seasons, indicating a continuous reproduction. Possible reasons for difference in abundance, diversity and dominance of molluscs living on these algae are discussed. Both species of substrate-algae represent an important microhabitat for refuge, feeding and the reproduction of small-sized mollusc species during rainy and dry seasons.

  6. Molluscs associated with the macroalgae of the genus Gracilaria (Rhodophyta: importance of algal fronds as microhabitat in a hypersaline mangrove in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RNM Queiroz

    Full Text Available The fronds of marine macroalgae play an important role in coastal ecosystems because the algae banks are utilized as a microhabitat by different taxa, including molluscs, one of the most abundant and diverse animals of marine ecosystems. In this study, we characterized the malacofauna associated with the macroalgae Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing Sonder ex Dickie 1874 and Gracilaria cuneata Areschoug 1854 of a hypersaline mangrove on the northern coast of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil. The first alga dominates in the rainy season and it is substituted by second one in the dry period. A total of 1,490 molluscs were surveyed, representing 56 species in 29 families: 1,081 were associated with G. domingensis and 409 with G. cuneata, the latter showing the greater diversity (H′=1.25. Columbellidae, Neritidae, Pyramidellidae and Cerithiidae were among the most representative families in the number of species and individuals. The micromolluscs were dominant in the algal microhabitat, constituting 74.63% of the malacofauna recorded. The columbellid Parvanachis obesa(C. B. Adams, 1845 was the dominant species followed by the neritid Neritina virginea (Linnaeus, 1758 in both algae. In spite of the annual alternated succession of the algae species, at least 15 mollusc species are common for these algae. Furthermore, juveniles of P. obesa were recorded in both seasons, indicating a continuous reproduction. Possible reasons for difference in abundance, diversity and dominance of molluscs living on these algae are discussed. Both species of substrate-algae represent an important microhabitat for refuge, feeding and the reproduction of small-sized mollusc species during rainy and dry seasons.

  7. Novel antimicrobial activity of a dichloromethane extract obtained from red seaweed Ceramium rubrum (Hudson (Rhodophyta: Florideophyceae against Yersinia ruckeri and Saprolegnia parasitica, agents that cause diseases in salmonids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurima Cortés

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: These results may constitute a basis for promising future applied research that could investigate the use of C. rubrum seaweed as a source of antimicrobial compounds against fish pathogens.

  8. Allelopathic inhibition of photosynthesis in the red tide-causing marine alga, Scrippsiella trochoidea (Pyrrophyta), by the dried macroalga, Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Changpeng; Liao, Heping; Yang, Yufeng

    2014-07-01

    The red tide-causing microalga, Scrippsiella trochoidea was co-cultured with different quantities of dried macroalga Gracilaria lemaneiformis under laboratory conditions, to characterize the allelopathic inhibition effect of the seaweed on photosynthesis of the microalga. Photosynthetic oxygen evolution was measured, and chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence transient O-J-I-P (O, J, I and P point in primary photochemistry reaction curve in photosystem II) curves associated with its specific parameters were determined. A concentration-dependent inhibition of S. trochoidea was observed when the dried seaweed was added. The rate of light-saturated maximum photosynthetic oxygen evolution (Pmax) was markedly decreased, and the O-J-I-P curve coupled with its specific parameters was reduced. The inhibitory effects of the macroalga on the microalga, according to the JIP-test (the relative fluorescence analysis based on O-J-I-P curve) and the activity of oxygen evolution, include a decrease in the number of active reaction centers, the blocking-up of the electron transport chain, and the damage to the oxygen-evolving complex. This study suggests that dried G. lemaneiformis is effective in inhibiting photosynthesis of S. trochoidea, and could thus be a potential candidate for mitigating S. trochoidea blooms.

  9. Studies on Dasyaceae. 3. Towards a phylogeny of the Dasyaceae (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta), based on comparative rbcL gene sequences and morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Y.S D M; van der Wurff, A.W G; Stam, W.T.; Olsen, J.L.

    Phylogenetic analyses of the Dasyaceae based on sequence analysis of the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rbcL) and 42 morphological characters are presented. Comparative sequence analysis confirms the general view of the Ceramiaceae as a primitive, paraphyletic

  10. Taxonomic revision of Gelidium tsengii and Gelidium honghaiwanense sp. nov. (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) from China based upon molecular and morphological data analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xulei; Xia, Bangmei; Bottalico, Antonella; Wang, Guangce

    2017-01-01

    The taxonomic relationship of Chinese Gelidium tsengii and Gelidium johnstonii was ambiguous. For almost 20 years they have been regarded as distinct taxa and until 2002 G. johnstonii was considered as a misapplied name of G. tsengii. In this study, herbarium specimens that initially attributed to G. tsengii and fresh G. tsengii specimens were used to address the taxonomic issues. In phylogenetic studies, G. tsengii from Dayawan, China, near the type locality of G. tsengii and G. johnstonii from Sonora, Mexico, the type locality of G. johnstonii, formed a monophyletic group with maximum support in rbcL and COI genes analyses, indicating that they were genetically identical. In morphological studies, G. tsengii was similar to G. johnstonii in branching pattern, inner structures and fructiferous organs. Consequently, we considered that semi-circular outline of G. tsengii could no longer be treated as a discrimating feature. G. johnstonii had priority of publication and according to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, G. tsengii was proposed as a synonym of G. johnstonii. Gelidium honghaiwanense sp. nov. was described from Guangdong, China on the basis of morphological and molecular data. For vegetative structures, it was characterized by flattened upright frond, regular two-three times branches pinnate or alternate and clavate ultimate branchlets. For reproductive structures, the tetrasporangial sori were in the apical part of branches and the tetrasporangial branchlets were distichously distributed along second order branches. The present study clarified the relationship between G. tsengii and G. johnstonii from Guangdong and added a new Gelidium species to the Chinese algal flora.

  11. Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta): a new species from South China Sea based on morphological observation and rbcL gene sequences analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ling; Wang, Hongwei; Luan, Rixiao

    2013-01-01

    Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. is a new species described from Lingshui, Hainan Province, South China Sea. Based on the external form and internal structure, combined with rbcL gene sequence analysis, Grateloupia tenuis is distinct from other Grateloupia species as follows: (1) thalli is slippery and cartilaginous in texture; possess fewer branches, relatively slight main axes, and two or three dichotomous branches; (2) cortex is 5-6 layers; medulla is solid when young, but hollow in old branches; reproductive structures are dispersed in main axes of thalli and lower portions of branchlets; exhibits Grateloupia-type auxiliary cell ampullae; (3) the four studied G. tenuis sequences were positioned in a large Grateloupia clade of Halymeniaceae, which included sister group generitype G. filicina with 68 bp differences; G. tenuis was determined to be a sister taxon to the G. catenata, G. ramosissima, G. orientalis, and G. filiformis subclade. The pairwise distances between G. tenuis and these species were 39 to 50 bp. The sequences of G. tenuis differed by 81-108 bp from the sequences of other samples in Grateloupia; there are 114-133 bp changes between G. tenuis and other genera of Halymeniaceae. In final analysis, we considered Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. to be a new species of genus Grateloupia.

  12. Revision of the genus Dasya (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta in Galicia (NW Spain and the addition of a new alien species Dasya sessilis Yamada for the European Atlantic coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, Viviana

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the genus Dasya in northwestern Iberian Peninsula is presented. Three species (Dasya hutchinsiae, D. ocellata and D. sessilis are confirmed whilst other three (Dasya corymbifera, D. punicea and D. rigidula are excluded from the Galician seaweeds flora. The alien species Dasya sessilis Yamada is a new record for the European Atlantic coasts. The study of the herbarium material reveals that D. sessilis was misidentified with other Dasyaceae species and that it has been collected on the Galician coasts for more than 16 years. Morphological and anatomical features of D. sessilis as well as its distribution and chronological data on the Galician coasts are provided. A comparison of the Iberian specimens with the Mediterranean and Asian plants is also included. Dasya sessilis was found growing on a wide range of substrata, from the lower intertidal to subtidal at moderate wave-exposed and sheltered areas. It is abundant in harbours and aquaculture areas together with other alien species such as Heterosiphonia japonica and Undaria pinnatifida. The comparative study between D. sessilis and similar European and Iberian Dasyaceae species is undertaken to prevent further misidentifications. Dasya sessilis is the largest Dasya species, with broader main axes (1-2 mm wide vs 200-500 µm in D. ocellata and 500-600 µm in D. hutchinsiae; pseudolaterals of D. sessilis are 3-5 times pseudodichotomously branched compared to 5-8 times in D. hutchinsiae and 4-5 times in D. ocellata; pseudolateral tips are broader in D. sessilis than in D. ocellata, but smaller than pseudolateral apices of D. hutchinsiae; tetrasporangial stichidium of Dasya sessilis has 6-7 periaxial cells (and 6-7 tetrasporangia per fertile whorl vs. 4-5 in the rest of the native species; and tetrasporangial stichidia of D. sessilis are longer and cystocarps broader than those in D. hutchinsiae. The alien Dasyaceae species Heterosiphonia japonica, similar in size to Dasya sessilis, differs from it in main axes branching (alternate or distichous in H. japonica vs. spiral in D. sessilis, the number of periaxial cells in the vegetative axes (4 in H. japonica vs. 5 in D. sessilis, and color (pinkish red vs. deep red. Other distinctive characters are the tips of main axes (70-90 µm wide in H. japonica vs. 100-130 µm in D. sessilis, and the diameter of pseudolaterals at the base broader in H. japonica.Se presenta una revisión del género Dasya en el noroeste de la Península Ibérica que confirma la presencia de tres especies (Dasya hutchinsiae, D. ocellata y D. sessilis y excluye la de otras tres (Dasya corymbifera, D. punicea y D. rigidula de la flora bentónica marina gallega. La especie alóctona Dasya sessilis Yamada es nueva para el Atlántico europeo. El estudio de material de herbario revela que D. sessilis ha sido confundida con otras especies de Dasyaceae y que ha sido recolectada en la costa gallega desde hace más de 16 años. Se presentan las características morfológicas y anatómicas de D. sessilis así como su rango de distribución y la cronología de introducción en la costa gallega. Asimismo se lleva a cabo la comparación del material gallego de D. sessilis con especímenes mediterráneos y asiáticos. Dasya sessilis aparece sobre una gran variedad de sustratos, desde el intermareal inferior a infralitoral, en costas semiexpuestas a protegidas. Es además abundante en zonas portuarias y de cultivos marinos, donde aparece junto con otras especies introducidas tales como Heterosiphonia japonica y Undaria pinnatifida. Con el objetivo de facilitar futuras identificaciones se realiza un estudio comparado de D. sessilis y otras especies similares de Dasyaceae presentes en el Atlántico Ibérico y Europa. Dasya sessilis es la especie de Dasya más grande, con ejes principales anchos (1-2 mm frente a 200-500 µm en D. ocellata y 500-600 µm en D. hutchinsiae; pseudolaterales que se ramifican pseudodicotómicamente cada 3-5 veces frente a 5-8 veces en D. hutchinsiae y 4- 5 veces en D. ocellata, y con ápices más anchos que en D. ocellata pero más estrechos que en D. hutchinsiae; estiquidios de los tetrasporocistes con 6-7 células periaxiales (y 6-7 tetrasporocistes por segmento fértil frente a 4-5 en el resto de especies de Dasya europeas y son más largos y los cistocarpos más anchos que los de D. hutchinsiae. Otra Dasyaceae alóctona, Heterosiphonia japonica, también alcanza un gran tamaño, pero difiere de Dasya sessilis en la ramificación de ejes principales (alterna o dística en H. japonica, helicoidal en D. sessilis, el número de células periaxiales de los ejes vegetativos (4 en H. japonica, 5 en D. sessilis y el color (rosado rojo frente a rojo oscuro. Otros caracteres de identificación de ambas especies son el ancho de los ápices de ejes principales (70-90 µm en H. japonica, 100-130 µm en D. sessilis y el diámetro de los pseudolaterales en su parte basal (más anchos en H. japonica.

  13. A molecular evaluation of the Liagoraceae sensu lato (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) in Bermuda including Liagora nesophila sp. nov. and Yamadaella grassyi sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popolizio, Thea R; Schneider, Craig W; Lane, Christopher E

    2015-08-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive, molecular-assisted alpha-taxonomic examination of the rhodophyte family Liagoraceae sensu lato, a group that has not previously been targeted for molecular studies in the western Atlantic. Sequence data from three molecular markers indicate that in Bermuda alone there are 10 species in nine different genera. These include the addition of three genera to the flora - Hommersandiophycus, Trichogloeopsis, and Yamadaella. Liagora pectinata, a species with a type locality in Bermuda, is phylogenetically allied with Indo-Pacific species of Hommersandiophycus, and the species historically reported as L. ceranoides for the islands is morphologically and genetically distinct from that taxon, and is herein described as L. nesophila sp. nov. Molecular sequence data have also uncovered the Indo-Pacific L. mannarensis in Bermuda, a long-distance new western Atlantic record. DNA sequences of Trichogloeopsis pedicellata from the type locality (Bahamas) match with local specimens demonstrating its presence in Bermuda. We described Yamadaella grassyi sp. nov. from Bermuda, a species phylogenetically and morphologically distinct from the generitype, Y. caenomyce of the Indo-Pacific. Our data also indicated a single species each of Ganonema, Gloiocallis, Helminthocladia, Titanophycus, and Trichogloea in the flora. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  14. GRACILARIA VERMICULOPHYLLA (RHODOPHYTA, GRACILARIALES) IN THE VIRGINIA COASTAL BAYS, USA: COX1 ANALYSIS REVEALS HIGH GENETIC RICHNESS OF AN INTRODUCED MACROALGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbransen, Dana J; McGlathery, Karen J; Marklund, Maria; Norris, James N; Gurgel, Carlos Frederico D

    2012-10-01

    Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss is an invasive alga that is native to Southeast Asia and has invaded many estuaries in North America and Europe. It is difficult to differentiate G. vermiculophylla from native forms using morphology and therefore molecular techniques are needed. In this study, we used three molecular markers (rbcL, cox2-cox3 spacer, cox1) to identify G. vermiculophylla at several locations in the western Atlantic. RbcL and cox2-cox3 spacer markers confirmed the presence of G. vermiculophylla on the east coast of the USA from Massachusetts to South Carolina. We used a 507 base pair region of cox1 mtDNA to (i) verify the widespread distribution of G. vermiculophylla in the Virginia (VA) coastal bays and (ii) determine the intraspecific diversity of these algae. Cox1 haplotype richness in the VA coastal bays was much higher than that previously found in other invaded locations, as well as some native locations. This difference is likely attributed to the more intensive sampling design used in this study, which was able to detect richness created by multiple, diverse introductions. On the basis of our results, we recommend that future studies take differences in sampling design into account when comparing haplotype richness and diversity between native and non-native studies in the literature. © 2012 Phycological Society of America.

  15. Effects of sodium bicarbonate concentration on growth, photosynthesis, and carbonic anhydrase activity of macroalgae Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, and Gracilaria chouae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Sui, Zhenghong; Wang, Jinguo; Hu, Yiyi; Kang, Kyoung Ho; Hong, Hye Ran; Niaz, Zeeshan; Wei, Huihui; Du, Qingwei; Peng, Chong; Mi, Ping; Que, Zhou

    2016-06-01

    There is potential for bicarbonate to improve crop yields and economic efficiency of marine algae. However, few studies have focused on the effect of bicarbonate on the growth, photosynthesis, and enzyme activity associated with carbon utilization, especially in commercial macroalgae. Here, the addition of bicarbonate (up to 420 mg L(-1)) to macroalgal cultures has been evaluated for Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, and Gracilaria chouae with respect to growth rate, photosynthetic activity, carbonic anhydrase activity, and biochemical composition. The results showed that the effects of NaHCO3 on growth, chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin, photosynthetic oxygen evolution, photochemical parameters of PSI and PSII, carbonic anhydrase activity, and nitrogen content were significant (P 336 mg L(-1) for Gp. lemaneiformis and >420 mg L(-1) for the other two species). Moreover, species-specific differences induced by supplementation with bicarbonate were discovered during culture. Optimal concentrations of NaHCO3 used in this study were 252 mg L(-1) for Gp. lemaneiformis and 336 mg L(-1) for G. vermiculophylla and G. chouae. These results suggest that an adequate supplementation of sodium bicarbonate is a viable strategy for promoting growth and photosynthetic activity in some macroalgae as well as for improving biochemical composition. The study will help to accelerate the growth rate of algae and improve the quality of thalli, and will also be useful for enhancing the understanding of carbon utilization in macroalgae.

  16. The first complete organellar genomes of an Antarctic red alga, Pyropia endiviifolia: insights into its genome architecture and phylogenetic position within genus Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuipeng; Tang, Xianghai; Bi, Guiqi; Cao, Min; Wang, Lu; Mao, Yunxiang

    2017-08-01

    Pyropia species grow in the intertidal zone and are cold-water adapted. To date, most of the information about the whole plastid and mitochondrial genomes (ptDNA and mtDNA) of this genus is limited to Northern Hemisphere species. Here, we report the sequencing of the ptDNA and mtDNA of the Antarctic red alga Pyropia endiviifolia using the Illumina platform. The plastid genome (195 784 bp, 33.28% GC content) contains 210 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes and 6 rRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome (34 603 bp, 30.5% GC content) contains 26 protein-coding genes, 25 tRNA genes and 2 rRNA genes. Our results suggest that the organellar genomes of Py. endiviifolia have a compact organization. Although the collinearity of these genomes is conserved compared with other Pyropia species, the genome sizes show significant differences, mainly because of the different copy numbers of rDNA operons in the ptDNA and group II introns in the mtDNA. The other Pyropia species have 2u20133 distinct intronic ORFs in their cox 1 genes, but Py. endiviifolia has no introns in its cox 1 gene. This has led to a smaller mtDNA than in other Pyropia species. The phylogenetic relationships within Pyropia were examined using concatenated gene sets from most of the available organellar genomes with both the maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. The analysis revealed a sister taxa affiliation between the Antarctic species Py. endiviifolia and the North American species Py. kanakaensis.

  17. Evaluation of food grade solvents for lipid extraction and impact of storage temperature on fatty acid composition of edible seaweeds Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) and Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Matthias; Guihéneuf, Freddy; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the impact of different food- and non-food grade extraction solvents on yield and fatty acid composition of the lipid extracts of two seaweed species (Palmaria palmata and Laminaria digitata). The application of chloroform/methanol and three different food grade solvents (ethanol, hexane, ethanol/hexane) revealed significant differences in both, extraction yield and fatty acid composition. The extraction efficiency, in terms of yields of total fatty acids (TFA), was in the order: chloroform/methanol>ethanol>hexane>ethanol/hexane for both species. Highest levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were achieved by the extraction with ethanol. Additionally the effect of storage temperature on the stability of PUFA in ground and freeze-dried seaweed biomass was investigated. Seaweed samples were stored for a total duration of 22months at three different temperatures (-20°C, 4°C and 20°C). Levels of TFA and PUFA were only stable after storage at -20°C for the two seaweed species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of the putatively introduced red alga Acrochaetium secundatum (Acrochaetiales, Rhodophyta) growing epizoically on the pelage of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentall, Gena B.; Rosen, Barry H.; Kunz, Jessica M.; Miller, Melissa A.; Saunders, Gary W.; LaRoche, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological associations between epibionts (organisms that live on the surface of another living organism) and vertebrates have been documented in both marine and terrestrial environments, and may be opportunistic, commensal, or symbiotic (Lewin et al. 1981, Holmes 1985, Allen et al. 1993, Bledsoe et al. 2006, Pfaller et al. 2008, Suutari et al. 2010). Although epibiont proliferation is frequently reported on slow-moving, sparsely haired organisms such as manatees and sloths, reports from densely furred, highly mobile mammals are much less common. There are reports of epizoic algae for several species of pinnipeds (Kenyon and Rice 1959, Scheffer 1962, Baldridge 1977, Allen et al. 1993), which rely to varying degrees on both pelage and blubber for thermoregulation, but the phenomenon has not been widely described. Scheffer (1962) noted that red algae was fairly common on the pelage of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus), pinnipeds for which fur likely makes a comparatively high contribution to thermoregulation (Donohue et al. 2000). For species with pelage that plays a critical role of thermal insulation, it seems implausible that an epibiont would persist on healthy individuals that devote significant energy resources toward grooming and actively maintaining their coat. Biological characteristics of epibiont settlement and attachment, and physiological requirements of epizoic species play key roles in their successful colonization and potential host impacts. To investigate this relationship, we explore a novel discovery of an epizoic alga from southern sea otters, including describing algal development on sea otter hair and molecular identification of the algae.

  19. Extracción, identificación y prueba microbiológica del agar extraído de Gracilaria fortissima dawson (rhodophyta, gigartinales, gracilariaceae (ING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Sánchez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The red seaweed Gracilaria fortissima colected in the caribean coast of Costa Rica, was studied for the extraction, identification and microbiological performance of the agar contend of this plant, as well as the mineral contend. The research was done focused on the agar quality included pH, % extraction, geling point, fusion point and gel strength, as well as infrared analysis and the performance as a microbiological culture of bacteria and fungus and compared with commercial agar from BDH chemicals.

  20. Evidencias morfológicas y reproductivas para una circunscripción nueva del género Trematocarpus (Rhodophyta, Sarcodiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone una circunscripción actualizada del género Trematocarpus aportando nuevos antecedentes basados en estudios morfológicos y reproductivos del ejemplar tipo de Trematocarpus dichotomus, estudios efectuados en material T. dichotomus, de T. acicularis y de T. concinnus provenientes de Perú, Chile, Nueva Zelanda y Australia. Se agrega información bibliográfica de T. pygmaeus, T. fragilis, T. flabellatus, T. papenfussi y T. affinis. La diagnosis original posibilitaba la inclusión sólo de especies de talo cilíndrico, de no más de 5 cm de altura con tetrasporangios zonados y cistocarpos sobresalientes, descripción basada en ejemplares de T. dichotomus y de T. virgatus. Esta última especie resultó ser Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii con lo cual la descripción tuvo mezcla de características de especies de dos géneros diferentes, aspecto clarificado parcialmente por Schmitz (1989 quien lectotipificó el género basado en las características de T. dichotomus de Perú. El presente estudio completa y corrige la diagnosis original relacionada con talla máxima de hasta 30 cm, talos de sección cilíndricos, subcilíndricos o aplastados de los representantes, nacimiento localizado de los órganos de reproducción gamética y espórica en la superficie cóncava o convexa en talos aplastados y en toda la superficie, en las especies de sección cilíndrica y subcilíndrica, sistema de adhesión mediante un disco con o sin proyecciones estoloníferas. Se aporta nueva información sobre el nacimiento y desarrollo de la rama carpogonial a partir de una célula intercalar diferenciada de la corteza, la cual desarrolla un filamento carpogonial de tres o cuatro células, mediante divisiones sucesivas y procesos de post-fertilización con fusión procarpial, fusión de células gonimoblásticas y generación externa de cistocarpos. Se indica además que las especies son dioicas. Esta descripción margina a especies de los géneros Sarcodiotheca, Agardhiella y Eucheuma que presentan características morfológicas y reproductivas próximas a Trematocarpus y a la vez incorpora correctamente a las 8 especies del género.

  1. Effects of elevated CO2 on the photosynthesis and nitrate reductase activity of Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) grown at different nutrient levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunxiang; Zou, Dinghui

    2015-03-01

    Pyropia haitanensis, a commercially important species, was cultured at two CO2 concentrations (390×10-6 and 700×10-6 (parts per million)) and at low and high nutrient levels, to explore the effect of elevated CO2 on the species under nutrient enrichment. Results show that in CO2-enriched thalli, relative growth rate (RGR) was enhanced under nutrient enrichment. Elevated CO2 decreased phycobiliprotein (PB) contents, but increased the contents of soluble carbohydrates. Nutrient enrichment increased the contents of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and PB, while soluble carbohydrate content decreased. CO2 enrichment enhanced the relative maximum electronic transport rate and light saturation point. In nutrient-enriched thalli the activity of nitrate reductase (NRA) increased under elevated CO2. An instantaneous pH change in seawater (from 8.1 to 9.6) resulted in reduction of NRA, and the thalli grown under both elevated CO2 and nutrient enrichment exhibited less pronounced reduction than in algae grown at the ambient CO2. The thermal optima of NRA under elevated CO2 and/or nutrient enrichment shifted to a lower temperature (10-15°C) compared to that in ambient conditions (20°C). We propose that accelerated photosynthesis could result in growth increment. N assimilation remained high in acidified seawater and reflected increased temperature sensitivity in response to elevated CO2 and eutrophication.

  2. Crustose corallinaceous algae (Rhodophyta) of the New Zealand and United States scientific expedition to the Ross Sea, Balleny Islands, and Macquarie Ridge, 1965

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaneveld, Jacques S.; Sanford, Robert B.

    1980-01-01

    Fourteen taxa of crustose Corallinaceae are described from a collection of marine algae picked up in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic waters along a Ross Sea — Balleny Islands — Macquarie Island traject aboard the USS Glacier in 1965. Three of these taxa are newly described, i.e. Lithothamnium

  3. Overview of the taxonomy and of the major secondary metabolites and their biological activities related to human health of the Laurencia complex (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutue T. Fujii

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the Laurencia complex is represented by twenty taxa: Laurencia s.s. with twelve species, Palisada with four species (including Chondrophycus furcatus now that the proposal of its transference to Palisada is in process, and Osmundea and Yuzurua with two species each. The majority of the Brazilian species of the Laurencia complex have been phylogenetically analyzed by 54 rbcL sequences, including five other Rhodomelacean species as outgroups. The analysis showed that the Laurencia complex is monophyletic with high posterior probability value. The complex was separated into five clades, corresponding to the genera: Chondrophycus, Laurencia, Osmundea, Palisada, and Yuzurua. A bibliographical survey of the terpenoids produced by Brazilian species showed that only six species of Laurencia and five of Palisada (including C. furcatcus have been submitted to chemical analysis with 48 terpenoids (47 sesquiterpenes and one triterpene isolated. No diterpenes were found. Of the total, 23 sesquiterpenes belong to the bisabolane class and eighteen to the chamigrene type, whose biochemical precursor is bisabolane, two are derived from lauranes and four are triquinols. Despite the considerable number of known terpenes and their ecological and pharmacological importance, few experimental biological studies have been performed. In this review, only bioactivities related to human health were considered.

  4. The Japanese alga Polysiphonia morrowii (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) on the South Atlantic Ocean: first report of an invasive macroalga inhabiting oyster reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, M. Emilia; Parodi, Elisa R.

    2014-06-01

    Conspicuous tufts of the filamentous algae Polysiphonia Greville inhabit the reefs of Crassostrea gigas on the Atlantic Patagonian coast. The population was recorded for the first time in 1994 and identified as P. argentinica. This study exhaustively investigated the morphology and reproduction of specimens and the seasonality of the population. The results revealed the identity of the specimens as the invasive Japanese macroalga Polysiphonia morrowii Harvey, on the basis of several striking features: the setaceous and tufted thalli, the corymbose growing apices, the endogenous axillary branches, the urceolate cystocarps and the sharply pointed branches. Sexual reproduction was evidenced; however, fertile male gametophytes were absent in the samples. The population was found almost all year round, but its abundance became higher in autumn and winter. The present study constitutes the first record of this invasive macroalga on the South Atlantic Ocean; the fourth record of an exotic macroalgal species on the Atlantic Patagonian coast; and the first record of an invasive species related to the establishment of C. gigas in Atlantic Patagonia.

  5. Evidence for the introduction of the Asian red alga Neosiphonia japonica and its introgression with Neosiphonia harveyi (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) in the Northwest Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoie, Amanda M; Saunders, Gary W

    2015-12-01

    There is currently conflict in the literature on the taxonomic status of the reportedly cosmopolitan species Neosiphonia harveyi, a common red alga along the coast of Atlantic Canada and New England, USA. Neosiphonia harveyi sensu lato was assessed using three molecular markers: COI-5P, ITS and rbcL. All three markers clearly delimited three genetic species groups within N. harveyi sensu lato in this region, which we identified as N. harveyi, N. japonica and Polysiphonia akkeshiensis (here resurrected from synonymy with N. japonica). Although Neosiphonia harveyi is considered by some authors to be introduced to the Atlantic from the western Pacific, it was only confirmed from the North Atlantic suggesting it is native to this area. In contrast, Neosiphonia japonica was collected from only two sites in Rhode Island, USA, as well as from its reported native range in Asia (South Korea), which when combined with data in GenBank indicates that this species was introduced to the Northwest Atlantic. The GenBank data further indicate that N. japonica was also introduced to North Carolina, Spain, Australia and New Zealand. Despite the fact that all three markers clearly delimited N. harveyi and N. japonica as distinct genetic species groups, the ITS sequences for some N. harveyi individuals displayed mixed patterns and additivity indicating introgression of nuclear DNA from N. japonica into N. harveyi in the Northwest Atlantic. Introgression of DNA from an introduced species to a native species (i.e. 'genetic pollution') is one of the possible consequences of species introductions, and we believe this is the first documented evidence for this phenomenon in red algae. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Genetic diversity and haplotype distribution of Pachymeniopsis gargiuli sp. nov. and P. lanceolata (Halymeniales, Rhodophyta) in Korea, with notes on their non-native distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeon; Manghisi, Antonio; Morabito, Marina; Yang, Eun Chan; Yoon, Hwan Su; Miller, Kathy Ann; Boo, Sung Min

    2014-10-01

    The red alga Pachymeniopsis lanceolata, formerly known as Grateloupia lanceolata, is a component of the native algal flora of northeast Asia and has been introduced to European and North American waters. It has been confused with a cryptic species collected from Korea and Italy. Our analyses of rbcL, cox3 and ITS from P. lanceolata and this cryptic species has revealed two distinct entities, forming a clade, which were clearly separated from its congeners and positioned with other Asian species. Here, we describe the cryptic species as P. gargiuli sp. nov., a species that differs from others by molecular sequence and subtle anatomical characters. We hypothesize that P. gargiuli may have been recently dispersed by anthropogenic vectors, possibly at or near the same time as was P. lanceolata. Our cox3 data set revealed that one haplotype of P. gargiuli, shared between Korea and Italy, and two haplotypes of P. lanceolata, commonly occurring in Korea and USA, are invasive haplotypes. This is the first report of the utility of the mitochondrial coding cox3 sequences in red algae. © 2014 Phycological Society of America.

  7. Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss, 1967 (Rhodophyta, Gracilariaceae) in northern Europe, with emphasis on Danish conditions, and what to expect in the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mads S.; Stæhr, Peter Anton; Nyberg, Cecilia D.

    2007-01-01

    hypothesize that this substratum provision is highly important for its general invasion success. We also confirm that G. vermiculophylla can maintain growth at all salinities experienced along Danish coastlines (8.5-34 psu). In addition, laboratory experiments indicate that the ubiquitous grazer Littorina......, and known ecological traits, G. vermiculophylla is clearly a permanent resident of northern European waters....

  8. Effect of Different Light Qualities on Growth, Pigment Content, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in the Red Alga Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyang Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral light changes evoke different morphogenetic and photosynthetic responses that can vary among different algae species. The aim of this study is to investigate the photosynthetic characteristics of the red macroalgae grown under different spectrum environments. In this study, Pyropia haitanensis were cultured under blue, red, and green LED and fluorescent tubes light. The growth rate, photopigment composition, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzymes activities in different light spectrums were investigated. The results revealed that growth rate was significantly higher in the thalli grown under blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light. Contents of Chl a and phycobiliprotein in red light were lower among all the growth conditions. Furthermore, a striking increase in SOD and CAT activity was observed in red light treatment along with the NPQ increase. The results revealed that the photosynthetic efficiency and increased growth rate of P. haitanensis benefitted from light spectrums such as blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light by pigment composition and photochemical efficiency manipulation, whereas red light has disadvantageous effects. Accordingly, the results for improving quality and the economic yield of algae species in some extent and the combination of different wavelengths could allow better economic resource exploitation.

  9. Construction of a dense genetic linkage map and mapping quantitative trait loci for economic traits of a doubled haploid population of Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Huang, Long; Ji, Dehua; Chen, Changsheng; Zheng, Hongkun; Xie, Chaotian

    2015-09-21

    Pyropia haitanensis is one of the most economically important mariculture crops in China. A high-density genetic map has not been published yet and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping has not been undertaken for P. haitanensis because of a lack of sufficient molecular markers. Specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) was developed recently for large-scale, high resolution de novo marker discovery and genotyping. In this study, SLAF-seq was used to obtain mass length polymorphic markers to construct a high-density genetic map for P. haitanensis. In total, 120.33 Gb of data containing 75.21 M pair-end reads was obtained after sequencing. The average coverage for each SLAF marker was 75.50-fold in the male parent, 74.02-fold in the female parent, and 6.14-fold average in each double haploid individual. In total, 188,982 SLAFs were detected, of which 6731 were length polymorphic SLAFs that could be used to construct a genetic map. The final map included 4550 length polymorphic markers that were combined into 740 bins on five linkage groups, with a length of 874.33 cM and an average distance of 1.18 cM between adjacent bins. This map was used for QTL mapping to identify chromosomal regions associated with six economically important traits: frond length, width, thickness, fresh weight, growth rates of frond length and growth rates of fresh weight. Fifteen QTLs were identified for these traits. The value of phenotypic variance explained by an individual QTL ranged from 9.59 to 16.61 %, and the confidence interval of each QTL ranged from 0.97 cM to 16.51 cM. The first high-density genetic linkage map for P. haitanensis was constructed, and fifteen QTLs associated with six economically important traits were identified. The results of this study not only provide a platform for gene and QTL fine mapping, map-based gene isolation, and molecular breeding for P. haitanensis, but will also serve as a reference for positioning sequence scaffolds on a physical map and will assist in the process of assembling the P. haitanensis genome sequence. This will have a positive impact on breeding programs that aim to increase the production and quality of P. haitanensis in the future.

  10. A reassessment of the foliose Bangiales (Rhodophyta) in the Balearic Islands including the proposed synonymy of Pyropia olivii with Pyropia koreana

    OpenAIRE

    Vergés Guirado, Alba; Comalada, Natàlia; Sánchez, Noemí; Brodie, Juliet

    2013-01-01

    A taxonomic reevaluation of the foliose Ban-giales placed in the genus Porphyra from the Balearic Islands, based on the historical and recent collections, has resulted in a new floristic composition of this group. The molecular, morphological, and karyological analysis reveals that for these islands, there are no Porphyra species, and only two members of the genus Pyropia are present: Pyropia elongata and Pyropia koreana. The sequence data of the rbc L plastid gene indicate that Pyropia olivi...

  11. Pyropia orbicularis sp. nov. (Rhodophyta, Bangiaceae) based on a population previously known as Porphyra columbina from the central coast of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    RAMIREZ, Maria-Eliana; Contreras-Porcia,Loretto; Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Brodie, Juliet; VALDIVIA, Catalina; FLORES-MOLINA, MARÍA ROSA; NÚÑEZ, ALEJANDRA; BULBOA CONTADOR, CRISTIAN; Lovazzano,Carlos

    2014-01-01

    International audience; A new species of bladed Bangiales, Pyropia orbicularis sp. nov., has been described for the first time from the central coast of Chile based on morphology and molecular analyses. The new species was incorrectly known previously as Porphyra columbina (now Pyropia columbina), and it can be distinguished from other species of Pyropia through a range of morphological characteristics, including the shape, texture and colour of the thallus, and the arrangement of the reprodu...

  12. Effect of Different Light Qualities on Growth, Pigment Content, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in the Red Alga Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huanyang

    2016-01-01

    Spectral light changes evoke different morphogenetic and photosynthetic responses that can vary among different algae species. The aim of this study is to investigate the photosynthetic characteristics of the red macroalgae grown under different spectrum environments. In this study, Pyropia haitanensis were cultured under blue, red, and green LED and fluorescent tubes light. The growth rate, photopigment composition, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzymes activities in different light spectrums were investigated. The results revealed that growth rate was significantly higher in the thalli grown under blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light. Contents of Chl a and phycobiliprotein in red light were lower among all the growth conditions. Furthermore, a striking increase in SOD and CAT activity was observed in red light treatment along with the NPQ increase. The results revealed that the photosynthetic efficiency and increased growth rate of P. haitanensis benefitted from light spectrums such as blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light by pigment composition and photochemical efficiency manipulation, whereas red light has disadvantageous effects. Accordingly, the results for improving quality and the economic yield of algae species in some extent and the combination of different wavelengths could allow better economic resource exploitation.

  13. Isolation and functional characterization of an ammonium transporter gene, PyAMT1, related to nitrogen assimilation in the marine macroalga Pyropia yezoensis (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinuma, Makoto; Nakamoto, Chika; Kishi, Kazuki; Coury, Daniel A; Amano, Hideomi

    2017-07-01

    Ammonium and nitrate are the primary nitrogen sources in natural environments, and are essential for growth and development in photosynthetic eukaryotes. In this study, we report on the isolation and characterization of an ammonium transporter gene (PyAMT1) which performs a key function in nitrogen (N) metabolism of Pyropia yezoensis thalli. The predicted length of PyAMT1 was 483 amino acids (AAs). The AA sequence included 11 putative transmembrane domains and showed approximately 33-44% identity to algal and plant AMT1 AA sequences. Functional complementation in an AMT-defective yeast mutant indicated that PyAMT1 mediated ammonium transport across the plasma membrane. Expression analysis showed that the PyAMT1 mRNA level was strongly induced by N-deficiency, and was more highly suppressed by resupply of inorganic-N than organic-N. These results suggest that PyAMT1 plays important roles in the ammonium transport system, and is highly regulated in response to external/internal N-status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of temperature and photoperiod on survival and growth of North East Atlantic isolates of Phycodrys rubens (Rhodophyta) from different latitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskobionikov, G.M; Breeman, Arno; van den Hoek, C; Makarov, V.N; Schoschina, E.V.

    The influence of varying temperatures (from -1.5 degrees C to 23 degrees C) and photoperiod (from to h, light : dark) on growth and survival of eight isolates of the cool temperature red alga Phycodrys rubens from different latitudes along the NE Atlantic coasts were investigated. The isolates

  15. Effects of three macroalgae, Ulva linza (Chlorophyta), Corallina pilulifera (Rhodophyta) and Sargassum thunbergii (Phaeophyta) on the growth of the red tide microalga Prorocentrum donghaiense under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renjun; Xiao, Hui; Wang, You; Zhou, Wenli; Tang, Xuexi

    2007-10-01

    Allelopathic effects of several concentrations of fresh tissue and dry powder of three macroalgae, Ulva linza, Corallina pilulifera and Sargassum thunbergii, on the red tide microalga Prorocentrum donghaiense were evaluated in microcosms. Preliminary studies on the algicidal effects of one aqueous and four organic solvent extracts from the macroalgae on the microalga were carried out to confirm the existence of allelochemicals in the tissues of the macroalgae. The effects of macroalgal culture medium filtrate on P. donghaiense were investigated using initial or semi-continuous filtrate addition. Furthermore, the potential effects of the microalga on these three macroalgae were also tested. The results of the microcosm assay showed that the growth of P. donghaiense was strongly inhibited by using fresh tissues and dry powder of the three macroalgae. Both aqueous and methanol extracts of the macroalgae had strong growth inhibitory effects on P. donghaiense, while the other three organic solvent extracts (acetone, ether and chloroform) had no apparent effect on its growth; this suggested that the allelochemicals from these three macroalga had relatively high polarities. The three macroalgal culture medium filtrates exhibited apparent growth inhibitory effect on the microalgae under initial or semi-continuous addition, which suggested that the cells of P. donghaiense are sensitive to the allelochemicals. In contrast, P. donghaiense had no apparent effect on the growth of the macroalgae in coexistence experiment.

  16. Recruitment potential of a green alga Ulva flexuosa Wolfen dark preserved zoospore and its development

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Imchen, T.

    . Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 75: 547–555. 10. Kolwalkar JP, Sawant SS, Dharkalkar VK (2007) Fate of Enteromorpha (Wulfen) J. Agardh and its spores in darkness: Implication for ballast water management. Aquatic Botany 86: 86–88. 11. Raffaelli DJ...

  17. Serpula lacrymans, the dry rot fungus and tolerance towards copper-based wood preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjaer Hastrup; Frederick Green; Carol Clausen; Bo Jensen

    2005-01-01

    Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based wood preservatives were the most commonly used preservatives for pressure treatment of wood for building constructions. Because of a...

  18. Morfologia e reprodução de Chondria curvilineata F.S. Collins & Hervey (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta, uma adição à flora brasileira Morphology and reproduction of Chondria curvilineata F.S. Collins & Hervey (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta, an addition to the Brazilian marine flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Böker-Torres

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho a espécie Chondria curvilineata é escrita pela primeira vez para o litoral brasileiro a. O material foi coletado no sublitoral da Lagoa da Conceição, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina. É apresentada uma descrição detalhada da morfologia e reprodução, discutindo e comparando as características diagnósticas da referida espécie com as demais espécies descritas para o Brasil e para outras partes do mundo.Here the species Chondria curvilineata is described for the first time to the Brazilian coast. The material was collected in the subtidal region of Lagoa da Conceição, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina. We present a detailed description of the morphology and reproduction, discussing and comparing the diagnostic characteristic.

  19. The mitochondrial genome of the brown alga Laminaria digitata : a comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudot-le Secq, MP; Kloareg, B; Loiseaux-de Goer, S

    We report here the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the brown alga Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V. Lamouroux. L. digitata mtDNA is a circular molecule of 38,007 bp (64.9 % A+ T), encoding 63 genes and 3 ORFs and with only 6-7 % of non-coding sequences. Based on gene content and

  20. Effects of UV-B-induced DNA damage and photoinhibition on growth of temperate marine red macrophytes : Habitat-related differences in UV-B tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poll, WH; Eggert, A; Buma, AGJ; Breeman, AM

    The sensitivity to UV-B radiation (UVBR: 280-315 nm) was tested for littoral (Palmaria palmata [L] O Kuntze, Chondrus crispus Stackhouse) and sublittoral (Phyllophora pseudoceranoides S. G. Gmelin, Rhodymenia pseudopalmata [Lamouroux] Silva, Phycodrys rubens [L.] Batt, Polyneura hilliae [Greville

  1. 1918-IJBCS-Article-Mayecor Dioup+

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Theoretical and Applied Clima- tology. doi : 10.1007/s00704-011-0414- z. Sarmiento G, Manasterio M. 1983. Life forms and phenelogy. In Ecosystems of World. 13 : Tropical Savanna, Bourlière F (ed). Elsevier : Amsterdam, 79-108. Ségalien P, Frauck R, Lamouroux M, Perraud. A, Quantin P, Roederer P, Viellefon J. 1979.

  2. The genus Sertularella Gray, 1848 (Cnidaria: Hydroida) along the coasts of Galicia (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramil, F.; Parapar, J.; Vervoort, W.

    1992-01-01

    Species of the genus Sertularella from the coasts of Galicia (Atlantic coast of Spain) have been studied and 5 species, S. gayi (Lamouroux, 1821), S. polyzonias (Linnaeus, 1758), S. ellisii (Deshayes & MilneEdwards, 1836), S. fusiformis (Hincks, 1861), and S. mediterranea Hartlaub, 1901, are

  3. El alga Digenea simplex (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae) en México: variación biogeográfica

    OpenAIRE

    Dreckmann, Kurt M.; Sentíes G, Abel

    2016-01-01

    The alga Digenea simplex (Wulfen) C. Agardh has been reported in forty seven Mexican localities. A detailed description of reproductive and morphological features is given hete for the first time. Its presence in Bahía Banderas, Nayarit (Pacific of Mexico) is a first record. The lack of sexual structures suggests that Mexican populations are monophasic. The only morphological difference observed in distant populations (Nayarit, Tamaulipas and Quintana Roo) is the size of individual plants (no...

  4. How does molecular-assisted identification affect our estimation of α, β and γ biodiversity? An example from understory red seaweeds (Rhodophyta) of Laminaria kelp forests in Brittany, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robuchon, Marine; Valero, Myriam; Gey, Delphine; Le Gall, Line

    2015-04-01

    Using two distinct identification methods, one based on morphological characters only and the other combining morphological and molecular characters (integrative identification method), we investigated the differences in the biodiversity patterns of red seaweed communities associated with kelp forests at various spatial scales: the regional diversity of Brittany, France (γ-diversity), the local diversity at different Breton sites (α-diversity) and the differentiation in species diversity and abundances among those sites (β-diversity). To characterise α and β diversities, we conducted an initial survey in winter 2011 at 20 sites belonging to four different sub-regions, with specimens collected from six quadrats of 0.10 m(2) at each site, three in the tidal zone dominated by Laminaria digitata and three in the zone dominated by Laminaria hyperborea. To further characterise the regional diversity, we carried out another survey combining several sampling methods (quadrats and visual census) in different seasons (winter, spring and summer) and different years (2011 and 2012). In all, we collected 1990 specimens that were assigned to 76 taxa with the identification method based on morphological characters and 139 taxa using the integrative method. For γ and α diversity, the use of molecular characters revealed several cases of cryptic diversity and both increased the number of identified taxa and improved their taxonomic resolution. However, the addition of molecular characters for specimen identification only slightly affected estimates of β-diversity.

  5. TWO TYPES OF AUXILIARY CELL AMPULLAE IN GRATELOUPIA (HALYMENIACEAE, RHODOPHYTA), INCLUDING G. TAIWANENSIS SP. NOV. AND G. ORIENTALIS SP. NOV. FROM TAIWAN BASED ON rbcL GENE SEQUENCE ANALYSIS AND CYSTOCARP DEVELOPMENT(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Showe-Mei; Liang, Hong-Yiang; Hommersand, Max H

    2008-02-01

    Few species in the genus Grateloupia have been investigated in detail with respect to the development of the auxiliary cell ampullae before or after diploidization. In this study, we document the vegetative and reproductive structures of two new species of Grateloupia, G. taiwanensis S.-M. Lin et H.-Y. Liang sp. nov. and G. orientalis S.-M. Lin et H.-Y. Liang sp. nov., plus a third species, G. ramosissima Okamura, from Taiwan. Two distinct patterns are reported for the development of the auxiliary cell ampullae: (1) ampullae consisting of three orders of unbranched filaments that branch after diploidization of the auxiliary cell and form a pericarp together with the surrounding secondary medullary filaments (G. taiwanensis type), and (2) ampullae composed of only two orders of unbranched filaments in which only a few cells are incorporated into a basal fusion cell after diploization of the auxiliary cell and the pericarp consists almost entirely of secondary medullary filaments (G. orientalis type). G. orientalis is positioned in a large clade based on rbcL gene sequence analysis that includes the type species of Grateloupia C. Agardh 1822, G. filicina. G. taiwanensis clusters with a clade that includes the generitype of Phyllymenia J. Agardh 1848, Ph. belangeri from South Africa; that of Prionitis J. Agardh 1851, Pr. lanceolata from Pacific North America; and that of Pachymeniopsis Y. Yamada ex Kawab. 1954, Pa. lanceolata from Japan. A reexamination of the type species of the genera Grateloupia, Phyllymenia, Prionitis, and Pachymeniopsis is required to clarify the generic and interspecific relationships among the species presently placed in Grateloupia. © 2008 Phycological Society of America.

  6. First record of Paralemanea torulosa (Roth Sheath & A.R. Sherwood and new findings of Lemanea fluviatilis (Linnaeus C. Ag. and Hildenbrandia rivularis (Liebmann J. Agardh (Rhodophyta in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Ana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the first record of the freshwater red alga Paralemanea torulosa and new findings of the species Lemanea fluviatilis and Hildenbrandia rivularis in Serbia. The existence of all three species was recorded in the upper reaches of clean fast-flowing rivers and brooks belonging to the basin of the Danube River. Lemanea fluviatilis was found in the Dojkinačka River in Eastern Serbia, while Paralemanea torulosa was recorded in the Drina River and Hildenbrandia rivularis in the Cvetića Brook and Bioštanska Banja Brook in Western Serbia. These reports are important for conservation of the biodiversity of Serbia, since it is well known that freshwater red algae are endangered and rare species (taxa in many countries. In Serbia they are under strict protection of the law.

  7. Influence of hydrogen cations on kinetics and equilibria of heavy-metal sorption by algae-sorption of copper cations by the algaPalmaria palmata(Linnaeus) Weber & Mohr (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłos, Andrzej; Rajfur, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The influence of hydrogen cations on kinetics and equilibria of sorption of copper cations by the marine alga Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) Weber & Mohr was studied under static conditions. The competitive effect of the H + cations is described, which influenced the uncertainty of evaluation of the alga sorption capacity. Under static conditions, the variation of the Cu 2+ /H + concentration ratio during sorption was found nonmonotonic. The Langmuir isotherm model was used to determine the sorption capacity of the alga, namely 12.4 mg g -1 of dry algae mass. A similar value was determined from the kinetic parameters of the ionic exchange which is considered a pseudo-second-order chemical reaction. The consistent results indicated that the mathematical models used correctly described the equilibria and kinetics of the ionic exchange between algae and solutions.

  8. Transcriptome-Based Identification of the Desiccation Response Genes in Marine Red Algae Pyropia tenera (Rhodophyta) and Enhancement of Abiotic Stress Tolerance by PtDRG2 in Chlamydomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sungoh; Lee, Ha-Nul; Jung, Hyun Shin; Yang, Sunghwan; Park, Eun-Jeong; Hwang, Mi Sook; Jeong, Won-Joong; Choi, Dong-Woog

    2017-06-01

    Pyropia tenera (Kjellman) are marine red algae that grow in the intertidal zone and lose more than 90% of water during hibernal low tides every day. In order to identify the desiccation response gene (DRG) in P. tenera, we generated 1,444,210 transcriptome sequences using the 454-FLX platform from the gametophyte under control and desiccation conditions. De novo assembly of the transcriptome reads generated 13,170 contigs, covering about 12 Mbp. We selected 1160 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to desiccation stress based on reads per kilobase per million reads (RPKM) expression values. As shown in green higher plants, DEGs under desiccation are composed of two groups of genes for gene regulation networks and functional proteins for carbohydrate metabolism, membrane perturbation, compatible solutes, and specific proteins similar to higher plants. DEGs that show no significant homology with known sequences in public databases were selected as DRGs in P. tenera. PtDRG2 encodes a novel polypeptide of 159 amino acid residues locating chloroplast. When PtDRG2 was overexpressed in Chlamydomonas, the PtDRG2 confer mannitol and salt tolerance in transgenic cells. These results suggest that Pyropia may possess novel genes that differ from green plants, although the desiccation tolerance mechanism in red algae is similar to those of higher green plants. These transcriptome sequences will facilitate future studies to understand the common processes and novel mechanisms involved in desiccation stress tolerance in red algae.

  9. Diversity of bladed Bangiales (Rhodophyta) in western Mediterranean: recognition of the genus Themis and descriptions of T. ballesterosii sp. nov., T. iberica sp. nov., and Pyropia parva sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Noemí; Vergés, Alba; Peteiro, César; Sutherland, Judith E; Brodie, Juliet

    2014-10-01

    The diversity of the bladed species of the red algal order Bangiales from the Iberian Mediterranean shores has been reassessed after a detailed study of this region. Prior to this study, 11 bladed species of Bangiales had been reported from Mediterranean waters: Porphyra atropurpurea, P. cordata, P. coriacea, P. dioica, P. linearis, P. purpurea, P. umbilicalis, Pyropia leucosticta, Pyropia koreana (as P. olivii), Py. elongata (as P. rosengurttii) and Py. suborbiculata. A combined analysis of the nuclear nSSU and the plastid rbcL genes together with detailed morphological studies has confirmed the presence of species within the genera Porphyra and Pyropia and also revealed a third, undescribed genus, Themis gen. nov. Porphyra linearis, Pyropia elongata and the introduced Pyropia koreana had been previously listed for the Mediterranean and were recorded in this study. An additional four species, including the introduced Pyropia suborbiculata and three new species: Pyropia parva sp. nov., Themis ballesterosii sp. nov., and Themis iberica sp. nov. were also observed. Hence, most of the Porphyra species traditionally reported along these shores were not reported in this survey. This new floristic Bangiales composition confirms the importance of the Mediterranean basin as a hotspot for biodiversity, possible endemics of ancient origin and high proportion of introductions. Our data also continue to confirm the extent of Bangiales diversity at regional and worldwide levels. © 2014 Phycological Society of America.

  10. Search for cytotoxic agents in multiple Laurencia complex seaweed species (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta harvested from the Atlantic Ocean with emphasis on the Brazilian State of Espírito Santo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika M. Stein

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of new anti-cancer drugs of algal origin represents one of the least explored frontiers in medicinal chemistry. In this regard, the diversity of micro- and macroalgae found in Brazilian coastal waters can be viewed as a largely untapped natural resource. In this report, we describe a comparative study on the cytotoxic properties of extracts obtained from the Laurencia complex: Laurencia aldingensis, L. catarinensis, L. dendroidea, L. intricata, L. translucida, L. sp, and Palisada flagellifera. All of these species were collected in the coastal waters of the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Four out of the twelve samples initially investigated were found to show significant levels of toxicity towards a model tumor cell line (human uterine sarcoma, MES-SA. The highest levels of cytotoxicity were typically associated with non-polar (hexane algal extracts, while the lowest levels of cytotoxicity were found with the corresponding polar (methanol extracts. In this report, we also describe a biological model currently in development that will not only facilitate the search for new anti-cancer drug candidates of algal origin, but also permit the identification of compounds capable of inducing the destruction of multi-drug resistant tumors with greater efficiency than the pharmaceuticals currently in clinical use.

  11. Analysis by Vibrational Spectroscopy of Seaweed Polysaccharides with Potential Use in Food, Pharmaceutical, and Cosmetic Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides present in several seaweeds (Kappaphycus alvarezii, Calliblepharis jubata, and Chondrus crispus—Gigartinales, Rhodophyta; Gelidium corneum and Pterocladiella capillacea—Gelidiales, Rhodophyta; Laurencia obtusa—Ceramiales, Rhodophyta; Himanthalia elongata, Undaria pinnatifida, Saccorhiza polyschides, Sargassum vulgare, and Padina pavonica—Phaeophyceae, Ochrophyta are analyzed by spectroscopic techniques. The nature of the polysaccharides (with extraction and without any type of extraction present in these seaweeds was determined with FTIR-ATR and FT-Raman analysis of extracted phycocolloids and ground dry seaweed.

  12. Ecology of intertidal benthic algae of Northern Karnataka coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Reddy, C.R.K.; Deshmukhe, G.V.

    The intertidal benthic marine algal flora has been studied for distribution, phenology, biomass and zonation along with the environmental conditions. About 65 species belonging to 42 genera of Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta have been recorded. Rhodophyta...

  13. Marine algal flora of submerged Angria Bank (Arabian Sea)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Reddy, C.R.K.; Ambiye, V.

    Submerged Angria Bank was surveyed for the deep water marine algal flora. About 57 species were reported from this bank for the first time. Rhodophyta dominated (30 species) followed by Chlorophyta (18 species) and Phaeophyta (9 species). A few...

  14. Flora of Beyt Shankhodar in the Gul of Kuchchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Ambiye, V.

    genera - 33 species), Phaeophyta (20 genera - 34 species) and Rhodophyta (43 genera - 54 species). Most common were represented by the genera Utva, Codium, Cauierpa, Dictyota, Padina, Stoechospermum, Hypnea and Acanthophora. Mangrove flora...

  15. Studies on littoral flora of Andaman Islands

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.

    Marine macrophytes of Andaman islands were qualitatively surveyed. In all 40 genera, 64 species of marine algae, 17 genera, 22 species of mangroves while 3 genera, 3 species of seagrasses are reported. There were 26 species of rhodophyta, 21 species...

  16. Separation, identification and quantification of photosynthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty one photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls, carotenoids and degradation products) from the seaweeds, Codium dwarkense, (Chlorophyta), , Laurencia obtusa , (Rhodophyta) and , Lobophora variegata, (Phaeophyta), were separated in a single-step procedure by reversed phase high-performance liquid ...

  17. Cloning and Functional Characterization of Cycloartenol Synthase from the Red Seaweed Laurencia dendroidea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calegario, Gabriela; Pollier, Jacob; Arendt, Philipp; de Oliveira, Louisi Souza; Thompson, Cristiane; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Goossens, Alain; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2016-01-01

      The red seaweed Laurencia dendroidea belongs to the Rhodophyta, a phylum of eukaryotic algae that is widely distributed across the oceans and that constitute an important source of bioactive specialized metabolites...

  18. Aquatic macro algae of a region under Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant influence. I. Taxonomic composition; Macroalgas marinhas da regiao sob influencia da Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto, Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brasil. I. Composicao taxonomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrini, A.G. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[Universidade Santa Ursula, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas; Cassano, V.; Coelho, L.G.; Labronici, G.J. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    1994-12-31

    A total of 134 taxa were found: 32 Chlorophyta, 29 Phaeophyta and 74 Rhodophyta. The Caulerpales (Chlorophyta) had the highest number of taxa (37,5%) followed by the Dictyotales (Phaeophyta - 43%) and Ceramiales (Rhodophyta - 53%). The benthic flora shows some affinity to that of Ilha Grande (part), Sepetiba Bay and Paraty (Sorensen`s Index - 0,62, 0,61 and 0,58 respectively. (author). 22 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab.

  19. Checklist of the benthic marine and brackish Galician algae (NW Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara, Ignacio; Cremades, Javier; Calvo, Silvia; Dosil, Javier; López-Rodríguez, M. Carmen

    2005-01-01

    We present an annotated checklist of the benthic marine and brackish algae of the Galician coasts (Spain) based on literature records and new collections. This checklist includes 618 species: 118 Cyanophyta, 296 Rhodophyta, 127 Ochrophyta, and 77 Chlorophyta. The number of specific, infraspecific taxa, and stages is 643: 121 Cyanophyta, 309 Rhodophyta, 135 Ochrophyta, and 79 Chlorophyta. Hyella caespitosa var. nitida, Calothrix fasciculata, Gracilariopsis longissima, Compsonema minutum, and S...

  20. ETUDE DE LA DISTRIBUTION DES CATIONS ECHANGEABLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SEI Joseph

    de l'eau / Journal of Water Science, vol. 20, n°3, (2007) p. 309-321. [19] - I. GUASMI, L. DJABRI, A. HANI et C. LAMOUROUX, « Pollution des eaux de l'Oued medjerda par les nutriments », Larhyss Journal, ISSN 1112-3680, n€ 05, (Juin 2006), pp.113-119. [20] - S. AZZAOUI, M. EL HANBALI et M. LEBLANC, « Cuivre, plomb ...

  1. MACROMYCETES IDENTIFIED ON THE CONSTRUCTION WOOD OF HISTORICAL MONUMENTS FROM MOLDAVIA AND CAUSES OF THEIR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COJOCARIU ANA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a series of observations made at the historical monuments in Moldavia region, where they could show some cases which causes the appearance of macromycetes on wood. We maintained as significant a number of 13 species of macromycetes which were reported with greater frequency on construction wood, but also were included and species which are considered important agents of deterioration for wood: Gloeophyllum sepiarium (Wulfen P. Karst., Gloeophyllum abietinum (Bull. P. Karst., Schizophyllum commune Fr., Trametes versicolor (L. Lloyd, Coniophora puteana (Schumach. P. Karst., Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen J. Schröt. etc. In the presence of a source of infection, it was found in some cases favorable conditions to the development of the sporiferous bodies. The number of attacks of macromycetes on historical monuments in Moldavia and the rate of the degradations on wood depend on a number of factors which were presented according to their importance in the overall process of preserving the timber used in construction. There were identified areas where the resistance of wood has been changed due to the destructive action of physical factors (improper humidity, temperature etc. and especially because of the installation on this type of organic material of a considerable number of bodies from the various groups.

  2. Clorofíceas marinhas bentônicas da Praia de Serrambi, Pernambuco, Brasil Benthic marine Chlorophyceae from Serrambi Beach, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Barreto Pereira

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado o levantamento florístico sobre as clorofíceas marinhas bentônicas encontradas na Praia de Serrambi, litoral Sul do Estado de Pernambuco. O material estudado foi coletado em três estações, as quais foram visitadas mensalmente durante o período de abril de 1986 a setembro de 1987. As clorofíceas foram representadas na flora local por 39 espécies, três variedades e uma forma, pertencentes às ordens Ulotrichales, Ulvales, Siphonocladales, Cladophorales, Caulerpales e Dasycladales. Acetabularia calyculus Quoy & Gaimard. In Freycinet, Bryopsis pennata Lamouroux, Bryopsis plumosa (Hudson C. Agardh, Caulerpa ambigua Okamura, Caulerpa serrulata (Forsskål J. Agardh emend Børgesen, Chaetomorpha brachygona Harvey, Cladophora coelothrix Kützing, Cladophoropsis membranacea (C. Agardh Børgesen, Codium intertextum Collins & Hervey, Ernodesmis verticillata (Kützing Børgesen são novas referências para a flora do litoral de Pernambuco. Pringsheimiella scutata (Reinke von Höhnel ex Marchewianka o é também para o litoral continental do Brasil. Halimeda opuntia (L. Lamouroux foi hospedeira de maior número de epífitas, enquanto Bryopsis plumosa, quando epífita, foi a que cresceu sobre maior número de hospedeiros.This survey presents studies about benthics marine chlorophyceae found in the Serrambi Beach, South coast of Pernambuco. The material studied was collected in three stations, which were visited monthly during the period from April, 1986 to September, 1987. The chlorophyceae were represented in this flora by 39 species, three varieties and one form, from orders Ulotrichales, Ulvales, Siphonocladales, Cladophorales, Caulerpales and Dasycladales. Acetabularia calyculus Quoy & Gaimard. In Freycinet, Bryopsis pennata Lamouroux, Bryopsis plumosa (Hudson C. Agardh, Caulerpa ambigua Okamura, Caulerpa serrulata (Forsskål J. Agardh emend Børgesen, Chaetomorpha brachygona Harvey, Cladophora coelothrix Kützing, Cladophoropsis

  3. Field Note

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the broadcast spawning coral Acropora millepora. Marine Ecology Progress Series 362: 129-137. Benzoni F, Basso D, Caragnano A, Rodondi G (2011) Hydrolithon spp. (Rhodophyta, Corallinales) overgrow live corals (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) in Yemen. Marine Biology 158: 2419-2428. Figure 1. Hydrolithon sp. overgrowing ...

  4. Seasonal variations in biomass and species composition of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the seasonal variations of seaweed biomass and species composition at six different sites along the coastal areas in Bushehr Province. Sampling depths varied among sites, from 0.3 to 2.0 m below mean sea level. A total of 37 (i.e., 10 Chlorophyta, 12 Phaeophyta and 15. Rhodophyta) ...

  5. Seaweeds of the Spermonde Archipelago, SW Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, E.; Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.

    1993-01-01

    Seaweeds are important components of tropical reef systems. The present paper deals with the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and noncoralline Rhodophyta collected by the first author in the Spermonde Archipelago, SW Sulawesi, Indonesia, during the Buginesia-III project (November 1988-November 1990).

  6. A taxonomic survey of seaweeds from Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ateweberhan, M.; Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.

    2005-01-01

    A survey of seaweeds was made in Eritrea in December 1995 and January 1996 on some islands of the Dahlak Archipelago and the surroundings of the port town of Massawa. During our study 101 specific and infraspecific taxa were identified, including 26 Chlorophyta, 20 Phaeophyta and 55 Rhodophyta. The

  7. Seasonal variations in biomass and species composition of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A total of 37 (i.e., 10 Chlorophyta, 12 Phaeophyta and 15 Rhodophyta) seaweed species were collected. Studies were conducted for quantifying the seaweeds during four seasons from October 2008 until July 2009. During present research, Ulva intestinalis and Cladophora nitellopsis of green, Polycladia myrica, ...

  8. Epiphytic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera in the northwestern coast of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Gilma; Lechuga-Devéze, Carlos H; Popowski, Genoveva; Troccoli, Luis; Salinas, Cesar A

    2006-06-01

    The spatial and temporal abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera was studied over two annual cycles (March 1999 to March 2000 and March 2001 to March 2002) in the northwestern coast of Cuba. From 14 species of macroalgae (Phaeophyta, Chlorophyta, and Rhodophyta), 1340 samples were obtained identifying seven species as potentially noxious; five of them are new reports for Cuba's phytobenthos: Prorocentrum belizeanum Faust, P. concavum Fukuyo, P. mexicanum Tafall, Coolia monotis Meunier, and Ostreopsis lenticularis Fukuyo. ANOVA/MANOVA analysis showed significant spatial differences: lower cell abundance near the shoreline adjacent to a river inlet and higher cell abundance in the deepest area. Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg) Dodge 1975 was found mainly on Phaeophyta followed by Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta. Gambierdiscus toxicus was found mainly on Phaeophyta followed by Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta. All the species reported in the study area were mainly on Padina spp. (Phaeophyta). Acanthophora spicifera (Rhodophyta) did not host dinoflagellate species. Environmental conditions in summer (higher temperature, more nutrients, greater water transparency, and low wind intensity) are suitable for macroalgae development, which serves as a substrate for potentially harmful dinoflagellates, and possibly the main vector for spreading ciguatera along the coast of Cuba.

  9. Materials and Methods:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ESLAM ABDELRAHEEM

    2013-04-24

    Apr 24, 2013 ... composed of sulfated polymers of galactose such as agar and carrageenan, which are responsible for flexible, slippery texture of the red algae (Prescott et al., 2002). Laurencia papillosa is a red alga (Rhodophyta) notable for its importance as an agarophyte. Its cylindrical thallus may reach 15 cm tall and ...

  10. The typification of Fucus cartilagineus L. and F. corneus Huds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, Peter S.

    1967-01-01

    The following notes refer to the typification of the two oldest species names applied in the genus Gelidium, including also comments on other related topics. Gelidium is probably the most confused genus, both nomenclaturally and taxonomically, of the Rhodophyta. This investigation began in an

  11. Browse Title Index - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 4301 - 4350 of 11090 ... Vol 10, No 78 (2011), Effects of salt and water stress on plant biomass and photosynthetic characteristics of Tamarisk (Tamarix chinensis Lour.) ... Vol 15, No 10 (2016), Effects of season on the yield and quality of agar from Gelidium sesquipedale (Rhodophyta) from Mostaganem, Algeria, Abstract ...

  12. Variation in foraging activity of Acanthochitona garnoti (Mollusca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Charles Griffiths are thanked for valuable comments on a draft of this paper. References. BODE, A. I <}S9. Production of the intertidal chiton Acal1lllOchitona ainita within a community of Corollina elongata (Rhodophyta). J. Moll. Stud 55: 37-44. BRANCH. G.M. 1981. Tho biology of limpets: physical factors, energy flow and ...

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassano, V. Vol 34, No 1 (2012) - Articles Morphological and molecular evidences within Osmundea (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) from the Canary Islands, eastern Atlantic Ocean Abstract. ISSN: 1814-232X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bolton, JJ. Vol 34, No 2 (2009) - Articles Rapid assessment of tissue nitrogen in cultivated Gracilaria gracilis (Rhodophyta) and Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) Abstract. ISSN: 1727-9364. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  15. Analyse de la croissance chez Gymnogongrus patens (j

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LBBM

    Mots-clés : gymnogongrus patens, pigments, facteurs physicochimiques, ACP, côte atlantique marocaine. Abstract. Pigmentary analysis of the red algae Gymnogongrus patens (j. Agardh) on the. Moroccan Atlantic cost. The pigmentary of Gymnogongrus patens J. Agardh (Rhodophyta, Phyllophoracea) has been analyzed ...

  16. Seasonal variation in biomass and species composition of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The stranded weeds constituted a total of 62 species during the entire study period.Of this,Rhodophyta ranked high with 26 species followed by Chlorophyta with 22 species and Phaeophyta with 14 species.The stranded seaweeds that were washed ashore provide valuable floristic information about the intertidal and near ...

  17. Distribution and ecological notes on Dynoides (Isopoda: Sphaeromatidae in the Mexican Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Espinosa-Pérez

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Two species of the genus Dynoides Barnard, 1914 (D. crenulatus Carvacho and Haasmann, 1984; D. saldanai Carvacho and Haasmann, 1984 not reported since their description were rediscovered during an intensive sampling program in the intertidal and shallow subtidal of the Mexican Pacific. Both species are abundant in the area and inhabit among the algae Jania adherens Lamouroux, 1816, Amphiroa misakiensis Yendo, 1902, Chaetomorpha linum Kützing, 1845, and Hypnea pannosa Agardh, 1847 from Nayarit to OaxacaDurante un programa intensivo de muestreo en la zona intermareal y submareal somera del Pacífico mexicano se redescubrieron dos especies del género Dynoides Barnard, 1914 (D. crenulatus Carvacho y Haasmann, 1984; D. saldanai Carvacho y Haasmann, 1984, no registradas desde su descripción. Ambas especies son abundantes en el área y habitan entre las algas Jania adherens Lamouroux, 1816, Amphiroa misakiensis Yendo, 1902, Chaetomorpha linum Kützing, 1845 e Hypnea pannosa Agardh, 1847 desde Nayarit hasta Oaxaca

  18. Classification, naming and evolutionary history of glycosyltransferases from sequenced green and red algal genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ulvskov

    Full Text Available The Archaeplastida consists of three lineages, Rhodophyta, Virideplantae and Glaucophyta. The extracellular matrix of most members of the Rhodophyta and Viridiplantae consists of carbohydrate-based or a highly glycosylated protein-based cell wall while the Glaucophyte covering is poorly resolved. In order to elucidate possible evolutionary links between the three advanced lineages in Archaeplastida, a genomic analysis was initiated. Fully sequenced genomes from the Rhodophyta and Virideplantae and the well-defined CAZy database on glycosyltransferases were included in the analysis. The number of glycosyltransferases found in the Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta are generally much lower then in land plants (Embryophyta. Three specific features exhibited by land plants increase the number of glycosyltransferases in their genomes: (1 cell wall biosynthesis, the more complex land plant cell walls require a larger number of glycosyltransferases for biosynthesis, (2 a richer set of protein glycosylation, and (3 glycosylation of secondary metabolites, demonstrated by a large proportion of family GT1 being involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. In a comparative analysis of polysaccharide biosynthesis amongst the taxa of this study, clear distinctions or similarities were observed in (1 N-linked protein glycosylation, i.e., Chlorophyta has different mannosylation and glucosylation patterns, (2 GPI anchor biosynthesis, which is apparently missing in the Rhodophyta and truncated in the Chlorophyta, (3 cell wall biosynthesis, where the land plants have unique cell wall related polymers not found in green and red algae, and (4 O-linked glycosylation where comprehensive orthology was observed in glycosylation between the Chlorophyta and land plants but not between the target proteins.

  19. Characteristic carotenoids in some phytobenthos species in the coastal area of the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author investigated the presence of various carotcnoids in some phytobenthos species (20 species representative of Chlorophytn, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta from the coast of the Adriatic Sea. The presence of following carotenoids has been determined 1 in Chlorophyta lycopene, α-, β-, γ- , ε-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lutein epoxide, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, siphonein and astaxanthin esier; 2 in Phorophyta: α-, β-, γ- , ε- carotene, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, diataxanthin, fucoxanthin, fucoxanthol, neoxanthin, violaxanthin and rhodoxanthin-like: 3 in Rhodophyta α-, β-, γ-carotene,α-, β-,cryptoxanthin, lutein lutein epoxide, zeaxanthin, anthcraxanthin, mutatoxanthin, fucoxanthin neoxanthin and violaxanthin The total carotenoid content ranged from 1.197 ( Cystoseira corniculata to 16 748 mg g-1 dry weight (Chaetomorpha aerea.

  20. Epiphytic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera in the northwestern coast of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilma Delgado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera was studied over two annual cycles (March 1999 to March 2000 and March 2001 to March 2002 in the northwestern coast of Cuba. From 14 species of macroalgae (Phaeophyta, Chlorophyta, and Rhodophyta, 1340 samples were obtained identifying seven species as potentially noxious; five of them are new reports for Cuba’s phytobenthos: Prorocentrum belizeanum Faust, P. concavum Fukuyo, P. mexicanum Tafall, Coolia monotis Meunier, and Ostreopsis lenticularis Fukuyo. ANOVA/MANOVA analysis showed significant spatial differences: lower cell abundance near the shoreline adjacent to a river inlet and higher cell abundance in the deepest area. Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg Dodge 1975 was found mainly on Phaeophyta followed by Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta. Gambierdiscus toxicus was found mainly on Phaeophyta followed by Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta. All the species reported in the study area were mainly on Padina spp. (Phaeophyta. Acanthophora spicifera (Rhodophyta did not host dinoflagellate species. Environmental conditions in summer (higher temperature, more nutrients, greater water transparency, and low wind intensity are suitable for macroalgae development, which serves as a substrate for potentially harmful dinoflagellates, and possibly the main vector for spreading ciguatera along the coast of Cuba. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 299-310. Epub 2006 Jun 01.Se estudió la abundancia espacial y temporal de dinoflagelados epífitos asociados a la ciguatera durante dos ciclos anuales (marzo 1999 a marzo 2000, y marzo 2001 a marzo 2002 en la costa del noroeste de Cuba. Recolectamos 14 especies de macroalgas (Phaeophyta, Chlorophyta y Rhodophyta y obtuvimos 1340 muestras. Identificamos siete especies de dinoflagelados potencialmente nocivas, cinco de ellas nuevos registros para el fitobentos cubano: Prorocentrum belizeanum Faust, P. concavum Fukuyo, P. mexicanum Tafall, Coolia monotis

  1. Classification, Naming and Evolutionary History of Glycosyltransferases from Sequenced Green and Red Algal Genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulvskov, Peter; Paiva, Dionisio Soares; Domozych, David

    2013-01-01

    of glycosyltransferases found in the Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta are generally much lower then in land plants (Embryophyta). Three specific features exhibited by land plants increase the number of glycosyltransferases in their genomes: (1) cell wall biosynthesis, the more complex land plant cell walls require a larger...... amongst the taxa of this study, clear distinctions or similarities were observed in (1) N-linked protein glycosylation, i.e., Chlorophyta has different mannosylation and glucosylation patterns, (2) GPI anchor biosynthesis, which is apparently missing in the Rhodophyta and truncated in the Chlorophyta, (3......) cell wall biosynthesis, where the land plants have unique cell wall related polymers not found in green and red algae, and (4) O-linked glycosylation where comprehensive orthology was observed in glycosylation between the Chlorophyta and land plants but not between the target proteins....

  2. Marine Natural Products from Seaweeds [Produtos Naturais de Algas Marinhas Bentônicas

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria L. Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Natural products from seaweeds have been studied with the aim of finding new drugs of industrial value, understanding their ecological role, and well as establishing the limits of taxonomic species, genera and families of marine algae. The present review shows the main features of natural products from seaweeds of the Divisions Chlorophyta – Class Ulvophyceae (green seaweeds), Ochrophyta – Class Phaeophyceae (Brown seaweeds) and Rhodophyta (red seaweeds). The most important examples of natura...

  3. REVISION AND RE-DOCUMENTATION OF M. AIROLDI'S SPECIES OF ARCHAEOLITHOTHAMNIUM FROM THE TERTIARY PIEDMONT BASIN (NW ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRAZIA VANNUCCI

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Airoldi (1930, 1932 described twenty-three fossil Corallinales (Rhodophyta from the Oligocene of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (NW Italy, containing thirteen new species. In this paper Archaeolithothamnium praeerithraeum Airoldi 1932 and Archaeolithothamnium statiellense Airoldi 1932 are re-documented and re-described. The features observable in the sporangial compartments allowed to attribute both species to the genus Sporolithon. 

  4. Epiphytic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera in the northwestern coast of Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Gilma Delgado; Lechuga-Devéze, Carlos H.; Genoveva Popowski; Luis Troccoli; Cesar A Salinas

    2014-01-01

    The spatial and temporal abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera was studied over two annual cycles (March 1999 to March 2000 and March 2001 to March 2002) in the northwestern coast of Cuba. From 14 species of macroalgae (Phaeophyta, Chlorophyta, and Rhodophyta), 1340 samples were obtained identifying seven species as potentially noxious; five of them are new reports for Cuba’s phytobenthos: Prorocentrum belizeanum Faust, P. concavum Fukuyo, P. mexicanum Tafall, Cooli...

  5. Thermostable phycocyanin from the red microalga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, a new natural blue food colorant

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, D. Y.; Sarian, F. D.; van Wijk, A; Martinez-Garcia, M; van der Maarel, M. J. E. C.

    2017-01-01

    The demand for natural food colorants is growing as consumers question the use of artificial colorants more and more. The phycobiliprotein C-phycocyanin of Arthospira platensis is used as a natural blue colorant in certain food products. The thermoacidophilic red microalga Cyanidioschyzon merolae might provide an alternative source of phycocyanin. Cyanidioschyzon merolae belongs to the order Cyanidiophyceae of the phylum Rhodophyta. Its natural habitat are sulfuric hot springs and geysers fou...

  6. Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and...

  7. A potential cyanobacterial ancestor of Viridiplantae chloroplasts

    OpenAIRE

    Wriddhiman Ghosh; Prabir Haldar; Sabyasachi Bhattacharya; Jaideb Chatterjee; Prosenjit Pyne; Masrure Alam

    2011-01-01

    The theory envisaging the origin of plastids from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria is well-established but it is difficult to explain the evolution (spread) of plastids in phylogenetically diverse plant groups. It is widely believed that primordial endosymbiosis occurred in the last common ancestor of all algae^1^, which then diverged into the three primary photosynthetic eukaryotic lineages, viz. the Rhodophyta (red algae), Glaucocystophyta (cyanelle-containing algae) and Viridiplantae (green alg...

  8. AN UPDATED CHECKLIST OF MARINE FLORA ON THE CONTINENTAL SHELF OF GÖKÇEADA ISLAND (NORTHERN AEGEAN SEA, TURKEY)

    OpenAIRE

    Güreşen, Aysu; OKUDAN, Emine Şükran; Aktan, Yelda; Erduğan, Hüseyin; Dural, Berrin; Aysel, Veysel

    2017-01-01

    The present paper aims to describe the marine floraoccurring on the continental shelf of Gökçeada Island (North Aegean) based onthe review of the long-term researches (1973-2016) which provided qualitativeinformation on many taxa including Cyanobacteria, Chlorophyta, Ochrophyta,Rhodophyta and Tracheophyta.Eight species (Polysiphonia brevearticulata, Ceramium codii, Gymnothamnion elegans, Spermothamnion repens, Lophosiphoniacristata, Hydrolithon cruciatum, Leathesia marina, Caulerpa racemosa)a...

  9. Antibacterial activity of extracts of six macroalgae from the northeastern brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima-Filho José Vitor M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hexane, chloroform and ethanol extracts of six marine macroalgae (Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta from North Ceará coast (Northeast Brazil were evaluated for antibacterial activity by the single disk method. Best results were shown by the hexane extracts of Amansia multifida against enteric Gram-negative strains such as Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, S. cholerae-suis, Serratia marcescens, Vibrio cholerae and the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.

  10. Screening of proteins based on macro-algae from West Java coast in Indonesian marine as a potential anti-aging agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Arlina Prima; Dewi, Rizna Triana; Handayani, Aniek Sri; Harjanto, Sri; Chalid, Mochamad

    2018-02-01

    Algae has been known as one of the potential marine bio-resources that have been used in many fields such as bio-energy, food, pharmaceutical and medical applications. Study of macro-algae or seaweed for medicine application, in particular, highlights to empower their ingredients as a promising antioxidant like anti-aging agent due to their diversity in biological activity. The tropical climate of Indonesia with the highest marine biodiversity puts this country an auspicious source of numerous alga species as a novel antioxidant source. A Sample of 29 species of macroalgae has been collected from Coast of Pari Island as a part of Seribu Islands, Indonesia. Screening and extracting of aqueous tropical marine alga protein as a potential source for an antioxidant agent has been done by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging method, and protein contents have been determined by Lowry method. Sample number 26 of the phylum Rhodophyta have 9.00±0.03 % protein content, which is potential for nutritional food in form of nutraceutical. That sample demonstrated the maximum DPPH scavenging activity 79.27±1.81 %. Moreover, crude extract from another species from phylum Rhodophyta had the very lower IC50 (3.4333±0.29 mg/ml) followed by Chlorophyta species (7.1069±1.78 mg/ml). In general, this study found that algae from phylum Rhodophyta possess a high content of protein, high activity towards free radical. Nevertheless, algae acquire the lowest IC50 value not only dominated by Rhodophyta but also from phylum Chlorophyta. The conclusion of this study leads to empowering high antioxidant activity algae as an anti-aging agent, which can be used in pharmaceutical applications. Therefore, the next study should be concerned on the properties of the algae which has been known to be suitable for pharmaceutical fields.

  11. Caulerpin as a potential antiviral drug against herpes simplex virus type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Regina Porto Vieira Macedo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available About 80% of the human adult population is infected with HSV-1. Although there are many anti-HSV-1 drugs available (acyclovir, ganciclovir, valaciclovir, foscarnet, their continuous use promotes the selection of resistant strains, mainly in ACV patients. In addition to resistance, the drugs also have toxicity, particularly when administration is prolonged. The study of new molecules isolated from green algae with potential antiviral activity represents a good opportunity for the development of antiviral drugs. Caulerpin, the major product from the marine algae Caulerpa Lamouroux (Caulerpales, is known for its biological activities such as antioxidant, antifungal, acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChE and antibacterial activity. In this work, we show that caulerpin could be an alternative to acyclovir as an anti-HSV-1 drug that inhibits the alpha and beta phases of the replication cycle.

  12. [On the problem og higher fungi origin: Florideae hypothesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmitrovich, I V

    2001-01-01

    The history and current state of the hypothesis of the origin of higher fungi (Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes) and red algae from the common ancestor (Florideae) were analysed. Initially the hypothesis was based on similarity of their vegetative and generative structures (Sachs, 1874; Dodge, 1914; Chadefaund, 1953, 1972, etc.), but later it was confirmed by ultrastructural data (Demoulin, 1974; Kohlmeyer, 1975). It appears to be very useful for the study of the development of terrestrial flora (Church, 1921; Kohlemeyer, Kohlmeyer, 1979; Atsatt, 1988) and regularities in morphological evolution of higher fungi (Corner, 1964, 1970; Chadefaud, 1960, 1982, 1984). Description of the order Spathulosporales (Kohlmeyer, 1973), combining the characters of Ascomycetes and parasitic Florideae, was one of the most important fact leading to the wide recognition of the hypothesis in 1970-80s (Cavalier-Smith, 1978; Taylor, 1978; Dodge, 1980; Hawksworth, 1982; Goff, 1983; Coff, Coleman, 1985). Today, however, Florideae hypothesis is not confirmed by molecular data and replaced by alternative hypothesis of Eumycota origin. Summarizing data on molecular systematic of fungi, one could affirm with confidence: 1). Chitincontaining fungi are closer to multicellular animals and green plants than to Rhodophyta; 2). Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta are monophyletic group; 3). There is no single-valued molecular data on taxonomic distance between higher fungi, Chytridiomycetes; Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Metazoa. Thus, the current data could not testify against Florideae hypothesis. It is possible to adjust them with the idea of B.M. Kozo-Polyansky (1927) about existence of "Chloroflorodeae" group that is original for terrestrial flora; the hypothesis about closeness of Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta, as well as Chlorophyta and Eumycota, does not contradict molecular data (Stiller, Hall, 1997). The author believes that we need molecular study of the whole "stem" of chlorobionta, especially groups

  13. Comparison of some secondary metabolite content in the seventeen species of the Boraginaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Sławomir; Szymczak, Grażyna; Wójcik, Małgorzata

    2017-12-01

    The Boraginaceae family comprises plants that have important therapeutic and cosmetic applications. Their pharmacological effect is related to the presence of naphthaquinones, flavonoids, terpenoids, phenols, or purine derivative - allantoin. In the present study, comparison of some secondary metabolite content and phytochemical relationship between 17 species of the Boraginaceae family were analyzed. High performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) was used to perform a chemometric analysis in the following Boraginaceae species: Anchusa azurea Mill., Anchusa undulata L., Borago officinalis L., Buglossoides purpurocaerulea (L.) I.M. Johnst., Cerinthe minor L., Cynoglossum creticum Mill, Echium italicum L., Echium russicum J.F. Gmel., Echium vulgare L., Lindelofia macrostyla (Bunge) Popov (syn. Lindelofia anchusoides (Lindl.) Lehm.), Lithospermum officinale L., Nonea lutea (Desr.) DC., Omphalodes verna Moench (syn. Cynoglossum omphaloides L.), Pulmonaria mollis Wulfen ex Hornem., Pulmonaria obscura Dumort., Symphytum cordatum Waldst. & Kit ex Willd., and Symphytum officinale L. Six active compounds in shoot extracts (allantoin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, rutin, hydrocaffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, and chlorogenic acid) and four compounds in root extracts (allantoin, hydrocaffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, and shikonin) were identified. The presence and abundance of these compounds were used for the characterization of the species and for revealing their phytochemical similarity and differentiation. The present study provides the first comprehensive report of the extraction and quantification of several compounds in Boraginaceae species (some of them for the first time). Among the 17 species studied, species with potentially high pharmacological activity were recognized.

  14. REVISION AND RE-DOCUMENTATION OF M. AIROLDI’S SPECIES OF MESOPHYLLUM FROM THE TERTIARY PIEDMONT BASIN (NW ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA BASSO

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Airoldi (1930, 1932 described twenty-three fossil Corallinales (Rhodophyta from the Oligocene of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (NW Italy, including thirteen new species. In this paper Mesophyllum fructiferum Airoldi 1932 and Mesophyllum obsitum Airoldi 1932 are re-documented and re-described. The presence of cell fusions, multiporate conceptacles and a ventral core of cell filaments passing from coaxial to non-coaxial confirm that both species belong to the genus Mesophyllum.   SHORT NOTES  

  15. The betaines from Chinese seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li-Jun; Fan, Xiao; Yan, Xiao-Jun

    2002-03-01

    Cation-exchange chromatography was selected to extract and separate betaines from marine algae. On the basis of the special chemical characteristics of the betaines and their analogues, Dragendorff's reagent (KBiI4) was used to test the existence of betaines and their analogues in marine algae. The total content of betaines from seven species was obtained by using the Reinkeate salt precipitation method. The results showed that the content of betaines in two species of Chlorophyta and two species of Rhodophyta were relatively high, and that the content of betaines in Enteromopha prolifera could even reach to 0.9%. The content in the three species of Phaeophyta was relatively low.

  16. Aquatic macro algae of a region under Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant influence. I. Spatial seasonal evaluation; Macroalgas marinhas da regiao sob influencia da Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto (CNAAA), Saco de Piraquara de Fora, Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brasil. I. Avaliacao espaco-temporal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrini, A.G. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[Universidade Santa Ursula, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas; Cassano, V.; Coelho, L.G.; Labronici, G.J. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    1994-12-31

    Marine macro algae from the area which is under in fluence of the heated and chlorate liquid effluent to the CNAAA were observed (1981-1983) at 3 collection points: Pingo Dagua, Velho Beach, discharge point. A total of 121 taxa were found: 29 Chlorophyta, 26 Phaeophyta and 66 Rhodophyta. The spring season was the richest in taxa (78) while autumn was the poorest (85). Overall, the data suggest that the point A (Pingo Dagua) macro algae community (which is similar to the discharge point (0,80) is adequate for the control of the CNAAA effluent impact ad Piraquara de Fora. (author). 11 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.

  17. [Epiphytic algae from Bajo Pepito, Isla Mujeres, Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan-Young, L I; Díaz-Martín, M A; Espinoza-Avalos, J

    2006-06-01

    A total of 96 epiphytic algae species were identified from Bajo Pepito, Quintana Roo, México. 60.4% (58) belonged to the Rhodophyta, 19.79% (19) to the Phaeophyta, 16.6% (16) to the Chlorophyta and 3.1% (3) to the Cyanophyta; 49 species (50.5%) were found only in one month, while Heterosiphonia crispella was found in all of the sampled months. That species provided the largest contribution to the biomass of epiphytes. During January we registered the greater biommass and richness of epiphytes species, coincidently with high values of host species cover and rainfall.

  18. Sulfated oligosaccharide structures, as determined by NMR techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseda, M.D.; Duarte, M.E.R.; Tischer, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. De Bioquimica; Cerezo, A.S. [Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica Organica

    1997-12-31

    Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides, produced by red seaweeds (Rhodophyta), that have important biological and physico-chemical properties. Using partial autohydrolysis, we obtained sulfated oligosaccharides from a {lambda}-carrageenan (Noseda and Cerezo, 1993). These oligosaccharides are valuable not only for the study of the structures of the parent carrageenans but also for their possible biological activities. In this work we determined the chemical structure of one of the sulfated oligosaccharides using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. (author) 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tabs.

  19. Algas marinas bentónicas de la costa noroccidental de Guerrero, México Benthic marine algae of the west coast of Guerrero, Mexico

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    Luz Elena Mateo-Cid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de un estudio sobre algas marinas bentónicas en 7 localidades de la costa noroccidental de Guerrero, México. Se determinó la presencia de 163 especies de algas marinas. Se identificaron 17 especies de Cyanobacteria, 93 Rhodophyta, 28 Chlorophyta y 25 de Heterokontophyta. Se citan 54 registros nuevos para el litoral de Guerrero, 2 también nuevos, Myrionema strangulans Greville y Acrochaete ramosa (N.L.Gardner O'Kelly para la costa del Pacífico. Cada especie se acompaña de datos sobre su distribución en el área de estudio, su estado reproductivo, nivel de marea, hábitat, observaciones, epifitismo y número de herbario o de recolección. Se comparó la riqueza específica entre la estación climática de lluvias y la de secas. La división Rhodophyta dominó en términos de diversidad en relación con las 3 divisiones restantes. La ficoflora de la costa noroccidental de Guerrero es de afinidad tropical y más diversa en la época de secas.We present results on the study on benthic marine algae in 7 localities from the west coast of Guerrero, Mexico. We report 163 species: 17 Cyanobacteria, 93 Rhodophyta, 28 Chlorophyta and 25 Heterokontophyta. Fifty four are new records for Guerrero; while Myrionema strangulans Greville and Acrochaete ramosa (N.L.Gardner O'Kelly are new to the Pacific coast of Mexico. Each species includes data on its distribution, reproductive stages, tidal level, facies, epiphytism and herbarium's number. Species diversity was compared for 2 different climatic seasons. The Rhodophyta are dominant in terms of diversity in relation to the other groups. The algal flora of the northwest coast of Guerrero is tropical and the greatest diversity was found during dry seasons.

  20. Checklist of the benthic marine and brackish Galician algae (NW Spain

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    Bárbara, Ignacio

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We present an annotated checklist of the benthic marine and brackish algae of the Galician coasts (Spain based on literature records and new collections. This checklist includes 618 species: 118 Cyanophyta, 296 Rhodophyta, 127 Ochrophyta, and 77 Chlorophyta. The number of specific, infraspecific taxa, and stages is 643: 121 Cyanophyta, 309 Rhodophyta, 135 Ochrophyta, and 79 Chlorophyta. Hyella caespitosa var. nitida, Calothrix fasciculata, Gracilariopsis longissima, Compsonema minutum, and Sphacelaria tribuloides are new records for Galicia, and there are also some new provincial records. We state the presence of each species for Lugo (Lu, A Coruña (Co, and Pontevedra (Po provinces. The number of species found in Galicia is high, since 85% of the species recorded for the warm-temperate NE Atlantic Ocean grow in Galicia. Biogeographical comments comparing the Galician data with the neighboring areas of Britain and Ireland, Basque coast, Portugal, southern Iberian Peninsula, Canary Islands and Atlantic coast of Morocco are given. Finally, we present lists of cold-temperate, warm-temperate, Lusitanic Province endemics, and alien species growing in Galicia.Se presenta una lista comentada de las especies de algas bentónicas marinas y salobres de la costa de Galicia (España basada en citas bibliográficas y nuevos datos de los autores. La lista contiene 618 especies: 118 Cyanophyta, 296 Rhodophyta, 127 Ochrophyta y 77 Chlorophyta. El número de taxa específicos e infraespecíficos asciende a 643: 121 Cyanophyta, 309 Rhodophyta, 135 Ochrophyta y 79 Chlorophyta. Hyella caespitosa var. nitida, Calothrix fasciculata, Gracilariopsis longissima, Compsonema minutum y Sphacelaria tribuloides son nuevas citas para Galicia, y algunas nuevas citas provinciales. Para cada especie se especifica su presencia en las provincias de Lugo (Lu, A Coruña (Co y Pontevedra (Po. El número de especies encontradas en Galicia es elevado, ya que se conocen el 85% de las

  1. Nuevas citas y aportaciones corológicas para la flora bentónica marina del Atlántico de la Península Ibérica

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara, Ignacio; Díaz Tapia, Pilar; Peteiro, César; Berecibar, Estibaliz; Peña, Viviana; Sánchez, Noemí; Tavares, Ana Mafalda; Santos, Rui; Secilla, Antonio; Riera Fernández, Pablo; Bermejo, Ricardo; García, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Se dan a conocer nuevas localizaciones y datos corológicos para 98 especies (61 Rhodophyta, 22 Ochrophyta, 15 Chlorophyta) de algas bentónicas marinas recolectadas en el intermareal y submareal de más de 80 localidades de las costas atlánticas y cantábricas de la Península Ibérica. Polysiphonia devoniensis, P. fibrata y Zonaria tournefortii son novedad para Portugal y 5 especies (Bonnemaisonia hamifera, Calosiphonia vermicularis, P. devoniensis, Hincksia intermedia y Derbesia marina stadium H...

  2. Growth and phycocyanin synthesis in the heterotrophic microalga Galdieria sulphuraria on substrates made of food waste from restaurants and bakeries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jenni K; Jensen, Henriette Casper; Pleissner, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Galdieria sulphuraria 074G (Rhodophyta) was grown heterotrophically in defined medium and on amylolytic and proteolytic hydrolysed food waste from restaurants and bakeries. Substrate uptake, growth, and phycocyanin content were quantified in the cultures. The alga utilised carbohydrates and amino...... in quantities resulting in glucose concentrations of 10 and 50 g L−1 for bakery and restaurant waste, respectively. Still, G. sulphuraria 074G grew and produced phycocyanin efficiently on food waste under adequate conditions and may potentially be utilised for synthesise of high-valuable products from food...

  3. LOS HIDROZOOS (CNIDARIA, HYDROZOA DE LA CAYERÍA SUR DEL GOLFO DE BATABANÓ, CUBA

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    Susel Castellanos Iglesias

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hidrozoos de aguas poco profundas fueron recolectados en 17 estaciones, en julio del 2004. Las estaciones se localizaron en manglares, pastos marinos y arrecifes coralinos. Se encontraron hidrozoos de dos subclases (Anthoathecata y Leptothecata, 11 familias, 27 géneros y 34 especies. Se indican la localidad de recolecta, la profundidad, el tipo de sustrato, la descripción y las figuras de 15 especies de hidrozoos  tecados. Se confirma la presencia de Hebellopsis communis Calder, 1991a y Antennella siliquosa (Hincks, 1877 para el Mar Caribe. Se expresa la abundancia relativa en tres categorías: abundante, común y rara. Las especies más abundantes fueron Dynamena crisioides Lamouroux, 1824 en el hábitat de manglar, Cnydoscyphus marginatus (Allman, 1877 y Sertularella diaphana (Allman, 1885 en los arrecifes. Monostaechas quadridens (McCrady, 1859 y Diphasia tropica Nutting, 1904 fueron de baja representación en las muestras. Los sustratos más colonizados fueron la raíz sumergida de mangle rojo y las esponjas en arrecife. El hidrozoo más colonizado fue C. marginatus. El material fue depositado en la colección de invertebrados marinos del Acuario Nacional de Cuba. ABSTRACT Hydrozoans from shallow waters were collected at 17 stations in July 2004. Stations were located in mangrove forests, seagrass meadows and coral reefs. Two subclases (Anthoathecata and Leptothecata of hydrozoans were found, including 11 families, 27 genera and 34 species. The collection site, depth, type of substrate, description and pictures are recorded for the fifteenth thecate hydrozoan species. The presence of Hebellopsis communis Calder, 1991a and Antennella siliquos (Hincks, 1877 is confirmed for the Caribbean Sea. The relative abundance is expressed in three categories: abundant, common and rare. Most abundant species were Dynamena crisioides Lamouroux, 1824 in mangrove habitat, Cnydoscyphus marginatus (Allman, 1877 and Sertularella diaphana (Allman, 1885 in

  4. Bathymetric variation of epiphytic assemblages on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile leaves in relation to anthropogenic disturbance in the southeastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Brahim, Mounir; Mabrouk, Lotfi; Hamza, Asma; Mahfoudi, Mabrouka; Bouain, Abderrahmane; Aleya, Lotfi

    2014-12-01

    A survey of the epiphytic leaves of Posidonia oceanica was conducted along a depth transect at both the control station Attaya in the Kerkennah Islands and the disturbed Mahres station on the Sfax coast (Tunisia). Samples were collected by scuba divers at depths of 5, 10, 15, and 20 m in July 2008. We evaluated whether the pattern of spatial variability of the macroepiphyte assemblages of leaves of Posidonia oceanica differed in relation to anthropogenic interference. The results indicate that the decrease in shoot density and leaf length according to depth was low at Mahres. The biomass of epiphytic leaves and the percentage cover of epiphytic assemblages decreased with depth for both stations and heavily at Mahres, this decline being related to anthropogenic disturbance. This study shows that the highest values of epifauna and epiflora were detected at the disturbed station Mahres. Macroalgae assemblages decreased with depth at both stations and were dominated by Rhodophyta, whereas the percentage cover of the epifauna leaf that decreases according to depth was dominated by Hydrozoa and Bryozoa. Changes in epiphyte assemblages, epiphytic biomass, percentage cover, and species richness in proportion to Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, Cyanobacteria, Hydrozoa, Porifera, and Tunicata between the two stations constitute promising tools for detecting environmental disturbance.

  5. ALIEN MARINE SPECIES OF LIBYA: FIRST INVENTORY AND NEW RECORDS IN EL-KOUF NATIONAL PARK (CYRENAICA AND THE NEIGHBOURING AREAS

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    H. BAZAIRI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of marine alien species in El-Kouf National Park and the neighbouring areas was assessed using a compilation of available information and observations, a field survey conducted on October 2010 in the framework of the MedMPAnet project and results of further monitoring during June and September 2012. A total of 9 alien species were reported: the Rhodophyta Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile Trevisan de Saint-Léon, the Chlorophyta Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Sonder Verlaque, Huisman & Boudouresque, the crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne-Edwards, 1853 and the fishes Fistularia commersonii Rüppell, 1838, Siganus luridus (Rüppell, 1829, Siganus rivulatus Forsskål, 1775, Pempheris vanicolensis Cuvier, 1831, Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 and Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell, 1838. Several of them were until now unknown for the National Park. The list of alien marine species of Libya is updated and discussed. Until now 63 marine aliens species were recorded along the Libyan coasts. These include 3 Foraminifera, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 1 Magnoliophyta, 11 Arthropoda, 13 Mollusca, 1 Echinodermata and 21 Chordata. Among these Non Indigenous Species, 43 are known as established along the Libyan coast including 8 invasive, 11 casual, 6 questionable, 3 cryptogenic and 1 unknown. An in-depth study of the marine organisms would substantially increase the number of alien species occurring in Libya. Monitoring of marine assemblages of MPAs is a valuable opportunity to go further into the knowledge of native and introduced species.

  6. [Molecular genetic diversity of phytoplankton rbcL gene in Jiaozhou Bay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjian; Yang, Guanpin; Guan, Xiaojing

    2004-09-01

    The variants of a 500 base pair fragment of RubisCo large subunit gene (rbcL) from the phytoplanktonic DNA of Jiaozhou Bay surface seawater were amplified by using polymerase chain reaction and cloned. Twenty-eight clones were randomly selected and sequenced, which were further used to determine the molecular genetic diversity of the phytoplankton of Jiaozhou Bay surface seawater. Systematic analysis showed that the clones representing cryptophyta counted for 28.6%, Stramenopiles 32.1%, Haptophyta 28.6%, Rhodophyta 3.6% and Chlorophyta 7.1%. The sequences from Cryptophyta, Stramenopiles, Haptophyta and Rhodophyta belonged to type D of Form I rbcL and Chlorophyta to type B, indicating that the dominant phytoplankton were those represented by type D rbcL. The genetic diversity index and the reversely translated amino acid sequence diversity of Jiaozhou Bay phytoplankton were 2.85 and 0.20, which were determined by the abundances of operational taxonomy units and the reversely translated amino acid sequences respectively.

  7. Longitudinal distribution and seasonality of macroalgae in a subtropical stream impacted by organic pollution Distribuição longitudinal e sazonalidade de macroalgas em um riacho subtropical impactado por poluição orgânica

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    Cleto Kaveski Peres

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was carried out to assess longitudinal and temporal distribution and the effects of organic pollution on macroalgal communities in a subtropical stream; METHODS: The occurrence and percent cover of stream macroalgae were investigated during seasonal period in four sampling sites along the course of the Cascavel Stream, in Paraná State, subtropical area of Brazil. Sampling sites were randomly chosen; however, their location in relation to urban organic pollution sources was taken into consideration. Besides, several stream variables usually related to organic pollution in aquatic ecosystems were measured; RESULTS: Eleven macroalgal taxa were found during the samplings. Chlorophyta was the prevailing division (4 species or 36.3% of the total richness, followed by Cyanophyta and Rhodophyta (3 or 27.3% and Heterokontophyta (1 or 9.1%. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed no significant differences in species diversity, percent cover and diversity index among seasons or the sampling sites. In addition, species diversity was not correlated with any environmental variable in particular. On the other hand, the relative composition of the stream macroalgal communities showed wide spatial and temporal variation. Thus, Chlorophyta had higher values of richness and percent cover in sampling site with higher levels of organic pollution, while Rhodophyta was never found in this segment. Taking seasonality into consideration, Chlorophyta had higher values of percent cover in winter, but Rhodophyta and Cyanophyta in spring and fall, respectively; CONCLUSIONS: In general terms, in this study macroalgal community structures were slightly affected by organic pollution, mainly by increase in richness and percent cover of Chlorophyta associated with the absence of Rhodophyta in the most polluted sampling site. The analysis of the richness throughout the stretch of the stream showed that the highest values were found in the intermediate part, being

  8. Avaliação de extratos de macroalgas bênticas do litoral catarinense utilizando o teste de letalidade para Artemia salina

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    Cintia Lhullier

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas amostras de algas marinhas de 19 espécies (sendo 4 pertencentes ao filo Chlorophyta, 5 ao filo Phaeophyta e 10 ao filo Rhodophyta em dois locais do litoral catarinense. Os extratos etanólicos foram submetidos ao teste de letalidade para larvas de Artemia salina com objetivo de realizar uma triagem das espécies. Dos 26 extratos testados, 25 apresentaram toxicidade significativa em pelo menos uma das 3 concentrações testadas. O grupo de algas vermelhas (Rhodophyta foi o que obteve maior porcentagem de extratos com resultados estatisticamente significativos pelo método do qui-quadrado e também menores valores de CL50, com destaque para Acanthophora spicifera, Hypnea musciformis e Pterocladiella capillacea. Observaram-se diferenças entre as espécies de um mesmo gênero (Codium decorticatum e Codium isthmocladium e também a influência de fatores ambientais (Hypnea musciformis na toxicidade dos extratos.

  9. LIPIDS OF BLACK SEA ALGAE: UNVEILING THEIR POTENTIAL FOR PHARMACEUTICAL AND COSMETIC APPLICATIONS

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    Veselina Panayotova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bulgarian Black Sea coast is rich in algae, regarding biomass and algal biodiversity. The red algae Gelidium crinale (Rhodophyta and brown algae Cystoseira barbata (Phaeophytes are among the most abundant species along the Bulgarian Black Sea shore. Yet information about their lipid composition is limited. Purpose: Present study was conducted to investigate biologically active substances in two underexplored seaweed lipids. Total lipids, total phospholipids, fat soluble vitamins and carotenoids were analysed. In addition, the specific distribution of fatty acids group among the total lipids and total phospholipids were elucidated. Material/Methods: The saponifiable lipid fraction was derivatized into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs and analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS to identify and quantify the fatty acids. The fat soluble non-saponifiable lipids were identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with UV/Vis and fluorescence detectors (HPLC-UV-FL. Results: Results showed that Rhodophyta and Phaeophytes have high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, particularly from the n-3 series, thereby being a good source of these compounds. They presented a “healthy” n-6/n-3 ratio. Both seaweed species showed considerably high amounts of α-tocopherol, β-carotene and astaxanthin. Conclusions: The study reveals that lipids from Black Sea algae have a high potential as natural sources of biologically active ingredients. They are balanced source of fatty acids and contained beneficial antioxidants, such as α-tocopherol, β-carotene and astaxanthin.

  10. Chemical and mass spectrometry characterization of the red alga Pyropia yezoensis chemoprotective protein (PYP): protective activity of the N-terminal fragment of PYP1 against acetaminophen-induced cell death in Chang liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youn Hee; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya; Nam, Taek Jeong

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the chemical structure and chemoprotective activity of Pyropia yezoensis protein (PYP) were investigated using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, automated protein sequencing, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-quadrupole ion trap-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and a chemoprotective assay using a synthetic peptide. The PYP fraction was demonstrated to contain two proteins: PYP1 (10 kDa, SDS-resistant dimer) and PYP2 (10 kDa). PYP1 is a novel protein showing sequence homology with the hypothetical function-unknown proteins of Chondrus crispus (Rhodophyta) and Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyceae). PYP2 is a paralog of an extrinsic protein of photosystem II found in other Rhodophyta. The synthetic peptide PYP1 (1-20), corresponding to the N-terminal 20 residues of PYP1 (ALEGGKSSGGGEATRDPEPT), exhibits chemoprotective activity against acetaminophen-induced cell death in Chang liver cells, indicating that PYP1 is a chemoprotectant of the PYP fraction. A possible association between the structure of PYP and its chemoprotective activity is discussed.

  11. α-, β-caroteno e α-tocoferol em algas marinhas in natura α- and β-carotene, and α-tocopherol in fresh seaweeds

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    Márcia Barbosa de Sousa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de 32 espécies de algas marinhas das divisões Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta e Phaeophyta como fontes de α- e β-caroteno e α-tocoferol. Todas as clorofíceas analisadas apresentaram α- e β-caroteno. Os teores máximo e mínimo de α-caroteno foram detectados nas espécies do gênero Caulerpa e em Codium decorticatum, respectivamente; e β-caroteno foi mais baixo em Caulerpa mexicana e mais elevado em Ulva fasciata. Dentre as rodofíceas, 11 espécies apresentaram α-caroteno, com máximo em Botryocladia occidentalis. β-caroteno foi encontrado em todas as algas vermelhas analisadas com teores mínimo e máximo em Gracilaria caudata e Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectivamente. As feofíceas apresentaram apenas β-caroteno, com mínimo e máximo em Dictyopteris delicatula e Padina gymnospora, respectivamente. Na divisão Chlorophyta, α-tocoferol, foi máximo em Codium decorticatum e mínimo em Caulerpa prolifera. Na Rhodophyta, 12 espécies apresentaram α-tocoferol com teor máximo em Enantiocladia duperreyi. Na Phaeophyta, α-tocoferol foi encontrado com valores mínimo e máximo em Lobophora variegata e Dictyota dichotoma, respectivamente.The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of 32 marine macro algae species, members of Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta, as sources of a-carotene, b-carotene and a-tocopherol. Both b-carotene and a-carotene were found in all species of green macroalgae analyzed. The maximum content of a-carotene was detected in algae belonging to Caulerpa genus and the minimum in Codium decorticatum. The amount of b-carotene found was minimum in Caulerpa mexicana and maximum in Ulva fasciata. Among the Rhodophyta species, eleven contain a-carotene, the maximum content was found in Botryocladia occidentalis. b-Carotene was found in all red macroalgae analyzed presenting the lowest and highest values in Gracilaria caudata and Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectively

  12. Antiangiogenic effects of GFP08, an agaran-type polysaccharide isolated from Grateloupia filicina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qianming; Yan, Jun; Wang, Shunchun; Ji, Lili; Ding, Kan; Vella, Cherelyn; Wang, Zhengtao; Hu, Zhibi

    2012-10-01

    An agaran-type polysaccharide, GFP08, isolated from Grateloupia filicina (C. Agardh) Lamouroux, was mainly composed of 1,3-linked β-D-galactose partially sulfated at position O-2 and 1,4-linked α-L-galactose O-2, O-3-disulfate, α-L-galactose O-6-sulfate and 3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactose. Small quantities of xylose, 4,6-O-(1'-carboxyethylidene) and 6-O-methyl-β-D-galactose were also present. In mice bearing sarcoma-180 cells, GFP08 decreased tumor weight in a dose-dependent manner. The antiangiogenic activity of GFP08 was evaluated using the chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay, and the results showed that GFP08 dose-dependently reduced new vessel formation. Meanwhile, GFP08 inhibited the differentiation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) into capillary-like structures in vitro and reduced the number of migrated cells. However, there was no observed cytotoxicity of GFP08 toward HUVECs. Further study revealed that GFP08 decreased tissue factor (TF) expression without affecting the activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9. All those data indicated that GFP08 had an antitumor effect that might be associated in part with its antiangiogenic effect through down-regulating the expression of TF protein.

  13. Phylogeography of the Red Algal Laurencia Complex in the Macaronesia Region and Nearby Coastal Areas: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Machín-Sánchez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Since the conception of the genus Laurencia by Lamouroux in 1813, several red macroalgal species have been included in it. In recent decades, the development of modern molecular tools has resulted in multiple taxonomic modifications, and presently, eight related genera are recognized in the so-called Laurencia complex. In the Macaronesian Region (Central East Atlantic Ocean, species from the Laurencia complex are keystone elements of the benthic communities, especially in the intertidal zone. In this review, we consolidate the existing knowledge about the Laurencia complex within the Macaronesian archipelagos and nearby areas. Morphological descriptions and phylogeographic remarks of the 16 currently accepted species—whose records were molecular or morphologically confirmed—are included together with an identification key for the Macaronesian Region. The phylogeographic data allowed us to re-visit the role of the Macaronesian archipelagos as a bridge area for the marine flora of the Mediterranean and Caribbean Seas (remnants of the former Thetyan Sea or contemplate their marine flora as the result of successive processes of recolonization after the Quaternary glaciations from those donor areas. Finally, some comments about the frontiers of the research in the Laurencia complex in the Macaronesian Region and nearby coastal areas are included.

  14. New remains of von Meyer, 1837 (Crocodilia, Thalattosuchia from the Kimmeridgian of Germany

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    J. E. Martin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The fourth complete skull of the marine crocodilian Machimosaurus von Meyer, 1837 is hereby described together with an associated complete mandible and disarticulated postcranial elements from the Kimmeridgian of Neuffen, Germany. Although the genus has been described fairly recently on the basis of two nearly complete skulls, their state of preservation did not allow a thorough examination of the entire skull anatomy. Here, we add new information with the description of nicely preserved cranial and mandibular elements of a single individual attributable to Machimosaurus hugii von Meyer, 1837. The diagnosis is updated for the genus and for the species M. hugii and challenges the validity of the second species M. mosae (Liénard, 1876. Moreover, previous assumption that Steneosaurus obtusidens Andrews, 1913 is a junior synonym of Machimosaurus hugii is not supported by our observations. Notably, M. hugii differs from S. obtusidens by a lower tooth count, the morphology of the dentition, the shape of the supratemporal fenestrae and the absence of an antorbital fenestra. Comparative anatomy and a phylogenetic analysis show that Machimosaurus is more closely related to the genus Steneosaurus than to Teleosaurus cadomensis (Lamouroux, 1820. doi:10.1002/mmng.201300009

  15. Photosynthetic responses of thalli and isolated protoplasts of Bryopsis hypnoides (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) during dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Fang; Wang, Guangce; Jin, Haochen

    2011-03-01

    Bryopsis hypnoides Lamouroux is a unique intertidal siphonous green alga whose extruded protoplasm can aggregate spontaneously in seawater to form numerous new cells that can develop into mature algal thalli. In this study, the photosynthetic responses during dehydration of both the thalli and protoplasts isolated from B. hypnoides were measured using a Dual-PAM (pulse amplitude modulation)-100 fluorometer. The results show that the photosynthetic rates of B. hypnoides thalli were maintained for an initial period, beyond which continued desiccation resulted in reduced rates of PSI and PSII. However, the photosynthetic performances of the isolated protoplasts dehydrated in air (CO2 concentration 600-700 mg/L) showed a slight increase of Y(II) at 20% water loss, but the rates decreased thereafter with declining water content. When protoplasts were dehydrated in CO2 deficient conditions (CO2 concentration 40-80 mg/L), the values of Y(II) declined steadily with increased dehydration without an initial rise. These results indicated that the thalli and isolated protoplasts of this alga can utilize CO2 in ambient air effectively, and the photosynthetic performances of the isolated protoplasts were significantly different from that of the thalli during dehydration. Thus the protoplasts may be an excellent system for the study of stress tolerance.

  16. Toxic dinoflagellates (Dinophyceae) from Rarotonga, Cook Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Lesley L; Smith, Kirsty F; Munday, Rex; Selwood, Andy I; McNabb, Paul S; Holland, Patrick T; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine

    2010-10-01

    Dinoflagellate species isolated from the green calcareous seaweed, Halimeda sp. J.V. Lamouroux, growing in Rarotongan lagoons, included Gambierdiscus australes Faust & Chinain, Coolia monotis Meunier, Amphidinium carterae Hulburth, Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg) Dodge, P. cf. maculosum Faust and species in the genus Ostreopsis Schmidt. Isolates were identified to species level by scanning electron microscopy and/or DNA sequence analysis. Culture extracts of G. australes isolate CAWD149 gave a response of 0.04 pg P-CTX-1 equiv. per cell by an N2A cytotoxicity assay (equivalent to ca 0.4 pg CTX-3C cell(-1)). However, ciguatoxins were not detected by LC-MS/MS. Partitioned fractions of the cell extracts potentially containing maitotoxin were found to be very toxic to mice after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. A. carterae was also of interest as extracts of mass cultures caused respiratory paralysis in mice at high doses, both by i.p. injection and by oral administration. The Rarotongan isolate fell into a different clade to New Zealand A. carterae isolates, based on DNA sequence analysis, and also had a different toxin profile. As A. carterae co-occurred with G. australes, it may contribute to human poisonings attributed to CTX and warrants further investigation. A crude extract of C. monotis was of low toxicity to mice by i.p. injection, and an extract of Ostreopsis sp. was negative in the palytoxin haemolysis neutralisation assay. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Submerged macrophyte biomass distribution in the shallow saline lake Fuente de Piedra (Spain as function of environmental variables

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    Conde-Álvarez, Rafael M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic macrophyte biomass, diaspore bank distribution and their relationship to spatial variability of depth, nutrients (nitrite, nitrate, ammonium and soluble reactive phosphorus as well as sediment granulometry in an athalassohaline lake have been studied during one wet hydrological year. The results indicate that species growing in the lake show different spatial distribution patterns throughout the lake. Indirect gradient analysis (canonical analysis results showed a first axis defined as a function of Ulva flexuosa Wulfen biomass which is, in turn, positively correlated with interstitial ammonium and Soluble Reactive Phosphorus (SRP. The second axis was mainly established due to Lamprothamnium papulosum (Wallr. J. Groves biomass which correlated positively to depth and negatively to interstitial ammonium and SRP. These results revealed a NESW eutrophic gradient allowing the U. Flexuosa biomass proliferation. This phenomenon could increase the shadow effect over the rest of the macrophytes inhabiting this shallow lake. Moreover, the eutrophic harmful effect on the macrophyte physiology and over the diaspore bank could have important consequences in the survival of such important populations. The results reported in this study show the need for studies as the base to select sampling points for monitoring this wetland.

    La distribución de la biomasa de los macrófitos acuáticos y de su banco de semillas y oogonios ha sido investigada en relación a la profundidad, los nutrientes (nitrito, nitrato, amonio y fósforo soluble reactivo y la granulometría del sedimento durante un año hidrológico húmedo. Los resultados muestran patrones de distribución diferentes en las distintas especies. Los resultados del análisis canónico basado en análisis de gradiente indirecto muestran un primer eje definido en función de la biomasa de U. Flexuosa, Wulfen que, a su vez, está positivamente correlacionada con el

  18. Diversity and distribution Patterns of the infralittoral green macroalgae from Potiguar basin, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil Diversidade e padrão de distribuição das macroalgas verdes da bacia Potiguar, Rio Grande do Norte, Nordeste do Brasil

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    Adilma de Lourdes Montenegro Cocentino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity and distribution pattern of the infralittoral green macroalgae at Potiguar basin, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil were analyzed from material collected at depths varying from 2 to 100 m. Collections were carried out with two types of dredges during four campaigns: July 2002, May and November 2003 and May 2004 at 43 stations. Chlorophyta is represented by 54 species, five varieties and three forms. The most representative family is Caulerpaceae, and the most diverse genus is Caulerpa, with 11 species. The results showed that most taxa (89% are rare, and 10% are present at low frequencies. The most frequent species was Caulerpaprolifera (Forssk. J.V. Lamour. occurring at almost all coastal and inner shelf stations, recorded in all campaigns. Species distribution by depth range showed that higher species number occurred on the inner shelf from 10 to 20 m, and a wide vertical distribution pattern was registered for Anadyomenestellata (Wulfen in Jacq. C. Agardh,Chamaedoris peniculum (J. Ellis & Solander Kuntze, Codium isthmocladum Vickers, Microdictyon sp., Udoteaoccidentalis A. Gepp & E. Gepp and Ventricaria ventricosa (J. Agardh J.L. Olsen & J.A. West. Four species, Cladophoracoelothrix Kütz., C.ordinata (Børgensen C. Hoek, Caulerpellaambigua (Okamura Prud'homme & Lokhorst and Halimedasimulans M. Howe, were recorded for the first time in Rio Grande do Norte.Diversidade e padrão de distribuição das algas verdes do infralitoral da Bacia potiguar, RN, nordeste do Brasil foram analisados a partir de material coletado em profundidades que variaram de 2 a 100 m. As coletas foram feitas em dois tipos de dragas durante as quatro campanhas: julho de 2002, maio e novembro de 2003 e maio de 2004, em 43 estações. Chlorophyta está representada por 54 espécies, cinco variedades e três formas. A família mais representativa é Caulerpaceae e dentro da família, o gênero mais diverso é Caulerpa, com 11 espécies. Os resultados

  19. Antimicrobial activity of four medicinal plants widely used in Persian folk medicine

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    A. Hamedi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Commiphora habessinica (O.Berg Engl. (Burseraceae, Boswellia sacra Flueck (Burseraceae, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae, and Doronicum glaciale (Wulfen Nyman (Asteraceae are of ethnomedicinal importance in Persian folk medicine and are widely used to treat infectious diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial properties of these herbal medicines to prevent misadministration. Methods: Antifungal and antibacterial (Gram-positive and Gram-negative activities of the petroleum ether, dichloromethane and ethanol fractions obtained from oleo-gum-resin of C. habessinica and B. sacra, spathe of P. dactylifera and roots of D. glaciale were evaluated against standard species and clinical antibiotic resistant isolates using broth microdilution method. The fractions were tested at concentrations of 0.5 to 256 µg/mL.Results: The petroleum ether fraction of C. habessinica oleo-gum-resin exhibited the most anti-Candida activity with MIC50 of 0.5-16 µg/mL. The growth of C. glabrata and C. tropicalis was inhibited by the ethanol fraction of C. habessinica oleo-gum-resin with MIC50 of 1-16 μg/mL. C. glabrata was the most susceptible species. Among the tested fractions, only the petroleum ether fraction of C. habessinica oleo-gum-resin had an inhibitory effect on Aspergillus spp. with a MIC50 of 8-32 µg/mL. None of the fractions exhibited antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria at concentrations of 0.5 to 256 µg/mL. Conclusions: The sensitivity of fungi and bacteria to natural antimicrobials varies widely within species and it is essential to consider the sensitivity of the strains to prevent resistance.

  20. Characterization of the photosynthetic conditions and pigment profiles of the colour strains of Hypnea musciformis from field-collected and in vitro cultured samples

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    Daniela R. P. Fernandes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen JV Lamour. is a species of great economic interest as it produces Κ-carrageenan and has shown biological activities against HIV and HSV viruses. This species displays different colour strains in its natural habitat, which may have implications for the biotechnological potential of the species. The aim of this study was to characterize the photosynthetic apparatus and pigment profile of three colour strains of H. musciformis (green, brown and red in their natural habitat and in culture. Chlorophyll a fluorescence of photosystem II was measured with a pulse-amplitude modulated fluorometer and pigments were quantified by spectrofluorimetry (chlorophyll a and spectrophotometry (phycobiliproteins. In the natural habitat, we detected significant differences between the colour strains for the following photochemical parameters: the green strain had a higher effective quantum yield (ΦPSII than the red strain and a higher maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax than the brown and red strains. Saturation irradiances were 1000 µE.m-2.s-1 (green and 500 µE.m-2.s-1 (brown and red. Concerning in vitro culture, the green strain presented the lowest ΦPSII, rETRmax, and α rETR, while the brown strain presented the highest values for these same parameters. The chlorophyll a content of the cultured green strain was the lowest. The phycoerythrin contents of the three colour strains were unchanged by either natural of in vitro conditions: lower in green, intermediate in brown and higher in the red strain, ensuring the chromatic identity of the strains. Our results suggest that the green strain has a better performance when exposed to high irradiance, but a lower efficiency under low irradiance compared to the brown and red strains.

  1. Characterization of the photosynthetic conditions and pigment profiles of the colour strains of Hypnea musciformis from field-collected and in vitro cultured samples

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    Daniela R. P. Fernandes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen JV Lamour. is a species of great economic interest as it produces Κ-carrageenan and has shown biological activities against HIV and HSV viruses. This species displays different colour strains in its natural habitat, which may have implications for the biotechnological potential of the species. The aim of this study was to characterize the photosynthetic apparatus and pigment profile of three colour strains of H. musciformis (green, brown and red in their natural habitat and in culture. Chlorophyll a fluorescence of photosystem II was measured with a pulse-amplitude modulated fluorometer and pigments were quantified by spectrofluorimetry (chlorophyll a and spectrophotometry (phycobiliproteins. In the natural habitat, we detected significant differences between the colour strains for the following photochemical parameters: the green strain had a higher effective quantum yield (ΦPSII than the red strain and a higher maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax than the brown and red strains. Saturation irradiances were 1000 µE.m-2.s-1 (green and 500 µE.m-2.s-1 (brown and red. Concerning in vitro culture, the green strain presented the lowest ΦPSII, rETRmax, and α rETR, while the brown strain presented the highest values for these same parameters. The chlorophyll a content of the cultured green strain was the lowest. The phycoerythrin contents of the three colour strains were unchanged by either natural of in vitro conditions: lower in green, intermediate in brown and higher in the red strain, ensuring the chromatic identity of the strains. Our results suggest that the green strain has a better performance when exposed to high irradiance, but a lower efficiency under low irradiance compared to the brown and red strains.

  2. Ulva (Chlorophyta, Ulvales) Biodiversity in the North Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean, Italy): Cryptic Species and New Introductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Marion A; Sciuto, Katia; Andreoli, Carlo; Moro, Isabella

    2012-12-01

    Ulva Linnaeus (Ulvophyceae, Ulvales) is a genus of green algae widespread in different aquatic environments. Members of this genus show a very simple morphology and a certain degree of phenotypic plasticity, heavily influenced by environmental conditions, making difficult the delineation of species by morphological features alone. Most studies dealing with Ulva biodiversity in Mediterranean waters have been based only on morphological characters and a modern taxonomic revision of this genus in the Mediterranean is not available. We report here the results of an investigation on the diversity of Ulva in the North Adriatic Sea based on molecular analyses. Collections from three areas, two of which subject to intense shipping traffic, were examined, as well as historical collections of Ulva stored in the Herbarium Patavinum of the University of Padova, Italy. Molecular analyses based on partial sequences of the rbcL and tufA genes revealed the presence of six different species, often with overlapping morphologies: U. californica Wille, U. flexuosa Wulfen, U. rigida C. Agardh, U. compressa Linnaeus, U. pertusa Kjellman, and one probable new taxon. U. californica is a new record for the Mediterranean and U. pertusa is a new record for the Adriatic. Partial sequences obtained from historical collections show that most of the old specimens are referable to U. rigida. No specimens referable to the two alien species were found among the old herbarium specimens. The results indicate that the number of introduced seaweed species and their impact on Mediterranean communities have been underestimated, due to the difficulties in species identification of morphologically simple taxa as Ulva. © 2012 Phycological Society of America.

  3. Antifouling activity of seaweed extracts from Guarujá, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Heloisa Elias Medeiros

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine biofouling historically constitutes one of the major constraints faced by mankind in its oceanic activities. The search for alternatives to TBT-based antifouling paints has led several researchers to focus efforts in the development of environmentally friendly natural compounds. This work has contributed with this search, testing the antifouling potential of crude organic extracts from four seaweed species collected at Praia Branca, Guarujá district, São Paulo, Brazil. Throughout laboratory antifouling assays in which the attachment of a common fouling organism, the brown mussel Perna perna, was employed, antifouling activity (p A incrustação biológica constitui, historicamente, um dos maiores problemas encontrados pelo homem em suas atividades no mar. A busca por alternativas a tintas antiincrustantes contendo tributilestanho (TBT tem levado diversos pesquisadores a concentrar esforços no desenvolvimento de substâncias naturais menos danosas à biota marinha. Este trabalho procurou contribuir com essa busca, testando o potencial antiincrustante de quatro diferentes espécies de macroalgas da Praia Branca, município de Guarujá, SP. Através de testes antiincrustantes em laboratório utilizando a fixação de um organismo incrustante comum, o mexilhão Perna perna, foi constatado que os extratos de Jania rubens (Rhodophyta, Cryptonemiales e Bryothamnion seaforthii (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales, à concentração natural, apresentaram atividade antiincrustante significativa (p < 0,05, enquanto Dictyopteris delicatula (Phaeophyta, Dictyotales e Heterosiphonia gibbesii (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales não demonstraram eficiência na inibição da fixação de bissos do molusco. Das algas que indicaram potencial atividade contra a incrustação, J. rubens apresentou melhor desempenho em relação a B. seaforthii. Futuras investigações em campo serão necessárias para a obtenção de resultados que possam refletir melhor as condições naturais

  4. A vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidase in the marine red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty displays clear substrate specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenarska, Zornitsa; Taniguchi, Tomokazu; Ohsawa, Noboru; Hiraoka, Masanori; Itoh, Nobuya

    2007-05-01

    Bromoperoxidase activity was initially detected in marine macroalgae belonging to the Solieriaceae family (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta), including Solieria robusta (Greville) Kylin, Eucheuma serra J. Agardh and Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty, which are important industrial sources of the polysaccharide carrageenan. Notably, the purification of bromoperoxidase was difficult because due to the coexistence of viscoid polysaccharides. The activity of the partially purified enzyme was dependent on the vanadate ion, and displayed a distinct substrate spectrum from that of previously reported vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidases of marine macroalgae. The enzyme was specific for Br- and I- ions and inactive toward F- and Cl-. The K(m) values for Br- and H2O2 were 2.5x10(-3) M and 8.5x10(-5) M, respectively. The halogenated product, dibromoacetaldehyde, that accumulated in K. alvarezii was additionally determined.

  5. Current knowledge on biotechnological interesting seaweeds from the Magellan Region, Chile

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    Andrés Mansilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a compilation of data from investigations made with marine benthic algae from the Magellan Region that have biotechnological utilization in human consumption or medicine or as a source of phycolloids or food supplements or animal feed. The most important Rhodophyta species are: Ahnfeltia plicata (Hudson E.M. Fries for agarose production, Gigartina skottsbergii Setchell & N.L.Gardner for carrageenan production, and Callophyllis variegata (Bory de Saint-Vincent Kützing for human consumption. The most important Heterokontophyta species are: Macrocystis pyrifera (L. C. Agardh, and Durvillaea antarctica (Chamisso Hariot for human consumption, alginate production, and as biofertilizer for agricultural crops. M. pyrifera is also used as a food supplement for salmon, chickens, quails, sheep and bovines and for biofuel production.

  6. Current knowledge on biotechnological interesting seaweeds from the Magellan Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Mansilla

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a compilation of data from investigations made with marine benthic algae from the Magellan Region that have biotechnological utilization in human consumption or medicine or as a source of phycolloids or food supplements or animal feed. The most important Rhodophyta species are: Ahnfeltia plicata (Hudson E.M. Fries for agarose production, Gigartina skottsbergii Setchell & N.L.Gardner for carrageenan production, and Callophyllis variegata (Bory de Saint-Vincent Kützing for human consumption. The most important Heterokontophyta species are: Macrocystis pyrifera (L. C. Agardh, and Durvillaea antarctica (Chamisso Hariot for human consumption, alginate production, and as biofertilizer for agricultural crops. M. pyrifera is also used as a food supplement for salmon, chickens, quails, sheep and bovines and for biofuel production.

  7. Trace metal accumulation in marine macrophytes: Hotspots of coastal contamination worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Quiles, David; Marbà, Núria; Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio

    2017-01-15

    This study quantifies the concentration of trace metals in coastal marine macrophytes (seagrasses, Chlorophytae, Phaeophytae and Rhodophytae). We do so by compiling, from 155 peer review research articles, almost 23,000 estimates of trace metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) contents in natural populations of marine macroalgae and seagrasses distributed worldwide. The objective was to explore the global distribution of concentrations of these metals in marine macrophytes, provide an estimate of their average and range in its tissues and to identify hotspots of coastal pollution. Our results reveal Phaeophytae as the group with the largest accumulation capacity and tolerance to elevated concentrations of metals regardless the species and the location. The mapping of geographic distribution of metal accumulation in marine macrophytes identifies some coastal areas as hotspots of trace metal contamination, where concentrations could reach levels up to 600 times higher than the mean. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Low-molecular-weight carbohydrates from red seaweeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, M.E.R.; Tischer, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J.; Noseda, M.D. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica

    1997-12-31

    Red algae (Rhodophyta) produce, as their principal photosynthetic metabolites, low-molecular-weight carbohydrates and polyols. The former are heterosides consisting of galactose and glycerol and are produced by all the orders of Phodophyta except the ceramiales. They are named: floridoside [{alpha}-D-galactopyranosyl (1->2)-glycerol], isofloridoside D-form [{alpha}-D-galactopyranosyl-(1->)D-glycerol] and L-form [{alpha}-D-galactopyranosyl-(1->1)-L-glycerol] (Meng et al., 1987, Karsten et al., 1993). The Ceramiales synthesize the chemically related digeneaside [{alpha}-D-mannopyranosyl-(1->2)-L-glycerate] (Kirst, 1980). Some of the red seaweeds also produce polyols such as dulcitol and D-sorbitol (Karsten et al., 1992). (author) 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tabs.

  9. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF BENTHIC MARINE ALGAE EXTRACTS FROM THE MEDITERRANEAN COAST OF MOROCCO

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    Hanaâ Zbakh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. The Moroccan marine biodiversity including macroalgae remains partially unexplored in term of their potential bioactivities. Antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts from 20 species of macroalgae (9 Chlorophyta, 3 Phaeophyta and 8 Rhodophyta collected from Moroccan Mediterranean coasts was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The extracts of the studied Rhodophyceae inhibited considerably the growth of the three tested bacterial strains and gave inhibition zones between 20 and 24 mm. The results indicate that these species of seaweed present a significant capacity of antibacterial activities, which makes them interesting for screening for natural products.

  10. Use of geographic information systems (GIS to identify adequate sites for cultivation of the seaweed Gracilaria birdiae in Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil

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    Flavo E. S. de Sousa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to select potential areas for cultivation of the seaweed Gracilaria birdiae Plastino & E.C. Oliveira (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta on the coast of Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. The Geographic Information System (GIS and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE were used to identify the most suitable areas. The Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP was applied to establish MCE weights, thereby generating viable areas for species cultivation. From a total of 3316.82 ha, around 53.67% (1780.06 ha were indicated as highly suitable areas, 40.93% (1357.58 ha as moderately suitable and 5.40% (179.18 ha as scarcely suitable for seaweed cultivation. Seven areas (1084.62 ha are located on the northern coast and 20 (2232.20 ha on the eastern coast. The results show that GIS can be used as an effective instrument for selecting seaweed cultivation areas.

  11. Growth and phycocyanin synthesis in the heterotrophic microalga Galdieria sulphuraria on substrates made of food waste from restaurants and bakeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloth, Jenni Katrine; Jensen, Henriette Casper; Pleissner, Daniel; Eriksen, Niels Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Galdieria sulphuraria 074G (Rhodophyta) was grown heterotrophically in defined medium and on amylolytic and proteolytic hydrolysed food waste from restaurants and bakeries. Substrate uptake, growth, and phycocyanin content were quantified in the cultures. The alga utilised carbohydrates and amino acids from the waste but ammonium and other inorganic nutrients were needed to stimulate phycocyanin synthesis. Highest specific phycocyanin contents (20-22mgg-1) were observed in cells grown at 25°C or 34°C on the food wastes. Growth inhibition was observed when the hydrolysates were used in quantities resulting in glucose concentrations of 10 and 50gL-1 for bakery and restaurant waste, respectively. Still, G. sulphuraria 074G grew and produced phycocyanin efficiently on food waste under adequate conditions and may potentially be utilised for synthesise of high-valuable products from food waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Check-list of the Basque coast benthic algae (North of Spain

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    Gorostiaga, José M.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An annotated check-list of the marine benthic flora of the Spanish Basque coast, based on literature records and original data, is presented. According to the present taxonomy, the known list of algae totals 372 taxa (354 species and 18 infraspecific taxa, distributed as follows: 23 Cyanophyta, 221 Rhodophyta, 74 Heterokontophyta and 54 Chlorophyta. In addition, 16 taxa are considered as taxa inquirenda and 8 as taxa excludenda. For each taxon the vertical distribution, abundance estimation, and two first published records are given. Remarks on the most noteworthy features of the flora of the study area are included. The floristic character of Spanish Basque coast flora was compared with nearby regions applying Cheney’s ratio [(Rhodophyta+ Chlorophyta/Phaeophyta, or (R+C/P]. The resulting high value (4,09 indicates its warm-water character, which was already noted at the end of the XIX century. From a physionomical point of view, Basque benthic vegetation resembles more closely that of southern regions (S Portugal, Morocco. The warming process of waters off the Basque coast during summer up to 22 ºC is responsible for the absence or very rare occurrence of cold temperate species like large fucoids and kelps, which are common in Galicia and Brittany, and explains the abundance of numerous warm-temperate species as ceramiaceous algae.Se presenta un catálogo de la flora bentónica marina de la costa vasco-española basado en citas bibliográficas y algunos datos originales. De acuerdo con la taxonomía actual, la lista de algas conocidas asciende a 372 táxones (354 especies y 18 táxones infraespecíficos, que se distribuyen como sigue: 23 Cyanophyta, 221 Rhodophyta, 74 Heterokontophyta y 54 Chlorophyta. Además, 16 táxones se consideran como taxa inquirenda y 8 como taxa excludenda. Para cada taxon se ofrece información sobre su distribución vertical, una estima de su abundancia y las dos primeras citas publicadas. Se incluyen

  13. Extraction of agar from Gelidium sesquipedale (Rhodopyta) and surface characterization of agar based films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, P; Etxabide, A; Leceta, I; Peñalba, M; de la Caba, K

    2014-01-01

    The chemical structure of the agar obtained from Gelidium sesquipedale (Rhodophyta) has been determined by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Agar (AG) films with different amounts of soy protein isolate (SPI) were prepared using a thermo-moulding method, and transparent and hydrophobic films were obtained and characterized. FTIR analysis provided a detailed description of the binding groups present in the films, such as carboxylic, hydroxyl and sulfonate groups, while the surface composition was examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The changes observed by FTIR and XPS spectra suggested interactions between functional groups of agar and SPI. This is a novel approach to the characterization of agar-based films and provides knowledge about the compatibility of agar and soy protein for further investigation of the functional properties of biodegradable films based on these biopolymers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Association of macro- and microfossils in the Vendian (Ediacaran) postglacial successions in Western Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragozina, A. L.; Dorjnamjaa, D.; Serezhnikova, E. A.; Zaitseva, L. V.; Enkhbaatar, B.

    2016-05-01

    The Vendian (Ediacaran) beds of the Zavkhan Basin, in the upper part of the Tsagaanolom Formation (<632 ± 14 Ma), yielded a new "Zavkhan" association of algae, microfossils, and problematic organisms, which is established in the series of alternating chert-carbonate shale with phosphorite interbeds. This association is distinct in the predomination of large (250 μm and over) sphaeromorphic microfossils of the genera Tasmanites, Archaeooides, and Leiosphaeridia, whereas acanthomorph acritarchs are represented by rarely found Cavaspina sp. and Tanarium sp. Multicellular algae included fragments of encrusting or foliate thalli with pseudoparenchymatous structure of polygonal cells characteristic of Rhodophyta algae ( Thallophycoides sp.), and cordlike thalli of Vendotaenid algae Tyrasotaenia podolica. These layers of siltstone contain imprints of the problematic Vendian macrofossil Beltanelliformis brunsae. In their stratigraphic position, chemostratigraphic data, and fossil assemblage, the "Zavkhan" association can be assigned to the Upper Vendian.

  15. De novo transcriptome analysis of the red seaweed Gracilaria chilensis and identification of linkers associated with phycobilisomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorphal, María Alejandra; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Dagnino-Leone, Jorge; Vásquez, José Aleikar; Martínez-Oyanedel, José; Bunster, Marta

    2017-02-01

    This work reports the results of the Illumina RNA-Seq of a wild population of female haploid plants of Gracilaria chilensis (Bird et al., 1986) (Rhodophyta, Gigartinalis). Most transcripts were de novo assembled in 12,331 contigs with an average length of 1756bp, showing that 96.64% of the sequences were annotated with known proteins. In particular, the identification of linker proteins of phycobilisomes (PBS) is reported. Linker proteins have primary been identified in cyanobacteria but the information available about them in eukaryotic red alga is not complete, and this is the first report in G. chilensis. This resource will also provide the basis for the study of metabolic pathways related to polysaccharide production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. IDENTIFIKASI KEANEKARAGAMAN DAN POLA PENYEBARAN MAKROALGA DI DAERAH PASANG SURUT PANTAI PIDAKAN KABUPATEN PACITAN SEBAGAI SUMBER BELAJAR BIOLOGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilham Budi Setyawan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to find out variance, ecology parameter,variance index,and dispersion pattern of macroalgae existed in intertidal pidakan beach sub-district Pacitan Residence.The results of research in the area of tidal beach Pidakan on 90 plots was found in 1925 with 17 individual macro algae species originating from the third division Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta.Variance index of (H’ was high richness category and value (E was means community tend to flat. Index of Morisita (IM mean dispersion of all Macroalgae was clumped. As a complement to the results of the study are used as a learning module macroalgae for SMA/MA

  17. Macroalgae and macrozoobenthos of the Pčinja river

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    Simić Vladica M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During autumn and spring periods of 1998, 1999 and 2000, 4 taxa of macroalgae (divisions of Cyanophyta, Rhodophyta, Chrysophyta and Chlorophyta and 78 taxa of macrozoobenthos were found in 10 localities of Pčinja River, in a part of its watercourse through Serbia. Macroalga Cladophora glomerata was the most numerous among representatives. The find of red alga Lemanea sp. which was recorded for the first time at this biotope in Serbia, is significant. From representatives of macrozoobenthos the greatest number of species was found in the groups of Epheromeroptera, Trichoptera and larvae of Diptera. Majority of species of macrozoobenthos have wide geographic distribution, and in relation to ecological factors they are mainly eurivalent forms.

  18. Please mind the gap – Visual census and cryptic biodiversity assessment at central Red Sea coral reefs

    KAUST Repository

    Pearman, John K.

    2016-04-26

    Coral reefs harbor the most diverse assemblages in the ocean, however, a large proportion of the diversity is cryptic and, therefore, undetected by standard visual census techniques. Cryptic and exposed communities differ considerably in species composition and ecological function. This study compares three different coral reef assessment protocols: i) visual benthic reef surveys: ii) visual census of Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) plates; and iii) metabarcoding techniques of the ARMS (including sessile, 106–500 μm and 500–2000 μm size fractions), that target the cryptic and exposed communities of three reefs in the central Red Sea. Visual census showed a dominance of Cnidaria (Anthozoa) and Rhodophyta on the reef substrate, while Porifera, Bryozoa and Rhodophyta were the most abundant groups on the ARMS plates. Metabarcoding, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, significantly increased estimates of the species diversity (p < 0.001); revealing that Annelida were generally the dominant phyla (in terms of reads) of all fractions and reefs. Furthermore, metabarcoding detected microbial eukaryotic groups such as Syndiniophyceae, Mamiellophyceae and Bacillariophyceae as relevant components of the sessile fraction. ANOSIM analysis showed that the three reef sites showed no differences based on the visual census data. Metabarcoding showed a higher sensitivity for identifying differences between reef communities at smaller geographic scales than standard visual census techniques as significant differences in the assemblages were observed amongst the reefs. Comparison of the techniques showed no similar patterns for the visual techniques while the metabarcoding of the ARMS showed similar patterns amongst fractions. Establishing ARMS as a standard tool in reef monitoring will not only advance our understanding of local processes and ecological community response to environmental changes, as different faunal components will provide complementary information but

  19. Please mind the gap - Visual census and cryptic biodiversity assessment at central Red Sea coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, John K; Anlauf, Holger; Irigoien, Xabier; Carvalho, Susana

    2016-07-01

    Coral reefs harbor the most diverse assemblages in the ocean, however, a large proportion of the diversity is cryptic and, therefore, undetected by standard visual census techniques. Cryptic and exposed communities differ considerably in species composition and ecological function. This study compares three different coral reef assessment protocols: i) visual benthic reef surveys: ii) visual census of Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) plates; and iii) metabarcoding techniques of the ARMS (including sessile, 106-500 μm and 500-2000 μm size fractions), that target the cryptic and exposed communities of three reefs in the central Red Sea. Visual census showed a dominance of Cnidaria (Anthozoa) and Rhodophyta on the reef substrate, while Porifera, Bryozoa and Rhodophyta were the most abundant groups on the ARMS plates. Metabarcoding, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, significantly increased estimates of the species diversity (p fraction. ANOSIM analysis showed that the three reef sites showed no differences based on the visual census data. Metabarcoding showed a higher sensitivity for identifying differences between reef communities at smaller geographic scales than standard visual census techniques as significant differences in the assemblages were observed amongst the reefs. Comparison of the techniques showed no similar patterns for the visual techniques while the metabarcoding of the ARMS showed similar patterns amongst fractions. Establishing ARMS as a standard tool in reef monitoring will not only advance our understanding of local processes and ecological community response to environmental changes, as different faunal components will provide complementary information but also improve the estimates of biodiversity in coral reef benthic communities. This study lays the foundations for further studies looking at integrating traditional reef survey methodologies with complementary approaches, such as metabarcoding, which investigate other components of

  20. Ecological distribution of stream macroalgal communities from a drainage basin in the Serra da Canastra National Park, Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil Distribuição de macroalgas lóticas de uma bacia de drenagem no Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    O. Necchi-Júnior

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve stream segments were sampled four times in 1998-1999 (one sampling per season in the drainage basin of the upper São Francisco River (19º45'-21º25'S, 49º05'-51º30'W, situated in Serra da Canastra National Park, at altitudes ranging from 1,175 to 1,400 m. The macroalgae survey resulted in 30 species, with a predominance of Cyanophyta (12 species = 40% and Chlorophyta (11 species = 36.5% and a lower proportion of Rhodophyta (seven species = 23.5%. Two species, Klebsormidium rivulare (Chlorophyta and Kyliniella latvica (Rhodophyta, were new records for Brazil. Capsosira sp. and Stigonema sp. (Cyanophyta and the "Chantransia" stage of Batrachospermum (Rhodophyta were the most widespread macroalgae, occurring in six sampling sites, whereas 11 species were found at only one site. The proportion of macroalgal morphological types were as follows: mats (33%, free filaments (27%, gelatinous filaments (27%, crusts (7%, tufts (3%, and gelatinous colonies (3%. The flora revealed few species in common (4%-8% with stream macroalgae from other Brazilian regions. The macroalgal communities proved to have species richness values close to the highest values reported in previous studies. The patterns typical for stream macroalgal communities (patchy distribution and dominance of few species were also found in this basin. However, the stream variables most influential in macroalgal distribution in this study (rocky substratum, low pH, high COD, water color, and current velocity were essentially the same that best describe the limnological characteristics of this lotic ecosystem. In addition, this combination of variables differed sharply from results of previous studies in other Brazilian stream ecosystems.Doze segmentos de riachos foram amostrados quatro vezes em 1998-1999 (uma amostragem em cada estação na bacia de drenagem do alto rio São Francisco (19º45'-21º25'S, 49º05'-51º30'W, situado no Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra, em altitudes de

  1. First record of Caulerpa cylindracea (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyta in Andalusia (Southern Spain

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    Altamirano, María

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three different species of Caulerpa (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyta co-occur in the Mediterranean Sea: two of them are found at the central-eastern basin and are typically considered non aggressive components of the Lessepsian flora [(C. chemnitzia(Esper J.V. Lamouroux and C. racemosa var. lamourouxii (Turner Weber-van Bosse f. requienii(Montagne Weber van Bosse]; a third taxon, C. cylindracea Sonder has aggressively expanded its range since its first observation in 1990, and it is nowadays reported from nearly all the Mediterranean countries. We report a population of C. cylindracea from Almería (Andalusia, Southern Iberian Peninsula at −30 m depth as to be the westernmost record of the invasive variety on the Mediterranean European coast. Therefore, we made use of morphological description and molecular phylogenetics to provide a complete identification of this invasive seaweed in Southern Spain. Our findings are discussed in light of the composition of the receptor communities, such as maërl bed, edges of Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus Delile, and their ecology. Our results confirmed the suggested directionality of the invasive pathway to be westward to the Strait of Gibraltar, mainly supported by sea currents and vectors of anthropogenic origin.En el Mar Mediterráneo se encuentran tres especies diferentes de Caulerpa (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyta: dos de ellas se localizan en la cuenca centro oriental y se consideran componentes no agresivos de la flora Lessepsiana (C. chemnitzia(Esper J.V. Lamouroux and C. racemosa var. lamourouxii (Turner Weber-van Bosse f. requienii(Montagne Weber van Bosse; un tercer taxon, C. cylindracea Sonder ha expandido de manera agresiva su rango de distribución desde su primera observación en 1990, y actualmente se registra en casi todos los países de la cuenca mediterránea. En este trabajo se informa sobre una población de C. cylindracea en Almería (Andalucía, Sur de España, a −30 m de profundidad, que

  2. Effects of extracts on ruminal fermentation characteristics, methanogenesis, and microbial populations

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    Shin Ja Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Gelidium amansii (Lamouroux is a red alga belonging to the family Gelidaceae and is commonly found in the shallow coasts of many East Asian countries, including Korea, China, and Japan. G. amansii has traditionally been utilized as an edible alga, and has various biological activities. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation of G. amansii could be useful for improving ruminal fermentation. Methods As assessed by in vitro fermentation parameters such as pH, total gas, volatile fatty acid (VFA production, gas profile (methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and ammonia, and microbial growth rate was compared to a basal diet with timothy hay. Cannulated Holstein cows were used as rumen fluid donors and 15 mL rumen fluid: buffer (1:2 was incubated for up to 72 h with four treatments with three replicates. The treatments were: control (timothy only, basal diet with 1% G. amansii extract, basal diet with 3% G. amansii extract, and basal diet with 5% G. amansii extract. Results Overall, the results of our study indicate that G. amansii supplementation is potentially useful for improving ruminant growth performance, via increased total gas and VFA production, but does come with some undesirable effects, such as increasing pH, ammonia concentration, and methane production. In particular, real-time polymerase chain reaction indicated that the methanogenic archaea and Fibrobacter succinogenes populations were significantly reduced, while the Ruminococcus flavefaciens populations were significantly increased at 24 h, when supplemented with G. amansii extracts as compared with controls. Conclusion More research is required to elucidate what G. amansii supplementation can do to improve growth performance, and its effect on methane production in ruminants.

  3. The Bryopsis hypnoides plastid genome: multimeric forms and complete nucleotide sequence.

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    Fang Lü

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bryopsis hypnoides Lamouroux is a siphonous green alga, and its extruded protoplasm can aggregate spontaneously in seawater and develop into mature individuals. The chloroplast of B. hypnoides is the biggest organelle in the cell and shows strong autonomy. To better understand this organelle, we sequenced and analyzed the chloroplast genome of this green alga. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 111 functional genes, including 69 potential protein-coding genes, 5 ribosomal RNA genes, and 37 tRNA genes were identified. The genome size (153,429 bp, arrangement, and inverted-repeat (IR-lacking structure of the B. hypnoides chloroplast DNA (cpDNA closely resembles that of Chlorella vulgaris. Furthermore, our cytogenomic investigations using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and southern blotting methods showed that the B. hypnoides cpDNA had multimeric forms, including monomer, dimer, trimer, tetramer, and even higher multimers, which is similar to the higher order organization observed previously for higher plant cpDNA. The relative amounts of the four multimeric cpDNA forms were estimated to be about 1, 1/2, 1/4, and 1/8 based on molecular hybridization analysis. Phylogenetic analyses based on a concatenated alignment of chloroplast protein sequences suggested that B. hypnoides is sister to all Chlorophyceae and this placement received moderate support. CONCLUSION: All of the results suggest that the autonomy of the chloroplasts of B. hypnoides has little to do with the size and gene content of the cpDNA, and the IR-lacking structure of the chloroplasts indirectly demonstrated that the multimeric molecules might result from the random cleavage and fusion of replication intermediates instead of recombinational events.

  4. El arrecife coralino de Punta Cocles, costa Caribe de Costa Rica

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    Cindy Fernández

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio describe al arrecife de Punta Cocles (Limón, Costa Rica. Los datos se obtienen por medio de un muestreo con nueve transectos, paralelos a la costa y por observaciones directas durante buceos a pulmón entre los meses de setiembre y noviembre del 2002. Este arrecife consta aproximadamente de 10.5 hectáreas, en las que se identifican 13 especies de corales, 39 de macroalgas, dos de pastos marinos, dos de zoántidos, una anémona, un coralimorfario y una esponja. Se observa un incremento en la cobertura de corales vivos (16% con respecto a otros años (5% en 1985, y 13.2% en 1995, y una baja cobertura de coral muerto (0.2%. Las macroalgas presentan la cobertura más alta (59%, particularmente las algas pardas con una distribución en parches de Sargassum y Padina. Laurencia brongniartii (Rhodophyta constituye una nueva adición para la flora ficológica de Costa Rica. El arrecife de Punta Cocles, funciona como un refugio para los organismos, debido a la ausencia de centros de población y desembocaduras de los ríos, además, del tipo de formación costera, lo que se ve favorecido por la conciencia ambiental que viven cerca del arrecifeThis paper describes the Punta Cocles reef (Limón, Costa Rica. Data were obtained by sampling nine transects along the coast and observations done by skin diving between September and November of 2002. This reef consist of 10.5 hectares, where 13 species of corals, 39 of macroalgae, two of seagrasses, two of zoantids, one anemone, one corallimorpharian, and one sponge were identified. Life coral coverage (16%, was higher than in other years (5% for 1985, and 13.2% for 1995, and death coral coverage was very low (0.2%. Macroalgae have the highest coverage (59%, particularly brown algae with a patchy distribution of Sargassum and Padina. Laurencia brongniartii (Rhodophyta is added to the list of marine flora of Costa Rica. The Punta Cocles reef works as a refuge for organisms, because there are no towns

  5. Distribution of stream macroalgal communities from the mid-western region of Paraná state, southern Brazil: importance of local scale variation

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    Ciro Cesar Zanini Branco

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two stream segments, representing the diverse types of environments in the mid-western region of the Paraná State, southern Brazil, were sampled for occurrence of macroalgal communities from May to October in 2002. Twenty-seven macroalgal taxa were found, with Chlorophyta as the dominant algal group, followed by Cyanobacteria, Rhodophyta and Chrysophyta. The most widespread species was Phormidium retzii. Distribution was patchy, with species number per sampling sites ranging from zero to six and correlated positively with the abundance. On the other hand, no significant correlation was found among the species number and abundance with environmental variables. Results indicated wide and random variation among the streams. Thus, it seemed that the distribution of macroalgal communities in the study area responded more closely to the local-scale variation than the regional characteristics.Durante o período de maio a outubro de 2002, vinte e dois segmentos de riachos, representando os diversos tipos de ambientes da região centro-oeste do estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil, foram amostrados quanto à comunidade de macroalgas. Foram encontradas vinte e sete macroalgas. A divisão Chlorophyta foi o grupo algal predominante, seguido por Cyanobacteria, Rhodophyta e Chrysophyta. A espécie com melhor distribuição foi Phormidium retzii. Foi observado um padrão de distribuição em mosaico. O número de espécies por ponto de amostragem variou de zero a seis e correlacionou-se positivamente com abundância de espécies. Por outro lado, nenhuma outra correlação significativa foi encontrada entre número de espécies e abundância com as variáveis ambientais. Os resultados, suportados por dados de literatura, indicaram uma variação ampla e aleatória entre os riachos, sugerindo que a distribuição da comunidade de macroalgas na área de estudos parece responder mais fortemente a variações nas condições em escala local do que em escalas

  6. Biodiversity patterns of macrophyte and macroinvertebrate communities in two lagoons of Western Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyttis, G.; Reizopoulou, S.; Papastergiadou, E.

    2012-04-01

    Aquatic macrophytes and benthic macroinvertebrates were studied seasonally (Spring, Autumn, Summer) between the years 2009 - 2011 in two coastal lagoons (Kotychi and Prokopos) located in Peloponnese, Greece, in order to investigate spatial and temporal biodiversity trends related to hydrological processes (degree of confinement, nitrates, phosphates, chl-a, total suspended materials, light irradiance, pH, salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen). Kotychi lagoon presents a better communication with the sea, while Prokopos has a high degree of confinement. Both ecosystems seasonally receive freshwater input from streams. The submerged aquatic macrophytes constituted a major component of the ecosystems studied. In total, 22 taxa of aquatic macrophytes (angiosperms and macroalgae), 16 taxa for Kotychi (2 Rhodophyta, 8 Chlorophyta, 5 Magnoliophyta, 1 Streptophyta) and 14 taxa for Prokopos (1 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 5 Magnoliophyta, 3 Streptophyta) were found. Ruppia cirrhosa, and Potamogeton pectinatus were dominant in both lagoons. Kotychi lagoon was also dominated by Zostera noltii and Prokopos by Zannichellia pallustris ssp. pedicellata, while the biomass of aquatic species peaked during the summer periods, in both lagoons. The total number of macroinvertebrates found in the lagoons was 28 taxa for Kotychi and 19 for Prokopos. Chironomidae were dominant in both lagoons, while Kotychi was also dominated by Lekanesphaera monodi and Monocorophium insidiosum, and Prokopos by Ostracoda and Lekanesphaera monodi. Benthic diversity ranged from 1.33 to 2.57 in Kotychi and from 0.67 to 2.48 in Prokopos. Species richness, diversity, and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates were strongly related to aquatic vegetation and to the degree of communication with the marine environment. Moreover, species richness and abundance of both macrophytes and macroinvertebrates were mainly dependent on depth, temperature, pH and concentration of total suspended materials (TSM). Results

  7. Macroalgas submareales de la bahía de Todos Santos, Baja California, México Submareal macroalgae of the Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, Mexico

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    Raúl Aguilar-Rosas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de identificar y caracterizar la composición de especies de la zona submareal de la bahía de Todos Santos, Baja California, México; se realizaron muestreos de macroalgas marinas bentónicas en 7 sitios durante 1995-2000. Como resultado de 25 buceos Scuba entre 3 y 33 m de profundidad se encontraron 150 especies de macroalgas para el área de estudio; 10 son Chlorophyta, 26 Phaeophyta y 114 Rhodophyta. Del total, 47 son registros nuevos para el área de estudio y 2 de éstos, Faucheocolax attenuata Setchell y Minium parvum R.L. Moe, son nuevos para la flora marina del Pacífico de México. Se incluye una revisión de las investigaciones en las que se han considerado las macroalgas presentes en la bahía de Todos Santos y una discusión sobre la composición de las especies encontradas, su distribución vertical y reproducción, así como sobre las especies epífitas y parásitas del área.In order to identify and characterize the species composition of the subtidal zone of the Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, Mexico, benthic marine macroalgae were sampled at 7 sites from 1995 to 2000. As a result of 25 scuba at derds for the study area, of which Faucheocolax attenuata Setchell and R.L Moe Minium parvum are new to the marine flora of Pacific Mexico. We include a research that consider the macroalpths between 3 and 33 m we found a total of 150 species of macroalgae for the study area, of which 10 are Chlorophyta, 26 Phaeophyta and 114 Rhodophyta; 47 species represent new recogae in the Todos Santos Bay and a discussion on the composition of species found, its vertical distribution and reproduction, particularly the species epiphytes and parasites present in the study area.

  8. Phylogenetic reconstruction using secondary structures of Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2, rDNA: finding the molecular and morphological gap in Caribbean gorgonian corals

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    Sánchez Juan A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most phylogenetic studies using current methods have focused on primary DNA sequence information. However, RNA secondary structures are particularly useful in systematics because they include characteristics, not found in the primary sequence, that give "morphological" information. Despite the number of recent molecular studies on octocorals, there is no consensus opinion about a region that carries enough phylogenetic resolution to solve intrageneric or close species relationships. Moreover, intrageneric morphological information by itself does not always produce accurate phylogenies; intra-species comparisons can reveal greater differences than intra-generic ones. The search for new phylogenetic approaches, such as by RNA secondary structure analysis, is therefore a priority in octocoral research. Results Initially, twelve predicted RNA secondary structures were reconstructed to provide the basic information for phylogenetic analyses; they accorded with the 6 helicoidal ring model, also present in other groups of corals and eukaryotes. We obtained three similar topologies for nine species of the Caribbean gorgonian genus Eunicea (candelabrum corals with two sister taxa as outgroups (genera Plexaura and Pseudoplexaura on the basis of molecular morphometrics of ITS2 RNA secondary structures only, traditional primary sequence analyses and maximum likelihood, and a Bayesian analysis of the combined data. The latter approach allowed us to include both primary sequence and RNA molecular morphometrics; each data partition was allowed to have a different evolution rate. In addition, each helix was partitioned as if it had evolved at a distinct rate. Plexaura flexuosa was found to group within Eunicea; this was best supported by both the molecular morphometrics and combined analyses. We suggest Eunicea flexuosa (Lamouroux, 1821 comb. nov., and we present a new species description including Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM images of

  9. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae and freshwater aquatic weeds. Progress report, May 1, 1976--December 1, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J. H.

    1977-02-01

    Progress is summarized in the research, which has been divided, scientifically and geographically, into two parts. The first, carried out at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, consisted of studies of the basic biology, physiology, biochemistry, and nutrition of certain species of seaweeds that were already established in culture. These were the red algae (Rhodophyta), Neoagardhiella baileyi and Gracilaria foliifera. These species are of existing or potential commercial value. The other phase of the work, carried out at the Harbor Branch Foundation Laboratory, Ft. Pierce, Florida, consisted of three parts: (1) As many species of seaweeds as possible were collected from local Florida waters and screened for their growth potential under natural sunlight and temperatures but in artificial culture systems. A standard growth assay procedure and physical system was developed. Species to be screened for their growth potential are being evaluated at different times of the year to determine whether they are suitable for cultivation throughout the year. (2) Cultures of several, if possible, but of at least one species of seaweed were maintained throughout the year to measure sustained, annual productivity so as to obtain a better understanding of the potential annual yield of seaweed biomass. (3) The development and evaluation of new, non-energy intensive and non-labor intensive seaweed culture methods that might find application in large-scale plantations, and that would be energy cost-effective, is the third phase.

  10. Different Levels of Skin Whitening Activity among 3,6-Anhydro-l-galactose, Agarooligosaccharides, and Neoagarooligosaccharides

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    Ji Hye Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available 3,6-Anhydro-l-galactose (AHG, a major monomeric constituent of red macroalgae (Rhodophyta, was recently reported to possess skin whitening activity. Moreover, AHG-containing oligosaccharides, such as agarooligosaccharides (AOSs and neoagarooligosaccharides (NAOSs, have various physiological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and skin moisturizing effects. In this study, AHG and NAOSs were produced from agarose by enzymatic reactions catalyzed by an endo-type β-agarase, an exo-type β-agarase, and a neoagarobiose hydrolase. In a cell proliferation assay, AHG, AOSs, and NAOSs at 12.5, 25, and 50 μg/mL concentrations did not exhibit cytotoxicity toward murine B16 melanoma cells or human epidermal melanocytes. In an in vitro skin whitening activity assay of AHG, AOSs, and NAOSs at 50 μg/mL, AHG showed the highest skin whitening activity in both murine B16 melanoma cells and human epidermal melanocytes; this activity was mediated by the inhibition of melanogenesis. Neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose also exhibited in vitro skin whitening activity, whereas neoagarobiose and AOSs with degrees of polymerization of 3 (agarotriose, 5 (agaropentaose, and 7 (agaroheptaose did not. Therefore, AHG is responsible for the skin whitening activity of agar-derived sugars, and the structural differences among the AHG-containing oligosaccharides may be responsible for their different skin whitening activities.

  11. Vanadium haloperoxidase-catalyzed bromination and cyclization of terpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Franklin, Jayme N; Parrish, Jon D; Tschirret-Guth, Richard A; Little, R Daniel; Butler, Alison

    2003-04-02

    Marine red algae (Rhodophyta) are a rich source of bioactive halogenated natural products, including cyclic terpenes. The biogenesis of certain cyclic halogenated marine natural products is thought to involve marine haloperoxidase enzymes. Evidence is presented that vanadium bromoperoxidase (V-BrPO) isolated and cloned from marine red algae that produce halogenated compounds (e.g., Plocamium cartilagineum, Laurencia pacifica, Corallina officinalis) can catalyze the bromination and cyclization of terpenes and terpene analogues. The V-BrPO-catalyzed reaction with the monoterpene nerol in the presence of bromide ion and hydrogen peroxide produces a monobromo eight-membered cyclic ether similar to laurencin, a brominated C15 acetogenin, from Laurencia glandulifera, along with noncyclic bromohydrin, epoxide, and dibromoproducts; however, reaction of aqueous bromine with nerol produced only noncyclic bromohydrin, epoxide, and dibromoproducts. The V-BrPO-catalyzed reaction with geraniol in the presence of bromide ion and hydrogen peroxide produces two singly brominated six-membered cyclic products, analogous to the ring structures of alpha and beta snyderols, brominated sesquiterpenes from Laurencia, spp., along with noncyclic bromohydrin, epoxide, and dibromoproducts; again, reaction of geraniol with aqueous bromine produces only noncyclic bromohydrin, epoxide, and dibromoproducts. Thus, V-BrPO can direct the electrophilic bromination and cyclization of terpenes.

  12. dEMBF: A Comprehensive Database of Enzymes of Microalgal Biofuel Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Parida, Bikram Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae have attracted wide attention as one of the most versatile renewable feedstocks for production of biofuel. To develop genetically engineered high lipid yielding algal strains, a thorough understanding of the lipid biosynthetic pathway and the underpinning enzymes is essential. In this work, we have systematically mined the genomes of fifteen diverse algal species belonging to Chlorophyta, Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, and Haptophyta, to identify and annotate the putative enzymes of lipid metabolic pathway. Consequently, we have also developed a database, dEMBF (Database of Enzymes of Microalgal Biofuel Feedstock), which catalogues the complete list of identified enzymes along with their computed annotation details including length, hydrophobicity, amino acid composition, subcellular location, gene ontology, KEGG pathway, orthologous group, Pfam domain, intron-exon organization, transmembrane topology, and secondary/tertiary structural data. Furthermore, to facilitate functional and evolutionary study of these enzymes, a collection of built-in applications for BLAST search, motif identification, sequence and phylogenetic analysis have been seamlessly integrated into the database. dEMBF is the first database that brings together all enzymes responsible for lipid synthesis from available algal genomes, and provides an integrative platform for enzyme inquiry and analysis. This database will be extremely useful for algal biofuel research. It can be accessed at http://bbprof.immt.res.in/embf. PMID:26727469

  13. Macroalgae of Izmir Gulf: Dictyotaceae exhibit high in vitro anti-cancer activity independent from their antioxidant capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelenk, Fatma Gül; Özkaya, Ali Burak; Sukatar, Atakan

    2016-12-01

    In this study, 24 marine macroalgae collected from the coastline of Izmir Gulf were examined for their antioxidant activities and their effects on cell proliferation. Crude extracts were obtained from samples with cold methanol extraction. Antioxidant activity was evaluated as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (TPC); growth inhibitory effects of the extracts were determined by using WST-8. Amongst the species, Polysiphonia denuata (Rhodophyta) and Cystoseira species (Phaeophyceae) have been noticed by their high DPPH radical scavenging activities and TPCs. As expected, there was a strong correlation between these tests. Dictyota dichotoma (Phaeophyceae) showed the highest anti-cancer activity on MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 17.2 ng mL-1. Flow cytometry analyses demonstrated that D. dichotoma methanolic extract strongly induced apoptosis. This extract exhibited moderate viability inhibition on MCF10A cells (IC50: 49.3 ng mL-1), suggesting a potential use of the extracts or its compounds for cancer therapy. There was no correlation between anti-cancer potential and antioxidant content of the extracts.

  14. Carrageenans from red seaweeds as promoters of growth and elicitors of defense response in plants

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    Pushp Sheel Shukla

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants incessantly encounter abiotic and biotic stresses that limit their growth and productivity. However, conversely, plant growth can also be induced by treatments with various abiotic and biotic elicitors. Carrageenans are sulfated linear polysaccharides that represent major cellular constituents of seaweeds belonging to red algae (Rhodophyta. Recent research has unraveled the biological activity of carrageenans and of their oligomeric forms, the oligo carrageenans (OCs, as promoters of plant growth and as elicitors of defense responses against pests and diseases. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which carrageenans and OCs mediate plant growth and plant defense responses. Carrageenans and OCs improve plant growth by regulating various metabolic processes such as photosynthesis and ancillary pathways, cell division, purine and pyrimidine synthetic pathways as well as metabolic pathways involved in nitrogen and sulfur assimilation. Carrageenans and OCs also induce plant defense responses against viroids, viruses, bacteria, fungi and insects by modulating the activity of different defense pathways, including salicylate, jasmonate and ethylene signaling pathways. Further studies will likely substantiate the beneficial effects of carrageenans and of OCs on plant growth and plant defense responses and open new avenues for their use in agriculture and horticultural industry.

  15. LEVANTAMENTO TAXONÔMICO E FAUNA ACOMPANHANTE DE ALGAS DO COSTÃO ROCHOSO DE IRIRI, MUNICÍPIO DE ANCHIETA-ES

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    Luan de Oliveira Cerqueira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Em costões rochosos os substratos biológicos como as algas proporcionam importantes microhabitats para outros organismos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar um levantamento das espécies de macroalgas presentes no costão rochoso da praia Costa Azul, Iriri, litoral sul capixaba bem como analisar a sua fauna acompanhante. Para isto, utilizou-se um quadrante de 10cm2 lançado três vezes aleatoriamente na faixa onde localiza-se as algas e realizado a raspagem com auxílio de uma espátula. O material coletado foi triado, contado e identificado. Coletou-se 11 espécies de algas, distribuídas nos filos Chlorophyta, com maior riqueza, Rhodophyta e Ochrophyta. Da fauna acompanhante, obteve-se três filos, cinco classes, onde Malacostraca foi a mais representativa, sendo os anfípodos com maior abundância. O presente estudo contribuiu com o conhecimento da diversidade de macroalgas no costão de Iriri bem como a importância destes para abrigar e proteger a fauna acompanhante.

  16. Screening of Dengue virus antiviral activity of marine seaweeds by an in situ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cristine Koishi

    Full Text Available Dengue is a significant public health problem worldwide. Despite the important social and clinical impact, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral therapy for prevention and treatment of dengue virus (DENV infection. Considering the above, drug discovery research for dengue is of utmost importance; in addition natural marine products provide diverse and novel chemical structures with potent biological activities that must be evaluated. In this study we propose a target-free approach for dengue drug discovery based on a novel, rapid, and economic in situ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the screening of a panel of marine seaweed extracts. The in situ ELISA was standardized and validated for Huh7.5 cell line infected with all four serotypes of DENV, among them clinical isolates and a laboratory strain. Statistical analysis showed an average S/B of 7.2 and Z-factor of 0.62, demonstrating assay consistency and reliability. A panel of fifteen seaweed extracts was then screened at the maximum non-toxic dose previously determined by the MTT and Neutral Red cytotoxic assays. Eight seaweed extracts were able to reduce DENV infection of at least one serotype tested. Four extracts (Phaeophyta: Canistrocarpus cervicornis, Padina gymnospora; Rhodophyta: Palisada perforate; Chlorophyta: Caulerpa racemosa were chosen for further evaluation, and time of addition studies point that they might act at an early stage of the viral infection cycle, such as binding or internalization.

  17. Seasonal variations in biomass and species composition of seaweeds along the northern coasts of Persian Gulf (Bushehr Province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadolahi-Sohrab, A.; Garavand-Karimi, M.; Riahi, H.; Pashazanoosi, H.

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the seasonal variations of seaweed biomass and species composition at six different sites along the coastal areas in Bushehr Province. Sampling depths varied among sites, from 0.3 to 2.0 m below mean sea level. A total of 37 (i.e., 10 Chlorophyta, 12 Phaeophyta and 15 Rhodophyta) seaweed species were collected. Studies were conducted for quantifying the seaweeds during four seasons from October 2008 until July 2009. During present research, Ulva intestinalis and Cladophora nitellopsis of green, Polycladia myrica, Sirophysalia trinodis and Sargassum angustifolium of brown and Gracilaria canaliculata and Hypnea cervicornis of red seaweeds showed highest biomass in coastal areas of Bushehr Province. The Cheney`s ratio of 2.1 indicated a temperate algal flora to this area. All sites exhibited more than 50% similarity of algal species, indicating a relatively homogenous algal distribution. Total biomass showed the highest value of 3280.7 ± 537.8 g dry wt m - 2 during summer and lowest value of 856.9 ± 92.0 g dry wt m - 2 during winter. During this study, the highest and lowest seaweed biomass were recorded on the site 2 (2473.7 ± 311.0 g dry wt m - 2) and site 5 (856.7 ± 96.8 g dry wt m - 2), respectively.

  18. Screening of Dengue Virus Antiviral Activity of Marine Seaweeds by an In Situ Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koishi, Andrea Cristine; Zanello, Paula Rodrigues; Bianco, Éverson Miguel; Bordignon, Juliano; Nunes Duarte dos Santos, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is a significant public health problem worldwide. Despite the important social and clinical impact, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral therapy for prevention and treatment of dengue virus (DENV) infection. Considering the above, drug discovery research for dengue is of utmost importance; in addition natural marine products provide diverse and novel chemical structures with potent biological activities that must be evaluated. In this study we propose a target-free approach for dengue drug discovery based on a novel, rapid, and economic in situ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the screening of a panel of marine seaweed extracts. The in situ ELISA was standardized and validated for Huh7.5 cell line infected with all four serotypes of DENV, among them clinical isolates and a laboratory strain. Statistical analysis showed an average S/B of 7.2 and Z-factor of 0.62, demonstrating assay consistency and reliability. A panel of fifteen seaweed extracts was then screened at the maximum non-toxic dose previously determined by the MTT and Neutral Red cytotoxic assays. Eight seaweed extracts were able to reduce DENV infection of at least one serotype tested. Four extracts (Phaeophyta: Canistrocarpus cervicornis, Padina gymnospora; Rhodophyta: Palisada perforate; Chlorophyta: Caulerpa racemosa) were chosen for further evaluation, and time of addition studies point that they might act at an early stage of the viral infection cycle, such as binding or internalization. PMID:23227238

  19. Evaluation of selected tropical seaweeds for in vitro anti-trichomonal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo-Puc, R; Robledo, D; Freile-Pelegrin, Y

    2008-10-30

    Human parasitic infections are a serious problem in tropical and sub-tropical developing countries. Trichomoniasis, responsible for the annual infection of 180 million people, is a common sexually transmitted disease caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. Traditionally seaweeds have been used in folk medicine by coastal people in Asia and the Caribbean to treat parasitic infections and are a valuable source of novel anti-trichomonals. In our search for therapeutical alternatives to anti-protozoal chemotherapy, we collected a selection of 25 tropical seaweeds (12 Rhodophyta, 5 Phaeophyta and 8 Chlorophyta) from the coast of Yucatan (Mexico) in order to undertake ethnopharmacological and chemotaxonomic investigations. Organic algal extracts were tested for their anti-trichomonal properties on the growth inhibition of Trichomonas vaginalis. The cytotoxicity of seaweed extracts on mammal cell lines was also assessed. The results indicated that 44% of the seaweeds studied had high to moderate anti-trichomonal activity. Lobophora variegata and Udotea conglutinata showed the maximal anti-trichomonal activity with IC(50) values of 1.39 and 1.66microg/ml, respectively, with good selectivity. Lobophora variegata and Udotea conglutinata demonstrated promising anti-trichomonal potential and have been selected for further bio-guided fractionation and isolation of active anti-trichomonal compounds.

  20. Climate change and the microbiology of the Antarctic Peninsula region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, David A

    2008-01-01

    Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems are cold, dry, low nutrient environments, with large temperature fluctuations and paradoxically low levels of water availability. These extreme environments are dominated by microorganisms (viruses, archaea, eubacteria, fungi and microsporidia, alveolata, stmramenopila, rhodophyta, green algae and protists), which can either tolerate or are adapted to exploit unfavourable growth conditions. However, climate change is altering the growth environment in Antarctica, and so selection pressures on these microorganisms are changing which, in turn, might affect microbial activity in key processes such as biogeochemical cycling. Although the direct effect of a change in, for example, temperature, is known for very few Antarctic microorganisms, molecular techniques (to monitor population structure) and genomic techniques (to identify specific gene function) are starting to give us an insight into what the potential effects of climate change might be at the cellular level. The key to how microorganisms respond to such change depends upon the rate and magnitude of the change along with the physiological capability of microorganisms to adapt or tolerate those changes. Here we will examine a number of case studies in which the effects of factors such as temperature, nutrient availability, grazing, salinity, seasonal cycle and carbon dioxide concentration have each been demonstrated to affect bacterial community structure in polar and alpine ecosystems. The results suggest that the spatial distribution of genetic variation and, hence, comparative rates of evolution, colonization and extinction are particularly important when considering the response of microbial communities to climate change.

  1. PATRÓN DE DISTRIBUCIÓN DE MACROALGAS EN UN CANAL DE CORRIENTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Candelaria Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los canales de corrientes son uno de los ambientes rocosos intermareales reconocidos en el Pacífico Tropical Mexicano. Se realizó un estudio sobre el patrón de distribución de macroalgas en un canal de corrientes en Playa Las Cuatas, Guerrero, México. Se determinaron 28 especies: 3 Chlorophyta, 9 Phaeophyta y 16 Rhodophyta. La estructura comunitaria está caracterizada por una aparente distribución en bandas definida por las especies dominantes. Una franja rosada de la coralina costrosa Lithophyllum decipiens se extiende del submareal superior hasta el intermareal medio. La feofita foliosa Sargassum liebmannii forma parches más o menos continuos en el intermareal inferior y medio. La extensión horizontal de esta especie es variable. Los niveles por arriba de L. decipiens están cubiertos por una banda extensa de feofitas costrosas. Parte del intermareal superior, medio e inferior lo ocupa Ralfsia hancockii. Mezclada con esta especie en su límite superior y extendiéndose por la zona supramareal se encuentra R. confusa. Otras especies tienen una distribución variable entremezclándose en diferentes bandas. Este patrón de distribución de especies se analiza a la luz de varias propuestas de zonación.

  2. Keanekaragaman dan Kerapatan Rumput Laut Alami Perairan Pulau Serangan Denpasar Bali

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    Ni Desak Putu Dita Herlinawati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Serangan Island was a costal area located in the Serangan village, South Denpasar district, near with Sanur and Nusa Dua tourism area. Serangan beach has a biodiversity such as natural macroalgae. This study was conducted in January 2017 at the seaweed cultivation area with the aims of research were to know the variety and density of macroalgae. The method used was a 1x1 m quadrat transect. Sampling was carried out during low tide. Macroalgae found in the area, consist of 12 species namely Ulva lactuca, Chaetomorpha linum. Chaetomorpha aera, Padina australis, Sargassum fluitans, Turbinaria ornate, Gelidium sp., Hypnea cornuta, Hypnea spicifera, Gracilaria salicornia, Acanthophora spicifera, Halimeda opuntia. Those species were belonging to 3 divisi namely Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta. The highest density of macroalgae was Padina australis while the lowest density was Chaetomorpha linum. Type of dominated macroalgae was from a group of Phaeophyta (brown algae with highest dominance from the species of Padina australis. Water quality namely acidity (pH was in the range of 7.54 to 7.75, salinity of 31.33-32.00 ppt, the water temperature was 26.50-27.30? C, which all was categorized as the optimal parameters for the growth of macroalgae. Assosiation of biota found were 9 species namely fish of larva, Cypraea lynx (Molusca, Emerita sp., Halodule sp., Synapta maculate, Enhalus acoroides, Cymodocea serrulata, Hermit crab, Ophiuroidea sp. The conditions coastal waters substrate was varied from white sand stone type to stony type by coral pieces.

  3. Anthropogenic nitrogen input traced by means of {delta} {sup 15}N values in macroalgae: Results from in-situ incubation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, Barbara [Baltic Sea Research Institute, Seestr. 15, 18119 Rostock (Germany)]. E-mail: barbara.deutsch@io-warnemuende.de; Voss, Maren [Baltic Sea Research Institute, Seestr. 15, 18119 Rostock (Germany)

    2006-08-01

    The macroalgae species Fucus vesiculosus (Phaeophyta), Polysiphonia sp., and Ceramium rubrum (Rhodophyta) originally grown at an unpolluted brackish site of the southern Baltic Sea were incubated for 10 and 14 days at 12 stations along a salinity gradient in a highly polluted estuary. We have expected an adaptation of the initially low {delta} {sup 15}N values to the higher ones within the incubation period. In addition to the macroalgae the {delta} {sup 15}N values of NO{sub 3} {sup -} were measured to evaluate fractionation processes of the source nitrate. Inside the estuary, {delta} {sup 15}N-NO{sub 3} {sup -} values were 6.2-9.7 per mille , indicating anthropogenic nitrogen sources. The red macroalgae adequately reflected the nitrate isotope values in the surrounding waters, whereas for F. vesiculosus the results were not that clear. The reasons were assumed to be higher initial {delta} {sup 15}N values of F. vesiculosus and presumably a too slow nitrogen uptake and growth rate. The method of macroalgae incubations seems suitable as a simple monitoring to study the influence of anthropogenic nitrogen loading in an estuarine environment.

  4. Benthic algal vegetation in Isfjorden, Svalbard

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    Stein Fredriksen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Benthic algal vegetation was investigated at 10 sites in Isfjorden, Svalbard. Five sites were visited during summer 2010 and five during summer 2012. Both the littoral and sublittoral vegetation were sampled, the littoral by hand-picking and use of a throwable rake and the sublittoral using a triangular dredge. A total of 88 different taxa were registered, comprising 17 Chlorophyta, 40 Ochrophyta, 30 Rhodophyta and the Xantophyceae Vaucheria sp. The green algae Ulvaria splendens (Ruprecht Vinogradova was recorded in Svalbard for the first time. Most of the sites consisted of hard bottom substrate, but one site, Kapp Wijk, consisted of loose-lying calcareous red algae (rhodoliths and had species not recorded elsewhere. The sublittoral at the other sites was dominated by kelp. Molecular analysis confirmed the presence of the red alga Ceramium virgatum and a dwarf form of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus. This study provides a baseline for future studies investigating changes in the vegetation due to environmental changes.

  5. Application of the arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction for the detection of DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atienzar, F.; Evenden, A.; Jha, A.; Depledge, M. [University of Plymouth (United Kingdom). Environmental Research Centre; Child, P. [ADAS Boxworth (United Kingdom); Savva, D.; Walker, C. [University of Reading (United Kingdom). School of Animal and Microbial Sciences

    1998-07-01

    The technique of arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) shows potential as a selective and sensitive assay for the detection of xenobiotic-induced DNA damage. Problems, however, may occur in AP-PCR, diminishing its discriminative abilities. These problems include the presence of spurious amplification products in non-template-containing negative control reactions, and a lack of reproducibility amongst amplification patterns. Experiments designed to remove contaminated nucleic acids by ultraviolet (UV) treatment indicated that spurious bands are the result of aberrant primer-induced polymerisation, an event shown to be influenced by the concentration of deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTP) present in the reaction mixtures. Optimisation of dNTP concentration from 0.22 to 0.33 MM resulted in clear negative controls and highly reproducible amplification patterns with all DNA templates. As an example of the application of the method, in the present study, the macroalga Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta) was exposed to UV A and B radiations. The study shows that the AP-PCR method can detect DNA damage and may be useful in detecting such damage following exposure of cells to xenobiotics. (author)

  6. Applying DNA barcoding to red macroalgae: a preliminary appraisal holds promise for future applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Gary W

    2005-10-29

    Marine macroalgae, especially the Rhodophyta, can be notoriously difficult to identify owing to their relatively simple morphology and anatomy, convergence, rampant phenotypic plasticity, and alternation of heteromorphic generations. It is thus not surprising that algal systematists have come to rely heavily on genetic tools for molecular assisted alpha taxonomy. Unfortunately the number of suitable marker systems in the three available genomes is enormous and, although most workers have settled on one of three or four models, the lack of an accepted standard hinders the comparison of results between laboratories. The advantages of a standard system are obvious for practical purposes of species discovery and identification; as well, compliance with a universal marker, such as cox1 being developed under the label 'DNA barcode', would allow algal systematists to benefit from the rapidly emerging technologies. Novel primers were developed for red algae to PCR amplify and sequence the 5' cox1 'barcode' region and were used to assess three known species-complex questions: (i) Mazzaella species in the Northeast Pacific; (ii) species of the genera Dilsea and Neodilsea in the Northeast Pacific; and (iii) Asteromenia peltata from three oceans. These models were selected because they have all caused confusion with regards to species number, distribution, and identification in the field, and because they have all been studied with molecular tools. In all cases the DNA barcode resolved accurately and unequivocally species identities and, with the enhanced sampling here, turned up a variety of novel observations in need of further taxonomic investigation.

  7. Rescuing biogeographic legacy data: The "Thor" Expedition, a historical oceanographic expedition to the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavraki, Dimitra; Fanini, Lucia; Tsompanou, Marilena; Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Nikolopoulou, Stamatina; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Plaitis, Wanda; Faulwetter, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the digitization of a series of historical datasets based οn the reports of the 1908-1910 Danish Oceanographical Expeditions to the Mediterranean and adjacent seas. All station and sampling metadata as well as biodiversity data regarding calcareous rhodophytes, pelagic polychaetes, and fish (families Engraulidae and Clupeidae) obtained during these expeditions were digitized within the activities of the LifeWatchGreece Research Ιnfrastructure project and presented in the present paper. The aim was to safeguard public data availability by using an open access infrastructure, and to prevent potential loss of valuable historical data on the Mediterranean marine biodiversity. The datasets digitized here cover 2,043 samples taken at 567 stations during a time period from 1904 to 1930 in the Mediterranean and adjacent seas. The samples resulted in 1,588 occurrence records of pelagic polychaetes, fish (Clupeiformes) and calcareous algae (Rhodophyta). In addition, basic environmental data (e.g. sea surface temperature, salinity) as well as meterological conditions are included for most sampling events. In addition to the description of the digitized datasets, a detailed description of the problems encountered during the digitization of this historical dataset and a discussion on the value of such data are provided.

  8. Microcystins and cyanophyte extracts inhibit or promote the photosynthesis of fluvial algae. Ecological and management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Espín, Laura; Cantoral, Enrique A; Asencio, Antonia D; Aboal, Marina

    2017-07-01

    The ecological influence of cyanotoxins on aquatic biota remains unclear despite the numerous published references on toxicological and sanitary problems related with cyanophyte proliferation. The effects of microcystins and cyanophyte extracts on the photosynthesis of the algae that belong to two taxonomic groups, Rhodophyta and Bacillariophyta, were studied in an attempt to elucidate their role in the intraspecific competence and physiognomy of fluvial communities. The data showed that both cyanobacteria extracts and pure microcystin-LR affected the photosynthetic activity of all the tested organisms, diatoms (Fistulifera pelliculosa, Gomphonema parvulum, Nitzschia frustulum and Stephanodiscus minutulus) and red algae (Chroothece richteriana) at environmentally relevant concentrations. Effects varied with strains and time, and promoted or inhibited photosynthesis. The microcystins and the other compounds present in cyanobacteria extracts may explain the competence effects observed in nature, especially in calcareous environments where they predominate, and after disturbing events like heavy rains or floods, which may destroy cyanophyte mats and release toxic or inhibitory compounds in a seasonal scale pattern.

  9. Heavy metal concentrations in marine green, brown, and red seaweeds from coastal waters of Yemen, the Gulf of Aden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shwafi, Nabil A.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration levels of heavy metals in different species of the main three marine algal divisions from the Gulf of Aden coastal waters, Yemen. The divisions included Chlorophyta—green plants ( Halimeda tuna, Rhizoclonium kochiamum, Caldophora koiei, Enteromorpha compressa, and Caulerpa racemosa species), Phaeophyta—brown seaweeds ( Padina boryana, Turbinaria elatensis, Sargassum binderi, Cystoseira myrica, and Sargassum boveanum species), and Rhodophyta—red seaweeds ( Hypnea cornuta, Champia parvula, Galaxaura marginate, Laurencia paniculata, Gracilaria foliifere, and species). The heavy metals, which included cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and vanadium (V) were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAs). The concentrations of heavy metals in all algal species are in the order of Fe >> Cu > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cd > V > Co. The results also showed that the uptake of heavy metals by different marine algal divisions was in the order of Chlorophyta > Phaeophyta > Rhodophyta. These heavy metals were several order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of the same metals in seawater. This indicates that marine alga progressively uptake heavy metals from seawater.

  10. Floristic account of the marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, Line Islands, Central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vroom, P.S.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef were identified from collections obtained from the Whippoorwill Expedition in 1924, the Itasca Expedition in 1935, the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Taney in 1938, the Smithsonian Institution’s Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program in 1964 and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (RAMP in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2006. A total of 124 species, representing 8 Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae, 82 Rhodophyta (red algae, 6 Heterokontophyta (brown algae and 28 Chlorophyta (green algae, are reported from both islands. Seventy-nine and 95 species of marine benthic algae are recorded from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, respectively. Of the 124 species, 77 species or 62% (4 blue-green algae, 57 red algae, 2 brown algae and 14 green algae have never before been reported from the 11 remote reefs, atolls and low islands comprising the Line Islands in the Central Pacific.

  11. Polyunsaturated Fatty acids of marine macroalgae: potential for nutritional and pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Hugo; Barreira, Luísa; Figueiredo, Filipe; Custódio, Luísa; Vizetto-Duarte, Catarina; Polo, Cristina; Rešek, Eva; Engelen, Aschwin; Varela, João

    2012-09-01

    As mammals are unable to synthesize essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), these compounds need to be taken in through diet. Nowadays, obtaining essential PUFA in diet is becoming increasingly difficult; therefore this work investigated the suitability of using macroalgae as novel dietary sources of PUFA. Hence, 17 macroalgal species from three different phyla (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta) were analyzed and their fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) profile was assessed. Each phylum presented a characteristic fatty acid signature as evidenced by clustering of PUFA profiles of algae belonging to the same phylum in a Principal Components Analysis. The major PUFA detected in all phyla were C(18) and C(20), namely linoleic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids. The obtained data showed that rhodophytes and phaeophytes have higher concentrations of PUFA, particularly from the n-3 series, thereby being a better source of these compounds. Moreover, rhodophytes and phaeophytes presented "healthier" ∑n-6/∑n-3 and PUFA/saturated fatty acid ratios than chlorophytes. Ulva was an exception within the Chlorophyta, as it presented high concentrations of n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid in particular. In conclusion, macroalgae can be considered as a potential source for large-scale production of essential PUFA with wide applications in the nutraceutical and pharmacological industries.

  12. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids of Marine Macroalgae: Potential for Nutritional and Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Varela

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As mammals are unable to synthesize essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, these compounds need to be taken in through diet. Nowadays, obtaining essential PUFA in diet is becoming increasingly difficult; therefore this work investigated the suitability of using macroalgae as novel dietary sources of PUFA. Hence, 17 macroalgal species from three different phyla (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta were analyzed and their fatty acid methyl esters (FAME profile was assessed. Each phylum presented a characteristic fatty acid signature as evidenced by clustering of PUFA profiles of algae belonging to the same phylum in a Principal Components Analysis. The major PUFA detected in all phyla were C18 and C20, namely linoleic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids. The obtained data showed that rhodophytes and phaeophytes have higher concentrations of PUFA, particularly from the n-3 series, thereby being a better source of these compounds. Moreover, rhodophytes and phaeophytes presented “healthier” ∑n-6/∑n-3 and PUFA/saturated fatty acid ratios than chlorophytes. Ulva was an exception within the Chlorophyta, as it presented high concentrations of n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid in particular. In conclusion, macroalgae can be considered as a potential source for large-scale production of essential PUFA with wide applications in the nutraceutical and pharmacological industries.

  13. Main nutritional contents of 30 Dalian coastal microalgae species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiurong; Liu, Huihui; Chen, Kwan Paul

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports results of study on the contents of proteins, amino acids, polysaccharose and uronic acids in 30 species of macroalgae from Shicao, Heishijiao, Shimiao, and Xiaofujiazhuang in the vicinity of Dalian City, N.E.China. The results showed that the protein contents of the 30 algae from highest (112.55 μ g/ml) to the lowest (0.24 μg/ml) was in the descending order of Dictyopteris ndalata, Gelidium vagum, Gymnogongrus japonican, Ectocarpus confervoides, Tinocladia crassa, Sargassum thunberii. In general, the protein content in red algae was higher than that in brown algae. The content of free amino acids showed no significent differences from 7.44 μg/ml4.96 μg/ml in all these algae, in the descending order of Gymnogongrus japonican, Sargassum confusum, Undoria pinnatifida, Laminaria japonica and Ectocarpus confervoides. The content of polysaccharose varied from 168.2 μ/ml-22.15 μg/ml in the descending order of Symphocladia latiuscula, Scytosiphon lomentarius, Desmarestia viridis., Tinocladia crassa, Gracilaria asiatica and Porphyra yezoensis. The content of uronic acids is from 196.24μg/ml-20.77 μg/ml in the descending order of Ulva lactuca, Symphyoclaldia latiuscula, Scytosiphon lomentarius, Ceramimum kodoi, Gracilaria vemucosa and Porphyra yezoensis. The fatty acids in 30 species of algae belong to Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta. Most phaeophytes have many (4 12) types of fatty acids.

  14. Methanolic Extracts from Brown Seaweeds Dictyota cilliolata and Dictyota menstrualis Induce Apoptosis in Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma HeLa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanne Lopes Gomes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the uterine cervix is the second most common female tumor worldwide, surpassed only by breast cancer. Natural products from seaweeds evidencing apoptotic activity have attracted a great deal of attention as new leads for alternative and complementary preventive or therapeutic anticancer agents. Here, methanol extracts from 13 species of tropical seaweeds (Rhodophytas, Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta collected from the Northeast of Brazil were assessed as apoptosis-inducing agents on human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa. All extracts showed different levels of cytotoxicity against HeLa cells; the most potent were obtained from the brown alga Dictyota cilliolata (MEDC and Dictyota menstrualis (MEDM. In addition, MEDC and MEDM also inhibits SiHa (cervix carcinoma cell proliferation. Studies with these two extracts using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that HeLa cells exposed to MEDM and MEDC exhibit morphological and biochemical changes that characterize apoptosis as shown by loss of cell viability, chromatin condensation, phosphatidylserine externalization, and sub-G1 cell cycle phase accumulation, also MEDC induces cell cycle arrest in cell cycle phase S. Moreover, the activation of caspases 3 and 9 by these extracts suggests a mitochondria-dependent apoptosis route. However, other routes cannot be ruled out. Together, these results point out the methanol extracts of the brown algae D. mentrualis and D. cilliolata as potential sources of molecules with antitumor activity.

  15. Thermostable phycocyanin from the red microalga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, a new natural blue food colorant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, D Y; Sarian, F D; van Wijk, A; Martinez-Garcia, M; van der Maarel, M J E C

    2017-01-01

    The demand for natural food colorants is growing as consumers question the use of artificial colorants more and more. The phycobiliprotein C-phycocyanin of Arthospira platensis is used as a natural blue colorant in certain food products. The thermoacidophilic red microalga Cyanidioschyzon merolae might provide an alternative source of phycocyanin. Cyanidioschyzon merolae belongs to the order Cyanidiophyceae of the phylum Rhodophyta. Its natural habitat are sulfuric hot springs and geysers found near volcanic areas in, e.g., Yellowstone National Park in the USA and in Java, Indonesia. It grows optimally at a pH between 0.5 and 3.0 and at temperatures up to 56 °C. The low pH at which C. merolae grows minimizes the risk of microbial contamination and could limit production loss. As C. merolae lacks a cell wall, phycocyanin with a high purity number of 9.9 could be extracted by an osmotic shock using a simple ultrapure water extraction followed by centrifugation. The denaturation midpoint at pH 5 was 83 °C, being considerably higher than the A. platensis phycocyanin (65 °C). The C. merolae phycocyanin was relatively stable at pH 4 and 5 up to 80 °C. The high thermostability at slightly acidic pH makes the C. merolae phycocyanin an interesting alternative to A. platensis phycocyanin as a natural blue food colorant.

  16. Three rings for the evolution of plastid shape: a tale of land plant FtsZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosche, Christopher; Rensing, Stefan A

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear-encoded plant FtsZ genes are derived from endosymbiotic gene transfer of cyanobacteria-like genes. The green lineage (Chloroplastida) and red lineage (Rhodophyta) feature FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 or FtsZB and FtsZA, respectively, which are involved in plastid division. These two proteins show slight differences and seem to heteropolymerize to build the essential inner plastid division ring. A third gene, encoding FtsZ3, is present in glaucophyte and charophyte algae, as well as in land plants except ferns and angiosperms. This gene was probably present in the last common ancestor of the organisms united by having a primary plastid (Archaeplastida) and was lost during vascular plant evolution as well as in the red and green algae. The presence/absence pattern of FtsZ3 mirrors that of a full set of Mur genes and the peptidoglycan wall encoded by them. Based on these findings, we discuss a role for FtsZ3 in the establishment or maintenance of plastid peptidoglycan shells.

  17. [Punta Cocles coral reef, Caribbean Coast of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Cindy; Alvarado, Juan José

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes the Punta Cocles reef (Limón, Costa Rica). Data were obtained by sampling nine transects along the coast and observations done by skin diving between September and November of 2002. This reef consist of 10.5 hectares, where 13 species of corals, 39 of macroalgae, two of seagrasses, two of zoantids, one anemone, one corallimorpharian, and one sponge were identified. Life coral coverage (16%), was higher than in other years (5% for 1985, and 13.2% for 1995), and death coral coverage was very low (0.2%). Macroalgae have the highest coverage (59%), particularly brown algae with a patchy distribution of Sargassum and Padina. Laurencia brongniartii (Rhodophyta) is added to the list of marine flora of Costa Rica. The Punta Cocles reef works as a refuge for organisms, because there are no towns or river mouths nearby, and because of the coast formation. The refuge character is enhanced by the environmental conscience of the people that live close to the reef and help to protect the environment.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of some seaweeds species from Red sea, against multidrug resistant bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimaa M. El Shafay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the antibacterial activity of diethyl ether, methanol, ethanol and chloroform extracts of red algae Ceramium rubrum (Rhodophyta, Sargassum vulgare, Sargassum fusiforme and Padina pavonia (Phaeophyta collected from Red sea, Egypt. The algal extracts were tested for their antibacterial activity against ten multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The highest inhibition activity among all extracts was obtained with 100 μl diethyl ether extract S. fusiforme against Staphylococcus aureus 2 and 50 μl ethanol extract of S. vulgare against Klebsiella pneumoniae. The algal extract of S. fusiforme and S. vulgare was characterized by Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. The compounds with antimicrobial activity were identified, such as phenols, terpenes, acetogenins, indoles, fatty acids and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons. Transmission electron microscopy was applied for determining the morphological changes in S. aureus 2 and K. pneumonia treated with 100 μl diethyl ether extract of S. fusiforme and 50 μl ethanol extract of S. vulgare, respectively. Perforation of cell wall, leakage of cytoplasmic contents, severe distortion of outer cell shape, inner chromatin mild scattered cytoplasmic vacuolation, rupture of cell wall, and decreased cell size for both bacterial isolates treated with 100 μl diethyl ether of S. fusiforme extract and 50 μl S. vulgare ethanolic extract were recorded.

  19. Algas marinas bentónicas de la Isla Gorgona, costa pacífica colombiana

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    Mónica Murillo Muñoz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el listado de las algas marinas bénticas del Parque Nacional Natural Isla Gorgona, el inventario corresponde a la flora algal asociada a los diferentes ambientes marinos de la isla, a saber: arrecifes coralinos y fondos blandos. El monitoreo de las comunidades de algas se llevó a cabo entre octubre de 2010 y mayo de 2011, se realizó una estimación de abundancia y cobertura para lo cual se establecieron transeptos paralelos a la línea de costa y se evaluó el porcentaje de cobertura en cuadrantes de 0.25m². Se reportó un total de 43 especies para los dos ambientes estudiados (coralino y fondos blandos, 24 Rhodophyta, 12 Clorophyta, 6 Ochrophyta y una Cyanobacteria. El grupo más representativo fue el perteneciente a la clase Rhodophyceae, que correspondió al 55.8% de la flora inventariada. Los resultados de nuevos registros en la isla ratifican su importancia fitogeográfica, por cuanto la composición florística insular contribuye significativamente a la biodiversidad de la costa pacífica colombiana, destacándose la presencia de arrecifes coralinos como los principales ambientes marinos para el desarrollo de la flora algal de la región.

  20. Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti and Molluscicidal Activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Marine Algae

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    Elíca Amara Cecília Guedes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta, Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta, Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (11.1460 μg·mL−1 and 25.8689 μg·mL−1, resp., and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (29.018 μg·mL−1 and 17.230 μg·mL−1, resp.. The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277 μg·mL−1 and 706.990 μg·mL−1 showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar.

  1. dEMBF: A Comprehensive Database of Enzymes of Microalgal Biofuel Feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Parida, Bikram Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae have attracted wide attention as one of the most versatile renewable feedstocks for production of biofuel. To develop genetically engineered high lipid yielding algal strains, a thorough understanding of the lipid biosynthetic pathway and the underpinning enzymes is essential. In this work, we have systematically mined the genomes of fifteen diverse algal species belonging to Chlorophyta, Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, and Haptophyta, to identify and annotate the putative enzymes of lipid metabolic pathway. Consequently, we have also developed a database, dEMBF (Database of Enzymes of Microalgal Biofuel Feedstock), which catalogues the complete list of identified enzymes along with their computed annotation details including length, hydrophobicity, amino acid composition, subcellular location, gene ontology, KEGG pathway, orthologous group, Pfam domain, intron-exon organization, transmembrane topology, and secondary/tertiary structural data. Furthermore, to facilitate functional and evolutionary study of these enzymes, a collection of built-in applications for BLAST search, motif identification, sequence and phylogenetic analysis have been seamlessly integrated into the database. dEMBF is the first database that brings together all enzymes responsible for lipid synthesis from available algal genomes, and provides an integrative platform for enzyme inquiry and analysis. This database will be extremely useful for algal biofuel research. It can be accessed at http://bbprof.immt.res.in/embf.

  2. Bibliographic checklist of the marine benthic algae of Central Polynesia in the Pacific Ocean (Excluding Hawai‘i and French Polynesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuda, R.T.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Polynesian algal bibliographic checklist is based on records from past references for American Samoa and Samoa (380 spp., Cook Islands (111 spp., Johnston Atoll (190 spp., Line Islands (250 spp., Niue (3 spp., Phoenix Islands (193 spp., Pitcairn Islands (23 spp., Tokelau (1 sp., Tonga (109 spp., Wake Atoll (121 spp. and Wallis and Futuna (191 spp. and consists of three sections. The first section (I. Classification provides a listing of classes, orders, and families of the 238 genera of Polynesian algae. The second section (II. Species-Reference Index provides an alphabetized listing of the 667 named algal species under the four Phyla, i.e., Cyanobacteria (68 species, Rhodophyta (373 species, Ochrophyta (59 species and Chlorophyta (167 species with the applicable reference citations for each island or atoll. Brief taxonomic or nomenclatural notes are provided, when appropriate, for selected species. The third section (III. Island-Reference Index provides a chronological listing of all published references for the respective island or atoll in each island group. The complete references for all citations in the text are provided in the Reference section.

  3. Phycobilins and Phycobiliproteins Used in Food Industry and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysliwa-Kurdziel, Beata; Solymosi, Katalin

    2017-01-01

    Open tetrapyrroles termed phycobilins represent the major photosynthetic accessory pigments of several cyanobacteria and some eukaryotic algae such as the Glaucophyta, Cryptophyta and Rhodophyta. These pigments are covalently bound to so-called phycobiliproteins which are in general organized into phycobilisomes on the thylakoid membranes. In this work we first briefly describe the physico-chemical properties, biosynthesis, occurrence, in vivo localization and roles of the phycobilin pigments and the phycobiliproteins. Then the potential applications and uses of these pigments, pigment-protein complexes and related products by the food industry (e.g., as LinaBlue® or the so-called spirulina extract used as coloring food), by the health industry or as fluorescent dyes are critically reviewed. In addition to the stability, bioavailability and safety issues of purified phycobilins and phycobiliproteins, literature data about their antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective and neuroprotective effects, and their potential use in photodynamic therapy (PDT) are also discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. High-performance thin-layer chromatography HPTLC-direct bioautography as a method of choice for alpha-amylase and antioxidant activity evaluation in marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana; Morton, David W

    2017-12-29

    High-Performance Thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) combined with DPPH free radical method and α-amylase bioassay was used to compare antioxidant and antidiabetic activities in ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts from 10 marine macroalgae species (3 Chlorophyta, 4 Phaeophyta and 3 Rhodophyta) from Blue Lagoon beach (Malaysia). Samples were also evaluated for their phenolic and stigmasterol content. On average, higher antioxidant activity was observed in the ethyl acetate extracts (55.1mg/100g gallic acid equivalents (GAE) compared to 35.0mg/100g GAE) while, as expected, phenolic content was higher in ethanol extracts (330.5mg/100g GAE compared to 289.5mg/100g GAE). Amounts of fucoxanthin, stigmasterol and α-amylase inhibitory activities were higher in ethyl acetate extracts. Higher enzyme inhibition is therefore related to higher concentrations of triterpenes and phytosterols (Note: these compounds are more soluble in ethyl acetate). Ethyl acetate extracts from Caulerpa racemosa and Padina minor, had the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity, and also showed moderately high antioxidant activities, stigmasterol content and polyphenolic content. Caulerpa racemose, being green algae, does not contain fucoxanthin, while Padina minor, being brown algae, contains high amounts of fucoxanthin. Therefore, it is very unlikely that fucoxanthin contributes to α-amylase inhibitory activity as previously reported. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation and characterization of agar-digesting Vibrio species from the rotten thallus of Gracilariopsis heteroclada Zhang et Xia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Joval N; Padilla, Philip Ian P

    2016-08-01

    Gracilariopsis heteroclada Zhang et Xia (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta) is one of the most studied marine seaweeds due to its economic importance. This has been cultivated extensively on commercial scale in the Philippines and other Asian countries. However, sustainable production of G. heteroclada in the Philippines could not be maximized due to the occurrence of rotten thallus disease. Thus, isolation and characterization of agar-digesting bacteria from the rotten thalli of G. heteroclada was conducted. A total of seven representative bacterial isolates were randomly selected based on their ability to digest agar as evidenced by the formation of depressions around the bacterial colonies on nutrient agar plates supplemented with 1.5% NaCl and liquefaction of agar. Gram-staining and biochemical characterization revealed that isolates tested were gram-negative rods and taxonomically identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus (86-99.5%) and Vibrio alginolyticus (94.2-97.7%), respectively. It is yet to be confirmed whether these agar-digesting vibrios are involved in the induction and development of rotten thallus disease in G. heteroclada in concomitance with other opportunistic bacterial pathogens coupled with adverse environmental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genome-wide identification of transcription factors and transcription-factor binding sites in oleaginous microalgae Nannochloropsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Wang, Dongmei; Li, Jing; Jing, Gongchao; Ning, Kang; Xu, Jian

    2014-06-26

    Nannochloropsis spp. are a group of oleaginous microalgae that harbor an expanded array of lipid-synthesis related genes, yet how they are transcriptionally regulated remains unknown. Here a phylogenomic approach was employed to identify and functionally annotate the transcriptional factors (TFs) and TF binding-sites (TFBSs) in N. oceanica IMET1. Among 36 microalgae and higher plants genomes, a two-fold reduction in the number of TF families plus a seven-fold decrease of average family-size in Nannochloropsis, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta were observed. The degree of similarity in TF-family profiles is indicative of the phylogenetic relationship among the species, suggesting co-evolution of TF-family profiles and species. Furthermore, comparative analysis of six Nannochloropsis genomes revealed 68 "most-conserved" TFBS motifs, with 11 of which predicted to be related to lipid accumulation or photosynthesis. Mapping the IMET1 TFs and TFBS motifs to the reference plant TF-"TFBS motif" relationships in TRANSFAC enabled the prediction of 78 TF-"TFBS motif" interaction pairs, which consisted of 34 TFs (with 11 TFs potentially involved in the TAG biosynthesis pathway), 30 TFBS motifs and 2,368 regulatory connections between TFs and target genes. Our results form the basis of further experiments to validate and engineer the regulatory network of Nannochloropsis spp. for enhanced biofuel production.

  7. On reproduction in red algae: further research needed at the molecular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jiménez, Pilar; Robaina, Rafael R

    2015-01-01

    Multicellular red algae (Rhodophyta) have some of the most complex life cycles known in living organisms. Economically valuable seaweeds, such as phycocolloid producers, have a triphasic (gametophyte, carposporophyte, and tetrasporophyte) life cycle, not to mention the intricate alternation of generations in the edible "sushi-alga" nori. It is a well-known fact that reproductive processes are controlled by one or more abiotic factor(s), including day length, light quality, temperature, and nutrients. Likewise, endogenous chemical factors such as plant growth regulators have been reported to affect reproductive events in some red seaweeds. Still, in the genomic era and given the high throughput techniques at our disposal, our knowledge about the endogenous molecular machinery lags far behind that of higher plants. Any potential effective control of the reproductive process will entail revisiting most of these results and facts to answer basic biological questions as yet unresolved. Recent results have shed light on the involvement of several genes in red alga reproductive events. In addition, a working species characterized by a simple filamentous architecture, easy cultivation, and accessible genomes may also facilitate our task.

  8. On reproduction in red algae: further research needed at the molecular level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar eGarcía-Jiménez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Multicellular red algae (Rhodophyta have some of the most complex life cycles known in living organisms. Economically valuable seaweeds, such as phycocolloid producers, have a triphasic (gametophyte, carposporophyte and tetrasporophyte life cycle, not to mention the intricate alternation of generations in the edible sushi-alga nori. It is a well-known fact that reproductive processes are controlled by one or more abiotic factor(s, including day length, light quality, temperature and nutrients. Likewise, endogenous chemical factors such as plant growth regulators have been reported to affect reproductive events in some red seaweeds. Still, in the genomic era and given the high throughput techniques at our disposal, our knowledge about the endogenous molecular machinery lags far behind that of higher plants. Any potential effective control of the reproductive process will entail revisiting most of these results and facts to answer basic biological questions as yet unresolved. Recent results have shed light on the involvement of several genes in red alga reproductive events. In addition, a working species characterized by a simple filamentous architecture, easy cultivation and accessible genomes may also facilitate our task.

  9. Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingchong Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta, marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits.

  10. Overview on biological activities and molecular characteristics of sulfated polysaccharides from marine green algae in recent years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-09-25

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits.

  11. Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits. PMID:25257786

  12. Antiviral activity of extracts from Brazilian seaweeds against herpes simplex virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Ribeiro Soares

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Organic extracts of 36 species of marine algae (sixteen species of Rhodophyta, eight species of Ochrophyta and twelve species of Chlorophyta from seven locations on the Brazilian coast were evaluated for their anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 activity resistant to Acyclovir (ACV. Activity tests in crude extracts, followed by the identification of the major compounds present, were performed for all species. The chemical profiles of all crude extracts were obtained by ¹H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The percentage of extracts with antiviral activity was higher for HSV-1 (86.1% than for HSV-2 (55.5%. The green algae Ulva fasciata and Codium decorticatum both showed the highest activity (99.9% against HSV-1, with triacylglycerols and fatty acids as the major components. The red alga Laurencia dendroidea showed good activity against HSV-1 (97.5% and the halogenated sesquiterpenes obtusol and (--elatol were identified as the major components in the extract. Against HSV-2, the green alga Penicillus capitatus (Chlorophyta and Stypopodium zonale (Ochrophyta were the most active (96.0 and 95.8%. Atomaric acid, a meroditerpene, was identified as the major secondary metabolite in the S. zonale extract. These results reinforce the role of seaweeds as important sources of compounds with the potential to enter into the pipeline for development of new drugs against herpes simplex.

  13. Habitat and food selection by herbivorous amphipods associated with macroalgal beds on the southeast coast of Brazil

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    Mauro Rezende Tavares

    Full Text Available The factors that influence the selection of marine macrophytes by meso-herbivores are complex, and may include the nutritional quality of algae, the value of the habitat as a shelter, and the availability of algae in the environment. Here we investigated the existence of differential use of Sargassum filipendula C. Agardh, 1824 (Phaeophyta and Galaxaura stupocaulon Kjellman, 1900 (Rhodophyta as habitats and feeding resources by species of Hyalidae and Ampithoidae, in laboratory manipulation experiments and in an algal bed on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. In the field, 19 fronds were collected from each alga and the associated amphipods were identified and counted. To evaluate food preference and habitat selection by amphipods, we conducted laboratory experiments using containers containing fragments of algae and individuals of Cymadusa filosa Savigny, 1816 or Hyale nigra (Haswell, 1879. In natural conditions, the density of C. filosa was significantly higher on G. stupocaulon, while in the feeding and habitat preference experiment we found a higher density on S. filipendula. The densities of H. nigra did not differ between the algae in both experiments, probably as a result of the variety of food items in its diet, and its high mobility and wide distribution on different substrates. The different results for C. filosa suggest that the pattern of feeding and habitat selection can be affected by external characteristics of the algae; probably, refuge from predation is an important selective force acting on the use of algae by these animals.

  14. Construction of Plastid Expression Vector and Development of Genetic Transformation System for the Seaweed Pyropia yezoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanna; Zhao, Hailong; Liu, Weixun; Li, Na; Mao, Yunxiang

    2017-04-01

    Pyropia yezoensis, belonging to the Rhodophyta, is an economically important seaweed. In this study, we developed a high-efficiency plastid transformation platform for P. yezoensis. In the plastid transformation vector, psbA UTR of P. yezoensis, including the promoter and 3' UTR, was used to express foreign genes. The integration site was a transcriptionally active intergenic region between the rrsB and trnI genes, located in the inverted repeat regions of the plastid genome. The CAT and eGFP genes were integrated into the plastid genome at this site. The expression of CAT in the transformants confers resistance to chloramphenicol through the action of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, which inactivates the drug, thereby allowing the plant to grow well under selective pressure. The eGFP fluorescence signal was also observed in transformed cells and the transformants. The average survival rate of treated cells was estimated to be approximately 4.2‰ (4 transplastomic colonies per 1000 gametophyte cells). Multiple-PCR analyses confirmed that the CAT and eGFP genes were successfully integrated in the site between rrsB and trnI. Western blot also showed eGFP expression in the cells of transformants. Thus, this study presents the first convenient plastid gene expression system for P. yezoensis and provides an important platform for studying gene function in P. yezoensis.

  15. A functional zeaxanthin epoxidase from red algae shedding light on the evolution of light-harvesting carotenoids and the xanthophyll cycle in photosynthetic eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautermann, Oliver; Lohr, Martin

    2017-12-01

    The epoxy-xanthophylls antheraxanthin and violaxanthin are key precursors of light-harvesting carotenoids and participate in the photoprotective xanthophyll cycle. Thus, the invention of zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP) catalyzing their formation from zeaxanthin has been a fundamental step in the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes. ZEP genes have only been found in Viridiplantae and chromalveolate algae with secondary plastids of red algal ancestry, suggesting that ZEP evolved in the Viridiplantae and spread to chromalveolates by lateral gene transfer. By searching publicly available sequence data from 11 red algae covering all currently recognized red algal classes we identified ZEP candidates in three species. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the red algal ZEP is most closely related to ZEP proteins from photosynthetic chromalveolates possessing secondary plastids of red algal origin. Its enzymatic activity was assessed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses of red algal pigment extracts and by cloning and functional expression of the ZEP gene from Madagascaria erythrocladioides in leaves of the ZEP-deficient aba2 mutant of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. Unlike other ZEP enzymes examined so far, the red algal ZEP introduces only a single epoxy group into zeaxanthin, yielding antheraxanthin instead of violaxanthin. The results indicate that ZEP evolved before the split of Rhodophyta and Viridiplantae and that chromalveolates acquired ZEP from the red algal endosymbiont and not by lateral gene transfer. Moreover, the red algal ZEP enables engineering of transgenic plants incorporating antheraxanthin instead of violaxanthin in their photosynthetic machinery. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The New Red Algal Subphylum Proteorhodophytina Comprises the Largest and Most Divergent Plastid Genomes Known.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Gómez, Sergio A; Mejía-Franco, Fabián G; Durnin, Keira; Colp, Morgan; Grisdale, Cameron J; Archibald, John M; Slamovits, Claudio H

    2017-06-05

    Red algal plastid genomes are often considered ancestral and evolutionarily stable, and thus more closely resembling the last common ancestral plastid genome of all photosynthetic eukaryotes [1, 2]. However, sampling of red algal diversity is still quite limited (e.g., [2-5]). We aimed to remedy this problem. To this end, we sequenced six new plastid genomes from four undersampled and phylogenetically disparate red algal classes (Porphyridiophyceae, Stylonematophyceae, Compsopogonophyceae, and Rhodellophyceae) and discovered an unprecedented degree of genomic diversity among them. These genomes are rich in introns, enlarged intergenic regions, and transposable elements (in the rhodellophycean Bulboplastis apyrenoidosa), and include the largest and most intron-rich plastid genomes ever sequenced (that of the rhodellophycean Corynoplastis japonica; 1.13 Mbp). Sophisticated phylogenetic analyses accounting for compositional heterogeneity show that these four "basal" red algal classes form a larger monophyletic group, Proteorhodophytina subphylum nov., and confidently resolve the large-scale relationships in the Rhodophyta. Our analyses also suggest that secondary red plastids originated before the diversification of all mesophilic red algae. Our genomic survey has challenged the current paradigmatic view of red algal plastid genomes as "living fossils" [1, 2, 6] by revealing an astonishing degree of divergence in size, organization, and non-coding DNA content. A closer look at red algae shows that they comprise the most ancestral (e.g., [2, 7, 8]) as well as some of the most divergent plastid genomes known. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential of Laurencia obtusa as a substrate for the development of a probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caf, F; Yilmaz, Ö; Şen Özdemir, N

    2017-08-30

    Laurencia obtusa (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) has tremendous nutritional value, being high in proteins, oligosaccharides, vitamins, essential minerals, and fatty acids, and it is a rich source of amino acids and trace elements. In this study, L. obtusa was extracted and subjected to phenolic, sugar and flavonoid analyses.The fatty acid, vitamin and phytosterol contents in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were evaluated when it was incubated with L. obtusa dry biomass. The fatty acids in the lipid extract were analysed after converting them into methyl esters using gas chromatography, and vitamin concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). According to the achieved results, the total fatty acid levels and vitamin contents of the S. cerevisiae prepared with algal extract increased at different rates. Our results showed that α-tocopherol decreased in the group in which the S. cerevisiae was added the algal extract. When compared to the control group, ergesterol increased in the group in which L. obtusa extract was added. Additionally, when compared to the control group in which L. obtusa extract was added, stearic acid (18:0), oleic acid (18:1) and linoleic acid (18:2) increased in the other groups. Palmitoleic acid (16:1) increased in the L. obtusa culture medium, but palmitic acid decreased in the L. obtusa culture medium. In conclusion, it was determined that the L. obtusa extract added to the development medium of S. cerevisiae caused differences in the synthesis of some vitamins and fatty acids.

  18. Taxonomic assessment of seaweed community from the coastal areas of Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia

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    Mohd Hafizbillah Zawawi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Basic taxonomic information forms the important basis for the documentation, resource management and utilization of marine biodiversity such as seaweeds. A taxonomic assessment of seaweeds in the coastal areas of Bintulu, Sarawak, East Malaysia, was conducted monthly from May 2011 to May 2012. Species composition was recorded following NaGISA protocols, direct observation, and SCUBA and snorkeling techniques. A total of 54 species were identified, classified into Rhodophyta (23 species, Chlorophyta (16 species and Phaeophyta (15 species. The highest abundance was recorded at Kuala Similajau (25 species while the lowest was recorded at Kuala Nyalau (12 species. As the present study was conducted by examining species collected from both rocky shores and the reef area for the first time, a higher number of species was documented compared to previous studies conducted in the same general area but focusing only on particular habitats. Thirty species found in the current survey represent new records for the locality including some with economic potentials.

  19. Isolation, expression and characterization of rbcL gene from Ulva prolifera J. Agardh (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhanru; Li, Wei; Guo, Hui; Duan, Delin

    2015-12-01

    Ulva prolifera is a typical green alga in subtidal areas and can grow tremendously fast. A highly efficient Rubisco enzyme which is encoded by UpRbcL gene may contribute to the rapid growth. In this study, the full-length UpRbcL open reading frame (ORF) was identified, which encoded a protein of 474 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of UpRbcL sequences revealed that Chlorophyta had a closer genetic relationship with higher plants than with Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta. The two distinct residues (aa11 and aa91) were presumed to be unique for Rubisco catalytic activity. The predicted three-dimensional structure showed that one α/β-barrel existed in the C-terminal region, and the sites for Mg2+ coordination and CO2 fixation were also located in this region. Gene expression profile indicated that UpRbcL was expressed at a higher level under light exposure than in darkness. When the culture temperature reached 35°C, the expression level of UpRbcL was 2.5-fold lower than at 15°C, and the carboxylase activity exhibited 13.8-fold decrease. UpRbcL was heterologously expressed in E. coli and was purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The physiological and biochemical characterization of recombinant Rubisco will be explored in the future.

  20. Screening of Dengue virus antiviral activity of marine seaweeds by an in situ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koishi, Andrea Cristine; Zanello, Paula Rodrigues; Bianco, Éverson Miguel; Bordignon, Juliano; Nunes Duarte dos Santos, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is a significant public health problem worldwide. Despite the important social and clinical impact, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral therapy for prevention and treatment of dengue virus (DENV) infection. Considering the above, drug discovery research for dengue is of utmost importance; in addition natural marine products provide diverse and novel chemical structures with potent biological activities that must be evaluated. In this study we propose a target-free approach for dengue drug discovery based on a novel, rapid, and economic in situ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the screening of a panel of marine seaweed extracts. The in situ ELISA was standardized and validated for Huh7.5 cell line infected with all four serotypes of DENV, among them clinical isolates and a laboratory strain. Statistical analysis showed an average S/B of 7.2 and Z-factor of 0.62, demonstrating assay consistency and reliability. A panel of fifteen seaweed extracts was then screened at the maximum non-toxic dose previously determined by the MTT and Neutral Red cytotoxic assays. Eight seaweed extracts were able to reduce DENV infection of at least one serotype tested. Four extracts (Phaeophyta: Canistrocarpus cervicornis, Padina gymnospora; Rhodophyta: Palisada perforate; Chlorophyta: Caulerpa racemosa) were chosen for further evaluation, and time of addition studies point that they might act at an early stage of the viral infection cycle, such as binding or internalization.

  1. Differential expression of the ornithine decarboxylase gene during carposporogenesis in the thallus of the red seaweed Grateloupia imbricata (Halymeniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jiménez, Pilar; García-Maroto, Federico; Garrido-Cárdenas, Jose A; Ferrandiz, Cristina; Robaina, Rafael R

    2009-11-01

    This paper describes the cloning of the ornithine decarboxylase gene from a red seaweed, Grateloupia imbricata (Rhodophyta), the characterization of its expression throughout the reproductive process, and demonstrates how polyamines are involved in seaweed reproduction. In addition, the data indicate that the basal perennial and non-spore-forming thalli behave physiologically and genetically differently from the distal reproductive tissue. The common polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine have been associated with carposporogenesis in red seaweeds. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, EC 4.1.1.17) produces the diamine putrescine from the non-protein amino acid, ornithine. ODC is predominant in the synthesis of polyamines in G. imbricata. The gene encoding the ornithine decarboxylase in G. imbricata was cloned by genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using degenerate primers against conserved motives, followed by chromosome walking using inverse PCR (iPCR). The encoded protein (GiODC, accession # FJ223132) was very similar to other ODCs, bearing the characteristic conserved domain of pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylases. The expression of the GiODC gene was investigated by real-time PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH), and was observed to vary according to cystocarp differentiation. It was weakly transcribed in apical parts of fertile tissue where the cystocarps are located, while the transcript levels were comparatively high in the basal part. This expression pattern correlated with the levels of free polyamines, which were higher at the basal part.

  2. Antiprotozoal Activities of Organic Extracts from French Marine Seaweeds

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    Antoine Vastel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine macrophytes contain a variety of biologically active compounds, some reported to have antiprotozoal activity in vitro. As a part of a screening program to search for new natural antiprotozoals, we screened hydroalcoholic and ethyl acetate extracts of 20 species of seaweeds from three phyla (Rhodophyta, Heterokontophyta and Chlorophyta, sampled along the Normandy (France coast. We tested them in vitro against the protozoa responsible for three major endemic parasitic diseases: Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania donovani and Trypanosoma cruzi. The selectivity of the extracts was also evaluated by testing on a mammalian cell line (L6 cells. Ethyl acetate extracts were more active than hydroalcoholic ones. Activity against T. cruzi and L. donovani was non-existent to average, but almost half the extracts showed good activity against P. falciparum. The ethyl acetate extract of Mastocarpus stellatus showed the best antiplasmodial activity as well as the best selectivity index (IC50 = 2.8 µg/mL; SI > 30. Interestingly, a red algae species, which shares phylogenetic origins with P. falciparum, showed the best antiplasmodial activity. This study is the first to report comparative antiprotozoal activity of French marine algae. Some of the species studied here have not previously been biologically evaluated.

  3. VARIACIÓN VERTICAL Y ESTACIONAL DE LA COMUNIDAD DE MACROALGAS EN LOS COSTADOS NOROCCIDENTAL Y NORORIENTAL DEL GOLFO DE URABÀ, CARIBE COLOMBIANO

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    DELGADO M. JUAN CARLOS

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Durante la época seca en febrero y la época de lluvias en junio de 2004, fueron ubicados en el Golfo de Urabá seis estaciones con transectos paralelos a la línea de costa rocosa. Allí se removió la biomasa macroalgal de ocho cuadrantes de 1 m2 por cada estación de muestreo y distribuidos desde el supralitoral hasta tres metros de profundidad. Se estimó el porcentaje de cobertura de las microalgas; se determinó la riqueza numérica de especies y las biomasas húmeda y seca; y se midieron algunas variables fisicoquímicas. Se encontró un total de 30 taxones de macroalgas de las cuales 20 pertenecen a la división Rhodophyta. cinco Phaeophyta y cinco Chorophyta. Las especies más frecuentes y con mayor biomasa para la costa noroccidental, fueron Sargassum polyceratíum. Laurencia obtusa y L papulosa y para el costado nororiental, Grateloupia fílicina y Chladophora vagabunda. Se concluyó que existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las comunidades algales de ambos costados y que las diferencias en el gradiente vertical y de la salinidad del agua, condujeron a diferencias en las comunidades establecidas sobre el litoral rocoso de ambos costados.

  4. cis,cis- and trans,trans-ceratospongamide, new bioactive cyclic heptapeptides from the Indonesian red alga Ceratodictyon spongiosum and symbiotic sponge Sigmadocia symbiotica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, L T; Williamson, R T; Gerwick, W H; Watts, K S; McGough, K; Jacobs, R

    2000-01-28

    Chemical investigation of the marine red alga (Rhodophyta) Ceratodictyon spongiosum containing the symbiotic sponge Sigmadocia symbiotica collected from Biaro Island, Indonesia, yielded two isomers of a new and bioactive thiazole-containing cyclic heptapeptide, cis,cis-ceratospongamide (1) and trans, trans-ceratospongamide (2). Isolation of these peptides was assisted by bioassay-guided fractionation using a brine shrimp toxicity assay (Artemia salina). The structures of the ceratospongamides, which each consist of two L-phenylalanine residues, one (L-isoleucine)-L-methyloxazoline residue, one L-proline residue, and one (L-proline)thiazole residue, were established through extensive NMR spectroscopy, including (1)H-(13)C HMQC-TOCSY, and (1)H-(15)N HMBC experiments, as well as chemical degradation and chiral analysis. cis,cis- and trans,trans-ceratospongamide are stable conformational isomers of the two proline amide bonds. Molecular modeling of these two ceratospongamide isomers showed the trans, trans isomer to be quite planar, whereas the cis,cis isomer has a more puckered overall conformation. trans,trans-Ceratospongamide exhibits potent inhibition of sPLA(2) expression in a cell-based model for antiinflammation (ED(50) 32 nM), whereas the cis,cis isomer is inactive. trans,trans-Ceratospongamide was also shown to inhibit the expression of a human-sPLA(2) promoter-based reporter by 90%.

  5. Apparent characteristics and taxonomic study of macroalgae in Pattani Bay

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    Naruemol Pianthumdee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available 2A survey on macroalgae in Pattani Bay was carried out to build up a database resource for the management of algae in the area. From February 2004 to March 2005, samples of macroalgae from 10 sites were randomly collected monthly. Macroalgae were found at 4 sites in the north of the bay, namely Laem Tachi, Lighthouse, Ban Bu Di and Ban Ta Lo Samilae; 3 sites in the east, namely Ban Da To, the Yaring River Mouth and Ban Bang Pu and only one site in the south at Ban Tanyong Lu Lo. Twelve species of 3 divisions of macroalgae were detected. They were Division Cyanophyta, Lyngbya majuscula (Dillwyn Harvey ex Gomont; Division Chlorophyta; Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus, U. pertusa Kjellman and U. reticulata Forsskal, Rhizoclonium riparium (Roth Harvey, R. tortuosum Kutzing, Chaetomorpha crassa (C. Agardh Kutzing and Cladophora sp.; and Division Rhodophyta, namely Gracilaria tenuistipitata Chang et Xia, G. fisheri (Xia et Abbott Abbott, Zhang et Xia, Hypnea spinella (C. Agardh Kutzing and Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl B∅rgesen. Among them, four species were new recordings at Pattani Bay: Lyngbya majuscula, Rhizoclonium riparium, R. tortuosum and Acanthophora spicifera. Most of these seaweeds were found at the east sites in the dry season from February to September 2004 and from January to March 2005. Only a few species could be found in the wet season from November to December 2004.

  6. Review of alien marine macrophytes in Tunisia

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    Y. R. SGHAIER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the list of alien marine macrophytes introduced into Tunisia was updated in the light of available data and new observations. A total of 27 alien marine macrophytes have been recorded so far from Tunisia: 18 Rhodophyta, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Chlorophyta and 1 Magnoliophyta. For each species, the locality (-ies, the year (or period and the source of the first observation in Tunisia are given. The distribution and the status (casual, cryptogenic, established or questionable of species in Tunisia were evaluated and, where appropriate, discussed. Among them, Hypnea cornuta is reported for the first time from Tunisia. Fourteen alien marine macrophytes are established, whereas seven cryptogenic and two casual species require further investigation. Eleven species are considered as invasive or potentially invasive in the Mediterranean Sea: Acrothamnion preissii, Asparagopsis armata, A. taxiformis Indo-Pacific lineage, Hypnea cornuta, Lophocladia lallemandii, Womersleyella setacea, Caulerpa chemnitzia, C. cylindracea, C. taxifolia, Codium fragile subsp. fragile and Halophila stipulacea. Finally, the case of four questionable species is also discussed.

  7. Bioaccumulation of aluminium in the seagrasses Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Aschers. and Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile and macroalgae of the Gulf of Antikyra (Greece)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malea, P. [Thessaloniki Univ. (Greece). Inst. of Botany

    1993-12-31

    Mean concentrations of Aluminium ({+-}SE) in two seagrasses, four Chlorophytes, three Chromophytes and seven Rhodophyte species from the Gulf of Antikyra (Greece) decreased in the order: Chlorophyta > Chromophyta > Rhodophyta > P. oceanica > C. nodosa. This area is of particular interest because of the bauxite composition of the substrate and of the wate discharge from an aluminium factory in the Gulf. Aluminium concentrations in the two seagrasses were evenly distributed at the Gulf stations. Only the concentrations of Al in C. nodosa displayed significant seasonal variation. The mean concentrations increased from spring to summer, at which point they reached their maxima. This pattern is discussed in relation to the leaf-age of the seagrass. Regarding the amount of Al accumulated by the macroalgae of each division, there were interspecific differences which were attributed to differences in the structure, the ecology and the binding sites offered by the plants. The dependence of Al concentrations in the macrophytes on the concentrations in the sediment and the correlation of Al concentrations with the concentrations of some other metals in the plants were also investigated. (orig.)

  8. Identification of protein N-termini in Cyanophora paradoxa cyanelles: Transit peptide composition and sequence determinants for precursor maturation

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    Daniel eKöhler

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Glaucophyta, rhodophyta and chloroplastida represent the three main evolutionary lineages that diverged from a common ancestor after primary endosymbiosis. Comparative analyses between members of these three lineages are a rich source of information on ancestral plastid features. We analyzed the composition and the cleavage site of cyanelle transit peptides from the glaucophyte Cyanophora paradoxa by terminal amine labelling of substrates (TAILS, and compared their characteristics to those of representatives of the chloroplastida. Our data show that transit peptide architecture is similar between members of these two lineages. This entails a comparable modular structure, an overrepresentation of serine or alanine and similarities in the amino acid composition around the processing peptidase cleavage site. The most distinctive difference is the overrepresentation of phenylalanine in the N-terminal 1-10 amino acids of cyanelle transit peptides. A quantitative proteome analysis with periplasm-free cyanelles identified 42 out of 262 proteins without the N-terminal phenylalanine, suggesting that the requirement for phenylalanine in the N-terminal region is not absolute. Proteins in this set are on average of low abundance, suggesting that either alternative import pathways are operating specifically for low abundance proteins or that the gene model annotation is incorrect for proteins with fewer EST sequences. We discuss these two possibilities and provide examples for both interpretations.

  9. Addenda and Corrigenda to the Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera, volumes 7 and 8 (Curculionoidea

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    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.

    2016-06-01

    tricolor Capiomont, 1876 (non L. tricolor (Scopoli, 1771. New combinations are: Cionus affinis (Brahm, 1790, comb. nov. from Curculio; Curculio helleri (Voss, 1932, comb. nov. from Balaninus; Donus diversisquamosus (Legalov, 2012, comb. nov. from Asiodonus; Donus knutelskyi (Legalov, 2012, comb. nov. from Asiodonus; Donus potanini (Legalov, 2012, comb. nov. from Asiodonus; Donus shokhrini (Legalov, 2012, comb. nov. from Asiodonus; Donus streltzovi (Legalov, 2012, comb. nov. from Asiodonus; Donus tshernyshevi (Legalov, 2012, comb. nov. from Asiodonus; Involvulus (Teretriorhynchites icosandriae (Scopoli, 1763, comb. nov. from Curculio; Mecaspis alternans (Hellwig, 1795, comb. nov. from Curculio; Otiorhynchus mucronatus (Paykull, 1792, comb. nov. from Curculio; Pseudopoophagus constricticollis (Kojima & Morimoto, 1993, comb. nov. from Apionodes. Protapion interjectum boreum (GØnget, 1997 is reconsidered as a valid subspecies based on its genitalic characteristics, stat. res. The following names are declared nomina protecta under Art. 23.9.2 of the Code: Apion apricans Herbst, 1797 (now in Protapion over Rhinomacer flavipes O.F. Müller, 1776 (nomen oblitum, Apion genistae Kirby, 1811 (now in Exapion over Curculio astralagi Herbst, 1795 (nomen oblitum, Curculio piceus Pallas, 1771 (now in Sphenophorus over Curculio piceus Wulfen in Scopoli, 1763 (nomen oblitum, Curculio phyllocola Herbst, 1795 (now in Anthonomus over Curculio resinae Fabricius, 1792 (nomen oblitum, and Rhynchaenus posticus Gyllenhal, 1813 (now in Hypera over Curculio denigratus Panzer, 1790 (nomen oblitum. Rhynchites laevior Faust, 1882 is confirmed as the type species of Aphlorhynchites Sawada, 1993 by a First Reviser action. Relevant dating for some works is provided. References have been completed and updated. Current misspellings have been corrected, amongst them, Hylesinus taranio Danthoine (not toranio.Se presentan en este trabajo adiciones, correcciones, comentarios y novedades nomenclaturales que

  10. Structural characterization and Biological Activity of Sulfolipids from selected Marine Algae

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    El Baz, F. K.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sulfolipid classes (SLs in the total lipids of five species of marine algae, two species of Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea, one species of Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, and two species of Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria were separated and purified on DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The SLs component was identified by IR, gas chromatography MS/MS and liquid chromatography MS/MS. The level of SLs contents va ried from 1.25% (in L. papillose to 11.82% (in D. fasciola of the total lipid contents. However, no significant differences in sulfate content (0.13 – 0.21% were observed among all these algae species. All SLs were characterized by high contents of palmitic acid (C 16:0, which ranged from 30.91% in G. cylindriea to 63.11% in T. atomatia. The main constitutes of algal sulfolipids were identified as sulfoquinovosyl-di-acylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyl acylglycerol. The sulfolipids of different algal species exhibited remarkable antiviral activity against herps simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 with an IC50 ranging from 18.75 to 70. 2 μg mL–1. Moreover, algal sulfolipid inhibited the growth of the tumor cells of breast and liver human cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 0.40 to 0.67 μg mL–1 for human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7.Se separaron diferentes clases sulfolípidos (SL a partir de los lípidos totales de cinco especies de algas marinas: una especie de Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, dos especies de Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria y dos especies de Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea que se purificaron mediante cromatografía en columna de DEAE-celulosa. Los components de SLs fueron identificados por IR, cromatografía de gases MS/MS y cromatografía líquida MS/ MS. Los contenidos de SL en relación al total de lípidos varió de 1,25% (en L. papilosa al 11,82% (en D. fasciola. Sin embargo, no hay diferencias significativas en el contenido de sulfato

  11. Effect of seaweed supplementation on growth performance, immune and oxidative stress responses in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata

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    Augusto Cesar dos Santos Queiroz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds have important nutraceutical properties, including antioxidant and biological response-modifying qualities. Their dietary supplementation may increase the immune and antioxidant capacity of fish necessary to cope to stressful conditions and minimizing disease outbreaks. There are essentially four major groups of seaweed that can be classified by color, namely green (Chlorophyta, brown/yellow (Phaeophyta, red (Rhodophyta, and blue-green (Cyanophyta. Some green seaweed has active radical scavenging properties. Red and brown have bioactive compounds that play a vital role as antihypertensive and antioxidant. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of seaweed supplementation on growth performance, immune and oxidative stress responses in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata. Three seaweed species, each from one of the following groups, Rhodophyta (R, Phaeophyta (P and Chlorophyta (C, were supplemented to the experimental diets at 2.5% and 7.5% and tested against a control diet (Ctrl with no supplementation. In addition to six diets with seaweed in two different levels of supplementation: R2.5%, P2.5%, C2.5%, R7.5%, P7.5% and C7.5%; a diet with a mix (M, supplemented at 7.5% (2.5% of each algae was also tested. A total of 360 seabream fingerlings, 13.07 ± 0.13cm and 31.17 ± 0.63g were allocated in 24 rectangular tanks, 115L capacity each, with a 4L/min water output connected to a recirculation seawater system. Fish were fed twice a day until satiation and water quality (temperature: 20.5 ºC; D.O.: 8.13 mg/L; Ammonia: 0.5 mg/L Nitrite: 0.5 mg/L were daily monitored. At day 40 of the trial, an intermediate sampling was carried out. Standard zootechnical parameters were measured for the growth performance determination. In addition, blood, liver and intestine samples were collected for the evaluation of the immune (lysozyme and peroxidase and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase

  12. Vanadium bromoperoxidase-catalyzed biosynthesis of halogenated marine natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Franklin, Jayme N; Butler, Alison

    2004-11-24

    Marine red algae (Rhodophyta) are a rich source of bioactive halogenated natural products. The biogenesis of the cyclic halogenated terpene marine natural products, in particular, has attracted sustained interest in part because terpenes are the biogenic precursors of many bioactive metabolites. The first enzymatic asymmetric bromination and cyclization of a terpene, producing marine natural products isolated from red algae, is reported. Vanadium bromoperoxidase (V-BrPO) isolated from marine red algae (species of Laurencia, Plocamium, Corallina) catalyzes the bromination of the sesquiterpene (E)-(+)-nerolidol producing alpha-, beta-, and gamma-snyderol and (+)-3beta-bromo-8-epicaparrapi oxide. alpha-Snyderol, beta-snyderol, and (+)-3beta-bromo-8-epicaparrapi oxide have been isolated from Laurencia obtusa, and each have also been isolated from other species of marine red algae. gamma-Snyderol is a proposed intermediate in other bicyclo natural products. Single diastereomers of beta-snyderol, gamma-snyderol, and mixed diastereomers of (+)-3beta-bromo-8-epicaparrapi oxide (de = 20-25%) are produced in the enzyme reaction, whereas two diastereomers of these compounds are formed in the synthesis with 2,4,4,6-tetrabromocyclohexa-2,5-dienone (TBCO). V-BrPO likely functions by catalyzing the two-electron oxidation of bromide ion by hydrogen peroxide producing a bromonium ion or equivalent in the active site that brominates one face of the terminal olefin of nerolidol. These results establish V-BrPO's role in the biosynthesis of brominated cyclic sesquiterpene structures from marine red algae for the first time.

  13. Identification of potential internal control genes for real-time PCR analysis during stress response in Pyropia haitanensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Feng, Jianhua; Huang, Aiyou; He, Linwen; Niu, Jianfeng; Wang, Guangce

    2017-11-01

    Pyropia haitanensis has prominent stress-resistance characteristics and is endemic to China. Studies into the stress responses in these algae could provide valuable information on the stress-response mechanisms in the intertidal Rhodophyta. Here, the effects of salinity and light intensity on the quantum yield of photosystem II in Py. haitanensis were investigated using pulse-amplitude-modulation fluorometry. Total RNA and genomic DNA of the samples under different stress conditions were isolated. By normalizing to the genomic DNA quantity, the RNA content in each sample was evaluated. The cDNA was synthesized and the expression levels of seven potential internal control genes were evaluated using qRT-PCR method. Then, we used geNorm, a common statistical algorithm, to analyze the qRT-PCR data of seven reference genes. Potential genes that may constantly be expressed under different conditions were selected, and these genes showed stable expression levels in samples under a salinity treatment, while tubulin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and actin showed stability in samples stressed by strong light. Based on the results of the pulse amplitude-modulation fluorometry, an absolute quantification was performed to obtain gene copy numbers in certain stress-treated samples. The stably expressed genes as determined by the absolute quantification in certain samples conformed to the results of the geNorm screening. Based on the results of the software analysis and absolute quantification, we proposed that elongation factor 3 and 18S ribosomal RNA could be used as internal control genes when the Py. haitanensis blades were subjected to salinity stress, and that α-tubulin and 18S ribosomal RNA could be used as the internal control genes when the stress was from strong light. In general, our findings provide a convenient reference for the selection of internal control genes when designing experiments related to stress responses in Py. haitanensis.

  14. Polyplacophora (Mollusca from reef ecosystems and associations with macroalgae on the Coast of Alagoas, Northeastern Brazil

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    Monica Dorigo Correia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazilian marine molluscs, especially Gastropoda and Bivalvia, are relatively well studied. However, information on the class Polyplacophora is more scarce, particularly on reef-dwelling forms. This study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze aspects of polyplacophorans from reef ecosystems and their associations with macroalgae on the coast of Maceió (state of Alagoas, Brazilian Northeast. The study area included five coral reefs at Ipioca, Ponta do Prego, Ponta do Meirim, Riacho Doce and Ponta Verde, as well as two sandstone reefs, located in Guaxuma and Sereia. The samples were obtained by snorkelling along the intertidal and subtidal reef zones to a depth of up to five meters during low tides, between 2009 and 2011. In addition, the chitons associated with three macroalgae of the Ponta Verde coral reef were studied based on collections made over 12 years (from the summer of 1998 to the winter of 2009. Three replicates with an area of 25 cm2 were collected from each of the following species of macroalgal phytals: Amphiroa fragilissima (Rhodophyta, Caulerpa racemosa (Chlorophyta and Dictyota cervicornis (Phaeophyta. A total of 715 individuals (110 juveniles and 605 adults were identified, including Acanthochitona terezae Guerra, 1983, Ischnochiton striolatus (Gray, 1828 and Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby II, 1840. Acanthochitona terezae was found for the first time in the area. Ischnochiton striolatus was the most abundant species in the reef ecosystem and in association with macroalgae. The greatest number of individuals of all three polyplacophorans identified (adults and juveniles was found on the phytal A. fragilissima.

  15. CONSIDERACIONES SOBRE LAS ALGAS DEL VALLE DE TEHUACÁN-CUICATLÁN

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    Eberto Novelo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El Valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán es una zona semiárida que presenta una flora de algas rica en los cuerpos de agua temporales y permanentes, consta de 357 especies, muchas de ellas no registradas previamente en México: 183 especies de Bacillariophyta representan cerca del 50 % de la flora; 81 especies de Cyanoprokaryota constituyen el 22 % de la misma, 77 especies de Chlorophyta aportan el 20 % de la riqueza; complementan la flora 10 especies de Euglenophyta (2.8 %, 5 especies de Heterokontophyta (1.4 % y una especie de Rhodophyta (0.2 %. Las especies más frecuentes y más ampliamente distribuidas son en su mayoría alcalífilas y eurihalobias. Sin embargo, la mayoría de las especies se distribuyen principalmente en una o dos localidades y en dos tipos de ambientes (canales de riego y charcos. Se discute sobre la heterogeneidad de la composición tomando en cuenta la frecuencia de aparición en las muestras y en las cuatro zonas del Valle y el significado de esa distribución. El análisis de distribución y dominancia de las especies sugiere que las condiciones acuáticas del Valle son muy cambiantes y ello promueve la proliferación de especies de un espectro ecológico amplio, dentro de los límites generales de alcalinidad y salinidad moderadas.

  16. On the nature of the oxygen uptake in the light by Chondrus crispus. Effects of inhibitors, temperature and light intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechignac, F; Furbank, R T

    1987-01-01

    The nature of the different processes of O2 uptake involved in the light in the red macroalga Chondrus crispus Stackhouse (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) was investigated. At limiting CO2, INH (2.5 mM) did not alter the O2 uptake rate. Glycolate was not excreted and did not accumulate within the cells. KCN reduced the rate of O2 uptake in the light by 76% at limiting CO2 and by 43% at saturating CO2, but caused > 95% inhibition of O2 evolution. DCMU (5 μM) totally blocked the photosynthetic electron transport chain, but allowed a residual O2 uptake of 3.0±0.6 μmol O2 .h(-1).g(-1) FW, irrespective of the CO2 concentration. In saturating CO2, a high light intensity pretreatment significantly stimulated the rate of O2 uptake compared to net O2 evolution, suggesting the persistence, in the light, of mitochondrial respiration. Irrespective of the CO2 concentration, the optimum temperature for O2 evolution was 17°C whereas dark O2 uptake increased linearly with temperature. In contrast, O2 uptake in the light showed an optimum at 17°C in limiting CO2, and 21-25° C in saturating CO2; its Q10 was 2.4 at limiting CO2, a value close to that of RuBP oxygenase, and 3.1 at saturating CO2, a value close to that of dark respiration. It is concluded that: 1) mitochondrial respiration and Mehler reaction are both involved at all CO2 concentrations, 2) RuBP oxygenase activity cannot account for more than 45%, and Mehler reaction for less than 20%, of the total O2 uptake observed in the light at limiting CO2.

  17. Cultivation and conversion of marine macroalgae. [Gracilaria and Ulva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.; DeBusk, T.A.; Blakeslee, M.

    1984-05-01

    Research was conducted on the development of an alternative ocean energy farm concept that would not be dependent upon deep ocean water or other extraneous sources for its nutrient supply and that could be located in shallow, near shore, and protected coastal ocean areas. There are five tasks reported in this document: determination of the annual yield of Ulva in non-intensive cultures; evaluation of the effect of carbon concentration on Gracilaria and Ulva yields; evaluation of spray/mist culture of Ulva and Gracilaria; species screening for the production of petroleum replacement products; and synthesis analysis, and economic energy evaluation of culture data. An alternative concept to open ocean culture is a land-based energy production system utilizing saline waters from underground aquifers or enclosed coastal areas. Research was performed to evaluate growth and biomass production of all macroscopic algal species that could be obtained in adequate quantity in the central Florida area. A total of 42 species were grown in specially adapted burial vaults. These included 16 green algae (Garcilaria 4 weekshlorophyta), 2 brown algae (Phaeophyta), and 18 red algae (Rhodophyta). Of these, the most successful and suitable species were a strain of Gracilaria (a red seaweed) and Ulva (a green seaweed). These two species have a high carbohydrate content that may be anaerobically digested to methane gas. Well-nourished Gracilaria will double its biomass in 1 to 4 weeks, depending on the season, water flow, and other variables. After its biomass has doubled (i.e., from 2 to 4 kg/m/sup 2/) the incremental growth is harvested to return the crop to a starting density. Enrichment of the new starting crop following harvest could conceivably be accomplished onsite at the seaweed farm, but the rapid uptake and storage of nutrients by depleted seaweeds makes possible a simpler process, known as pulse fertilization.

  18. Updated review of marine alien species and other ‘newcomers’ recorded from the Maltese Islands (Central Mediterranean

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    J. EVANS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An updated review of marine alien species and other ‘newcomers’ recorded from the Maltese Islands is presented on account of new records and amendments to a previous review in 2007. Species were classified according to their establishment status (‘Questionable’, ‘Casual’, ‘Established’, ‘Invasive’ and origin (‘Alien’, ‘Range expansion’, ‘Cryptogenic’. A total of 31 species were added to the inventory, while 6 species have been removed, bringing the total number of species to 73. Of these, 66 are considered to be aliens (or putative aliens but with uncertain origin with the remaining 7 resulting from range expansion. Six records are considered to be questionable and hence unverified. For verified records, the dominant taxonomic groups are Mollusca (represented by 21 species and Actinopterygii (15 species, followed by Crustacea (8 species and Rhodophyta (7 species. Eight of these species (aliens: Caulerpa cylindracea, Lophocladia lallemandi, Womersleyella setacea, Brachidontes pharaonis, Percnon gibbesi, Fistularia commersonii, Siganus luridus; range extender: Sphoeroides pachygaster are considered to be invasive. The introduction pathway for 30 species is unknown. Amongst the alien species, ‘Shipping’ is the most common introduction pathway, followed by ‘Secondary dispersal’ from elsewhere in the Mediterranean Sea. An increasing trend in the number of alien marine species reported from the Maltese Islands is evident, with a peak of 22 species recorded during the last decade (2001–2010. A discussion on the rationale for including range-expanding species in national inventories of recent arrivals, and in the analysis of trends in records from the Maltese Islands, is included. In particular, the general warming trend of Mediterranean surface waters appears to be facilitating the westward spread of thermophilic alien species from the Eastern to the Central Mediterranean, and the eastward range expansion of

  19. Extraction and structural properties of Acanthophora muscoides (Rhodophyceae extracellular matrix sulfated polysaccharides and their effects on coagulation

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    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acanthophora muscoides (Rhodophyta contains structurally heterogeneous sulfated polysaccharides (Am-SPs with pharmacological importance; however, its matrix SPs composition has not been still extensively investigated. This study sequentially extracted and compared the structural features and the in vitro anticoagulant effects of the Am-SPs. Papain-extraction sequence yielded Am.E-1, Am.E-2 and Am.E-3 containing differences among the relative proportions of sulfate (26.18-33% and hexoses (42.02-60.67% based on chemical analyses. One- (1H and two-dimensions (1H/13C nuclear magnetic resonance experiments showed very complex Am-SPs composed of alternating 4-linked-α-galactopyranosyl units and 3-linked-β-galactopyranosyl units presenting variable sulfation, CH3 substitutions and3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactose units and pyruvated-D-galactose residues, respectively, typical of agarocolloids. Different chromatographic profiles (DEAE-cellulose were observed, with fractions (Am I, Am II and Am III eluted with 0.5, 0.75 and/or 1 M of NaCl, respectively revealing charge density patterns and distinct mobility to heparin by agarose-electrophoresis and, when analyzed by polyacrylamide-electrophoresis, a dispersive migration and similar mobility as chondroitin-6-sulfate for Am I fractions were noted. Regarding the activated partial thromboplastin time test, fractions had no virtually anticoagulation (1.47→3.07 IU mg-1 in comparison with 193 IU mg-1 heparin. Therefore, Am-SPs show significantly lower anticoagulation than heparin.

  20. Photosynthetic response and zonation of three species of Gelidiales from Tenerife, Canary Islands

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    Domíguez-Álvarez, S.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Three species of Gelidiales (Gelidium arbuscula, Gelidium canariense and Pterocladiella capillacea (Rhodophyta were selected due to their abundance in the marine lower intertidal of the north coast of the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, to assess, using PAM fluorescence, the importance of irradiance and exposure to air on vertical distribution. We compared tolerance to emersion by air-drying fronds under simulated emersion, and results suggest that recovery of photosynthesis after emersion plays a major role in the vertical distribution of these three species. Morphological traits such as clumped fronds explain the higher tolerances, and reduced water loss of the species upper on the shore. Local differences between sites may be related to slight differences in the light regime related to topography.

    Se han seleccionado tres especies de Gelidiales (Gelidium arbuscula, Gelidium canariense y Pterocladiella capillacea que son abundantes en los niveles inferiores del intermareal de la costa N de Tenerife para establecer, utilizando fluorescencia tipo PAM, la importancia de la cantidad de luz y la exposición al aire en su zonación vertical. Se ha comparado la tolerancia a la emersión en frondes expuestas al aire, y los resultados sugieren que la capacidad de recuperación de la fotosíntesis tras la emersión tiene un papel fundamental en la explicación de la posición vertical de estas tres especies. Además, características morfológicas como el apelotonamiento de las frondes pueden coadyuvar a la mayor tolerancia, al reducir la pérdida de agua en emersión en las especies de niveles más altos. Las variaciones entre sitios se pueden deber a desigualdades locales en la cantidad de luz provocadas por diferencias topográficas.

  1. Development of a cost-effective metabarcoding strategy for analysis of the marine phytoplankton community

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    Tae-Ho Yoon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed a cost-effective metabarcoding strategy to analyze phytoplankton community structure using the Illumina MiSeq system. The amplicons (404–411 bp obtained by end-pairing of two reads were sufficiently long to distinguish algal species and provided barcode data equivalent to those generated with the Roche 454 system, but at less than 1/20th of the cost. The original universal primer sequences targeting the 23S rDNA region and the PCR strategy were both modified, and this resulted in higher numbers of eukaryotic algal sequences by excluding non-photosynthetic proteobacterial sequences supporting effectiveness of this strategy. The novel strategy was used to analyze the phytoplankton community structure of six water samples from the East/Japan Sea: surface and 50 m depths at coastal and open-sea sites, with collections in May and July 2014. In total, 345 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were identified, which covered most of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic algal phyla, including Dinophyta, Rhodophyta, Ochrophyta, Chlorophyta, Streptophyta, Cryptophyta, Haptophyta, and Cyanophyta. This highlights the importance of plastid 23S primers, which perform better than the currently used 16S primers for phytoplankton community surveys. The findings also revealed that more efforts should be made to update 23S rDNA sequences as well as those of 16S in the databases. Analysis of algal proportions in the six samples showed that community structure differed depending on location, depth and season. Across the six samples evaluated, the numbers of OTUs in each phylum were similar but their relative proportions varied. This novel strategy would allow laboratories to analyze large numbers of samples at reasonable expense, whereas this has not been possible to date due to cost and time. In addition, we expect that this strategy will generate a large amount of novel data that could potentially change established methods and tools that are currently used in

  2. Characterization of the RNA Required for Biosynthesis of delta-Aminolevulinic Acid from Glutamate : Purification by Anticodon-Based Affinity Chromatography and Determination That the UUC Glutamate Anticodon Is a General Requirement for Function in ALA Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneegurt, M A; Beale, S I

    1988-02-01

    The heme and chlorophyll precursor delta-aminolevulinic acid acid (ALA) is formed in plants and algae from glutamate in a process that requires at least three enzyme components plus a low molecular weight RNA which co-purifies with the tRNA fraction during DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. RNA that is effective in the in vitro ALA biosynthetic system was extracted from several plant and algal species that form ALA via this route. In all cases, the effective RNA contained the UUC glutamate anticodon, as determined by its specific retention on an affinity resin containing an affine ligand directed against this anticodon. Construction of the affinity resin was based on the fact that the UUC glutamate anticodon is complementary to the GAA phenylalanine anticodon. By covalently linking the 3' terminus of yeast tRNA(Phe(GAA)) to hydrazine-activated polyacrylamide gel beads, a resin carrying an affine ligand specific for the anticodon of tRNA(Glu(UUC)) was obtained. Column chromatography of plant and algal RNA extracts over this resin yielded a fraction that was highly enriched in the ability to stimulate ALA formation from glutamate when added to enzyme extracts of the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris. Enhancement of ALA formation per A(260) unit added was as much as 50 times greater with the affinity-purified RNA than with the RNA before affinity purification. The affinity column selectively retained RNA which supported ALA formation upon chromatography of RNA extracts from species of the diverse algal groups Chlorophyta (Chlorella Vulgaris), Euglenophyta (Euglena gracilis), Rhodophyta (Cyanidium caldarium), and Cyanophyta (Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803), and a higher plant (spinach). Other glutamate-accepting tRNAs that were not retained by the affinity column were ineffective in supporting ALA formation. These results indicate that possession of the UUC glutamate anticodon is a general requirement for RNA to participate in the conversion of glutamate to ALA

  3. Enzymatic conversion of glutamate to delta-aminolevulinic acid in soluble extracts of Euglena gracilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, S M; Beale, S I; Weinstein, J D

    1987-09-15

    Glutamate was converted to the chlorophyll and heme precursor delta-aminolevulinic acid in soluble extracts of Euglena gracilis. delta-Aminolevulinic acid-forming activity depended on the presence of native enzyme, glutamate, ATP, Mg2+, NADPH or NADH, and RNA. The requirement for reduced pyridine nucleotide was observed only if, prior to incubation, the enzyme extract was filtered through activated carbon to remove firmly bound reductant. Dithiothreitol was also required for activity after carbon treatment. delta-Aminolevulinic acid formation was stimulated by RNA from various plant tissues and algal cells, including greening barley leaves and members of the algal groups Chlorophyta (Chlorella vulgaris, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii), Rhodophyta (Cyanidium caldarium), Cyanophyta (Anacystis nidulans, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803), and Prochlorophyta (Prochlorothrix hollandica), but not by RNA derived from Escherichia coli, yeast, wheat germ, bovine liver, and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. E. coli glutamate-specific tRNA was inhibitory. Several of the RNAs that did not stimulate delta-aminolevulinic acid formation nevertheless became acylated when incubated with glutamate in the presence of Euglena enzyme extract. RNA extracted from nongreen dark-grown wild-type Euglena cells was about half as stimulatory as that from chlorophyllous light-grown cells, and RNA from aplastidic mutant cells stimulated only slightly. delta-Aminolevulinic acid-forming enzyme activity was present in extracts of light-grown wild-type cells, but undetectable in extracts of aplastidic mutant and dark-grown wild-type cells. Gabaculine inhibited delta-aminolevulinic acid formation at submicromolar concentration. Heme inhibited 50% at 25 microM, but protoporphyrin IX, Mg-protoporphyrin IX, and protochlorophyllide inhibited only slightly at this concentration.

  4. Wenyingzhuangia gracilariae sp. nov., a novel marine bacterium of the phylum Bacteroidetes isolated from the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Oku, Naoya; Kasai, Hiroaki

    2015-06-01

    A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, beige-pigmented, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain designated N5DB13-4(T) was isolated from the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Rhodophyta) collected at Sodegaura Beach, Chiba, Japan. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the novel isolate is affiliated with the family Flavobacteriaceae within the phylum Bacteroidetes and that it showed highest sequence similarity (97.3 %) to Wenyingzhuangia heitensis H-MN17(T). The hybridization values for DNA-DNA relatedness between the strains N5DB13-4(T) and W. heitensis H-MN17(T) were 34.1 ± 3.5 %, which is below the threshold accepted for the phylogenetic definition of a novel prokaryotic species. The DNA G+C content of strain N5DB13-4(T) was determined to be 31.8 mol%; MK-6 was identified as the major menaquinone; and the presence of iso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH and iso-C17:0 3-OH as the major (>10 %) cellular fatty acids. A complex polar lipid profile was present consisting of phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified glycolipids and four unidentified lipids. From the distinct phylogenetic position and combination of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strain is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Wenyingzhuangia for which the name Wenyingzhuangia gracilariae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of W. gracilariae sp. nov. is N5DB13-4(T) (=KCTC 42246 (T)=NBRC 110602(T)).

  5. Genetic identification of source and likely vector of a widespread marine invader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger-Hadfield, Stacy A; Kollars, Nicole M; Strand, Allan E; Byers, James E; Shainker, Sarah J; Terada, Ryuta; Greig, Thomas W; Hammann, Mareike; Murray, David C; Weinberger, Florian; Sotka, Erik E

    2017-06-01

    The identification of native sources and vectors of introduced species informs their ecological and evolutionary history and may guide policies that seek to prevent future introductions. Population genetics provides a powerful set of tools to identify origins and vectors. However, these tools can mislead when the native range is poorly sampled or few molecular markers are used. Here, we traced the introduction of the Asian seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Rhodophyta) into estuaries in coastal western North America, the eastern United States, Europe, and northwestern Africa by genotyping more than 2,500 thalli from 37 native and 53 non-native sites at mitochondrial cox1 and 10 nuclear microsatellite loci. Overall, greater than 90% of introduced thalli had a genetic signature similar to thalli sampled from the coastline of northeastern Japan, strongly indicating this region served as the principal source of the invasion. Notably, northeastern Japan exported the vast majority of the oyster Crassostrea gigas during the 20th century. The preponderance of evidence suggests G. vermiculophylla may have been inadvertently introduced with C. gigas shipments and that northeastern Japan is a common source region for estuarine invaders. Each invaded coastline reflected a complex mix of direct introductions from Japan and secondary introductions from other invaded coastlines. The spread of G. vermiculophylla along each coastline was likely facilitated by aquaculture, fishing, and boating activities. Our ability to document a source region was enabled by a robust sampling of locations and loci that previous studies lacked and strong phylogeographic structure along native coastlines.

  6. Effects of coral reef benthic primary producers on dissolved organic carbon and microbial activity.

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    Andreas F Haas

    Full Text Available Benthic primary producers in marine ecosystems may significantly alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in their surrounding environment. To examine these interactions, we studied dissolved organic matter release by dominant benthic taxa and subsequent microbial remineralization in the lagoonal reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia. Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC release were assessed for several common benthic reef organisms from the backreef habitat. We assessed microbial community response to dissolved exudates of each benthic producer by measuring bacterioplankton growth, respiration, and DOC drawdown in two-day dark dilution culture incubations. Experiments were conducted for six benthic producers: three species of macroalgae (each representing a different algal phylum: Turbinaria ornata--Ochrophyta; Amansia rhodantha--Rhodophyta; Halimeda opuntia--Chlorophyta, a mixed assemblage of turf algae, a species of crustose coralline algae (Hydrolithon reinboldii and a dominant hermatypic coral (Porites lobata. Our results show that all five types of algae, but not the coral, exuded significant amounts of labile DOC into their surrounding environment. In general, primary producers with the highest rates of photosynthesis released the most DOC and yielded the greatest bacterioplankton growth; turf algae produced nearly twice as much DOC per unit surface area than the other benthic producers (14.0±2.8 µmol h⁻¹ dm⁻², stimulating rapid bacterioplankton growth (0.044±0.002 log10 cells h⁻¹ and concomitant oxygen drawdown (0.16±0.05 µmol L⁻¹ h⁻¹ dm⁻². Our results demonstrate that benthic reef algae can release a significant fraction of their photosynthetically-fixed carbon as DOC, these release rates vary by species, and this DOC is available to and consumed by reef associated microbes. These data provide compelling evidence that benthic primary producers differentially influence

  7. Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis Sheds Light on the Diversity and Origin of the MLO Family of Integral Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Stefan; Pesch, Lina; Panstruga, Ralph

    2016-03-26

    Mildew resistanceLocusO(MLO) proteins are polytopic integral membrane proteins that have long been considered as plant-specific and being primarily involved in plant-powdery mildew interactions. However, research in the past decade has revealed that MLO proteins diverged into a family with several clades whose members are associated with different physiological processes. We provide a largely increased dataset of MLO amino acid sequences, comprising nearly all major land plant lineages. Based on this comprehensive dataset, we defined seven phylogenetic clades and reconstructed the likely evolution of the MLO family in embryophytes. We further identified several MLO peptide motifs that are either conserved in all MLO proteins or confined to one or several clades, supporting the notion that clade-specific diversification of MLO functions is associated with particular sequence motifs. In baker's yeast, some of these motifs are functionally linked to transmembrane (TM) transport of organic molecules and ions. In addition, we attempted to define the evolutionary origin of the MLO family and found that MLO-like proteins with highly diverse membrane topologies are present in green algae, but also in the distinctly related red algae (Rhodophyta), Amoebozoa, and Chromalveolata. Finally, we discovered several instances of putative fusion events between MLO proteins and different kinds of proteins. Such Rosetta stone-type hybrid proteins might be instructive for future analysis of potential MLO functions. Our findings suggest that MLO is an ancient protein that possibly evolved in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes, and consolidated in land plants with a conserved topology, comprising seven TM domains and an intrinsically unstructured C-terminus. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. Lipid Composition, Fatty Acids and Sterols in the Seaweeds Ulva armoricana, and Solieria chordalis from Brittany (France): An Analysis from Nutritional, Chemotaxonomic, and Antiproliferative Activity Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendel, Melha; Wielgosz-Collin, Gaëtane; Bertrand, Samuel; Roussakis, Christos; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Bedoux, Gilles

    2015-09-02

    Lipids from the proliferative macroalgae Ulva armoricana (Chlorophyta) and Solieria chordalis (Rhodophyta) from Brittany, France, were investigated. The total content of lipids was 2.6% and 3.0% dry weight for U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. The main fractions of S. chordalis were neutral lipids (37%) and glycolipids (38%), whereas U. armoricana contained mostly neutral lipids (55%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) represented 29% and 15% of the total lipids in U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. In both studied algae, the phospholipids were composed of PUFA for 18%. In addition, PUFA were shown to represent 9% and 4.5% of glycolipids in U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. The essential PUFA were 16:4n-3, 18:4n-3, 18:2n-3, 18:2n-6, and 22:6n-3 in U. armoricana, and 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3 in S. chordalis. It is important to notice that six 2-hydroxy-, three 3-hydroxy-, and two monounsaturated hydroxy fatty acids were also identified and may provide a chemotaxonomic basis for algae. These seaweeds contained interesting compounds such as squalene, α-tocopherol, cholest-4-en-3-one and phytosterols. The antiproliferative effect was evaluated in vitro on human non-small-cell bronchopulmonary carcinoma line (NSCLC-N6) with an IC50 of 23 μg/mL for monogalactosyldiacylglycerols isolated from S. chordalis and 24 μg/mL for digalactosyldiacylglycerols from U. armoricana. These results confirm the potentialities of valorization of these two species in the fields of health, nutrition and chemotaxonomy.

  9. Lipid Composition, Fatty Acids and Sterols in the Seaweeds Ulva armoricana, and Solieria chordalis from Brittany (France: An Analysis from Nutritional, Chemotaxonomic, and Antiproliferative Activity Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melha Kendel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipids from the proliferative macroalgae Ulva armoricana (Chlorophyta and Solieria chordalis (Rhodophyta from Brittany, France, were investigated. The total content of lipids was 2.6% and 3.0% dry weight for U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. The main fractions of S. chordalis were neutral lipids (37% and glycolipids (38%, whereas U. armoricana contained mostly neutral lipids (55%. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA represented 29% and 15% of the total lipids in U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. In both studied algae, the phospholipids were composed of PUFA for 18%. In addition, PUFA were shown to represent 9% and 4.5% of glycolipids in U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. The essential PUFA were 16:4n-3, 18:4n-3, 18:2n-3, 18:2n-6, and 22:6n-3 in U. armoricana, and 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3 in S. chordalis. It is important to notice that six 2-hydroxy-, three 3-hydroxy-, and two monounsaturated hydroxy fatty acids were also identified and may provide a chemotaxonomic basis for algae. These seaweeds contained interesting compounds such as squalene, α-tocopherol, cholest-4-en-3-one and phytosterols. The antiproliferative effect was evaluated in vitro on human non-small-cell bronchopulmonary carcinoma line (NSCLC-N6 with an IC50 of 23 μg/mL for monogalactosyldiacylglycerols isolated from S. chordalis and 24 μg/mL for digalactosyldiacylglycerols from U. armoricana. These results confirm the potentialities of valorization of these two species in the fields of health, nutrition and chemotaxonomy.

  10. Epilithic algal assemblages in the Forsmark Biotest basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoeijs, P.

    1987-04-01

    The Forsmark Biotest Basin is an artificial offshore brackish lake, through which the cooling water is led from the Forsmark Nuclear Power Station on the Swedish east coast. The Biotest Basin differs from the Bothnian Sea surrounding it by a temperature elevation of up to 10 degrees C, no ice cover in winter, and an artificial, fast current. At 11 sites in- and outside the basin, benthic algal assemblages on stones in the hydrolittoral belt were sampled every third week during one year. Cover abundances were estimated for all algae occurring on the stones, but for diatoms only when they formed blooms. The results of the vegetation analyses are given. Diversity indices and dominance-diversity curves were computed for each site on the basis of pooled data for the cold season and for the rest of the year. The algae included both unicellular and multicellular forms. In total 88 taxa were distinguished in the species lists: 29 Cyanophyta, 7 Rhodophyta, 1 Chrysophyceae, 9 Fucophyceae, 17 Diatomophyceae and 25 Chlorophyta. In terms of percentage cover-abundance, blue-green and green algae increased with temperature, while red and brown algae and diatoms decreased with temperature in the interval between the minimum (0 degrees C) and the maximum (25.7 degrees C) water temperatures that were measured during the investigation period. Melosira spp. and Nitzschia filiformis proved to be the diatoms most favoured by the cooling water discharge. Lower diversity and greater dominance of one or a few species over the other was caused by thermal discharge at sites with fast-flowing water, but the opposite occurred at sites with quiescent water, mainly due to a greater number and higher abundances of blue-green algal species and thread-like green algae at the latter sites. This report also gives some notes on taxonomy of the encountered species.

  11. Identification of potential internal control genes for real-time PCR analysis during stress response in Pyropia haitanensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Feng, Jianhua; Huang, Aiyou; He, Linwen; Niu, Jianfeng; Wang, Guangce

    2017-01-01

    Pyropia haitanensis has prominent stress-resistance characteristics and is endemic to China. Studies into the stress responses in these algae could provide valuable information on the stress-response mechanisms in the intertidal Rhodophyta. Here, the effects of salinity and light intensity on the quantum yield of photosystem II in Py. haitanensis were investigated using pulse-amplitude-modulation fluorometry. Total RNA and genomic DNA of the samples under different stress conditions were isolated. By normalizing to the genomic DNA quantity, the RNA content in each sample was evaluated. The cDNA was synthesized and the expression levels of seven potential internal control genes were evaluated using qRT-PCR method. Then, we used geNorm, a common statistical algorithm, to analyze the qRT-PCR data of seven reference genes. Potential genes that may constantly be expressed under different conditions were selected, and these genes showed stable expression levels in samples under a salinity treatment, while tubulin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and actin showed stability in samples stressed by strong light. Based on the results of the pulse amplitude-modulation fluorometry, an absolute quantification was performed to obtain gene copy numbers in certain stress-treated samples. The stably expressed genes as determined by the absolute quantification in certain samples conformed to the results of the geNorm screening. Based on the results of the software analysis and absolute quantification, we proposed that elongation factor 3 and 18S ribosomal RNA could be used as internal control genes when the Py. haitanensis blades were subjected to salinity stress, and that α-tubulin and 18S ribosomal RNA could be used as the internal control genes when the stress was from strong light. In general, our findings provide a convenient reference for the selection of internal control genes when designing experiments related to stress responses in Py. haitanensis.

  12. Phaeocystis globosa Scherffel, a harmful microalga, and its production of dimethylsulfoniopropionate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Pingping; Qi, Yuzao; Wang, Yan; Huang, Liangmin

    2011-07-01

    The production of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and its cleavage products (DMS) are well studied in phytoplankton worldwide. However, less is known about their sources, distributions, and impacts in the coast of China. We examined the production of DMSP and DMS in Phaeocystis globosa Scherffel and other benthic macroalgae from the South China coast in relation to environmental conditions. P. globosa was a harmful marine microalgal species and its bloom took place in the eutrophic waters along the South China Sea frequently. It also produced high content of DMSP at different growth stages, with the highest concentration usually observed in the stationary period. Moreover, the production of DMSP in P. globosa was significantly affected by salinity and temperature with the highest contents associated with high salinity (e.g. 40) and low temperature (e.g. 20°C). In field benthic macroalgae, there was also a marked difference in the DMSP of various species or different samples of the same species. Chlorophyll a contents were also determined for each macroalgal species. The highest chlorophyll a (238.7 ng/g fresh weight) was recorded in Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca at Guishan Island (Zhuhai), while the lowest value (1.5 ng/g fresh weight) was found in Rhodophyta Gracilaria tenuistipitata in Zhanjiang. Further correlation analysis indicated that there was no significant relationship between the content of DMSP and chl- a in macroalgae samples ( P > 0.05). All the results suggested that the production of DMSP in marine algae was not only species- and stage-related, but also greatly affected by various environmental factors.

  13. 5-Aminolevulinic acid promotes arachidonic acid biosynthesis in the red microalga Porphyridium purpureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Kailin; Chang, Jingyu; Zeng, Xianhai; Ng, I-Son; Xiao, Zongyuan; Sun, Yong; Tang, Xing; Lin, Lu

    2017-01-01

    The microalga Porphyridium purpureum within Rhodophyta abundantly produces several valuable proteins, polysaccharides, pigments and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid; it is especially effective in accumulating arachidonic acid (ARA). However, this high ARA yield is always achieved in conditions unfavourable for cell growth. In this study, we present a method for obtaining desirable ARA levels from P. purpureum while simultaneously promoting cell growth using appropriate concentrations of the growth hormone 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA). Both the biomass and the ARA content of P. purpureum were enhanced by stimulation with 20 mg/L 5-ALA, leading to an optimal ARA yield of 170.32 mg/L-a 70.82% increase compared with control conditions. This ARA yield is the highest ever reported for microalgae. Based on variations in the fatty acid composition, total lipids, total proteins, total carbohydrates and pigment content during the cultivation period, we propose that the accumulation of ARA stimulated by 5-ALA occurs at the expense of other UFAs and total proteins, which may be related to decreased zeaxanthin. Lipidomic analysis revealed that triacylglycerols (TAGs) accounted for 47.5 ± 3.6% of all detected lipids, followed by phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG). As the levels of the most abundant TAGs increased under 5-ALA promotion and because 78.1 ± 3.4% (by weight) of detected TAG-branched chains contained ARA, the increase of ARA was mainly caused by TAG accumulation. This work demonstrated a simple and effective strategy to promote both biomass and ARA yield in P. purpureum by introducing a small amount of 5-ALA. These results are helpful for understanding the microalgae metabolic pathways affected by phytohormones and for guiding the development of bioproducts from microalgae.

  14. Heavy metal concentrations in macroalgae species from Sinop coasts of the Southern Black Sea

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    Levent Bat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Ni, Cu, Mn, Pb, Cd and Co in macroalgae from Sinop coasts of the Sounthern Black Sea. Methods: Chlorophyta-green algae (Chaetomorpha spp., Cladophora spp., Ulva linza, Ulva intestinalis, Ulva lactuca, Ulva rigida; Ochrophyta-brown alga [Cystoseira barbata (C. barbata] and Rhodophyta-red algae (Ceramium spp., Corallina panizzoi were collected seasonally in the year 2010 from the upper infralittoral zone of inner harbour, outer harbour, Gerze and Ayancık of Sinop coasts of the Black Sea. The samples were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer in order to determine heavy metal levels in different algal division species along Sinop coasts and to provide information of marine environment quality as marine strategy framework directive is aimed to ensure good environmental status of the seas by 2020 in the European Union. Results: The results showed that metal concentrations in all studied green algae, brown alga and red algae increase in the order: Cd < Co < Ni < Pb < Cu < Zn < Mn < Fe, Cd < Co < Cu < Ni < Pb < Mn < Zn < Fe and Co < Cd < Ni < Cu < Pb < Mn < Zn < Fe, respectively. In all divisions, among the essential elements the highest concentrations exhibited by Fe, in Gerze station- (2328 ± 89 µg/g dry weight in Chaetomorpha spp.; (2143 ± 78 µg/g dry weight in C. barbata and (968 ± 20 µg/g dry weight in Ceramium spp. Conclusions: The highest accumulation of different metals in the analysed algae species were: Fe and Co in Chaetomorpha spp., Zn in C. barbata, Ni and Cu in Ulva linza, Mn in Ulva intestinalis, Pb and Cd in Corallina panizzoi.

  15. Selection of effective macroalgal species and tracing nitrogen sources on the different part of Yantai coast, China indicated by macroalgal δ{sup 15}N values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yujue [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Liu, Dongyan, E-mail: dyliu@yic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Richard, Pierre [Littoral, Environnement et Sociétés, UMR 7266 CNRS-Université de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Di, Baoping [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China)

    2016-01-15

    To determine the dominant nitrogen sources and select effective macroalgal species for monitoring eutrophication along the Yantai coast, the total carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and nitrogen stable isotope ratio (δ{sup 15}N) in macroalgal tissue were analyzed in conjunction with environmental variables in seawater along the Yantai coastline. The ranges of macroalgal tissue δ{sup 15}N values together with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) composition indicated that except for the atmospheric deposition, there were three dominant types of nitrogen sources along the Yantai coast, with the agricultural fertilizer usage and factorial wastewater input at the S1 (Zhifu Island coast), the sewage discharge at S2 (the Moon Bay coast), the sewage discharge together with aquaculture impacts at S3 (Fisherman Wharf coast) and S4 (the Horse Island coast). Macroalgal growth were not limited by DIN but limited by P at S2, S3 and S4. Macroalgal species suitable or not for DIN source tracing along the Yantai coast were discussed. For sites with low DIN concentration, many species of three phyla could be used for DIN sources tracing with Laurencia okamurai, Gloiopeltis furcata and Ulva pertusa being ideal species. For site with high DIN concentration, however, species of Rhodophyta were not suitable and only Scytosiphon lomentaria and Monostroma nitidium were chosen. - Highlights: • Yantai coast was affected by three types of DIN sources. • Macroalgal species suitable or not for DIN source tracing were suggested; • TN and δ{sup 15}N were affected by nutrient concentrations and the metabolic factors. • P instead of N limited the tissue N uptake in low nutrient concentration sites.

  16. New physical and chemical perspectives on the ecology of Thorea hispida (Thoreaceae

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    Rossano Bolpagni

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, many new records for Thorea hispida (Thore Desvaux 1898 emend. Sheath, Vis et Cole 1993 (Rhodophyta have been collected from Europe as a probable result of the enactment of the Water Framework Directive which has fueled a renewed interest in the characterization of the macroscopic primary producers of river systems. Despite this, the species remained poorly documented, especially regarding habitat requirements and related physical and chemical drivers. To further add to the knowledge of these parameters, a three-year survey (2009-2011 was conducted along the southern reach of the Oglio River, a mid-size tributary of the Po River in Northern Italy that hosts three newly recorded populations of T. hispida. In parallel, a comprehensive review of the literature was performed. In this work, we present the first records for T. hispida from Italy, and a first detailed physical, chemical and hydromorphological characterization of its habitat. We confirm the predilection of T. hispida for turbid waters (> 80 mg L -1 of total suspended solids with high nutrient (up to 9.4 mg L -1 for nitrates and up to 173 μg L -1 for soluble reactive phosphorous and high conductivity levels (up to 660 µS cm -1 for conductivity. In addition, our data extended the range of tolerance of the species for temperature (5.1–26.2 °C and pH (7.1–8.6. In general, our results and previously published data corroborate with the idea that T. hispida can not be considered a sensitive species (i.e., a taxon scarcely adapted to increasing levels of pollution, showing a preference for rivers characterized by high nutrients availability. Moreover, its rarity must be traced to the low detectability of the thallus due to species life cycle and the very limited accessibility of colonized habitats.

  17. The complete chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of the green macroalga Ulva sp. UNA00071828 (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta.

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    James T Melton

    Full Text Available Sequencing mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes has become an integral part in understanding the genomic machinery and the phylogenetic histories of green algae. Previously, only three chloroplast genomes (Oltmannsiellopsis viridis, Pseudendoclonium akinetum, and Bryopsis hypnoides and two mitochondrial genomes (O. viridis and P. akinetum from the class Ulvophyceae have been published. Here, we present the first chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes from the ecologically and economically important marine, green algal genus Ulva. The chloroplast genome of Ulva sp. was 99,983 bp in a circular-mapping molecule that lacked inverted repeats, and thus far, was the smallest ulvophycean plastid genome. This cpDNA was a highly compact, AT-rich genome that contained a total of 102 identified genes (71 protein-coding genes, 28 tRNA genes, and three ribosomal RNA genes. Additionally, five introns were annotated in four genes: atpA (1, petB (1, psbB (2, and rrl (1. The circular-mapping mitochondrial genome of Ulva sp. was 73,493 bp and follows the expanded pattern also seen in other ulvophyceans and trebouxiophyceans. The Ulva sp. mtDNA contained 29 protein-coding genes, 25 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes for a total of 56 identifiable genes. Ten introns were annotated in this mtDNA: cox1 (4, atp1 (1, nad3 (1, nad5 (1, and rrs (3. Double-cut-and-join (DCJ values showed that organellar genomes across Chlorophyta are highly rearranged, in contrast to the highly conserved organellar genomes of the red algae (Rhodophyta. A phylogenomic investigation of 51 plastid protein-coding genes showed that Ulvophyceae is not monophyletic, and also placed Oltmannsiellopsis (Oltmannsiellopsidales and Tetraselmis (Chlorodendrophyceae closely to Ulva (Ulvales and Pseudendoclonium (Ulothrichales.

  18. Role of Recruitment Processes in Structuring Coralligenous Benthic Assemblages in the Northern Adriatic Continental Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Federica; Ponti, Massimo; Abbiati, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Coralligenous biogenic reefs are among the most diverse marine habitats in the Mediterranean Sea. The northern Adriatic mesophotic coralligenous outcrops host very rich and diverse epibenthic assemblages. Several studies quantified the low temporal variability and high spatial heterogeneity of these habitats, while processes driving structuring and differentiation are still poorly understood. To shed light on these processes, temporal and spatial patterns of colonisation were investigated using travertine tiles deployed on three coralligenous outcrops, corresponding to the main typologies of benthic assemblages described in previous studies. Three years after deployment, assemblages colonising travertine tiles resembled the differentiation among sites revealed by the natural assemblages in terms of major ecological groups. Processes structuring and maintaining species diversity have been explored. Pioneer species with high reproduction rate, long distance larval dispersal and fast growth (e.g. the serpulid polychaete Spirobranchus triqueter and the bivalve Anomia ephippium), were the most abundant in the early stages of recruitment on the two outcrops further away from the coast and with lower sedimentation. Their success may vary according to larval availability and environmental conditions (e.g., sedimentation rates). At these sites early-stage lasted 10-12 months, during which even species from natural substrates began colonising tiles by settlement of planktonic propagules (e.g., encrusting calcareous Rhodophyta) and lateral encroachment (e.g., sponges and ascidians). On coastal outcrop, exposed to a higher sedimentation rates, tiles were colonised by fast-growing algal turfs. Resilience of northern Adriatic coralligenous assemblages, and maintenance of their diversity, appeared largely entrusted to asexual reproduction. Exploring the mechanisms that underlie the formation and maintenance of the species diversity is crucial to improve our understanding of

  19. Role of Recruitment Processes in Structuring Coralligenous Benthic Assemblages in the Northern Adriatic Continental Shelf.

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    Federica Fava

    Full Text Available Coralligenous biogenic reefs are among the most diverse marine habitats in the Mediterranean Sea. The northern Adriatic mesophotic coralligenous outcrops host very rich and diverse epibenthic assemblages. Several studies quantified the low temporal variability and high spatial heterogeneity of these habitats, while processes driving structuring and differentiation are still poorly understood. To shed light on these processes, temporal and spatial patterns of colonisation were investigated using travertine tiles deployed on three coralligenous outcrops, corresponding to the main typologies of benthic assemblages described in previous studies. Three years after deployment, assemblages colonising travertine tiles resembled the differentiation among sites revealed by the natural assemblages in terms of major ecological groups. Processes structuring and maintaining species diversity have been explored. Pioneer species with high reproduction rate, long distance larval dispersal and fast growth (e.g. the serpulid polychaete Spirobranchus triqueter and the bivalve Anomia ephippium, were the most abundant in the early stages of recruitment on the two outcrops further away from the coast and with lower sedimentation. Their success may vary according to larval availability and environmental conditions (e.g., sedimentation rates. At these sites early-stage lasted 10-12 months, during which even species from natural substrates began colonising tiles by settlement of planktonic propagules (e.g., encrusting calcareous Rhodophyta and lateral encroachment (e.g., sponges and ascidians. On coastal outcrop, exposed to a higher sedimentation rates, tiles were colonised by fast-growing algal turfs. Resilience of northern Adriatic coralligenous assemblages, and maintenance of their diversity, appeared largely entrusted to asexual reproduction. Exploring the mechanisms that underlie the formation and maintenance of the species diversity is crucial to improve our

  20. NADPH from the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway drives the operation of cyclic electron flow around photosystem I in high-intertidal macroalgae under severe salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoping; Huan, Li; Gao, Shan; He, Linwen; Wang, Guangce

    2016-04-01

    Pyropia yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) is a representative species of high-intertidal macroalgae, whose blades can tolerate extreme stresses, such as salt stress and desiccation. In this study, the photosystem (PS) responses of P. yezoensis blades under salt stress were studied. Our results showed that when the effective photochemical quantum yield of PS (Y) II decreased to almost zero under high salt stress, YI still had a relatively high activity rate. PSII was therefore more sensitive to salt stress than PSI. Furthermore, in the presence of 3-(3', 4'-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), YI rose as salinity increased. The YI values for DCMU-treated thalli decreased in the presence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49, G6PDH) inhibitor (glucosamine, Glucm). The YI values were ∼0.09 in the presence of methyl viologen (MV) and almost zero in the presence of dibromothymoquinone (DBMIB). These results demonstrated that under severe salt stress (120‰ salinity) PSI activity was driven from a source other than PSII, and that stromal reductants probably supported the operation of PSI. Under salt stress, the starch content decreased and soluble sugar levels increased. The G6PDH and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.44) activities increased, but cytosolic glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.12) activity decreased. Furthermore, the NADPH content increased, but NADH decreased, which suggested that soluble sugar entered the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP). All these results suggested that NADPH from OPPP increases the cyclic electron flow around PSI in high-intertidal macroalgae under severe salt stress. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  1. A lipoxygenase from red alga Pyropia haitanensis, a unique enzyme catalyzing the free radical reactions of polyunsaturated fatty acids with triple ethylenic bonds.

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    Zhujun Zhu

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenases (LOXs are key enzymes to regulate the production of hormones and defensive metabolites in plants, animals and algae. In this research, a full length LOX gene has been cloned and expressed from the red alga Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta gametophyte (PhLOX2. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis showed that such LOX enzymes are separated at the early stage of evolution, establishing an independent branch. The LOX activity was investigated at the optimal pH of 8.0. It appears that PhLOX2 is a multifunctional enzyme featuring both lipoxygenase and hydroperoxidase activities. Additionally, PhLOX2 exhibits remarkable substrate and position flexibility, and it can catalyze an array of chemical reactions involving various polyunsaturated fatty acids, ranging from C18 to C22. As a matter of fact, mono-hydroperoxy, di-hydroperoxy and hydroxyl products have been obtained from such transformations, and eicosapentaenoic acid seem to be the most preferred substrate. It was found that at least triple ethylenic bonds are required for PhLOX2 to function as a LOX, and the resulting hydroxy products should be originated from the PhLOX2 mediated reduction of mono-hydroperoxides, in which the hydrogen abstraction occurs on the carbon atom between the second and third double bond. Most of the di-hydroperoxides observed seem to be missing their mono-position precursors. The substrate and position flexibility, as well as the function versatility of PhLOXs represent the ancient enzymatic pathway for organisms to control intracellular oxylipins.

  2. A lipoxygenase from red alga Pyropia haitanensis, a unique enzyme catalyzing the free radical reactions of polyunsaturated fatty acids with triple ethylenic bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhujun; Qian, Feijian; Yang, Rui; Chen, Juanjuan; Luo, Qijun; Chen, Haimin; Yan, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are key enzymes to regulate the production of hormones and defensive metabolites in plants, animals and algae. In this research, a full length LOX gene has been cloned and expressed from the red alga Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) gametophyte (PhLOX2). Subsequent phylogenetic analysis showed that such LOX enzymes are separated at the early stage of evolution, establishing an independent branch. The LOX activity was investigated at the optimal pH of 8.0. It appears that PhLOX2 is a multifunctional enzyme featuring both lipoxygenase and hydroperoxidase activities. Additionally, PhLOX2 exhibits remarkable substrate and position flexibility, and it can catalyze an array of chemical reactions involving various polyunsaturated fatty acids, ranging from C18 to C22. As a matter of fact, mono-hydroperoxy, di-hydroperoxy and hydroxyl products have been obtained from such transformations, and eicosapentaenoic acid seem to be the most preferred substrate. It was found that at least triple ethylenic bonds are required for PhLOX2 to function as a LOX, and the resulting hydroxy products should be originated from the PhLOX2 mediated reduction of mono-hydroperoxides, in which the hydrogen abstraction occurs on the carbon atom between the second and third double bond. Most of the di-hydroperoxides observed seem to be missing their mono-position precursors. The substrate and position flexibility, as well as the function versatility of PhLOXs represent the ancient enzymatic pathway for organisms to control intracellular oxylipins.

  3. Are all red algal parasites cut from the same cloth?

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    Eric D. Salomaki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasitism is a common life strategy throughout the eukaryotic tree of life. Many devastating human pathogens, including the causative agents of malaria and toxoplasmosis, have evolved from a photosynthetic ancestor. However, how an organism transitions from a photosynthetic to a parasitic life history strategy remains mostly unknown. This is largely because few systems present the opportunity to make meaningful comparisons between a parasite and a close free-living relative. Parasites have independently evolved dozens of times throughout the Florideophyceae (Rhodophyta, and often infect close relatives. The accepted evolutionary paradigm proposes that red algal parasites arise by first infecting a close relative and over time diversify and infect more distantly related species. This provides a natural evolutionary gradient of relationships between hosts and parasites that share a photosynthetic common ancestor. Elegant microscopic work in the late 20th century provided detailed insight into the infection cycle of red algal parasites and the cellular interactions between parasites and their hosts. Those studies led to the use of molecular work to further investigate the origins of the parasite organelles and reveal the evolutionary relationships between hosts and their parasites. Here we synthesize the research detailing the infection methods and cellular interactions between red algal parasites and their hosts. We offer an alternative hypothesis to the current dogma of red algal parasite evolution and propose that red algae can adopt a parasitic life strategy through multiple evolutionary pathways, including direct infection of distant relatives. Furthermore, we highlight potential directions for future research to further evaluate parasite evolution in red algae.

  4. Ecological and biochemical analyses of the brown alga Turbinaria ornata (Turner J. Agardh from Red Sea coast, Egypt

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    Mohamed Ali Deyab

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study ecological parameters and biochemical composition of brown seaweed, Turbinaria ornata (T. ornata collected from Hurghada shores, Red Sea coast of Egypt during September, October and November, 2015. Methods: T. ornata and its associated seaweeds were collected, identified and their abundances were estimated. Water of collection site was analyzed physicochemically as well as qualitative and quantitative analyses of phytoplankton. T. ornata was analyzed for protein, total carbohydrate, lipids, alginic acid, agar, pigments, minerals and heavy metals. Results: The results showed that macroalgal species recorded along Hurghada shores belong to Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta. At collection site, the moderate temperature, slight alkaline pH, low turbidity, high dissolved oxygen and valuable nutrient content of saline water exerted the massive growth of T. ornata with maximum abundance (24% during October. The phytoplankton community was quite diverse with a maximum numbers of taxa (104.2 × 108 cell/L recorded during October. Analysis of T. ornata alga powder showed that high soluble carbohydrate (2.80 ± 0.10 mg/g dry/weight and chlorophyll c (0.001 7 ± 0.000 1 mg/g fresh weight contents were recorded during September; while high contents of protein (37.70 ± 0.60 mg/g dry weight, lipids (3.10 ± 0.06 mg/g dry weight, polysaccharides (agar and alginates, carotenoids (0.016 0 ± 0.000 4 mg/g fresh weight, minerals and heavy metals were recorded during November. Conclusions: The study revealed that physicochemical analyses of water were varied slightly during the three months and suitable for the growth of T. ornata. It contains high amount of most biochemical constituents during October.

  5. Galactan polysaccharides extraction from invasive algae Asparagopsis armata (Harvey of the Peniche coast.

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    Marcia Sofia Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine macroalgae are important sources of sulfated polysaccharides with different structure according to each species of algae. These compounds from the seaweeds of the division Rhodophyta are mainly galactans consisting entirely of galactose or modified galactose units. Galactans, like agar and carrageenan have important biotechnological and commercial applications in several industries. The red seaweed Asparagopsis armata (Harvey, originally from the Pacific Ocean, is well established in Peniche beaches (west of Portugal and other European locations and was classified as an invasive species. These red algae show complex hybrid galactans in their composition. The water–soluble polysaccharides were extracted from the gametophyte form of the seaweed, collected in March 2013 from Peniche coast, using a hot water extraction procedure. The yield (% of the extraction and the galactose ratio content (mmol glucose % were calculated. The polysaccharides were characterized by Infrared spectroscopy. The yield of polysaccharides was 16% and the calculated galactose ratio was 0.30 mmol glucose %. No significant statistical differences between the extraction procedures and the yield result were found. The FTIR spectra presented different bands, such as a band at 843.59 cm-1, characteristic of C4-O-S in galactose unit and a band at 764.68 cm-1 of C2-O-S (3.6-anidrogalactose. The complex hybrid galactans extracted from A. armata are easily obtained from simple extraction procedures. Nevertheless, a better molecular characterization is required, in order to determine the potential of these seaweeds as a galactan source, and compare these polysaccharides with other galactans obtained from other Rodophyta species.

  6. Cloning and Functional Characterization of Cycloartenol Synthase from the Red Seaweed Laurencia dendroidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegario, Gabriela; Pollier, Jacob; Arendt, Philipp; de Oliveira, Louisi Souza; Thompson, Cristiane; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Goossens, Alain; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2016-01-01

    The red seaweed Laurencia dendroidea belongs to the Rhodophyta, a phylum of eukaryotic algae that is widely distributed across the oceans and that constitute an important source of bioactive specialized metabolites. Laurencia species have been studied since 1950 and were found to contain a plethora of specialized metabolites, mainly halogenated sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and triterpenes that possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological and ecological activities. The first committed step in the biosynthesis of triterpenes is the cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene, an enzymatic reaction carried out by oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs), giving rise to a broad range of different compounds, such as the sterol precursors cycloartenol and lanosterol, or triterpene precursors such as cucurbitadienol and β-amyrin. Here, we cloned and characterized the first OSC from a red seaweed. The OSC gene was identified through mining of a L. dendroidea transcriptome dataset and subsequently cloned and heterologously expressed in yeast for functional characterization, which indicated that the corresponding enzyme cyclizes 2,3-oxidosqualene to the sterol precursor cycloartenol. Accordingly, the gene was named L. dendroidea cycloartenol synthase (LdCAS). A phylogenetic analysis using OSCs genes from plants, fungi and algae revealed that LdCAS grouped together with OSCs from other red algae, suggesting that cycloartenol could be the common product of the OSC in red seaweeds. Furthermore, profiling of L. dendroidea revealed cholesterol as the major sterol accumulating in this species, implicating red seaweeds contain a 'hybrid' sterol synthesis pathway in which the phytosterol precursor cycloartenol is converted into the major animal sterol cholesterol.

  7. Marine invasion in the Mediterranean Sea: the role of abiotic factors when there is no biological resistance.

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    Emma Cebrian

    Full Text Available The tropical red alga Womersleyella setacea (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta is causing increasing concern in the Mediterranean Sea because of its invasive behavior. After its introduction it has colonized most Mediterranean areas, but the mechanism underlying its acclimatization and invasion process remains unknown. To understand this process, we decided i to assess in situ the seasonal biomass and phenological patterns of populations inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea in relation to the main environmental factors, and ii to experimentally determine if the tolerance of W. setacea to different light and temperature conditions can explain its colonization success, as well as its bathymetric distribution range. The bathymetric distribution, biomass, and phenology of W. setacea were studied at two localities, and related to irradiance and temperature values recorded in situ. Laboratory experiments were set up to study survival, growth and reproduction under contrasting light and temperature conditions in the short, mid, and long term. Results showed that, in the studied area, the bathymetric distribution of W. setacea is restricted to a depth belt between 25 and 40 m deep, reaching maximum biomass values (126 g dw m(-2 at 30 m depth. In concordance, although in the short term W. setacea survived and grew in a large range of environmental conditions, its life requirements for the mid and long term were dim light levels and low temperatures. Biomass of Womersleyella setacea did not show any clear seasonal pattern, though minimum values were reported in spring. Reproductive structures were always absent. Bearing in mind that no herbivores feed on Womersleyella setacea and that its thermal preferences are more characteristic of temperate than of tropical seaweeds, low light (50 µmol photon m(-2 s(-1 and low temperature (12°C levels are critical for W. setacea survival and growth, thus probably determining its spread and bathymetric distribution across the

  8. Non-methylene interrupted and hydroxy fatty acids in polar lipids of the alga Grateloupia turuturu over the four seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendel, Melha; Barnathan, Gilles; Fleurence, Joël; Rabesaotra, Vony; Wielgosz-Collin, Gaëtane

    2013-05-01

    Phospholipids (PL) and glycolipids (GL) FA in the edible Rhodophyta Grateloupia turuturu, from Brittany, France, were investigated over four seasons. The major lipid class was GL in all seasons (around 45 %). More than 80 FA occurred in polar lipids, with chains from C12 to C26, identified as methyl esters and N-acyl pyrrolidides by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PUFA occurred at up to 47.1 % (summer) in PL, and up to 43.6 % (summer) in GL. The major PUFA were 20:5n-3 (12.2 % in PL and 29.0 % in GL) and 20:4n-6 (25.6 % in PL and 10.4 % in GL). The unusual 18:3n-7 acid was identified in PL up to 2.2 %. Several minor unsaturated FA were identified in PL and are previously unreported in seaweeds, namely 14-tricosenoic, 15-tetracosenoic, 5,11-octadecadienoic and 5,9-nonadecadienoic. Also unprecedented in seaweeds, ten 2-hydroxy and three 3-hydroxy FA occurred mainly in PL, 13.9 % in spring with the 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid as the major one (8.1 % winter). Three n-9 monounsaturated 2-hydroxy FA occurred in PL. The 2-hydroxy-15-tetracosenoic acid was characterized as the dimethyl disulfide adduct of its methyl ester. The 2-hydroxy-16-pentacosenoic and 2-hydroxy-17-hexacosenoic acids were identified by comparison of mass spectra and GC mobilities with those of the 2-hydroxy-15-tetracosenoic acid, and of other homogeneous FA series. These rare n-9 monounsaturated 2-hydroxy FA are unprecedented in seaweeds.

  9. The complete chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of the green macroalga Ulva sp. UNA00071828 (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, James T; Leliaert, Frederik; Tronholm, Ana; Lopez-Bautista, Juan M

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes has become an integral part in understanding the genomic machinery and the phylogenetic histories of green algae. Previously, only three chloroplast genomes (Oltmannsiellopsis viridis, Pseudendoclonium akinetum, and Bryopsis hypnoides) and two mitochondrial genomes (O. viridis and P. akinetum) from the class Ulvophyceae have been published. Here, we present the first chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes from the ecologically and economically important marine, green algal genus Ulva. The chloroplast genome of Ulva sp. was 99,983 bp in a circular-mapping molecule that lacked inverted repeats, and thus far, was the smallest ulvophycean plastid genome. This cpDNA was a highly compact, AT-rich genome that contained a total of 102 identified genes (71 protein-coding genes, 28 tRNA genes, and three ribosomal RNA genes). Additionally, five introns were annotated in four genes: atpA (1), petB (1), psbB (2), and rrl (1). The circular-mapping mitochondrial genome of Ulva sp. was 73,493 bp and follows the expanded pattern also seen in other ulvophyceans and trebouxiophyceans. The Ulva sp. mtDNA contained 29 protein-coding genes, 25 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes for a total of 56 identifiable genes. Ten introns were annotated in this mtDNA: cox1 (4), atp1 (1), nad3 (1), nad5 (1), and rrs (3). Double-cut-and-join (DCJ) values showed that organellar genomes across Chlorophyta are highly rearranged, in contrast to the highly conserved organellar genomes of the red algae (Rhodophyta). A phylogenomic investigation of 51 plastid protein-coding genes showed that Ulvophyceae is not monophyletic, and also placed Oltmannsiellopsis (Oltmannsiellopsidales) and Tetraselmis (Chlorodendrophyceae) closely to Ulva (Ulvales) and Pseudendoclonium (Ulothrichales).

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of proteins involved in the stringent response in plant cells.

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    Ito, Doshun; Ihara, Yuta; Nishihara, Hidenori; Masuda, Shinji

    2017-07-01

    The nucleotide (p)ppGpp is a second messenger that controls the stringent response in bacteria. The stringent response modifies expression of a large number of genes and metabolic processes and allows bacteria to survive under fluctuating environmental conditions. Recent genome sequencing analyses have revealed that genes responsible for the stringent response are also found in plants. These include (p)ppGpp synthases and hydrolases, RelA/SpoT homologs (RSHs), and the pppGpp-specific phosphatase GppA/Ppx. However, phylogenetic relationship between enzymes involved in bacterial and plant stringent responses is as yet generally unclear. Here, we investigated the origin and evolution of genes involved in the stringent response in plants. Phylogenetic analysis and primary structures of RSH homologs from different plant phyla (including Embryophyta, Charophyta, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta) indicate that RSH gene families were introduced into plant cells by at least two independent lateral gene transfers from the bacterial Deinococcus-Thermus phylum and an unidentified bacterial phylum; alternatively, they were introduced into a proto-plant cell by a lateral gene transfer from the endosymbiotic cyanobacterium followed by gene loss of an ancestral RSH gene in the cyanobacterial linage. Phylogenetic analysis of gppA/ppx families indicated that plant gppA/ppx homologs form an individual cluster in the phylogenetic tree, and show a sister relationship with some bacterial gppA/ppx homologs. Although RSHs contain a plastidial transit peptide at the N terminus, GppA/Ppx homologs do not, suggesting that plant GppA/Ppx homologs function in the cytosol. These results reveal that a proto-plant cell obtained genes for the stringent response by lateral gene transfer events from different bacterial phyla and have utilized them to control metabolism in plastids and the cytosol.

  11. Algal endosymbionts as vectors of horizontal gene transfer in photosynthetic eukaryotes

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    Huan eQiu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis in eukaryotes occurs in the plastid, an organelle that is derived from a single cyanobacterial primary endosymbiosis in the common ancestor of the supergroup Plantae (or Archaeplastida that includes green, red, and glaucophyte algae and plants. However a variety of other phytoplankton such as the chlorophyll c-containing diatoms, dinoflagellates, and haptophytes contain a red alga-derived plastid that traces its origin to secondary or tertiary (eukaryote engulfs eukaryote endosymbiosis. The hypothesis of Plantae monophyly has only recently been substantiated, however the extent and role of endosymbiotic and horizontal gene transfer (EGT and HGT in algal genome evolution still remain to be fully understood. What is becoming clear from analysis of complete genome data is that algal gene complements can no longer be considered essentially eukaryotic in provenance; i.e., with the expected addition of several hundred cyanobacterial genes derived from EGT and a similar number derived from the mitochondrial ancestor. For example, we now know that foreign cells such as Chlamydiae and other prokaryotes have made significant contributions to plastid functions in Plantae. Perhaps more surprising is the recent finding of extensive bacterium-derived HGT in the nuclear genome of the unicellular red alga Porphyridium purpureum that does not relate to plastid functions. These non-endosymbiont gene transfers not only shaped the evolutionary history of Plantae but also were propagated via secondary endosymbiosis to a multitude of other phytoplankton. Here we discuss the idea that Plantae (in particular red algae are one of the major players in eukaryote genome evolution by virtue of their ability to act as sinks and sources of foreign genes through HGT and endosymbiosis, respectively. This hypothesis recognizes the often under-appreciated Rhodophyta as major sources of genetic novelty among photosynthetic eukaryotes.

  12. Macroalgal biomass and species variations in the Lagoon of Venice (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy: 1981-1998

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    Daniele Curiel

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past hundred years, the composition of the submerged aquatic vegetation of the Lagoon of Venice has changed considerably, due to increased anthropic activities and large-scale industrialisation. Seagrasses have gradually been reduced, whereas macroalgae (Ulva rigida, Enteromorpha spp., Cladophora spp., Chaetomorpha spp. have increased. Macroalgal overgrowths peaked between 1970 and 1990 to the extent that, in order to estimate macroalgal biomass and coverage, the Venice Magistrato alle Acque (the Lagoon water management authority started a series of investigations including monthly in situ measurements and aerial photo surveys. In the present paper these data are compared with available information on the Lagoon of Venice, and the widespread phenomenon of macroalgal proliferation is described. At the end of the 1980s, in our study area (78 km2 in the central part of the Lagoon biomass values ranged from 10 to 25 kg wet weight (w.w. m-2 (sub-areas of Lido and Sacca Sessola, with a total mean biomass of 392,000 t w.w. A slight reduction took place in 1992 and at the end of the 1990s the highest biomass values were relatively low, 5 kg w.w. m-2, with a total mean biomass of 1,600 t w.w. Our qualitative research carried out in 1991 on 130 sampling stations in the study area showed that soft substrates had a greatly reduced floristic composition in the five sub-areas in comparison with the control area (from 18 to 6 taxa, with Chlorophyta (50-80% prevailing over both Rhodophyta (14-38% and Phaeophyta (0-14%, and a slight or reduced distribution of seagrasses. The trend in macroalgal reduction during the 1990s corresponded to seagrass recolonisation, mainly of Zostera marina, taking advantage of new, compacted, oxidised and stabilised sediments that were no longer covered by extensive Ulva beds.

  13. Trace element patterns in marine macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malea, Paraskevi; Kevrekidis, Theodoros

    2014-10-01

    Novel information on interspecific variation in trace element accumulation in seaweeds is provided. Concentrations and concentration factors (CFs) of a wide set of elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, U, V and Zn) in 26 dominant macroalgae from the Gulf of Thessaloniki, Aegean Sea were determined and compared. Uni-and multivariate data analyses were applied. Phaeophyceae showed higher concentrations and CFs of As and Sr than Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta, indicating that the accumulation of these elements is closely related to species biochemical composition. Filamentous macroalgae displayed higher concentrations and CFs of several elements, particularly Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and V than sheet-like, coarsely-branched and/or thick-leathery macroalgae, irrespective of phylogenetic relationships, indicating that the accumulation of several elements is largely related to thallus morphology and growth strategy. On a species basis, Cystoseira spp. showed both the highest concentrations and CFs of As, Padina pavonica of Sr and U, Ceramium spp. of Mn, Ceramium and Cladophora species of Co and Cu, Cladophora prolifera of Cr and Polysiphonia deusta and Ulva clathrata of Cd. Se concentration in Ulva rigida correlated positively with seawater Se concentration, and As concentration in this species with sediment As concentration. Thereby, these seaweeds could be regarded as potential biomonitors for the respective elements. A literature review was performed and global element concentrations and CFs were presented for seaweeds from genera collected during this survey. The data presented can contribute to the interpretation of biomonitoring data and the design of biomonitoring programs for the protection and management of coastal environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro of Halimeda incrassata aqueous extracts Atividade antioxidante in vivo e in vitro de extratos aquosos da Halimeda incrassata

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    F. Rivero

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to provide the evidences for the antioxidant activity in Halimeda incrassata (Ellis Lamouroux aqueous extracts obtained after simple water extraction of the fresh algae at room temperature (23°C. Previously in the literature, only antioxidant activity associated to carotenoids fractions of seaweeds has been reported. From different species of seaweeds, Halimeda incrassata aqueous extract exhibited the highest antioxidant activity on the inhibition of TBARS formed during the spontaneous lipid peroxidation of rat brain homogenates with an IC50 of 0.340mg.mL-1. Halimeda incrassata aqueous extract (0.5mg.mL-1, was also capable of decreasing the in vitro generation of hydrogen peroxide by two distinct metabolic pathways involving glutamic and malonic acids. Also, Halimeda incrassata (at doses of 50, 100 and 200mg.Kg-1 showed a neuroprotective effect in vivo on the gerbil model of bilateral carotid occlusion because of decreasing the locomotor and exploratory activity induced by ischemia. In summary, Halimeda incrassata aqueous extracts exhibit antioxidant properties in different in vitro as well as in vivo models which could be explained by the presence of several hydrosoluble compounds. Further studies on this way are necessary to elucidate the precise structure of these compounds. Low toxicity of most seaweeds to humans, but particularly of Halimeda genus may favor its use as functional food.O presente trabalho teve por objetivo apresentar as evidências da atividade antioxidante de extratos aquosos da Halimeda incrassata Ellis Lamoroux obtidos a partir da alga a temperatura ambiente (23°C. A literatura apresenta somente a atividade antioxidante de algas oceânicas associada à frações de carotenóides. Das diferentes espécies de algas oceânicas o extrato aquoso da Halimeda incrassata apresentou a atividade antioxidante mais elevada medida pela inibição da formação de TBARS, durante a peroxidação lip

  15. Trace Elements in Calcifying Marine Invertebrates Indicate Diverse Sensitivities to the Seawater Carbonate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, W. C.

    2015-12-01

    Surface ocean absorption of anthropogenic CO2 emissions resulting in ocean acidification may interfere with the ability of calcifying marine organisms to biomineralize, since the drop in pH is accompanied by reductions in CaCO3 saturation state. However, recent experiments show that net calcification rates of cultured benthic invertebrate taxa exhibit diverse responses to pCO2-induced changes in saturation state (Ries et al., 2009). Advancement of geochemical tools as biomineralization indicators will enable us to better understand these results and therefore help predict the impacts of ongoing and future decrease in seawater pH on marine organisms. Here we build upon previous work on these specimens by measuring the elemental composition of biogenic calcite and aragonite precipitated in four pCO2 treatments (400; 600; 900; and 2850 ppm). Element ratios (including Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, Li/Ca, B/Ca, U/Ca, Ba/Ca, Cd/Ca, and Zn/Ca) were analyzed in 18 macro-invertebrate species representing seven phyla (crustacea, cnidaria, echinoidea, rhodophyta, chlorophyta, gastropoda, bivalvia, annelida), then compared to growth rate data and experimental seawater carbonate system parameters: [CO32-], [HCO3-], pH, saturation state, and DIC. Correlations between calcite or aragonite composition and seawater carbonate chemistry are highly taxa-specific, but do not resemble trends observed in growth rate for all species. Apparent carbonate system sensitivities vary widely by element, ranging from strongly correlated to no significant response. Interpretation of these results is guided by mounting evidence for the capacity of individual species to modulate pH and/or saturation state at the site of calcification in response to ambient seawater chemistry. Such biomineralization pathways and strategies in turn likely influence elemental fractionation during CaCO3 precipitation. Ries, J.B., A.L. Cohen, A.L., and D.C. McCorkle (2009), Marine calcifiers exhibit mixed responses to CO2-induced ocean

  16. Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson Papenfuss Kültürüne Farklı Işık Yoğunluklarının Etkisi.

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    Edis Koru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, kırmızı alglerden (Rhodophyta Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson Papenfuss türünün farklı ışık yoğunluklarında 20 litrelik sürekli su akışının sağlandığı tanklarda yetiştiriciliği araştırılmıştır. Yapılan çalışmada, denizden pompalanan su tank sistemlerine getirilerek sürekli akış sağlamıştır. Suyun debisi 1.44 m3. gün -1 olarak ayarlanmıştır. Tanklarda su yüzeyine 12 saat aydınlık, 12 saat karanlık fotoperiyot uygulanmıştır. Aydınlatma esnasında, 1000 ve 3000 lux olmak üzere iki farklı ışık şiddeti uygulanmıştır. Üç aylık deneme süresince (Kasım 2002 – Ocak 2003 tanklardaki su sıcaklığı 8.7-20oC arasında değişmiştir. G. verrucosa biyoması ve su parametreleri düzenli olarak ölçülmüştür. Gelişmeleri düzenli olarak incelenen alglerde algin büyümesine ışık yoğunluğu ve sıcaklığın etki ettiği belirlenirken, uygulanan 1000 ve 3000 lux gibi iki farklı ışık şiddetinin algin büyümesinin 3000 lux ışık şiddetinde daha fazla olduğu ancak her iki ışık şiddeti arasında istatistiksel bir farklılık tespit edilmemiştir

  17. Methods for DNA barcoding photosynthetic protists emphasizing the macroalgae and diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Gary W; McDevit, Daniel C

    2012-01-01

    This chapter outlines the current practices used in our laboratory for routine DNA barcode analyses of the three major marine macroalgal groups, viz., brown (Phaeophyceae), red (Rhodophyta), and green (Chlorophyta) algae, as well as for the microscopic diatoms (Bacillariophyta). We start with an outline of current streamlined field protocols, which facilitate the collection of substantial (hundreds to thousands) specimens during short (days to weeks) field excursions. We present the current high-throughput DNA extraction protocols, which can, nonetheless, be easily modified for manual molecular laboratory use. We are advocating a two-marker approach for the DNA barcoding of protists with each major lineage having a designated primary and secondary barcode marker of which one is always the LSU D2/D3 (divergent domains D2/D3 of the nuclear ribosomal large subunit DNA). We provide a listing of the primers that we currently use in our laboratory for amplification of DNA barcode markers from the groups that we study: LSU D2/D3, which we advocate as a eukaryote-wide barcode marker to facilitate broad ecological and environmental surveys (secondary barcode marker in this capacity); COI-5P (the standard DNA barcode region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene) as the primary barcode marker for brown and red algae; rbcL-3P (the 3' region of the plastid large subunit of ribulose-l-5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) as the primary barcode marker for diatoms; and tufA (plastid elongation factor Tu gene) as the primary barcode marker for chlorophytan green algae. We outline our polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing methodologies, which have been streamlined for efficiency and to reduce unnecessary cleaning steps. The combined information should provide a helpful guide to those seeking to complete barcode research on these and related "protistan" groups (the term protist is not used in a phylogenetic context; it is simply a catch-all term for the bulk of

  18. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activity of Asparagopsis taxiformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethu, P. V.; Suthindhiran, K.; Jayasri, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Asparagopsis taxiformis (Rhodophyta) is a species of red algae belonging to the family Bonnemaisoniaceae. The objective of the present study was to evaluate antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of four fractions (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol) of A. taxiformis. Materials and Methods: The red seaweed, A. taxiformis was collected from Mandapam Coastal Region, Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu. Epiphytes present in algal extracts were cleaned and washed with seawater and fresh water. In vitro antioxidant activity was determined by hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power, superoxide radical, metal-chelating activity, and phosphomolybdenum reduction assay. Further, the cytotoxic activity was evaluated using brine shrimp lethality assay. This method is rapid, reliable, inexpensive, and convenient as compared to other cytotoxicity assays. Gallic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ascorbic acid, and quercetin were used as reference antioxidant compounds. Results: Reducing power of chloroform extract increased with increasing concentration of the extract. The radical scavenging activity of extracts was in the following order: ascorbic acid > methanol > chloroform > petroleum ether > ethyl acetate. Highest metal-chelating activity was observed in petroleum ether fractions (63%). Reduction of Mo (VI) to Mo (V) increased in methanol extract (27%) at 100 μg/ml. Moreover, all fractions had an inhibitory effect on the formation of hydroxyl radicals. Results showed that ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum ether fractions exhibited potent cytotoxic activity with median lethal concentration values of 84.33, 104.4, and 104.4 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: Thus, the results showed that red algae possess strong antioxidant and cytotoxic activity that suggests their possible use in the development of pharmaceutical drugs. SUMMARY Various fractions of red algae Asparagopsis taxiformis was evaluated for in vitro

  19. A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life

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    Venturi Maria L

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pattern and timing of the rise in complex multicellular life during Earth's history has not been established. Great disparity persists between the pattern suggested by the fossil record and that estimated by molecular clocks, especially for plants, animals, fungi, and the deepest branches of the eukaryote tree. Here, we used all available protein sequence data and molecular clock methods to place constraints on the increase in complexity through time. Results Our phylogenetic analyses revealed that (i animals are more closely related to fungi than to plants, (ii red algae are closer to plants than to animals or fungi, (iii choanoflagellates are closer to animals than to fungi or plants, (iv diplomonads, euglenozoans, and alveolates each are basal to plants+animals+fungi, and (v diplomonads are basal to other eukaryotes (including alveolates and euglenozoans. Divergence times were estimated from global and local clock methods using 20–188 proteins per node, with data treated separately (multigene and concatenated (supergene. Different time estimation methods yielded similar results (within 5%: vertebrate-arthropod (964 million years ago, Ma, Cnidaria-Bilateria (1,298 Ma, Porifera-Eumetozoa (1,351 Ma, Pyrenomycetes-Plectomycetes (551 Ma, Candida-Saccharomyces (723 Ma, Hemiascomycetes-filamentous Ascomycota (982 Ma, Basidiomycota-Ascomycota (968 Ma, Mucorales-Basidiomycota (947 Ma, Fungi-Animalia (1,513 Ma, mosses-vascular plants (707 Ma, Chlorophyta-Tracheophyta (968 Ma, Rhodophyta-Chlorophyta+Embryophyta (1,428 Ma, Plantae-Animalia (1,609 Ma, Alveolata-plants+animals+fungi (1,973 Ma, Euglenozoa-plants+animals+fungi (1,961 Ma, and Giardia-plants+animals+fungi (2,309 Ma. By extrapolation, mitochondria arose approximately 2300-1800 Ma and plastids arose 1600-1500 Ma. Estimates of the maximum number of cell types of common ancestors, combined with divergence times, showed an increase from two cell types at 2500 Ma to ~10

  20. A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, S. Blair; Blair, Jaime E.; Venturi, Maria L.; Shoe, Jason L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pattern and timing of the rise in complex multicellular life during Earth's history has not been established. Great disparity persists between the pattern suggested by the fossil record and that estimated by molecular clocks, especially for plants, animals, fungi, and the deepest branches of the eukaryote tree. Here, we used all available protein sequence data and molecular clock methods to place constraints on the increase in complexity through time. RESULTS: Our phylogenetic analyses revealed that (i) animals are more closely related to fungi than to plants, (ii) red algae are closer to plants than to animals or fungi, (iii) choanoflagellates are closer to animals than to fungi or plants, (iv) diplomonads, euglenozoans, and alveolates each are basal to plants+animals+fungi, and (v) diplomonads are basal to other eukaryotes (including alveolates and euglenozoans). Divergence times were estimated from global and local clock methods using 20-188 proteins per node, with data treated separately (multigene) and concatenated (supergene). Different time estimation methods yielded similar results (within 5%): vertebrate-arthropod (964 million years ago, Ma), Cnidaria-Bilateria (1,298 Ma), Porifera-Eumetozoa (1,351 Ma), Pyrenomycetes-Plectomycetes (551 Ma), Candida-Saccharomyces (723 Ma), Hemiascomycetes-filamentous Ascomycota (982 Ma), Basidiomycota-Ascomycota (968 Ma), Mucorales-Basidiomycota (947 Ma), Fungi-Animalia (1,513 Ma), mosses-vascular plants (707 Ma), Chlorophyta-Tracheophyta (968 Ma), Rhodophyta-Chlorophyta+Embryophyta (1,428 Ma), Plantae-Animalia (1,609 Ma), Alveolata-plants+animals+fungi (1,973 Ma), Euglenozoa-plants+animals+fungi (1,961 Ma), and Giardia-plants+animals+fungi (2,309 Ma). By extrapolation, mitochondria arose approximately 2300-1800 Ma and plastids arose 1600-1500 Ma. Estimates of the maximum number of cell types of common ancestors, combined with divergence times, showed an increase from two cell types at 2500 Ma to

  1. High-Resolution Lipidomics of the Early Life Stages of the Red Seaweed Porphyra dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Elisabete; Azevedo, Vitor; Melo, Tânia; Rego, Andreia M; V Evtuguin, Dmitry; Domingues, Pedro; Calado, Ricardo; Pereira, Rui; Abreu, Maria H; Domingues, Maria R

    2018-01-17

    -3 ratio recorded was less than 2, highlighting the potential benefits of using these life stages in human diet to prevent chronic diseases. Atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes of blades (0.85 and 0.49, respectively) and conchocelis (0.34 and 0.30, respectively) are much lower than those reported for other Rhodophyta, which highlights their potential application as food or as functional ingredients. Overall, MS-based platforms represent a powerful tool to characterize lipid metabolism and target lipids along different life stages of algal species displaying complex life cycles (such as Porphyra dioica), contributing to their biotechnological application.

  2. High-Resolution Lipidomics of the Early Life Stages of the Red Seaweed Porphyra dioica

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    Elisabete da Costa

    2018-01-01

    Porphyra dioica the n-6/n-3 ratio recorded was less than 2, highlighting the potential benefits of using these life stages in human diet to prevent chronic diseases. Atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes of blades (0.85 and 0.49, respectively and conchocelis (0.34 and 0.30, respectively are much lower than those reported for other Rhodophyta, which highlights their potential application as food or as functional ingredients. Overall, MS-based platforms represent a powerful tool to characterize lipid metabolism and target lipids along different life stages of algal species displaying complex life cycles (such as Porphyra dioica, contributing to their biotechnological application.

  3. The kingdom Protista and its 45 phyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, J O

    1984-01-01

    . Chytridiomycota Sparrow, 1959). III. The chlorobionts (Chlorophyta Pascher, 1914; Prasinophyta Christensen, 1962; Conjugatophyta Engler, 1892; Charophyta Rabenhorst, 1863; incert. sed. Glaucophyta Bohlin, 1901). IV. The euglenozoa (Euglenophyta Pascher, 1931; Kinetoplastidea Honigberg, 1963; incert. sed. Pseudociliata Corliss & Lipscomb, 1982). V. The rhodophytes (Rhodophyta Rabenhorst, 1863). VI. The cryptomonads (Cryptophyta Pascher, 1914). VII. The choanoflagellates (Choanoflagellata Kent, 1880).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  4. Structure and evolution of the plant cation diffusion facilitator family of ion transporters

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    Zanis Michael J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF family are integral membrane divalent cation transporters that transport metal ions out of the cytoplasm either into the extracellular space or into internal compartments such as the vacuole. The spectrum of cations known to be transported by proteins of the CDF family include Zn, Fe, Co, Cd, and Mn. Members of this family have been identified in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and archaea, and in sequenced plant genomes. CDF families range in size from nine members in Selaginella moellendorffii to 19 members in Populus trichocarpa. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the CDF family has expanded within plants, but a definitive plant CDF family phylogeny has not been constructed. Results Representative CDF members were annotated from diverse genomes across the Viridiplantae and Rhodophyta lineages and used to identify phylogenetic relationships within the CDF family. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of CDF amino acid sequence data supports organizing land plant CDF family sequences into 7 groups. The origin of the 7 groups predates the emergence of land plants. Among these, 5 of the 7 groups are likely to have originated at the base of the tree of life, and 2 of 7 groups appear to be derived from a duplication event prior to or coincident with land plant evolution. Within land plants, local expansion continues within select groups, while several groups are strictly maintained as one gene copy per genome. Conclusions Defining the CDF gene family phylogeny contributes to our understanding of this family in several ways. First, when embarking upon functional studies of the members, defining primary groups improves the predictive power of functional assignment of orthologous/paralogous genes and aids in hypothesis generation. Second, defining groups will allow a group-specific sequence motif to be generated that will help define future CDF family sequences and aid in functional motif

  5. Flora ficológica da região sublitorânea rasa de costões rochosos do Núcleo Picinguaba, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, Ubatuba, São Paulo Phycological flora from the shallow sublittoral zone of the rocky shores of Serra do Mar State Park, Ubatuba, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisa Eneida Marques Machado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Em unidades de conservação da zona costeira, o conhecimento das macroalgas marinhas é essencial para monitoramento e manejo. Para o Núcleo Picinguaba do Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (PESM, Ubatuba, norte do Estado de São Paulo, estudos pretéritos realizados na Enseada da Fazenda listam espécies de macroalgas, coletadas em costões rochosos e manguezais. O presente estudo visou complementar o levantamento taxonômico da flora ficológica marinha do Núcleo Picinguaba, avaliando também a adequação da metodologia para amostragens de suas comunidades de costões rochosos. Foram selecionados 13 pontos de coleta, entre a Ponta da Almada e a Ponta do Cambury, área de maior interferência antropogênica na zona costeira do PESM. No verão de 2007, foram efetuadas coletas de macroalgas, desde a franja da região sublitorânea até o limite do substrato rochoso com a areia. Para uniformizar o esforço amostral, estas buscas foram efetuadas, em cada ponto de coleta, pelo mesmo especialista, durante uma hora de mergulho em apnéia, em uma extensão horizontal do costão rochoso de cerca de 20 m. Foram identificados 128 táxons de categoria infragenérica (80 Rhodophyta, 22 Ochrophyta e 26 Chlorophyta. Callithamniella flexilis Baardseth, Cryptonemia seminervis (C. Agardh J. Agardh, Cladophora pseudorupestris C. Hoek e Cladophora cf. pygmaea Reinke são ocorrências novas para o litoral do Estado de São Paulo, tendo sido descritas e ilustradas. Foram acrescentadas 64 espécies de macroalgas para os costões rochosos do PESM. O esforço amostral foi considerado adequado, resultando na identificação de número de espécies de macroalgas similar ao de outros estudos realizados no litoral norte do estado de São Paulo e no extremo sul do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Para o monitoramento da zona costeira desta unidade de conservação, recomenda-se o levantamento taxonômico das macroalgas dos costões rochosos de modo continuado, durante o per

  6. Levantamento florístico das macroalgas da baía de Sepetiba e adjacências, RJ: ponto de partida para o Programa GloBallast no Brasil Floristic survey of the macroalgae from Sepetiba bay and surrounding area, Rio de Janeiro State: starting point for the GloBallast Programme in Brazil

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    Maria Teresa Menezes de Széchy

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O Porto de Sepetiba, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, foi escolhido, no Brasil, como área-piloto do projeto "Remoção de barreiras para a implementação efetiva do controle de água de lastro e medidas de gestão em países em desenvolvimento" (Programa GloBallast. Para possibilitar comparações, os seis países participantes do Programa GloBallast foram orientados a adotar a mesma metodologia para o levantamento preliminar da biota das áreas-pilotos valorizando a identificação em nível de espécie. O presente estudo teve como objetivo aplicar metodologia estabelecida pelo Centro para Pesquisa sobre Espécies Marinhas Introduzidas, da Austrália (Procedimento CRIMP, com algumas adaptações, no levantamento florístico das macroalgas de substratos consolidados naturais da área-piloto do Porto de Sepetiba. Coletas de macroalgas foram realizadas em novembro/2001, em nove locais da baía de Sepetiba e adjacências, desde a franja da região sublitorânea até cerca de -4 m de profundidade. Em cada local, seis quadrados de 0,1 m² de área foram raspados. O material foi depositado no Herbário do Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro (RB. Das 96 espécies identificadas (20 Chlorophyta, 16 Phaeophyta, 60 Rhodophyta, 12 não haviam sido citadas anteriormente para a área de estudo. Cladophora pellucidoidea C. Hoek, Coelothrix irregularis (Harv. Boergesen e Acrochaetium savianum (Menegh. Nägeli são ocorrências novas para o Estado. Não há indícios de que as novas ocorrências equivalem a espécies recentemente introduzidas por meio das atividades portuárias. O procedimento metodológico adotado mostrou-se eficiente, resultando em listagem de espécies comparável às de levantamentos florísticos com maior esforço amostral e complementando os dados pretéritos existentes para a baía de Sepetiba e adjacências. No entanto, ressalta-se a importância de uma reavaliação das escalas temporal e espacial da estratégia de

  7. Patterns and breaking points in the distribution of benthic algae along the temperate Pacific coast of South America Patrones y puntos de quiebre en la distribución de algas bentónicas a lo largo de la costa Pacífica de Sudamérica

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    ISABEL MENESES

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available According to biogeographic studies made two decades ago, marine benthic algal species of the Pacific temperate coast of South America could be grouped into five components according to their geographic affinities. Each of these components was distributed differentially along the coastline between 4º and 56ºS and thus, their contribution to the overall flora varied depending on the latitude. Species composition changed at specific latitudes in such a way that three groups could be observed: from 4 to 6ºS, from 6 to 30ºS and from 30 to 55ºS. Since 1980, new information on marine algae along this coastline allows a review of the previous phytogeographic characterization. The presence/absence of algal species, separated by division and geographic affinity, was recorded for each degree of latitude from 4º to 56ºS and used to analyze the similarity in species composition and possible changes in distribution patterns. Results show the same five geographic components detected 20 years ago with similar distributions. Differences observed are a further southward intrusion of subtropical elements, a decrease in endemic species number and relative contribution to the flora at the southern tip of South America, and two breaking points in species composition at 12º and 42ºS. Another two breaking points occur at 20ºS and at 33ºS in Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta species composition respectively. The inclusion of single-record species does not affect significantly the distribution of species along this coastlineDe acuerdo a estudios biogeográficos realizados hace 20 años, las especies de algas marinas bentónicas de la costa temperada del Pacífico de Sudamérica se agrupan en 5 componentes de distinta afinidad geográfica. Cada uno de estos componentes posee una distribución diferencial a lo largo de estas costas entre los 4º y los 55ºS. De esta forma su contribución a la flora varía dependiendo de la latitud. La composición de las especies

  8. First retrievals of methane isotopologues from FTIR ground-based observations

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    Bader, Whitney; Strong, Kimberly; Walker, Kaley; Buzan, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Whitney Bader has received funding from the European Union's Horizon2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement n˚ 704951, and from the University of Toronto through a Faculty of Arts & Science Postdoctoral Fellowship Award. References Bader, W., Bovy, B., Conway, S., Strong, K., Smale, D., Turner, A. J., Blumenstock, T., Boone, C., Coulon, A., Garcia, O., Griffith, D. W. T., Hase, F., Hausmann, P., Jones, N., Krummel, P., Murata, I., Morino, I., Nakajima, H., O'Doherty, S., Paton-Walsh, C., Robinson, J., Sandrin, R., Schneider, M., Servais, C., Sussmann, R. and Mahieu, E.: Ten years of atmospheric methane from ground-based NDACC FTIR observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 1-31, doi:10.5194/acp-2016-699, 2016. Buzan, E. M., Beale, C. A., Boone, C. D. and Bernath, P. F.: Global stratospheric measurements of the isotopologues of methane from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9(3), 1095-1111, doi:10.5194/amt-9-1095-2016, 2016. Marsh, D. R., Mills, M. J., Kinnison, D. E., Lamarque, J.-F., Calvo, N. and Polvani, L. M.: Climate Change from 1850 to 2005 Simulated in CESM1(WACCM), J. Clim., 26(19), 7372-7391, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00558.1, 2013. Rothman, L. S., Gordon, I. E., Babikov, Y., Barbe, A., Chris Benner, D., Bernath, P. F., Birk, M., Bizzocchi, L., Boudon, V., Brown, L. R., Campargue, A., Chance, K., Cohen, E. A., Coudert, L. H., Devi, V. M., Drouin, B. J., Fayt, A., Flaud, J.-M., Gamache, R. R., Harrison, J. J., Hartmann, J.-M., Hill, C., Hodges, J. T., Jacquemart, D., Jolly, A., Lamouroux, J., Le Roy, R. J., Li, G., Long, D. A., Lyulin, O. M., Mackie, C. J., Massie, S. T., Mikhailenko, S., Müller, H. S. P., Naumenko, O. V., Nikitin, A. V., Orphal, J., Perevalov, V., Perrin, A., Polovtseva, E. R., Richard, C., Smith, M. A. H., Starikova, E., Sung, K., Tashkun, S., Tennyson, J., Toon, G. C., Tyuterev, V. G. and Wagner, G.: The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic

  9. Carbon isotopic fractionation in macroalgae from Cádiz Bay (Southern Spain): Comparison with other bio-geographic regions

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    Mercado, Jesús M.; de los Santos, Carmen B.; Lucas Pérez-Lloréns, J.; Vergara, Juan J.

    2009-11-01

    The 13C signature of forty-five macroalgal species from intertidal zones at Cádiz Bay was analysed in order to research the extension of diffusive vs. non-diffusive utilisation of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and to perform a comparison with data published for other bio-geographic regions. The ∂ 13C values ranged from -6.8‰ to -33‰, although the span of variation was different depending on the taxa. Thus, ∂ 13C for Chlorophyta varied from -7‰ ( Codium adhaerens) to -29.6‰ ( Flabellia petiolata), while all the Phaeophyceae (excepting Padina pavonica with ∂ 13C higher than -10‰) had values between -10‰, and -20‰. The widest variation range was recorded in Rhodophyta, from values above -10‰ ( Liagora viscida) to values lower than -30‰ obtained in three species belonging to the subclass Rhodymeniophycidae. Accordingly, the mean ∂ 13C value calculated for red algae (-20.2‰) was significantly lower than that for brown (-15.9‰) and green algae (-15.6‰). Most of the analysed red algae were species inhabiting crevices and the low intertidal fringe which explains that, on average, the shaded-habitat species had a ∂ 13C value lower than those growing fully exposed to sun (i.e. in rockpools or at the upper intertidal zone). The comparison between the capacity for non-diffusive use of DIC (i.e. active or facilitated transport of HCO 3- and/or CO 2) and the ∂ 13C values reveals that values more negative than -30‰ indicate that photosynthesis is dependent on CO 2 diffusive entry, whereas values above this threshold would not indicate necessary the operation of a non-diffusive DIC transport mechanism. Furthermore, external carbonic anhydrase activity ( extCA) and ∂ 13C values were negatively correlated indicating that the higher the dependence of the photosynthesis on the CO 2 supplied from HCO 3- via extCA, the lower the ∂ 13C in the algal material. The comparison between the ∂ 13C values obtained for the analysed species and those

  10. MACROALGAS E QUALIDADE DA ÁGUA NA BACIA DO ALTO RIO NEGRO - MUNICÍPIO DE SÃO GABRIEL DA CACHOEIRA (AM.

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    Domitila Pascoaloto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram investigadas as comunidades de macroalgas do rio Negro, no município de São Gabriel da Cachoeira. Em setembro/2007 foram visitados cinco sítios amostrais, próximos à sede da cidade; em Março/2008 foram investigados oito sítios amostrais, entre a comunidade Amium (hemisfério norte e a sede da cidade (hemisfério sul; em agosto de 2008 foram investigadas as comunidades de macroalgas e a qualidade da água do rio Negro e onze afluentes, entre os rios Içana (hemisfério norte e Marie, no hemisfério sul; em abril/2009 foram coletadas macroalgas e água no rio Negro e em igarapés de água com tonalidade vermelha, na sede da cidade; em maio/2009 foram feitas coletas de água no rio Negro entre a comunidade de Cucuí, onde o rio Negro entra no Brasil e a sede do município. As águas dos locais apresentaram características típicas de rio de “água preta”: pH ácido ( 6,0 mgO2/L. As entidades ecológicas de macroalgas observadas pertenceram aos gêneros Batrachospermum Roth (Batrachospermaceae, Rhodophyta; Microspora Thuret (Microsporaceae, Chorophyta, Oedogonium Link ex Hirn (Oedogoniaceae, Chorophyta; Oscillatoria Vaucher ex Gomont (Oscillatoriaceae, Cyanophyta; Phormidium Kützing ex Gomont (Phormidiaceae, Cyanophyta; Spirogyra Link (Zygnemaceae, Chlorophyta; Tabellaria Ehrenberge ex Kützing (Fragilariophyceae, Bacillariophyta. Na sede da cidade, a macroalga mais freqüente (50% dos registros foi Spirogyra spp.. Foram encontradas macroalgas com hábitos eplilíticos e efíticos Gametófitos de Batrachospermum spp. foram observados em três sítios amostrais (em troncos ou rochas em setembro/2007, período de águas mais baixas, porém não foram encontradas macroalgas nesses locais em março/2008, quando o rio estava mais cheio. No entanto, em agosto de 2008, quando o rio também estava em período de águas altas, foram observados, em fragmentos rochosos na orla da sede do município, filamentos férteis de Batrachospermum sp

  11. Taxocoenosis of epibenthic dinoflagellates in the coastal waters of the northern Yucatan Peninsula before and after the harmful algal bloom event in 2011-2012.

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    Aguilar-Trujillo, Ana C; Okolodkov, Yuri B; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Merino-Virgilio, Fany Del C; Galicia-García, Citlalli

    2017-06-15

    Eutrophication causes the major impact in the coastal waters of the state of Yucatan. In general, loss of water quality and biological communities and massive development of toxic microorganisms are some of the consequences of this phenomenon. To reveal changes in species composition and cell abundance of the taxocoenosis of epibenthic dinoflagellates before and after a harmful algal bloom event in the water column that lasted about 150days (August-December 2011) in the Dzilam - San Crisanto area (northern Yucatan Peninsula, southeastern Gulf of Mexico) were the main objectives of the present study. In August 2011 and September 2012, sampling along 20 transects perpendicular to the coastline along the entire northern Yucatan coast, starting from 20 sampling sites from El Cuyo in the east to Celestún in the west, at a distance of 50, 150 and 250m from the coast, was carried out. Physicochemical characteristics measured before and after the bloom were within the ranges previously reported in the study area. Salinity was the most stable characteristic, with mean values of 36.25 and 36.42 in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Phosphates were the only parameter that showed a wide range with higher values before the bloom (0.03-0.54μM/l). A total of 168 macrophyte (seaweeds and seagrasses), sponge and sediment samples (105 in 2011 and 63 in 2012) that included associated microphytobenthos were taken by snorkeling from 0.7 to 5m depth. Six substrate types were distinguished: Chlorophyta, Phaeophyceae, Rhodophyta, Angiospermae (seagrasses), Demospongiae (sponges) and sediment. Chlorophytes dominated the collected samples: 38 samples in 2011 and 23 in 2012. Avrainvillea longicaulis f. laxa predominated before the bloom and Udotea flabellum after it. In total, 25 epibenthic dinoflagellate species from 11 genera were found. The genus Prorocentrum was the most representative in terms of the number of species. The highest total dinoflagellate cell abundances were observed in the

  12. Isolamento, fracionamento e avaliação toxicológica in vivo de polissacarídeos sulfatados de Hypnea musciformis Isolation, fractionation and in vivo toxicological evaluation of sulfated polysaccharides from Hypnea musciformis

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    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se isolar, fracionar e avaliar a toxicidade in vivo dos polissacarídeos sulfatados (PSs da rodofícea Hypnea musciformis, quando obtidos por três métodos de extração (M I; M II e M III. Os PSs foram extraídos com papaína em tampão acetato de sódio 100mM (pH 5,0, contendo cisteína e EDTA (5mM (M I ou água (25-80°C (M II; 80°C (M III e, em seguida, determinados sua composição química de carboidratos totais, sulfato livre (SL e proteínas contaminantes (PCs. Os PSs foram submetidos à cromatografia de troca iônica (DEAE-celulose usando um gradiente de cloreto de sódio, sendo avaliado o grau de homogeneidade e densidade de carga por eletroforese em gel de agarose das frações obtidas e comparadas à heparina. O ensaio in vivo foi realizado em grupos (n=6 de camundongos Swiss machos e fêmeas (24-33g, os quais receberam: PSs (9mg kg-1; i.p. isentos do PCs (M I e salina 0,9% (0,1mL 10g-1; i.p., durante 14 dias consecutivos. No 15o dia, os animais foram anestesiados e sacrificados para coletas de sangue e órgãos, os quais foram utilizados para dosagens bioquímicas e correlações com suas massas corpóreas, respectivamente. O teor de SL (31,05±0,53% (P0,05.This study aimed to isolate, fractionate and evaluate the in vivo toxicity of sulfated polysaccharides (SPs from Hypnea musciformis (Rhodophyta, when obtained by three extraction methods (M I, M II and M III. SPs were extracted with papain in 100mM sodium acetate (pH 5.0 containing cysteine and EDTA (5mM (M I or water (25-80°C (M II, 80°C (M III, and then their chemical composition of total carbohydrates, free sulfate (FS and contaminant proteins (CPs was determined. SPs were submitted to ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-celulose using a sodium chloride gradient, being the degree of homogeneity and charge density evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis of the fractions obtained and compared to heparin. The in vivo assay was performed using groups (n=6 of male and

  13. The extreme environments and their microbes as models for extraterrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckbach, J.; Oren, A.; Chela-Flores, J.

    2008-09-01

    British Penetrator Consortium (Smith et al., 2008), a modest penetration depth of penetrators (instruments in the process of development to be deployed on planetary bodies such as the Moon to bury themselves into the surface) into the icy surface of Europa would be sufficient to obtain samples that can be used to correctly interpret isotopic abundances of sulfur. When derived from the activity of putative S-reducing microbes, the sulfur can be used as a biomarker, based on its characteristic isotopic composition, not influenced by radiation interference. References Blanc, M. and the LAPLACE consortium (2008). LAPLACE: a mission to Europa and the Jupiter System, Astrophysical Instruments and Methods, in press. (The LAPLACE Consortium: http://www.ictp.it/~chelaf/ss164.html). Chela-Flores, J. (2006). The sulphur dilemma: Are there biosignatures on Europa's icy and patchy surface? International Journal of Astrobiology 5: 17-22. Chela-Flores, J. and Kumar, N. (2008). Returning to Europa: Can traces of surficial life be detected? International Journal of Astrobiology, in press. Dudeja, S., Bhattacherjee, A.B. and Chela-Flores, J. (2008). Manuscript in preparation. Greenberg, R. (2005). Europa - The Ocean Moon. Springer and Praxia Publishing, Chichester, 328 pp. Oren, A. (2002). Halophilic Microorganisms and their Environments. Kluwer Scientific Publishers, Dordrecht, 575 pp. Oren, A. (2008). Life at low water activity. Halophilic micro-organisms and their adaptations. The Biochemist, in press. Seckbach, J. (1994). The natural history of Cyanidium (Geitler 1933): past and present perspectives. in: Seckbach, J. (ed.), Evolutionary Pathways and Enigmatic Algae: Cyanidium caldarium (Rhodophyta) and Related Cells, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 99-112. Seckbach, J., Baker, F.A. and Shugarman, P.M. (1970). Algae thrive under pure CO2. Nature 227: 744-745. Seckbach, J. and Chela-Flores, J. (2007). Extremophiles and chemotrophs as contributors to astrobiological signatures