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  1. GEOCHEMICAL AND CLAY-MINERAL STUDY OF HEALING MUD FROM WUDALIANCHI, NE CHINA

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    S. Rasskazov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the centuries, people have used healing mud (peloids to draw toxins out of the body, boost the immune system, cure psoriasis, acne, depression, and hair loss. The beauty industry has used mud-clay masks, body wraps, soaps, and baths. The useful properties of mud were established empirically. The most popular healing-mud spars are known in the Dead Sea in Israel, Baden-Baden in Germany, Calistoga in California, Budapest in Hungary, Akhtala and Kumisi in Georgia, Paratunka in Kamchatka, Wudalianchi in China.

  2. Introduction of sub-lithospheric component into melted lithospheric base by propagating crack: Case study of migrated Quaternary volcanoes in Wudalianchi, China

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    Chuvashova, Irina; Sun, Yi-min

    2016-04-01

    mantle beneath the northern Songliao basin and that admixture of the common sub-lithospheric component was locally introduced into the melted region by mechanism of propagating crack. This study is based on analytical data obtained for volcanic rocks in the Chinese-Russian Wudalianchi-Baikal Research Center on recent volcanism and environment. Major oxides were determined by "wet chemistry" at the Institute of the Earth's Crust SB RAS, Irkutsk. Trace-elements were measured by ICP-MS technique using mass-spectrometer Agilent 7500ce of the Center for collective use "Microanalysis" (Limnological Institute of SB RAS, Irkutsk) and Nd, Pb, and Sr isotopes by TIMS technique using mass-spectrometer Finnigan MAT 262 of the Center for collective use "Geodynamics and geochronology" (Institute of the Earth's Crust SB RAS). The work was supported by the RFBR grant № 16-05-00774. References Chuvashova, I.S., Rasskazov, S.V., Liu, J., Meng, F., Yasnygina, T.A., Fefelov, N.N., Saranina, E.V., 2009. Isotopically-enriched components in evolution of Late Cenozoic potassic magmatism in Heilongjiang province, northeast China, Proceedings of the Irkutsk State University. Series of Earth Sciences, 2 (2), pp. 181-198. Guide book for field mission to Wudalianchi National Park, China, 2010. Prepared by Wudalianchi National Park and Nature Management Committee Heilongjiang province, 50 p. Foulger, G.R., 2010. Plates vs. plumes: a geological controversy. Wiley-Blackwell, 328 p. Rasskazov, S.V., Yasnygina, T.A., Chuvashova, I.S. Mantle sources of the Cenozoic volcanic rocks of East Asia: Derivatives of slabs, the sub-lithospheric convection, and the lithosphere. Russian Journal of Pacific Geology. 2014. V. 8 (5), 355-371. Wang, Y., Chen, H., 2005. Tectonic controls on the Pleistocene-Holocene Wudalianchi volcanic field (northeastern China), Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 24, pp. 419-431.

  3. Prevalence of Hymenolepis nana and H. diminuta from Brown Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Heilongjiang Province, China.

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    Yang, Di; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yichi; Liu, Aiqin

    2017-06-01

    Hymenolepis nana and Hymenolepis diminuta are globally widespread zoonotic cestodes. Rodents are the main reservoir host of these cestodes. Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) are the best known and most common rats, and usually live wherever humans live, especially in less than desirable hygiene conditions. Due to the little information of the 2 hymenolepidid species in brown rats in China, the aim of this study was to understand the prevalence and genetic characterization of H. nana and H. diminuta in brown rats in Heilongjiang Province, China. Total 114 fecal samples were collected from brown rats in Heilongjiang Province. All the samples were subjected to morphological examinations by microscopy and genetic analysis by PCR amplification of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) gene and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene. In total, 6.1% (7/114) and 14.9% (17/114) of samples were positive for H. nana and H. diminuta, respectively. Among them, 7 and 3 H. nana isolates were successfully amplified and sequenced at the COX1 and ITS2 loci, respectively. No nucleotide variations were found among H. nana isolates at either of the 2 loci. Seventeen H. diminuta isolates produced 2 different COX1 sequences while 7 ITS2 sequences obtained were identical to each other. The present results of H. nana and H. diminuta infections in brown rats implied the risk of zoonotic transmission of hymenolepiasis in China. These molecular data will be helpful to deeply study intra-specific variations within Hymenolepis cestodes in the future.

  4. Investigating crash injury severity at unsignalized intersections in Heilongjiang Province, China

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    Yulong Pei

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies suggest that more crashes occur due to mixed traffic flow at unsignalized intersections. However, very little is known about the injury severity of these crashes. The objective of this study is therefore to investigate how contributory factors affect crash injury severity at unsignalized intersections. The dataset used for this analysis derived from police crash reports from Dec. 2006 to Apr. 2009 in Heilongjiang Province, China. An ordered probit model was developed to predict the probability that the injury severity of a crash will be one of four levels : no injury, slight injury, severe injury, and fatal injury. The injury severity of a crash was evaluated in terms of the most severe injury sustained by any person involved in the crash. Results from the present study showed that different factors had varying effects on crash injury severity. Factors found to resuit in the increased probability of serious injuries include adverse weather, sideswiping with pedestrians on poor surface, the interaction of rear-ends and the third-class highway, winter night without illumination, and the interaction between traffic signs or markings and the third-class highway. Although there are some limitations in the current study, this study provides more insights into crash injury severity at unsignalized intersections.

  5. Fluoride concentrations in a range of ready-to-drink beverages consumed in Heilongjiang Province, north-east China.

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    Liu, Ying; Maguire, Anne; Tianqui, Guan; Yanguo, Shi; Zohoori, Fatemeh V

    2017-03-01

    Consumption of ready-to-drink beverages, as a potential source of fluoride (F), has increased considerably in China over the last decade. To help inform the public and policy makers, this study aimed to measure F concentration of ready-to-drink beverages on sale in Heilongjiang province, north east China. Three batches of 106 drink products manufactured by 26 companies were purchased from the main national supermarkets in Harbin, Heilongjiang province, China. The F concentration of all samples was determined, in triplicate, using a fluoride ion-selective electrode in conjunction with a meter and a direct method of analysis. The products were categorised into 10 groups according to product type. F concentrations of the samples ranged from 0.012-1.625 mg/l with a mean of 0.189 mg/l and a median of 0.076 mg/l. More than half of the products (55%) had an F concentration of ≤0.1 mg/l, while 0.7 mg/l. The 'tea with milk' group contained the highest mean F concentration (1.350 mg/l), whereas the lowest mean F concentration (0.027 mg/l) was found for the 'fruit juice' group. For some products, such as tea, fruit juice and carbonated beverages, there were substantial variations in F concentration between batches, manufacturers and production sites. In conclusion, ready-to-drink products (apart from tea), sold in Heilongjiang province, China, when consumed in moderation are unlikely to constitute a substantial risk factor for the development of dental or skeletal fluorosis.

  6. Geochemistry and Geochronology of the Heilongjiang Complex and Its Implications in the Late Paleozoic Tectonics of Eastern NE China

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    GE, M.; Zhang, J.; Liu, K.; Ling, Y.; Wang, M.; Wang, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Paleozoic to early Mesozoic tectonic framework of Northeast China, especially the Jiamusi block and its related structural belts, are highly debated. In this contribution, geochemical, geochronological and isotopic analyses were carried out on the basalts in the Heilongjiang complex to address these issues. The Heilongjiang complex defines the suture belt between the Jiamusi block and the Songliao block in Northeast China, and the blueschist is a major composition for this complex, coexisting with ultramafic rocks, amphibolite, greenschist, quartzite and mica schist. The blueschist has a mineral association of sodic amphibole, epidote, chlorite, phengite, albite and quartz with accessory phases of apatite, titanite, zircon and ilmenite. Together with the lithological association, the geochemical results present that the protoliths of the blueschist can be divided into the alkaline and tholeiitic basalts and have OIB affinities, formed in an ocean island setting, indicated by the (La/Yb) N values of 3.57 - 11.54, and the (La/Sm) N values of 0.69 - 3.64. The high and positive ɛNd (t) values of + 3.7 to +9.0, and relative enrichment in Nb and Ta show that both the alkaline and tholeiitic basalts may be derived from the asthenospheric mantle. Magmatic zircons from the blueschist in Yilan area yield a 206Pb/238U age of 281 - 288 Ma, interpreted as its protolithic age. The amphibolite from Xiachengzi area has a zircon U-Pb age of 248 ± 4 Ma, interpreted as its protolith age and has N-MORB affinities, supported by (La/Yb)N ratios of 0.60-0.89 and (La/Sm)N of 0.62-0.84, and high ɛNd (t) values ranging from + 7.8 to + 9.5, deriving from a depleted mantle source. A new 40Ar/39Ar amphibole plateau age of 195 ± 3 Ma and a youngest age of 200 Ma of the detrital zircons from Heilongjiang complex are reported to constrain the metamorphic age of the Heilongjiang complex. In addition, a huge north-south trending granitic belt generated from 174 Ma - 200 Ma has been

  7. Evaluation of Four Methods for Predicting Carbon Stocks of Korean Pine Plantations in Heilongjiang Province, China.

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    Huilin Gao

    Full Text Available A total of 89 trees of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis were destructively sampled from the plantations in Heilongjiang Province, P.R. China. The sample trees were measured and calculated for the biomass and carbon stocks of tree components (i.e., stem, branch, foliage and root. Both compatible biomass and carbon stock models were developed with the total biomass and total carbon stocks as the constraints, respectively. Four methods were used to evaluate the carbon stocks of tree components. The first method predicted carbon stocks directly by the compatible carbon stocks models (Method 1. The other three methods indirectly predicted the carbon stocks in two steps: (1 estimating the biomass by the compatible biomass models, and (2 multiplying the estimated biomass by three different carbon conversion factors (i.e., carbon conversion factor 0.5 (Method 2, average carbon concentration of the sample trees (Method 3, and average carbon concentration of each tree component (Method 4. The prediction errors of estimating the carbon stocks were compared and tested for the differences between the four methods. The results showed that the compatible biomass and carbon models with tree diameter (D as the sole independent variable performed well so that Method 1 was the best method for predicting the carbon stocks of tree components and total. There were significant differences among the four methods for the carbon stock of stem. Method 2 produced the largest error, especially for stem and total. Methods 3 and Method 4 were slightly worse than Method 1, but the differences were not statistically significant. In practice, the indirect method using the mean carbon concentration of individual trees was sufficient to obtain accurate carbon stocks estimation if carbon stocks models are not available.

  8. Evaluation of Four Methods for Predicting Carbon Stocks of Korean Pine Plantations in Heilongjiang Province, China.

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    Gao, Huilin; Dong, Lihu; Li, Fengri; Zhang, Lianjun

    2015-01-01

    A total of 89 trees of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) were destructively sampled from the plantations in Heilongjiang Province, P.R. China. The sample trees were measured and calculated for the biomass and carbon stocks of tree components (i.e., stem, branch, foliage and root). Both compatible biomass and carbon stock models were developed with the total biomass and total carbon stocks as the constraints, respectively. Four methods were used to evaluate the carbon stocks of tree components. The first method predicted carbon stocks directly by the compatible carbon stocks models (Method 1). The other three methods indirectly predicted the carbon stocks in two steps: (1) estimating the biomass by the compatible biomass models, and (2) multiplying the estimated biomass by three different carbon conversion factors (i.e., carbon conversion factor 0.5 (Method 2), average carbon concentration of the sample trees (Method 3), and average carbon concentration of each tree component (Method 4)). The prediction errors of estimating the carbon stocks were compared and tested for the differences between the four methods. The results showed that the compatible biomass and carbon models with tree diameter (D) as the sole independent variable performed well so that Method 1 was the best method for predicting the carbon stocks of tree components and total. There were significant differences among the four methods for the carbon stock of stem. Method 2 produced the largest error, especially for stem and total. Methods 3 and Method 4 were slightly worse than Method 1, but the differences were not statistically significant. In practice, the indirect method using the mean carbon concentration of individual trees was sufficient to obtain accurate carbon stocks estimation if carbon stocks models are not available.

  9. Ginkgoites myrioneurus sp nov and associated shoots from the Lower Cretaceous of the Jixi Basin, Heilongjiang, China

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    Yang, X.J. [Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing (China). Nanjing Institute of Geology & Palaeontology

    2004-10-01

    Ginkgoalean leaves attributed to Ginkgoites myrioneurus sp. nov. and associated long and dwarf shoots were collected from the Lower Cretaceous coal-bearing Muling Formation of the Jixi Basin, eastern Heilongjiang, China. The common characteristic feature of the various leaves is the dense venation. The species may be distinguished from other known species of Ginkgoites from the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous of eastern Asia in having 8-18 closely arranged oblanceolate segments each with 6-16 veins. The fragmentary long and dwarf shoots are similar to those of extant Ginkgo biloba in gross morphology. They are considered to belong to the same tree as that which produced Ginkgoites myrioneurus.

  10. Combinations of Hd2 and Hd4 genes determine rice adaptability to Heilongjiang Province, northern limit of China.

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    Li, Xiufeng; Liu, Huazhao; Wang, Maoqing; Liu, Hualong; Tian, Xiaojie; Zhou, Wenjia; Lü, Tianxiao; Wang, Zhenyu; Chu, Chengcai; Fang, Jun; Bu, Qingyun

    2015-08-01

    Heading date is a key trait in rice domestication and adaption, and a number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been identified. The rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars in the Heilongjiang Province, the northernmost region of China, have to flower extremely early to fulfill their life cycle. However, the critical genes or different gene combinations controlling early flowering in this region have not been determined. QTL and candidate gene analysis revealed that Hd2/Ghd7.1/OsPRR37 plays a major role in controlling rice distribution in Heilongjiang. Further association analysis with a collection of rice cultivars demonstrated that another three major QTL genes (Hd4/Ghd7, Hd5/DTH8/Ghd8, and Hd1) also participate in regulating heading date under natural long day (LD) conditions. Hd2/Ghd7.1/OsPRR37 and Hd4/Ghd7 are two major QTLs and function additively. With the northward rice cultivation, the Hd2/Ghd7.1/OsPRR37 and Hd4/Ghd7 haplotypes became non-functional alleles. Hd1 might be non-functional in most Heilongjiang rice varieties, implying that recessive hd1 were selected during local rice breeding. Non-functional Hd5/DTH8/Ghd8 is very rare, but constitutes a potential target for breeding extremely early flowering cultivars. Our results indicated that diverse genetic combinations of Hd1, Hd2, Hd4, and Hd5 determined the different distribution of rice varieties in this northernmost province of China. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  11. MLST subtypes and population genetic structure of Cryptosporidium andersoni from dairy cattle and beef cattle in northeastern China's Heilongjiang Province.

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    Wei Zhao

    Full Text Available Cattle are the main reservoir host of C. andersoni, which shows a predominance in yearlings and adults of cattle. To understand the subtypes of C. andersoni and the population genetic structure in Heilongjiang Province, fecal specimens were collected from 420 dairy cattle and 405 beef cattle at the age of 12-14 months in eight cattle farms in five areas within this province and were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts by microscopy after Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 19.15% (158/825 and all the Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. andersoni by the SSU rRNA gene nested PCR-RFLP using SspI, VspI and MboII restriction enzymes. A total of 50 C. andersoni isolates were randomly selected and sequenced to confirm the RFLP results before they were subtyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16. Four, one, two and one haplotypes were obtained at the four loci, respectively. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed an absolute predominance and a wide distribution among the six MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of a clonal population genetic structure of C. andersoni in cattle, suggesting the absence of recombination among lineages. The finding of a clonal population genetic structure indicated that the prevalence of C. andersoni in cattle in Heilongjiang Province is not attributed to the introduction of cattle. Thus, prevention and control strategies should be focused on making stricter measures to avoid the occurrence of cross-transmission and re-infection between cattle individuals. These molecular data will also be helpful to explore the source attribution of infection/contamination of C. andersoni and to elucidate its transmission dynamics in Heilongjiang Province, even in China.

  12. Trends in prevalence of clonorchiasis among patients in Heilongjiang province, Northeast China (2009-2012: implications for monitoring and control.

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    Su Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis is an important zoonotic parasitic disease worldwide. Past estimates showed the prevalence increased based on studies undertaken ten years or more ago. However, control strategies, changing ecology and migration may have resulted to changes in the prevalence of clonorchiasis. The purpose of the present study was to analysis the prevalence and epidemiological characterisation of clonorchiasis in Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 4951 clinically suspected outpatients were examined from January 2009 to December 2012. Overall prevalence of clonorchiasis was 25.93% (1284/4951 by the combination strategy of the Kato-Katz technique (KK and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, with a significant increase from 22.53% in 2009 to 34.25% in 2012. Apart from Daxinganling city, clonorchiasis was reported throughout Heilongjiang Province and mainly along the Songhua River and Nen River basin, with an increased annual prevalence. The annual prevalence in men increased significantly in 2012 and was higher than that in women over 4 years. A similar pattern was seen for the annual infection rate in rural and urban areas. Farm labourers accounted for the majority of cases (65.93%, with a higher prevalence than in other occupations. Consumption of freshwater fish was considered the strongest risk factor of clonorchiasis. The infection rates in the 40-49 and 50-59 years age groups showed a significant increasing trend in 2012. Cases of re-infection were common. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study revealed that clonorchiasis remained widespread and prevalent in Heilongjiang Province. An integrated control programme is urgently needed to reduce the public health impact of clonorchiasis in this endemic area.

  13. Using ORYZA2000 to model cold rice yield response to climate change in the Heilongjiang province, China

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    Jingting Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is one of the most important staple crops in China. Increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and associated climate change may greatly affect rice production. We assessed the potential impacts of climate change on cold rice production in the Heilongjiang province, one of China's most important rice production regions. Data for a baseline period (1961–1990 and the period 2010–2050 in A2 and B2 scenarios were used as input to drive the rice model ORYZA2000 with and without accounting for the effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. The results indicate that mean, maximum, and minimum temperature during the rice growing season, in the future period considered, would increase by 1.8 °C under the A2 scenario and by 2.2 °C under the B2 scenario compared with those in the baseline. The rate of change in average maximum and minimum temperatures would increase by 0.6 °C per 10-year period under the A2 scenario and by 0.4 °C per 10-year period under the B2 scenario. Precipitation would increase slightly in the rice growing season over the next 40 years. The rice growing season would be shortened and the yield would increase in most areas in the Heilongjiang province. Without accounting for CO2 effect, the rice growing season in the period 2010–2050 would be shortened by 4.7 and 5.8 days, and rice yields would increase by 11.9% and 7.9%, under the A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively. Areas with simulated rice yield increases greater than 30.0% were in the Xiaoxing'an Mountain region. The simulation indicated a decrease in yield of less than 15% in the southwestern Songnen Plain. The rate of change in simulated rice yield was 5.0% and 2.5% per 10 years under the A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively. When CO2 effect was accounted for, rice yield increased by 44.5% and 31.3% under the A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively. The areas of increasing yield were sharply expanded. The area of decreasing yield in the

  14. Molecular identification of three Trichinella isolates from Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China.

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    Lu, Yixin; Han, Caixia; Yang, Jinyu; Li, Xiaoyun; Song, Mingxin

    2011-11-01

    DNAs of Trichinella dog isolate (HC), Trichinella swine isolate (HH) and Trichinella cat isolate (SW), obtained from Heilongjiang Province, were amplified by the fragments of 18S rDNA and ITS2. Two reference strains, Trichinella spiralis (ISS3) and Trichinella nativa (ISS10) were used for sequence comparison. Sequence and dendrogram analysis indicated that HC belonged to T. nativa and HH together with SW belonged to T. spiralis. This method permits rapid species identification of Trichinella isolates, although further evaluation is required before precisely identification. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Bacillus wudalianchiensis sp. nov., isolated from grass soils of the Wudalianchi scenic area.

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    Liu, Bo; Liu, Guo-Hong; Sengonca, Cetin; Schumann, Peter; Wang, Jie-Ping; Zhu, Yu-Jing; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2017-08-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, aerobic bacterium, designated FJAT-27215T, was isolated from grass soil collected from Wudalianchi in the Heilongjiang Province of China. Growth was observed at 10-60 °C (optimum 30 °C), in 0 and 3.0 % NaCl (optimum 0 %) and at pH 5.0-10.0 (optimum 7.0), respectively. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the isoprenoid quinone was MK7. The main fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, and iso-C16 : 0. The main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences affiliated strain FJAT-27215T to the genus Bacillus. Strain FJAT-27215T showed high sequence similarities to Bacillus encimensis SGD-V-25T (98.6 %), Bacillus badius NBRC 15713T (98.6 %), Domibacillus indicus SD111T (96.9 %) and Bacillus thermotolerans SgZ-8T (96.5 %). The average nucleotide identity values between strain FJAT-27215T and the type strains of closely related species were much lower than the 96 % threshold value for delineation of genomic prokaryotic species. The in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain FJAT-27215T and the most closely related strain B. encimensis SGD-V-25T showed a similarity of 22.4 % and lower than 70 %, indicating that they belong to different taxa. The phenotypic characters and taxono-genomics study revealed that strain FJAT-27215T represents a novel Bacillus species, for which the name Bacillus wudalianchiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FJAT-27215T (=CCTCC AB 2015266T=DSM 100757T).

  16. Molecular Identification of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense from 3 Human Cases in Heilongjiang Province with a Brief Literature Review in China

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    Zhang, Weizhe; Che, Fei; Tian, Song; Shu, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Human diphyllobothriasis is a widespread fish-borne zoonosis caused by the infection with broad tapeworms belonging to the genus Diphyllobothrium. In mainland China, so far 20 human cases of Diphyllobothrium infections have been reported, and the etiologic species were identified as D. latum and D. nihonkaiense based on morphological characteristics or molecular analysis. In the present study, proglottids of diphyllobothriid tapeworms from 3 human cases that occurred in Heilongjiang Province, China were identified as D. nihonkaiense by sequencing mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (nad5) genes. Two different cox1 gene sequences were obtained. One sequence showed 100% homology with those from humans in Japan. The remaining cox1 gene sequence and 2 different nad5 gene sequences obtained were not described previously, and might reflect endemic genetic characterizations. D. nihonkaiense might also be a major causative species of human diphyllobothriasis in China. Meanwhile, the finding of the first pediatric case of D. nihonkaiense infection in China suggests that infants infected with D. nihonkaiense should not be ignored. PMID:26797434

  17. Spatiotemporal analysis of the agricultural drought risk in Heilongjiang Province, China

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    Pei, Wei; Fu, Qiang; Liu, Dong; Li, Tian-xiao; Cheng, Kun; Cui, Song

    2017-06-01

    Droughts are natural disasters that pose significant threats to agricultural production as well as living conditions, and a spatial-temporal difference analysis of agricultural drought risk can help determine the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the drought risk within a region. Moreover, this type of analysis can provide a theoretical basis for the identification, prevention, and mitigation of drought disasters. In this study, the overall dispersion and local aggregation of projection points were based on research by Friedman and Tukey (IEEE Trans on Computer 23:881-890, 1974). In this work, high-dimensional samples were clustered by cluster analysis. The clustering results were represented by the clustering matrix, which determined the local density in the projection index. This method avoids the problem of determining a cutoff radius. An improved projection pursuit model is proposed that combines cluster analysis and the projection pursuit model, which offer advantages for classification and assessment, respectively. The improved model was applied to analyze the agricultural drought risk of 13 cities in Heilongjiang Province over 6 years (2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012, and 2014). The risk of an agricultural drought disaster was characterized by 14 indicators and the following four aspects: hazard, exposure, sensitivity, and resistance capacity. The spatial distribution and temporal variation characteristics of the agricultural drought risk in Heilongjiang Province were analyzed. The spatial distribution results indicated that Suihua, Qigihar, Daqing, Harbin, and Jiamusi are located in high-risk areas, Daxing'anling and Yichun are located in low-risk areas, and the differences among the regions were primarily caused by the aspects exposure and resistance capacity. The temporal variation results indicated that the risk of agricultural drought in most areas presented an initially increasing and then decreasing trend. A higher value for the exposure

  18. Detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data for meta-sedimentary rocks from the Heilongjiang Complex, northeastern China and tectonic implications

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    Zhu, Chloe Yanlin; Zhao, Guochun; Sun, Min; Han, Yigui; Liu, Qian; Eizenhöfer, Paul R.; Zhang, Xiaoran; Hou, Wenzhu

    2017-06-01

    The Heilongjiang Complex is a blueschist facies metamorphic belt located within the Zhangguangcailing Orogen between the Jiamusi and Songliao blocks in Northeast China. This complex has been regarded as an accretionary belt related to the subduction of an intervening oceanic domain between the two blocks. However, the timing of ocean closure and final amalgamation has not been well constrained, with different models arguing for a period of 210-180 Ma or sometime after 140 Ma. This work reports in-situ detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic analyses of meta-sedimentary rocks from the Heilongjiang Complex. Detrital zircons from seven meta-sedimentary rocks samples yield U-Pb ages spanning from 1690 to 167 Ma, with main populations matching those of multi-phase magmatism in the Jiamusi and Songliao blocks. Several Precambrian age groups (600 Ma, 700 Ma, 900 Ma, 960 Ma, 1200 Ma, and 1300 Ma) are consistent with the inherited zircons from the mafic rocks in the Heilongjiang Complex. A comparison with compiled data of magmatic rocks suggests that the two blocks may have been connected to each other during Permian time. Detrital zircon dating of all siliciclastic rocks yielded the youngest age component of 170 Ma, suggesting that the latest deposition of the mica schists happened at some time after 170 Ma. We propose that the Jiamusi and Songliao blocks once existed as a single block around Late Permian, which underwent a rifting event in the Permian to form a rifting basin that was subsequently evolved into an oceanic domain (Heilongjiang Ocean). The closure of the Heilongjiang Ocean occurred after 170 Ma.

  19. [Compatible biomass models for main tree species with measurement error in Heilongjiang Province of Northeast China].

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    Dong, Li-hu; Li, Feng-ri; Jia, Wei-wei; Liu, Fu-xiang; Wang, He-zhi

    2011-10-01

    Based on the biomass data of 516 sampling trees, and by using non-linear error-in-variable modeling approach, the compatible models for the total biomass and the biomass of six components including aboveground part, underground part, stem, crown, branch, and foliage of 15 major tree species (or groups) in Heilongjiang Province were established, and the best models for the total biomass and components biomass were selected. The compatible models based on total biomass were developed by adopting the method of joint control different level ratio function. The heteroscedasticity of the models for total biomass was eliminated with log transformation, and the weighted regression was applied to the models for each individual component. Among the compatible biomass models established for the 15 major species (or groups) , the model for total biomass had the highest prediction precision (90% or more), followed by the models for aboveground part and stem biomass, with a precision of 87.5% or more. The prediction precision of the biomass models for other components was relatively low, but it was still greater than 80% for most test tree species. The modeling efficiency (EF) values of the total, aboveground part, and stem biomass models for all the tree species (or groups) were over 0.9, and the EF values of the underground part, crown, branch, and foliage biomass models were over 0.8.

  20. Summary Report: Surveillance of Water Quality in the Songhua River Syatem in Heilongjiang Province, P.R. of China Harbin, Heilongjiang 26 February - 3 March 1997

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    Wathne, Bente M.; Borgvang, Stig A.; Dagestad, Kjersti

    1997-12-31

    This report describes the discussions and the commitments made during meetings in Harbin, China, between Chinese and Norwegian researchers participating in a project on the water quality of a river system in China

  1. Decoupling Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution from Crop Production: A Case Study of Heilongjiang Land Reclamation Area, China

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    Qingshan Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern agriculture often leads to nonpoint source pollution. From the perspective of a decoupling analysis, this research evaluates the relationship between crop production and agricultural nonpoint source pollution (via fertilizer application, using the Heilongjiang land reclamation area as a case study. As it is the largest commodity grain base and green food base in China, more than 80% of water pollution in this area comes from fertilizer application. This study adopts an export coefficient model to hindcast nitrogen loss delivered to surface water via fertilizer application and conduct a further analysis of decoupling agricultural nonpoint source pollution from crop production. The results indicated that weak decoupling frequently occurred. However, this tendency was not steady in the period 2001–2012, and weak decoupling was typical in each branch based on the average value. Regarding the example of decoupling agricultural nonpoint source pollution from rice production, weak decoupling occurred more often, but this tendency was not steady over time. In addition, expansive coupling occurred in 2006, 2010 and 2012, and there were no definite signs of it improving. All branches, except for the Suihua branch, reached the degree of weak decoupling. A basic fact is that a decoupling tendency and environmental deterioration coexist in both the past and present. The decoupling analysis will contribute to localized strategies for sustainable agricultural development.

  2. Coping with Workplace Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Heilongjiang Province, China: Social Supports and Prevention Strategies.

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    Zhao, Siqi; Qu, Lijun; Liu, He; Gao, Lijun; Jiao, Mingli; Liu, Jinghua; Liang, Libo; Zhao, Yanming; Wu, Qunhong

    2016-01-01

    The study's objectives were to: 1) use social support theory to examine factors influencing healthcare workers' opinions about workplace violence (WPV) prevention strategies, and 2) to determine the types of support that general practitioners (GPs) and general nurses sought and expected to use after WPV exposure. A cross-sectional survey was used to assess a sample of 448 GPs and 412 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China. Results revealed that workers exposed to physical, psychological or both WPV types had a strong opinion about the necessity of improving diagnosis/treatment competence, developing violence prevention guidelines and plans, using protective equipment, and reinforcing staff by providing back-up support. The last two strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers in our previous study. In addition, workers with high anxiety selected the following prevention strategies as most effective: improving doctor-patient communication skills; installing cameras on wards; keeping work areas bright; improvements in violence reporting, statistics, and interventions; security patrols in the key departments; reinforcing staff; and correcting inaccurate media perspectives and reports. The last four strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers. All respondents expected to receive organisational and social support. In conclusion, these prevention strategies should be tailored to the different requirements of specific populations. Furthermore, it is necessary for organisations, the public, and policymakers to provide powerful support in WPV prevention.

  3. Coping with Workplace Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Heilongjiang Province, China: Social Supports and Prevention Strategies.

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    Siqi Zhao

    Full Text Available The study's objectives were to: 1 use social support theory to examine factors influencing healthcare workers' opinions about workplace violence (WPV prevention strategies, and 2 to determine the types of support that general practitioners (GPs and general nurses sought and expected to use after WPV exposure. A cross-sectional survey was used to assess a sample of 448 GPs and 412 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China. Results revealed that workers exposed to physical, psychological or both WPV types had a strong opinion about the necessity of improving diagnosis/treatment competence, developing violence prevention guidelines and plans, using protective equipment, and reinforcing staff by providing back-up support. The last two strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers in our previous study. In addition, workers with high anxiety selected the following prevention strategies as most effective: improving doctor-patient communication skills; installing cameras on wards; keeping work areas bright; improvements in violence reporting, statistics, and interventions; security patrols in the key departments; reinforcing staff; and correcting inaccurate media perspectives and reports. The last four strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers. All respondents expected to receive organisational and social support. In conclusion, these prevention strategies should be tailored to the different requirements of specific populations. Furthermore, it is necessary for organisations, the public, and policymakers to provide powerful support in WPV prevention.

  4. Characteristics, structural styles and tectonic implications of Mesozoic-Cenozoic faults in the eastern Heilongjiang basins (NE China)

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    Zhao, Xueqin; Chen, Hanlin; Zhang, Fengqi; Sun, Mingdao; Yang, Jianguo; Tan, Baode

    2017-09-01

    The Eastern Heilongjiang Basins (EHBs) are the assemblage of a series of meso-Cenozoic residual basins located in the northeastern corner of China. The deformation pattern of the EHBs has significant implications for the history of the Pacific Plate subduction beneath the Eurasia since the Late Mesozoic. In this paper, research on the characteristics and structural styles of the meso-Cenzoic faults in the EHBs has been conducted on the basis of a comprehensive analysis of field geology, drilling data and seismic reflection profiles. As a result, five different stages of the meso-Cenozoic faults in the EHBs have been recognized. These are in accordance with the time and relevant characteristics of fault movements, i.e. the early-stage of the Early Cretaceous normal fault, the early-stage of the Late Cretaceous thrust fault, the late-stage of the Late Cretaceous thrust fault, the Cenozoic synsedimentary normal fault and the late-stage Cenozoic shear fault. A regional geological section has been generated across the EHBs by linking four local seismic profiles together. A step-by-step reconstruction has been made to help better understand the Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the EHBs. Two phases of extension (rifting) in the early Cretaceous Period and the Paleogene, respectively, are demonstrated to be interfered with two phases of regional uplift (compression) and erosion in the Late Cretaceous Period. The complicated development of multiple fault systems within the EHBs has reflected the evolution of a complex tectonic subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the Eurasia since the Cretaceous Period.

  5. Who pays for health care in China? The case of Heilongjiang province.

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    Mingsheng Chen

    Full Text Available Health spending by the Chinese government has declined and traditional social health insurance collapsed after economic reforms in the early 1980s; accordingly, the low-income population is exposed to potentially significant healthcare costs. Financing an equitable healthcare system represents a major policy objective in China's current healthcare reform efforts. The current research presents an examination of the distribution of healthcare financing in a north-eastern Chinese province to compare equity status between urban and rural areas at two different times.To analyze the progressivity of healthcare financing in terms of ability-to-pay, the Kakwani index was used to assess four healthcare financing channels: general taxes, social and commercial health insurance, and out-of-pocket payments. Two rounds of surveys were conducted in 2003 (11,572 individuals in 3841 households and 2008 (15,817 individuals in 5530 households. Household socioeconomic status, healthcare payment, and utilization information were recorded using household interviews.China's healthcare financing equity is unsound. Kakwani indices for general taxation were -0.0212 (urban and -0.0297 (rural in 2002, and -0.0097 (urban and -0.0112 (rural in 2007. Social health insurance coverage has expanded, however different financing distributions were found with respect to urban (0.0969 in 2002 vs. 0.0984 in 2007 and rural (0.0283 in 2002 vs. -0.3119 in 2007 areas. While progressivity of out-of-pocket payments decreased in both areas, the equity of financing was found to have improved among poorer respondents.Overall, China's healthcare financing distribution is unequal. Given the inequity of general taxes, decreasing the proportion of indirect taxes would considerably improve healthcare financing equity. Financial contribution mechanisms to social health insurance are equally significant to coverage extension. The use of flat rate contributions for healthcare funding places a

  6. Knowledge and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS, and their association with information resource among men who have sex with men in Heilongjiang province, China.

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    Liu, Shengyuan; Wang, Kaili; Yao, Songpo; Guo, Xiaotong; Liu, Yancheng; Wang, Binyou

    2010-05-14

    In Heilongjiang province, the HIV prevalence in men who have sex with men (MSM) is generally lower than other part of China. However, the official perception for their risk of HIV/AIDS infection has been increasing in the province over the years. Moreover, little information on HIV/AIDS was provided to the communities so that we have disadvantage of controlling HIV/AIDS epidemic in the region. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of HIV among MSM in Heilongjiang province, to assess their knowledge levels and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS, and to explore their associations with information resources. A cross-sectional study using a standardized questionnaire and blood test was administered in 2008 by local interviewers to a sample (1353) of MSM in four cities in Heilongjiang province. Among 1353 MSM, 2.3% were identified with HIV infection. About 48.7% of the subjects had multiple male sexual partners and only 37.3% of the subjects had consistent condom use (use every time) in the past 6 months. Most had a fair level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS, with the highest mean knowledge score among the MSM from Jiamusi, those with income 2000-3000 RMB/month, those searching sexual partners via internet and those performed HIV testing over 1 year ago). However, some myths regarding viral transmission (e.g., via mosquito bites or sharing kitchen utensils) also existed. Resources of information from which knowledge and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS was most available were television (58.6%) among MSM, followed by sexual partner (51.6%), publicity material (51.0%) and internet (48.7%). Significantly statistical differences of mean knowledge score were revealed in favor of book (P = 0.0002), medical staff (P = 0.0007), publicity material (P = 0.005) and sexual partner (P = 0.02). Press (P = 0.04) and book (P = 0.0003) were contributory to the most frequent condom use (condom use every time), while medical staff (P = 0.005) and publicity material (P = 0

  7. Knowledge and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS, and their association with information resource among men who have sex with men in Heilongjiang province, China

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    Yao Songpo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgroud In Heilongjiang province, the HIV prevalence in men who have sex with men (MSM is generally lower than other part of China. However, the official perception for their risk of HIV/AIDS infection has been increasing in the province over the years. Moreover, little information on HIV/AIDS was provided to the communities so that we have disadvantage of controlling HIV/AIDS epidemic in the region. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of HIV among MSM in Heilongjiang province, to assess their knowledge levels and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS, and to explore their associations with information resources. Methods A cross-sectional study using a standardized questionnaire and blood test was administered in 2008 by local interviewers to a sample (1353 of MSM in four cities in Heilongjiang province. Results Among 1353 MSM, 2.3% were identified with HIV infection. About 48.7% of the subjects had multiple male sexual partners and only 37.3% of the subjects had consistent condom use (use every time in the past 6 months. Most had a fair level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS, with the highest mean knowledge score among the MSM from Jiamusi, those with income 2000-3000 RMB/month, those searching sexual partners via internet and those performed HIV testing over 1 year ago. However, some myths regarding viral transmission (e.g., via mosquito bites or sharing kitchen utensils also existed. Resources of information from which knowledge and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS was most available were television (58.6% among MSM, followed by sexual partner (51.6%, publicity material (51.0% and internet (48.7%. Significantly statistical differences of mean knowledge score were revealed in favor of book (P = 0.0002, medical staff (P = 0.0007, publicity material (P = 0.005 and sexual partner (P = 0.02. Press (P = 0.04 and book (P = 0.0003 were contributory to the most frequent condom use (condom use every time, while medical staff (P

  8. [Spatial pattern of forest biomass and its influencing factors in the Great Xing'an Mountains, Heilongjiang Province, China].

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    Wang, Xiao-Li; Chang, Yu; Chen, Hong-Wei; Hu, Yuan-Man; Jiao, Lin-Lin; Feng, Yu-Ting; Wu, Wen; Wu, Hai-Feng

    2014-04-01

    Based on field inventory data and vegetation index EVI (enhanced vegetation index), the spatial pattern of the forest biomass in the Great Xing'an Mountains, Heilongjiang Province was quantitatively analyzed. Using the spatial analysis and statistics tools in ArcGIS software, the impacts of climatic zone, elevation, slope, aspect and vegetation type on the spatial pattern of forest biomass were explored. The results showed that the forest biomass in the Great Xing'an Mountains was 350 Tg and spatially aggregated with great increasing potentials. Forest biomass density in the cold temperate humid zone (64.02 t x hm(-2)) was higher than that in the temperate humid zone (60.26 t x hm(-2)). The biomass density of each vegetation type was in the order of mixed coniferous forest (65.13 t x hm(-2)) > spruce-fir forest (63.92 t x hm(-2)) > Pinus pumila-Larix gmelinii forest (63.79 t x hm(-2)) > Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica forest (61.97 t x hm(-2)) > Larix gmelinii forest (61.40 t x hm(-2)) > deciduous broadleaf forest (58.96 t x hm(-2)). With the increasing elevation and slope, the forest biomass density first decreased and then increased. The forest biomass density in the shady slopes was greater than that in the sunny slopes. The spatial pattern of forest biomass in the Great Xing' an Mountains exhibited a heterogeneous pattern due to the variation of climatic zone, vegetation type and topographical factor. This spatial heterogeneity needs to be accounted when evaluating forest biomass at regional scales.

  9. [Characteristics of zero point of charge of volcanic ash soils in Changbaishan and Wudalianchi].

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    Zhao, Lanpo; Yang, Xueming; Liu, Wei

    2003-10-01

    The characteristics of the zero point of charge (ZPC) of volcanic ash soil profiles in Changbaishan and Wudalianchi was studied and discussed by means of potentiometric titration curves. The results showed that the two volcanic ash soils had not only a little variable charg, but also a little permanent charge. The clay fractions of the volcanic ash soils carried both variable and permanent charges. The ZPC of eeach layer in both soil profiles all lied in the acid side of titration curve, and increased with increasing soil depth. However, the ZPC displacements (sigma i) decreased with increasing soil depth. The ZPC of surface layer in both soil profiles was lower than that of the volcanic ash soils in foreign countries, but obviously higher than that of Loess soil in the Northwest and of black soil in the Northeast China. The variation of ZPC and delta i was affected not only by the deposition of long-rang tropospheric eolian dust from the Asian continent, but also by the accumulation of soil organic matter. Their combined effect was the main reason to the decrease of ZPC and sigma i the increase of sigma i in Changbaishan and Wudalianchi volcanic ash soils.

  10. Transformation from Paleo-Asian Ocean closure to Paleo-Pacific subduction: New constraints from granitoids in the eastern Jilin-Heilongjiang Belt, NE China

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    Ma, Xing-Hua; Zhu, Wen-Ping; Zhou, Zhen-Hua; Qiao, Shi-Lei

    2017-08-01

    The eastern Jilin-Heilongjiang Belt (EJHB) of NE China is a unique orogen that underwent two stages of evolution within the tectonic regimes of the Paleo-Asian and Paleo-Pacific oceans. 158 available zircon U-Pb ages, including 26 ages obtained during the present study and 132 ages from the literature, were compiled and analyzed for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic granitoids from the EJHB and the adjacent Russian Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt (SAOB), to examine the temporal-spatial distribution of the granitoids and to constrain the tectonic evolution of the East Asian continental margin. Five stages of granitic magmatism can be identified: Early Triassic (251-240 Ma), Late Triassic (228-215 Ma), latest Triassic to Middle Jurassic (213-158 Ma), Early Cretaceous (131-105 Ma), and Late Cretaceous to Paleocene (95-56 Ma). The Early Triassic granitoids are restricted to the Yanbian region along the Changchun-Yanji Suture, and show geochemical characteristics of magmas from a thickened lower crust source, probably due to the final collision of the combined NE China blocks with the North China Craton. The Late Triassic granitoids, with features of A-type granites, represent post-collisional magmatic activities that were related to post-orogenic extension, marking the end of the tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. The latest Triassic to Paleocene granitoids with calc-alkaline characteristics were NE-trending emplaced along the EJHB and SAOB and young towards the coastal region, and represent continental marginal arc magmas that were associated with the northwestwards subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate. Two periods of magmatic quiescence (158-131 and 105-95 Ma) correspond to changes in the subduction direction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate from oblique relative to the continental margin to subparallel. Taking all this into account, we conclude that: (1) the final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean occurred along the Changchun-Yanji Suture during the Early Triassic; (2) the

  11. EMD-RBFNN Coupling Prediction Model of Complex Regional Groundwater Depth Series: A Case Study of the Jiansanjiang Administration of Heilongjiang Land Reclamation in China

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    Qiang Fu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The accurate and reliable prediction of groundwater depth is the basis of the sustainable utilization of regional groundwater resources. However, the complexity of the prediction has been ignored in previous studies of regional groundwater depth system analysis and prediction, making it difficult to realize the scientific management of groundwater resources. To address this defect, taking complexity diagnosis as the research foundation, this paper proposes a new coupling forecast strategy for evaluating groundwater depth based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD and a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN. The data used for complexity analysis and modelling are the monthly groundwater depth series monitoring data from 15 long-term monitoring wells from 1997 to 2007, which were collected from the Jiansanjiang Administration of Heilongjiang Agricultural Reclamation in China. The calculation results of the comprehensive complexity index for each groundwater depth series obtained are based on wavelet theory, fractal theory, and the approximate entropy method. The monthly groundwater depth sequence of District 8 of Farm Nongjiang, which has the highest complexity among the five farms in the Jiansanjiang Administration midland, was chosen as the modelling sample series. The groundwater depth series of District 8 of Farm Nongjiang was separated into five intrinsic mode function (IMF sequences and a remainder sequence by applying the EMD method, which revealed that local groundwater depth has a significant one-year periodic character and an increasing trend. The RBFNN was then used to forecast and stack each EMD separation sequence. The results suggest that the future groundwater depth will remain at approximately 10 m if the past pattern of water use continues, exceeding the ideal depth of groundwater. Thus, local departments should take appropriate countermeasures to conserve groundwater resources effectively.

  12. Prevalence and characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes in Escherichia coli isolated from piglets with post-weaning diarrhea in Heilongjiang province, China.

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    Xu, Guofeng; An, Wei; Wang, Hongdong; Zhang, Xiuying

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes in Escherichia coli isolated from post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) piglets in Heilongjiang province, China. Of 458 E. coli isolated from 589 fecal samples from PWD piglets, a total of 198 isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers by the double-disk synergy test (DDST). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were performed to identify genes for ESBL, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR), and integrons. Of the 198 isolates, bla CTX-M and bla TEM were detected in 191 and 149 isolates, respectively. Sequencing revealed that 10 bla CTX-M subtypes were detected, and bla CTX-M-14 was the most prevalent, followed by bla CTX-M-55 and bla CTX-M-65. Of the 149 TEM-positive strains, four were bla TEM-52 and the rest were bla TEM-1. Among the 198 ESBL-positive isolates, 173 isolates were found to harbor at least one PMQR gene, with oqxAB, qnrS, qnrB, qepA, and aac(6')-Ib-cr being detected alone or in combination in 125, 114, 26, 24, and 45 strains, respectively. One hundred and fifty-five ESBL-positive isolates were also positive for class I integron (int1), and eight different gene cassette arrays were confirmed in 110 isolates by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing analyses, with predominance of dfrA17-aadA5, dfrA12-orfF-aadA2, and dfrA1-aadA1 arrays. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the bla TEM-52 gene in pig E. coli isolates in China and this is also the first description of the coexistence of the qnrB, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr, qepA, and oqxAB genes in one E. coli strain.

  13. Prevalence and characteristics of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes in Escherichia coli isolated from piglets with post-weaning diarrhea in Heilongjiang province, China

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    Xiuying eZhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL genes in Escherichia coli isolated from post-weaning diarrhea (PWD piglets in Heilongjiang province, China. Of 458 E. coli isolated from 589 fecal samples from PWD piglets, a total of 198 isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers by the double-disk synergy test (DDST. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing were performed to identify genes for ESBL, PMQR, and integrons. Of the 198 isolates, blaCTX-M and blaTEM were detected in 191 and 149 isolates, respectively. Sequencing revealed that ten blaCTX-M subtypes were detected, and blaCTX-M-14 was the most prevalent, followed by blaCTX-M-55 and blaCTX-M-65. Of the 149 TEM-positive strains, four were blaTEM-52 and the rest were blaTEM-1. Among the 198 ESBL-positive isolates, 173 isolates were found to harbor at least one PMQR genes, with oqxAB, qnrS, qnrB, qepA, and aac(6′-Ib-cr being detected alone or in combination in 125, 114, 26, 24, and 45 strains, respectively. 155 ESBL-positive isolates were also positive for class I integron (int1, and eight different gene cassette arrays were confirmed in 110 isolates by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and DNA sequencing analyses, with predominance of dfrA17-aadA5, dfrA12-orfF-aadA2, and dfrA1-aadA1 arrays. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the blaTEM-52 gene in pig E. coli isolates in China and this is also the first description of the coexistence of the qnrB, qnrS, aac(6′-Ib-cr, qepA, and oqxAB genes in one E. coli strain.

  14. [Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Shuangcheng City of Heilongjiang Province: the China Nine-Province Survey].

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    Zhang, Liqiong; Cui, Hao; Zhao, Jialiang; Ellwein, Leon B; Li, Zhijian; Li, Mingsheng; Yu, Nannan; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xuecheng

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Shuangcheng City of Heilongjiang Province, China. It was a population-based cross-section study. Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5 841 individuals aged 50 years or above in 28 basic sample units in Shuangcheng City from September to December 2006. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to receive visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands four hundreds and eighty-one individuals were enumerated and 5 047 persons were examined, the response rate was 92.08%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 1.72% (87/5 047) and 4.69% (237/5 047) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 1.90% (96/5 047) and 7.23% (365/5 047) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2)=674.44, P visual impairment. The percentage of the retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, high myopic retinopathy and diabetic retinopathy was 11.31% among the eyes with blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment. Un-corrected refractive error(13.38%) also was the main cause of visual impairment. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual

  15. Genetic characterization of human-derived hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in Heilongjiang Province and the first report of G7 genotype of E. canadensis in humans in China.

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    Tiemin Zhang

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l. is one of the most important zoonotic parasitic diseases worldwide and 10 genotypes (G1-G10 have been reported. In China, almost all the epidemiological and genotyping studies of E. granulosus s.l. are from the west and northwest pasturing areas. However, in Heilongjiang Province of northeastern China, no molecular information is available on E. granulosus s.l. To understand and to speculate on possible transmission patterns of E. granulosus s.l., we molecularly identified and genotyped 10 hydatid cysts from hepatic CE patients in Heilongjiang Province based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1, cytochrome b (cytb and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1 genes. Two genotypes were identified, G1 genotype (n = 6 and G7 genotype (n = 4. All the six G1 genotype isolates were identical to each other at the cox1 locus; three and two different sequences were obtained at the cytb and nad1 loci, respectively, with two cytb gene sequences not being described previously. G7 genotype isolates were identical to each other at the cox1, cytb and nad1 loci; however, the cytb gene sequence was not described previously. This is the first report of G7 genotype in humans in China. Three new cytb gene sequences from G1 and G7 genotypes might reflect endemic genetic characterizations. Pigs might be the main intermediate hosts of G7 genotype in our investigated area by homology analysis. The results will aid in making more effective control strategies for the prevention of transmission of E. granulosus s.l.

  16. The Effects of Forest Area Changes on Extreme Temperature Indexes between the 1900s and 2010s in Heilongjiang Province, China

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    Lijuan Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover changes (LUCC are thought to be amongst the most important impacts exerted by humans on climate. However, relatively little research has been carried out so far on the effects of LUCC on extreme climate change other than on regional temperatures and precipitation. In this paper, we apply a regional weather research and forecasting (WRF climate model using LUCC data from Heilongjiang Province, that was collected between the 1900s and 2010s, to explore how changes in forest cover influence extreme temperature indexes. Our selection of extreme high, low, and daily temperature indexes for analysis in this study enables the calculation of a five-year numerical integration trail with changing forest space. Results indicate that the total forested area of Heilongjiang Province decreased by 28% between the 1900s and 2010s. This decrease is most marked in the western, southwestern, and northeastern parts of the province. Our results also reveal a remarkable correlation between change in forested area and extreme high and low temperature indexes. Further analysis enabled us to determine that the key factor explaining increases in extreme high temperature indexes (i.e., calculated using the number of warm days, warm nights, as well as tropical nights, and summer days is decreasing forest area; data also showed that this factor caused a decrease in extreme low temperature indexes (i.e., calculated using the number of cold days and cold nights, as well as frost days, and ice days and an increase in the maximum value of daily minimum temperature. Spatial data demonstrated that there is a significant correlation between forest-to-farmland conversion and extreme temperature indexes throughout most of our study period. Spatial data demonstrated that there is a significant correlation between forest-to-farmland conversion and extreme temperature indexes throughout most of our study period. Positive correlations are also present between

  17. CERES-Maize model-based simulation of climate change impacts on maize yields and potential adaptive measures in Heilongjiang Province, China.

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    Lin, Yumei; Wu, Wenxiang; Ge, Quansheng

    2015-11-01

    Climate change would cause negative impacts on future agricultural production and food security. Adaptive measures should be taken to mitigate the adverse effects. The objectives of this study were to simulate the potential effects of climate change on maize yields in Heilongjiang Province and to evaluate two selected typical household-level autonomous adaptive measures (cultivar changes and planting time adjustments) for mitigating the risks of climate change based on the CERES-Maize model. The results showed that flowering duration and maturity duration of maize would be shortened in the future climate and thus maize yield would reduce by 11-46% during 2011-2099 relative to 1981-2010. Increased CO2 concentration would not benefit maize production significantly. However, substituting local cultivars with later-maturing ones and delaying the planting date could increase yields as the climate changes. The results provide insight regarding the likely impacts of climate change on maize yields and the efficacy of selected adaptive measures by presenting evidence-based implications and mitigation strategies for the potential negative impacts of future climate change. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Association of Parental Environmental Exposures and Supplementation Intake with Risk of Nonsyndromic Orofacial Clefts: A Case-Control Study in Heilongjiang Province, China

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    Yanru Hao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to check the possible association of potential parental environmental exposures and maternal supplementation intake with the risk of nonsyndromic orofacial clefting (NSOC. A retrospective study comprised 499 cases and 480 controls was conducted in Heilongjiang Province. Chi-square analysis and unconditional multiple logistic regression were used in the study. The results showed that maternal history of fever and the common cold without fever (ORCL/P = 3.11 and 5.56, 95%CI: 1.67–5.82 and 2.96–10.47, ORCPO = 3.31 and 8.23, 95%CI: 1.58–6.94 and 4.08–16.95, paternal smoking and alcohol consumption (ORCL/P = 2.15 and 5.04, 95%CI: 1.37–3.38 and 3.00–8.46, ORCPO = 1.82 and 4.40, 95%CI: 1.06–3.13 and 2.50–7.74, maternal exposure to organic solvents, heavy metals, or pesticides (ORCL/P = 6.07, 5.67 and 5.97, 95%CI: 1.49–24.76, 1.34–24.09 and 2.10–16.98, ORCPO = 10.65, 7.28 and 3.48, 95%CI: 2.54–44.67, 1.41–37.63 and 1.06–11.46 and multivitamin use during the preconception period (ORCL/P = 0.06, 95%CI: 0.02–0.23, ORCPO = 0.06, 95%CI: 0.01–0.30 were associated with cleft lip or without cleft palate (CL/P and cleft palate only (CPO. Maternal history of skin disease and negative life events (ORCL/P = 12.07 and 1.67, 95%CI: 1.81–80.05 and 1.95–2.67 were associated with CL/P. Some potential parental hazardous exposures during the periconception period and maternal use of multivitamins during the preconception period were associated with risk of NSOC.

  19. Co-Circulation of the Rare CPV-2c with Unique Gln370Arg Substitution, New CPV-2b with Unique Thr440Ala Substitution, and New CPV-2a with High Prevalence and Variation in Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Geng

    Full Text Available To trace evolution of canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2, a total of 201 stool samples were collected from dogs with diarrhea in Heilongjiang province of northeast China from May 2014 to April 2015. The presence of CPV-2 in the samples was determined by PCR amplification of the VP2 gene (568 bp of CPV-2. The results revealed that 95 samples (47.26% were positive for CPV-2, and they showed 98.8%-100% nucleotide identity and 97.6%-100% amino acid identity. Of 95 CPV-2-positive samples, types new2a (Ser297Ala, new2b (Ser297Ala, and 2c accounted for 64.21%, 21.05%, and 14.74%, respectively. The positive rate of CPV-2 and the distribution of the new2a, new2b and 2c types exhibited differences among regions, seasons, and ages. Immunized dogs accounted for 48.42% of 95 CPV-2-positive samples. Coinfections with canine coronavirus, canine kobuvirus, and canine bocavirus were identified. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the identified new2a, new2b, and CPV-2c strains in our study exhibited a close relationship with most of the CPV-2 strains from China; type new2a strains exhibited high variability, forming three subgroups; type new2b and CPV-2c strains formed one group with reference strains from China. Of 95 CPV-2 strains, Tyr324Ile and Thr440Ala substitutions accounted for 100% and 64.21%, respectively; all type new2b strains exhibited the Thr440Ala substitution, while the unique Gln370Arg substitution was found in all type 2c strains. Recombination analysis using entire VP2 gene indicated possible recombination events between the identified CPV-2 strains and reference strains from China. Our data revealed the co-circulation of new CPV-2a, new CPV-2b, and rare CPV-2c, as well as potential recombination events among Chinese CPV-2 strains.

  20. Co-Circulation of Canine Coronavirus I and IIa/b with High Prevalence and Genetic Diversity in Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Wang

    Full Text Available To trace the evolution of canine coronavirus (CCoV, 201 stool samples from diarrheic dogs in northeast China were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs targeting the partial M and S genes of CCoV, followed by an epidemiological analysis. M gene RT-PCRs showed that 28.36% (57/201 of the samples were positive for CCoV; of the 57 positive samples, CCoV-I and CCoV-II accounted for 15.79% (9/57 and 84.21% (48/57, respectively. A sequence comparison of the partial M gene revealed nucleotide homologies of 88.4%-100% among the 57 CCoV strains, and 88.7%-96.2% identity between the 57 CCoV strains and the Chinese reference strain HF3. The CCoV-I and CCoV-II strains exhibited genetic diversity when compared with reference strains from China and other countries. The 57 CCoV strains exhibited high co-infection rates with canine kobuvirus (CaKV (33.33% and canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2 (31.58%. The CCoV prevalence in diarrheic dogs differed significantly with immunization status, regions, seasons, and ages. Moreover, 28 S genes were amplified from the 57 CCoV-positive samples, including 26 CCoV-IIa strains, one CCoV-IIb strain, and one CCoV-I strain. A sequence comparison of the partial S gene revealed 86.3%-100% nucleotide identity among the 26 CCoV-IIa strains, and 89.6%-92.2% identity between the 26 CCoV-IIa strains and the Chinese reference strain V1. The 26 CCoV-IIa strains showed genetic diversity when compared with reference strains from China and other countries. Our data provide evidence that CCoV-I, CCoV-IIa, and CCoV-IIb strains co-circulate in the diarrhoetic dogs in northeast China, high co-infection rates with CaKV and CPV-2 were observed, and the CCoV-II strains exhibited high prevalence and genetic diversity.

  1. Distribution characteristics and ecological risk assessment of toxic heavy metals and metalloid in surface water of lakes in Daqing Heilongjiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodi; Zang, Shuying

    2014-05-01

    It is necessary to estimate heavy metal concentrations and risk in surface water for understanding the heavy metal contaminations and for sustainable protection of ecosystems and human health. To investigate the anthropogenic contribution of heavy metal accumulation surrounding an industrial city in China, the concentrations of six heavy metals, including mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and cadmium (Cd) were examined; from four different regions of Daqing in autumn 2011 and winter 2012. The results showed heavy metals distributed in the industrial area at concentrations relatively higher than those in other three areas, while concentrations in the farming area and the protected area were lower. The heavy metal concentrations of water bodies in all areas, except those for Hg and As, Cu, Pb and Cr were lower than the cutoff values for the Class I water quality that was set as the highest standard to protect the national nature reserves. While Hg and As of lakes in industry region had a higher level than those in the agriculture and landscape water, the lowest allowed. The concentrations of all the heavy metals in winter were higher than in the autumn. Cu had a higher ecological risks level to freshwater organisms. The discharge of urban sewage and industrial wastewater might be a major pollutant source, thus these sources should identified before remediation efforts. Efforts are needed to protect the lakes from pollution and also to reduce environmental health risks. This study and the valuable data will pave the way for future research on these Lakes in Daqing.

  2. Re-Os sulfide (chalcopyrite, pyrite and molybdenite) systematics and fluid inclusion study of the Duobaoshan porphyry Cu (Mo) deposit, Heilongjiang Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wu, Guang; Li, Yuan; Zhu, Mingtian; Zhong, Wei

    2012-04-01

    The Duobaoshan porphyry deposit, located in the northwestern part of the Lesser Hinggan Range, is one of the biggest porphyry Cu (Mo) deposits in the Central Asian orogenic belt in China. The Duobaoshan porphyry deposit occurs in granodiorite and volcanic rocks of the Middle Ordovician Duobaoshan Formation. Six types of veins have been identified in three ore-forming stages as follows: a quartz-potassic feldspar vein in the early ore-forming stage, an early stage quartz-molybdenite vein, late stage quartz-molybdenite and quartz-chalcopyrite-pyrite veins in the middle ore-forming stage, and quartz-pyrite and calcite-quartz veins in the late ore-forming stage. The following four types of fluid inclusions are distinguished from various quartz veins: two-phase aqueous, pure gas phase, CO2-bearing and daughter mineral-bearing inclusions. The ore-forming fluid for the early ore-forming stage belongs to the H2O-CO2-NaCl system, which is characterized by high temperatures (>550 °C), intermediate salinities (16.2-18.1 wt% NaCl eqv.) and high CO2 content. The ore-forming fluid from the middle ore-forming stage evolved to the H2O-CO2-NaCl system, which is characterized by intermediate to high temperatures (230-450 °C) and high/low salinities (0.8 to >65.3 wt% NaCl eqv.) and is also rich in CO2 and metals. The ore-forming fluid finally reached cool temperatures (110-200 °C), low salinities (3.9-8.4 wt% NaCl eqv.) and was CO2-poor. Intensive fluid immiscibility or boiling occurred when the ore-forming fluid with temperatures of 230-450 °C and pressures of 10-41 MPa ascended to 4.1 km, inducing the escape of CO2, depressing the solubility of fluid, and depositing abundant metal sulfides. The total Re and Os concentrations of chalcopyrite and pyrite range from 0.15 to 2.95 μg/g and 0.74 to 15.01 ng/g, respectively. Analyses of seven chalcopyrite and pyrite samples yielded isochron ages of 482-486 Ma, and the model age of one molybdenite sample is 485.6 ± 3.7 Ma. The

  3. Assessing Health-Related Quality of Life of Chinese Adults in Heilongjiang Using EQ-5D-3L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weidong; Yu, Hongjuan; Liu, Chaojie; Liu, Guoxiang; Wu, Qunhong; Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Xiaowen; Shi, Linmei; Xu, Xiaoxue

    2017-02-23

    This study aimed to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of Heilongjiang adult populations by using the EuroQol five-dimension three-level (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire and to identify factors associated with HRQOL. Data from the National Health Services Survey (NHSS) 2008 in Heilongjiang province were obtained. Results of EQ-5D-3L questionnaires completed by 11,523 adult respondents (18 years or older) were converted to health index scores using a recently developed Chinese value set. Multivariate linear regression and logistic regression models were established to determine demographic, socioeconomic, health, and lifestyle factors that were associated with HRQOL and reported problems in the five dimensions of EQ-5D-3L. The Heilongjiang population had a mean EQ-5D-3L index score of 0.959. Lower EQ-5D-3L index scores were associated with older age, lower levels of education, chronic conditions, temporary accommodation, poverty, unemployment, and lack of regular physical activities. Older respondents and those who were unemployed, had chronic conditions, and lived in poverty were more likely to report problems in all of the five health dimensions. Higher educational attainment was associated with lower odds of reporting health problems in mobility, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression. Low socioeconomic status is associated with poor HRQOL. Regional population norms for EQ-5D-3L are needed for health economic studies due to great socioeconomic disparities across regions in China. Overall, the Heilongjiang population has a similar level of HRQOL compared with the national average.

  4. Difference in Striae Periodicity of Heilongjiang and Singaporean Chinese Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon H. X. Tan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Striae periodicity refers to the number of cross-striations between successive lines of Retzius in tooth enamel. A regular time dependency of striae periodicity, known as the circaseptan interval, has been proposed. Previous studies on striae periodicity have been carried out on both modern and early humans given its potential applications in forensic age estimations and anthropology. Nevertheless, research comparing striae periodicities across gender groups and populations in different geographical locations, particularly in Asia, is lacking. In this study, we compared the striae periodicities of Heilongjiang and Singaporean Chinese, as well as that of Singaporean Chinese males and females. Results showed that while the median striae periodicity counts of Heilongjiang Chinese and Singaporean Chinese teeth are both 7, Heilongjiang Chinese tend to have lower striae periodicity counts than Singaporean Chinese (p < 0.01. No significant gender difference was observed between the median striae periodicity of Singaporean Chinese Female and Singaporean Chinese Male teeth (p = 0.511. We concluded that the median striae periodicity may statistically differ with geographical location, but not gender, provided that ethnicity and geographical location are held constant. Further studies are required to examine the causes for variation in striae periodicities between geographical locations, as well as to verify the other bio-environmental determinants of striae periodicity.

  5. The Second National Chinese Conference on Permafrost, Lanzhou, China, 12-18 October 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    refer to pages in abstract volume. (See App. A.) 41 I F K PAS Du Welyin HeilongJiang Yichun City Fenglin Forestry Bureau (48) Feng Cunyao Northwest...of Glaciology and Cryopedology, Academia Sinica Shu Daode Northwest Institute of the China Academy of Railway Sciences (123) Shui Tilin Heilongjiang...Institute of Hydrology (157) Shui Xianzi Heiliongjiang Provincial Scientific Research Institute Shui Xielan The Changchun Institute of Geography

  6. Staphylococcus aureus ST398 from slaughter pigs in northeast China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Xiaomei; Yu, Xiaojie; Tao, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Binghua; Dong, Rui; Xue, Chengyu; Grundmann, Hajo; Zhang, Jianzhong

    To describe the prevalence and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that colonize pigs at slaughterhouses in northeastern China, nose swabs were collected from pigs in two slaughterhouses in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China in 2009.S. aureus isolates were characterized by

  7. Precipitation variability assessment of northeast China: Songhua ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Variability in precipitation is critical for the management of water resources. In this study, the research entropy base concept was applied to investigate spatial and temporal variability of the precipitation during 1964–2013 in the Songhua River basin of Heilongjiang Province in China. Sample entropy was applied on ...

  8. Precipitation variability assessment of northeast China: Songhua ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Variability in precipitation is critical for the management of water resources. In this study, the researchentropy base concept was applied to investigate spatial and temporal variability of the precipitationduring 1964–2013 in the Songhua River basin of Heilongjiang Province in China. Sample entropy wasapplied on ...

  9. Flux characteristics of total dissolved iron and its species during extreme rainfall event in the midstream of the Heilongjiang River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jiunian; Yan, Baixing; Zhu, Hui; Wang, Lixia; Lu, Duian; Cheng, Long

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of extreme rainfall events and associated flooding has been enhanced due to climate changes, and is thought to influence the flux of total dissolved iron (TDI) in rivers considerably. Since TDI is a controlling factor in primary productivity in marine ecosystems, alteration of riverine TDI input to the ocean may lead to climate change via its effect on biological productivity. During an extreme rainfall event that arose in northeastern China in 2013, water samples were collected in the midstream of the Heilongjiang River to analyze the concentration and species of TDI as well as other basic parameters. The speciation of TDI was surveyed by filtration and ultrafiltration methods. Compared with data monitored from 2007 to 2012, the concentration of TDI increased significantly during this event, with an average concentration of 1.11 mg/L, and the estimated TDI flux reached 1.2×10(5) tons, equaling the average annual TDI flux level. Species analysis revealed that low-molecular-weight complexed iron was the dominant species, and the impulse of TDI flux could probably be attributed to the hydrological connection to riparian wetlands and iron-rich terrestrial runoff. Moreover, dissolved organic matter played a key role in the flux, species and bioavailability of TDI. In addition, there is a possibility that the rising TDI flux could further influence the transport and cycling of nutrients and related ecological processes in the river, estuary coupled with the coastal ecosystems, which merits closer attention in the future. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. [Case-control study on risk factors of laryngeal cancer in Heilongjiang province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Qiuying; Wang, Yu; Feng, Jiapeng; Yao, Hongchao; Xiao, Hui

    2011-12-01

    To study the incentives of laryngeal cancer in Heilongjiang province. A 1:One matched case control study was used to study the risk factors of laryngeal cancer in Heilongjiang province, distributing all tested staff by the same gender, age, urban and rural. Logistic regression models were used to analysis the relationship. In single Logistic regression models, such habit as high levels of education, frequently consumption of sauerkraut, BBQ food, processed meats, the less physical activity, a relatively short time, smoking, irascible, and other factors would increase the risk of suffering from laryngeal cancer. But regular consumption of fresh vegetables, coarse grains, eggs, milk, and regular physical activity would reduce the risk of suffering from laryngeal cancer. The odds ratios (OR) were calculated using multiple Logistic regression models, ORs for the highest versus the lowest quintile of intake were 15.502 0 for high levels of education. 8.012 0 for smoking frequently. 7. 2680 for eating sauerkraut. 2.904 0 for eating BBQ food. 0.408 0 for exercise in protective factors. Potential risk factors for laryngeal cancer were eating sauerkraut. BBQ food and smoking frequently, but proper exercise may reduce the risk of laryngeal cancer.

  11. The Cretaceous system in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, X.Q.; Chen, P.J.; Wei, M.J. [Capital Normal University, Beijing (China)

    2007-12-15

    This paper provides an outline of Cretaceous stratigraphy and paleogeography in China, which is based on rich data obtained from recent researches. Cretaceous deposits are widespread in China. Most strata are of nonmarine origin and marine sediments occur only in Tibet, western Tarim Basin of Xinjiang, Taiwan and limited localities of eastern Heilongjiang. All deposits are rich in fossils and well-constrained biostratigraphically. The stratigraphic successions of different regions are illustrated, and general stratigraphic division and correlation have been introduced. The marine deposits are described in the Tibetan Tethys, Kashi-Hotan Region of Xinjiang, eastern Heilongjiang, western Yunnan and Taiwan; the nonmarine deposits are outlined from northeast China, southeast China, southern interior China, southwest China, the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia region, and northwestern China intermontane basins. The sedimentary facies and paleogeography are diversified. In Tibet the basin evolution is largely related to the subduction and collision of the Indian Plate against the Eurasian Continent, and shows a tectonic evolution in the Cretaceous. Foraminifera are a dominant biota in the Tibet Tethys. Nonmarine sediments include variegated and red beds, coal- or salt-bearing horizons, and volcanic rocks. These deposits contain diverse and abundant continental faunas and floras, as well as important coal and oil resources. The Cretaceous stratigraphy and paleogeography in China have presented a foundation for geological studies.

  12. [Comparison of sustainable development status in Heilongjiang Province based on traditional ecological footprint method and emergy ecological footprint method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-feng; Wang, Hong-yan; Xiao, Du-ning; Wang, Da-qing

    2008-11-01

    By using traditional ecological footprint method and its modification, emergy ecological footprint method, the sustainable development status of Heilongjiang Province in 2005 was analyzed. The results showed that the ecological deficits of Heilongjiang Province in 2005 based on emergy and conventional ecological footprint methods were 1.919 and 0.6256 hm2 x cap(-1), respectively. The ecological footprint value based on the two methods both exceeded its carrying capacity, which indicated that the social and economic development of the study area was not sustainable. Emergy ecological footprint method was used to discuss the relationships between human's material demand and ecosystem resources supply, and more stable parameters such as emergy transformity and emergy density were introduced into emergy ecological footprint method, which overcame some of the shortcomings of conventional ecological method.

  13. Arsenic tolerance and bioleaching from realgar based on response surface methodology by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans isolated from Wudalianchi volcanic lake, northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yan

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: From this work we were successful in isolating an acidophilic, arsenic tolerant ferrous iron-oxidizing bacterium. The BBD-RSM analysis showed that maximum arsenic bioleaching rate obtained under optimum conditions, and the most effective factor for arsenic leaching was initial ferrous ion concentration. These revealed that BYQ-12 could be used for bioleaching of arsenic from arsenical minerals.

  14. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary

  15. [Impacts of climate warming on growth period and yield of rice in Northeast China during recent two decades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-jia; Geng, Ting; Chen, Qun; Chen, Chang-qing

    2015-01-01

    By using rice growth period, yield and climate observation data during the recent two decades, the impact of climate warming on rice in Northeast China was investigated by mathematical statistics methods. The results indicated that in the three provinces of Northeast China, the average, maximum and minimum temperatures in rice growing season were on the. rise, and the rainfall presented a downward trend during 1989-2009. Compared to 1990s, the rice whole growth periods of Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces in 2000s were prolonged 14 d, 4.5 d and 5.1 d, respectively. The increase of temperature in May, June and September could extend the rice growth period, while that in July would shorten the growth duration. The rice growth duration of registered varieties and experiment sites had a similar increasing trend in Northeast China except for the Heilongjiang Province, and the extension of registered varieties growth period was the main factor causing the prolonged growth period of rice at experiment sites. The change in daily average, minimum and maximum temperatures all could affect the rice yield in Northeast China. The increasing temperature significantly increased the rice yield in Heilongjiang Province, especially in the west region of Sanjiang Plain. Except for the south of Liaoning Province, rice yields in other regions of Northeast China were promoted by increasing temperature. Proper measures for breeding, cultivation and farming, could be adopted to fully improve the adaptation of rice to climate warming in Northeast China.

  16. The Mesozoic accretionary complex in Northeast China: Evidence for the accretion history of Paleo-Pacific subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-Bo; Li, Long

    2017-09-01

    The Mesozoic accretionary complex in Northeast China, which mainly consists of the Jilin-Heilongjiang high-pressure (HP) metamorphic belt and the Nadanhada accretionary complex, are the key area to understand the Paleo-Pacific subduction-accretion. The Jilin-Heilongjiang HP belt is a HP metamorphic zone between the Jiamusi and Songliao blocks and consists of the Heilongjiang blueschist belt and the Zhangguangcai Complex. Previously published and our new geochronological data indicate that the collision between the Jiamusi and Songliao blocks along the Jilin-Heilongjiang HP belt occurred between 210 and 180 Ma, suggesting that the Jilin-Heilongjiang HP belt is an important unit for characterizing the geodynamic switch from the north-south closure of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt to the onset of westward accretion related to subduction of Paleo-Pacific plate in the Latest Triassic to Early Jurassic. Early Permian igneous rocks with arc affinity in the eastern margin of the Jiamusi Block are more likely related to the Mongol-Okhotsk subduction rather than the Paleo-Pacific subduction or the collision between the Jiamusi and Khanka blocks as previously considered. The Nadanhada accretionary complex lies to the east of the Jiamusi Block, and is composed of the Yuejinshan and Raohe complexes. Compilation of published geochronological data indicate that the Yuejinshan Complex was probably formed between 210 Ma and 180 Ma, similar to ages for the Jilin-Heilongjiang HP belt along the western margin of the Jiamusi-Khanka Block. The Raohe Complex was formed later in the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (170-137 Ma), likely more related to the subduction-accretion of Paleo-Pacific plate. The final accretion in the target area took place in the Early Cretaceous (137-130 Ma).

  17. Self-Esteem and Problematic Drinking in China: A Mediated Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Zhai; Yanjie Yang; Hong Sui; Wenbo Wang; Lu Chen; Xiaohui Qiu; Xiuxian Yang; Zhengxue Qiao; Lin Wang; Xiongzhao Zhu; Jiarun Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background Although self-esteem is related to problematic drinking, the mechanisms by which it affects drinking remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether coping mechanisms mediate the relationship between self-esteem and problematic drinking among Chinese men and women with alcohol use disorders and to recommend appropriate interventions for drinking problems. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China. A sample of 5,689 com...

  18. Population Structure of and Conservation Strategies for Wild Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim. in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuyun, Tana; Amo, Hitomi; Xu, Jingshi; Ma, Teng; Uematsu, Chiyomi; Katayama, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    Pyrus ussriensis Maxim. is native to the northern part of China, but whose habitats are currently being destroyed by environmental changes and human deforestation. An investigation of population structure and genetic diversity of wild Ussurian pear is a priority in order to acquire fundamental knowledge for conservation. A total of 153 individuals of wild Ussurian pear from the main habitats, Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Inner Mongolia in China, possessed low genetic diversity as a result of habitat fragmentation. The genetic diversity of the populations in Inner Mongolia and north east of Heilongjiang was especially low and there was the possibility of inbreeding. Wild Ussurian pears were divided into 5 groups based on the Bayesian clustering method using 20 nuclear SSRs (nSSRs) and 5 groups by haplotype distributions using 16 chloroplast SSRs (cpSSRs), and the populations in Inner Mongolia and north east of Heilongjiang represented unique genotypes. AMOVA indicated there was a 20.05% variation in nSSRs and a 44.40% variation in cpSSRs among populations. These values are relatively high when compared to those of other tree species. Haplotype E, positioned in the center of the cpSSR analysis network and showed the largest number of connections with other haplotypes, represented the most important haplotype. Inner Mongolia and the north east of Heilongjiang are two areas that need urgent conservation because of their genetic vulnerability and peculiarity. We determined 4 conservation units based on the clustering by nSSRs and cpSSRs, and geographic factor. This information is helpful in deciding the conservation strategies for wild Ussurian pear in China. PMID:26252516

  19. Research on the competitiveness of high-tech industries in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Yang; Wang, Ming-Quan; Xiao, Yan-Bo; Gao, Ming

    2017-06-01

    Based on characteristics of high-tech industry in Northeast China, high-tech industry competitiveness index system was developed, and the competitiveness of high-tech industry was evaluated through principal component analysis and location quotient method. The results showed that the scale of high-tech industry in Northeast China as a whole was small, and presented a decreasing trend for the proportion in the country. The competitiveness of high-tech industry in Northeast China lagged far behind that of the eastern and central regions. The high-tech industry competitiveness of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces in China ranked 15, 19 and 21, respectively. The manufacture of medicine in Jilin province, and the manufacture of aircraft and spacecraft and the related equipment in Liaoning and Heilongjiang provinces had high competitive advantage, but the manufacture of electronic equipment and communication equipment and the manufacture of computers and office equipment was lack of competitiveness. The development suggestions were put forward to improve the competitiveness of high-tech industries in Northeast China.

  20. Development potentials and policy options of biomass in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to10(6) tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts' energy distribution also varies from province to province in China

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Equine Influenza Viruses (H3N8 from China, 2010~2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Lu1,§, Jie Chen2,§, Wei Guo1,§, Ting Qi1,§, Liping Zhao1, Hongmei Li1, Yuanyuan Ji1, Zheng Wang1, Cuiyun Liu1, Shihua Zhao1 and Wenhua Xiang1,*

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two equine influenza virus (EIV strains were isolated during two restricted outbreaks from Heilongjiang Province, China in 2010 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of HA1 (hemagglutinin 1 gene revealed that the isolates belonged to Florida 2 sublineage of American lineage. Further analysis of the putative antigenic sites located in HA1 subunit protein revealed each isolate had a unique amino acid change. Analysis of antigenic sites between Chinese EIV and vaccine strains indicated equine influenza (EI vaccines containing Richmond/1/07-like antigen seemed to have an optimum effect in China. Meanwhile, the Ohio/03 vaccine strain contained in updated ProteqFlu had the most closely genetically relationship with recent EIV isolates in China. China has not its own commercially available EI vaccine and most horses are still unvaccinated. Therefore, to monitor antigenic variation of circulating EIVs and give considerable suggestions on selection of vaccine candidate plays an important role in preventing and controlling EIV in China.

  2. Work stress, work motivation and their effects on job satisfaction in community health workers: a cross-sectional survey in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Hu, Hongyan; Zhou, Hao; He, Changzhi; Fan, Lihua; Liu, Xinyan; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Heng; Sun, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Objective It is well documented that both work stress and work motivation are key determinants of job satisfaction. The aim of this study was to examine levels of work stress and motivation and their contribution to job satisfaction among community health workers in Heilongjiang Province, China. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Heilongjiang Province, China. Participants The participants were 930 community health workers from six cities in Heilongjiang Province. Primary and secondary outcome measures Multistage sampling procedures were used to measure socioeconomic and demographic status, work stress, work motivation and job satisfaction. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess key determinants of job satisfaction. Results There were significant differences in some subscales of work stress and work motivation by some of the socioeconomic characteristics. Levels of overall stress perception and scores on all five work stress subscales were higher in dissatisfied workers relative to satisfied workers. However, levels of overall motivation perception and scores on the career development, responsibility and recognition motivation subscales were higher in satisfied respondents relative to dissatisfied respondents. The main determinants of job satisfaction were occupation; age; title; income; the career development, and wages and benefits subscales of work stress; and the recognition, responsibility and financial subscales of work motivation. Conclusions The findings indicated considerable room for improvement in job satisfaction among community health workers in Heilongjiang Province in China. Healthcare managers and policymakers should take both work stress and motivation into consideration, as two subscales of work stress and one subscale of work motivation negatively influenced job satisfaction and two subscales of work motivation positively influenced job satisfaction. PMID:24902730

  3. Work stress, work motivation and their effects on job satisfaction in community health workers: a cross-sectional survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Hu, Hongyan; Zhou, Hao; He, Changzhi; Fan, Lihua; Liu, Xinyan; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Heng; Sun, Tao

    2014-06-05

    It is well documented that both work stress and work motivation are key determinants of job satisfaction. The aim of this study was to examine levels of work stress and motivation and their contribution to job satisfaction among community health workers in Heilongjiang Province, China. Cross-sectional survey. Heilongjiang Province, China. The participants were 930 community health workers from six cities in Heilongjiang Province. Multistage sampling procedures were used to measure socioeconomic and demographic status, work stress, work motivation and job satisfaction. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess key determinants of job satisfaction. There were significant differences in some subscales of work stress and work motivation by some of the socioeconomic characteristics. Levels of overall stress perception and scores on all five work stress subscales were higher in dissatisfied workers relative to satisfied workers. However, levels of overall motivation perception and scores on the career development, responsibility and recognition motivation subscales were higher in satisfied respondents relative to dissatisfied respondents. The main determinants of job satisfaction were occupation; age; title; income; the career development, and wages and benefits subscales of work stress; and the recognition, responsibility and financial subscales of work motivation. The findings indicated considerable room for improvement in job satisfaction among community health workers in Heilongjiang Province in China. Healthcare managers and policymakers should take both work stress and motivation into consideration, as two subscales of work stress and one subscale of work motivation negatively influenced job satisfaction and two subscales of work motivation positively influenced job satisfaction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Hu Huanyong: father of China's population geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, W

    1998-08-01

    Professor Hu Huanyong died of an illness on April 30, 1998, in Shanghai, China. The professor was a forefather of modern Chinese demography and the founder of China's population geography. He drew the "Aihui-Tengchong Line," which was known internationally as the "Hu Line," in 1934; the line marked a striking difference in the distribution of China's population. He was born in 1901, in Yixing, Jiangsu Province. He studied literature, history, and geography at Nanjing Normal School (later named the Southeast University of China); he continued his education at the University of Paris from 1926 to 1928. Upon his return to China, he began teaching at the Nanjing Central University and was later appointed dean of the Department of Geography and president of the China Geographical Association. During this time, he wrote "Distribution of China's Population," a paper in which he drew China's first population density contour chart based on the 1933 national census data by county; this produced the "Hu Line." The professor began teaching at East-China Normal University in Shanghai in 1953; in 1957, he became director of the research office of population geography (which he helped to establish), the first demographic research institution in China. In 1958, he focused on the population geography of Jiangsu Province. In 1983, the office expanded to become a population research institute; Professor Hu became its president. During the 1980s, he described a geographic division of China's population based on differences in population density, ecological environment, socioeconomic conditions, and historical development. This resulted in 8 regions: 1) the lower parts of the Yellow River region; 2) the Liaoning-Jilin-Heilongjiang region; 3) the middle and lower parts of the Yangtze River region; 4) the southeast coastal region; 5) the Shanxi-Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia region; 6) the Sichuan-Guizhou-Yunnan region; 7) the Inner Mongolia-Xinjiang region; and 8) the Qinghai-Tibet region. This

  5. Development Potentials and Policy Options of Biomass in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to106 tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts’ energy distribution also varies from province to province in China. Based on

  6. Countermeasures and Research for Heilongjiang Province Agricultural Products Logistics%黑龙江省农产品物流问题的对策与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵磊

    2014-01-01

    黑龙江省地大物博、资源丰富,农产品产量和质量均位列全国前茅,发展农产品物流有着得天独厚的优势,并具有了一定的产业和政策基础。但黑龙江省农产品物流仍存在着物流装备落后、农村基础设施不健全、物流专业人才匮乏、农产品物流信息化程度低、大型物流园区功能不完善等问题。黑龙江省应加大政府对农产品物流的投入,提高农产品物流技术装备水平,大力引进和培养农产品物流专业人才,加快农产品物流的信息化建设,完善大型农产品物流园区建设的功能,使物流业成为促进黑龙江省经济社会发展的先导产业和优势产业。%With vast land and rich resources, productivity and quality of agricultural products in Heilongjiang province are ranked highest in the country. Therefore, the development of agricultural products logistics has the unique advantage and industrial and policy foundation. However, agricultural products logistics has the problems in terms of backward logistics equipment, imperfect rural infrastructure, lack of logistics professionals, low level of information and incomplete large-scale logistics park features. The government should increase invest-ment, improve the technical equipment level, introduce and cultivate professionals, accelerate the construction of information and perfect the features of large-scale logistics park construction, so as to make the logistics industry become the leader and dominant industry which could promote economic and social development of Heilongjiang province.

  7. Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection in freshwater fishes in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Chang, Q C; Zhang, Y; Na, L; Wang, W T; Xu, W W; Gao, D Z; Liu, Z X; Wang, C R; Zhu, X Q

    2014-08-29

    The prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection in freshwater fishes was surveyed in Heilongjiang Province, northeastern China, between August 2011 and September 2013. Thirteen species of freshwater fish (n=3221) and one species of shrimp (n=93) were collected from Songhua river, Nenjiang river and other lakes or ponds in 37 sites of 15 representative cities in Heilongjiang Province. They were individually examined by digestion technique, and the C. sinensis metacercariae were identified morphologically followed by confirmation using sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA. Ten of the 13 examined species of freshwater fishes were infected with C. sinensis metacercariae, while all shrimps were negative. The overall prevalence of C. sinensis infection in 3221 examined freshwater fishes was 19.96%, with 42.57% (272/639) in Pseudorasbora parva, 22.55% (83/368) in Hemicculter leuciclus, 20.44% (121/592) in Carassius auratus, 17.71% (68/384) in Saurogobio dabryi, 10.85% (23/212) in Rhodeus ocellatus, 10.54% (48/455) in Phoxinus lagowskii, 8.20% (21/256) in Perccottus glehnii, 6.25% (5/80) in Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, 4.55% (1/22) in Xenocypris davidi, and 1.49% (1/67) in Cyprinus carpio. The average infection intensity in P. parva was 103.3 encysted metacercariae per gram of fish meat in Zhaoyuan city. The average prevalence of C. sinensis infection in Songhua river, Nenjiang river and lakes or ponds were 31.96% (503/1574), 11.30% (102/903) and 7.93% (59/744), respectively. The prevalence of C. sinensis infection in Zhaoyuan city (43.68%) was the highest among all sampling locations. These results revealed a high-prevalence of C. sinensis infection in freshwater fishes in Heilongjiang Province, northeastern China, posing significant public health concern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Pipeline Construction on Wetland Ecosystems: Russia-China Oil Pipeline Project (Mohe-Daqing Section)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaofei Yu; Guoping Wang; Yuanchun Zou; Qiang Wang; Hongmei Zhao; Xianguo Lu (Key Lab of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Inst. of Geography and Agroecology, Changchun (China)), e-mail: wangguoping@neigae.ac.cn

    2010-07-15

    Although the multiple roles of wetland ecosystems and their value to humanity have been increasingly understood and documented in recent years, the efforts to conserve and restore wetlands are not in harmony with the press for high speed of economy growth. The degradation of wetlands is proceeding, especially in China. Russia- China Oil Pipe-line Project (Mohe-Daqing Section) has already begun in May 2009, and is ongoing. The pipeline runs through four riverine wetlands and two marshlands of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China. Although the project has vital significance of mitigating the energy crisis as well as guaranteeing the energy security of China, it will bring a series of ecological and environmental problems, especially for wetland ecosystems

  9. Genetic analysis of the Gdh and Bg genes of animal-derived Giardia duodenalis isolates in Northeastern China and evaluation of zoonotic transmission potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiqin Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal parasite that infects humans and many other mammals, mainly distributing in some areas with poor sanitation. The proportion of the human giardiasis burden attributable to G. duodenalis of animal origin differs in different geographical areas. In Mainland China, genetic data of the gdh and bg genes of G. duodenalis from animals are only limited in dogs and cats. The aim of the study was to provide information on the genetic characterizations of animal-derived G. duodenalis isolates (from rabbits, sheep and cattle at both loci in Heilongjiang Province, Northeastern China, and to assess the potential for zoonotic transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 61 G. duodenalis isolates from animal feces (dairy and beef cattle, sheep and rabbits in Heilongjiang Province were characterized at the gdh and bg loci in the present study. The gdh and bg gene sequences of sheep-derived G. duodenalis assemblage AI, and the gdh sequences of rabbit-derived G. duodenalis assemblage B had 100% similarity with those from humans, respectively. Novel subtypes of G. duodenalis were identified, with one and seven subtypes for assemblages A and E at the gdh locus, and two and three subtypes for assemblages B and E at the bg locus, respectively. Three pairs of the same bg sequences of assemblage E were observed in sheep and cattle. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first description of genetic characterizations of the gdh and bg genes of G. duodenalis from rabbits, sheep and cattle in Mainland China. Homology analysis of assemblages AI and B implied the possibility of zoonotic transmission. The novel subtypes of assemblages of G. duodenalis may represent the endemic genetic characteristics of G. duodenalis in Heilongjiang Province, China.

  10. Temporal variation of soil carbon stock and its controlling factors over the last two decades on the southern Song-nen Plain, Heilongjiang Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqi Xia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Against the current background of global climate change, the study of variations in the soil carbon pool and its controlling factors may aid in the evaluation of soil’s role in the mitigation or enhancement of greenhouse gas. This paper studies spatial and temporal variation in the soil carbon pool and their controlling factors in the southern Song-nen Plain in Heilongjiang Province, using soil data collected over two distinct periods by the Multi-purpose Regional Geochemical Survey in 2005–2007, and another soil survey conducted in 1982–1990. The study area is a carbon source of 1479 t/km2 and in the past 20 years, from the 1980s until 2005, the practical carbon emission from the soil was 0.12 Gt. Temperature, which has been found to be linearly correlated to soil organic carbon, is the dominant climatologic factor controlling soil organic carbon contents. Our study shows that in the relevant area and time period the potential loss of soil organic carbon caused by rising temperatures was 0.10 Gt, the potential soil carbon emission resulting from land-use change was 0.09 Gt, and the combined potential loss of soil carbon (0.19 Gt caused by warming and land-use change is comparable to that of fossil fuel combustion (0.21 Gt. Due to the time delay in soil carbon pool variation, there is still 0.07 Gt in the potential emission caused by warming and land-use change that will be gradually released in the future.

  11. Relationships between actual and desired workplace characteristics and job satisfaction for community health workers in China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhang, Zhong; Sun, Zhinan; Zhou, Hao; Liu, Xinyan; Li, Heng; Fan, Lihua; Coyte, Peter C

    2014-11-18

    Community health workers are the main providers of community health services in China and have been important in the process of health system reform that has been in place since 2009. Therefore, it is critical that healthcare managers and policy decision makers motivate current staff and improve their job satisfaction. This study examined workplace characteristics and their contribution to job satisfaction in community health workers in Heilongjiang Province, China. A cross-sectional survey of 448 community health workers, from three cities in Heilongjiang province, was conducted between October 1, 2012 and December 31, 2012. Multistage sampling procedures were used to measure socioeconomic and demographic status, job satisfaction, and both actual and desired workplace characteristics. Factor analysis was conducted to determine the main factors contributing to workplace characteristics, and multiple linear regression analysis was performed to assess the key determinants of job satisfaction. Eight groups of factors were identified as the most important workplace characteristics. These comprised system and policy; fringe benefits; work itself; work relationships; professional development; recognition; work environment; and remuneration. In all cases, all desired workplace characteristics were higher than the associated actual workplace characteristics. The main determinants of job satisfaction were occupation, years worked in health service institution, and five subscales representing the gap between desired and actual workplace characteristics, which were system and policy; fringe benefits; working relationship; professional development; and remuneration. These findings suggested that managers wishing to enhance job satisfaction should assess workplace characteristics comprehensively and design mechanisms that reduce the gap between actual and desired workplace characteristics.

  12. Areas of potential suitability and survival of Dendroctonus valens in China under extreme climate warming scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S Y; Ge, X Z; Wang, T; Wen, J B; Zong, S X

    2015-08-01

    The areas in China with climates suitable for the potential distribution of the pest species red turpentine beetle (RTB) Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were predicted by CLIMEX based on historical climate data and future climate data with warming estimated. The model used a historical climate data set (1971-2000) and a simulated climate data set (2010-2039) provided by the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change (TYN SC 2.0). Based on the historical climate data, a wide area was available in China with a suitable climate for the beetle in which every province might contain suitable habitats for this pest, particularly all of the southern provinces. The northern limit of the distribution of the beetle was predicted to reach Yakeshi and Elunchun in Inner Mongolia, and the western boundary would reach to Keerkezi in Xinjiang Province. Based on a global-warming scenario, the area with a potential climate suited to RTB in the next 30 years (2010-2039) may extend further to the northeast. The northern limit of the distribution could reach most parts of south Heilongjiang Province, whereas the western limit would remain unchanged. Combined with the tendency for RTB to spread, the variation in suitable habitats within the scenario of extreme climate warming and the multiple geographical elements of China led us to assume that, within the next 30 years, RTB would spread towards the northeast, northwest, and central regions of China and could be a potentially serious problem for the forests of China.

  13. Assessing spatiotemporal variation of drought and its impact on maize yield in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Enliang; Liu, Xingpeng; Zhang, Jiquan; Wang, Yongfang; Wang, Cailin; Wang, Rui; Li, Danjun

    2017-10-01

    In the context of global climate change, drought has become an important factor that affects the maize yield in China. To analyse the impact of drought on maize yield loss in Northeast China in current and future climate scenarios, the Composite Meteorological Drought Index (CI) is introduced to reconstruct the following drought indicators: drought accumulative days (DAD), drought accumulative intensity (DAI), and consecutive drought days (CDD). These three drought indicators are used to describe the three-dimensional characteristics of drought in this study. Sen's slope method and three-dimensional copula functions are adopted to analyse the variety of drought features, and Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) is used to analyse the variations in maize yield. A temporal assessment of the standardized yield residuals series (SYRS) of maize from 1961 to 2014 is conducted. A panel regression model is applied to demonstrate the drought impact on maize yield at various growth stages under the RCP4.5 scenario. The results show that the drought risk level for midwest Jilin Province, western Liaoning, and eastern Heilongjiang increase with global warming in the current scenario. The shorter three-dimensional joint return periods, 44-80 yr, were mainly located in western Jilin Province, Liaodong Peninsula, and northwestern Liaoning. Eastern Heilongjiang has a slightly longer joint return period of 80-100 yr. The SYRS shows a strong statistical correlation with drought indicator variations; drought-prone regions exhibit strong positive correlations. In comparison, excess precipitation regions show strong negative correlations with drought indicators in most growth stages. Drought indicators have a relatively strong association with SYRS at the milky-mature maize growth stage, and the occurrence of drought during this period primarily determines the maize yield changes in the future. Maize yield changes are -2.04%, -2.65% and -1.57% for Liaoning, Jilin, and

  14. Quantifying Urban Land Sprawl and its Driving Forces in Northeast China from 1990 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Drastic urbanization has resulted in numerous problems worldwide, and many studies were devoted to individual cities. There is an urgent need to quantify urbanization patterns and illustrate their driving forces in the regional area on a large scale over a longer time period. This study produced a land cover dataset to characterize sequential urban land expansion in Northeast China from 1990 to 2015 using object-based backdating classification and calculating the expansion index. The drivers were investigated using Pearson correlation analysis and the multiple linear stepwise regression model. The results revealed that the total area of urban land increased by 43.15% from 1990 to 2015, mainly in the middle part of the study area, and especially in the coastal area of Liaoning. Liaoning had the fastest growth rate, while Heilongjiang showed a decrease in growth rate rankings. Urban land expanded northward and southward within Harbin City, towards the west and east within Changchun City, and relatively equally in all directions within Shenyang City. Expansion patterns changed from edge expansion (42% to outlying expansion (47%. Urban land of Liaoning and the Eastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous region expanded with similar patterns as the entire area, but that of Heilongjiang grew in an opposite pattern, and Jilin maintained outlying major expansion. The influence of factors on urban land sprawl varied temporally. Tertiary industry product, gross domestic product, secondary industry product, total population and urban population were driving factors of urban land sprawl in Northeast China from 1990 to 2015. This research provides quantitative methods for better understanding urban land dynamics and devising feasible strategies for sustainable urban development.

  15. Health literacy in rural areas of China: hypertension knowledge survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Ning, Ning; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Gao, Lijun; Jiao, Mingli; Wu, Qunhong; Quan, Hude

    2013-03-18

    We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points for each correct answer. Among respondents, the average hypertension knowledge score was 26 out of a maximum of 100 points for hypertensive and 20 for non-hypertensive respondents. Hypertension knowledge was associated with marital status, education, health status, periodically reading books, newspapers or other materials, history of blood pressure measurement, and attending hypertension educational sessions. Hypertension knowledge is extremely low in rural areas of China. Hypertension education programs should focus on marginal populations, such as individuals who are not married or illiterate to enhance their knowledge levels. Focusing on educational and literacy levels in conjunction with health education is important given illiteracy is still a prominent issue for the Chinese rural population.

  16. Health Literacy in Rural Areas of China: Hypertension Knowledge Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hude Quan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points for each correct answer. Among respondents, the average hypertension knowledge score was 26 out of a maximum of 100 points for hypertensive and 20 for non-hypertensive respondents. Hypertension knowledge was associated with marital status, education, health status, periodically reading books, newspapers or other materials, history of blood pressure measurement, and attending hypertension educational sessions. Hypertension knowledge is extremely low in rural areas of China. Hypertension education programs should focus on marginal populations, such as individuals who are not married or illiterate to enhance their knowledge levels. Focusing on educational and literacy levels in conjunction with health education is important given illiteracy is still a prominent issue for the Chinese rural population.

  17. Major element, REE, and Pb, Nd and Sr isotopic geochemistry of Cenozoic volcanic rocks of eastern China: implications for their origin from suboceanic-type mantle reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, A.R.; Wang, Junwen; Huang, Wankang; Xie, Guanghong; Tatsumoto, M.

    1991-01-01

    Major- and rare-earth-element (REE) concentrations and UThPb, SmNd, and RbSr isotope systematics are reported for Cenozoic volcanic rocks from northeastern and eastern China. These volcanic rocks, characteristically lacking the calc-alkaline suite of orogenic belts, were emplaced in a rift system which formed in response to the subduction of the western Pacific plate beneath the eastern Asiatic continental margin. The rocks sampled range from basanite and alkali olivine basalt, through olivine tholeiite and quartz tholeiite, to potassic basalts, alkali trachytes, pantellerite, and limburgite. These rock suites represent the volcanic centers of Datong, Hanobar, Kuandian, Changbaishan and Wudalianchi in northeastern China, and Mingxi in the Fujian Province of eastern China. The major-element and REE geochemistry is characteristic of each volcanic suite broadly evolving through cogenetic magmatic processes. Some of the outstanding features of the isotopic correlation arrays are as follows: (1) NdSr shows an anticorrelation within the field of ocean island basalts, extending from the MORB end-member to an enriched, time-averaged high Rb Sr and Nd Sr end-member (EM1), (2) SrPb also shows an anticorrelation, similar to that of Hawaiian and walvis Ridge basalts, (3) NdPb shows a positive correlation, and (4) the 207Pb 204Pb vs 206Pb 204Pb plot shows linear arrays parallel to the general trend (NHRL) for MORB on both sides of the geochron, although in the 208Pb 204Pb vs 206Pb 204Pb plot the linear array is significantly displaced above the NHRL in a pattern similar to that of the oceanic island basalts that show the Dupal signatures. In all isotope correlation patterns, the data arrays define two different mantle components-a MORB-like component and an enriched mantle component. The isotopic data presented here clearly demonstrate the existence of Dupal compositions in the sources of the continental volcanic rocks of eastern China. We suggest that the subcontinental mantle

  18. China coalbed methane summary : on the edge of commercial development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J. [Far East Energy Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Total coalbed methane (CBM) resources in China are estimated at 30 to 35 trillion cubic metres. China also produces nearly 1 billion tons of coal per year, and is considered to be one of the largest emitters of methane in the world. Methane emissions from coal mining are estimated at 8 to 10 billion cubic metres per year. CBM is only in the early stages of development in China, with 210 drilled CBM wells. The China United Coalbed Methane Co. was formed in 1996 as the state company responsible for CBM development. With exclusive rights for exploration, development and production of CBM, the company has signed 19 CBM contracts with foreign companies for a total foreign investment of $90 million U.S. The multinational companies involved include Amoco, Arco, Phillips-Conoco, and Chevron-Texaco. Far East Energy Co. is one of the many independent companies involved with CBM development in China. Exploration and development has been concentrated in Shanxi, Shaanxi, Henan, Hebei, Liaoning, Heilongjiang, and Anhui provinces. The coal deposits vary in age, structural complexity and rank, with the most of the CBM potential located in the Carboniferous, Permian and Jurassic age coals. This paper briefly described the unique coal basin geology within the north and south regions of China with reference to the tectonic events and marine transgressions that led to coal deposition. A history of CBM exploration was included along with licensing requirements. This paper also described the involvement of Far East Energy Company in CBM development in the Yunnan Province, Panjiang coal mining areas, and Qinshui Basin. Petro China, Shell, ExxonMobil and Gazprom are working on a joint venture to construct a 3,800 km pipeline to bring the CBM to markets. The West-East Gas Pipeline Project will weave its wave through the Tarim Basin, the Ordos Basin, the North China Basin, and the Bohai Gulf Basin. If approved, this joint venture would be the second largest modern engineering project in

  19. Genotypic distribution and phylogenetic characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in diarrheic chickens and pigs in multiple cities, China: potential zoonotic transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available This study investigated diarrheic broiler and layer chickens (60 days; n=64 for E. bieneusi genotypes in northeast China and evaluated the potential roles of chickens and pigs in zoonotic transmission of microsporidiosis. Two 45-day-old layer chickens in city Jixi, Heilongjiang province and one 23-day-old broiler chicken in city Songyuan, Jilin province were identified to harbor a human-pathogenic E. bieneusi genotype Henan-IV and a new genotype named CC-1, respectively, by nested PCR and sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS. Eleven of 64 (17.2% duodenal mucosal specimens from pigs in city Tianjin, city Tongliao of Inner Mongolia, cities Jilin and Songyuan of Jilin province, and cities Daqing, Harbin, and Suihua of Heilongjiang province, were positive for E. bieneusi, with the infection rates of weaned pigs (35%, 7/20 significantly higher than preweaned ones (3.6%, 1/28; P<0.05. Nucleotide sequences of the ITS were obtained from 6 pig specimens, belonging to 3 known genotypes CHN7, EbpC, and Henan-IV. That the previous reports have described the occurrence of genotypes EbpC and Henan-IV in humans and EbpC in wastewater in central China and the clustering of genotypes CC-1 and CHN7 into a major phylogenetic group of E. bieneusi genotypes with zoonotic potential indicated that chickens and pigs could be potential sources of human micorsporidiosis. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the existence of zoonotic E. bieneusi genotypes in diarrheic chickens.

  20. Diversity Analysis of Polyporus umbellatus in China Using Inter-simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Meng; Xing, Yong-Mei; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Polyporus (P.) umbellatus, an endangered medicinal fungus in China, is distributed throughout most areas of the country. Thirty-seven natural P. umbellatus samples collected from 12 provinces in China were subjected to the inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) assay to investigate the genetic diversity within and among the 11 natural populations. Nine ISSR primers selected from 100 primers produced 88 discernible DNA bands, with 46 being polymorphic. The frequency of polymorphism varied from 19.57 to 93.48% with an average of 61.26% across all populations. At the population level, the within-population variance was much greater (92.04%) than the between-population variance (7.96%) as revealed by analysis of molecular variance. Eleven P. umbellatus populations were grouped into two major clusters, and the clustering pattern displayed four groups using the unweighted pair-group method with an arithmetic mean dendrogram. Principal coordinate analysis further indicated that the genetic diversity of P. umbellatus strains was unevenly distributed and displayed a clustered distribution pattern instead. Within these clusters, subgrouping (Henan and Hubei) and cluster II (Jilin and Heilongjiang) related to the geographic distribution were evident. The present study provides the first global overview of P. umbellatus diversity analysis in China, which may open up new opportunities in comparative genetic research on this medicinal fungus in other countries.

  1. Assessing Ecotourism from a Multi-stakeholder Perspective: Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming Ming; Wall, Geoffrey; Ma, Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Ecotourism development is closely associated with the sustainability of protected natural areas. When facilitated by appropriate management, ecotourism can contribute to conservation and development, as well as the well-being of local communities. As such, ecotourism has been proposed and practiced in different forms in many places, including China. This study assesses ecotourism development at Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve in Heilongjiang Province, China. Key informant interviews were conducted with representatives from the provincial Forestry Department, the Nature Reserve, and the local community. Observation was undertaken on three site visits and secondary data were collected. The potential for providing quality natural experiences is high and tourism development is occurring rapidly. However, current relationships between people, resources, and tourism have yet to provide mutual benefits necessary for successful ecotourism. The multi-stakeholder management style and the ambiguity of landownership within the nature reserve constitute structural difficulties for ecotourism management and operation. Although participation in ecotourism could provide a livelihood opportunity and interests in involvement in tourism have been identified among the local fishing community, current involvement is limited mainly due to the lack of mechanisms for participation. Therefore, it is recommended that management programs and government policies should be established to provide a platform for community participation in ecotourism. Then, a positive synergistic relationship between tourism, environment, and community could be developed. Planning and policy requirements are discussed for ecotourism development in protected areas in China.

  2. Assessing ecotourism from a multi-stakeholder perspective: Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming Ming; Wall, Geoffrey; Ma, Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Ecotourism development is closely associated with the sustainability of protected natural areas. When facilitated by appropriate management, ecotourism can contribute to conservation and development, as well as the well-being of local communities. As such, ecotourism has been proposed and practiced in different forms in many places, including China. This study assesses ecotourism development at Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve in Heilongjiang Province, China. Key informant interviews were conducted with representatives from the provincial Forestry Department, the Nature Reserve, and the local community. Observation was undertaken on three site visits and secondary data were collected. The potential for providing quality natural experiences is high and tourism development is occurring rapidly. However, current relationships between people, resources, and tourism have yet to provide mutual benefits necessary for successful ecotourism. The multi-stakeholder management style and the ambiguity of landownership within the nature reserve constitute structural difficulties for ecotourism management and operation. Although participation in ecotourism could provide a livelihood opportunity and interests in involvement in tourism have been identified among the local fishing community, current involvement is limited mainly due to the lack of mechanisms for participation. Therefore, it is recommended that management programs and government policies should be established to provide a platform for community participation in ecotourism. Then, a positive synergistic relationship between tourism, environment, and community could be developed. Planning and policy requirements are discussed for ecotourism development in protected areas in China.

  3. Human influence on the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of forest biomass carbon in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiwei; Lu, Fei; Luo, Yunjian; Bo, Wenjing; Kong, Lingqiao; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Bojie; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Wang, Xiaoke

    2017-08-01

    Global carbon cycles are impacted by human activity primarily via fossil fuel combustion and forest carbon budget alterations. In this study, the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of forest biomass carbon (FBC) stock and density in China were analyzed to assess the large-scale effects of humans on FBC. The results indicated that from 1977 to 2013, the FBC stock increased by 62.9%, from 4,335 to 7,064 Tg C, owing to human-driven forestation and ecological restoration programs. Because of intensive human impacts, 44.2%-54.6% of the FBC stock was concentrated in four provinces (Heilongjiang, Yunnan, Inner Mongolia, and Sichuan) and the FBC density increased from the densely populated southeastern provinces to the sparsely populated northeastern and western provinces. On a spatial scale, the FBC density was significantly negatively related to population density, and the degree of the dependence of the FBC density on population density has been declining since 1998. This improvement in human-forest relations is related to economic development and programs in China that have promoted forestation and reduced deforestation. These results suggest that human impacts, including forestation, deforestation, population density, and economic development, have played significant roles in determining the temporal and spatial variations of FBC in the anthropogenic era. Moreover, our findings have implications for forest management and improvement of the forest carbon sink in China.

  4. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoting Ni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA. The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy.

  5. Environmental assessment and investment strategies of provincial industrial sector in China — Analysis based on DEA model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Juan, E-mail: wangjuan_tju@163.com [College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhao, Tao [College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Xiaohu [College of Civil Aviation, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210016 (China)

    2016-09-15

    As an energy-intensive industry, the industrial sector consumes 70% of energy consumption and causes serious environmental pollution in China. Also, the government emphasized the promotion of R&D investment in the industrial sector in China's National Plan on Climate Change (2014–2020). It is meaningful and contributes to assessing energy and environmental performance, as well as R&D and industrial pollution control (IPC) investment strategies of China's industrial sector. A non-radial DEA model, as with natural and managerial disposability, was adopted to evaluate this from provincial and regional perspectives during the 2008–2012 period. Energy and environmental performance was evaluated by unified efficiency under natural disposability (UEN), unified efficiency under managerial disposability (UEM), and unified efficiency under natural and managerial disposability (UENM). The empirical results indicated that Shandong and Hainan were efficient under natural and managerial disposability, while other provinces had the potential to improve their energy and environmental performance. The number of provinces that was fit for investments of R&D and IPC increased from 2008 to 2010, then decreased in 2011 and 2012. In spite of this, many provincial industrial sectors should make efforts to reduce pollution by investment on technology. Tianjin, Heilongjiang, Jiangxi and Henan were especially the best investment objects because investments of R&D and IPC turned to be effective for them during the whole study period. Moreover, western China had the highest average UENM, followed by eastern China and central China. Eastern China and central China were rewarding to expand investments. Coal consumption was the main factor to negatively affect unified efficiency whereas the increase in economic development level was primarily responsible for the improvement of unified efficiency. According to the results, differentiated suggestions to further improve energy and

  6. Response of Vegetation in Northern China to Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, H.; Huang, R.

    2009-05-01

    During the last 30 years, the warmth index (WI) (Kira, 1945) has increased by 10 to 20 points in northern China and the humid index (HI) (Xu,1985) correspondingly decreased by 1 to 2 points. Accordingly, the green leaf stage of plants and herbs around Beijing prolonged from late Nov. to mid-Dec. The phenophase has also been changed, e.g., the most enjoyable period of red leaves such as common smoketree (Cotinus coggygria) and maple (Acer mono and A.truncatum) has postponed for 10 days and the blooming period of flowering plants has also advanced for the same span. Some plants, e.g. japanese pagodatree (Sophora japonica) and hispid locust (Robinia hispida) even blossom again in fall. Some evergreen and thermophilic plants have also been planted to further north. Rice (Oryza sativa) have extended to around 49 degree N and, as an extreme case, to 52 degree N (Huma County, Heilongjiang Province), and tea (Camellia sinensis) from around 35 to 36.5 degree N. River basins of Songhuajiang and Nenjiang in Heilongjiang Province become important rice production bases. Rizhao and Qingdao in Shandong province become famous tea production bases. Before 1970s, evergreen broadleaf woody plants were rarely cultivated in Beijing. But now such plants as privet (Lygustrum lucidum), magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), evergreen euonymus (Euonymus japonicus), and boxwood (Buxus sinica var. margaritacea) all live there through the winter. Many thermophilic garden plants, such as fig (Ficus carica), Chinese tulip tree (Liliodendron chinense), Chinese photinia (Photinia serrulata), crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica), and plum blossom (Prunus mume) are also successively cultivated outdoors in Beijing. Common papermulberry (Broussonetia papirifera) gradually increases and even becomes subdominant species of deciduous forest during last 30 years in the piedmont around Beijing. The cultivation boundary of some thermophilic trees, e.g., Chinese catalpa (Catalpa ovata), japanese pagodatree

  7. Condensation Dripping Water Detection and Its Control Method from Exhaust Pipe of Gasohol Vehicle under Low Environmental Temperature Conditions: A Case Study in Harbin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangdong Tian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gasohol is one of renewable clean alternative energies, which is widely used around the world. Gasohol had been raised to be used in 9 provinces of China since 2001. However, its closed use was merely promoted in Heilongjiang province since November 1, 2004. Moreover, this issue aroused extensive discussions and controversies. One of them is the condensation dripping water issue from exhaust pipe in cold winter. Does the ethanol cause the road freezing in cold winter? To deal with this issue, taking the Harbin city as a case study, this work designs detection experiments of the condensation dripping water from exhaust pipe. Moreover, the amount of the condensation dripping water from exhaust pipe for gasohol and gasoline vehicles with the same working condition is obtained and measured, and their results are compared and analyzed. Simultaneously, the method of reducing the condensation dripping water is proposed. The results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Globalising China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rien T. Segers

    2013-01-01

    In 1978 under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, China decided to gradually open up its economy to achieve more economic development. Three and a half decades later, China has become an economic force to be reckoned with, surpassing Japan as the second largest economy in the world in 2010. China’s

  9. China Emerging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    historical components to the disputes in the South China Sea that have bearing on the issue. China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia , the Philippines...government for needed efficiency. It becomes more and more untenable for an authoritative government to enforce censorship , political repression, state

  10. Phenotypic and molecular identification of Sporothrix isolates of clinical origin in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaohong; Wan, Zhe; Zhang, Zhenying; Li, Fuqiu; Li, Ruoyu; Liu, Xiaoming

    2013-08-01

    Sporotrichosis is the most common deep mycosis in Northeast China which is an area of high epidemicity due to contact with reeds or cornstalks. In this study, we have characterized a total of 74 clinical isolates from fixed cutaneous, lymphocutaneous and disseminated clinical forms and from Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning provinces, respectively. All isolates (previously as Sporothrix schenckii) were identified as Sporothrix globosa according to their phenotypic characteristics and calmodulin gene sequences analysis. They were subdivided into two sub-clades (S. globosa I and S. globosa II). Most of our isolates (71/74) presented restricted growth at 37 °C, which differed from a previous report. Up to now, S. globosa is the only pathogenic species in Northeast China, no matter what kind of clinical form and which region it is isolated from. Most of our clinical isolates (68/74) were clustered with three Chinese environmental isolates reported in the literature. The new findings of S. globosa isolates on division and thermotolerance at 37 °C described in this study will help us gain a better understanding of S. globosa.

  11. The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Northern China: a prospective population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yang

    Full Text Available AIMS & BACKGROUNDS: Although inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are emerging and increasing in China, epidemiologic data are rarely available. This study was to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of IBD in Northern China. METHODS: This is a prospective, population-based study of incidence of IBD in Daqing, Heilongjiang province of Northern China from March 1, 2012 to February 28, 2013. All incident patients with IBD were clinically identified by IBD specialist group from five main General Hospitals covering the healthcare service for 1,343,364 residents in the urban areas of Daqing. IBD cases included in this study were followed-up for three months for diagnosis confirmation. RESULTS: A total of 27 new IBD cases including 25 cases of ulcerative colitis (UC and 2 cases of Crohn's disease (CD were identified. The population at risk was 1,343,364 person years. Age-adjusted incidence for total IBD, CD and UC were 1.77, 0.13, and 1.64 per 100,000 population, respectively. A male predominance was found in CD patients (male to female ratio was 2 ∶ 0. In contrast, no obvious gender predominance was found in UC patients (male to female ratio was 1 ∶ 1.1. CD patients were diagnosed at an average age of 39.5 years. The main disease phenotypes of UC were distal colitis with a 24% of proctitis and 56% of left-sided colitis. The mean diagnostic age of UC patients was 48.9 years. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on the incidence of IBD in the Northern Chinese population. A lower incidence of IBD, similar male predominance for CD, similar disease phenotype of UC, and lower disease activity was observed in Daqing compared to that in Southern China.

  12. [Estimation of VOC emission from forests in China based on the volume of tree species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang-feng; Xie, Shao-dong

    2009-10-15

    Applying the volume data of dominant trees from statistics on the national forest resources, volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions of each main tree species in China were estimated based on the light-temperature model put forward by Guenther. China's VOC emission inventory for forest was established, and the space-time and age-class distributions of VOC emission were analyzed. The results show that the total VOC emissions from forests in China are 8565.76 Gg, of which isoprene is 5689.38 Gg (66.42%), monoterpenes is 1343.95 Gg (15.69%), and other VOC is 1532.43 Gg (17.89%). VOC emissions have significant species variation. Quercus is the main species responsible for emission, contributing 45.22% of the total, followed by Picea and Pinus massoniana with 6.34% and 5.22%, respectively. Southwest and Northeast China are the major emission regions. In specific, Yunnan, Sichuan, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Shaanxi are the top five provinces producing the most VOC emissions from forests, and their contributions to the total are 15.09%, 12.58%, 10.35%, 7.49% and 7.37%, respectively. Emissions from these five provinces occupy more than half (52.88%) of the national emissions. Besides, VOC emissions show remarkable seasonal variation. Emissions in summer are the largest, accounting for 56.66% of the annual. Forests of different ages have different emission contribution. Half-mature forests play a key role and contribute 38.84% of the total emission from forests.

  13. Epidemiologic characteristics of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Mainland China from 2006 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwen Wang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To design effective prevention and control strategies for haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS in Mainland China, we evaluated the epidemiologic characteristics and trends of HFRS cases reported between 2006 and 2010.Methods: HFRS data from 1970 to 2010 were obtained from the China Notifiable Disease Reporting System (CNDRS. The cases analysed included clinical cases and laboratory-confirmed cases. Data was extracted for statistical analysis by time, region and profession; the incidence rate was obtained directly from CNDRS. In this study, we analysed the morbidity and mortality data of HFRS from 2006 to 2010.Results: HFRS cases trended downward from 2006 (15 098 to 2009 (8745, but exhibited a slight increase in 2010 (9526. Twenty-nine of 31 provinces reported HFRS cases between 2006 and 2010. Five provinces, namely, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning in the North-east, Shandong in the east, and Shaanxi in the central part of China, were characterized as high-endemic areas. Seasonal case distribution was bimodal, with peaks of cases in spring and winter. Young male farmers were the most susceptible population to HFRS. Early- to middle-aged adults (20–50 years old represented the largest groups of HFRS cases.Conclusion: The overall number of cases of HFRS in China has trended downward possibly due to national vaccine and rodent vector control programmes implemented in the past 25 years. However, this trend slowed down in the last five years. High-endemic regions and at-risk population groups still exist and will benefit from further targeted prevention strategies.

  14. Text to Quit China: An mHealth Smoking Cessation Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustson, Erik; Engelgau, Michael M; Zhang, Shu; Cai, Ying; Cher, Willie; Li, Richun; Jiang, Yuan; Lynch, Krystal; Bromberg, Julie E

    2017-05-01

    To assess the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a text message-based smoking cessation intervention in China. Study design was a randomized control trial with a 6-month follow-up assessment of smoking status. Zhejiang, Heilongjiang, and Shaanxi provinces in China provided the study setting. A total of 8000 adult smokers in China who used Nokia Life Tools and participated in phase 2 (smoking education via text message) of the study were included. The high-frequency text contact (HFTC) group received one to three messages daily containing smoking cessation advice, encouragement, and health education information. The low-frequency text contact (LFTC) group received one weekly message with smoking health effects information. Our primary outcome was smoking status at 0, 1, 3, and 6 months after intervention. Secondary outcomes include participant perceptions of the HFTC intervention, and factors associated with smoking cessation among HFTC participants. Descriptive and χ2 analyses were conducted to assess smoking status and acceptability. Factors associated with quitting were assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses. Quit rates were high in both the HFTC and LFTC groups (HFTC: 0 month, 27.9%; 1 month, 30.5%; 3 months, 26.7%; and 6 months, 27.7%; LFTC: 0 month, 26.7%; 1 month, 30.4%; 3 months, 28.1%; and 6 months, 27.7%), with no significant difference between the two groups in an intent-to-treat analysis. Attitudes toward the HFTC intervention were largely positive. Our findings suggest that a text message-based smoking cessation intervention can be successfully delivered in China and is acceptable to Chinese smokers, but further research is needed to assess the potential impact of this type of intervention.

  15. Look into the HIV Epidemic of Gay Community with a Socio-Cultural Perspective: A Qualitative Study in China, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huijing; Lv, Fan; Zhang, Nanci Nanyi; Wu, Zunyou; Liao, Qinghua; Chang, Zhanjun; Li, Yi; Xu, Huifang; OuYang, Lin; Huan, Xiping; Yang, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Current Chinese studies continue to view male homosexuality through a disease focused lens which pays limited attention to socio-cultural aspects of sexual behavior and HIV transmission. This qualitative study aimed to investigate how socio-cultural factors influence gay men's sexual beliefs and behaviors in contemporary China, and their implications for HIV epidemic. Qualitative methodology was used in this study. During 2015-2016, in-depth interviews were conducted with 61 self identified gay men in Jiangxi, Henan, Heilongjiang, Guangdong, Jiangsu provinces and Chongqing municipality of China. Our study revealed that: 1) influenced by Chinese traditional culture, gay men have conflicts on self-identity, which led to low self-acceptance and negative attitude on sex, and huge socio-psychological stress; 2) a generational differences within gay community was observed, reflected in varied sexual attitudes and practices as well as way for approaching new friends, both of which have implications and challenges on HIV control and prevention; 3) socio-cultural barriers, including open minds towards casual sex and nonmonogamous relationship, and low priority of health demands were widely observed and led to negative coping with AIDS among gay community. It is essential to take a holistic view into gay men's HIV epidemic in China. Socio-cultural barriers for HIV control and prevention found in this study call for serious and imperative consideration on integrated measures, including targeted efforts towards effective sex education and further inclusion of socio-cultural perspectives in HIV/AIDS interventions for gay men.

  16. Prevalence of Bovine Mastitis Pathogens in Bulk Tank Milk in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya Jing; Qin, Yun; Guix Vallverdú, Roger; Maldonado García, Jaime; Sun, Wei; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the herd prevalence of major mastitis pathogens in bulk tank milk (BTM) in China dairy herds, to determine the relationship between the presence of mastitis pathogens and bulk tank milk somatic cell counts (BTSCC), and to investigate the impact of different dairy cattle farming modes and region on bacterial species. BTM samples collected from 894 dairy herds in China were examined for the presence of mastitis pathogens. The Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) cards were used for BTM sample collection, storage, and transportation and bacterial DNA amplification by real-time PCR. Among contagious pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae were detected in 50.1, 92.2, and 72.3% of the 894 BTM samples, respectively. Among environmental pathogens, E. coli, Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Serratia marcescens, Corynebacterium bovis, and Arcanobacterium pyogenes were detected in 28.6, 8.9, 35.7, 20.0, 1.3, 17.0, and 67.2% of the BTM samples, respectively. Staphylococcal β-lactamase gene was detected in 61.7% of the BTM samples. The presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Arcanobacterium pyogenes were significantly associated with high BTSCC, respectively. Significant differences were found in presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae in BTM sampled from the small household farms, dairy-farming communities, and large-scaled dairy farms. There were significant differences in the presence of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, staphylococcal β-lactamase gene, Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus spp., and Streptococcus uberis in BTM among Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, and Hebei province. In conclusion, contagious mammary pathogens are predominated among pathogens in BTM samples in China. PMID:27187065

  17. Variations in the temperature sensitivity of spring leaf phenology from 1978 to 2014 in Mudanjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Junhu; Xu, Yunjia; Wang, Huanjiong; Alatalo, Juha; Tao, Zexing; Ge, Quansheng

    2017-12-01

    Continuous long-term temperature sensitivity (ST) of leaf unfolding date (LUD) and main impacting factors in spring in the period 1978-2014 for 40 plant species in Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China, were analyzed by using observation data from the China Phenological Observation Network (CPON), together with the corresponding meteorological data from the China Meteorological Data Service Center. Temperature sensitivities, slopes of the regression between LUD and mean temperature during the optimum preseason (OP), were analyzed using 15-year moving window to determine their temporal trends. Major factors impacting ST were then chosen and evaluated by applying a random sampling method. The results showed that LUD was sensitive to mean temperature in a defined period before phenophase onset for all plant species analyzed. Over the period 1978-2014, the mean ST of LUD for all plant species was - 3.2 ± 0.49 days °C-1. The moving window analysis revealed that 75% of species displayed increasing ST of LUD, with 55% showing significant increases (P < 0.05). ST for the other 25% exhibited a decreasing trend, with 17% showing significant decreases (P < 0.05). On average, ST increased by 16%, from - 2.8 ± 0.83 days °C-1 during 1980-1994 to - 3.30 ± 0.65 days °C-1 during 2000-2014. For species with later LUD and longer OP, ST tended to increase more, while species with earlier LUD and shorter OP tended to display a decreasing ST. The standard deviation of preseason temperature impacted the temporal variation in ST. Chilling conditions influenced ST for some species, but photoperiod limitation did not have significant or coherent effects on changes in ST.

  18. Nitrification inhibitors mitigated reactive gaseous nitrogen intensity in intensive vegetable soils from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Changhua; Li, Bo; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2018-01-15

    Nitrification inhibitors, a promising tool for reducing nitrous oxide (N2O) losses and promoting nitrogen use efficiency by slowing nitrification, have gained extensive attention worldwide. However, there have been few attempts to explore the broad responses of multiple reactive gaseous nitrogen emissions of N2O, nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH3) and vegetable yield to nitrification inhibitor applications across intensive vegetable soils in China. A greenhouse pot experiment with five consecutive vegetable crops was performed to assess the efficacies of two nitrification inhibitors, namely, nitrapyrin and dicyandiamide on reactive gaseous nitrogen emissions, vegetable yield and reactive gaseous nitrogen intensity in four typical vegetable soils representing the intensive vegetable cropping systems across mainland China: an Acrisol from Hunan Province, an Anthrosol from Shanxi Province, a Cambisol from Shandong Province and a Phaeozem from Heilongjiang Province. The results showed soil type had significant influences on reactive gaseous nitrogen intensity, with reactive gaseous nitrogen emissions and yield mainly driven by soil factors: pH, nitrate, C:N ratio, cation exchange capacity and microbial biomass carbon. The highest reactive gaseous nitrogen emissions and reactive gaseous nitrogen intensity were in Acrisol while the highest vegetable yield occurred in Phaeozem. Nitrification inhibitor applications decreased N2O and NO emissions by 1.8-61.0% and 0.8-79.5%, respectively, but promoted NH3 volatilization by 3.2-44.6% across all soils. Furthermore, significant positive correlations were observed between inhibited N2O+NO and stimulated NH3 emissions with nitrification inhibitor additions across all soils, indicating that reduced nitrification posed the threat of NH3 losses. Additionally, reactive gaseous nitrogen intensity was significantly reduced in the Anthrosol and Cambisol due to the reduced reactive gaseous nitrogen emissions and increased yield

  19. China White

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Lash, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on some themes in Harrison White’s work in the context of China, where the social and cultural construction of markets is quite literal. We explore how we get markets where previously there were no markets and draw on White’s central themes of ‘uncertainty’, ‘value’ and ‘order...

  20. Ephemeral China/Handmade China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ruan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A China that is in a frenzied state of economic boom and potential social instability, which is most vividly represented in its architectural and urban developments, is, I hope I will convince you, ephemeral. A quite different China, perhaps is not so visible as its new buildings and cities, is metaphorically ‘handmade’. I should like to extend the meanings of the handmade to the more stable and long lasting attitudes towards social life, and even mortality. My sources for the second China are partially from literature (not from architecture. With the construction boom since the mid-1990s, mainstream Western architectural journals and galleries have been racing to expose new architecture in China; celebrity Western architects have been winning major commissions in China: the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games is a case in point. The sheer quantity and speed of China’s development, as evidenced in architecture and urbanisation, causes an ‘unbearable lightness of being’ (to paraphrase Milan Kundera. Does all this then suggest that China, as solidified in its buildings and cities, is no longer ‘handmade’ in the sense that memory and a sense of history are redundant (particularly for a country that has a recorded history of more than 5000 years, which have been so lovingly recorded in handmade artefacts? The true meaning of the handmade, which absorbs labour — an ‘honourable labour’ as Joseph Conrad lovingly put it in his Mirror of the Sea, as well as memory, like that of a home, is a static artefact, which harbours our changing emotion, the frailties of human life, and indeed, the growing awareness that comes with time of our mortality: the handmade offers the necessary enshrinement of life’s vulnerability. Let me assure you, the seemingly fast-changing China, as represented in its new architecture and city forms, as well in its frenzied urbanisation and booming economy, is but a smoke screen. It is, in other words, ephemeral. The

  1. Radionuclides in mushrooms and soil-to-mushroom transfer factors in certain areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Fei; Zhang, Jing; Li, Wenhong; Yao, Shuaimo; Zhou, Qiang; Li, Zeshu

    2017-12-01

    Activity concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 137 Cs and 40 K in 64 mushroom samples collected in China from Yunnan, Fujian and Heilongjiang Provinces, were measured. Gamma-ray emissions were determined by using high-purity germanium (HPGe) γ spectrometry. The range of concentrations (Bq kg -1 dry weight) for 238 U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 137 Cs and 40 K in all investigated mushroom samples were from 0.12 to 12, 0.05 to 7.5, 0.14 to 14, MDC(mushrooms showed some variation between species sampled at the same site. To calculate soil to mushroom transfer factors, levels of radionuclide in 15 paired soil samples and mushrooms were also investigated. The median transfer factors for 238 U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 137 Cs and 40 K were 8.32 × 10 -2 , 3.03 × 10 -2 , 6.69 × 10 -2 , 0.40 and 1.19, respectively. The results were compared with values of other areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Climatic niche divergence and habitat suitability of eight alien invasive weeds in China under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ji-Zhong; Wang, Chun-Jing; Tan, Jing-Fang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2017-03-01

    Testing climatic niche divergence and modeling habitat suitability under conditions of climate change are important for developing strategies to limit the introduction and expansion of alien invasive weeds (AIWs) and providing important ecological and evolutionary insights. We assessed climatic niches in both native and invasive ranges as well as habitat suitability under climate change for eight representative Chinese AIWs from the American continent. We used climatic variables associated with occurrence records and developed ecological niche models with Maxent. Interestingly, the climatic niches of all eight AIWs diverged significantly between the native and invasive ranges (the American continent and China). Furthermore, the AIWs showed larger climatic niche breadths in the invasive ranges than in the native ranges. Our results suggest that climatic niche shifts between native and invasive ranges occurred. Thus, the occurrence records of both native and invasive regions must be considered when modeling and predicting the spatial distributions of AIWs under current and future climate scenarios. Owing to high habitat suitability, AIWs were more likely to expand into regions of low latitude, and future climate change was predicted to result in a shift in the AIWs in Qinghai and Tibet (regions of higher altitude) as well as Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, and Gansu (regions of higher latitude). Our results suggest that we need measures to prevent and control AIW expansion at the country-wide level.

  3. VICIOUS CIRCULATION OF WATER DEFICIENCY AND WATER POLLUTION – “CANCER” OF THE RIVERS IN THE NORTH OF CHINA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liankang

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The North of China belongs to the basin of the Tarim River ,the Heihe River , the Yellow River , the Huaihe River ,the Haihe River ,the Liaohe River , the Heilongjiang River and other shorter rivers and other indraft areas. The total area of all river basin is about 3,200,000 sq. km., exceeds 3/5 of area of land of 13 provinces , municipalities and autonomous regions of the North of China (5, 220,000 sq. km. .Follow the growth of the economy and the population, lacking of water in the rivers of the northern China is serious,. Since the sixties and seventies of previous century, the blanking has taken place successively in numerous rivers, brought serious influence on the development of the economic, made the society to shake. Afterwards, through certain effort, although the blanking phenomenon is alleviated for the past several years, but the water quality of manyrivers has sharply worsened and was dropped to V, bad V grade in the numerous sections, fromthe situation that the water quality in a great part sections in the main stream was still rather good for past more than 20 years ago. It has become the first killer, influencing the life of river.Therefore, we must summarize the experiences on that the rivers of the northern China, especially the most influential Yellow River, have gone from blanking to resuming flow, we also must control the pollution and proportionate the development of the society and theeconomic, with the water yield and the water quality. These affair have already become task of top priority!

  4. Spatial distribution patterns of anorectal atresia/stenosis in China: use of two-dimensional graph-theoretical clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ping; Qiao, Liang; Dai, Li; Wang, Yan-Ping; Zhou, Guang-Xuan; Han, Ying; Liu, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Xun; Cao, Yi; Liang, Juan; Zhu, Jun

    2009-06-14

    To investigate the spatial distribution patterns of anorectal atresia/stenosis in China. Data were collected from the Chinese Birth Defects Monitoring Network (CBDMN), a hospital-based congenital malformations registry system. All fetuses more than 28 wk of gestation and neonates up to 7 d of age in hospitals within the monitoring sites of the CBDMN were monitored from 2001 to 2005. Two-dimensional graph-theoretical clustering was used to divide monitoring sites of the CBDMN into different clusters according to the average incidences of anorectal atresia/stenosis in the different monitoring sites. The overall average incidence of anorectal atresia/stenosis in China was 3.17 per 10,000 from 2001 to 2005. The areas with the highest average incidences of anorectal atresia/stenosis were almost always focused in Eastern China. The monitoring sites were grouped into 6 clusters of areas. Cluster 1 comprised the monitoring sites in Heilongjiang Province, Jilin Province, and Liaoning Province; Cluster 2 was composed of those in Fujian Province, Guangdong Province, Hainan Province, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, south Hunan Province, and south Jiangxi Province; Cluster 3 consisted of those in Beijing Municipal City, Tianjin Municipal City, Hebei Province, Shandong Province, north Jiangsu Province, and north Anhui Province; Cluster 4 was made up of those in Zhejiang Province, Shanghai Municipal City, south Anhui Province, south Jiangsu Province, north Hunan Province, north Jiangxi Province, Hubei Province, Henan Province, Shanxi Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region; Cluster 5 consisted of those in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Gansu Province and Qinghai Province; and Cluster 6 included those in Shaanxi Province, Sichuan Province, Chongqing Municipal City, Yunnan Province, Guizhou Province, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Province and Tibet Autonomous Region. The findings in this research allow the display of the spatial distribution patterns of anorectal atresia

  5. The nutrition-based comprehensive intervention study on childhood obesity in China (NISCOC: a randomised cluster controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Guifa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity and its related metabolic and psychological abnormalities are becoming serious health problems in China. Effective, feasible and practical interventions should be developed in order to prevent the childhood obesity and its related early onset of clinical cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a multi-centred random controlled school-based clinical intervention for childhood obesity in China. The secondary objective is to compare the cost-effectiveness of the comprehensive intervention strategy with two other interventions, one only focuses on nutrition education, the other only focuses on physical activity. Methods/Design The study is designed as a multi-centred randomised controlled trial, which included 6 centres located in Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Shandong province, Heilongjiang province and Guangdong province. Both nutrition education (special developed carton style nutrition education handbook and physical activity intervention (Happy 10 program will be applied in all intervention schools of 5 cities except Beijing. In Beijing, nutrition education intervention will be applied in 3 schools and physical activity intervention among another 3 schools. A total of 9750 primary students (grade 1 to grade 5, aged 7-13 years will participate in baseline and intervention measurements, including weight, height, waist circumference, body composition (bioelectrical impendence device, physical fitness, 3 days dietary record, physical activity questionnaire, blood pressure, plasma glucose and plasma lipid profiles. Data concerning investments will be collected in our study, including costs in staff training, intervention materials, teachers and school input and supervising related expenditure. Discussion Present study is the first and biggest multi-center comprehensive childhood obesity intervention study in China. Should the study produce comprehensive results, the

  6. Is China different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson; Ljungwall, Christer

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  7. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2013-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  8. Characterization of integron-mediated antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli strains isolated from a captive population of Amur tigers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuan; Chen, Jianfei; Wang, Yulong; Zhang, Yanlong; Liu, Dan; Hua, Yuping

    2013-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to identify and characterize integrons and integrated resistance gene cassettes among multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolates from a captive population of Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) in China. In addition, the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and class I integrons was assessed in E. coli strains (n = 61) isolated from a captive population of Amur tigers in Heilongjiang Amur Tiger Park, China. Among the isolates, 52.46% (32 of 61) were positive for intI1, but no isolates carried intI2 or intI3. Most isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, aztreonam, and polymyxin B, while they also exhibited high incidence rates of resistance to ampicillin, doxycycline, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and dihydrofolate reductase. Sequencing analysis revealed three gene cassettes, which encoded resistance to dihydrofolate reductase (dfrA15), dihydrofolate reductase (dfrA12), and adenyltransferase (aadA2). The gene cassette arrays dfrA15 (31%) and dfrA12-aadA2 (19%) were most prevalent among these isolates.

  9. Moderating effects of coping on work stress and job performance for nurses in tertiary hospitals: a cross-sectional survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Ai, Hua; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Hao; Liu, Xinyan; Zhang, Zhong; Sun, Tao; Fan, Lihua

    2017-06-12

    Work stress is a major problem for nurses and it can negatively influence job performance. Therefore, it is critical to explore variables that can reduce or buffer the negative effects of work stress. This study explores the moderating effects of coping strategies on the relationship between work stress and job performance for nurses in China. A cross-sectional survey of 852 nurses from four tertiary hospitals in Heilongjiang Province, China, was conducted in 2013. Descriptive statistics were reported for socioeconomic status and demographic characteristics, level of work stress, coping strategies, and job performance. Regression analysis was conducted to test the interaction between work stress and coping strategies on job performance. Three subscales of work stress were negatively related to job performance. Positive coping strategies moderated Patient Care and job performance while negative coping strategies moderated Workload and Time and performance, and between Working Environment and Resources and performance. Positive coping strategies reduce or buffer the negative effects of work stress on job performance and negative coping strategies increased the negative effects.

  10. [Burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease attributable to ambient ozone pollution in 1990 and 2013 in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J; Yin, P; Wang, L J; Liu, S W; Li, Y C; Liu, Y N; Liu, J M; You, J L; Zeng, X Y; Zhou, M G

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in China attributable to ambient ozone pollution in 1990 and 2013. Based on the results of the China Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2013, the population attributable fractions was used to analyze the deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) of COPD attributable to ambient ozone pollution in all provinces (not including Taiwan, China) in 1990 and 2013, and to compare changes of the attributable disease burden in 1990 and 2013. In 2013, 7.4% (95% uncertainty interval (95% UI): 6.1%-8.6%) of COPD were attributable to ambient ozone pollution, with the highest rate in Hebei province (15.0%, 95%UI: 12.0%-18.7%) and the lowest in Heilongjiang province (2.8%,95%UI: 0.9%-5.3%). In 2013, 67 485 COPD deaths in China were due to ambient ozone pollution, with the highest number in Sichuan province (11 929) and in China lowest in Macao (11). A total of 1.168 million DALYs caused by COPD were due to ambient ozone pollution, with the highest in Sichuan province (0.189 million) and lowest in Macao (257.4). In 2013, the DALY per 100 000 population caused by COPD due to ambient ozone pollution after age standardization was lowest in Heilongjiang province (21.9), Shanghai (26.7), Beijing (38.4), Tianjin (39.3), and Jilin province (39.7) and highest in Sichuan province (206.4), Qinghai province (202.5), Guizhou province (175.3), and Gansu province (171.4). DALYs caused by COPD attributable to ambient ozone pollution increased with age (0.144 million person years for ages 15-49 years, 0.43 million person years for age 50-69 years and 0.594 million person years for age 70 years and above), which were higher in men than in women (0.708 million person years for men and 0.459 million person years for women in 2013). Deaths of COPD attributable to ambient ozone pollution were 49 514 and 67 485 in 1990 and 2013, respectively. DALYs caused by COPD attributable to ozone pollution totaled 0.894 million and 1

  11. Biochar reduces yield-scaled emissions of reactive nitrogen gases from vegetable soils across China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Changhua; Chen, Hao; Li, Bo; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2017-06-01

    Biochar amendment to soil has been proposed as a strategy for sequestering carbon, mitigating climate change and enhancing crop productivity. However, few studies have compared the general effect of different feedstock-derived biochars on the various gaseous reactive nitrogen emissions (GNrEs) of N2O, NO and NH3 simultaneously across the typical vegetable soils in China. A greenhouse pot experiment with five consecutive vegetable crops was conducted to investigate the effects of two contrasting biochars, namely wheat straw biochar (Bw) and swine manure biochar (Bm) on GNrEs, vegetable yield and gaseous reactive nitrogen intensity (GNrI) in four typical soils which are representative of the intensive vegetable cropping systems across mainland China: an Acrisol from Hunan Province, an Anthrosol from Shanxi Province, a Cambisol from Shandong Province and a Phaeozem from Heilongjiang Province. Results showed that remarkable GNrE mitigation induced by biochar occurred in Anthrosol and Phaeozem, whereas enhancement of yield occurred in Cambisol and Phaeozem. Additionally, both biochars decreased GNrI through reducing N2O and NO emissions by 36.4-59.1 and 37.0-49.5 % for Bw (except for Cambisol), respectively, and by improving yield by 13.5-30.5 % for Bm (except for Acrisol and Anthrosol). Biochar amendments generally stimulated the NH3 emissions with greater enhancement from Bm than Bw. We can infer that the biochar's effects on the GNrEs and vegetable yield strongly depend on the attributes of the soil and biochar. Therefore, in order to achieve the maximum benefits under intensive greenhouse vegetable agriculture, both soil type and biochar characteristics should be seriously considered before conducting large-scale biochar applications.

  12. Implementation of AN Agricultural Environmental Information System (aeis) for the Sanjiang Plain, Ne-China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q.; Brocks, S.; Lenz-Wiedemann, V.; Miao, Y.; Jiang, R.; Chen, X.; Zhang, F.; Bareth, G.

    2012-07-01

    The Sino-German Project between the China Agricultural University and the University of Cologne, Germany, focuses on regional agro-ecosystem modelling. One major focus of the cooperation activity is the establishment of joint rice field experiment research in Jiansanjiang, located in the Sanjiang Plain (Heilongjiang Province, north-eastern part of China), to investigate the different agricultural practices and their impact on yield and environment. An additional task is to set-up an Agricultural Environmental Information System (AEIS) for the Sanjiang Plain (SJP), which covers more than 100 000 km2. Research groups from Geography (e.g. GIS & Remote Sensing) and Plant Nutrition (e.g. Precision Agriculture) are involved in the project. The major aim of the AEIS for the SJP is to provide information about (i) agriculture in the region, (ii) the impact of agricultural practices on the environment, and (iii) simulation scenarios for sustainable strategies. Consequently, the AEIS for the SJP provides information for decision support and therefore could be regarded as a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS), too. The investigation of agricultural and environmental issues has a spatial context, which requires the management, handling, and analysis of spatial data. The use of GIS enables the capture, storage, analysis and presentation of spatial data. Therefore, GIS is the major tool for the set-up of the AEIS for the SJP. This contribution presents the results of linking agricultural statistics with GIS to provide information about agriculture in the SJP and discusses the benefits of this method as well as the integration of methods to produce new data.

  13. [Discriminatory power of variable number on tandem repeats loci for genotyping Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H X; Cai, C; Liu, J Y; Zhang, Z G; Yuan, M; Jia, J N; Sun, Z G; Huang, H R; Gao, J M; Li, W M

    2017-06-10

    Objective: Using the standard genotype method, variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), we constructed a VNTR database to cover all provinces and proposed a set of optimized VNTR loci combinations for each province, in order to improve the preventive and control programs on tuberculosis, in China. Methods: A total of 15 loci VNTR was used to analyze 4 116 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, isolated from national survey of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis, in 2007. Hunter-Gaston Index (HGI) was also used to analyze the discriminatory power of each VNTR site. A set combination of 12-VNTR, 10-VNTR, 8-VNTR and 5-VNTR was respectively constructed for each province, based on 1) epidemic characteristics of M. tuberculosis lineages in China, with high discriminatory power and genetic stability. Results: Through the completed 15 loci VNTR patterns of 3 966 strains under 96.36% (3 966/4 116) coverage, we found seven high HGI loci (including QUB11b and MIRU26) as well as low stable loci (including QUB26, MIRU16, Mtub21 and QUB11b) in several areas. In all the 31 provinces, we found an optimization VNTR combination as 10-VNTR loci in Inner Mongolia, Chongqing and Heilongjiang, but with 8-VNTR combination shared in other provinces. Conclusions: It is necessary to not only use the VNTR database for tracing the source of infection and cluster of M. tuberculosis in the nation but also using the set of optimized VNTR combinations in monitoring those local epidemics and M. tuberculosis (genetics in local) population.

  14. Consensus of multiple autonomous underwater vehicles with double independent Markovian switching topologies and timevarying delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhe-Ping; Liu, Yi-Bo; Zhou, Jia-Jia; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Lu

    2017-04-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51679057, 51309067, and 51609048), the Outstanding Youth Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Providence of China (Grant No. JC2016007), and the Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. E2016020).

  15. China Energy Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2009-11-16

    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  16. China Pop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence in this cultu......Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence...... in this cultural sector while promoting a policy of dialogue, integration and exclusion. Cooperation with the state is attractive because it is rewarded with unlimited access to official media, audiences and commercial success. The article focuses on recent trends in China’s most important genres of popular music......: Mandopop, (red) mainstream music and rock music. It argues that the Chinese state’s success in raising the popularity of the mainstream is based on its constant promotion, patriotic education, a general pride in China’s strength, nationalism and – equally important – adaptation and the commercial...

  17. Habitat evaluation of wild Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and conservation priority setting in north-eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaofeng, Luan; Yi, Qu; Diqiang, Li; Shirong, Liu; Xiulei, Wang; Bo, Wu; Chunquan, Zhu

    2011-01-01

    The Amur Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is one of the world's most endangered species. Recently, habitat fragmentation, food scarcity and human hunting have drastically reduced the population size and distribution areas of Amur tigers in the wild, leaving them on the verge of extinction. Presently, they are only found in the north-eastern part of China. In this study, we developed a reference framework using methods and technologies of analytic hierarchy process (AHP), remote sensing (RS), geographic information system (GIS), GAP analysis and Natural Break (Jenks) classification to evaluate the habitat and to set the conservation priorities for Amur tigers in eastern areas of Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces of northeast China. We proposed a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) incorporating 7 factors covering natural conditions and human disturbance. Based on the HSI values, the suitability was classified into five levels from the most to not suitable. Finally, according to results of GAP analysis, we identified six conservation priorities and designed a conservation landscape incorporating four new nature reserves, enlarging two existing ones, and creating four linkages for Amur tigers in northeast China. The case study showed that the core habitats (the most suitable and highly suitable habitats) identified for Amur tigers covered 35,547 km(2), accounting for approximately 26.71% of the total study area (1,33,093 km(2)). However, existing nature reserves protected only (7124 km(2) or) 20.04% of the identified core habitats. Thus, enlargement of current reserves is necessary and urgent for the tiger's conservation and restoration. Moreover, the establishment of wildlife corridors linking core habitats will provide an efficient reserve network for tiger conservation to maintain the evolutionary potential of Amur tigers facing environmental changes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Local PM10 and PM2.5 emission inventories from agricultural tillage and harvest in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Tong, Daniel Q; Zhang, Shichun; Zhang, Xuelei; Zhao, Hongmei

    2017-07-01

    Mineral particles or particulate matters (PMs) emitted during agricultural activities are major recurring sources of atmospheric aerosol loading. However, precise PM inventory from agricultural tillage and harvest in agricultural regions is challenged by infrequent local emission factor (EF) measurements. To understand PM emissions from these practices in northeastern China, we measured EFs of PM10 and PM2.5 from three field operations (i.e., tilling, planting and harvesting) in major crop production (i.e., corn and soybean), using portable real-time PM analyzers and weather station data. County-level PM10 and PM2.5 emissions from agricultural tillage and harvest were estimated, based on local EFs, crop areas and crop calendars. The EFs averaged (107±27), (17±5) and 26mg/m2 for field tilling, planting and harvesting under relatively dry conditions (i.e., soil moisture <15%), respectively. The EFs of PM from field tillage and planting operations were negatively affected by topsoil moisture. The magnitude of PM10 and PM2.5 emissions from these three activities were estimated to be 35.1 and 9.8 kilotons/yr in northeastern China, respectively, of which Heilongjiang Province accounted for approximately 45%. Spatiotemporal distribution showed that most PM10 emission occurred in April, May and October and were concentrated in the central regions of the northeastern plain, which is dominated by dryland crops. Further work is needed to estimate the contribution of agricultural dust emissions to regional air quality in northeastern China. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Risk mapping of clonorchiasis in the People's Republic of China: A systematic review and Bayesian geostatistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Si; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Pan, Zhi-Heng; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2017-03-01

    Clonorchiasis, one of the most important food-borne trematodiases, affects more than 12 million people in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China). Spatially explicit risk estimates of Clonorchis sinensis infection are needed in order to target control interventions. Georeferenced survey data pertaining to infection prevalence of C. sinensis in P.R. China from 2000 onwards were obtained via a systematic review in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Internet, and Wanfang Data from January 1, 2000 until January 10, 2016, with no restriction of language or study design. Additional disease data were provided by the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Diseases Control and Prevention in Shanghai. Environmental and socioeconomic proxies were extracted from remote-sensing and other data sources. Bayesian variable selection was carried out to identify the most important predictors of C. sinensis risk. Geostatistical models were applied to quantify the association between infection risk and the predictors of the disease, and to predict the risk of infection across P.R. China at high spatial resolution (over a grid with grid cell size of 5×5 km). We obtained clonorchiasis survey data at 633 unique locations in P.R. China. We observed that the risk of C. sinensis infection increased over time, particularly from 2005 onwards. We estimate that around 14.8 million (95% Bayesian credible interval 13.8-15.8 million) people in P.R. China were infected with C. sinensis in 2010. Highly endemic areas (≥ 20%) were concentrated in southern and northeastern parts of the country. The provinces with the highest risk of infection and the largest number of infected people were Guangdong, Guangxi, and Heilongjiang. Our results provide spatially relevant information for guiding clonorchiasis control interventions in P.R. China. The trend toward higher risk of C. sinensis infection in the recent past urges the Chinese government to pay more

  20. Study on the optimization of comprehensive transportation system in China under the perspective of total factor efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Mei; Zhang, Lu

    2017-03-01

    Using BCC model of DEA technique, this paper estimate the energy effectiveness of China's local transportation industry. Based on data from China’s statistical yearbook from 1998 to 2014, operating kilometers of regional railway, highway and water-way industry and employees of civil aviation industry and consumption of transportation energy are chosen as input variables and GDP of regional transportation industry every year as output variable to estimate the operational energy efficiency. It is found that energy efficiency of provinces such as Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong, Hainan, Qinghai, Ningxia and Xinjiang are relatively effective, compare to national average, provinces such as Shanxi, Anhui, Liaoning, Jiangxi, Jilin, Hunan, Shaanxi, Heilongjiang, Guangxi, Hubei, Guizhou, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Sichuan, Yunnan are on the low side, which mainly concentrated in the northeast and central and western regions, then, the paper grouped these provinces which energy efficiency on the low side according to the redundancy, the major and minor reasons lead to their lower efficiency are analyzed, and optimization suggestions are put forward.

  1. A combination of the Kato-Katz methods and ELISA to improve the diagnosis of clonorchiasis in an endemic area, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Examination of feces by light microscopy is widely used for specific parasitological diagnosis of clonorchiasis. However, the true incidence of infection is underestimated owing to the high missing diagnosis rate of this method. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA is widely used for the detection and control of clonorchiasis but the practicality of this method is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ELISA as a supplementary method for the diagnosis of clonorchiasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study recruited 2,359 clinically suspected patients from Heilongjiang Province, China. In all, 954 cases were identified as antibody-positive by immunoglobulin (IgG-ELISA and 495 individuals were diagnosed as egg-positive by the Kato-Katz (KK method. The seropositive and egg-negative individuals were re-examined by repeated egg counts and/or the number of KK slides and 18 (18.18% cases were confirmed as clonorchiasis. The 40.44%, antibody-positive rate determined by IgG-ELISA was significantly higher (P<0.05 than the 21.75% egg-positive rate found by examination of feces. A Bayesian approach indicated that the prevalence of clonorchiasis in this region was 22.27% and that the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of IgG-ELISA were 98.7%, 76.53%, 54.66% and 99.52%, respectively. The agreement between the two methods was moderate (kappa value = 0.564. The clonorchiasis patients lived mainly along the Songhua River. The risk factors, except for ethnic factors, were estimated effectively by both methods. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study suggested that clonorchiasis was widely distributed in Heilongjiang Province, China. The missing diagnosis rate was high using the KK technique alone. The combination of immunological methods and parasitological techniques could improve diagnostic accuracy and reduce the missing diagnosis rate. ELISA used

  2. China gives gas; China geeft gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wit, P. (ed.)

    2003-02-01

    Shell is involved in a large project (West to East Pipeline between the Tarim Basin and Sjanghai) to transport natural from the eastern part of China to the cities in the western part of China. [Dutch] Shell wordt partner in een megaproject (aanleg van de West-Oost Gaspijpleiding tussen het Tarim Bekken en Sjanghai) om via aardgas de grote steden in China leefbaar te maken.

  3. Validation and dissection of quantitative trait loci for leaf traits in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006, People's Republic of China; College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036, People's Republic of China; College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080, ...

  4. Selection of strategic replacement areas for CBM exploration and development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longyi Shao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, the increase in proved reserves and production of coalbed methane (CBM in China depends mainly on several CBM bases in the southern Qinshui Basin and in the eastern margin of the Ordos Basin. Therefore, it is urgent to find new batches of exploration and development strategic replacement areas. For this purpose, we investigated the resources, reservoir properties, preservation conditions, and development conditions of CBM in China, and put forward eight general factors and four critical factors that can be used in establishing selection criteria of strategic replacement areas for affecting the CBM exploration and development in China. The eight general factors are resource abundance, coalbed thickness, gas content, original permeability, burial depth, hydrogeological conditions, coalbed depositional environment, and landforms, and the four critical factors include genetic type, stability type, later reservoir reformation, and damage degree of coal structure. Comparison shows that the low-rank coal area in the northwestern area, the northeastern medium-low rank coal area, and the southwestern medium-high rank and structurally-complex coal area are the major replacement areas for CBM following the northern area of China. Key factors affecting CBM enrichment in each of the three key areas, respectively, are: a genetic type and stability of coal seams, b genetic type and reconstruction of the reservoir by volcanic intrusion, and c stability of coal seams and damage degree of coal structure. Based on these factors, a system for selection and evaluation of strategic replacement areas for CBM development was established. Fifteen blocks in the above three areas were evaluated by using multi-layered fuzzy mathematics, selecting eight favorable areas and seven relatively favorable areas that contain 1.8 trillion m3 of predicted CBM geological resources. The eight favorable areas include the Wucaiwan-Dajing coal exploration area in the Zhundong

  5. China's 'Hot Money' Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F; Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... The recent large inflow of financial capital into China, commonly referred to as "hot money," has led some economists to warn that such flows may have a destabilizing effect on China's economy...

  6. JPRS Report - China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-27

    its officials to take effective measures to save fishery resources in the South China Sea, said today’s CHINA DAILY. Experts from the province’s...seafood product department warn that overfishing is exhausting resources. The monthly fish catch in the South China Sea is estimated at about one...uncovered in the province. To save fisheries in the South China Sea, he urged to improve supervision. "The main task in this will be to control the number

  7. "Misunderstanding China" Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay Area China Education Project, Stanford, CA.

    The short unit, designed around the use of the film "Misunderstanding China", is a secondary level study of American stereotypes of China. The major objective of the unit is to help students understand the origins and causes of stereotypes. While the case in point is China, the unit can be used in any context where stereotyping is…

  8. Debating China's assertiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2012-01-01

    China relations as a bargaining process. Whereas China negotiates for a new status in the system with redefined interests, the United States and other countries need to adjust their old political practices. China's ‘core interest’ diplomacy launched in 2009 is the first step in revealing ‘private information...

  9. Could Changes in the Agricultural Landscape of Northeastern China Have Influenced the Long-Distance Transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5Nx Viruses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Gilbert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, several reassortant subtypes of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAI H5Nx have emerged in East Asia. These new viruses, mostly of subtype H5N1, H5N2, H5N6, and H5N8 belonging to clade 2.3.4.4, have been found in several Asian countries and have caused outbreaks in poultry in China, South Korea, and Vietnam. HPAI H5Nx also have spread over considerable distances with the introduction of viruses belonging to the same 2.3.4.4 clade in the U.S. (2014–2015 and in Europe (2014–2015 and 2016–2017. In this paper, we examine the emergence and spread of these new viruses in Asia in relation to published datasets on HPAI H5Nx distribution, movement of migratory waterfowl, avian influenza risk models, and land-use change analyses. More specifically, we show that between 2000 and 2015, vast areas of northeast China have been newly planted with rice paddy fields (3.21 million ha in Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning in areas connected to other parts of Asia through migratory pathways of wild waterfowl. We hypothesize that recent land use changes in northeast China have affected the spatial distribution of wild waterfowl, their stopover areas, and the wild-domestic interface, thereby altering transmission dynamics of avian influenza viruses across flyways. Detailed studies of the habitat use by wild migratory birds, of the extent of the wild–domestic interface, and of the circulation of avian influenza viruses in those new planted areas may help to shed more light on this hypothesis, and on the possible impact of those changes on the long-distance patterns of avian influenza transmission.

  10. Look into the HIV Epidemic of Gay Community with a Socio-Cultural Perspective: A Qualitative Study in China, 2015-2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijing He

    Full Text Available Current Chinese studies continue to view male homosexuality through a disease focused lens which pays limited attention to socio-cultural aspects of sexual behavior and HIV transmission. This qualitative study aimed to investigate how socio-cultural factors influence gay men's sexual beliefs and behaviors in contemporary China, and their implications for HIV epidemic.Qualitative methodology was used in this study. During 2015-2016, in-depth interviews were conducted with 61 self identified gay men in Jiangxi, Henan, Heilongjiang, Guangdong, Jiangsu provinces and Chongqing municipality of China. Our study revealed that: 1 influenced by Chinese traditional culture, gay men have conflicts on self-identity, which led to low self-acceptance and negative attitude on sex, and huge socio-psychological stress; 2 a generational differences within gay community was observed, reflected in varied sexual attitudes and practices as well as way for approaching new friends, both of which have implications and challenges on HIV control and prevention; 3 socio-cultural barriers, including open minds towards casual sex and nonmonogamous relationship, and low priority of health demands were widely observed and led to negative coping with AIDS among gay community.It is essential to take a holistic view into gay men's HIV epidemic in China. Socio-cultural barriers for HIV control and prevention found in this study call for serious and imperative consideration on integrated measures, including targeted efforts towards effective sex education and further inclusion of socio-cultural perspectives in HIV/AIDS interventions for gay men.

  11. Phylogenetic conservatism and trait correlates of spring phenological responses to climate change in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yanjun; Chen, Jingru; Willis, Charles G; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Liu, Tong; Dai, Wujun; Zhao, Yuan; Ma, Keping

    2017-09-01

    Climate change has resulted in major changes in plant phenology across the globe that includes leaf-out date and flowering time. The ability of species to respond to climate change, in part, depends on their response to climate as a phenological cue in general. Species that are not phenologically responsive may suffer in the face of continued climate change. Comparative studies of phenology have found phylogeny to be a reliable predictor of mean leaf-out date and flowering time at both the local and global scales. This is less true for flowering time response (i.e., the correlation between phenological timing and climate factors), while no study to date has explored whether the response of leaf-out date to climate factors exhibits phylogenetic signal. We used a 52-year observational phenological dataset for 52 woody species from the Forest Botanical Garden of Heilongjiang Province, China, to test phylogenetic signal in leaf-out date and flowering time, as well as, the response of these two phenological traits to both temperature and winter precipitation. Leaf-out date and flowering time were significantly responsive to temperature for most species, advancing, on average, 3.11 and 2.87 day/°C, respectively. Both leaf-out and flowering, and their responses to temperature exhibited significant phylogenetic signals. The response of leaf-out date to precipitation exhibited no phylogenetic signal, while flowering time response to precipitation did. Native species tended to have a weaker flowering response to temperature than non-native species. Earlier leaf-out species tended to have a greater response to winter precipitation. This study is the first to assess phylogenetic signal of leaf-out response to climate change, which suggests, that climate change has the potential to shape the plant communities, not only through flowering sensitivity, but also through leaf-out sensitivity.

  12. Self-Esteem and Problematic Drinking in China: A Mediated Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hui; Yang, Yanjie; Sui, Hong; Wang, Wenbo; Chen, Lu; Qiu, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiuxian; Qiao, Zhengxue; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Yang, Jiarun

    2015-01-01

    Background Although self-esteem is related to problematic drinking, the mechanisms by which it affects drinking remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether coping mechanisms mediate the relationship between self-esteem and problematic drinking among Chinese men and women with alcohol use disorders and to recommend appropriate interventions for drinking problems. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China. A sample of 5,689 community residents was screened, and 517 male and 172 female problematic drinkers were chosen to participate in this study. A self-esteem scale, a coping questionnaire and an alcohol use disorder identification test were completed in order to assess participants’ self-esteem, coping mechanisms and alcohol use disorders, respectively. Participants’ socio-demographic data were also gathered at this stage. The resulting data were examined via descriptive statistics, correlations and bootstrap analyses. Results Lower self-esteem levels were related to problematic drinking, and there were no gender differences in the relationship between self-esteem and problematic drinking. A relationship between low self-esteem and negative coping was observed only in men. Negative coping thus mediated the relationship between self-esteem and problematic drinking among men, but this was not the case for women. Positive coping did not mediate the relationship between self-esteem and problematic drinking among the participants, regardless of gender. Conclusions Self-esteem and coping strategies are correlated among problematic drinkers. In addition, there are gender differences in the manners in which negative coping mediates the relationship between self-esteem and problematic drinking. Problematic drinking interventions directed at males should simultaneously address low self-esteem and negative coping. PMID:26451595

  13. Self-Esteem and Problematic Drinking in China: A Mediated Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hui; Yang, Yanjie; Sui, Hong; Wang, Wenbo; Chen, Lu; Qiu, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiuxian; Qiao, Zhengxue; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Yang, Jiarun

    2015-01-01

    Although self-esteem is related to problematic drinking, the mechanisms by which it affects drinking remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether coping mechanisms mediate the relationship between self-esteem and problematic drinking among Chinese men and women with alcohol use disorders and to recommend appropriate interventions for drinking problems. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China. A sample of 5,689 community residents was screened, and 517 male and 172 female problematic drinkers were chosen to participate in this study. A self-esteem scale, a coping questionnaire and an alcohol use disorder identification test were completed in order to assess participants' self-esteem, coping mechanisms and alcohol use disorders, respectively. Participants' socio-demographic data were also gathered at this stage. The resulting data were examined via descriptive statistics, correlations and bootstrap analyses. Lower self-esteem levels were related to problematic drinking, and there were no gender differences in the relationship between self-esteem and problematic drinking. A relationship between low self-esteem and negative coping was observed only in men. Negative coping thus mediated the relationship between self-esteem and problematic drinking among men, but this was not the case for women. Positive coping did not mediate the relationship between self-esteem and problematic drinking among the participants, regardless of gender. Self-esteem and coping strategies are correlated among problematic drinkers. In addition, there are gender differences in the manners in which negative coping mediates the relationship between self-esteem and problematic drinking. Problematic drinking interventions directed at males should simultaneously address low self-esteem and negative coping.

  14. Self-Esteem and Problematic Drinking in China: A Mediated Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhai

    Full Text Available Although self-esteem is related to problematic drinking, the mechanisms by which it affects drinking remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether coping mechanisms mediate the relationship between self-esteem and problematic drinking among Chinese men and women with alcohol use disorders and to recommend appropriate interventions for drinking problems.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China. A sample of 5,689 community residents was screened, and 517 male and 172 female problematic drinkers were chosen to participate in this study. A self-esteem scale, a coping questionnaire and an alcohol use disorder identification test were completed in order to assess participants' self-esteem, coping mechanisms and alcohol use disorders, respectively. Participants' socio-demographic data were also gathered at this stage. The resulting data were examined via descriptive statistics, correlations and bootstrap analyses.Lower self-esteem levels were related to problematic drinking, and there were no gender differences in the relationship between self-esteem and problematic drinking. A relationship between low self-esteem and negative coping was observed only in men. Negative coping thus mediated the relationship between self-esteem and problematic drinking among men, but this was not the case for women. Positive coping did not mediate the relationship between self-esteem and problematic drinking among the participants, regardless of gender.Self-esteem and coping strategies are correlated among problematic drinkers. In addition, there are gender differences in the manners in which negative coping mediates the relationship between self-esteem and problematic drinking. Problematic drinking interventions directed at males should simultaneously address low self-esteem and negative coping.

  15. [Optimization of shelterbelt distribution for the gully erosion control of cultivated slope land in rolling hill black soil region of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zi-Long; Cui, Ming; Fan, Hao-Ming

    2012-04-01

    Shelterbelt system is one of the main components of cultivated slope land in rolling hill black soil region of Northeast China, which plays an important role in the control of gully erosion. Based on the Quickbird high-resolution remote sensing image and the digital elevation model (DEM), and combining with field survey data, this paper analyzed the effects of shelterbelt system in a small watershed of rolling hill black soil region in Heshan Farm of Heilongjiang Province on the control of gully erosion in the cultivated slope land, and put forward an optimized scheme for gully erosion control based on the features of gully erosion in the cultivated slope land and their relations with the distribution of the shelterbelt system. In the study area, the current distribution of the shelterbelt system promoted the occurrence and development of shallow gully and gully directly and indirectly. The proposed scheme for optimizing the distribution of the present shelterbelts included the adjustment of the direction of the shelterbelt perpendicular to the aspect of slope, the enhancement of the maintenance and regeneration of the shelterbelts to reduce the gaps of the shelterbelts, the increase of the shelterbelt number, and the decrease of the distances between shelterbelts. A method for calculating the shelterbelt number and the distances between the shelterbelts was also given. This study could provide scientific basis for the gully erosion control and the shelterbelts programming in the cultivated slope land of rolling hill black soil region.

  16. On China's Nuclear Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liping

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear weapons have played an important role in China's national strategy. China’s nuclear doctrine has a very strong continuity. Nevertheless, China has made readjustments in its nuclear doctrine according to the changes of its internal and external situation and its general strategic threat perception. China’s nuclear doctrine has experienced a process of evolution from anti-nuclear blackmail to minimum deterrence. There are five major parts in China's nuclear doctrine: policy of declaration, nuclear development, nuclear deployment, nuclear employment, and nuclear disarmament. Because China is faced with a different situation from other nuclear powers and has its own strategic culture, China has a nuclear doctrine with its own characteristics. China’s nuclear doctrine has been affiliated with and has served the national development strategy, national security strategy, national defense policy and military strategy of China.

  17. Innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDonald, Greg; Yow, Yit-Seng; Li, Xing

    China's economy is growing quickly, and is innovation-led.  Europe can relate to China through joint R&D, programmes which offer an alternative vehicle of engagement to the traditional political and economic approaches. Innovation in China: The Dawning of the Asian Century promotes an awareness...... of the dynamics of innovation in China. It examines Chinese and European approaches to science and technology and contends that the ‘rules for survival' in R&D and education are changing in favour of China, in terms of base R&D parameters such as research expenditure, scientists trained, papers published...... and patents awarded. The authors recommend options for Europe and China to connect through longitudinal R&D  projects and ‘carrousel-training exchanges' in environmental and health related fields....

  18. Understanding China's Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing

    The objective of this paper is to offer a framework of understanding the dialectical nexus between China's internal evolutions and the external influences with a focus on the century-long "challenge-response" dynamism. That is to explore how external factors helped shaping China's internal...... transformations, i.e. how generations of Chinese have been struggling in responding to the external challenges and attempting to sinicize external political ideas in order to change China from within. Likewise, it is equally important to understand how China's inner transformation contributed to reshaping...... the world. Each time, be it China's dominance or decline, the capitalist world system has to adjust and readjust itself to the opportunities and constraints brought about by the "China factors"....

  19. Household Wealth in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of househ...

  20. JPRS Report, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    Partial Contents: Political, History, Literary Freedom, Cultures, Finance, Banking, Economics, Foreign Banks, Bond Markets, Agriculture, Machinery, Social, Educations, China, Addresses, Employment, Regional, Political...

  1. China's Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2006-01-01

    ...), the state banking system, and fixed exchange rate system. In addition, China faces several other difficult challenges, such as pollution and growing income inequality, that threaten social stability...

  2. China: Sources of Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomczak, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    .... It's dominant geo-strategic location, independent foreign policy, and large standing conventional and nuclear arsenal pose a significant threat to regional stability as China strengthens its economic...

  3. China's Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... However, China faces a number of challenges, including the fallout from the global financial crisis, widespread government corruption, an inefficient banking system, over-dependence on exports...

  4. The connexin 46 mutant (V44M) impairs gap junction function ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Ophthalmology, Hongqi Hospital of Mudanjiang Medical College, Mudanjiang 157000, Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China; Department of Genetics, National Research Institute for Family Planning, Beijing 100081, People's Republic of China; Department of Immunology, Basic Medical College ...

  5. impairs gap junction function causing congenital cataract

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2017-03-24

    , Mudanjiang,. Heilongjiang Province, China. 2 Department of Genetics, National Research Institute for Family Planning, Beijing, China. 3 Department of immunology, Basic Medical College of Harbin Medical University, ...

  6. Google in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, D.B.T.

    2006-01-01

    The Mekelprize 2007 was won by Taco Broerse, who wrote an essay titled Google in China. Is it morally justified for a Western company to go along with self-censorship, especially in a country like China, where freedom of expression is under pressure? The jury found this essay to provide a strong

  7. Action Learning in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  8. Area Studies: China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Virginia; And Others

    The guide outlines a course of study for elementary students on the history, geography, language, and general culture of China. Course objectives are to identify the major mountains, the major cities, and the types of climate affecting each region of China; locate and record on a time line the important events in the development of Chinese…

  9. China's Innovation Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    China aims to become an innovation-led nation by 2020, but its leadership is generally sceptical--and oftentimes hostile--to the market forces, open exchange of ideas, and creative destruction that have unlocked innovation in other countries. Instead, Beijing hopes to promote innovation in China through a massive expansion in higher education,…

  10. IDRC in China

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    riers to Internet access in China by simplify- ing search engines. Xue Lan, Dean of the School of Public Policy and. Management and Director of the China Institute for Science and Technology Policy at Tsinghua. University in Beijing, is a member of IDRC's Board of. Governors. About Canada's International Development ...

  11. China Since Mao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin

    Major changes in China since Mao Tse-tung's death in 1976 include development of a more aggressive foreign policy, easing of political and social controls, and educational expansion. Specifically, China is providing economic aid to other developing nations, permitting debate on political issues, allowing modification of government directives at…

  12. Cryospheric Research in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-30

    BIOME4) to simulate the responses of biome distribution to future climate change in China. The simulation results suggest that regional climate...change would result in dramatic changes in vegetation distribution in China. For example on the Tibetan Plateau the area of forests increased by

  13. Carbon emissions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhu [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Sustainability Science Program

    2016-07-01

    This study analyzes the spatial-temporal pattern and processes of China's energy-related carbon emissions. Based on extensive quantitative analysis, it outlines the character and trajectory of China's energy-related carbon emissions during the period 1995-2010, examining the distribution pattern of China's carbon emissions from regional and sectoral perspectives and revealing the driving factors of China's soaring emission increase. Further, the book investigates the supply chain carbon emissions (the carbon footprints) of China's industrial sectors. Anthropogenic climate change is one of the most serious challenges currently facing humankind. China is the world's largest developing country, top primary energy consumer and carbon emitter. Achieving both economic growth and environmental conservation is the country's twofold challenge. Understanding the status, features and driving forces of China's energy-related carbon emissions is a critical aspect of attaining global sustainability. This work, for the first time, presents both key findings on and a systematic evaluation of China's carbon emissions from energy consumption. The results have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing with regard to climate change mitigation. The book will be of great interest to readers around the world, as it addresses a topic of truly global significance.

  14. China Report Economic Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-28

    defense industry pursuing the technique of remolding the middle temperature furnace by using aluminium silicate refractory fibres. They saved more...discard the dross and vigorously build a socialist society in China with four modernizations in keeping with the realities in China. This far-sighted

  15. Educational Technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meifeng, Liu; Jinjiao, Lv; Cui, Kang

    2010-01-01

    This paper elaborates the two different academic views of the identity of educational technology in China at the current time--advanced-technology-oriented cognition, known as Electrifying Education, and problem-solving-oriented cognition, known as Educational Technology. It addresses five main modes of educational technology in China: as a…

  16. Sports Medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Lorraine E.

    This report on a visit to the People's Republic of China in April 1985 to explore methodology of sports science research, treatment of injuries, and role of sports in everyday life discusses the following topics: (1) introduction to China; (2) sports and physical culture; (3) sports medicine and rehabilitation; (4) health factors; (5) cost of…

  17. Heat roadmap China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Weiming; Wang, Yu; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2015-01-01

    District heating is regarded as a key element of energy saving actions in the Chinese national energy strategy, while space heating in China is currently still dominated by coal boilers. However, there is no existing quantitative study to analyse the future heat strategy for China. Therefore...

  18. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    We examine whether China has benefited more than other countries from financial sector development by performing a meta-analysis of the relevant literature covering a large number of countries at different stages of development. Although the results for China are inconclusive, they indicate...

  19. Teenage Smoking in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tsung O.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the increasing problem of teenage smoking in modern China. Reviews China's smoking control efforts, a major feature of which has been to educate the youth against smoking so as to prevent them from starting and reduce the overall number of new smokers. (Contains 61 references.) (Author/GCP)

  20. China's 'recycling economy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin.......Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin....

  1. Developmental Idealism in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Arland; Xie, Yu

    2016-10-01

    This paper examines the intersection of developmental idealism with China. It discusses how developmental idealism has been widely disseminated within China and has had enormous effects on public policy and programs, on social institutions, and on the lives of individuals and their families. This dissemination of developmental idealism to China began in the 19th century, when China met with several military defeats that led many in the country to question the place of China in the world. By the beginning of the 20th century, substantial numbers of Chinese had reacted to the country's defeats by exploring developmental idealism as a route to independence, international respect, and prosperity. Then, with important but brief aberrations, the country began to implement many of the elements of developmental idealism, a movement that became especially important following the assumption of power by the Communist Party of China in 1949. This movement has played a substantial role in politics, in the economy, and in family life. The beliefs and values of developmental idealism have also been directly disseminated to the grassroots in China, where substantial majorities of Chinese citizens have assimilated them. These ideas are both known and endorsed by very large numbers in China today.

  2. Outsourcing to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jacqueline

    2004-12-01

    To enhance competitive advantage in the face of increasing globalisation, companies need to consider moving certain operations to China, if they have not done so already. This article describes the evolving nature of outsourcing to China and what companies need to consider to be successful in this business model.

  3. JPRS Report, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-19

    edition). 30. The State of the Church in Mainland China, by Kaer Beiping, Renmin Chubanshe, second printing, Laolunsi, translated by Fang Hsin-en...Taipei CHRISTIAN FORUM WEEKLY, 22 nese nation. April 1979. 24. The State of the Church in Mainland China, by Kaer Reform Encourages Advanced Education

  4. Hazardous waste and environmental trade: China`s issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jiang [National Research Center for Science and Technology for Development, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    By presenting some case studies, this paper analyzes China`s situation with regard to hazardous waste: its environmental trade, treatment, and management. The paper describes China`s experiences with the environmental trade of hazardous waste in both the internal and international market. Regulations for managing the import of waste are discussed, as are China`s major approaches to the trading of hazardous waste both at home and overseas. The major reasons for setting up the Asian-Pacific Regional Training Center for Technology Transfer and Environmental Sound Management of Wastes in China and the activities involved in this effort are also described. 1 tab.

  5. China and Coexistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Liselotte

    “Peaceful coexistence,” long a key phrase in China’s strategic thinking, is a constructive doctrine that offers China a path for influencing the international system. So argues Liselotte Odgaard in this timely analysis of China's national security strategy in the context of its foreign policy...... practice. China’s program of peaceful coexistence emphasizes absolute sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of other states. Odgaard suggests that China’s policy of working within the international community and with non-state actors such as the UN aims to win for China greater power...... and influence without requiring widespread exercise of military or economic pressure. Odgaard examines the origins of peaceful coexistence in early Soviet doctrine, its midcentury development by China and India, and its ongoing appeal to developing countries. She reveals what this foreign policy offers China...

  6. Venezuela and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2016-01-01

    draws on this context of 'interdependent hegemony' to explore the existing relationship between Venezuela, as a swing state, and China, as one of the Big Three global powers. Particularly, I focus on Venezuelan efforts to develop, at the domestic and regional level, a counterhegemonic political project...... against the US and how China is considered a valuable ally to acquire more independence. However, this situation of interdependence can paradoxically lead to a new kind of dependence, in this case on China. To analyze these relations, I propose a conceptual framework consisting of three dimensions: 1...... of a political and economic model which can inspire or be followed by other countries. Although China's influence and increasing power in Venezuela is unquestionable in economic terms, the Venezuelan government uses its agreements with China strategically to legitimate its policies, in the name of a South...

  7. China from a regional perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper explains the political economic background for China's insertion to the world system. It furthermore expands on a critical perspective on China's soft power strategy. It goes on to discuss China's foreign policy strategy towards Southeast Asia and China's rivalry with the US in the region....

  8. Variation of olivine composition in the volcanic rocks in the Songliao basin, NE China: lithosphere control on the origin of the K-rich intraplate mafic lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.-Y.; Prelević, D.; Li, N.; Mertz-Kraus, R.; Buhre, S.

    2016-10-01

    Lithospheric thickness and the heterogeneity of the mantle lithosphere are two major parameters that play a role in determining the final composition of the mafic melts and their minerals. The Songliao basin in northeast China represents an ideal natural laboratory to study the effect of these two parameters on early Pliocene to Holocene K-rich mafic lavas (K2O > 4 wt.%; K2O/Na2O > 1). A series of Cenozoic volcanic edifices (Erkeshan, Wudalianchi, Keluo and Xiaogulihe) are tentatively divided into three groups (Group 1 - thin, Group 2 - middle, and Group 3 - thick) according to the lithosphere thickness. They are located in the northern region of the Songliao basin extending in a near north-south direction along a broad zone where the lithosphere thickness increases gradually. We present a detailed petrographical and geochemical study on olivine macrocrysts in combination with new geochemical data on their host lavas, including major and trace element abundances as well as Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic signatures. Our ultimate aim is to quantitatively and qualitatively determine the role of lithospheric mantle thickness (named as ;lid effect;) and composition in the variation of mafic lavas and olivine composition. When corrected to Mg# = 0.72, a number of major elements in the lavas correlate with increasing lithospheric thickness (L): Si72 and Al72 decrease, whereas Mg72, Fe72, Ti72 and P72 increase. Sm/Yb ratios in the lavas increase, implying that lithospheric thickness exerts an important control. Group 3 mafic lavas are ultrapotassic (showing lamproite affinity) with K2O/Na2O > 4: their La/Sm and Pb isotope ratios deviate from the above correlations, indicating that the lavas from the thickest part of the basin exhibit the highest extent of metasomatic enrichment of the mantle source. Several parameters (e.g. [Ni], Ni/Mg, Ni/(Mg/Fe), Mn/Fe and Ca/Fe) in melt-related olivine from Group 1 and Group 2 lavas are controlled by variable lithosphere thickness. Olivine

  9. Bacillus daqingensis sp. nov., a halophilic, alkaliphilic bacterium isolated from saline-sodic soil in Daqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Sun, Lei; Wei, Dan; Zhou, Baoku; Zhang, Junzheng; Gu, Xuejia; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Ying; Li, Yidan; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Shuang; Pan, Yaqing; Wang, Yufeng

    2014-07-01

    An alkaliphilic, moderately halophilic, bacterium, designated strain X10-1(T), was isolated from saline-alkaline soil in Daqing, Heilongjiang Province, China. Strain X10-1(T) was determined to be a Gram-positive aerobe with rod-shaped cells. The isolate was catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, non-motile, and capable of growth at salinities of 0-16% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 3%). The pH range for growth was 7.5-11.0 (optimum, pH 10.0). The genomic DNA G+C content was 47.7 mol%. Its major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and its cellular fatty acid profile mainly consisted of anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0, iso-C15:0, C16:0, and iso-C16:0. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylglycerol. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that X10-1(T) is a member of the genus Bacillus, being most closely related to B. saliphilus DSM15402(T) (97.8% similarity) and B. agaradhaerens DSM 8721(T) (96.2%). DNA-DNA relatedness to the type strains of these species was less than 40%. On the basis of the phylogenetic, physiological, and biochemical data, strain X10-1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus daqingensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is X10-1(T) (=NBRC 109404(T) = CGMCC 1.12295(T)).

  10. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R......&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China....

  11. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R......&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China....

  12. Health Care in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, David S

    2016-11-01

    China has recently emerged as an important global partner. However, like other developing nations, China has experienced dramatic demographic and epidemiologic changes in the past few decades. Population discontent with the health care system has led to major reforms. China's distinctive health care system, including its unique history, vast infrastructure, the speed of health reform, and economic capacity to make important advances in health care, nonetheless, has incomplete insurance coverage for urban and rural dwellers, uneven access, mixed quality of health care, increasing costs, and risk of catastrophic health expenditures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dissatisfaction with current integration reforms of health insurance schemes in China: are they a success and what matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Linghan; Zhao, Miaomiao; Ning, Ning; Hao, Yanhua; Li, Ye; Liang, Libo; Kang, Zheng; Sun, Hong; Ding, Ding; Liu, Baohua; Liang, Chao; Yu, Miao; Wu, Qunhong; Hao, Mo; Fan, Hua

    2018-01-06

    Integration reforms have been piloted as key policies to address the fragmented health insurance system in China. They are also regarded as a better choice for realizing a Universal Basic Medical Insurance System (UBMIS). This study has attempted to explore the determinants that may affect respondents' dissatisfaction with the reforms. The aim is to provide evidence for more effective policy adjustment during the next round of nationwide integration reforms in China. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in Ningbo, Chongqing and Heilongjiang from 2014 to 2015. A stratified cluster sampling method was adopted. A total of 1644 respondents, working in units related to health insurance, were selected. A multivariate logistic regression model was employed to identify any association between dissatisfaction and the features of the ongoing integration reforms of health insurance schemes. Overall, about 47.6% of the respondents reported dissatisfaction with the ongoing integration reforms. This high level of dissatisfaction was found to be associated with ineffective outcomes of the integration reforms in achieving management system improvement [odds ratio (OR) = 1.846], inequity reduction (OR = 1.464) and actual coverage expansion (OR = 1.350), as perceived by the respondents. Those who were satisfied with the previously separated health insurance schemes (OR = 0.643), and those who preferred other policy options for achieving a UBMIS (OR = 1.471) were more likely to report dissatisfaction with the current reforms. Higher expectations of the risk-pooling level (with ORs ranging from 1.361 to 1.661) also significantly contributed to dissatisfaction. Health insurance managers in China have conflicting opinions about the performance of piloted integration reforms. Many believe that these reforms have failed significantly to improve the management systems, narrow inequity and expand actual benefit coverage. Various strategies should be

  14. Identification of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene family in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-03-04

    Mar 4, 2015 ... 3Jiamusi Branch of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jiamusi 154005, Heilongjiang Province,. People's Republic of China ..... Clustering analysis of differential gene expression patterns. Genes with similar ... cluster software PermutMatrixEN, and the Pearson corre- lation method with the ...

  15. China's Military Potential

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wortzel, Larry

    1998-01-01

    The People's Republic of China (PRC) is seen by many as an economic powerhouse with the world's largest standing military that has the potential to translate economic power into the military sphere...

  16. China's Labour Market

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Rush

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses some of the key characteristics of China's labour market, including the role of the changing demographic structure, the nature and composition of employment, as well as the important role of the country's rural migrant workforce.

  17. China's Fifth Modernization: Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, John J.

    1980-01-01

    The two biggest educational issues facing China are critical and related--how to provide for equality of educational opportunity and how to maintain an intellectual community that is both "red" and expert. (Author/IRT)

  18. Playing Against China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadvi, Khalid; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Xue, Hong

    2011-01-01

    The rise of China as the global factory raises challenges for many developing countries and their producers. The football-manufacturing sector is a case in which China has emerged as a global player. It is also a sector where compliance with international labour standards is considered critical....... Leading international brands dominate the industry and control the global value chain for sports goods. In this article, we explore the relationship between the rise of China and international labour standards and consider how labour standards have affected the geography and organization of global...... football production. We draw on evidence from three of the main production locations – China, Pakistan and India. It appears that compliance with labour standards not only has different implications for the three production locations, but also that compliance alone is an insufficient basis for competing...

  19. Service innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Jin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to advance our understanding of service innovation in China and to identify the major drivers and impediments for manufacturing companies pushing into services in China. Design/methodology/approach – By employing an in-depth longitudinal case of a Chinese company...... Chinese cities. Both internal and external factors played a significant role in influencing the development and implementation of service innovation in the case. The paper details and discusses the factors that affect service innovation in China. Research Limitations – The study is exposed...... in informing our expectations about the push of many Chinese manufacturing companies into services. The paper provides insights into the development and diffusion of service innovation in many fast transforming industrial companies in China. Lessons for other developing countries can also be drawn from...

  20. The EU and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    In September 2004 David Shambaugh, of George Washington University, published a small article under the heading: “China and Europe: The Emerging Axis.” In his view, one “of the most important, yet least appreciated developments … has been the dramatic growth in ties between China and Europe......” (Shambaugh 2004, 243). He pointed, firstly, at the strong growth in trade relations; the EU also became the largest foreign supplier of technology and equipment, in the form of direct investment, but also through a number of joint technology projects. The EU-China Framework Program became the world’s largest...... common research project. As to political cooperation, numerous meetings have been institutionalised, among them, at the top level an annual EU-China Summit. The contacts have resulted in a number of agreements, for instance on group tourism. According to estimates 100,000 Chinese Students went...

  1. Assessing China's Hegemonic Ambitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ng, Chad-Son

    2005-01-01

    China's gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate over the past twenty years has been phenomenal and if continued even at a slightly slower pace, could exceed the GDP of the United States (US) by 2020...

  2. China's water scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong

    2009-08-01

    China has been facing increasingly severe water scarcity, especially in the northern part of the country. China's water scarcity is characterized by insufficient local water resources as well as reduced water quality due to increasing pollution, both of which have caused serious impacts on society and the environment. Three factors contribute to China's water scarcity: uneven spatial distribution of water resources; rapid economic development and urbanization with a large and growing population; and poor water resource management. While it is nearly impossible to adjust the first two factors, improving water resource management represents a cost-effective option that can alleviate China's vulnerability to the issue. Improving water resource management is a long-term task requiring a holistic approach with constant effort. Water right institutions, market-based approaches, and capacity building should be the government's top priority to address the water scarcity issue.

  3. One Health in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As a result of rapid economic growth over the previous three decades, China has become the second largest economy worldwide since 2010. However, as a developing country with the largest population, this rapid economic growth primarily based on excessive consumption and waste of resources. Thus, China has been facing particularly severe ecological and environmental problems in speeding up industrialization and urbanization. The impact of the health risk factors is complex and difficult to accurately predict. Therefore, it is critical to investigate potential threats in the context of the human-animal-environment interface to protect human and animal health. The “One Health” concept recognizes that human health is connected to animal and environmental health. This review primarily discusses specific health problems in China, particularly zoonoses, and explains the origin and development of the One Health approach, as well as the importance of a holistic approach in China.

  4. Rural Transformation in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.W. Kuitenbrouwer (Joost)

    1979-01-01

    textabstractThe history of China is marked by peasant rebellions which, when they succeeded, occasionally led to mitigation of extreme inequality and oppression and a change in dynasty but without substantial reorganization of the social structure.

  5. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi [eds.] [Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China)

    1992-12-31

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises` investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  6. China's Slowdown and Rebalancing

    OpenAIRE

    Lakatos, Csilla; Maliszewska, Maryla; Osorio-Rodarte, Israel; Go, Delfin

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the economic impacts of two related tracks of China's expected transformation—economic slowdown and rebalancing away from investment toward consumption—and estimates the spillovers for the rest of the world, with a special focus on Sub-Saharan African countries. The paper finds that an average annual slowdown of gross domestic product in China of 1 percent over 2016–30 ...

  7. Biofuels in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Yu, Jianliang; Lu, Jike; Zhang, Tao

    The Chinese government is stimulating the biofuels development to replace partially fossil fuels in the transport sector, which can enhance energy security, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and stimulate rural development. Bioethanol, biodiesel, biobutanol, biogas, and biohydrogen are the main biofuels developed in China. In this chapter, we mainly present the current status of biofuel development in China, and illustrate the issues of feedstocks, food security and conversion processes.

  8. China's urban geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, C W

    1990-06-01

    "In this paper I seek to review recent work on Chinese urban geography and to appraise the development of China's urban geography as a field of study both inside and outside China. The temporal scope will span scholarship finished and published mainly during the 1980s." The focus is on works published in English. The author examines the primary topics of interest, methodologies and theories, and available sources of data. excerpt

  9. Bioethics in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, En-Chang

    2008-09-01

    Historically, the preconditions for the emergence of bioethics in China. were political reforms and their applications. The Hanzhong Euthanasia Case and the publication of Qiu Ren-zong's academic work Bioethics played a significant role in the development of bioethics in China. Other contributory factors include the establishment of the Chinese Society of Medical Ethics/Chinese Medical Association (C.M.A), the publication of the Journal of Chinese Medical Ethics, and the teaching and education of bioethics in China. Major achievements of bioethics in China include the establishment of ethics committee and ethics review system, active international communication and cooperation among the academic circles, and the successful management of the 8th World Congress of Bioethics in Beijing in 2006. Chinese bioethics focus on native Chinese realities and conditions, absorb the international research achievements in relevant fields, and combine international ideas with traditional Chinese doctrines. Admittedly, there are still some aspects to be improved, yet bioethics has attracted a lot of attention from the core leadership in China and has gained sound financial support, which augers well for its further development. This article also briefly introduces the development of bioethics in Hong Kong and Taiwan, China.

  10. South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, B; Blackmore, G

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the

  11. South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Brian [Hong Kong Univ., Swire Inst. of Marine Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, Hong Kong (China); Blackmore, Graham [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-07-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshops and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km{sup 2} and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economics on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken

  12. South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Brian; Blackmore, Graham

    2001-01-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of the three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the South

  13. China Dimensions Data Collection: Priority Programme for China's Agenda 21

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Priority Programme for China's Agenda 21 consists of full-text program descriptions supporting China's economic and social development. The descriptions represent 69...

  14. China Dimensions Data Collection: China Maps Bibliographic Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — China Maps Bibliographic Database is an historical collection of bibliographic information for more than 400 maps of China. The information resides in a searchable...

  15. Is South China Sea the new 'inalienable' part of China?

    OpenAIRE

    Jash, Amrita

    2016-01-01

    China’s growing military posture and unilateral behavior in South China Sea has raised red alarms in international politics, vehemently challenging the existing status quo. What is apparent is that China’s uncompromising attitude in the South China Sea presents China’s obsession over its territorial claims, wherein, South China Sea can be called the ‘new inalienable part’ of China.

  16. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi (eds.) (Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises' investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  17. China's Natural Resources Database (CNRD)

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zehui

    2006-01-01

    China's Natural Resources Database (CNRD) is a comprehensive database, developed to support the research on natural resources, social sustainable development and environmental security in China. This paper intends to introduce the background, contents, characteristics and application of the CNRD.

  18. Ancient Chinese Precedents in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geddis, Robert

    1999-01-01

    ... classics from ancient china. The assumption is that since China's political and military leaders state openly that their strategy is based on traditional Chinese strategic concepts, a study of ancient classics on strategy...

  19. China urges rapid growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendry, S.

    1993-02-03

    This time last year China's paramount leader, Deng Xiaoping, launched the country on another bout of fast-paced economic growth and restructuring. After three years of riding out political and economic clampdown, foreign chemical companies were jerked awake by major changes in China's chemical industry. As the state becomes less involved with managing the economy, unleashing 12% gross national product growth, closer involvement with domestic factories has become attractive and essential. MCI officials say government funds will now be channeled toward clearing energy and transport bottlenecks, and chemical enterprises will be given more chance to turn a profit. They will be allowed to issue shares, seek foreign investment partners themselves, and bypass trading companies like China National Import-Export Corp. (Sinochem), the former state monopoly. Foreign analysts question whether China's finances and oil resources can support expansion. Even if they can, Cai estimates that ethylene imports will remain around the present level of 1 million tons. To further guarantee chemical supplies, China has invested in urea and polypropylene plants in the US and polystyrene plant in Hong Kong.

  20. Pension Reform in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes China's pension arrangement and notes that China has recently established a universal non-contributory pension plan covering urban non-employed workers and all rural residents, combined with the pension plan covering urban employees already in place. Further, in the latest reform, China has discontinued the special pension plan for civil servants and integrated this privileged welfare class into the urban old-age pension insurance program. With these steps, China has achieved a degree of universalism and integration of its pension arrangement unprecedented in the non-Western world. Despite this radical pension transformation strategy, we argue that the current Chinese pension arrangement represents a case of "incomplete" universalism. First, its benefit level is low. Moreover, the benefit level varies from region to region. Finally, universalism in rural China has been undermined due to the existence of the "policy bundle." Additionally, we argue that the 2015 pension reform has created a situation in which the stratification of Chinese pension arrangements has been "flattened," even though it remains stratified to some extent.

  1. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi (eds.) (Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-11-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.

  2. Exploring Servitization in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raja, Jawwad Z.; Frandsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research has predominately focused on the servitization strategies of Western manufacturers in advanced economies, neglecting the potential for servitization in those which are emerging, such as China. This paper explores the role of the external service partner network of a Eur......Purpose: Previous research has predominately focused on the servitization strategies of Western manufacturers in advanced economies, neglecting the potential for servitization in those which are emerging, such as China. This paper explores the role of the external service partner network...... of a European manufacturer providing services in China, in order to develop a better understanding of the resulting and associated challenges. Design/methodology/approach: An in-depth case study approach was used to examine the parent company, its subsidiary in China and the related service partner network....... Data collection involved all three actors and took place in Denmark and China. Findings: The findings suggest that motivation, opportunity and ability (MOA) need not only be mutually reinforcing for the organization attempting to move towards services but also aligned between organizational units...

  3. Global China Insights July 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingrid Fischer

    2013-01-01

    Journal in which the Groningen Confucius Institute (GCI) shares different perspectives on China and provides insights into China from as many different aspects as possible. GCI aims to provide a full view of real China to the readers as well as featuring international and comprehensive perspectives,

  4. Development in China and Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Shiwei

    2014-01-01

    My dissertation studies the development of China and Africa over the past two decades. First, China has maintained a high rate of economic growth in the past twenty years. At the same time, we observe a rapid growth in the African export flows to China, even faster than those to the US and EU. We

  5. A Film Guide on China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Christopher J., Ed.

    Over 80 films are listed in this annotated film guide on China. Designed to help educators select films about China, each entry contains a short annotation which gives a capsule and sometimes evaluative summary of film content. The booklet is divided into four sections on China before and after 1949, Taiwan, and Chinese culture. Each listing…

  6. Assessing China's Relations with Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-10-15

    Oct 15, 2013 ... of China's policy agenda toward Africa. Media outlets and Western scholars often suggest that China's relationship with Africa is built on its dependency on and demand for energy resources, markets, and investment opportunities for its booming industries and job seeking workers. China has often been.

  7. Banking on a Constructive China: Australia’s China Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    SPECIAL ASSESSMENT D E C E M B E R 2 0 0 3 Asia’s China Debate Banking on a Constructive China: Australia’s China Debate A N T H O N Y L . S M I...U.S. policies vis-à-vis China are a major driver of Australia’s debate about China. Australia has consistently made it clear that the United States...remains the key to its security, and that Canberra finds U.S. hegemony in the Asia-Pacific desirable. Yet Australia has tried to carefully manage its

  8. Bringing Biocuration to China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Biocuration involves adding value to biomedical data by the processes of standardization, quality control and information transferring (also known as data annotation. It enhances data interoperability and consistency, and is critical in translating biomedical data into scientific discovery. Although China is becoming a leading scientific data producer, biocuration is still very new to the Chinese biomedical data community. In fact, there currently lacks an equivalent acknowledged word in Chinese for the word “curation”. Here we propose its Chinese translation as “审编” (Pinyin: shěn biān, based on its implied meanings taken by biomedical data community. The 8th International Biocuration Conference to be held in China (http://biocuration2015.tilsi.org next year bears the potential to raise the general awareness in China of the significant role of biocuration in scientific discovery. However, challenges are ahead in its implementation.

  9. Household Wealth in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility.

  10. Indigenous innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Jun; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, China has earned the reputation of ‘manufacturing power house’ of the world. Chinese companies in their vast numbers have been very successful in exploiting their access to low-cost labour and have established themselves as unbeatable high volume low-cost manufacturing...... a foothold in these markets and to tap into the advanced technologies and concepts originating from this developed context. Another category of Chinese companies includes those who seek to move from routine transactional tasks to more innovation-intensive concepts while remaining in China and relying......, this paper seeks to advance our understanding of indigenous innovation in China and to identify its major drivers and impediments....

  11. Technology licensing in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuandi; Li-Ying, Jason; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    We explore the landscape of technology licensing among Chinese entities in the period 2000–12, using a unique database on technological licensing from the State Intellectual Property Office of China. We find that: first, among Chinese licensee organizations, firms have dominated in terms of the n......We explore the landscape of technology licensing among Chinese entities in the period 2000–12, using a unique database on technological licensing from the State Intellectual Property Office of China. We find that: first, among Chinese licensee organizations, firms have dominated in terms...... of the number of licensed technologies; second, the geographical distribution of licensed technologies among the provinces has gradually reached a new quantitative balance; third, utility models are the most popular technologies to be licensed and the majority of technology licensing in China has been between...

  12. NEV Technology in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to identify the main determinants of the development of the neighbourhood electric vehicle (NEV) industry in China, including influences from private stakeholders as well as the government, and domestic as well as foreign interest groups. Particular emphasis...... is driven by less formal decisions taken in the nexus between SOEs and relevant state agencies. Hence, although China suffers no lack of legislation at various levels (including laws, decrees, and guidelines) it is often difficult to identify the specific drivers for change. Practical implications...... – The findings are useful for understanding the development of the NEV industry in China. Originality/value – The current paper is the first application of the GIST (Governance of Innovation towards Sustainability Technology) framework to the case of the Chinese NEV industry....

  13. Spatial distribution of China׳s renewable energy industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Liang; Liang, Hanwei; Gao, Zhiqiu

    2016-01-01

    an empirical study on the distribution and cluster pattern of China׳s REEI based on the analysis on the industrial output value, the number and location of key companies/industrial bases, through on-site survey and updating statistical data. Results highlighted that in general, four REEI clusters were formed......China applies no efforts to promote the development of renewable energy (REE) so as to enhance China׳s energy security and address climate change. National top-down support scheme and the local renewable energy industry (REEI) development are the two important and intervened countermeasures...... in western China, while R&D and high-tech equipment manufacture were clustered in eastern coastal regions. Based on the empirical study and Analytic Network Process (ANP) of the roles of stakeholders involved REEI of China, we further proposed various strategic measures and policy implications to better...

  14. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fan, Shiwei; Yu, Wenxian

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2017, held during 23th-25th May in Shanghai, China. The theme of CSNC2017 is Positioning, Connecting All. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2017, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  15. Lifelong Learning in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor C. Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lifelong learning in China is explored in terms of China’s developing modernization in the areas of agriculture, industry, military, and science and technology. Issues involving labor distribution allocation, skill and training, and potential problems are addressed. The role of adult learning in China is contrasted with Western ideas and traced through time to show how it has changed to accommodate the country’s needs in terms of illiteracy and skill development and used to be inexplicably intertwined with the country’s political agenda and educational policy.

  16. China in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    simultaneously . Indeed, the official foreign policy of China is less a subsumption of the individual schools of thought than a list of them, daguo shi...foreign overextension contributed to the fall of the U.S.S.R. The CCP examined deeply the causes of the implosion of so many communist regimes early in...Emancipation of the Niger Delta condemned China for its multi-billion investment in oil fields after detonating a car bomb in the south of Nigeria. The group

  17. China, una nueva apuesta

    OpenAIRE

    David Soto Bello

    2014-01-01

    Un publico, una hisotria Mr. China es una historia ineludible para los hombres de negocios; aún más, sí uno de sus mercados es el oeste asiático. Por otro lado, es una recomendación para los interesados sobre la apertura económica de China en la década de los noventa; cuando banqueros y empresarios irrumpieronen el coloso asiático, con el propósito de estructurar uno de los mercados más prometedores del mundo.

  18. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Fan, Shiwei; Wang, Feixue

    2016-01-01

    These Proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2016, held during 18th-20th May in Changsha, China. The theme of CSNC2016 is Smart Sensing, Smart Perception. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2016, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  19. China Report, Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-12

    verification and validation are needed. CSO: 4011/41 86 Plant Disease ON THE CAUSAL ORGANISM OF ROOT AND BASAL STALK ROT OF CORN IN SHANDONG PROVINCE... rot of corn is one of the most serious diseases of corn in China in recent years. From 1979 to 1983, 252 disease samples were collected frokm several...1250vÖl JPRS-CAG-85-033 12 December 1985 > w 5©£ -^ Q. e 2; >- Q 2°f J (D’C CD > t- == O .2? a ;;) China Report AGRICULTURE

  20. [Perilla resources of China and essential oil chemotypes of Perilla leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chang-Ling; Guo, Bao-Lin; Zhang, Chen-Wu; Zhang, Fen; Tian, Jing; Bai, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Shun-Nan

    2016-05-01

    This study, based on the findings for Perilla resources, aimed to describe the species, distribution, importance, features, utilization and status of quantitative Perilla resources in China. This not only helps people to know well about the existing resources and researching development, but also indicates the overall distribution, selection and rational use of Perilla resource in the future. According to the output types, Perilla resources are divided into two categories: wild resources and cultivated resources; and based on its common uses, the cultivated resources are further divided into medicine resources, seed-used resources and export resources. The distribution areas of wild resources include Henan, Sichuan, Anhui, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Hunan, Jiangsu and Zhejiang. The distribution areas of medicine resources are concentrated in Hebei, Anhui, Chongqing, Guangxi and Guangdong. Seed-used resources are mainly distributed in Gansu, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Chongqing and Yunnan. Export resource areas are mainly concentrated in coastal cities, such as Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shandong and Zhejiang. For the further study, the essential oil of leaf samples from different areas were extracted by the steam distillation method and analyzed by GC-MS. The differences in essential oil chemotypes among different Perilla leaves were compared by analyzing their chemical constituents. The main 31 constituents of all samples included: perillaketone (0.93%-96.55%), perillaldehyde (0.10%-61.24%), perillene (52.15%), caryophyllene (3.22%-26.67%), and α-farnesene (2.10%-21.54%). These samples can be classified into following five chemotypes based on the synthesis pathways: PK-type, PA-type, PL-type, PP-type and EK-type. The chemotypes of wild resources included PK-type and PA-type, with PK-type as the majority. All of the five chemotypes are included in cultivated resources, with PA-type as the majority. Seed-used resources are all PK-type, and export resources are all PA-type. The P

  1. Spatial and temporal distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from the Songhua River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, D.; Guo, Z.; Liu, X.; Hua, X.; Liang, D.

    2013-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a class of typical persistent organic pollutants, widely exist in the environment and are potentially harmful to human health. They can enter the waters through atmospheric deposition, soil leaching, shipping, sewage discharges and surface runoff. In recent years, many studies on the distributions of PAHs in major rivers, lakes and bays around the world have been carried out. In this study, 9 surface sediments (0-10cm) were sampled from the Songhua River in Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces. The contents of 16 PAHs in the US Environmental Protection Agency list of priority pollutants were determined and their spatial distributions were discussed. Sediment cores (50cm length) in three oxbow lakes in this area were also collected and cut into 2 cm thickness sub-samples. PAHs concentrations in these samples were determined and the cores were dated using a 210Pb geochronology technique. Finally, the sedimentary history of PAHs in the Songhua River since the 1920s was revealed. Results indicated that total concentration of the 16 PAHs analyzed in the surface sediments was 187-2079 ng/g (dry weight), and the mean was 1029 ng/g. Sediments collected from near urban areas (Jilin and Harbin City) contained higher PAHs content. Compared with the domestic and international rivers, the PAHs content in this river sediments is at a medium level. The PAHs profiles showed that 2-3 ring PAHs, especially naphthalene, were dominant in all of the samples. Sedimentary flux can reflect the accumulating history of pollutants better. The PAHs fluxes were low and varied little from the 1920s to 1970s, but higher PAH fluxes were found since the 1980s in each core (Fig. 1). The PAHs sedimentary flux near Harbin City (Shuangcheng) was found changed remarkably. We inferred that the PAHs might be influenced by hydrological conditions, population mobility and economic activity in this area. PAHs sedimentary record in the Songhua River revealed that the

  2. [Nitrate pollution in groundwater for drinking and its affecting factors in Hailun, northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Feng; Yang, Li-Rong; Shi, Qian; Ma, Yan; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Chen, Li-Ding; Zheng, Hai-Feng

    2008-11-01

    Nitrate pollution in groundwater has become a worldwide problem. It may affect the water quality for daily use and thus the health of people. The temporal and spatial characteristics of nitrate pollution in the groundwater were addressed by sample analysis of the drinkable water from 157 wells in Hailun, Heilongjiang, northeastern China. It was found that the mean value of nitrate concentration in all wells was 14.01 mg x L(-1). Of all the samples, the nitrate concentrations of 26.11% wells exceeded the standard of drinkable water (10.00 mg x L(-1)). A significant difference was found on the spatial distribution of nitrate pollution in the study area. The pollution degree in term of nitrate pollution was in the order: the central rolling hills and flooding plain > the northeastern mountain area > the southwest rolling hills and plain. Based on the results, the factors causing the pollution we analyzed from the well properties and pollution sources. As for well properties, the type of the pipe material plays a critical role in the groundwater nitrate pollution. It was found that the wells with seamless pipe have less pollution than those with multiple-sections pipe. The concentrations of seamless pipe wells and multiple ones were respectively 5.08 mg x L(-1) and 32.57 mg x L(-1), 12.26% and 82.35% of these two kinds wells exceeded 10.00 mg x L(-1), the state drinking water standard. In the whole Hailun, there is no statistically relationship between nitrate-N levels of wells and the well depth. However, a statistically lower nitrate-N was observed in the deep wells than that in the shallower ones. The mean values of nitrate concentration of the seamless-pipe deep wells, seamless-pipe shallow wells, multiple-section-pipe deep wells and multiple-section-pipe shallow wells were 1.84, 12.02, 25.14 and 45.61 mg x L(-1). Analysis of pollution source shows that the heavily polluted regions are usually associated with large use of nitrogen fertilizer and household livestock

  3. A study of soil organic carbon distribution and storage in the Northeast Plain of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Xi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Employing the Unit Soil Carbon Amount (USCA approach, soil carbon storage was calculated across the Northeast Plain of China based on the Multi-purpose Regional Geochemical Survey conducted in 2004–2006 (MRGS. The results indicated that the soil organic carbon (SOC storage in topsoil (0–0.2 m, subsoil (0–1 m and deep soil (0–1.8 m was 768.1 Mt, 2978.4 Mt and 3729.2 Mt with densities of 3327.8 t/km2, 12,904.7 t/km2 and 16,157.5 t/km2, respectively. These values were consistent with national averages, whereas the soil carbon densities showed a clear increasing trend from the southern area of the Northeast Plain (Liaoning, to the middle (Jilin and the northern Plain (Heilongjiang — particularly in terms of topsoil carbon density, which increased from 2284.2, to 3436.7 and 3861.5 t/km2, respectively. In comparison to carbon data obtained from the Second National Soil Survey in 1984–1986 (SNSS, the topsoil SOC storage values from the MRGS were found to have decreased by 320.59 Mt (29.4%, with an average annual decline of 16.0 Mt (l.73% over the 20 years. In the southern, middle and northern areas of the plain, soil carbon densities decreased by 1060.6 t/km2, 1646.4 t/km2 and 1300.2 t/km2, respectively, with an average value of 1389.0 t/km2 for the whole plain. These findings indicate that the decrease in soil carbon density varied according to the different ecosystems and land-use types. Therefore, ratios of soil carbon density were calculated in order to study the carbon dynamic balance between ecosystems, and to further explore distribution characteristics, as well as the sequestration potential of SOC.

  4. Is China a Leviathan?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Zhu (Ze); B. Krug (Barbara)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractTo address the problem why China, as a communist country, moves in the opposite direction when the public sector has undergoing a continuous growth in most Western economies since the World War I, we offer a new approach that the de facto fiscal decentralization curtails government size

  5. IDRC in China

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Innovations in farming. IDRC-supported research over two decades has also introduced innovative farming practices in China. Most recently, Canadian and Chinese researchers developed a mobile phone technology that supports applications making valuable information, such as wholesale food prices, accessible to poor.

  6. Country Paper on China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Bureau of Education, Geneva (Switzerland).

    China's first national science curriculum was adopted in the 1950s from the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). With the rapid changes in science and technology over the past 50 years, an educational change became an unavoidable requirement. This document reviews reform movements in the following areas: (1) main problems in Chinese…

  7. China: The Television Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivenburgh, Nancy K.

    What is currently happening in China is similar to what happened in the United States in the 1950s and the Soviet Union in the 1970s--television is quickly becoming a mainstay of popular entertainment and news. The Chinese government has made substantial efforts to provide television service to all regions of the country, with importance attached…

  8. Spirulina cultivation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo-Tang; Xiang, Wen-Zhou; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the development and many problems of Spirulina cultivation in China, points out the advantages and disadvantages of open photobioreactor system, and predicts that seawater Spirulina cultivation will be a new trend to be strengthened and emphasized due to its special physiological characteristics, easier management, lower fertilizer cost, and higher resistance to contaminants and rare pollution of chemicals.

  9. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Fridley, D.G.; Levine, M.D. [eds.

    1996-06-01

    The response to the first edition of the China Energy Databook was overwhelmingly positive, and has encouraged us to issue this revised, updated, and expanded edition. It has been a natural counterpart to the Energy Analysis Program`s continuing program of collaborative research with the Energy Research Institute. No other current reference volume dedicated to China`s energy system contains a similar variety and quality of material. We have revised some of the categories and data that appeared in the old volume. The adjustment for energy consumption in the transportation sector, for instance, has been slightly changed to include some fuel use in the commercial sector, which was previously left out. As another example, natural gas consumption statistics in the first edition greatly overstated electric utility use; we have rectified that error. Some tables have changed as statistical collection and reporting practices change in China. Figures on gross output value by sector stop with 1992, and economic output in subsequent years is covered by various measures of value-added, such as national income and gross domestic product.

  10. MENC in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, James A.

    1979-01-01

    The author describes the itinerary and impressions of a group (Music Educators National Conference) of American composers, dancers, and other artists who made up the first cultural delegation from the United States to the People's Republic of China since the normalization of diplomatic relations between the two countries. (Author/KC)

  11. JPRS Report, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-07

    caused by 10 years of reform. Those defenders say that this is a normal phenomenon that has appeared with the smashing of the political system of highly...relatively low technology and small amounts of capital. This was the sweatshop era. China Investors Taking ’Wait-and-See’ Attitude HK0306070989 Hong

  12. China's Innovation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Shulin; Schwaag Serber, Sylvia; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    2016-01-01

    In their 2006 article on innovation in China in this journal, Gu and Lundvall pointed to some weaknesses and challenges for China’s growth and they also outlined ideas for policy action to overcome those. In this short note, written in collaboration with Sylvia Schwag Serger, they go back...

  13. Road Traffic in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jie, L.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic is tightly related to the social and economic development in a country. In China the development of the economy has been very fast in the past 30 years and this is still continuing. The transport infrastructure shows a similar pattern, while traffic is also rapidly growing. In urban areas

  14. Interlinguistics in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitao, Liu

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the history of interlinguistics in China through scientific and specialist journals, tracing a path from early discussions of language policy through growing recognition of Esperanto as an object of scientific study to the application of interlinguistics in computing and terminology. (Author/JL)

  15. IDRC in China

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    potential, such as the H1N1 flu virus and avian influenza, so these can be prevented ... Computer science professors Xiaoyan Zhu of Tsinghua. University and the University of Waterloo's. Ming Li are working on breaking down bar- riers to Internet access in China by simplify- ing search engines. Xue Lan, Dean of the School ...

  16. A Fragmented China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Poncet

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies the degree of integration of China's domestic market and investigates the determinants of inter-provincial trade barriers under the rubric endogenous trade policy theory. I rely on industry-level trade flows extracted from provincial input-output tables to develop a

  17. China: The Awakened Dragon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    United States should abandon the issues of human rights or censorship ; however, U.S. leaders should limit open criticism of China over issues the...Paracels, Spratlys, Macclesfield Bank, and Pratas. Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia , Vietnam, the Philippines, and Taiwan also in part, lay claim to the

  18. Narrating Self and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Irina

    about China and its people. Thus this study explores the questions of how these women writers adopted the roles of cultural interpreters, which allowed them to position themselves as authoritative and representative voices and, at the same time, rejuvenate China’s image in the global arena...

  19. EMNEs from China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2014-01-01

    and innovation in Western companies gained momentum some decades ago. However, the recent developments in the field also include the spread of the phenomenon to companies from the emerging economies. In the past two decades, China has earned the reputation of the ‘manufacturing power house’ of the world. Chinese...

  20. JPRS Report China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-22

    war that last two and half years in Nigeria, the Ibo tribe alone have lost 2 million lives. Arms and ammunitions expended in the localized wars in...Asian music and international film exhibition in China. During the 1980-1987 period, Chinese artists won 43 top awards, four second and 21 third in

  1. China: Demographic Billionaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, H. Yuan

    1983-01-01

    This document reviews China's population trends and policies since the People's Republic was founded in 1949. Areas addressed include: population growth before 1949, population growth from 1949-1982, and policy responses to population growth (including wan xi shao: later marriages, longer intervals between birth, and fewer children); mortality…

  2. Revising China's Environmental Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, G.; Zhang, L.; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.; Liu, Wenling; Liu, J.

    2013-01-01

    China's Environmental Protection Law (EPL) is the main national environmental legislative framework. Yet the environmental legal system is incomplete, and implementation and enforcement of environmental laws have shown major shortcomings (1–3). A controversial attempt to revise the EPL could have

  3. Urban development in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, J.H.; van Marrewijk, J.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization is important for economic development. As the largest country in the world in terms of population, China has experienced a remarkable history of urbanization; one 1000 years ago it housed the largest cities in world, it went through a counter-urbanization revolution during the Mao

  4. China: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    respects, physicians trained in traditional medi- cine and those trained in Western medicine constitute separate groups with diflerent interests. For...China: Rule by Purge," Asian Survey, 25, No. 6, June 1985, 638-58. Schram, Stuart R. "To Utopia and Back: A Cycle in the History of Chinese Communist

  5. Malaysian perceptions of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abu Bakar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Malasia que consistía en Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak y Singapur ganó su independencia de los Británicos el 16 de septiembre de 1963. Malaya ganó su independencia de los británicos el 31 de agosto de 1957. En 1965 Singapur era independiente de Malasia. Malasia es una democracia parlamentaria y capitalista. Por otra parte, es una nación multi-religiosa y multirracial. Malasia ha sido poblada por los Malays, los Chinos, los Indios y otros. Los Malays son musulmanes y el Islam es la religión de la federación de Malasia. La nación tiene una larga historia con China pero esa nunca colonizó ningún área en Malasia. Los estados occidentales, fundamentalmente Portugueses y Olandeses colonizaron ciertas áreas en Malasia y luego los Británicos colonizaron la entera región. La percepción malasiana de China está influenciada por muchos factores internos y externos tales como el factor ideologico-político, el desarrollo económico así como las relaciones y la diplomacia nacionales, regionales e internacionales. Este breve artículo presenta la percepción malasiana de China desde un punto de vista cultural, político y económico._____________ABSTRACT:Malaysia consisting of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore gained her independence from the British on 16 September 1963. Malaya gained her independence from the British on 31 August 1957. In 1965 Singapore was independent from Malaysia. Malaysia is a parliamentary democratic and capitalistic nation. Moreover, Malaysia is a multi-religious and multiracial nation. Malaysia has been populated by the Malays, Chinese, Indians and others. The Malays are Muslims and Islam is the religion of the Federation of Malaysia. Malaysia has a very long history with China but China never colonized any area in Malaysia. The Western nations namely the Portuguese and the Dutch colonized certain areas in Malaysia and then the British colonized the whole Malaysia. Malaysian perceptions of China are influenced by many

  6. China`s macro economic trends and power industry structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binsheng Li; Johnson, C.J.; Hagen, R.

    1994-09-01

    Since China adopted an open door policy in 1978, its economy has grown rapidly. Between 1980 and 1993, China`s real GNP growth averaged 9.4 percent per year. Economists at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences forecast that GNP will increase by 11.5 percent in 1994. During the rest of the decade, the Chinese government plans to reduce its annual GNP growth rate to 8-9 percent. During the 2001-2010 period, the economic growth rate is projected to decline to 6.5 percent per year. Table 1 compares China`s economic growth to other Asia-Pacific Economies, and includes projections to 2010. During the 1980s, China`s GDP growth rate was only second to that of South Korea. In the 1990`s, China is projected to have the highest economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region. China`s rapid economic growth is due to dramatic increases in the effective labor supply and effective capital stock. For the remainder of the 1990s, the effective labor supply should continue to increase rapidly because: (1) Chinese state enterprises are over-staffed and labor system reforms will move millions of these workers into more productive activities; (2) reforms in the wage system will provide increased incentives to work harder; (3) relaxation of migration controls from rural to urban areas will cause nominal labor in the industrial sector to accelerate; (4) differentials in personal income will increase and develop peer pressure on workers to work harder and earn more money; and (5) at China`s low personal income level, Chinese people are willing to trade leisure for more income as wages increase.

  7. Introduction to "Islam in China/China in Islam"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Erie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rather than China versus Islam, the overarching theme of this special issue is “Islam in China/China in Islam.” In thinking through “Islam in China,” we argue that the relationship between China and Islam is not one of opposition, but rather one of cultural, linguistic, and economic imbrication. Indeed, it is difficult to describe Islam and China as two separate or essentialized entities. For some Muslim minorities in certain regions of China, there is no distinction between neo-Confucianism and Islam or between the nation-state and the global umma (community of Muslims. Through intellectual labor, modes of prayer and worship, art, calligraphy, architecture, cuisine, linguistic creoles, and legal pluralism, these Muslims embody multiple cultural referents. For other Muslim minorities in other regions in China, political and economic circumstances present challenges to living in accordance with Islam while also being a citizen of the PRC. In other words, the Muslim experience in China encompasses a complex mosaic of accommodation, adjustment, preservation, and, at times, resistance. Thus, generalizations about this incredibly diverse population are unhelpful, and careful attention must be paid to history, politics, and place...

  8. A comprehensive biomass burning emission inventory with high spatial and temporal resolution in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Xing, Xiaofan; Lang, Jianlei; Chen, Dongsheng; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wei, Lin; Wei, Xiao; Liu, Chao

    2017-02-01

    . As for the straw burning emission of various crops, corn straw burning has the largest contribution to all of the pollutants considered, except for CH4; rice straw burning has highest contribution to CH4 and the second largest contribution to other pollutants, except for SO2, OC, and Hg; wheat straw burning is the second largest contributor to SO2, OC, and Hg and the third largest contributor to other pollutants. Heilongjiang, Shandong, and Henan provinces located in the north-eastern and central-southern regions of China have higher emissions compared to other provinces in China. Gridded emissions, which were obtained through spatial allocation based on the gridded rural population and fire point data from emission inventories at county resolution, could better represent the actual situation. High biomass burning emissions are concentrated in the areas with more agricultural and rural activity. The months of April, May, June, and October account for 65 % of emissions from in-field crop residue burning, while, regarding EC, the emissions in January, February, October, November, and December are relatively higher than other months due to biomass domestic burning in heating season. There are regional differences in the monthly variations of emissions due to the diversity of main planted crops and climatic conditions. Furthermore, PM2.5 component results showed that OC, Cl-, EC, K+, NH4+, elemental K, and SO42- are the main PM2.5 species, accounting for 80 % of the total emissions. The species with relatively high contribution to NMVOC emission include ethylene, propylene, toluene, mp-xylene, and ethyl benzene, which are key species for the formation of secondary air pollution. The detailed biomass burning emission inventory developed by this study could provide useful information for air-quality modelling and could support the development of appropriate pollution-control strategies.

  9. Perfil de mercado de China

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrales, Ana; Hincapié, Vanessa; Ruiz, Liseth

    2015-01-01

    El presente estudio analiza las importaciones desde China hacia Colombia y abarca temas estadísticos, análisis regionales, políticas de comercio exterior y revisiones geopolíticas del papel comercial de China en el mundo, dentro de otros aspectos. Es importante hacer el análisis sobre los contextos del comercio exterior colombiano reciente y vincularlo con el papel de China.

  10. China: moral puzzles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T M

    1990-01-01

    This is the first of a set of three articles concerned with "bioethics on the Pacific Rim." The author, vice president of Beijing Medical University and vice chairman of the Beijing Academic Association for Morality, identifies population control, euthanasia, and the allocation of health care resources as bioethical issues of current interest in his country. Population policy in China is grounded in public welfare arguments. The idea of a right to choose one's death is found in Chinese philosophy, although Chinese legal experts believe that euthanasia is not compatible with present criminal, civil, or family law. Allocation of health resources remains a problem in China, even throughout the free medical service that serves a small portion, largely composed of government employees, of the country's population of 1.08 billion.

  11. China and BEPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Avi-Yonah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of China’s reaction to the G20/OECD Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS project. From 2013 to 2015, the OECD developed a series of actions designed to address BEPS activities by multinational enterprises, culminating in a final report of 15 action steps. The article reviews and explains China’s reaction to the BEPS project and its actions in detail, with a particular focus on transfer pricing issues. It shows that China has actively participated in both developing and implementing the BEPS project. The article further suggests that in the post-BEPS era, China is expected to implement the BEPS project in a more consistent and coherent way, and will take whatever measures necessary to guarantee the successful implementation of the BEPS package in collaboration with the global community.

  12. El enigma de China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alongside China's material growth, there has come a gradual but steady change in its mentality of governance. This article tries to show one crucial aspect of such a change, having taken place in the past couple of decades, which has given that social giant a new global outlook. The article, based on ethnographic field research, hopes to shed light on the process of statisticalization that, supposedly scientific and modern, has turned itself into a predominant official means for management and administration. The goal is to demonstrate the problematic nature of such a transformation, occurring on the Maoist ruins and generating a number of social sentiments that reflect the growing economic disparity already an undeniable social fact for today's China.

  13. Petroleum in the South China Sea : a Chinese national interest

    OpenAIRE

    Snildal, Knut

    2000-01-01

    The thesis analyses the relationship between China's petroleum policies and China's involvement in the South China Sea conflict. The aim of the thesis is to determine what China's national interest are in the South China Sea, and to detect who forms, and how, China's South China Sea policy. The thesis discusses whether China's assumed interest in the South China Sea of exploiting the petroleum reserves of the territorially disputed areas of the South China Sea is a short-term national interes...

  14. Derivative actions in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shaowei

    2014-01-01

    The enactment of derivative action was expected to be actively used by shareholders to protect their interests. In fact, it turned out that this reform effort seemed futile as the right to engage in such actions was rarely exercised. This raises a question about the role of derivative actions in China; namely, should a derivative action system play a key role in protecting shareholder interests? If the answer is positive, the next question is how such a system could be improved...

  15. JPRS Report, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-23

    have on destory the atmosphere and climate for Sino-U.S. eco- developing Sino-U.S. economic and trade relations? nomic and trade relations. It will...like Ch’engta closed, conservative, social atmosphere of 10 or 20 years University and Taiwan University even have indepen- ago, many of the Taiwan...Asia, $104 China, and the younger is increasingly interested in million. Taiwan. This is causing increasing intergenerational tension which can only

  16. Conducting business in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J H

    1996-10-01

    Chinese culture is governed by an ancient set of values. Despite the gradual infiltration of Western culture, these historical practices remain highly visible in all interactions between Chinese people. For Western companies to set up and maintain viable businesses in China, it is essential that they have an understanding of Chinese heritage. This article identifies key elements of Chinese customs and business practices and explains their significance.

  17. Industrial fermentation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.S.

    1982-07-01

    A brief description of the recent advances in industrial fermentation in China is presented. Subject areas discussed include century-old food products such as Soy sauce and 'Shao Jiu' (distilled spirits), ethanol, amino acid, citric acid, nucleic acid and enzymes. Also discussed are the recent studies on immobilised enzymes and cells and on long-chain dicarboxylic acid fermentation. (Refs. 9).

  18. JPRS Report, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-08

    of Keating scandal. Robert Bennett, special counsel to the the General Administration of Civil Aviation of China Senate Ethics Committee, spent over a...of the Central Committee Another group of people engaged in the conduct of rural Propaganda Department to Zhu Houze [2612 0624 surveys was headed by...Chen Yizi [7115 0001 0745] and 3419] in the course of the struggle. Zhu Houze had been Wang Xiaoqiang [3769 1420 1730]. Chen Yizi formerly just a

  19. Organ Donation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya; Reid

    2011-01-01

    CHINA’S first voluntary organ donation system is in the midst of its trial run. The program is being tested in 11 pilot regions around the country, having harvested organs from more than 100 donors in this inaugural year. Overseen by the Red Cross Society of China and the country’s Ministry of Health, the system follows cardiac death standards in organ donation

  20. JPRS Report, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-22

    iron shop completely without any facilities to and one low price for each high price to transfer indus- protect against dust and toxicity . Silicon...dust and toxic trial profits to commercial middlemen, transferring to substances could fly about at will. At work stations using their parent corporation...transparent legal of China’s exports. These 19 [sic] commodities were and policy climate, menthol (9 June 1980), printed cotton polyester fiber cloth

  1. JPRS Report, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-30

    students enrolled. Kindergarten pupils 180,000 science and technology demonstration house- number 1,479,400. Education for retarded and physi- holds; and...such as [Article by Zhang Yuzhen (1728 3768 3791): "Interna- Thailand and Malaysia , are vigorously reinforcing their tional Market Demand for China’s...there are bright ippines, Thailand, and Malaysia , have been steadily prospects for increasing machine tool exports. investing more and more in recent

  2. Euthanasia in China: a report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, S D

    1991-04-01

    Euthanasia in China is gaining increasing acceptance among physicians, intellectuals, and even the people. This paper surveys current attitudes towards euthanasia and suggests why it should be legalized.

  3. China-Latin America Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba; Silva Ramos Becard, Danielly

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the research field of China-Latin American relations and suggests a broad and encompassing approach to the topic. It discusses the main themes and problem areas that analysts mostly emphasize in analyses of China-Latin America relations.......The article discusses the research field of China-Latin American relations and suggests a broad and encompassing approach to the topic. It discusses the main themes and problem areas that analysts mostly emphasize in analyses of China-Latin America relations....

  4. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). In 2008 the Group published the Seventh Edition of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  5. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). The Group has published seven editions to date of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  6. [China and development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentelle, P

    1981-01-01

    The strategy of the Chinese government in creating new socioeconomic structures has always been to rely on China's own forces. The impressions that a foreigner receives are contradictory and contrasting; for example, China has multiplied its industrial production 16 times in the last 30 years, but the poverty of equipment of industrial installations, and the widespread use of manpower instead of machines is obvious everywhere. Chinese economic policies have been changed in 1956, then in 1961, then again in 1964-65; in 1966 the standard of life of the average citizen was more or less that of 1957; in 1977 things had not greatly improved; 20 years had been wasted and the population had suffered a great deal especially during the Cultural Revolution. No high-level administrator in the Chinese government is reluctant to admit the mistakes committed during those years. An economic readjustment was done in 1979 and a quinquennial agricultural plan, 1981-85, is now underway. Notwithstanding the past mistakes, China, which in 1949 was far behind India from an economical point of view, now produces more iron, coal, steel, electricity, textile materials, chemical materials, and food with a lower percentage of cultivated land. Health services all over the country have been incredibly improved, and the complete elimination of epidemics and of parasites has been achieved, especially in urban areas. In 1981, sociological, demographic, and political studies and publications have not only reapperared, but are often made available to the foreign press and public.

  7. Extreme Energy in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cai, Lixue [China Petrochemical Corporations (China)

    2013-06-01

    Over the last decade, China has focused its policies simultaneously on moderating the rapid energy demand growth that has been driven by three decades of rapid economic growth and industrialization and on increasing its energy supply. In spite of these concerted efforts, however, China continues to face growing energy supply challenges, particularly with accelerating demand for oil and natural gas, both of which are now heavily dependent on imports. On the supply side, the recent 11th and 12th Five-Year Plans have emphasized accelerating conventional and nonconventional oil and gas exploration and development through pricing reforms, pipeline infrastructure expansions and 2015 production targets for shale gas and coal seam methane. This study will analyze China’s new and nonconventional oil and gas resources base, possible development paths and outlook, and the potential role for these nonconventional resources in meeting oil and gas demand. The nonconventional resources currently being considered by China and included in this study include: shale gas, coal seam methane (coal mine methane and coal bed methane), tight gas, in-situ coal gasification, tight oil and oil shale, and gas hydrates.

  8. Renewable Energy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery I. Salygin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available China is the most densely populated country in the world with high rate of economic growth resulting in higher demand for energy resources and in strive to guarantee stable supply of these resources. Chinese annual GDP growth in 2012 and 2013 was down to 7.7% comparing to 10% in 2000-2011 [7]. In 2012 and 2013 economic growth stumbled because of slowdown in manufacturing and exports, taking into account that Chinese government was eager to cut inflation and excessive investments in some segments of the market. Speaking about energy sector Chinese government is aimed at promotion of market-based pricing systems, activities for advanced energy efficiency and higher competition between energy companies, and increased investment in renewable energy resources. Considering renewables as one of many ways to diversify energy supplies, lower dependence on coal and improve environmental situation Chinese government actively supports and develops programs aimed at support of renewable energy industry in China. Chinese economic development is tightly attached to five-year plans. It seems important to mention the fact that main energy goals for current 12-th "five-year plan" are to achieve 15% renewables consumption and CO2 sequestration up to 40-45% by2020 in order to lower dependency on coal and improve environmental situation. As a result of Chinese state policy to develop renewables China achieved certain results in wind energy, helioenergetics, hydroenergetics and energy from waste recycling.

  9. Meningococcal Disease in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhujun Shao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitides is one of the leading causes of bacterial meningitis. The epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease varies in different countries and regions. This review summarizes the available data from China describing the burden of meningococcal disease, N. meningitidis serogroups, and vaccination programs. Meningococcal serogroup A (MenA was predominant for several decades in China. However, since 2000, invasive meningococcal disease caused by MenC, MenW, or MenB has increased. MenC, belonging to a hyperinvasive clonal sequence type ST-4821 (CC4821, emerged in Anhui Province and was subsequently disseminated over two-thirds of all Chinese provinces. Serogroup W (CC11 is endemic and causes death. Serogroup B (CC4821 originated from serogroup C (CC4821 via a capsular switching mechanism. Polysaccharide A and C meningococcal vaccines have been introduced into national routine immunization programs and have effectively reduced invasive meningococcal disease. However, the vaccination strategy must be revised based on the epidemic trends in meningococcal disease in China.

  10. Toilet revolution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shikun; Li, Zifu; Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Mang, Heinz-Peter; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Jian; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Lingling

    2017-09-20

    The wide-spread prevalence of unimproved sanitation technologies has been a major cause of concern for the environment and public health, and China is no exception to this. Towards the sanitation issue, toilet revolution has become a buzzword in China recently. This paper elaborates the backgrounds, connotations, and actions of the toilet revolution in China. The toilet revolution aims to create sanitation infrastructure and public services that work for everyone and that turn waste into value. Opportunities for implementing the toilet revolution include: fulfilling Millennium Development Goals and new Sustainable Development Goals; government support at all levels for popularizing sanitary toilet; environmental protection to alleviate wastewater pollution; resource recovery from human waste and disease prevention for health and wellbeing improvement. Meanwhile, the challenges faced are: insufficient funding and policy support, regional imbalance and lagging approval processes, weak sanitary awareness and low acceptance of new toilets, lack of R&D and service system. The toilet revolution requires a concerted effort from many governmental departments. It needs to address not only technology implementation, but also social acceptance, economic affordability, maintenance issues and, increasingly, gender considerations. Aligned with the ecological sanitation principles, it calls for understanding issues across the entire sanitation service chain. Public-private partnership is also recommended to absorb private capital to make up the lack of funds, as well as arouse the enthusiasm of the public. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Continuous-Wave and Actively Q-Switched Diode-Pumped Er:LuAG Ring Laser at 1650 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong-Yu, Dai; Xu-Guang, Xu; Lin, Ju; Jing, Wu; Zhen-Guo, Zhang; Bao-Quan, Yao; Ye, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Not Available Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 61308009 and 61405047, the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation Funded Project under Grant No 2013M540288, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant Nos HIT.NSRIF.2014044 and HIT.NSRIF.2015042, the Science Fund for Outstanding Youths of Heilongjiang Province under Grant No JQ201310, and the Heilongjiang Postdoctoral Science Foundation Funded Project under Grant No LBH-Z14085.

  12. Congenital Malaria in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue; Culleton, Richard; Tao, Li; Xia, Hui; Gao, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Congenital malaria, in which infants are directly infected with malaria parasites from their mother prior to or during birth, is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs at relatively low rates in malaria-endemic regions. It is recognized as a serious problem in Plasmodium falciparum–endemic sub-Saharan Africa, where recent data suggests that it is more common than previously believed. In such regions where malaria transmission is high, neonates may be protected from disease caused by congenital malaria through the transfer of maternal antibodies against the parasite. However, in low P. vivax–endemic regions, immunity to vivax malaria is low; thus, there is the likelihood that congenital vivax malaria poses a more significant threat to newborn health. Malaria had previously been a major parasitic disease in China, and congenital malaria case reports in Chinese offer valuable information for understanding the risks posed by congenital malaria to neonatal health. As most of the literature documenting congenital malaria cases in China are written in Chinese and therefore are not easily accessible to the global malaria research community, we have undertaken an extensive review of the Chinese literature on this subject. Methods/Principal Findings Here, we reviewed congenital malaria cases from three major searchable Chinese journal databases, concentrating on data from 1915 through 2011. Following extensive screening, a total of 104 cases of congenital malaria were identified. These cases were distributed mainly in the eastern, central, and southern regions of China, as well as in the low-lying region of southwest China. The dominant species was P. vivax (92.50%), reflecting the malaria parasite species distribution in China. The leading clinical presentation was fever, and other clinical presentations were anaemia, jaundice, paleness, diarrhoea, vomiting, and general weakness. With the exception of two cases, all patients were cured

  13. China's Launch Vehicle Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jingwu

    2002-01-01

    China's Launch Vehicle technologies have been started since 1950s. With the efforts made by several-generation Chinese Space people, the Long March (LM) Launch Vehicles, China's main space transportation tools, have undergone a development road from conventional propellants to cryogenic propellants, from stage-by-stage to strap-on, from dedicated-launch to multiple-launch, from satellite-launching to space capsule-launching. The LM Launch Vehicles are capable of sending various payloads to different orbits with low cost and high reliability. Till now, the LM Launch Vehicles have conducted 67 launch missions, putting 76 spacecraft into the given orbits since the successful mission made by LM-1 in 1970. Especially, they have performed 22 international commercial satellite-launching missions, sending 27 foreign satellites successfully. The footprints of LM Launch Vehicles reflect the development and progress of Chinese Space Industry. At the beginning of the 21st century, with the development of launch vehicle technology and the economic globalization, it is an inexorable trend that Chinese space industry must participate in the international cooperation and competition. Being faced with both opportunities and challenges, Chinese Space Industry should promote actively the commercial launch service market to increase service quality and improve the comprehensive competition capabilities. In order to maintain the sustaining development of China's launch vehicle technology and to meet the increasing needs in the international commercial launch service market, Chinese space industry is now doing research work on developing new-generation Chinese launchers. The new launchers will be large-scale, powerful and non-contamination. The presence of the new-generation Chinese launchers will greatly speed up the development of the whole space-related industries in China, as well as other parts of the world. In the first part, this paper gives an overview on China Aerospace Science

  14. China and the South China Sea: The Emergence of the Huaqing Doctrine

    OpenAIRE

    Durani, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    China and the South China Sea region will play an important role in global and US strategic policy for the foreseeable future. Because China is an upcoming global economic power, the US and other nations must become cognizant of China's motivations in the South China Sea in order to avoid conflict, which seems inevitable. The purpose of this thesis is to examine China's conflicts/tensions in the South China Sea, specifically the Spratly Islands, Paracel Islands, Taiwan, ASEAN, and US Navy. Di...

  15. Satellite SAR wind resource mapping in China (SAR-China)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete

    The project ‘Off-Shore Wind Energy Resource Assessment and Feasibility Study of Off-Shore Wind Farm Development in China’ is funded by the EU-China Energy and Environment Programme (EEP) and runs for one year (August 2008 - August 2009). The project is lead by the China Meteorological Administrat...

  16. China's Pork Miracle? : Agribusiness and Development in China's Pork Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Schneider (Mindi); S. Sharma (Shefali)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractEXECUTIVE SUMMARY Agriculture has helped fuel the “China miracle.” Since 1978, agricultural and food output has soared, Chinese agribusiness firms have become key players in domestic and international markets, and by all accounts, China has been highly successful in overcoming land

  17. China's Territorial Claims at Sea : The East China and South China Sea (Part I)

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    The sea trial of China's first aircraft carrier in August 2011 and a spate of recent incidents over disputed maritime territory in the East and South China Sea have prompted a new interest in the objectives and capacity of the People's Liberation Army Navy. This issue of Eurasian Border Review presents the first part of a special two-part feature on China's sea "frontiers." Part One of this analysis introduces China's varying interpretations of the International Law of the Sea and a case stud...

  18. China and the South China Sea: Two faces of power in the rising China's neighborhood policy

    OpenAIRE

    Beukel, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The South China Sea is subject to competing claims of sovereignty by the littoral states. Due to the number of claimants and the complexity of claims, it is called the 'mother of all territorial disputes'. China is far the biggest country in the region and claims sovereignty over almost all the South China Sea. This Working Paper elaborates the claims and considers the implications for China's neighborhood relations and the alignments in the Asia-Pacific. The focus is on two faces of power in...

  19. China on the Silver Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Leslie

    1981-01-01

    The author evaluates several intermediate/secondary-level films about China--past and present--and suggests criteria to use in evaluating others. Avoidance of stereotypes is emphasized. Sources and prices are provided for the cited films. One of several articles on China studies in this journal issue. (SJL)

  20. China: changing wood products markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daowei Zhang; Junchang Liu; James Granskog; Jianbang Gan

    1998-01-01

    In the 1980's, China emerged as the world's second largest importer of forest products and the second largest importer of U.S. forest products. However, U.S. wood products exports to China declined nearly 93 percent from 1988 to 1996, from >/=448 million to >/=33 million. Little is known about the reasons that caused this decline. Less is probably known...

  1. Business Culture of Modern China

    OpenAIRE

    Zenkina, L. E.; Зенкина, Л. Е.

    2014-01-01

    This research explores the peculiarity of doing business in modern China. The author focuses on the country's cultural characteristics, specifics of Chinese communication and management styles, subtleties of business etiquette and negotiations as well as development of online commerce and other aspects of business dealings in China in the context of cross-cultural interaction.

  2. Regional Inequality in Contemporary China

    OpenAIRE

    Qinghua Zhang; Heng-fu Zou

    2012-01-01

    This paper surveys the literature on regional inequality in contemporary China. It reviews the trend of convergence or divergence of real GDP or income across different regions in China since 1952, and examines the degree of regional inequality using different measurements. It then discusses various factors that may cause the increasing regional inequality and the empirical evidences correspondingly. Finally it gives policy implications.

  3. Building server capabilities in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to further our understanding of multinational companies building server capabilities in China. The paper is based on the cases of two western companies with operations in China. The findings highlight a number of common patterns in the 1) managerial challenges related...

  4. Early Childhood Intervention in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane

    2015-01-01

    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  5. Travel patterns in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tini Garske

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The spread of infectious disease epidemics is mediated by human travel. Yet human mobility patterns vary substantially between countries and regions. Quantifying the frequency of travel and length of journeys in well-defined population is therefore critical for predicting the likely speed and pattern of spread of emerging infectious diseases, such as a new influenza pandemic. Here we present the results of a large population survey undertaken in 2007 in two areas of China: Shenzhen city in Guangdong province, and Huangshan city in Anhui province. In each area, 10,000 randomly selected individuals were interviewed, and data on regular and occasional journeys collected. Travel behaviour was examined as a function of age, sex, economic status and home location. Women and children were generally found to travel shorter distances than men. Travel patterns in the economically developed Shenzhen region are shown to resemble those in developed and economically advanced middle income countries with a significant fraction of the population commuting over distances in excess of 50 km. Conversely, in the less developed rural region of Anhui, travel was much more local, with very few journeys over 30 km. Travel patterns in both populations were well-fitted by a gravity model with a lognormal kernel function. The results provide the first quantitative information on human travel patterns in modern China, and suggest that a pandemic emerging in a less developed area of rural China might spread geographically sufficiently slowly for containment to be feasible, while spatial spread in the more economically developed areas might be expected to be much more rapid, making containment more difficult.

  6. Travel patterns in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garske, Tini; Yu, Hongjie; Peng, Zhibin; Ye, Min; Zhou, Hang; Cheng, Xiaowen; Wu, Jiabing; Ferguson, Neil

    2011-02-02

    The spread of infectious disease epidemics is mediated by human travel. Yet human mobility patterns vary substantially between countries and regions. Quantifying the frequency of travel and length of journeys in well-defined population is therefore critical for predicting the likely speed and pattern of spread of emerging infectious diseases, such as a new influenza pandemic. Here we present the results of a large population survey undertaken in 2007 in two areas of China: Shenzhen city in Guangdong province, and Huangshan city in Anhui province. In each area, 10,000 randomly selected individuals were interviewed, and data on regular and occasional journeys collected. Travel behaviour was examined as a function of age, sex, economic status and home location. Women and children were generally found to travel shorter distances than men. Travel patterns in the economically developed Shenzhen region are shown to resemble those in developed and economically advanced middle income countries with a significant fraction of the population commuting over distances in excess of 50 km. Conversely, in the less developed rural region of Anhui, travel was much more local, with very few journeys over 30 km. Travel patterns in both populations were well-fitted by a gravity model with a lognormal kernel function. The results provide the first quantitative information on human travel patterns in modern China, and suggest that a pandemic emerging in a less developed area of rural China might spread geographically sufficiently slowly for containment to be feasible, while spatial spread in the more economically developed areas might be expected to be much more rapid, making containment more difficult.

  7. Food legume production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Food legumes comprise all legumes grown for human food in China as either dry grains or vegetables, except for soybean and groundnut. China has a vast territory with complex ecological conditions. Rotation, intercropping, and mixed cropping involving pulses are normal cropping systems in China. Whether indigenous or introduced crops, pulses have played an important role in Chinese cropping systems and made an important contribution to food resources for humans since ancient times. The six major food legume species (pea, faba bean, common bean, mung bean, adzuki bean, and cowpea are the most well-known pulses in China, as well as those with more local distributions; runner bean, lima bean, chickpea, lentil, grass pea, lupine, rice bean, black gram, hyacinth bean, pigeon pea, velvet bean, winged bean, guar bean, sword bean, and jack bean. China has remained the world's leading producer of peas, faba beans, mung beans, and adzuki beans in recent decades, as documented by FAO statistics and China Agriculture Statistical Reports. The demand for food legumes as a healthy food will markedly increase with the improvement of living standards in China. Since China officially joined the World Trade Organization (WTO in 2001, imports of pea from Canada and Australia have rapidly increased, resulting in reduced prices for dry pea and other food legumes. With reduced profits for food legume crops, their sowing area and total production has decreased within China. At the same time, the rising consumer demand for vegetable food legumes as a healthy food has led to attractive market prices and sharp production increases in China. Vegetable food legumes have reduced growing duration and enable flexibility in cropping systems. In the future, production of dry food legumes will range from stable to slowly decreasing, while production of vegetable food legumes will continue to increase.

  8. JPRS Report China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-17

    has higher education. Now let us look at some problems that have cropped up in the course of China’s reform and opening up. In his report to the...and the heated debates it triggered, we consider it a part of cultural construction and call it "gourmandism." 11. Qian Xuesen: " Floriculture Is a...policies. The cropping -up of the above erroneous views has to do with the insufficient prepara- tions for and the immaturity of the theory of reform

  9. [Survey on fungi contamination and natural occurrence of mycotoxins in 94 corn feed ingredients collected from China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X M; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Xu, W J; Liu, D; Jiang, T; Xu, J; Li, F Q

    2016-10-06

    Objective: To investigate fungi contamination and the natural occurrence of mycotoxins in corn feed ingredients collected from China. Methods: A total of 94 corn feed ingredient samples were collected from 8 Chinese provinces(i.e., Anhui, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, and Shandong)in February 2014. A tandem ultra-performance liquid chromatographymass spectrometry method was used for simultaneous detection of twelve kinds of mycotoxins, including aflatoxin(AF), type A and type B tricothecenes, and zearalenone(ZEN). Contaminated fungi were also identified and counted. Results: AF was detected in 36.2%(34/94)of samples; the concentration of AFB1 was the highest in the four AFs with the range: 0.3~181.3 μg/kg; and then followed by AFB2(range: 1.0-74.3 μg/kg). There were 7 samples(7.5%)with AFB1 concentrations higher than the tolerance limit of 50 μg/kg. The concentration of type A tricothecenes in all samples was lower(0.1-10.5 μg/kg). DON had the most serious contamination than other kind of type B tricothecenes(range: 0.7-606.6 μg/kg; median: 66.3 μg/kg). The DON concentration in all samples was below the tolerance limit of 1 000 μg/kg. ZEN was detected in 76.6%(72/ 94)of samples(median: 36.9 μg/kg), with 3 samples having ZEN concentrations higher than the tolerance limit of 500 μg/kg. The survey on fungi contamination showed that all samples were contaminated by fungi(range: 5.0-1.4×105 CFU/g). There were 18 and 3 samples with quantities of fungi higher than the tolerance and forbidden limits, respectively. The Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Trichoderma and Mucor genuses were the predominant fungi in corn feed ingredients, with detection rates of 71.3%(67), 60.6%(57), 71.3%(67), 27.7%(26), and 24.5%(23), respectively. The detection rate of Fusarium moniliforme, 73.4%(69/94)was higher than that of Aspergillus flavus, 41.5%(39/94). Conclusion: In this survey, the corn feed ingredients were not seriously contaminated by

  10. Applying Earth Observation Data to agriculture risk management: a public-private collaboration to develop drought maps in North-East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surminski, S.; Holt Andersen, B.; Hohl, R.; Andersen, S.

    2012-04-01

    Earth Observation Data (EO) can improve climate risk assessment particularly in developing countries where densities of weather stations are low. Access to data that reflects exposure to weather and climate risks is a key condition for any successful risk management approach. This is of particular importance in the context of agriculture and drought risk, where historical data sets, accurate current data about crop growth and weather conditions, as well as information about potential future changes based on climate projections and socio-economic factors are all relevant, but often not available to stakeholders. Efforts to overcome these challenges in using EO data have so far been predominantly focused on developed countries, where satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Indexes (NDVI) and the MERIS Global Vegetation Indexes (MGVI), are already used within the agricultural sector for assessing and managing crop risks and to parameterize crop yields. This paper assesses how public-private collaboration can foster the application of these data techniques. The findings are based on a pilot project in North-East China where severe droughts frequently impact the country's largest corn and soybeans areas. With support from the European Space Agency (ESA), a consortium of meteorological experts, mapping firms and (re)insurance experts has worked to explore the potential use and value of EO data for managing crop risk and assessing exposure to drought for four provinces in North-East China (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Liaoning). Combining NDVI and MGVI data with meteorological observations to help alleviate shortcomings of NDVI specific to crop types and region has resulted in the development of new drought maps for the time 2000-2011 in digital format at a high resolution (1x1 km). The observed benefits of this data application range from improved risk management to cost effective drought monitoring and claims verification for insurance purposes

  11. Equity and efficiency of medical service systems at the provincial level of China's mainland: a comparative study from 2009 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jingmei; Hu, Xuejun; Zhang, Xianzhi; Shang, Lei; Yu, Min; Chen, Huoliang

    2018-02-05

    The astonishing economic achievements of China in the past few decades have remarkably increased not only the quantity and quality of medical services but also the inequalities in health resources allocation across regions and inefficiency of the medical service delivery. A descriptive analysis was used to compare the inequities in inputs and outputs of the provincial medical service systems, a non-radial super-efficiency data envelopment analysis model was then used to estimate the efficiency, and a regression analysis of the panel data was used to explore the determinants. The inputs and outputs of most provincial medical service systems increased gradually from 2009 to 2014. Overall, the eastern region allocated more human and capital resources than the other two regions, and produced more than 50% of the total outpatient and emergency room visits, whereas the western region produced more inpatient services (about 30% of the total volume of inpatient services) according to the distribution of the population. The average efficiency scores of the provincial medical systems in China's mainland were 0.895, 0.927, 0.929, 0.963, 0.977 and 0.968 from 2009 to 2014, with a slight average improvement of 1.60%. The efficiency score of each provincial medical service system varied greatly from one another: Tibet (1.475 ± 0.057) performed extremely well, whereas several others including Heilongjiang (0.579 ± 0.001) performed poorly. Furthermore, the proportion of high-class medical facilities was negatively associated with efficiency, whereas the proportion of the vulnerable population, the per capita Gross Domestic Product, the proportion of the illiterate population and the improvement of primary health care had positive effects on efficiency. Inequity in health resources allocation and service provision existed across the regions, but not all the gaps have begun to narrow since 2009. The difference of efficiency was great among provincial medical service systems

  12. Environmental issues in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, P.S.

    1991-10-01

    Global concern about the environment is increasing, and the People's Republic of China (PRC) is not immune from such concerns. The Chinese face issues similar to those of many other developing nations. The US Department of Energy is particularly interested in national and world pollution issues, especially those that may infringe on other countries' economic growth and development. The DOE is also interested in any opportunities that might exist for US technical assistance and equipment in combating environmental problems. Our studies of articles in the China Daily, and English-language daily newspaper published by the Chinese government, show that population, pollution, and energy are major concerns of the Chinese Communist Party. Thus this report emphasizes the official Chinese government view. Supporting data were also obtained from other sources. Regardless of the severity of their various environmental problems, the Chinese will only try to remedy those problems with the greatest negative effects on its developing economy. They will be looking for foreign assistance, financial and informational, to help implement solutions. With the Chinese government seeking assistance, the United States has an opportunity to export basic technical information, especially in the areas of pollution control and monitoring, oil exploration methods, oil drilling technology, water and sewage treatment procedures, hazardous waste and nuclear waste handling techniques, and nuclear power plant safety procedures. In those areas the US has expertise and extensive technical experience, and by exporting the technologies the US would benefit both economically and politically. 59 refs., 3 figs.

  13. [Malaria situation in the People's Republic of China in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shui-Sen; Wang, Yi; Li, Yu

    2011-12-01

    .09/10,000, 88.6% decrease than the last year. In central China, the case number decreased considerably in 2010, but the incidence in Anhui was still the highest in the country and the number of cases ranked No. 2. 1 864 malaria cases were reported from Anhui Province in 2010, accounting for 23.7% of the total cases in the country with an incidence of 0.28/10 000 which decreased by 76.5% than that in 2009. The number of reported cases in Henan Province was 893, decreased by 58.6% in incidence. Hubei Province reported 429 cases with an incidence of 0.075/10,000, decreased by 37.5%. 386 cases were reported from Jiangsu Province, decreased by 1.9% compared to that in 2009. Cases reported from other P/M/A occupied about 19.9% of the total. Above hundred cases were reported from Shandong and less than 100 cases were from each of Fujian, Chongqing, Shanghai, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Heilongjiang, Gansu and Tibet in 2010. In summary the reemergence of malaria has been restrained through several years' efforts but malaria is still an important problem of public health in China especially in the southern and central parts. Yunnan still faces the spread of Plasmodium falciparum especially imported malaria in the border areas. In the central parts of the country, Anhui Province is still with the highest incidence in 2010. In addition, imported malaria cases in those provinces with a low transmission or without local transmission would become a new challenge to the National Malaria Elimination Program.

  14. Getting “China Ready”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Matias Thuen; Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2015-01-01

    Lately, the Scandinavian tourism sector has identified the Chinese market as attractive, but difficultly accessible. As a consequence, initiatives have been undertaken in order to make Scandinavia ‘China ready’. In this article, we use an extensive literature review, an example of such an initiat......Lately, the Scandinavian tourism sector has identified the Chinese market as attractive, but difficultly accessible. As a consequence, initiatives have been undertaken in order to make Scandinavia ‘China ready’. In this article, we use an extensive literature review, an example...... people into stale and stereotypical representations and takes an important step towards getting truly ‘China ready’....

  15. China's naval modernization and implications for the South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Small, Page E.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This thesis analyzes the implications of Chinese navy modernization for the South China Sea. The PRC is modernizing and expanding its naval capacities for the purpose of protecting China's security, territorial, and economic interests. The PRC has placed a great deal of emphasis on modernizing its navy since the early 1990's. Specifically, Beijing has been purchasing Russian conventional naval arms designed to defeat and counter U.S. ...

  16. Smart grid in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Simon; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    China is planning to transform its traditional power grid in favour of a smart grid, since it allows a more economically efficient and a more environmentally friendly transmission and distribution of electricity. Thus, a nationwide smart grid is likely to save tremendous amounts of resources...... and costs. This paper elaborates on the key stakeholders, crucial polices and general challenges in the context of the Chinese smart grid development. The paper finds that the Chinese energy market is a state monopoly and foreign companies can only become key stakeholders in the role of suppliers or service...... providers. It can be concluded that the Chinese smart grid development has still to overcome technological and political issues, such as overlapping authority structures, not installed or immature key technologies, the absence of standards and governmental market protectionism....

  17. Nationalist Netizens in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bislev, Ane Katrine

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese government is currently performing a delicate act of balance: attempting to foster a “healthy” nationalism among the young generation in China while at the same time having to deal with the at times rather loud and uncompromising expression of this nationalism online. By examining......-called patriotic education campaign and the rhetoric used online. Even though the viewpoints expressed in the two debates vary widely, the central theme of how to deal with China’s past is plays a strong role in both debates. I argue that though the Chinese government has been rather successful in promoting...... this reliance on a certain historical perspective to understand present day China’s place in the world, the online nationalist expressions take on a life of their own partly due to China’s very special Internet culture....

  18. CIVIL JUSTICE IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a basic and comprehensive introduction of Chinese civil justice. It gives a complete picture of Chinese civil justice, including the brief history, the court and judge system, the outline of the procedure, and the internationalization. Through the introduction, one can find that Chinese civil procedure law is a mixture of Soviet procedural concept, Chinese local culture, and western procedural concept and rules. It is still a developing procedure and experiences a process from resisting western procedural concept to gradually accepting and learning from it. It used to be a supra-inquisitorial trial model with overwhelming focus on conciliation, but is now transforming to aparty disposition trial model with preference to conciliation under the premise of voluntariness. With the globalization of economy, the international cooperation of China, especially with the BRICS countries, will also become more and more important.

  19. July 1976 Tangshan, China Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeastern China. Damage: $5,600 million. The death toll (240,000) was one of largest in recorded history from an earthquake. In addition, around 800,000 were...

  20. China's press - forget the stereotype

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Polumbaum, Judy; Liu Binyan

    1992-01-01

      The assumption that the Communist Party and government in China define what is newsworthy, control how the news gets covered and decide what gets published or aired overlooks realities of geography...

  1. China Energy Databook. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J. E.; Fridley, D. G.; Levine, M. D.; Yang, F.; Zhenping, J.; Xing, Z.; Kejun, J.; Xiaofeng, L.

    1996-09-01

    The Energy Analysis Program at LBL first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and energy demand held in Nanjing Nov. 1988. EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute of China`s State Planning Commission. It was decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Primary interest was to use the data to help understand the historical evolution and likely future of the Chinese energy system; thus the primary criterion was to relate the data to the structure of energy supply and demand in the past and to indicate probable developments (eg, as indicated by patterns of investment). Caveats are included in forewords to both the 1992 and 1996 editions. A chapter on energy prices is included in the 1996 edition. 1993 energy consumption data are not included since there was a major disruption in energy statistical collection in China that year.

  2. Propelling medical humanities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei

    2017-05-23

    Advances in the study of the medical humanities and medical humanities education have been made over the past few decades. Many influential journals have published articles examining the role of medical humanities and medical humanities education, the development and evaluation of medical humanities, and the design of a curriculum for medical humanities education in Western countries. However, most articles related to medical humanities in China were published in Chinese, moreover, researchers have worked in relative isolation and published in disparate journals, so their work has not been systematically presented to and evaluated by international readers. The six companion articles featured in this issue describe the current status and challenge of medical humanities and medical humanities education in China in the hope of providing international readers with a novel and meaningful glimpse into medical humanities in China. This Journal is calling for greater publication of research on medical humanities and medical humanities education to propel medical humanities in China.

  3. Great Wall of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER sub-image covers a 12 x 12 km area in northern Shanxi Province, China, and was acquired January 9, 2001. The low sun angle, and light snow cover highlight a section of the Great Wall, visible as a black line running diagonally through the image from lower left to upper right. The Great Wall is over 2000 years old and was built over a period of 1000 years. Stretching 4500 miles from Korea to the Gobi Desert it was first built to protect China from marauders from the north.This image is located at 40.2 degrees north latitude and 112.8 degrees east longitude.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface

  4. The intensity detection of single-photon detectors based on photon counting probability density statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zijing; Wu, Long; Song, Jie; Zhao, Yuan

    2017-09-01

    Not Available Projiect supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. AUGA5710056414), the Program for Innovation Research of Science in Harbin Institute of Technology (Grant Nos. PIRS OF HIT A201412 and PIRS OF HIT Q201505), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11675046), the Doctoral Fund of the Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 20122302120003), the Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province of China (Grant No. A201303), and the Postdoctoral Scientific Research Developmental Fund of Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. LBH-Q15060).

  5. Renewable energy development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junfeng, Li

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the resources availability, technologies development and their costs of renewable energies in China and introduces the programs of renewable energies technologies development and their adaptation for rural economic development in China. As the conclusion of this paper, renewable energies technologies are suitable for some rural areas, especially in the remote areas for both household energy and business activities energy demand. The paper looks at issues involving hydropower, wind energy, biomass combustion, geothermal energy, and solar energy.

  6. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-05

    studies on basic Research Fellow, Expert Group Assistant Leader, devices, testing methods and individual technologies Luoyang Institute of Metrology and...the [Summary] Two new optical devices-a "l.3gtm China Institute of Metrology recently passed the InGaAsP traveling-wave-type low-noise linear ampli... Sagnac fiber-optic interferometer [CHINA ELECTRONICS NEWS] in Chinese for rotation measurement; some of these have been 18 Jan 91 p 3 field-tested. In

  7. Progress of nanoscience in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-Liang; Song, Yan-Lin; Song, Wei-Guo; Liang, Wei; Jiang, Xing-Yu; Tang, Zhi-Yong; Xu, Hong-Xing; Wei, Zhi-Xiang; Liu, Yun-Qi; Liu, Ming-Hua; Jiang, Lei; Bao, Xin-He; Wan, Li-Jun; Bai, Chun-Li

    2014-06-01

    Fast evolving nanosciences and nanotechnology in China has made it one o f the front countries of nanotechnology development. In this review, we summarize some most recent progresses in nanoscience research and nanotechnology development in China. The topics we selected in this article include nano-fabrication, nanocatalysis, bioinspired nanotechnology, green printing nanotechnology, nanoplasmonics, nanomedicine, nanomaterials and their applications, energy and environmental nanotechnology, nano EHS (nanosafety), etc. Most of them have great potentials in applications or application-related key issues in future.

  8. China: Unfolding the Paper Dragon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    activists, to include Nobel Peace Prize winner Liu Xiaobo for his desire to increase political freedoms.4 China‟s rise and attempt to balance...Regardless of known intent, China continues to try to assure the world. Following the leaks of the J20, the Chinese ambassador to the U.K., Liu ...and Wives.” 37 Starr, Understanding China: A Guide, 234. 26 38 Melinda Liu , “China‟s New Empty Nest,” Newsweek, March 1, 2008, http

  9. SAE-China Congress 2014

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    These Proceedings gather outstanding papers submitted to the 2014 SAE-China Congress, the majority of which are from China, the most dynamic car market in the world. The book covers a wide range of automotive topics, presenting the latest technical achievements in the industry. Many of the approaches it presents can help technicians to solve the practical problems that most affect their daily work.

  10. SAE-China Congress 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings gather outstanding papers submitted to the 2015 SAE-China Congress, the majority of which are from China, the biggest car maker as well as most dynamic car market in the world. The book covers a wide range of automotive topics, presenting the latest technical achievements in the industry. Many of the approaches presented can help technicians to solve the practical problems that most affect their daily work.

  11. China energy databook. 1992 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi [eds.] [Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China)

    1992-11-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.

  12. The Carboniferous reefs in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Enpu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Carboniferous period was a unique period for reef developments during the Late Paleozoic; however, in past years, studies dealing with the Carboniferous reefs in China were very rare. In recent years, the Carboniferous reefs were studied in detail and diverse types of reefs have been discovered in different areas of China. In these areas, the Mississippian reefs were primarily built of bryozoans and rugose corals, which were associated with various kinds of calcareous algae. During the Pennsylvanian, in South China, the reef builders were composed of the rugose coral Fomichevella and phylloid algae, whereas in North China, the reef builders were composed of Chaetetes, bryozoans and corals. There are two main reef-building communities within Carboniferous reefs in China; an algal reef-building community and a reef-building community dominated by colonial coral. No evolutionary relationships between these two types of communities can be detected, thus indicating that two different linerages of reef-building communities evolved during the Carboniferous; the former community consists of cyanobacteria, bacteria and calcareous algae, while the latter one consists of various skeletal metazoan organisms. Through careful study of the developments of Chinese Carboniferous reefs, the evidence indicates that various communities of organisms played important reef-building functions during this period. The occurrence of these metazoan framework reefs also indicates that, during the Carboniferous, most areas in China would have been dominated by the environments with a tropical or subtropical climate.

  13. Epilogue to "Islam in China/China in Islam"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lipman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In my opening comments during the conference “The Everyday Life of Islam: Focus on Islam in China,” held at Cornell University on April 27 and 28, 2012, I proposed a number of themes, tensions, and conflicts on which we might focus our discussion of the papers. This epilogue will summarize some of the conversations that ensued and note areas of particular interest that emerged from revisions to the five essays presented in this special issue of Cross-Currents: East Asian History and Culture Review. Some conference participants attempted to make generalizations at national and transnational levels, while others stuck tenaciously to local details. Our discussions sometimes strayed from “everyday life,” but rarely from diverse, sometimes divisive, solutions to the everyday problem of “being Muslim and being Chinese” and its macrocosmic projection, “Islam in China/China in Islam,” or, in Rian Thum’s contribution, Islam not in China. The essays here, influenced by conversations and debates during the conference, suggest future agendas for study of Islam in China and research on Muslim minorities and comparative religion and politics...

  14. China's baby boomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, L

    1988-01-01

    China's birthrate increased from 18 births/1000 population in 1985 to 21/1000 in 1986, after a decade of steady decline. In 1971, to avoid a projected population of 2.4 billion by 2050, Chinese leaders launched the "later-longer-fewer" campaign. Men and women were encouraged to postpone marriage until their mid- to late-20s, to allow 4 years between pregnancies, and to limit their families to 2 children. The standards were slightly more lenient in the rural areas. Together, the campaign was responsible for a reduction in the total fertility rate from 5.9 births/woman in 1970 to 2.7 births in 1979. Yet, due to the age structure of the population, with 39% of Chinese under age 15, even replacement-level fertility was bound to generate growth for decades. Consequently, in 1979, the post-Mao leadership inaugurated the "1-child" policy, a program designed to limit the Chinese population to 1.2 billion by 2000. Family planning has become a state sanctioned and monitored activity. The policy is implemented via public education, persuasion, peer pressure, and a series of incentives and penalties. In this context, the question arises as to what caused China's birthrate to rise. A major factor is the effect of the country's youth-dominated age structure. Following the Great Leap Forward (1958-60) and the prolonged accompanying famine, the birthrate increased markedly as couples conceived the children they had postponed. These baby boomers, born from 1962-64, now are having their own babies. About 1/3 of the 1986 increase in births may be accounted for by the ripple effect of this relatively large cohort finally reaching reproductive age. Further, the age of 1st reproduction has declined recently in response to the Marriage Law of 1980, which lowers the legal marriage age. Another influence has been a gradual yet significant relaxation in some of the basic tenets of the 1-child policy. In 1984, the government reaffirmed the critical importance of family planning but increased

  15. Schistosomiasis control in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chang Yuan

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available After three decades' efforts, schistosomiasis japonica were controlled in one-third (4/12 of endemic provinces and 68.2 (259/380 of endemic counties throughout the country. The remaining 121 endemic counties are located primarily in the lake and mountainous regions. The epidemiological and ecological features of the lake and mountainous areas are different from the other endemic areas. The major schistosomiasis control efforts in China can be characterized as follows: (1 Application of centralized leadership and management, since schistosomiasis control is a task not only of the Ministry of Public Health, but also of all local governments in the endemic areas; (2 Integration of actions taken by various departments or bureaus, such as agriculture, water conservation and public health; (3 Promotion of mass participation; (4 Organization of strong professional teams; (5 Raising sufficient funds. Strategies on schistosomiasis control applied in different areas are divided into three levels: (1 In the areas where the schistosomiasis has been successfully controlled, surveillance must be maintained and immediate action should be taken where new infections occur and/or vector snails are found, so that control can be reestablished quickly; (2 In the areas where schistosomiasis has been partially controlled, any residents and/or live-stock infected should be examined and treated promptly with due care, and environment modifying and/or mollusciding must be used to eliminate the remaining snails; (3 In the areas where transmission has not been controlled, the main strategy is to control morbidity. Mass or selective chemotherapy with praziquental should be applied to both infected persosns and the live-stock, and environment modification for the snail-ridden areas should be taken but should be coordinated with agriculture where possible. Advance cases must be treated; and epidemics of Katayama fever prevented; water supply and sanitation shoud be improved

  16. 77 FR 5865 - American Unity Investments, Inc., China Display Technologies, Inc., China Wind Energy, Inc., Fuda...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... COMMISSION American Unity Investments, Inc., China Display Technologies, Inc., China Wind Energy, Inc., Fuda... securities of China Display Technologies, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period... current and accurate information concerning the securities of China Wind Energy, Inc. because it has not...

  17. China and the New International Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yang

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the book "China and the New International Order," edited by Wang Gungwu and Zheng Yongnian.......This article reviews the book "China and the New International Order," edited by Wang Gungwu and Zheng Yongnian....

  18. Dietetics in China at the crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lingxia; Dwyer, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    A dietetics profession that conforms to the international standards for dietetics exists in many countries but not in the Peoples' Republic of China (China). Might China benefit from the presence of the dietetics profession? The article reviews the current dietetic situation in China, summarizes the gaps between current realities in China with respect to meeting needs for nutritional care, and recommends improvements. Gaps and barriers exist between current practice in dietetics and a more optimal system for meeting China's nutritional care needs. Recommendations for actions over the near term that would lead to fuller development of the field of dietetics in China are summarized, following the model suggested by the International Confederation of Dietetic Associations. Alternative personnel deployment strategies over the next decade are also discussed. Whether there is a role for the profession of dietetics in China today or in the near future will depend on the attitudes and political will of Chinese government authorities, health professionals, educators, and consumers.

  19. China-U.S. Trade Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2005-01-01

    .... With a huge population and a rapidly expanding economy, China is becoming a large market for U.S. exporters. Yet, U.S.-China commercial ties have been strained by a number of issues, including a surging...

  20. Sustainable automotive energy system in China

    CERN Document Server

    CAERC, Tsinghua University

    2014-01-01

    This book identifies and addresses key issues of automotive energy in China. It covers demography, economics, technology and policy, providing a broad perspective to aid in the planning of sustainable road transport in China.

  1. Masturbation in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aniruddha; Parish, William L; Laumann, Edward O

    2009-02-01

    This study examined the prevalence and sources of masturbatory practice in a nationally representative sample from China completed in the year 2000, with analysis of sources focused on 2,828 urban respondents aged 20-59. In this subpopulation, 13% (95% CI, 10-18) of women and 35% (CI, 26-44) of men reported any masturbation in the preceding year. Prevalence for people in their 20s was higher, and closer to US and European levels, especially for men. Particularly for women, masturbation not only compensated for absent partners but also complemented the high sexual interests of a subset of participants. For both women and men, practicing masturbation appeared to be a two-step process. In the first step, events such as sexual contact in childhood, early puberty, and early sex were related to sexualization and the "gateway event" of adolescent masturbation. In the second step, other factors, such as liberal sexual values and sexual knowledge, further increased the current probability of masturbation. Overall, the results suggest that masturbation is readily adopted even at more modest levels of economic and social development, that masturbation is often more than simply compensatory behavior for regular partnered sex, that masturbatory patterns are heavily influenced by early sexualization, and that a complex model is needed to comprehend masturbatory practice, particularly for women.

  2. Chinas Future SSBN Command and Control Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    policies , China is also on the verge of fielding its first credible sea -based...surface vessels and attack submarines to close off waters near China’s shores, such as the Yellow Sea , the East China Sea , or the South China Sea .37...maritime zones near China’s shores, see Tian Jianwei [田剑威], “Type-094 Nuclear Submarine: China’s ‘King of the South China Sea ’” [094 型核

  3. Teaching human parasitology in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guanghui; He, Shenyi; Chen, Lin; Shi, Na; Bai, Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-04-20

    China has approximately one-fifth of the world's population. Despite the recent success in controlling major parasitic diseases, parasitic diseases remain a significant human health problem in China. Hence, the discipline of human parasitology is considered as a core subject for undergraduate and postgraduate students of the medical sciences. We consider the teaching of human parasitology to be fundamental to the training of medical students, to the continued research on parasitic diseases, and to the prevention and control of human parasitic diseases. Here, we have summarized the distribution of educational institutions in China, particularly those that teach parasitology. In addition, we have described some existing parasitology courses in detail as well as the teaching methods used for different types of medical students. Finally, we have discussed the current problems in and reforms to human parasitology education. Our study indicates that 304 regular higher education institutions in China offer medical or related education. More than 70 universities have an independent department of parasitology that offers approximately 10 different parasitology courses. In addition, six universities in China have established excellence-building courses in human parasitology.

  4. Cratons' thermal state in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lijuan; Zhang, Linyou

    2017-04-01

    There are three cratons in China, the North China Craton, the Tarim Craton, and the Yangtze Craton. Each craton has experienced complicated evolution histories since their formation, presents distinct thermal regime, and displays different stability. The Tarim Craton keeps its stability till now. The eastern North China Craton has been destructed in the Mesozoic, but the western North China Craton still stable. The stability of the Yangtze craton is a controversial issue, and the newest study believed it experienced similar tectono-thermal events as the North China Craton and has also been destructed in the Mesozoic. Several sedimentary basins developed in these cratons, and most of them are rich of oil-gas resources. These basins have different formation mechanism and experienced distinct tectono-thermal evolution, which resulted in individual thermal histories. The sedimentary basins have recorded distinct thermal evolution of these craton. We analyze the heat flow data, lithospheric thermal thickness, basins' thermal histories together with tectono-thermal events in these cratons, with aim to provide ideas for geodynamical mechanism on the craton stability/destruction, as well as implications for hydrocarbon generation.

  5. Breastfeeding in China: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binns Colin W

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review aims to describe changes in breastfeeding and summarise the breastfeeding rates, duration and reasons of discontinuing 'any breastfeeding' or 'exclusive breastfeeding' in P.R. China. Breastfeeding rates in China fell during the 1970s when the use of breast milk substitutes became widespread, and reached the lowest point in the 1980s. As a result many efforts were introduced to promote breastfeeding. The breastfeeding rate in China started to increase in the 1990s, and since the mid-1990s 'any breastfeeding' rates in the majority of cities and provinces, including minority areas, have been above 80% at four months. But most cities and provinces did not reach the national target of 'exclusive breastfeeding' of 80%. The 'exclusive breastfeeding' rates in minority areas were relatively lower than comparable inland provinces. The mean duration of 'any breastfeeding' in the majority of cities or provinces was between seven and nine months. The common reasons for ceasing breastfeeding, or introducing water or other infant food before four months, were perceived breast milk insufficiency, mother going to work, maternal and child illness and breast problems. Incorrect traditional perceptions have a strong adverse influence on 'exclusive breastfeeding' in less developed areas or rural areas. China is a huge country, geographically and in population size, and there is considerable ethnic diversity. Therefore breastfeeding rates in different parts of China can vary considerably.

  6. Medical Malpractice in Wuhan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fanggang; Li, Liliang; Bynum, Jennifer; Meng, Xiangzhi; Yan, Ping; Li, Ling; Liu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Medical disputes in China are historically poorly documented. In particular, autopsy-based evaluation and its impact on medical malpractice claims remain largely unstudied. This study aims to document autopsy findings and medical malpractice in one of the largest cities of China, Wuhan, located in Hubei Province. A total of 519 autopsies were performed by the Department of Forensic Medicine, Wuhan University School of Medicine, Wuhan, China, over a 10-year period between 2004 and 2013. Of these cases, 190 (36.6%) were associated with medical malpractice claims. Joint evaluation by forensic pathologists and clinicians confirmed that 97 (51.1%) of the 190 claims were approved medical malpractice cases. The percentage of approved malpractice cases increased with patient age and varied according to medical setting, physician specialty, and organ system. The clinico-pathological diagnostic discrepancy was significantly different among various physician specialties (P = 0.031) and organ systems (P = 0.000). Of those cases involved in malpractice claims, aortic dissection, coronary heart disease, and acute respiratory infection were most common. Association between incorrect diagnosis and malpractice was significant (P = 0.001). This is the first report on China's medical malpractice and findings at autopsy which reflects the current state of health care services in one of the biggest cities in China. PMID:26559306

  7. developing countries: case study of china and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary products na 35 13 19 l8 16. Foods na 15 4 6 5 3. Share of rural population 83 81 76 72 71 70. Source: State Statistical Bureau, China Statistical Yearbook, various issues; and China Rural Statistical Yearbook, various issues. Generally, the importance of China's agriculture is seen in the challenge of meeting the ...

  8. Characteristics of Phytophthora infestans isolates from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Zhu, J.; Jin, G.; Lan, C.; Liu, B.; Zhang, R.; Zhao, Z.; Yang, Y.; Huang, S.; Jacobsen, E.

    2009-01-01

    In several of the main potato production area’s in China the climate is favorable for P. infestans and consequently, potato late blight is one of the most serious threats to potato production in China. As part of a comprehensive monitoring program that we could establish for China we started

  9. 76 FR 171 - Paper Clips From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... COMMISSION Paper Clips From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on paper clips from China. SUMMARY: The... on paper clips from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury...

  10. 76 FR 42730 - Paper Clips From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... COMMISSION Paper Clips From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... order on paper clips from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury... Publication 4242 (July 2011), entitled Paper Clips from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-663 (Third Review). By...

  11. Modernization and Teacher Education in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Defeng

    1999-01-01

    Despite China's efforts in recent years to improve teacher education, it is still imbued with problems which must be addressed effectively and immediately before teacher education can meet with China's desire for modernization. The problems are based on the unattractive social and economic status of the teaching profession in China, so the…

  12. 77 FR 20649 - Silicon Metal From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... COMMISSION Silicon Metal From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... order on silicon metal from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Publication 4312 (March 2012), entitled Silicon Metal from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-472 (Third Review...

  13. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject... order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review). By order of the Commission...

  14. Global China Insights June 2014 : CGI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingrid Fischer; Rien T. Segers

    2013-01-01

    Journal in which the Groningen Confucius Institute (GCI) shares different perspectives on China and provides insights into China from as many different aspects as possible. GCI aims to provide a full view of real China to the readers as well as featuring international and comprehensive perspectives,

  15. 77 FR 72385 - Honey From China; Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... COMMISSION Honey From China; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year... honey from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry... contained in USITC Publication 4364 (November 2012), entitled Honey from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-893...

  16. Working in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnulle, Linda

    Primarily the result of observations made during an eighteen-day tour of the People's Republic of China (conducted by Professor Eugene Gilliom at Ohio State University), this paper examines working conditions and attitudes toward work in China. Focus in the first half of the paper is on motivation to work in China and how it differs from U.S.…

  17. Stop violence against medical workers in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Shukun; Zeng, Qing; Peng, Mingqiang; Ren, Shiyan; Chen, Gang; Wang, Jiangjun

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of patient-doctor disputes are alarmingly increasing in China, this article reviews the current status and causes of violence against medical workers in China, six strategies to tackle the daily worrying problems have been proposed and hopefully could improve the medical working environment in China.

  18. Exploring between Two Worlds: China's Journalism Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoming, Hao; Xiaoge, Xu

    1997-01-01

    Examines the historical developments of China's journalism education and its current exploration for a new path. Notes that, despite a history of close to 80 years, China's journalism education has yet to make a substantial impact on journalism practice. Concludes that China's journalism education is unique in that it combines elements of Soviet…

  19. Biotechnology and bioeconomy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Zhao, Qinghua; Hu, Yihong; Wang, Hongguang

    2006-11-01

    From the review of the achievements and advantages in the development of biotechnology (BT) and bioindustry in China, it is clear that the bioeconomy would provide a tremendous opportunity for China to develop sustainably or even surpass a few developed countries. A long-term vision has been made to guide the research and development and industrialization of BT in China. This review detailed the strategies, targets, priorities, and key technologies in each stage. Furthermore, the reviewers expatiated on the establishment of the favorable policies, the foundation of the professional groups, the establishment of the advanced laboratories or centers, the investment mechanisms, the development and evaluation of biosafety, the encouragement and support for the international collaborations and exchanges, and the establishment of the general organizational structure.

  20. Artemisia allergy research in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui; Sun, Jin-Lu; Yin, Jia; Li, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia is the most important outdoor allergen throughout China. It can cause allergic rhinitis, asthma, or both of them. Since it was verified as an allergenic pollen in 1960, it was identified two times in the Chinese National Pollen Survey (1984, 2009). The first oral immunotherapy double-blinded trial for Artemisia pollen asthma research was conducted in China in 1989 and published in 1990. 40 years since that study, there have been many published research reports on Chinese Artemisia allergy. This review summarizes the information regarding the discovery of Artemisia as an allergenic pollen, pollen account, epidemiology, allergen components, immunological changes in hay fever patients, natural course from rhinitis to asthma, diagnosis, and immunotherapies in China.

  1. Structural deformation of nitro group of nitromethane molecule in liquid phase in an intense femtosecond laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang; Wu, Hong-lin; Song, Yun-fei; Yang, Yan-qiang

    2017-08-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21673211 and 21203047), the Foundation of Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, China (Grant No. XZR2014-16), and the Science Challenging Program of China (Grant No. JCKY2016212A501).

  2. Aging China -- policies in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusberg, C

    1987-01-01

    The International Forum on Aging was held in Beijing, China, in May of 1986 under the joint sponsorship of the Gerontological Society of America and the Chinese National Committee on Aging. 24 Chinese and American participants were also joined by experts from Canada, Australia, Hong Kong, Thailand, and Japan. Older persons in the West are by and large economically independent of their children and live in separate households. Nevertheless, both in the US and China families remain the preferred source of support for older persons. As a result of successful family planning policies, China will undergo a demographic transition in several decades that took a century in the West. This will result in the decline in the network of relatives, on which China's family support system has rested. Societal adjustments will have to be made including expanded joint ventures among government, families, neighborhoods, and collectives to provide for the old preferably in their own homes. The elderly will also participate more in economic and social development because of improved health, higher education, and declines in co-residency. For instance, an association of retired engineers in Chongqing has assisted over 6000 groups since 1980 through technical consultation for small enterprises in towns and rural areas. In 1987 only 6% of the rural population received some kind of pension, but policy makers envisage several different forms of social security schemes for the rural elderly. China's elderly population over 60 is projected to increase from 130 million in 2000 to 370 million in 2050, or from 11% to 26% of the total population. A Japanese model worth examining by China is the practice of combined occupation household, which permits rural areas to modernize while preserving the three-generation family household. The elderly continue to perform agricultural work on family property, while the younger family members take jobs in more urbanized nearby areas.

  3. Porcine eperythrozoonosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiansan; Yu, Jianmin; Song, Cuiping; Sun, Shengjun; Wang, Zhiliang

    2006-10-01

    Eperythrozoonosis of swine (also designated as porcine mycoplasmosis) is a disease of swine under stress, expressed as a febrile condition with development of an acute ictero-anemia. It is caused by Eperythrozoon suis and usually causes a subclinical infection with a latent carrier state that persists for extended periods. In China, this disease has gradually developed as an important intercurrent disease and an emerging swine disease that, in recent years, has spread throughout all provinces except Tibet. Classical swine fever (hog cholera), porcine influenza, swine enzootic pneumonia, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (blue ear disease), streptococci, and toxoplasmosis were detected in Eperythrozoonosis-infected pig herds, and caused serious economic losses. National epidemiology surveillance in 2002 revealed that this disease caused a total morbidity of 30% and a mortality of 10-20%. Total mortality (which includes culling sick pigs) was more than 60%. The morbidity within infected herds was near 100%, has spread throughout with a total mortality rate usually over 50%. Mortality of piglets in some districts was as high as 50%. The highest infection rate on pig farms was more than 90%. The farms with higher infection rates occurred in pig-raising areas during epidemic seasons. New diagnostic tests, such as ELISA and PCR, have been developed for the detection of porcine eperythrozoonosis, but traditionally the diagnosis of the disease is still based on clinical history and optical microscopic examination of the causative agent in blood smears. Efficient preventive and control measures include the detection of carriers in pig herds and treatment of sick pigs with drugs, such as long-acting oxytetracycline, doxycycline, or aceturate of diminazene. Oxytetracyclines as feed additives have been introduced for eperythrozoonosis prevention in uninfected pig herds, and pig producers have taken measures to reduce stress and improve sanitary conditions.

  4. Sichuan Earthquake in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Sichuan earthquake in China occurred on May 12, 2008, along faults within the mountains, but near and almost parallel the mountain front, northwest of the city of Chengdu. This major quake caused immediate and severe damage to many villages and cities in the area. Aftershocks pose a continuing danger, but another continuing hazard is the widespread occurrence of landslides that have formed new natural dams and consequently new lakes. These lakes are submerging roads and flooding previously developed lands. But an even greater concern is the possible rapid release of water as the lakes eventually overflow the new dams. The dams are generally composed of disintegrated rock debris that may easily erode, leading to greater release of water, which may then cause faster erosion and an even greater release of water. This possible 'positive feedback' between increasing erosion and increasing water release could result in catastrophic debris flows and/or flooding. The danger is well known to the Chinese earthquake response teams, which have been building spillways over some of the new natural dams. This ASTER image, acquired on June 1, 2008, shows two of the new large landslide dams and lakes upstream from the town of Chi-Kua-Kan at 32o12'N latitude and 104o50'E longitude. Vegetation is green, water is blue, and soil is grayish brown in this enhanced color view. New landslides appear bright off-white. The northern (top) lake is upstream from the southern lake. Close inspection shows a series of much smaller lakes in an elongated 'S' pattern along the original stream path. Note especially the large landslides that created the dams. Some other landslides in this area, such as the large one in the northeast corner of the image, occur only on the mountain slopes, so do not block streams, and do not form lakes.

  5. Climate Responsive Buildings in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, M.; Amato, A.; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    energy strategies to develop guidelines and procedures for estimation of environmental performance of responsive building elements and integrated building concepts This paper introduces the ideas of this collaborative work within the framework of the Annex44 of the International Energy Agency (IEA......) and discusses its usefulness for Hong Kong and China. Special focus was put on the description of the different climates in China and a detailed analysis revealed its potential for energy conservation strategies. It could be shown that Natural Ventilation (NV) has the potential to increase thermal comfort up...

  6. Energy scenarios - China (updated 2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Scaife; Louis Wibberley [CSIRO Energy Technology (Australia)

    2007-12-15

    China's economic development has continued at a high rate, requiring a major growth in energy consumption. The structure of the economy is different to many other countries, with the industry sector responsible for 70% of the total primary energy consumption (cf 25% in the USA) - on a world basis, China produces 35% of crude steel, 28% of aluminium, and around 50% of cement. With continuing rapid changes in its economic development, this study updates an earlier report published in 2005. 99 refs., 23 figs., 14 tabs.

  7. 2016 SAE-China Congress

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This proceedings volume gathers outstanding papers submitted to the 2016 SAE-China Congress, the majority of which are from China, the biggest car maker as well as most dynamic car market in the world. The book includes insights into the current challenges that the whole industry is currently facing, and it offers possible solutions to problems such as emission controls, environmental pollution, the energy shortage, traffic congestion and sustainable development. It also presents the latest technical achievements in the automotive industry. Many of the approaches it presents can help technicians to solve the practical problems that most affect their daily work.

  8. Ophthalmic nursing delegation to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neault, Gloria A

    2003-01-01

    On September 18, 2001, ASORN sent an ophthalmic nursing delegation to the People's Republic of China. Planning for the trip occurred during a tumultuous year. However, our warm reception in China made us feel safe, cared for, and overwhelmed by the generosity of a people we had just come to know. This article describes the process of preparing for this experience of a lifetime, what we learned from the ophthalmic nurses and doctors we met, and what we learned about ourselves along the way.

  9. Magnetic and mechanical properties of Ni-Mn-Ga/Fe-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chang-Long; Zhang, Kun; Tian, Xiao-Hua; Cai, Wei

    2015-05-01

    A ferromagnetic shape memory composite of Ni-Mn-Ga and Fe-Ga was fabricated by using spark plasma sintering method. The magnetic and mechanical properties of the composite were investigated. Compared to the Ni-Mn-Ga alloy, the threshold field for magnetic-field-induced strain in the composite is clearly reduced owing to the assistance of internal stress generated from Fe-Ga. Meanwhile, the ductility has been significantly improved in the composite. A fracture strain of 26% and a compressive strength of 1600 MPa were achieved. Projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51271065 and 51301054), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in Heilongjiang Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 1253-NCET-009), the Youth Academic Backbone in Heilongjiang Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 1251G022), the Projects of Heilongjiang, China, and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation.

  10. Protein security and food security in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng RUAN,Shumei MI,Yan ZHOU,Zeyuan DENG,Xiangfeng KONG,Tiejun LI,Yulong YIN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Food security, the need to meet nutritional requirements, and four main problems for food protein security in China are analyzed. From the perspective of residentsrsquo; nutritional requirements and balanced dietary patterns, the conclusion is that food security in China is in essence dependent on protein production and security of supply and that fat and carbohydrates supply in China can reach self-sufficiency. Considering the situation of food protein production and consumption in China, policy suggestions are made, which could ensure a balanced supply and demand for food protein and food security in China.

  11. China's Outward Direct and Portfolio Investments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hung-Gay Fung; Qingfeng Wilson Liu; Erin H. C. Kao

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes developments and trends related to China's outward direct and financial investments by examining Chinese firms' overseas acquisitions, China's holdings of US Treasury securities, and the recently formally launched Qualified Domestic Institutional Investor programs. Strategies should be developed to reach optimal decisions for both direct and portfolio investments. We argue that China should have a longer-term view for both direct and portfolio investments, enabling China to become the leader in Asia while maintaining its sustainable growth objective. China should invest heavily in the development of the Asian bond market and the Asian Currency Fund when making both portfolio and direct investment decisions.

  12. China’s Energy Security and the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    dispute to arbitration, selecting as arbitrator Victor Emmanuel , the Italian Emperor. When the decision was finally announced many decades later, in...www.iea.org/about/nmcchina.htm on 27 August 2001. Kagan, Robert. 1997. What China Knows That We Don’t. The Weekly Standard. 20 January. Kant , Immanuel. 1970

  13. A review of China`s energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Duan, N. [Environment Management Institute, Beijing (China); Zhijie, H. [Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China)

    1994-12-01

    In 1992 China`s primary energy production reached 1075 million tons of coal equivalent by far the largest in the developing world. Because coal is the primary commercial fuel, rapid growth of carbon dioxide emissions is certain. Thus the attitude of the Chinese government toward energy and environmental issues becomes increasingly important to those involved in the study and analysis of global climate change and energy issues. This report is intended to provide a basic understanding of the development of China`s energy policymaking over the past four decades. The paper first reviews institutional development and policymaking and then describes the transition to the market-oriented system. While energy has consistently received a great deal of attention from the central government, the institutional basis for setting and implementing policies has shifted often. Reforms during the past 15 years have been incremental, piecemeal, and occasionally contradictory, but overall have freed a large portion of the energy industry from the strictures of a planned economy and laid the basis for broad price liberalization. Responsibility for energy planning is now dispersed among a number of organizations, rendering coordination of energy development difficult. Economic reform has rendered obsolete most of the policy-implementation means of the planning era. Although the new tools of central control are not fully effective, the trend toward decentralized decisionmaking has been strengthened. The report ends with a summary of energy forecasts used by Chinese policymakers, highlighting current policy goals and the issues that will shape future policy.

  14. Education in China. Modern China Series No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglo-Chinese Educational Inst., London (England).

    The development, direction, and extent of education in China is examined in this publication. Chapter 1 provides a brief history of the Chinese educational system from 1900 to 1973, including sections on Soviet influence, the great leap forward, and the cultural revolution. Chapters 2-6 examine Chinese kindergartens, primary schools, middle…

  15. The China She Knows, the China She Doesn't

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvistendahl, Mara

    2008-01-01

    The Dandelion School educates children of migrant workers, refugees from peasant villages in central China who are vying for crumbs from Beijing's economic boom. Outside the school walls, they are heading to work as maids, laborers, and factory workers. For the children, this is a rare shot at upward mobility. Dandelion is among hundreds of…

  16. Powering China: Reforming the electric power industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi-Chong Xu

    2002-07-01

    The book reports on the rapidly changing face of the electricity business in China. Reforms by the central government and the need for more and more electric power have pushed the electricity sector from a central planned economy to a markets-based system. The international ramifications of China's reform programme are discussed. The author describes electricity industry reform in other countries including the USA and UK. The author points out that in China after 1998 there was a move to recentralise control but by then it was too late to reverse the reforms. The problems of tariff policies, pricing, and sources of new investments, including from foreign countries, are discussed. The final section of the book deals with problems arising from the need for massive retrenchment of power-section workers, cross-subsidies, and triangular debts. The book is said to provide a sound description of the political economy of power reform in China without getting bogged down in economic modelling.

  17. Cogeneration development and market potential in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F.; Levine, M.D.; Naeb, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Xin, D. [State Planning Commission of China, Beijing, BJ (China). Energy Research Inst.

    1996-05-01

    China`s energy production is largely dependent on coal. China currently ranks third in global CO{sub 2} emissions, and rapid economic expansion is expected to raise emission levels even further in the coming decades. Cogeneration provides a cost-effective way of both utilizing limited energy resources and minimizing the environmental impacts from use of fossil fuels. However, in the last 10 years state investments for cogeneration projects in China have dropped by a factor of 4. This has prompted this study. Along with this in-depth analysis of China`s cogeneration policies and investment allocation is the speculation that advanced US technology and capital can assist in the continued growth of the cogeneration industry. This study provides the most current information available on cogeneration development and market potential in China.

  18. South China Sea kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibuet, J. C.; Gao, J.; Zhao, M.; Wu, J.; Ding, W.; Yeh, Y. C.; Lee, C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic modeling shows that the age of the youngest South China Sea (SCS) oceanic crust is controversial (e.g. 15.5 Ma (Briais et al., JGR 1993) and 20.5 Ma (Barckhausen et al., MPG 2014)). Recently, Sibuet et al. (Tectonophysics 2016) pointed out that post-spreading magmatic activity ( 8-13 Ma) largely masks the spreading fabric, in particular near the previously identified E-W portion of the extinct ridge axis of the East sub-basin. Their compilation of available swath bathymetric data shows that, if post-spreading volcanics hide the seafloor spreading magnetic fabric mostly along and near the extinct spreading axis, the whole SCS is globally characterized by rift directions following three directions: N055°in the youngest portion of the SCS, N065° and N085° in the oldest portions of the SCS, suggesting the extinct ridge axis is N055° trending instead of E-W. We present an updated version of the whole SCS structural sketch based on previously published swath bathymetric trends and new detailed magnetic lineations trends compiled from an extremely dense set of magnetic data. The new structural sketch shows: - The distribution of conjugate kinematic domains, - The early opening of the NW and East sub-basins, before a jump of the rift axis, - A second ridge jump in the East basin, - The different expressions of the post-spreading magmatism in the East and SW sub-basins. In the East sub-basin, crustal magmatic intrusions led to the formation of extrusive basalts associated with the presence of numerous volcanoes (Wang et al., Geological Journal 2016). In the SW sub-basin, crustal magmatic intrusions deformed and uplifted the already formed oceanic crust and oldest overlying sediments, resulting in the formation of a double post-spreading ridge belt previously identified as the shoulders of the extinct spreading rift axis. This preliminary work will be used to identify magnetic lineations not polluted by the post-spreading magmatism. The unfolded Manila trench

  19. Three Gorges Dam, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This ASTER image shows a 60 km stretch of the Yangtze River in China, including the Xiling Gorge, the eastern of the three gorges. In the left part of the image is the construction site of the Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest.This image was acquired on July 20, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Size: 60 x 24 km (36 x 15 miles) Location: 30.6 deg. North lat., 111.2 deg. East long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3

  20. Spotlight. China. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, G

    1989-04-01

    China's 1-child policy was promulgated in 1979. Those couples who pledged to have 1 child could receive monetary bonuses, preferential treatment for housing, plot and grain allocation, health care, education, and job opportunities. The precise value of the package varied substantially. By 1981 47.3% of births were 1st births; in 1970, 21% were 1st births. Couples' renouncement of the 1-child pledge varied by province from less than 5% to 34%; 12.5% of holders who had had a girl renounced their pledge, compared to 6.7% who had had a boy. Despite a 1950 law designed to improve women's status,inequalities persist, and privileges accorded to 1-child certificate children, who are more likely to be male, may inadvertently perpetuate inequality. A provision of the 1980 Marriage Law making daughters as well as sons responsible for old age support and the development of handicraft and sideline occupations in rural areas may increase perception of daughters as economic assets. Although fertility may have declined, it remains a fundamentally important Chinese institution. Fertility is concentrated among women in the 20s, with urban fertility more compressed into shorter age interval than is the case in rural areas. There were campaigns to encourage abortion, sterilization, and IUD insertion in late 1982 and early 1983. The number of sterilizations/year increased from 5.1 million in 1982 to 20.8 million in 1983. As of 1983, the mix of contraceptive methods ranged as follows: 50% sterilization, 41% IUD, and 9% others. From 1984-85, the proportion of 1st births declined from 56% to 50%, with 2nd births absorbing the increase. In 1986-88, following a period of relative leniency, family planning goal became somewhat more stringent, and to responsibility systems, such as goal management in which couples together with multiple administrative levels must guarantee compliance with program objectives, are being emphasized. At the same time, several pilot programs allowing a 2nd child

  1. Extensive Reading Coursebooks in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renandya, Willy A.; Hu, Guangwei; Xiang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a principle-based evaluation of eight dedicated extensive reading coursebooks published in mainland China and used in many universities across the country. The aim is to determine the extent to which these coursebooks reflect a core set of nine second language acquisition and extensive reading principles. Our analysis shows…

  2. Green lights program in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadi, Zhuo; Hong, Liu [Beijing Energy Efficiency Center (China)

    1996-12-31

    In China`s 9th 5-year plan (1996-2000), the Chinese government has placed high priority on energy conservation. The China Green Lights Program (CGLP) is listed as one of the key projects of energy conservation. The basic strategy of the CGLP is to mobilise all of the potential contributors to participate in the program, and to use market signals and supplementary non-market instruments to facilitate its implementation. Governmental funds and loans will be used as seed money to attract private participation in the program. The program contains the following elements: (1) Information dissemination to educate the public on the economic and other values of the program and to provide CGLP information to increase consumer awareness and, as a result, increase the demand for energy-efficient lighting systems. (2) Development of standards and codes for lighting systems, establishment of product specifications, and enforcement of product standards. (3) Development of quality certification and labelling system to provide assurances to consumers that the products they are purchasing will meet their performance and cost saving expectations. (4) Highlighted support and financing for production technology development and production capacity expansion. (5) Demonstration and pilot projects to boost consumer confidence in green lighting systems and to demonstrate new production technologies and processes. (6) International co-operation to expand the international exchange and absorb advanced technology and experience for implementation of the China Green Lights Program.

  3. China's Schools in Flux: Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaperto, Ronald N.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a brief overview of educational practice, priorities, problems, and objectives in China from 1949-1976. Major periods are identified as statism and the schools (1953-55), internal criticism and response (1955-57), the Great Leap Forward (1958-60), readjustment and compromise (1961-66), the cultural revolution (1966), and post-Mao Tse-tung…

  4. Modernizing Information Training in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Harry

    1985-01-01

    Discusses strains on China's existing library resources and personnel as affected by modernization, growth of foreign literature collections, Chinese publishing expansion, and increase in educated population. Training facilities available in Beijing and Shanghai, activities of national information college at Wuhan University, and opportunities for…

  5. Outsourcing CO2 within China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Davis, Steven J; Sun, Laixiang; Li, Xin; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Hubacek, Klaus

    2013-07-09

    Recent studies have shown that the high standard of living enjoyed by people in the richest countries often comes at the expense of CO2 emissions produced with technologies of low efficiency in less affluent, developing countries. Less apparent is that this relationship between developed and developing can exist within a single country's borders, with rich regions consuming and exporting high-value goods and services that depend upon production of low-cost and emission-intensive goods and services from poorer regions in the same country. As the world's largest emitter of CO2, China is a prominent and important example, struggling to balance rapid economic growth and environmental sustainability across provinces that are in very different stages of development. In this study, we track CO2 emissions embodied in products traded among Chinese provinces and internationally. We find that 57% of China's emissions are related to goods that are consumed outside of the province where they are produced. For instance, up to 80% of the emissions related to goods consumed in the highly developed coastal provinces are imported from less developed provinces in central and western China where many low-value-added but high-carbon-intensive goods are produced. Without policy attention to this sort of interprovincial carbon leakage, the less developed provinces will struggle to meet their emissions intensity targets, whereas the more developed provinces might achieve their own targets by further outsourcing. Consumption-based accounting of emissions can thus inform effective and equitable climate policy within China.

  6. Environmental Information Disclosure in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Mol, A.P.J.; Yang, Shuai

    2017-01-01

    The past decade has seen remarkable progress made in the field of environmental information disclosure in China. While the overall institutional changes and the motivation/willingness of the government to open up information are important conditions, China’s encounter with revolutionary Information

  7. One Turbulent Year - China 1975

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peverelli, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Grown up in Europe, Peter Peverelli witnesses the final, and very turbulent, year of the Cultural Revolution. He is the first and last Dutch student in China to work in a rural commune and in a department store as part of the curriculum. When Prime Minister Zhou Enlai dies, he personally offers his

  8. China: An Unlikely Economic Hegemon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    today. China leads the world in diabetes and noncommunicable diseases such as cancer; has a significant and increas- ing HIV/AIDS threat; accounts...3 percent drop in child mortality and incidents of tuberculosis decreasing 45 percent from 2000 to 2010.83 While these trends are good news for

  9. Online Public Deliberation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medaglia, Rony; Yang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    in discussions where the difference between opinion sides is smaller, and participants have positive opinions. Providing empirical foundation for testing and refining the tenets of public deliberation in the unique socio-cultural and institutional environment of China, this study lays ground for future...

  10. Danish Multinational Corporations in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haakonsson, Stine Jessen

    2017-01-01

    looks into how Danish MNCs have evolved into the Chinese economy, investigating the trajectories of how and when four Danish MNCs entered the Chinese economy and how the strategy patterns have emerged from cost reduction, to market access, and recently to innovation. Over 30 years, China has developed...

  11. Educational Equality among China's Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Julia; Hong, Xiao

    1989-01-01

    Examines China's efforts toward educating its 55 minority groups. Discusses minority educational policies, facilities expansion, and continued low enrollment and low educational attainment in minority areas. Contains 18 references and statistics on schools, minority population percentages by province, enrollment by year, literacy rates, and…

  12. China and the Whole Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong

    2007-01-01

    Despite a policy focus on educating the whole child, China continues to struggle with a culture of testing, placing a premium on academic knowledge to the detriment of a more well-rounded curriculum. Students are overworked, lack adequate sleep, and have little time for anything beyond school work. The Chinese Ministry of Education has enumerated…

  13. Travel behaviour in urban China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, J.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few decades, transport has played an important role in causing various problems including environmental destruction, resource depletion, global warming, social segregation, congestion and inequality in cities around the world. The situation could be even serious in urban China. As a

  14. China's Approach to Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittman, Stephan

    History, tradition, culture, and superstition have played significant roles in influencing Chinese attitudes toward the mentally retarded. China's overwhelmingly rural, agricultural society has made it dependent upon a huge force of semi-skilled and unskilled labor, to which the retarded are capable of contribution. The stress on self-reliance,…

  15. Online Public Deliberation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medaglia, Rony; Yang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Internet discussion platforms in China provide a hugely interesting and relevant source for understanding dynamics of online discussions in a unique context. Adopting the theoretical lens of public deliberation, this paper investigates the evolution of patterns of similar-minded and different...

  16. Quantifying China's regional economic complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Zhou, Tao

    2018-02-01

    China has experienced an outstanding economic expansion during the past decades, however, literature on non-monetary metrics that reveal the status of China's regional economic development are still lacking. In this paper, we fill this gap by quantifying the economic complexity of China's provinces through analyzing 25 years' firm data. First, we estimate the regional economic complexity index (ECI), and show that the overall time evolution of provinces' ECI is relatively stable and slow. Then, after linking ECI to the economic development and the income inequality, we find that the explanatory power of ECI is positive for the former but negative for the latter. Next, we compare different measures of economic diversity and explore their relationships with monetary macroeconomic indicators. Results show that the ECI index and the non-linear iteration based Fitness index are comparative, and they both have stronger explanatory power than other benchmark measures. Further multivariate regressions suggest the robustness of our results after controlling other socioeconomic factors. Our work moves forward a step towards better understanding China's regional economic development and non-monetary macroeconomic indicators.

  17. China Wind Power Outlook 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junfeng, Li; Pengfei, Shi; Hu, Gao [Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association CREIA, Beijing (China)

    2010-10-15

    China's wind power can reach 230 GW of installed capacity by 2020, which is equal to 13 times the current capacity of the Three Gorges Dam; its annual electricity output of 464.9 TWh could replace 200 coal fire power plants. In 2009, China led the world in newly installed wind-energy devices, reaching a capacity of 13.8 GW (10,129 turbines) - a rate of one new turbine every hour. In terms of overall capacity, China ranks second, at 25.8 GW. The report projects that by 2020, China's total wind power capacity will reach at least 150GW, possibly up to 230GW, which, if realized, could cut 410 million tons of CO2 emission, or 150 million tons of coal consumption. Compared to multinationals, many Chinese companies are young and lack a strong basis for research and development. Despite a renewable energy policy requiring grid companies to purchase all electricity from wind farms, access to wind power for the grid is frequently lagging behind an unstable, out-dated grid infrastructure. There is also the problem of a lack of incentives and penalties for grid companies, and slow progress in more wind energy technologies.

  18. School Counseling in China Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Timothy C.; Qiong, Xiao

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of the development of psychological thinking in China and social influences on the practice of school counseling today. Common problems of students are described, including anxiety due to pressure to perform well on exams, loneliness and social discomfort, and video game addiction. Counseling approaches used…

  19. Who Leads China's Leading Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Futao

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the major characteristics of two different groups of institutional leaders in China's leading universities. The study begins with a review of relevant literature and theory. Then, there is a brief introduction to the selection of party secretaries, deputy secretaries, presidents and vice presidents in leading…

  20. Does Red China Want War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    acrimonious polemic with the Soviet Union has resulted in a hardening Soviet position toward aid to China. In fact, by late 1964, Soviet deliveries of...the Chinese position on nuclear war. The central issue in the Sino-Soviet polemic regarding nuclear war does not stem from any difference of opinion

  1. Wasted cities in urbanizing China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Guizhen; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Yonglong

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization is a characteristic of the 21st century, especially in countries with developing economies and a large amount of rural-to-urban migration. In China, the emergence of "wasted cities and towns" has paralleled urban expansion; large newly built areas that remain unpopulated and have

  2. Black carbon emissions in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streets, David G.; Gupta, Shalini; Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Wang, Michael Q.; Bond, Tami C.; Yiyun, Bo

    Black carbon (BC) is an important aerosol species because of its global and regional influence on radiative forcing and its local effects on the environment and human health. We have estimated the emissions of BC in China, where roughly one-fourth of global anthropogenic emissions is believed to originate. China's high rates of usage of coal and biofuels are primarily responsible for high BC emissions. This paper pays particular attention to the application of appropriate emission factors for China and the attenuation of these emissions where control devices are used. Nevertheless, because of the high degree of uncertainty associated with BC emission factors, we provide ranges of uncertainty for our emission estimates, which are approximately a factor of eight. In our central case, we calculate that BC emissions in China in 1995 were 1342 Gg, about 83% being generated by the residential combustion of coal and biofuels. We estimate that BC emissions could fall to 1224 Gg by 2020. This 9% decrease in BC emissions can be contrasted with the expected increase of 50% in energy use; the reduction will be obtained because of a transition to more advanced technology, including greater use of coal briquettes in place of raw coal in cities and towns. The increased use of diesel vehicles in the future will result in a greater share of the transport sector in total BC emissions. Spatially, BC emissions are predominantly distributed in an east-west swath across China's heartland, where the rural use of coal and biofuels for cooking and heating is widespread. This is in contrast to the emissions of most other anthropogenically derived air pollutants, which are closely tied to population and industrial centers.

  3. 78 FR 41291 - Additions to the List of Validated End-Users in the People's Republic of China: Samsung China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ...-Users in the People's Republic of China: Samsung China Semiconductor Co. Ltd. and Advanced Micro...). Specifically, BIS amends Supplement No. 7 to part 748 of the EAR to add Samsung China Semiconductor Co. Ltd. (Samsung China) and Advanced Micro-Fabrication Equipment, Inc., China (AMEC) as VEUs. With this rule...

  4. Sons and daughters in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, B

    1985-11-01

    Demographers from the East-West Population Institute (EWPI) and the China State Family Planning Commission, jointly analyzing data from computer tapes of China's 1982 national fertility survey, have produced new evidence of the extent to which families in China prefer male children. Evidence exists in almost every part of China that couples prefer sons to daughters, according to researchers Fred Arnold and Liu Zhaoxiang. Only Beijing and Shanghai are exceptions to this pattern. The persistence of such attidues in China demonstrates the difficulty of overcoming deeply rooted Confucian traditions. Following the Chinese revolution, the government guaranteed sexual equality in political, economic, and cultural life, but patriarchal attitudes still prevail, particularly in the countryside. Historically, couples have favored sons for a variety of reasons, including to continue the family name, provide security for the parents' old age, add to the family labor force, and perform ancestral rites. Believing that such attitudes block successful implementation of China's 1-child family policy, the government has launched a campaign to try to change them. At the time of the time of the 1982 fertility survey, China's 1-child certificate program had been in effect for 3 years. The program provides incentives such as monetary bonuses, preferential housing allocation, and special consideration for the child in education and job assignments to couples who agree not to have a 2nd child. According to the survey, 37% of all 1-child couples had accepted the 1-child certificate. Significantly, 60% of all 1-child certificate holders have a son. Of couples whose 1st child was a boy, 40% obtained the 1-child certificate, versus only 34% of those whose 1st child was a girl. Despite penalties for renouncing the 1-child certificate, about 1 out of every 10 mothers in the program had given birth to a 2nd child by the time of the survey. The 1st child of these mothers was twice as likely to be

  5. China Dimensions Data Collection: China Administrative Regions GIS Data: 1:1M, County Level, 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — China Administrative Regions GIS Data: 1:1M, County Level, 1990 consists of geographic boundary data for the administrative regions of China as of 31 December 1990....

  6. China Dimensions Data Collection: Agricultural Statistics of the People's Republic of China: 1949-1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Agricultural Statistics of the People's Republic of China, 1949-1990 is an historical collection of agricultural statistical data compiled by China's State...

  7. China Dimensions Data Collection: Fundamental GIS: Digital Chart of China, 1:1M, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fundamental GIS: Digital Chart of China, 1:1M, Version 1 consists of vector maps of China and surrounding areas. The maps include roads, railroads, drainage systems,...

  8. United States security interests in China: beyond the China Card

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchard, Joseph Frederick.

    1981-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited The relationship between the United States and the People's Republic of China is developing rapidly in the realm of military and security affairs. The thesis of this paper is that, although the Sino-American relationship has been founded upon a mutual interest in opposing the Soviet military threat, the long-term development of the relationship will depend on the extent to which the scope of mutual interests can be broadened and the many ...

  9. The East China Sea in DOD China Military Power Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2017-01-01

    The National Defense Authorization Act of 2000 saw Congress require the Department of Defense (DOD) to prepare an annual report on Chinese military power. This report contains classified and unclassified editions. Documenting Chinese military developments, strategy, and trends are critical parts of these reports. Beijing’s military activities in the East China Sea (ECS) are important report components. This work explains the importance of these and other DOD reports for those studying ECS dev...

  10. Development of natural gas vehicles in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongmin, Cheng

    1996-12-31

    Past decade and current status of development of natural gas vehicles (NGVs) in China is described. By the end of 1995, 35 CNG refueling stations and 9 LPG refueling stations had been constructed in 12 regions, and 33,100 vehicles had been converted to run on CNG or LPG. China`s automobile industry, a mainstay of the national economy, is slated for accelerated development over next few years. NGVs will help to solve the problems of environment protection, GHGs mitigation, and shortage of oil supply. The Chinese government has started to promote the development of NGVs. Projects, investment demand, GHG mitigation potential, and development barriers are discussed. China needs to import advanced foreign technologies of CNGs. China`s companies expect to cooperate with foreign partners for import of CNG vehicle refueling compressors, conversions, and light cylinders, etc.

  11. South China Sea disputes: ASEAN’s Role in Addressing Disputes with China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    25 Constructivism ...........................................................................................................27 ASEAN, China and...realism, liberalism and constructivism and their relevance to policies of ASEAN claimants and ASEAN as the regional organization will help in...Realism, Liberalism, and Constructivism observers can view China, ASEAN, and the South China Sea claimants’ policies and approaches from a

  12. China's good terms and prosperity with ASEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Jianren

    2006-01-01

    The 15 years since dialogue was established between China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have witnessed steadily improving relations between the two sides. ASEAN, founded in 1967, includes Thailand, Laos, Myanmar, Viet Nam, Cambodia, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines and Brunei. Despite being close neighbours, China and ASEAN did not have official relations until 1991, due largely to the negative influence of the Cold War. China and ASEAN's member countri...

  13. European Anti-dumping Law and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Eeckhout

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines recent developments in the European Union's anti-dumping policy, as it is applied towards China. It concentrates on recent court cases involving dumping from China and on the basic non-market economy issue. The author essentially argues that the European Union's policy does not take account sufficiently of China's development towards a market economy, and that there are various legal flaws in the way the policy is applied.

  14. China's Policymaking for Regional Economic Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yang

    the influence of competing domestic interests, protectionist and conservative forces vis-a-vis liberal and reformist forces; government agencies, ministries and national commissions, local governments; and different ideas on China's foreign economic policy. In doing so, she also provides interesting comparisons...... between China and other countries in international negotiations. Her invesitgation offers a fresh look into China, its changing decision-making under different generations of leadership, and the basis for its current and potential contribution to international economic cooperation....

  15. Globalization and international adoption from China

    OpenAIRE

    Dowling, Monica; Brown, Gill

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, China has become one of the major countries from which children are adopted overseas. This paper examines ways in which globalization has contributed to the development of international adoption from China and explores cultural and historical attitudes to population growth, child abandonment and adoption. How China's social, economic and welfare policies have affected adoption policies and practices are discussed, with reference to ethnographic fieldwork undertaken by the...

  16. STATE OF BUSINESS IN HOSPITALITY IN CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Yu

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the state of business in the hospitality industry in China, domestic tourism, inbound tourism in China as entrepreneurial activity, outbound tourism from China to other countries. Hospitalityis one of the most important parts of thevast services market, and is a fast-growingand highly profitable industry that coulddirectly, indirectly, so as to infl uence the formation of conditions for sustainable socio-economic growth.

  17. STATE OF BUSINESS IN HOSPITALITY IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the state of business in the hospitality industry in China, domestic tourism, inbound tourism in China as entrepreneurial activity, outbound tourism from China to other countries. Hospitalityis one of the most important parts of thevast services market, and is a fast-growingand highly profitable industry that coulddirectly, indirectly, so as to infl uence the formation of conditions for sustainable socio-economic growth.

  18. China's Policymaking for Regional Economic Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yang

    between China and other countries in international negotiations. Her invesitgation offers a fresh look into China, its changing decision-making under different generations of leadership, and the basis for its current and potential contribution to international economic cooperation....... the influence of competing domestic interests, protectionist and conservative forces vis-a-vis liberal and reformist forces; government agencies, ministries and national commissions, local governments; and different ideas on China's foreign economic policy. In doing so, she also provides interesting comparisons...

  19. Synopsis of Phyllosticta in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Shivas, Roger G.; Cai, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The generic concept of Phyllosticta has undergone substantial changes since its establishment in 1818. The existence of conidia with a mucilaginous sheath and an apical appendage is synapomorphic for Phyllosticta species, which has been shown in recent molecular phylogenetic studies. Thus a natural classification of Phyllosticta species should emphasize above morphological characters. Many names in Phyllosticta, both published in the scientific literatures and in publically accessible databases, need updating. In China, more than 200 species names in Phyllosticta have been recorded, of which, 158 species names are reviewed here based on their morphological descriptions and molecular data. Only 20 species of Phyllosticta are accepted from China. Other records of Phyllosticta refer to Phoma (89 records), Asteromella (14 records), Boeremia (9 records), Phomopsis (7 records) and Microsphaeropsis (1 record), with 19 names of uncertain generic classification. This work demonstrates an urgent need for the re-assessment of records of Phyllosticta worldwide. PMID:26000199

  20. Chen Li: China's elder psychologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowers, G H

    1998-01-01

    Chen Li is one of a small group of psychologists in China who trained abroad early in their careers, returned to teach and do research, and continued doing so into later life beyond normal retirement age. His contacts with a number of prominent psychologists in England and Germany in the 1930s, and his inadvertent position at the center of a political row in China in the 1960s, leading to the shutting down of psychology for 10 years, made him historically important. Known for his work in organizational psychology and education, he is a distinguished psychologist and educational leader. Although trained as an experimentalist, he now embraces a broader view of psychology but remains emphatic it should be applied to real-life problems.

  1. The China Digital Seismograph Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. Zhou

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The China Digital Seismograph Network (CDSN program was initiated in May 1983. On October 1, 1986, the CDSN began to distribute the network-day tapes to the research community. On October 22, 1987, the CDSN began full operation. The CDSN are supported by the State Seismological Bureau, People's Republic of China and the United States Geological Survey. The operation and maintenance of the network are taken by the staffs at the 10th Division of the Institute of Geophysics, State Seismological Bureau, QGSSB. At present the CDSN includes ten field stations, Le Beijing (BR, Lanzhou (LZH, Enshi (ENH, Kunming (KMI, Qiongzhong (QIZ, Shanghai (SSE, Urumqi (WMQ, Hailar (HIA, Mudanjiang (MDJ, and Lhasa (LSA, two national centers, i.e. the Network Maintenance Center (NMC and the Data Management Center (DMC, both at the Institute of Geophysics, State Seismological Bureau, Beijing.

  2. Regulation of GMOs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinliang

    2008-12-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are created by biotechnology to serve people with much benefit while may impose risks to ecological environment and human health and therefore need careful regulation. During the past two decades, GMOs have been well developed in China and so has their corresponding regulation. This paper reviews and comments the multiple aspects of mainly the agricultural GMOs, including their safety assessment, control measures, trade activities, import, labels, and GM food, which have been prescribed by the corresponding laws, regulations and administrative measures. It is held that till present a framework for regulation of agricultural GMOs and GM food has been established basically in China, while a more comprehensive system for regulation of all kinds of GMOs and all kinds of related activities is still needed at present and in the future.

  3. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-22

    Measure- 300,000-Pixel Frame-Transfer CCD System ment Station Goniometric System Unveiled"] Unveiled [Summary] The high-accuracy CW mobile...92P60007GBeijingZHONGGUODIANZIBAO tracking-station goniometric system developed by [CHINA ELECTRONICS NEWS] in Chinese MMEI’s Institute 39 recently passed...acceptance check in 11 Aug 91 p 3 Xian, and is now undergoing trial operation in the full radar system. This goniometric system is critical vehicle- [Article

  4. Can ASEAN Cope with China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Beeson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rise of China is the most important development in East Asia in recent times. It presents major opportunities and challenges, if not threats, for ASEAN as a collective entity, and for the individual countries that compose it. Whether ASEAN can develop a collective, let alone effective response is far from clear. This paper explores and analyses the forces that are likely to determine the outcome.

  5. Thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) of China

    OpenAIRE

    Mirab-balou, Majid; Tong, Xiao-li; Feng,Ji-Nian; Chen, Xue-xin

    2011-01-01

    A new checklist of Thysanoptera from China (including Taiwan) is provided. In total 566 species in 155 genera are listed, of which there are 313 species in the suborder Terebrantia, comprising 290 species in 74 genera in family Thripidae, 18 species in three genera in Aeolothripidae, two species in one genus in Melanthripidae and three species in one genus in Merothripidae. In the suborder Tubulifera 253 species in 76 genera are listed in the single family Phlaeothripidae. Two species, Aeolot...

  6. JPRS Report, Science & Technology. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-29

    Waste Sites Planned for Zhejiang, Northwest [Seth Faison; SOUTH CHINA MORNING POST, 20 Feb 89] 78 Briefs Antarctic Facility Beefed Up 80 Gobi ...forests and grasslands, soil and water loss, soil salinization and desertification , and if we do not reverse the rapid loss of rare and endangered...Uygur autonomous region in the far northwest, an area mainly made up of uninhabited desert and mountains. The northwest’s Gobi Desert has been

  7. WEO-2007 Fact Sheet: China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    It is scarcely in doubt that China's energy needs will continue to grow and fuel its economic development. Less certain, however, is the rate of increase and how those needs are going to be met, as they depend on just how quickly the economy expands and on the economic and energy policy landscape worldwide. Rising incomes will surely underpin strong growth for transport and housing, the use of electric appliances and space heating and cooling.

  8. The neglected arboviral infections in mainland China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Gao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The major arboviral diseases in mainland China include Japanese encephalitis, dengue fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (also known as Xinjiang hemorrhagic fever, and tick-borne encephalitis. These and other newly found arbovirus infections due to Banna virus and Tahyna virus contribute to a large and relatively neglected disease burden in China. Here we briefly review the literature regarding these arboviral infections in mainland China with emphasis on their epidemiology, primary vectors, phylogenetic associations, and the prevention programs associated with these agents in China.

  9. Explaining Spatial Convergence of China's Industrial Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the conditions that may auger a reversal of China's increasingly unequal levels of regional industrial productivity during China's first two decades of economic reform. Using international and Chinese firm and industry data over the period 1995–2004, we estimate...... a productivity growth–technology gap reaction function. We find that as China's coastal industry has closed the technology gap with the international frontier, labour productivity growth in the coastal region has begun to slow in relation to the interior. This may serve as an early indicator of China's initial...

  10. China and the Changing Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun SUN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author argues that the democratic reform in Myanmar is rooted in profound internal and external factors. Since the beginning of the reform, the changes in Myanmar have taken tolls in a series of China’s existing interests inside the country. Economically, Chinese investments have come under increasing scrutiny, criticism, and even oppositions, threatening the viability of strategic projects such as the oil and gas pipelines. Politically, the initial success of the democratic reform in Myanmar raises questions about Beijing’s continuous resistance to reform. Strategically, the changes in Myanmar undercut China’s original blueprint about the strategic utilities of Myanmar for China at ASEAN, in the Indian Ocean and more broadly in the region. In light of the changes, China has adjusted its policy toward Myanmar. Not only has Beijing dramatically reduced its economic investments in Myanmar, it also cooled down the political ties while established relations with the democratic oppositions. At the same time, China also launched massive public relations campaigns inside Myanmar aimed at improving its image and relations with the local communities.

  11. Analyzing Agricultural Agglomeration in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There has been little scholarly research on Chinese agriculture’s geographic pattern of agglomeration and its evolutionary mechanisms, which are essential to sustainable development in China. By calculating the barycenter coordinates, the Gini coefficient, spatial autocorrelation and specialization indices for 11 crops during 1981–2012, we analyze the evolutionary pattern and mechanisms of agricultural agglomeration. We argue that the degree of spatial concentration of Chinese planting has been gradually increasing and that regional specialization and diversification have progressively been strengthened. Furthermore, Chinese crop production is moving from the eastern provinces to the central and western provinces. This is in contrast to Chinese manufacturing growth which has continued to be concentrated in the coastal and southeastern regions. In Northeast China, the Sanjiang and Songnen plains have become agricultural clustering regions, and the earlier domination of aquaculture and rice production in Southeast China has gradually decreased. In summary, this paper provides a political economy framework for understanding the regionalization of Chinese agriculture, focusing on the interaction among the objectives, decisionmaking behavior, path dependencies and spatial effects.

  12. Editorial: Child health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, T

    1973-09-01

    In China the situation in a children's hospital or in a children's ward in a country hospital is markedly different from what is found in many parts of the technologically developing world. Visitors to China have reported good nutrition and effective preventive medical services rather than the malnourished children with superimposed gastroenteritis and other infections and the high mortality rate found elsewhere. The Chinese were pioneers in the effective preparation of milk substitutes for infant feeding, and milk is now freely available in the cities of Peking and Shanghai. In other areas the children are equally well and excellently nourished by the widespread use of milk substitute formula made from soya bean, rice and other local products. The Chinese have never depended on aid or on the importation of essential foods for the feeding of their children. Most births are in hospitals or are supervised by a person trained in the essentials of childbirth. The effectiveness of the family planning program in China is amazing; all contraceptive methods are freely available. In recognition of the fact that physicians, who required a prolonged period of study, could not be provided throughout the country in a short period of time, "barefoot" doctors have been trained. The training programs emphasize prevention and the treatment of common and disabling diseases and referral of patients who require care by a physician.

  13. The ungulates of northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jia-yan

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Presently, thirty five species of ungulates occur in northern China. Some species are threatened or endangered. There are three species of Equidae (E. przewalskii, E. hemionus, E. kiang, one of Suidae (Sus scrofa, one of Camelidae (Camelus bactrianus, 14 species of Cervidae (with the genera Moschus, Elaphus, Cervus, Elaphurus, Alces, Rangifer, Capreolus and 16 species of Bovidae (within the genera Bos, Gazella, Procapra, Pantholops, Saiga, Nemorhaedus, Capricornis, Budorcas, Capra, Pseudois, Ovis. They inhabit different biotopes, i.e. temperate mountain forest and steppe, temperate desert and semi-desert, and vast alpine ranges. Ungulate fossils are widespread in China evidencing that Asia was an evolutionary centre for some ungulates. Although new data have been gathered through research efforts in China since 1949 it is a fact that some ungulate species have suffered serious population set-backs and some have become endangered or even extinct. Detailed studies of ungulate populations and protection of habitats are now most important future research needs.

  14. Photon-assisted electronic and spin transport through two T-shaped three-quantum-dot molecules embedded in an Aharonov–Bohm interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jiyuan; Li, Li; He, Zelong; Ye, Shujiang; Zhao, Shujun; Dang, Suihu; Sun, Weimin

    2017-10-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11447132 and 11504042), the Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang, China (Grant No. A201405), 111 Project to Harbin Engineering University, China (Grant No. B13015), Chongqing Science and Technology Commission Project, China (Grant Nos. cstc2014jcyjA00032 and cstc2016jcyjA1158), and Scientific Research Project for Advanced Talents of Yangtze Normal University, China (Grant No. 2017KYQD09).

  15. China's Policymaking for Regional Economic Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yang

    Yang Jiang opens the black box of China's policymaking for free trade agreements and key regional financial initiatives. Using first-hand interview data, she sheds light on the key trends of China's trade and financial politics after its WTO entry in 2001. In particular, she highlights the influe...

  16. China's Silk Road and global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kun; Li, Zhihui; Li, Wenkai; Chen, Lincoln

    2017-12-09

    In 2013, China proposed its Belt and Road Initiative to promote trade, infrastructure, and commercial associations with 65 countries in Asia, Africa, and Europe. This initiative contains important health components. Simultaneously, China launched an unprecedented overseas intervention against Ebola virus in west Africa, dispatching 1200 workers, including Chinese military personnel. The overseas development assistance provided by China has been increasing by 25% annually, reaching US$7 billion in 2013. Development assistance for health from China has particularly been used to develop infrastructure and provide medical supplies to Africa and Asia. China's contributions to multilateral organisations are increasing but are unlikely to bridge substantial gaps, if any, vacated by other donors; China is creating its own multilateral funds and banks and challenging the existing global architecture. These new investment vehicles are more aligned with the geography and type of support of the Belt and Road Initiative. Our analysis concludes that China's Belt and Road Initiative, Ebola response, development assistance for health, and new investment funds are complementary and reinforcing, with China shaping a unique global engagement impacting powerfully on the contours of global health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. China's Outward Direct Investment in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, Yin-Wong; de Haan, Jakob; Qian, Xingwang; Yu, Shu

    The empirical determinants of China's outward direct investment (ODI) in Africa are examined using an officially approved ODI dataset and a relatively new OECDIMF format ODI dataset. China's ODI is found responding to the canonical economic determinants that include the market seeking motive, the

  18. Early Childhood Education in China: Political Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaromonte, Tom

    This paper reviews the history of early childhood education in China between 1949 and 1990. After the Communist revolution in 1949, China's educational policy was modeled after the Soviet Union's. Preschool pedagogy emphasized conditioning children's behavior and providing a comfortable environment for children. The number of nurseries and…

  19. China in Mexico: More Opportunity than Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    58 Daniel Lederman , Marcelo Olarreaga, and Guillermo E. Perry, eds., China’s and India’s Challenge to Latin America : Opportunity or Threat...www.nber.org/papers/w16580.pdf. Lederman , Daniel, Marcelo Olarreaga, and Guillermo E. Perry, eds. China’s and India’s Challenge to Latin America

  20. A Psychology Fulbright Year in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    This article shares a series of personal observations and anecdotes about central issues in college mental health in China based on my Fulbright year there. There are many cultural and structural forces that both support and constrain the growth of the mental health field in China. This article addresses these forces in terms of their impact on…

  1. How is veterinary parasitology taught in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Yi; Wang, Ming; Suo, Xun; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2006-12-01

    Many parasites of domestic animals in China are of major socioeconomic and medical importance. Hence, veterinary parasitology is one of the core subjects for undergraduate and postgraduate students of veterinary science. Here, we review the teaching of veterinary parasitology in Chinese universities, including a description of the veterinary science curricula and measures to improve the quality of veterinary parasitology teaching in China.

  2. Gold Rush to China for Italian Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Italy exported two billion worth of textile machines in 2006, 46% of which went to Asia.China paid 365 million Euro to become the largest importer of ltaly’s machines in Aisa.China, a country that sustains Italian interest in coming,is the country where the investment in textile machines is growing...

  3. [The rise of enzyme engineering in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gaoxiang

    2015-06-01

    Enzyme engineering is an important part of the modern biotechnology. Industrial biocatalysis is considered the third wave of biotechnology following pharmaceutical and agricultural waves. In 25 years, China has made a mighty advances in enzyme engineering research. This review focuses on enzyme genomics, enzyme proteomics, biosynthesis, microbial conversion and biosensors in the Chinese enzyme engineering symposiums and advances in enzyme preparation industry in China.

  4. 75 FR 17768 - Glyphosate From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Glyphosate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of... United States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of glyphosate, provided for in...

  5. China's rural transformation | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-14

    Jul 14, 2011 ... But one of the difficulties facing China is a lack of knowledge over precisely how land use has changed and the impacts on rural workers. This lack of understanding prompted Ho's study of China's rural transformation, being carried out through the University of British Columbia's Centre for Chinese ...

  6. NIDI scenario. Strong population decline in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, J.A.A.

    2016-01-01

    United Nations projections assume that by the end of this century one third of the world population will live in India, China or Nigeria. While population growth in India will slow down and the population size of China will decline, population growth in Nigeria will accelerate. A new NIDI scenario

  7. Boosting China's research collaboration | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The expansion of China's economy has prompted the country's emergence as a major player in the field of foreign aid, including in health. “China has dispatched Chinese medical teams since 1963,” says 2015 IDRC Research Award recipient Rong Li, “but there has been little public health assistance.”

  8. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    minority regions of Tibet and Xinjiang. The U.S.-China relationship remains dogged , however, by long-standing mutual mistrust. That mistrust stems...lead in children’s products from China and dangerous defects in Chinese-made drywall, toys, cigarette lighters, fireworks , electrical products, and all

  9. Historical Review of Environmental Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Tian

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the historical review of environmental education in China. As China's economy began to grow, environmental pollution and ecological destruction initially appeared locally in the early 1980s. These local environmental issues were primarily managed and controlled by state and local environmental protection agencies. In…

  10. Governing urban water flows in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, L.

    2007-01-01

    China has been witnessing an unprecedented period of continuous high economic growth during the past three decades. But this has been paralleled by severe environmental challenges, of which water problems are of key importance. This thesis addresses the urban water challenges of contemporary China,

  11. Commentary: China Will Change Our Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parslow, Graham R.

    2013-01-01

    The current spurt in life science activity in China has been driven by repatriating researchers trained in the prestigious institutions of the world. China's publications show a clear concentration in the physical sciences and technology, with materials science, chemistry, and physics predominant. Also clear is that the growth areas include…

  12. Vocational Education for China's Ethnic Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Minhui

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the current status and problems of vocational education for China's ethnic minorities. It concludes that these problems have both universal areas in common with China's overall education situation and individual characteristics; they also have both extrinsic and intrinsic qualities. The universal areas include the extrinsic…

  13. Patterns of dairy manure management in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Chen Yan; Qiao, Wei; Melse, Roland W.; Li, Lu Jun; Buisonjé, De Fridtjof E.; Wang, Ya Jing; Dong, Renjie

    2017-01-01

    The dairy industry in China is rapidly developing, particularly in terms of the upscaling of dairy farms. However, nutrient-rich manure brings challenges to the sustainability of the dairy industry. This study investigated and reviewed the patterns of dairy manure management in China, and the

  14. Gendering China studies: peripheral perspectives, central questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kloet, J.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the connections between the field of China studies and the field of gender and sexuality studies. It engages with three questions. First, why is it that theoretical, conceptual and methodological cross-fertilization between China studies and cultural studies remains quite

  15. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, D.G.J. te; Smits, A.J.M.; Yu, X.; Lifeng, L.; Lei, G.; Zhang, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are

  16. A Conversation about Life in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu-Min, Si; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents a conversation among a teacher from Shanghai, China, and two professors from the University of Victoria, Canada, on the topic of life in China. Subjects discussed include the importance of traditional values and food in Chinese life and of maintaining them in the face of overcrowded cities, pollution, and other problems of the modern…

  17. China and Africa: Human Rights Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2016. (ISSN: 0850-3907). China and Africa: ... unlike in the 19th century system, states are no longer self-sufficient and impermeable entities. Given the ... emergence of new economic powers such as China, is noteworthy. With the economic reform that the ...

  18. The New Presence of China in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis book describes China's growing range of activities in Africa, especially in the sub-Saharan region. The three most important instruments China has at its disposal in Africa are development aid, investments and trade policy. The Chinese government, which believes the Western

  19. Translation Theory and Translation Studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qin

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a comparative study of "translation theory" and "translation studies" in China and the West. Its focus is to investigate whether there is translation theory in the Chinese tradition. My study begins with an examination of the debate in China over whether there has already existed a system of translation…

  20. 75 FR 877 - Drill Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe From China AGENCY: International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of antidumping... States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of drill pipe, provided for in subheadings..., 2009, by VAM Drilling USA Inc., Houston, TX; Rotary Drilling Tools, Beasley, TX; Texas Steel...

  1. China's Impact on Latin American Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    2016-01-01

    The study compares recent development experiences of Bolivia and Venezuela and discusses what China's impact has been on their development experiences.......The study compares recent development experiences of Bolivia and Venezuela and discusses what China's impact has been on their development experiences....

  2. Teaching veterinary internal medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiakui; Guo, Dingzong; Zhou, Donghai; Wu, Xiaoxiong

    2011-01-01

    Veterinary internal medicine (VIM) is a core subject and important clinical discipline for undergraduate students of veterinary science. The present paper reviews current information about the teaching of VIM, presents a description of the veterinary science curriculum, suggests methods to improve the quality of VIM teaching in China, and describes difficulties, problems, and trends in veterinary education in China.

  3. China's Policymaking for Regional Economic Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yang

    Yang Jiang opens the black box of China's policymaking for free trade agreements and key regional financial initiatives. Using first-hand interview data, she sheds light on the key trends of China's trade and financial politics after its WTO entry in 2001. In particular, she highlights the influe......Yang Jiang opens the black box of China's policymaking for free trade agreements and key regional financial initiatives. Using first-hand interview data, she sheds light on the key trends of China's trade and financial politics after its WTO entry in 2001. In particular, she highlights...... the influence of competing domestic interests, protectionist and conservative forces vis-a-vis liberal and reformist forces; government agencies, ministries and national commissions, local governments; and different ideas on China's foreign economic policy. In doing so, she also provides interesting comparisons...

  4. Current development of biorefinery in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Shang, Fei; Zhang, Xu

    2010-01-01

    To meet the demand of its fast growing economy, China has become already the second largest buyer of crude oil. China is facing critical problems of energy shortage and environment deterioration. Rational and efficient energy use and environment protection are both getting more attention in China. Biomass energy is renewable energy made from biological sources. China's biomass resources are abundant, which could provide energy for future social and economic development. However technologies for biomass resource conversion in China are still just beginning. In this paper, current biomass resource distribution and technologies of biomass energy, including power generation, biofuel production and biomass-based chemical production are reviewed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorri G. J. te Boekhorst

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are matched with the advice of the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development task force on integrated river basin management to the national government of China. This article demonstrates that the World Wildlife Fund for Nature uses various strategies of different types to support a transition process towards integrated river basin management. Successful deployment of these strategies for change in environmental policy requires special skills, actions, and attitudes on the part of the policy entrepreneur, especially in China, where the government has a dominant role regarding water management and the position of policy entrepeneurs is delicate.

  6. Current development of liver transplantation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Shusen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the only effective way for the treatment of end-stage liver disease, liver transplantation has been developed rapidly in China over recent years. The latest developments of liver transplantation in China are reviewed, including establishment of selection criteria for the liver cancer recipients of liver transplantation——Hangzhou Criteria; latest application of salvage liver transplantation and downstaging therapy in liver transplantation for liver cancer; progress in liver transplantation combined with artificial liver support system for treatment of severe acute liver failure; breakthrough in technology innovation of living donor liver transplantation and organ donation and transplantation after cardiac death in China. Facing the problem of organ shortage, a scientific and standardized organ donation system should be established in line with the national conditions of China, so as to benefit the people and further improve the reputation of China in the international organ transplant community.

  7. The intergenerational Inequality of Health in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Pan, Jay; Qin, Xuezheng

    2014-01-01

    of opportunity in education and health. In this paper, we find that there is a strong correlation of health status between parent and their offspring in both the urban and rural sectors, suggesting the existence of intergenerational health inequality in China. The correlation is robust to various model....... The Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition further indicates that 15% to 27% of the rural–urban inequality of child health is attributable to the endowed inequality from their parents' health. An important policy implication of our study is that the increasing inequality of income and opportunity in China can......This paper estimates the intergenerational health transmission in China using the 1991–2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data. Three decades of persistent economic growth in China has been accompanied by high income inequality, which may in turn be caused by the inequality...

  8. Rehabilitating China's largest inland river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiqing; Chen, Yaning; Zhang, Yaoqi; Xia, Yang

    2009-06-01

    Wetlands are particularly important for conserving China's biodiversity but riparian wetlands in the Tarim River basin in western China have been reduced by 46% during the last 3 decades. The world's largest habitat for Populus euphratica, which is in the Tarim River basin, significantly shrank. To protect and restore the deteriorated ecosystems along the Tarim River and its associated wetlands, China's government initiated a multimillion dollar river restoration project to release water from upper dams to the dried-up lower reaches of the Tarim River starting in 2000. We monitored the responses of groundwater and vegetation to water recharge in the lower reaches of the river from 2000 to 2006 by establishing nine 1000-m-long transects perpendicular to the river at intervals of 20-45 km along the 320-km river course below the Daxihaizi Reservoir, the source of water conveyance, to Lake Taitema, the terminus of the Tarim River. Water recharges from the Daxihaizi Reservoir to the lower reaches of the Tarim River significantly increased groundwater levels and vegetation coverage at all monitoring sites along the river. The mean canopy size of the endangered plant species P. euphratica doubled after 6 years of water recharge. Some rare migrating birds returned to rest on the restored wetlands in summer along the lower reaches of the Tarim River. The biggest challenge facing decision makers, however, is to balance water allocation and water rights between agricultural and natural ecosystems in a sustainable way. A large number of inhabitants in the Tarim Basin depend on these limited water resources for a living. At the same time, the endangered ecosystems need to be protected. Given the ecological, socioeconomic, and sociopolitical realities in the Tarim Basin, adaptive water policies and strategies are needed for water allocation in these areas of limited water resources. ©2009 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. impairs gap junction function causing congenital cataract

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LIJUAN CHEN

    2017-12-20

    Dec 20, 2017 ... 1Department of Ophthalmology, Hongqi Hospital of Mudanjiang Medical College, Mudanjiang 157000, Heilongjiang. Province, People's Republic of China. 2Department of Genetics, National Research Institute for Family Planning, Beijing 100081, People's Republic of China. 3Department of Immunology ...

  10. Three duplication events and variable molecular evolution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Staff Development Institute of CNTC, Zhengzhou, Henan 450008, People's Republic of China. 3Mudanjiang Tobacco Research Institute, Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang 157001, People's Republic of China. 4Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute, ..... indigenous to the old world. DNA Res. 21, 649–660. Kim S., Park M., ...

  11. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Yanhua Cui1 Yu Cao1 Ying Ma1 Xiaojun Qu2 Aijun Dong1. School of Food Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, People's Republic of China; Institute of Applied Microbiology, Heilongjiang Science Academy, Harbin 150010, People's Republic of China ...

  12. Barriers to Utilization of Cataract Surgical Services in Ekiti State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-09

    Nov 9, 2016 ... in rural China through focus group. Ophthal Epidemiol. 2011;18:179-86. 12. Zhijian LI, Zhen S, Shubin WU, Keke XU, DI Jin,. Haijingwang Ping LU. Outcomes and Barriers to uptake of cataract surgery in rural Northern China: The Heilongjiang Eye. Study. Ophthal Epidemiol 2014;21:161-8. 13. Marmamula ...

  13. Erratum to: Robust adaptive synchronization of general dynamical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-04-22

    Apr 22, 2016 ... Click here to view fulltext PDF ... and Electronic Information, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong, Sichuan, 643000, People's Republic of China; State Key Laboratory of Robotics and System, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150080, People's Republic of China ...

  14. FDI and Spillovers in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Taotao, Chen; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2011-01-01

    Using a fixed effect variance decomposition model we estimate SUR models to analyse FDI spillovers from contagion and spillovers from competition on local firms in China. While the former type of spillover mainly depends on the degree of foreign presence, the latter kind is related to how foreign...... and local firms interact. The main conclusion is that FDI has been beneficial for the Chinese economy but that spillovers are not evenly distributed across firms and industries. Spillovers from contagion tend to exhibit an inverse U-shaped pattern with respect to the degree of foreign presence...

  15. All the coal in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenssen, N

    1993-01-01

    China is emerging as a serious producer of carbon emissions from its burning of coal. China contributes 11% of global carbon emissions, which is still less than its population share. Economic reforms are likely to boost emissions. 33% of all fuel burned in China produces useful energy compared to 50-60% in the USA and Japan. Low prices encourage wasteful use. The Chinese government responds to energy shortages by investing scarce capital in building more mines, power plants, and oil wells. It is unlikely that investing in expanding conventional energy supplies will be a viable solution, regardless of the availability of capital to invest, because air pollution threatens life. Particulate suspension is 14 times greater in China than in the USA. 14% of the country is affected by acid rain. Global warming may be affecting the northern drought prone areas. The solutions must involve greater efficiency. Industrial consumption of energy is more than 66% of energy produced. Energy use for a typical steel or cement factory is 7-75% greater per ton than Western countries, i.e., 55-60% efficiency versus 80% in Europe. The inefficiency is due to poor maintenance and operating procedures and old or obsolete technology. The savings in building a compact, fluorescent light bulb factory is compared to the cost of building coal-fired power plants and transmission facilities. Conservation of heat in northern buildings could be accomplished with boiler improvements, insulation, and double- glazed windows. A $3 billion/year investment could yield a cut in energy demand by nearly 50%. The carbon emissions would be reduced from 1.4 billion tons to 1 billion tons in 2025. Between 1980 and 1985 the energy efficiency program was able to reduce growth in energy from 7% to 4% without slowing growth in industrial production. Since 1985, the government has directed expenditures toward expanding the energy supply, which reduced efficiency expenditures from 10% to 6% of total investment

  16. Electric power industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zisheng Jiang [Ministry of Electric Power, Beijing (China). Bureau of Electric Power Machinery

    1995-07-01

    This document presents the status of the electric power in China, highlighting the following aspects: recent achievement, electricity increased sharing in the total energy consumption, technical economic indexes, nuclear power, renewable energy sources, rural electrification, transmission and power network, transmission lines and substations, present status and development trends for power network, regulation of power system dispatching, power system communication. The document also presents the future developing plan, approaching the outlook and strategy, development targets of the electric power industry and the administrative system reforming of the electric power industry.

  17. China’s Expeditionary Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Springs , CO: Institute for National Security Studies, 2007), 5. 72 DoD, Annual Report to Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the...became worse on May 25 when “the Atlantic Conveyor was sunk and only one Chinook survived.”109 On 27 May, two battalions “marched with all their gear...2007): 131-135. Bolt, Paul J., and Adam K. Gray. China’s National Security Strategy. U.S. Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs , CO: Institute for

  18. As crises ambientais da China

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos, Xulio

    2010-01-01

    China prestou pouca atención ás cuestións ambientais durante décadas, optando por dar prioridade ao desenvolvemento económico, xerando así numerosos confl itos socio-ambientais. O xigante asiático é xa a terceira potencia económica do planeta e este mesmo ano, ou ao sumo en 2010, podería incluso superar a Xapón, cun lustro de adianto sobre o inicialmente previsto por numerosos observadores cualifi cados1 . O resultado desta espiral de crecemento foi unha...

  19. Ecological footprint of Shandong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yu-jing; Luc, Hens; Zhu, Yong-guan; Zhao, Jing-zhu

    2004-01-01

    Ecological footprint has been given much attention and widely praised as an effective heuristic and pedagogic device for presenting current total human resource use in a way that communicates easily to almost everyone since 1996 when Wackernagel and Rees proposed it as a sustainable development indicator. Ecological footprint has been improving on its calculation and still can be a benchmark to measure sustainable development although there are still ongoing debates about specific methods for calculating the ecological footprint. This paper calculates the ecological footprint of Shandong Province, China with the methodology developed by Wackernagel and analyzes the current situation of sustainable development in Shandong.

  20. JPRS Report. Science & Technology: China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-29

    Mar 87) 48 Academy of Sciences Officials Discuss Reform Measures (KEJI RIBAO, 13 Mar 87) 50 Guo Shuyan on Results of S&T Reforms (Kong...53 NATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS GUO SHUYAN ON RESULTS OF S&T REFORMS Beijing RENMIN RIBAO OVERSEAS EDITION in Chinese 7 Mar 87 p 4 [Article by reporter...Kong Xiaoning [1313 2556 1337]: "Guo Shuyan Talks About Results of S&T Organization Reform; China’s S&T Development Is In the Ascendant; The State

  1. 78 FR 76321 - Monosodium Glutamate From China and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... COMMISSION Monosodium Glutamate From China and Indonesia Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from China and Indonesia of monosodium glutamate, provided for in subheading... imports of monosodium glutamate from China and Indonesia that are subsidized by the Governments of China...

  2. China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, Tucker [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    International trade and related economic activities in Central and South Asia are increasing as developing economies, particularly India and Pakistan, grow. China continues to emerge as a major regional and global power and has embarked upon numerous regional economic and political initiatives . A major development is the China - Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), a host of infrastructure and trade projects worth over 40 billion American dollars . This report analyzes CPEC a nd its potential regional effects, including the trade security implications of the port and land infrastructure developments . As trade increase s in the reg ion and the major CPEC infrastructure projects are completed, there will be numerous implications on trade security and geopolitics within South Asia. CPEC projects uniquely intersect numerous regional situations, including territorial disputes in Kashmir, the Afghanistan/Pakistan border, and Chinese foreign policy a mbitions. A nuanced understanding of these effects can influence future policy adjustments in this region . The views expressed in this report are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the position of Sandia National Laboratories or the author's current and past institutions.

  3. Value Changes in Transforming China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Herdin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The People’s Republic of China (PRC is back on the global agenda. Inthe late 1970s, the process of modernization (reform and opening up under Deng Xiaoping brought enormous changes to the economy, society and cultural landscape. China has rapidly emerged as a major world power, despite the current global economic crisis. This article explores the changes in Chinese values caused by the expanding economic and cultural exchange processes within the country. Of specific theoretical interest is the role played by the mass media andinformation and communication technologies (ICT, and their bearing on modern Chinese society. Empirically, we first examine China’s placement on a global map of values (based on the World Value Survey, noting recent value shifts. We then offer a comprehensive view of attitudes of Chinese managers, drawing on a quantitative study from Beijing and Shanghai, to highlight the importance ofcultural differences deeply rooted in Chinese society. Finally, implications for cultural relations between West and East are discussed.

  4. Remembering the Leaders of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mingchen; Xue, Yan; DeSoto, K Andrew; Yuan, Ti-Fei

    2016-01-01

    In two studies, we examined Chinese students' memory for the names of the leaders of China. In Study 1, subjects were cued with the names of periods from China's history. Subjects listed as many leaders as possible from each period and put them in the correct ordinal position when they could (see Roediger and DeSoto, 2014). Results showed that within each period, a primacy effect and sometimes a recency effect emerged. Moreover, the average recall probability for leaders within a specific period was a function of the ordinal position of the period. In Study 2, we asked another group of subjects to identify the sources through which they were able to recall each leader. We found that most subjects remembered leaders due to class and coursework. We also found a relation between a leader's recall probability and the amount of information available on that leader on the Internet. Our findings further imply that the serial position function captures the form of collective memory.

  5. Virtual scarce water in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Hubacek, Klaus; Pfister, Stephan; Yu, Yang; Sun, Laixiang

    2014-07-15

    Water footprints and virtual water flows have been promoted as important indicators to characterize human-induced water consumption. However, environmental impacts associated with water consumption are largely neglected in these analyses. Incorporating water scarcity into water consumption allows better understanding of what is causing water scarcity and which regions are suffering from it. In this study, we incorporate water scarcity and ecosystem impacts into multiregional input-output analysis to assess virtual water flows and associated impacts among 30 provinces in China. China, in particular its water-scarce regions, are facing a serious water crisis driven by rapid economic growth. Our findings show that inter-regional flows of virtual water reveal additional insights when water scarcity is taken into account. Consumption in highly developed coastal provinces is largely relying on water resources in the water-scarce northern provinces, such as Xinjiang, Hebei, and Inner Mongolia, thus significantly contributing to the water scarcity in these regions. In addition, many highly developed but water scarce regions, such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Tianjin, are already large importers of net virtual water at the expense of water resource depletion in other water scarce provinces. Thus, increasingly importing water-intensive goods from other water-scarce regions may just shift the pressure to other regions, but the overall water problems may still remain. Using the water footprint as a policy tool to alleviate water shortage may only work when water scarcity is taken into account and virtual water flows from water-poor regions are identified.

  6. China's oil diplomacy: is it a global security threat?

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Hongyi

    2007-01-01

    China is now the world's second largest oil consuming nation. China's external quest for oil has thus generated much attention and is believed by many to destabilise the world order. This article attempts to provide an overview of China's external initiatives for satisfying domestic oil demands and to examine the implications of China's oil diplomacy on regional and global political stability. The article suggests that China has taken three steps to satisfy its growing domestic demand for oil...

  7. Rising Sino-Vietnamese tensions in the South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Dicke, Vera; Holbig, Heike

    2014-01-01

    In May 2014 China started to drill for oil near the Paracel Islands, an area claimed by both Vietnam and China as territorial waters, which led to considerable diplomatic tensions and violent actions against Chinese enterprises in Vietnam. China's recent activity reveals an increasing assertiveness, which has raised concerns about possible military actions in the South China Sea. One could argue that China's latest undertaking is proof of its increasingly threatening behavior, thereby confirm...

  8. The capitalist class of modern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Rakhmanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1978 People’s Republic of China has been carrying out the policy of reforms. As the result of these reforms, the powerful capitalist class has emerged. This class has transformed into a junior partner of the party-state bureaucracy of China. The author analyzes the capitalist class of China from different perspectives - number, wealth, age, gender, style of life. The author compares the capitalist class of China with capitalist classes of other countries - the USA, Germany, Japan, Russia, and India and so on. The author highlights the importance of the branch specialization of the capitalist class of China. The development of this class generates causes the industrialization and modernization. By contrast, the formation of the capitalist class causes the deindustrialization of Russia. The author highlights the main contradictions of the development of modern China. The situation of the capitalist class of China is contradictory. On one side, it needs the strong socialist state, on the other side, it needs the dismantlement of socialism.

  9. China's Developing Arctic Policies: Myths and Misconceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lanteigne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic and Far North regions of the world have grown in importance for China's international interests in recent years, and in 2013 China became an observer state in the Arctic Council. Beijing has sought to develop an Arctic policy based on scientific research and partnerships, including in the areas of environmental studies and climate change issues, as well as development and economic issues. As the Arctic gains more international attention due to the effects of ice melting and the possibility of the region becoming a new source of resources, concerns have been raised about a scramble for riches and economic advantages. China, as a rising political and economic power, has been subject to much scrutiny, especially from the West, about its emerging agenda in the Arctic region. Although China is not an Arctic state, the concerns are based on predictions that Beijing is seeking to play a stronger and perhaps even dominant role in the Arctic, and this has led to many misconceptions about China's Arctic policy. The result has been a "clash of identities" between Chinese and Western perceptions, and in order to understand why these diverging views have appeared, it is necessary to first examine the origins of "myths" about China's regional Arctic policies, and then examine their roles, using constructivist theory, before suggesting ways for both China and the international community to address this divergence.

  10. AHP 28: Review: China's Environmental Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Bleisch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Judith Shapiro's latest ambitious work picks up the story of modern China's checkered relationship with the environment at approximately the point where her previous study, Mao's War Against Nature (2001, left off. This latest book sets out to address questions of grave importance to China and to the world. The litany of challenges – poisonous water and toxic air, scarcity of water and other resources, deforestation, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity – seem nearly insurmountable, despite evidence of considerable attention from the Chinese government and from China's public, and despite the rocket-like rise of China's economic power and political influence in the world. Shapiro adds to this list the growing problems with lapses in environmental justice, both within China and passed on to its neighbours and to the countries with which it trades.1 Not only do growing environmental problems affect China's ability to achieve the government's stated goals of a 'harmonious society' with 'moderate prosperity for all,' but these problems, and the ways that China seeks to address them, are now widely recognized as having major impacts on the entire planet. Chinese demand has become a major factor in the pricing of the world's natural resources, while pollution from Chinese sources, particularly emissions of CO2 and other climate changing gasses, are having global consequences.

  11. Sex Ideologies in China: Examining Interprovince Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, premarital sex, extramarital sex, and homosexuality have become increasingly visible in China, leading scholars to claim that a national "sex revolution" is under way. However, China's internal sociocultural diversity calls this nation-level generalization into question. How do sex ideologies vary across China's distinct provinces? To what extent are interprovince variations in sex ideologies associated with distinct macrolevel social factors in China? In this research, data from the 2010 China General Social Survey and the 2011 Chinese Statistics Yearbook were analyzed using multilevel models to test four contending theories of interprovince differences in sex ideologies in China: modernization, Westernization, deindustrialization, and the "rice theory." The modernization theory was unsupported by the results, as socioeconomic development is not significantly associated with sex ideologies. Higher levels of deindustrialization and Westernization were associated with less traditional sex ideologies, but the strength of association varied across the domains of premarital sex, extramarital sex, and homosexuality. The rice theory was consistently supported, as the distinction between rice and wheat agriculture explained up to 30% of the province-level variance in sex ideologies. The findings underline the roles of both long-standing geographic differences and recent social changes in shaping China's ideational landscape of sex.

  12. Expatriate Cross-Cultural Training for China: Views and Experience of 'China Hands'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically the views and experience of cross-cultural training (CCT) of experienced Western business expatriates ("China Hands") assigned to China. Design/methodology/approach - Data for this study were extracted from a mail questionnaire...... that CCT improved core managerial activities and therefore could have helped them to become better managers in China. Practical implications - The views of experienced China Hands will be of use to a wide variety of management practitioners, given the competitive nature of the Chinese business environment....... Original/value - The paper offers the view of experienced management practitioners concerning the Chinese business environment. The findings will be of value to both Western business people in China as well as business people considering an expatriate positing to China....

  13. Task Force: Nahrungsmittel in China - Food Security- und Food Safety-Problematik in China

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    "Umweltverschmutzung, Urbanisierung sowie die Versorgung der noch immer wachsenden Bevölkerung sind große Herausforderungen für Chinas Nahrungsmittelpolitik im 21. Jahrhundert. Diese Publikation zeichnet verschiedene Aspekte im Zusammenhang mit 'Nahrungsmitteln in China' nach - von der Produktion über den Konsum bis hin zur Entsorgung. Dabei stehen vor allem Food safety und Food security im Mittelpunkt, aber auch Chinas Rolle auf den weltweiten Nahrungsmittelmärkten. Die Aktivitäten nichtstaa...

  14. Kickoff of offshore wind power in China: playoffs for China wind power development

    OpenAIRE

    Xiliang, Zhang; Da, Zhang; Stua, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Year 2010 is the significant year of offshore wind power development in China. The first national offshore wind power project is connected to the grid, and the first round of concession projects marks the strong support from central government. It is foreseeable that offshore wind power capacity in China will expand rapidly in the future, and the understanding pattern of it is crucial for analyzing the overall wind market in China and global offshore wind power development. This paper firstly...

  15. EU-China security cooperation in context

    OpenAIRE

    Emil J. Kirchner; Christiansen, Thomas; Dorussen, Han

    2015-01-01

    The paper has two main aims. First it seeks to explore whether security cooperation between the EU and China is taking place, and if so, whether it is evenly spread across a number of security dimensions. Second it intends to investigate the underlying motives or drivers that either facilitate or inhibit EU-China security cooperation. Further, it will explain why the EU rather than EU member states is chosen as the unit of analysis, explore the development of EU-China security relations, and ...

  16. China's Policymaking for Regional Economic Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yang

    the influence of competing domestic interests, protectionist and conservative forces vis-a-vis liberal and reformist forces; government agencies, ministries and national commissions, local governments; and different ideas on China's foreign economic policy. In doing so, she also provides interesting comparisons......Yang Jiang opens the black box of China's policymaking for free trade agreements and key regional financial initiatives. Using first-hand interview data, she sheds light on the key trends of China's trade and financial politics after its WTO entry in 2001. In particular, she highlights...

  17. China : la juventud como motor revolucionario

    OpenAIRE

    Merino Roca, Domènec

    2016-01-01

    Descripción del papel político asumido por los estudiantes en los años sesenta y setenta a nivel mundial. Repaso de la historia de China. Breve repaso de la gènesis y desarrollo del socialismo en China hasta llegar a la Revolución Cultural. Profundización en los acontecimientos ocurridos en China entre 1966 y 1969. Análisis de las causas y consecuencias de la Revolución Cultural en el gigante asiático Descripció del paper polític exercit pels estudiants als anys seixanta i setanta a nivell...

  18. China's Policymaking for Regional Economic Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yang

    Yang Jiang opens the black box of China's policymaking for free trade agreements and key regional financial initiatives. Using first-hand interview data, she sheds light on the key trends of China's trade and financial politics after its WTO entry in 2001. In particular, she highlights...... the influence of competing domestic interests, protectionist and conservative forces vis-a-vis liberal and reformist forces; government agencies, ministries and national commissions, local governments; and different ideas on China's foreign economic policy. In doing so, she also provides interesting comparisons...

  19. “Blue Competition” in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Juan; Ge, Xueqian; Casey, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The current study analyzes the competitiveness of marine economies in provinces/districts along the eastern coast of China. The current work reviewed the development of marine economy in China over the past decade, and analyzed strategies of each regional economy regarding natural resource...... endowment and policy priorities in five major coastal provinces of China. Through comparative study of local marine policies and industrial priorities, it is found that the Chinese marine economy is largely oriented towards heavy industry. Local governments focus on land reclamation and often neglect...

  20. [Birth cohort studies in China: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Sun, L; He, X Y; Wang, Y X; Yu, W P

    2017-04-10

    With longer than 100-year experience of development, methods used on birth cohort study have been viewed as having important roles in exploring the probable effects of health and environment exposure both prior to and during the pregnancy in the life circle as infants, children, adolescents, adults, and the elderly. However in China, birth cohort studies started late but with rapid development. Recently, some well-known methods on birth cohort studies were established in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan area. This paper presented an overall review on the progress about birth cohort studies and their prospects, in China.

  1. China's potential for economic coercion in the South China sea disputes: a comparative study of the Philippines and Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindran, Madhu Sudan

    2012-01-01

    "With tensions rising in the South China Sea, China’s use of its economic leverage over Southeast Asian countries has recently come into focus. With increasing economic and trade ties between China and Southeast Asia, the question being asked is whether China can successfully impose economic sanctions to gain policy concessions in the South China Sea disputes. This paper examines China's relations with the Philippines and Vietnam and analyses the possibility of a successful economic sanction ...

  2. China’s Gender Imbalance and Its Implications on China-Japan and China-Taiwan Security Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    the marriage market and thus frequently end up alone. Secondly, they are often underemployed or unemployed with few resources to make them more...intercontinental ballistic missiles, and has experienced double- digit 49 Kent E. Calder, “China and Japan’s...82 Janet Ong , “Taiwan Pro-Independence Party Protests China Policies in Rally,” Bloomberg, accessed September 14, 2011, http://www.bloomberg.com

  3. Aves, province of Guizhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen, G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report our inventories of birds observed and collected at three field sites from the province of Guizhou,southeastern China. Our findings detailed herein complement our previous ornithological surveys from Guangxiprovince, as part of a comprehensive biotic survey of the region. Of 153 total bird species recorded, 17 were new for theprovince, among which several taxa of conservational importance, such as: Golden Pheasant Crysolophus pictus,Tawny Fish-Owl Ketupa flavipes, Black-breasted Thrush Turdus dissimilis, Fujian Flycatcher Niltava davidii, RedtailedLaughingthrush Garrulax milnei, and Slaty Bunting Latoucheornis siemsseni. These records provide the mostrecent insight into the current status of the habitats and the avian biodiversity of an important, yet sparsely surveyed andreported biogeographic region.

  4. China - a matter of motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The success of China's family planning is attributed to the fact that the goal is to enable men and women to work hard to contribute more to the National Development Program and that family planning targets are set by the revolutionary committee, which functions close to the person's work and home. The National Program suggests targets to the local units but it is up to the local units to translate these targets into action and such targets must be explained to the people. This elimination of a vast middle bureaucracy encourages individuals to accept responsibility. Family planning is also aided by changing norms which say women are to be valued as much as men and social opportunities which enable women to do the same work as men. The state bears all costs releated to birth control and compensates for lost wages when sterilization or abortion are undergone.

  5. China's Economy and the Beijing Olympics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F

    2008-01-01

    ... in preparation for the international event. China anticipates that the 2008 Olympics will provide both short-term and long-term direct and indirect benefits to its economy, as well as enhance the nation's global image...

  6. Models of Community Colleges in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of community colleges in mainland China, addressing briefly the recent history of community college development, defining these institutions, detailing various models with examples, and discussing challenges faced by these institutions and recommendations for future development.

  7. 75 FR 80527 - Aluminum Extrusions From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... 31, 2010, by the Aluminum Extrusions Fair Trade Committee (``Committee'') \\4\\ and the United Steel... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Aluminum Extrusions From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION...

  8. Competitive pressures on income distribution in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, H.

    1999-01-01

    to explore what perfect competition would do to income distribution in China. The research analyzes this question by determining personal income distribution under hypothetical, perfectly competitive conditions, where factors are rewarded according to their marginal productivities. Comparison with

  9. 5th China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Jiao, Wenhai; Wu, Haitao; Lu, Mingquan

    2014-01-01

    China Satellite Navigation Conference (CSNC) 2014 Proceedings presents selected research papers from CSNC2014, held on 21-23 May in Nanjing, China. The theme of CSNC2014 is 'BDS Application: Innovation, Integration and Sharing'. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 9 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2014, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.  SUN Jiadong is the Chief Designer of the Compass/ BDS, and the Academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS); JIAO Wenhai is a researcher at China Satellite Navigation Office; WU Haitao is a professor at Navigation Headquarters, CAS; LU Mingquan is a professor at Department of Electronic Engineering of Tsinghua University.

  10. THE GREAT LEAP OUTWARD: CHINA'S MARITIME RENAISSANCE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howard J. Dooley

    2012-01-01

    ...; rise in the global shipbuilding market; and efforts to develop a "blue water" navy. This paper will examine how, starting with Deng Xiaoping's reforms in 1978, China has developed a comprehensive strategy for maritime growth...

  11. Factoring Central Asia into China's Afghanistan policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrish Dhaka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available China's footprints in Afghanistan are vied by many, both, friends and rivals as it cautiously reveals its geostrategic goals. It would like to emulate the African and Central Asian success story in Afghanistan as well, which is not terra incognito. Afghanistan has been the fulcrum of geopolitical balance of power during the Cold war days. China's Afghanistan policy (CAP is marked by its insecurities of terrorism, extremism and separatism in Xinjiang province. It has heavily invested in procuring Central Asian energy resources. Both, the concerns go well in formulation of CAP. However, the presence of the US and Russia make the scenario competitive, where its ‘Peaceful Rise’ may be contested. Besides, China sees South Asian Region as its new Geoeconomic Frontier. All these concerns get factored into CAP. It remains to be seen what options partake in CAP, as China prepares for durable presence in Afghanistan in the long run.

  12. Exporting dams: China's hydropower industry goes global.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kristen; Bosshard, Peter; Brewer, Nicole

    2009-07-01

    In line with China's "going out" strategy, China's dam industry has in recent years significantly expanded its involvement in overseas markets. The Chinese Export-Import Bank and other Chinese financial institutions, state-owned enterprises, and private firms are now involved in at least 93 major dam projects overseas. The Chinese government sees the new global role played by China's dam industry as a "win-win" situation for China and host countries involved. But evidence from project sites such as the Merowe Dam in Sudan demonstrates that these dams have unrecognized social and environmental costs for host communities. Chinese dam builders have yet to adopt internationally accepted social and environmental standards for large infrastructure development that can assure these costs are adequately taken into account. But the Chinese government is becoming increasingly aware of the challenge and the necessity of promoting environmentally and socially sound investments overseas.

  13. Freight mobility and intermodal connectivity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Trade growth between the United States and China has increased U.S. interest in how the Chinese : transportation system handles exports. The Federal Highway Administration, American Association of State : Highway and Transportation Officials, and Nat...

  14. China's life satisfaction, 1990-2010

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard A. Easterlin; Robson Morgan; Malgorzata Switek; Fei Wang

    2012-01-01

    Despite its unprecedented growth in output per capita in the last two decades, China has essentially followed the life satisfaction trajectory of the central and eastern European transition countries...

  15. Multimodality, Transparency, and Food Safety in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tracy, Megan

    2016-01-01

    In September 2008, revelation of melamine‐contaminated milk supplies in China's dairy industry rocked its manufacturing sector still reeling from highly publicized food and safety scandals in 2007...

  16. China - opportunities and challenges for world shipping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The report provides critical insight into the events and developments that will be shaping China`s trade and shipping role in the next decade, focusing on the issues which lie at the heart of the concerns (whether seen as opportunities or threats) of ship owners, operators, port interests and those who support the shipping industry either financially or through the provision of services. Chapter headings are: economic and industrial profile; principal dry bulk trades (including coal, coking coal, coal ports and infrastructure developments iron ore etc.); liquid trades (including crude oil, natural gas and LPG); container trades; refrigerated cargo (reefer trends); China`s maritime fleet; shipbuilding, ship repair and demolition; and outlook and opportunities for world shipping.

  17. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of.... Persons with mobility impairments who will need special assistance in gaining access to the Commission...

  18. 76 FR 8773 - Sparklers From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on sparklers from China would be likely to lead to... terminal on 202-205-1810. Persons with mobility impairments who will need special assistance in gaining...

  19. Patterns of store patronage in urban China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uncles, Mark D; Kwok, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Reported is a formal investigation of store patronage in urban China. Using consumer panel data for sales of packaged goods through store types and named store chains, patterns of sales, loyalty and duplication are examined...

  20. China: current trends in pharmaceutical drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying

    2008-04-01

    Pharmaceutical discovery and development is expensive and highly risky, even for multinational corporations. As a developing country with limited financial resources, China has been seeking the most cost-effective means to reach the same level of innovation and productivity as Western countries in the pharmaceutical industry sector. After more than 50 years of building up talent and experience, the time for China to become a powerhouse in pharmaceutical innovation is finally approaching. Returnee scientists to China are one of the reasons for the wave of new discovery and commercialization occurring within the country. The consolidation of local Chinese pharmaceutical companies and foreign investment is also providing an agreeable environment for the evolution of a new generation of biotechnology. The opportunity for pharmaceutical innovation is also being expedited by the entry of multinational companies into the Chinese pharmaceutical market, and by the outsourcing of research from these companies to China.