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Sample records for wto forces latvia

  1. Essentials of WTO law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prévost, Denise; Van den Bossche, Peter

    2016-01-01

    At a time when developments in WTO law have made this field increasingly complex, this concise and non-technical introduction provides a timely and carefully considered overview of the substantive rules and institutional arrangements of the WTO. Illustrative examples clarify important issues of the

  2. WTO og skatteret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer hvordan WTO-retten, særligt GATT-, GATS- og subsidieaftalen, kan påvirke indholdet af national skatteret. Udover en drøftelse af princippet om national behandling og mest begunstigelsesprincippet drøftes hvordan subsidieaftalen kan påvirke de nationale principper om global con...... contra territorial beskatning og reglerne om transfer pricing....

  3. Renewable Energy in Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipkovs, P.; Kashkarova, G. [Latvian Energy Agency, Riga (Latvia); Shipkovs, M. [Energy-R Ltd., Riga (Latvia)

    1997-12-31

    Latvia is among those countries that do not have gas, coal and, for the time being, also oil resources of its own. The amount of power produced in Latvia does not meet the demand, consequently a part of the power has to be purchased from neighbouring countries. Firewood, peat and hydro resources are the only significant domestic energy resources. Massive decrease of energy consumption has been observed since Latvia regained independence. Domestic and renewable energy resources have been examined and estimated. There are already 13 modern boiler houses operating in Latvia with total installed capacity 45 MW that are fired with wood chips. Latvian companies are involved in the production of equipment. 7 small HPPs have been renewed with the installed capacity 1.85 MW. Wind plant in Ainazi has started its operation, where two modern wind turbines with the capacity of 0.6 MW each have been installed. Mechanism of tariff setting is aligned. Favourable power energy purchasing prices are set for renewable energy sources and small cogeneration plants

  4. Put Rossii v WTO / Maksim Medvedkov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Medvedkov, Maksim

    2006-01-01

    Vene delegatsiooni juht Venemaa WTO-ga liitumise läbirääkimistel vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad USA positsiooni neil läbirääkimistel, WTO-ga liitumise võimalikke tagajärgi Venemaale liitumise esimeses etapis, endiste NSVL-i vabariikide ja Venemaa vaheliste erimeelsuste võimalikku mõju Venemaa liitumisele WTO-ga

  5. 121 | Page WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION (WTO): TRADE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    of the current rules of WTO that reinforce the disadvantages faced by developing economies. This essay deals with these unfair trade rules and disadvantages inherent in the World Trade Organization (WTO) system by .... also expand their exports given the comparative advantage they have in respect of those national ...

  6. Competing jurisdictions between MERCOSUR and WTO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavranos, N.; Vielliard, N.

    2008-01-01

    The wider issues raised by the Brazilian Tyres case are discussed in this contribution. Regarding the institutional aspects, this case examines the difficulties between regional dispute settlement systems and the global WTO dispute settlement system. In particular, the WTO Appellate Body showed no

  7. Ethiopia's WTO Accession and Financial Services Liberalization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia's WTO Accession and Financial Services Liberalization: Striking the Balance between Trade ... Mizan Law Review ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, ...

  8. INNOVATIONS OF THE TRADE MARKETING IN LATVIA

    OpenAIRE

    Spīča, Inese; Spīčs, Ernests

    2010-01-01

    In the rapidly changing environment contemporary marketing activities affects educational programms. The paper analyze the marketing and sales current events in Latvia. In this paper given a substantive explanation of trade marketing and trade marketing development opportunities for Latvia, trade marketing new development areas and to clarify their learning opportunities in Latvia.

  9. Hermann Hesse and Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestras Gaižiūnas

    2016-12-01

    Hesse’s name and creation in Latvian literature appears enough early, at the beginning of XX century. At 1907 the first translation of Hesse’s text was published in Latvian language. Novel “Steppenwolf” has most interesting fate in Latvia. This novel two times was staged in Latvian scene. Hesse is related by the close typologic relations with Latvian Neo-romanticism. One of the most famous neo-romantic poets is Fricis Bārda (1880–1919 for his collection „Earth Son” (1911 as a epigraph selects Hesse‘s verse “I Love Women who Thousand Years ago...” (“Ich liebe Frauen...”. At this context it makes sense to comparison Jānis Poruks (1871–1911 story “The Pearl Fisher” (1895 and Hesse‘s novel “Peter Camenzind” (1904. In both works continue the traditions of the novel of education (Bildungsroman. Poruks and Hesse are related with the Herrnhuters‘ Culture (Moravian Church. Jānis Plaudis (1902–1957 novel “Lynx” by the genre features and the treatment of game reminds Hesse‘s novel “The Glass Bead Game”.

  10. Nanotechnologies in Latvia: Commercialisation Aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geipele, I.; Staube, T.; Ciemleja, G.; Ekmanis, J.; Zeltins, N.

    2014-12-01

    The authors consider the possibilities to apply the nanotechnology products of manufacturing industries in Latvia for further commercialisation. The purpose of the research is to find out the preliminary criteria for the system of engineering economic indicators for multifunctional nanocoating technologies. The article provides new findings and calculations for the local nanotechnology market research characterising the development of nanotechnology industry. The authors outline a scope of issues as to low activities rankings in Latvia on application of locally produced nanotechnologies towards efficiency of the resource use for nanocoating technologies. For the first time in Latvia, the authors make the case study research and summarise the latest performance indicators of the Latvian companies operating in the nanotechnology industry.

  11. Nanotechnologies in Latvia: Commercialisation Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geipele I.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the possibilities to apply the nanotechnology products of manufacturing industries in Latvia for further commercialisation. The purpose of the research is to find out the preliminary criteria for the system of engineering economic indicators for multifunctional nanocoating technologies. The article provides new findings and calculations for the local nanotechnology market research characterising the development of nanotechnology industry. The authors outline a scope of issues as to low activities rankings in Latvia on application of locally produced nanotechnologies towards efficiency of the resource use for nanocoating technologies. For the first time in Latvia, the authors make the case study research and summarise the latest performance indicators of the Latvian companies operating in the nanotechnology industry.

  12. Ukraine in the WTO: Effects and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Anatolyevna Bessonova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Over 6 years have passed since Ukraine became a member of the WTO. The accession has had both positive and negative effects on the country’s economy. The process of accession took place in the absence of any definite economic development strategy. As a consequence, the national manufacturers were hurt in many respects. Ukraine acceded to the WTO on terms rather unfavourable for the country, with little to no regard for the opinions of experts and the business milieu. That resulted in losses for the most vulnerable sectors of Ukraine’s economy. Those are the industries which produce high value-added products, including machine building, consumer goods industry and food-processing. This goes to show that the country’s WTO membership was detrimental for the innovation-oriented industries involving high technologies. The branches of the real sector of the economy which produce low value-added products (such as agriculture, chemical industry, and metallurgy fared better. Despite the patterns of poor judgment shown, there are certain positive effects of Ukraine’s WTO membership. Among them one can mention the possibility to conduct equitable dialogue with the country’s foreign trade partners, enhancement of competitive advantages of the major producers in the real sector, provision of incentives to harnessing new technologies, improvement of production quality in order to enhance the competitiveness on the global market. Ukraine’s experience shows that it is obviously necessary for Russia to make efforts in order to ensure that Russia’s WTO membership would advantage the national economy and the real sector entities. Russia’s WTO membership can give a great impetus to the country development, but only if relevant domestic reforms will adapt Russian economic and legislative institutions to the conditions of the WTO multilateral trade agreements.

  13. The Concordance of Multilingual Legal Texts at the WTO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Bradly J.

    2012-01-01

    Multilingualism is a sensitive and complex subject in a global organisation such as the World Trade Organization (WTO). In the WTO legal texts, there is a need for full concordance, not simply translation. This article begins with an overview of the issues raised by multilingual processes at the WTO in the negotiation, drafting, translation,…

  14. Will China's WTO Accession Worsen Rural Poverty?

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Kym; Huang, Jikun; Ianchovichina, Elena

    2004-01-01

    Many fear China’s accession to WTO will impoverish its farmers, via greater import competition in its agricultural markets. We explore that possibility bearing in mind that, even if producer prices of some (land-intensive) farm products fall, prices of other (labour-intensive) farm and non-farm products could rise. New estimates, from the global, economy-wide numerical simulation model known as GTAP, of the likely changes in agricultural and other product prices as a result of WTO accession a...

  15. Contesting Constitutionalism: Constitutional Discourse at the WTO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawrence, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Debates about ‘constitutionalism’ have become an important trend in WTO scholarship. Despite over two decades of interest, however, a coherent definition of the term and its content remain out of reach. This paper argues that ‘constitutionalism’ should be approached not as something that can be

  16. ethiopia's wto accession and financial services liberalization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TilahunEK

    2002-02-21

    Feb 21, 2002 ... He would like to give his sincere gratitude to the editorial team at Mizan Law Review and the two anonymous ..... and laws of the acceding country are in compliance with the WTO Agreement. This stage is followed ...... XVI:2(a) and (c) by the Appellate Body in the US-Gambling case.130 The. Appellate Body ...

  17. THE ADVANTAGES OF WTO COMMERCIAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina HAGIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The WTO was created in 1995 with the propose to encourage and regulate trade between its member states. The primary objective of the WTO was and still is to create economic growth and encourage free trade among nations. This aspect was disputed between specialists: some say that the WTO creates economic opportunities and that its positive impact extends beyond just economic benefits by creating an international framework of political stability, offering a solid foundation for promoting international peace by encouraging good political relations among member nations and providing a solid dispute resolution process, while others say it is disfavors lower class citizens, limiting their opportunities for social and economic mobility, is only widening the global income gap between the wealthy and poor: as the rich get richer, the poor get poorer and it favors prosperous countries and multinational corporations, while preventing smaller and poorer countries from having a fair shot of engaging in open market trades and exchanges. In this paper we will stop only to emphasize the advantages of the WTO commercial system, following that in a future work to approach also the disadvantages of this commercial system.

  18. WTO and Lifelong Education Strategies for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-guo; Zheng, Yu

    2006-01-01

    After China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO), teachers have been confronted with many opportunities and challenges. Lifelong education strategies are problems we should take into account carefully. This article expounds the objective demands, ideas, content, measures and functions of lifelong education.

  19. Reducing Tariffs According to WTO Accession Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2012-01-01

    When Vietnam joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2007 it was granted an accession period up to 2014. During this period tariffs would have to fall according to the accession agreement. This paper evaluates this 2007–2014 trade liberalization by building an applied general equilibrium model...

  20. Ethiopia's WTO Accession and Financial Services Liberalization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines some of the main provisions of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the Annex on Financial Services to evaluate its impact on domestic financial regulation and macroeconomic policy. In particular, it analyzes whether Ethiopia can – upon accession and within the WTO's GATS ...

  1. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Republic of Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of the corporate governance policy framework and enforcement and compliance practices in Latvia. Latvia has already invested considerable resources in upgrading its legislation to meet EU Directives, and the legislative and regulatory framework dealing with corporate governance issues is quite robust. Strengths and weaknesses are highlighted and policy re...

  2. Parent and School Relations in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluma, Dainuvite; Ivanova, Ilze

    2013-01-01

    Families in Latvia know what is best for their children, and they make a major contribution to their education. Consequently, it is important to build close partnerships between school and family. This article reviews extant research that provides insight into the nature of school-parent relations in Latvia as the nation stands at the crossroads…

  3. Which Antidumping Cases Reach the WTO?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson; Videnord, Josefin

    This article examines the distribution of antidumping (AD) disputes across countries and industries, and examines which AD cases reach the dispute settlement system of the WTO. Our general finding is that neither the country nor the industry distribution of AD cases remains constant across...... using AD law to protect their domestic firms. We find that the typical AD notification is submitted by an upper middle-income country, and it focuses on a medium low-technology industry with differentiated products, but low relationship-specificity. The most typical complainant at the WTO is also...... an upper middle-income country, challenging a high-income country (most likely the US) that is allegedly giving unfair protection to an industry producing differentiated goods that are not very relationship-specific, using medium-low technologies. The analysis also reveals that when lower middle...

  4. APEC's Contribution to WTO: Korea's Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook Chae

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Differential measures towards countries out of the region can threaten the multilateral system and this could be an implicit factor in regionalism. But from the other prospect, economical cooperation among regions would increase the economic welfare and strengthen WTO free trade system. Open Regionalism impelled by WTO can be regarded as a typical example of this. By boosting the liberalization of regional trade investment, APEC promotes the unification of global economy also facilitate the establishment of international economical order. Meanwhile, APEC helps WTO, which aims at free and fair trade, quite a lot. At the same time, by balancing competition and corporation between regions, APEC also remedies several problems of multilateral system which are mainly problems with competition. Korea should be involved positively in implementing and improving the plans which are executed both individually or together in order to promote the in-discrimination in the early stage and extend the idea of open regionalism and win the trust of the foreign countries and improve the commercial environment.

  5. WTO Reform: Background, Conditions and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana M. Isachenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maximizing the benefits of international division of labor and sharing the achievements of innovative development is possible only with the existence of a strict system of rules and regulations. Such system would enable fair regulation of international trade, ensure the transparency of market access and make it possible to challenge discriminatory measures, as well as to maintain certain measures to protect the interests of domestic producers. The creation of the multilateral trading system has started with the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT and was subsequently developed in the documents and codes, the decisions of the negotiating rounds. Since 1995, a set of rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO became the basis of the multilateral trading system. All rules are worked out at the multilateral level. However, in recent years the negotiations within the WTO has slowed down, that affected the quality and speed of decision-making on key issues of global development. That provokes the discussion it on a certain crisis of the WTO as the main regulator of world trade, and therefore the need to provide both institutional and substantive reforms.

  6. Development of nuclear energetics in Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikelsons, Karlis; Ekmanis, Juris; Gavars, Valdis; Tomsons, Elmars; Zeltins, Namejs

    2010-09-15

    A scientific nuclear reactor was launched in 1961, and a critical test assembly - in 1965. A unique gamma-ray source was created, and it was proposed to form an industrial production plant of radiation chemistry at Ignalina NPP. In order to supply Latvia with electricity, a site was chosen in the 1980-ties for a base-power nuclear power plant. After the restoration of independence the scientists of Latvia continue taking part in international projects of nuclear fusion and the 4th generation nuclear reactors. The supply of Latvia with electricity in a more distant period will be possible by using nuclear energy.

  7. WTO uks läks Venemaa ees lukku

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Pärast Gruusia konflikti USA kaubandusministri Carlos Gutierreze Venemaa WTO-sse astumise vastast avaldust ütles Venemaa lahti mitmest WTO-ga sõlmitud lepingust ning on juba varemgi loobunud läbirääkimiste käigus järeleandmiste tegemisest

  8. Trade and public health: the WTO, tobacco, alcohol, and diet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGrady, Benn

    2011-01-01

    .... This book examines the extent to which the law of the World Trade Organization restricts domestic implementation of these types of measures. The relationship between international health instruments and the WTO Agreement is examined, as are the WTO covered agreements themselves"--

  9. WTO Influence on EU Law: Too Close for Comfort?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, P.J.; Hoffmeister, F.; Wessel, R.A.; Blockmans, S.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution analyses the influence of WTO primary and secondary law on the primary and secondary law of the European Union. Moreover, the influence of WTO panel and Appellate Body reports on EU secondary law and administrative decisions is evaluated. As a principal example the article takes

  10. WTO — The knowledge deficit in trade negotiations | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The ferocity of negotiations in the World Trade Organization (WTO) was on display again at the Fifth WTO Ministerial Conference, held in Cancún, Mexico from September 10 to 14. The intensity of the negotiations reflects more than a clash of opinions about free trade. It gives expression to a deep and dangerous power ...

  11. Vietnam’s Accession to the WTO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Bentzen, Jeanet; Tarp, Finn

    This paper examines Vietnam’s experience with bilateral trade agreements and compares subsequent outcomes with predictions from existing computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. Those model based assessments have greatly underestimated the impact of past agreements. Tariff reform...... is not the main factor driving economic adjustments, and market imperfections mean there is potential for greater output and trade expansion. The key questions to ask in future research are what critical new institutional reforms WTO accession will bring, and what incentives will be put in place to determine...

  12. Latvia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Järg 2001 nr. 1 lk. 32-40, nr. 2 lk. 49-56, nr. 3 lk. 39-50, 2002 nr. 1 lk. 24-33, nr. 2 lk. 49-59, nr. 3 lk. 35-45, 2003 nr. 1 lk. 33-43, nr. 2 lk. 43-55, nr. 3 lk. 41-53, 2004 nr. 1 lk. 41-53, 2005 nr. 1 lk. 45-57, nr. 2 lk. 53-65, nr. 3 lk. 29-35. Ülevaade Läti peamistest majandusnäitajatest. Lisa: Tabel majandusnäitajatega

  13. The WTO as a Global Internet Governance Actor

    OpenAIRE

    Burri, Mira

    2013-01-01

    The presentation highlights the effects of WTO law on diverse elements of the Internet space and its governance. It also discusses some newer developments – triggered on the one hand by the slow adaptation of WTO law to the practical reality of digital trade and on the other hand, triggered by acts in the Internet Governance domain, with impact on the field of trade. In this analysis, the potential and the limits of the WTO as a global governance actor in general and a global Internet Gov...

  14. Economical and Political Transformations - Latvia's Case / Lembit Ebre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ebre, Lembit

    1999-01-01

    Juris Dreifeldsi raamatust "Latvia in transition" ja Marja Nissineni raamatust "Latvia's transition to a market economy". Läti poliitiline ja majanduslik areng. Tabel: Ettevõtete omanike jaotus rahvuste järgi

  15. (De)Legitimation at the WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creamer, Cosette; Godzimirska, Zuzanna

    2016-01-01

    Similar to many types of legal institutions, international courts employ a wide variety of legitimation strategies in order to establish and maintain a sound basis of support among their constituents. Existing studies on the legitimacy or legitimating efforts of the World Trade Organization's (WTO......) judicial bodies have relied largely on theoretical or normative priors about what makes these institutions legitimate. In contrast, this paper directly connects the study of courts' legitimating efforts with their effects by empirically mapping how the WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism's (DSM) exercise...... of authority has been received by the system's primary constituents—WTO Members. Drawing on an original dataset of statements made by WTO Members within meetings of the Dispute Settlement Body from 1995-2013 and a series of interviews, this paper provides a descriptive analysis of expressed views on its...

  16. 41 | Page SPECIAL AND DIFFERENTIAL TREATMENT IN THE WTO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    , SDT. 1. Introduction. The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only international organization dealing with the greatest economic challenges facing the world today.1 The aim of this organization is to create an international system that not ...

  17. Milline saab olema uuenenud WTO põllumajandusleping? / Ruve Schank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Šank, Ruve, 1954-

    2003-01-01

    Uuenenud WTO põllumajanduslepinguga hakkab riiklik toetus üha vähem olema seotud tootmisega, selle asemel toetatakse lihtsalt maal elamist ja seal töötamist põllumajandusega mitte otseselt seotud aladel

  18. The WTO Agenda and the Media Agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Saugmann; Skjoldan, Lasse

    ’ (DDA) negotiations. While the DDA was set off in 2001 and was intended to be concluded by the end of 2004, the multilateral negotiations are in the end of 2007 still short of agreement. This thesis conceives of the media agenda as an important factor influencing trade policy formation and trade...... negotiation in the WTO. Combining elements from agenda-setting and institutional media theory, the study examines which issues and themes have been covered (priming) and from which angles these issue have been covered (framing). In particular, this thesis investigates the degree to which this priming...... and framing seems to be institutionalised across time (the four summits) and across space (the five countries). Using stable trends in coverage as indications of institutionalisation the thesis concludes that the press agendas are highly institutionalised across both time and space. This is so because: A...

  19. WTO Accession: Tough love or a heavy hand? | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... The end of the MFA was “a strong motivating factor” in the government's decision to seek WTO accession in 1994, says the US-educated Siphana. So too was Cambodia's desire to leave behind its legacy of civil war and economic isolation. “The issue was not whether we should enter [the WTO] or not — we ...

  20. PENGATURAN SUBSIDI PERIKANAN DALAM WTO DAN DAMPAKNYA BAGI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton T. Putra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries subsidies have been practiced by many states in the world. Such actions are considered as one of the causes of over-fishing. Its also endanger sustainable fisheries management. There is no specific regulation on fisheries subsidies in the WTO. To date, negotiation over fisheries subsidies came out with the draft and it would be attach as Annexes VIII of SCM Agreement. The draft of fisheries subsidies specifically regulates prohibited subsidies, general exception and special and different treatment. The impact of the WTO fisheries subsidies draft will be negative to the Indonesian fisheries market, fishery resources and employment.   Subsidi perikanan telah dipraktikkan oleh negara-negara di dunia. Tindakan tersebut dianggap sebagai salah satu penyebab terjadinya eksploitasi sumber daya perikanan sehingga membahayakan pengelolaan perikanan berkelanjutan. Terkait dengan perdagangan dan subsidi perikanan, belum ada regulasi khusus tentang subsidi perikanan di WTO. Negosiasi di WTO hingga saat ini baru pada rancangan yang akan menjadi lampiran VIII SCM Agreement. Rancangan subsidi perikanan di WTO mengatur secara khusus tentang subsidi perikanan yang dilarang dan pengecualian secara umum. Dampak dari rancangan subsidi perikanan WTO tersebut apabila berhasil disahkan akan memberikan dampak negatif kepada Indonesia terkait dengan pasar perikanan, sumber daya perikanan dan lapangan pekerjaan.

  1. IMPROVEMENT OF REAL PROPERTY STRUCTURE IN LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velta Parsova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of land reform and various transactions in Latvia there was created a fragmented real property structure. If land fragmentation in other countries occurred in long period of time, in Latvia it was established in frame of land reform, which restored ownership rights to former landowners or their heirs, as well as land was assigned as ownership to other persons. During transition from planned economy to market economy there was obtained an ownership structure, which in the aspect of production efficiency is not competitive in market situation. An effective tool to reduce land fragmentation can be used land consolidation, land reallotment and other instruments. Elimination of land fragmentation can to facilitate use of the land according to the spatial development plans, which determines perspective land use. There is a lack of legislation in Latvia that determines implementation of land consolidation process. Therefore improvement of ownership structure should be one of the stages of land use planning.

  2. A sustainable energy-system in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lotte Holmberg

    2003-01-01

    but a negative trade-balance. With this in mind, it is important that Latvia is able to meet the challenge and use the economic development to develop a sustainable energy-system and a sounder trade-balance. A combination of energy planning, national economy and innovation processes in boiler companies will form......The paper presents some of the problems in the Latvian energy-system, the Latvian economy and how a sustainable restructuring of the energy system with renewable energy, co-generation and the production of energy technology can help solve some of the problems. Latvia has economic growth...

  3. USA tõstis tõkkepuu Vene WTO-püüdlustelt / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2006-01-01

    USA ja Venemaa leppisid põhimõtteliselt kokku tingimustes, mille täitmise korral saab Venemaa WTO-ga liituda. Liitumise peavad heaks kiitma kõik WTO liikmesmaad, raskeks võib osutuda heakskiidu saamine Gruusialt

  4. Russian Capital in Latvia: Trends and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Volgina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals the issue of the positions of Russian capital in Latvian market. The paper aims to estimate the volume and dynamics of Russian capital inflows into Latvia in compliance with Russian economic interests; to identify key sectors of Latvian economy that Russian capital is interested to invest in; to systemize information concerning Russian firms investing in Latvia; to assess the role of Russian capital in Latvian economy in comparison with other foreign investors; to propose author’s view on challenges and perspectives of Latvian-Russian investment cooperation in the situation of economic sanctions and geo-political conflict in east Ukraine. The author underlines that at the end of 2013, investments of Russian business to Latvia constituted about 5.0% of the total FDI stock and by that time Russia was the 7th largest investor with 0.5 bln euro of capital invested. The main sectors of Russian interests in Latvia are - gas supply, transport communications (transit corridors, banking and real estate. The article concludes that though the future of Russian-Latvian economic relations in the short-run is on a substantial pressure of geopolitical factors, the economic interests in mutual investment relations will prevail in the long-run perspectives.

  5. Surveying Language Attitudes and Practices in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priedite, Aija

    2005-01-01

    As a heritage from the Soviet period (1945-1991) about 500,000-700,000 (mostly Russophone) persons (military persons, workers and others) lived in Latvia with little or no command of Latvian. During the same period, the Russian language had replaced Latvian in the public administration. Following the restitution of independence in 1991, one of the…

  6. An Empirical Study of China's Participation in the WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism: 2001-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    On 11 December 2001, China officially became a Member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) after years of negotiations. The paper shows how a major developing country has used the WTO dispute settlement system by examining China's participation in the WTO dispute settlement mechanism from its entry through 31 December 2010. It provides a comprehensive analysis of the WTO dispute cases in which China has participated as a complainant, a respondent, or a third party

  7. Analysis of Trade Before and After the WTO: A Case Study of South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Rana Ejaz Ali Khan; Muhammad Ijaz Latif

    2009-01-01

    Trade stimulates economic growth as well as create employment. The basic principles (of the WTO) make the system economically more efficient and cut the production and marketing costs. It gives consumers more choice, and a broader range of qualities to choose from. These are the basic benefits of world trading given by the WTO (WTO 2003). A number of studies have explained implications of the WTO with reference to developed and developing countries. How much trade has been increased by nation...

  8. Ukraine’s Accession to the WTO: Strategy and Impediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhiy Lakhno

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on issues surrounding Ukraine’s internal efforts for WTO accession given the importance of completing the negotiation process prior to the December 2005 Hong Kong Ministerial Conference. The paper is divided into two sets of issues: first, Ukraine’s prospects of acquiring WTO membership, including procedural questions, in the near future, and second, the substantive conditions for completing the accession process and the associated problems that require immediate attention. Among other matters, the paper describes the current procedure for WTO accession and proposes an optimum scenario for Ukraine’s membership, identifying the necessary measures, timeframes and risks that threaten the prescribed tasks. It also highlights major institutional problems that are hindering the harmonization of Ukrainian laws with GATT/WTO rules and offers a WTO-consistent legislative and regulatory action plan with specific proposals on amending relevant laws. The paper also illustrates the major problematic aspects of multilateralism that are impeding the completion of the negotiations. Furthermore, the author offers several proposals concerning approaches to and techniques for addressing these challenging issues.

  9. Is There a Case - Legally and Politically - for Direct Effect of WTO Obligations?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fabri, H. R

    2014-01-01

      WTO law does not require its direct effect in domestic legal orders. Whilst the stances taken in these are diverse, showing that direct effect is not denied on the whole to WTO law, all the major trading members of the WTO deny...

  10. The potential of cluster development and the role of cluster support policies in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boronenko Vera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine the role of institutional and policy support for cluster development, and the competitive advantages of regions based on regional labour force concentration. The tool of cluster identification in regional economies - Location Quotient (LQ - has been applied to measure the concentration of the labour force in the main economic sectors of Latvia and Finland. This comparative analysis has shown that Finland has much stronger regional labour force concentration in certain sectors of the economy, which is not typical for Latvia and reveals that the regional economy of Latvia has much lower potential for cluster development and competitiveness in global markets. The results of this research confirm that governments should support cluster development to achieve sustainable long-term development based on natural growth poles, exploiting the potential of regional comparative advantages such as specific concentration of skills and knowledge (labour force, concentration of industries, natural resources, etc., but not concentrate on short-term priorities in cluster development.

  11. Final Energy Consumption Trends and Drivers in Czech Republic and Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiqian Yu; Dalia Streimikiene; Tomas Balezentis; Rimantas Dapkus; Radislav Jovovic; Veselin Draskovic

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the trends of final energy consumption in Latvia and Czech Republic. Analysis of final energy consumption during 2000-2013 period indicated the main driving forces of final energy consumption during and after world financial crisis of 2008. The paper aimed to evaluate the impact of economic activity and other factors on final energy consumption. The decomposition of the final energy consumption is assessed by analyzing effect of different drivers by the main end-users sect...

  12. Significance of hidden advertising of the media business models in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Rožukalne, Anda

    2012-01-01

    Since 2002 parliamentary and municipal elections in Latvia, media content researches have shown a considerable amount of hidden advertising: media publish information that is paid-for, yet not identified as advertising, assigning this information with the qualities of independent content, therefore misleading its audience. In order to analyze this practice, a research was commissioned to find out why Latvian media publish hidden advertising, what is the force behind this practice, who are com...

  13. The New WTO Tuna Dolphin Decision: Reconciling Trade and Environment?

    OpenAIRE

    Jakir, Vanda

    2013-01-01

    The WTO is often criticised for consistently refusing to accept the environmental measures of its Members due to their adverse impacts on international trade. The aim of this paper is to examine the recent developments in WTO law considering this clash between liberal trade and environmental protection. The analysis is based on the most recent US – Tuna II (Mexico)1 case, the third in the Tuna Dolphin line of case law. The paper shows that the Appellate Body still greatly favours free trade o...

  14. AN ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF ECONOMIC ACTORS IN THE WTO DISPUTE SETTLEMENT SYSTEM: LEGAL OR POLITICAL ISSUE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Soeparna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic actors are the main trade player in the World Trade Organization, although, the relation between WTO and economic actor is built by trade regulation that is negotiated among the WTO Members. Nothing in the WTO regulates economic actors to involve directly in the WTO, especially in the WTO dispute settlement system. Nevertheless, the debate amongst experts regarding the involvement of economic actors in the WTO dispute settlement system is unavoidable. This article therefore discusses the possibility of the involvement of economic actors in the WTO dispute settlement system, whether there is legal and political point of views

  15. Management of competitive intelligence in Latvia enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Cekuls, Andrejs

    2012-01-01

    The Doctoral Theses are dedicated to analyzes of competitive intelligence management. The author works out the qualitative study and quantitative study, analysing the practice of competitive intelligence in Latvian enterprises. When analysing the study results, the author evaluates the competitive intelligence process in the business environment of Latvia, works out the competitive intelligence model at the large and medium Latvian enterprises, as well as on the basis of the study resul...

  16. Environment Friendly Biodiesel Fuel in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Gudriniece, E.; Strēle, M.; Skujiņš, V.

    2006-01-01

    Biodiesel fuel (RME and REE) are alternative, environment friendly fuels for diesel engines, obtained from rapeseed oil and methanol or ethanol. RME are produced with capacity 2500 t/year at SIA “Delta Riga” experimental factory Naukseni in Latvia. The laboratory method of production biodiesel fuel (REE) from rapeseed oil and ethanol has been worked out at RTU. Blends RME and REE with fossil diesel fuel are applied, as well.

  17. Civil Society and Democratisation in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Dashi, Led; Bamberger, Jakob Grandjean; Simonsen, Stefan Lægaard

    2013-01-01

    With a focus on both the national and international Civil Society, this report investigates the democratisation process of Latvia in the decade following independence 1991-1999. Based on a conceptual framework of the interdependent relationships between formal and informal social capital, trust, civil participation and democratisation, the development of the Latvian Civil Society is analysed. Furthermore key features of the international Civil Society’s involvement in the country are included...

  18. Changes of Extreme Climate Events in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Avotniece, Z; Klavins, M; Rodinovs, V

    2012-01-01

    Extreme climate events are increasingly recognized as a threat to human health, agriculture, forestry and other sectors. To assess the occurrence and impacts of extreme climate events, we have investigated the changes of indexes characterizing positive and negative temperature extremes and extreme precipitation as well as the spatial heterogeneity of extreme climate events in Latvia. Trend analysis of long–term changes in the frequency of extreme climate events demonst...

  19. Latest News after the Creation of the WTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Montañà i Mora

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the Agreement establishing the World Trade Organization (WTO has added any new elements to GATT’s institutional milieu. In the introduction, the paper highlights the fact that the man who first proposed the creation of the WTO during the Uruguay Round negotiations (former Italian Minister Renato Ruggiero was actually elected as the first Head of the Organization. It then analyses the objectives of WTO, its scope of application, its functions, the conditions for membership, its bodies, and the decision making procedure. The core conclusion of the article is that in spite of having been presented to the world as something new, the Agreement establishing the WTO does little more than turn GATT from a de facto international organization into a de iure organization. Apart from this development, the only changes worth mentioning are the abolishment of the grandfather clause and the protocol of provisional application. In addition, it is submitted that far from being an unexpected development, the creation of the WTOwas in fact one of the implicit objectives of the Uruguay Round, and a logical consequence of the process aimed at strengthening the multilateral trading system.

  20. Advancing LDCs Interests in the WTO: Strengthening Participation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to advance LDC interests in the evolving multinational trading system and in view of the ongoing negotiations in the WTO. It will include: (i) rigorous evidence-based research on the trade interests of LDCs; (ii) identification of implications of the obligations undertaken by the LDCs; (iii) informed participation ...

  1. Economies in transition and the WTO process / David Roberts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roberts, David

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Vozdeistvije protsessa VTO na selskoje hozjaistvo v ekonomitsheskihh sistemahh perehoda : 26-29 julja 2003 goda, Tallinn, Estonija : materialõ konferentsii. - Tallinn, 2004, lk. 141-152. Üleminekuperioodiga maade probleemidest põllumajanduse arendamisel seotuna WTO protsessiga. Vt. samas riikide ülevaadet. Graafikud. Diagrammid

  2. The New WTO Telecom Agreement: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The telecommunication agreement reached by the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1997 will accelerate the global trend toward increased market access, competition, and deregulation. Examines opportunities for marketing and operations, dispute resolution and enforcement, profitability, and the exclusion of Russia and China. Includes the WTO…

  3. The Bali Agreement: Implications for Development and the WTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bellmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available At the most recent World Trade Organisation (WTO ministerial conference, in December 2013, in Bali, Indonesia, ministers from 160 countries concluded the first multilateral agreement ever negotiated under the auspices of the WTO. After five years of impasse in the moribund Doha Round of trade negotiations, the so-called “Bali package” was enthusiastically welcomed by the world’s governments and international press alike as a critical step towards restoring the credibility of the WTO as a negotiating forum. The centrepiece of the package is without doubt a new agreement on trade facilitation aimed at reducing red tape, and facilitating customs procedures in an effort to cut down the cost of doing business. Other — less far reaching — aspects of the deal focused on food security and a set of issues of particular interest to least developed countries including trade preferences or cotton subsidies. As the dust from the heated Bali negotiations settles, the main challenge for the WTO will now consist in building on this success to re-energise multilateral negotiations and ultimately close the Doha Round. In a world increasingly dominated by regional and bilateral free-trade agreements, members will have to confront the core issues that have divided them for nearly 15 years and find creative solutions to rehabilitate the WTO’s centrality in global trade governance.

  4. China’s Entrance to the WTO and Financial Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Soon Park

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The openness and liberalization of China’s financial market is expected to accelerate with her entrance to the WTO. China plans to carry out liberalization measures, including the expansion of the Renminbi business scope. Openness and liberalization will expedite the integration of internal and external sectors, thereby making the domestic financial market more vulnerable to environmental changes. Consequently, China should establish a strong financial system to efficiently cope with the contagion effects of an external financial crisis. However, China’s financial system is still very weak, mainly due to the enormous bad loans to SOEs (state-owned enterprises. Accordingly, the Chinese government should carry out financial reform measures such as strengthening the financial supervision system, dealing with bad bank loans and restructuring the financial institutions. On the whole, China’s entrance to the WTO is expected to have a positive influence on her financial sector by accelerating such reform policies as financial reform and SOE reform. Entrance to the WTO will make society recognize the necessity of reform and openness. The Chinese government can decide to push some difficult reform policies which would not have been considered without WTO entrance.

  5. WTO läbimurde ootel / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2006-01-01

    Maailma Kaubandusorganisatsioonis oodatakse Suure Leppe sündi, mis oleks kasulik ekspordist huvitatud avatud majandusega riikidele. Vt. samas: Tähtsamad huvigrupid WTO-s; Šveitsi valem kärbib kõrgeid tariife; Mauritius pelgab oma kaupade konkurentsivõime kahanemist; Eestit huvitavad tööstuskaupade eksportimise lisavõimalused; Mina sulle, sina mulle

  6. Dispute settlement process under GATT/WTO diplomatic or judicial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper probes the mechanisms of the dispute resolution process under the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade (GATT). It tries to analyse the evolution of the dispute process which was initially based on diplomatic procedures and gives an account of its evolution and ...

  7. English for International Trade: China Enters the WTO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jixian; Zhou, Xing; Fu, Zheng

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a survey into the impact of China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) on business professionals and college English instruction. Individuals in business and trading companies from the five cities in Ahejiang province were polled on issues related to the learning and teaching of English with reference to China's entry into…

  8. World Trade Organisation (WTO): Trade rules/agreements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The GATT (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs) rules of 1947 were seen as prejudicial to the economic and development concerns of developing countries. With the coming into effect of World Trade Organization (WTO), it was expected that some of the concerns of the developing countries will be addressed.

  9. Reflections on South Africa's continued absence from the WTO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In particular, the role of public-private partnerships in these other countries in dealing with WTO disputes is examined. The measures implemented by the South African government thus far to promote cooperation between itself and the private sector are also considered. The paper further highlights the potential benefits that ...

  10. Education in Latvia. Reviews of National Policies for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    How can Latvia improve the quality and equity of its education system and realise long-term efficiency gains? This report covers the whole education system from early childhood education and care to tertiary education and provides an assessment of Latvia's policies and practices against the best approaches in education and skills across the OECD.…

  11. Genus Sisymbrium L. (Rockets In The Flora Of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rūrāne Ieva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the largest genera in the Cruciferae family in Latvia is Sisymbrium L. The genus includes not only native, but also some alien species. The distributions of the Sisymbrium species were reviewed for the first time in the last 50th years in Latvia. The distribution data were compiled from herbarium material, literature and field surveys. An identification key for the Sisymbrium species in Latvia and detailed scientific nomenclature are presented in the current study. In total, seven species of Sisymbrium were found in Latvia — S. supinum L., S. loeselii L., S. polymorphum (Murray Roth, S. volgense M. Bieb. ex E. Fourn., S. altissimum L., S. orientale L. and S. officinale (L. Scop. The mainly were recorded in railway verges, roadsides, waste dumps and wasteland. Five species of the genus are alien to the flora of Latvia — S. loeselii, S. altissimum, S. polymorphum, S. orientale, and S. volgense; two are native — S. supinum and S. officinale.

  12. Legislative Framework for Landscape Planning in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitavska, Natalija; Zigmunde, Daiga

    2017-10-01

    With the adoption and the ratification of the European Landscape Convention a legally justified need for a clear landscape policy was grounded in the European countries. It includes the elaboration of the new and the improvement of the existing legislative documents on landscape planning, protection and management. The aim of the particular study is to analyse the existing legislative documents in Latvia influencing landscape planning on different scales / and the implementation of the European Landscape Convention. The study emphasizes the complex structure of the Latvian legislative framework affected by the distribution of the normative documents under the various ministries. Therefore, the main problem is unclear responsibility levels and organizational system for solving the issues regarding landscape planning, protection and management. Thus the various discussions between the involved disciplines and responsible institutions are arising. Two groups of the legislative documents influencing the implementation of the landscape policy in Latvia are detected within the study. The first group is strategic documents determining main landscape planning principles and directions at European, national, regional and professional or sectoral level. The second group is operational documents providing a set of actions for the landscape planning, protection and management at the local or the municipality level. The study concludes that operational documents developed by the municipalities are in high importance because of their direct influence on the landscape planning in Latvia. This often leads to the different landscape planning requirements included in the normative documents of the neighbouring municipalities, although the spatial and ecological borders of the visual landscape do not fit with the formal borders of the municipalities. Thus, it is essential to develop the common principles and actions that would be incumbent on all municipalities to provide the

  13. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer (CRC Program in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmejs Arvids

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The aim of the study is to evaluate the incidence and phenotype - genotype characteristics of hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes in Latvia in order to develop the basis of clinical management for patients and their relatives affected by these syndromes. Materials and methods From 02/1999-09/2002 in several hospitals in Latvia cancer family histories were collected from 865 patients with CRC. In families suspected of having a history consistent with a hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome, DNA testing for MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 genes was performed. In addition immunohistochemical (IH examination of the normal and cancer tissue from large bowel tumors for MSH2 and MSH6 protein expression was performed prior to DNA analysis. Results From the 865 CRC cases only 3 (0.35% pedigrees fulfilled the Amsterdam II criteria of Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC and 15 cases (1.73% were suspected of HNPCC. In 69 cases (8% with a cancer family aggregation (CFA were identified. Thus far 27 IH analyses have been performed and in 3 cancers homogenous lack of MSH2 or MSH6 protein expression was found. In one of these cases a mutation in MSH6 was identified. In 18 patients suspected of HNPCC or of matching the Amsterdam II criteria, denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC followed by DNA sequencing of any heteroduplexes of the 35 exons comprising both MLH1 and MSH2 was performed revealing 3 mutations. For all of kindreds diagnosed definitively or with a high probability of being an HNPCC family appropriate recommendations concerning prophylactic measures, surveillance and treatment were provided in written form. Conclusions Existing pedigree/clinical data suggest that in Latvia the frequency of HNPCC is around 2% of consecutive colorectal cancer patients. It is crucial that genetic counseling is an integral part of cancer family syndrome management.

  14. STATUS OF FRESHWATER CRAYFISH IN LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARENS A.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available There are three crayfish species present in Latvia: the European noble crayfish (Astacus astacus, the narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus, and the North-American signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus species. Probably only noble crayfish are native and migrated into the country after the last glaciation. Narrow-clawed crayfish has also been present at least since the beginning of the 20th century. In total there are current information on crayfish from 258 localities in Latvia. Most of these localities are lakes (175, but many crayfish populations are also found in river and streams (66. A few populations are found in reservoirs, ponds and gravel-pits. The noble crayfish (Astacus astacus is the dominant crayfish species and widely distributed in all regions of Latvia. 220 out of 258 crayfish localities contain only noble crayfish. The situation is much the same as in the 1960s, the most obvious change being that more noble crayfish populations are established in the area south of Riga. The narrowclawed crayfish has expanded its distribution since the 1960s when it was reported in 13 localities. Current records include 34 populations and eight of these are coexisting with noble crayfish. Previously, the narrow-clawed crayfish was confined to the southern part of the country. The present distribution includes several populations around Riga and in other parts of the Vidzeme region. The signal crayfish was introduced to one small lake in 1983. In 2004 it is found in another three localities (two rivers and one gravel-pit quite a distance from the first locality. This indicates stocking by man and not a natural dispersal. Probably the signal crayfish is more widespread than the current data show. Further in this paper, we present information on crayfish legislation, harvest and farming. The threats to the noble crayfish and the main objectives for crayfish conservation and use are also discussed.

  15. Financial Participation of Employees in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klauberg, Theis; Muravska, Tatyana; Mygind, Niels

    2006-01-01

    This report outlines main trends in employees' financial participation in Latvia including historical, socioeconomic and legal background. A special emphasis is placed on privatization during the transition period which shaped an environment for employees' financial participation and influenced...... the current state of employee share ownership and profit-sharing. Attitudes of social partners and the government will be addressed. The report will show why the transition process lead to a low level of employees' financial participation and the indifference and ignorance of policy makers concerning...... the development of financial participation....

  16. THE IMPACT OF THE WTO RETALIATION FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF HUMAN RIGHTS LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Innayatun Soeparna

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available World Trade Organization (WTO dispute settlement system through Panel and Appellate Body, allows sanction to be imposed when a member is unwilling to bring a WTO-inconsistent trade measure into conformity. According to the Article 22 of Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU, if in a certain case WTO Panel finds a party has failed to make new policy in compliance with the WTO rules, the aggrieved party is entitled to obtain retaliation. The WTO retaliation emerges negative impact for some countries in particular developing or small economic countries. This impact denotes the violation of international human rights law, particularly economic rights that stipulate in Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR. This paper explains the impact that arises when WTO retaliation is imposed to a country whether a developed or developing country, from the perspective of international human rights law.

  17. Impairment of assets– the case of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Zarina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic recession has led to the worsening of financial results of many Lat-vian companies. In this situation, cash flows from the use of assets in economic activities turn out to be insufficient to recover the balance sheet value of those as-sets. The laws and accounting standards of Latvia do not provide sufficient guid-ance on how the decrease in value should be calculated because cash flows gener-ated by individual items of fixed assets cannot be estimated reliably in most cases. In the present economic situation it seems reasonable to follow the rule that when the market value of assets is lower than their balance sheet value it is necessary to recognize an impairment loss or to carry out their revaluation, which will allow their true value to be calculated. Annual revaluation is necessary for those items whose true value is changeable. For items whose values change rarely revaluation can be done less frequently. In the economic situation of Latvia almost every com-pany, excepting only some production areas, is facing a high risk of decrease in the value of its assets. If there are indications that there may be a decrease in the value of long term assets, the company’s management has to consider at least the indicators provided by internal and external sources of information.

  18. Environmental implications of China's WTO accession

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vennemo, Haakon; Aunan, Kristin; He, Jianwu; Hu, Tao; Li, Shantong; Rypdal, Kristin

    2005-07-01

    China's accession to the WTO in 2001 completed the country's entry into the global economy. We investigate environmental implications of WTO-accession. There are several hypotheses in this area: The scale hypothesis says that production is scaled up and in turn, pollution increases. The composition hypothesis says that composition of industries changes and pollution reflects the new composition. The technique hypothesis says that production methods become cleaner and pollution decreases. We analyze the relative strength of the hypotheses by means of an environmental CGE-model, and in the case of air pollution find support for a composition effect in favor of clean industries. Thanks to the composition effect, emissions to air of greenhouse gases fall. Emissions of particles and SO2 also fall, but emissions of NOx and VOC rise. Since particle and SO2-emissions fall we estimate that public health improves (author)

  19. WTO kokkulepe viib piima hinna alla / Silja Lättemäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lättemäe, Silja, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    18. detsembril 2005. a. Hongkongis toimunud Maailma Kaubandusorganisatsiooni (WTO) tippkohtumisel saavutatud põllumajanduse-alaseid kokkuleppeid kommenteerib põllumajandusministeeriumi asekantsler Andres Oopkaup

  20. Invoking the Security Exceptions under GATT: Are Economic Sanctions Eroding the Foundation of the WTO?

    OpenAIRE

    Mustonen, Marika

    2016-01-01

    The national security exception under Article XXI of GATT is a major exception to Members’ obligations under the WTO. However, it has been claimed to be a loophole to the WTO system, and it goes beyond the principles of general international law on lawful suspension of treaty obligations. Throughout the GATT 1947 and WTO practice, from early cases to the case US – Helms-Burton regarding the U.S. embargo against Cuba, it has not yet been resolved whether Article XXI could be subject to the WTO...

  1. Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization (WTO): An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    from cattle produced from six specific growth -promotion hormones violated the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures...issue has been the subject of United States - Continued Suspension of Obligations in the EC— Hormones Dispute (DS320), a dispute initiated by the...in 1999 in retaliation for the EU’s failure to comply with the adverse WTO ruling on the EU’s ban on hormone -treated beef. The EU also initiated a

  2. MECHANISMS OF DOMESTIC FOOD SUPPORT IN THE WTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марина Львовна Яшина

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available After Russia has become a member of WTO it influenced on the position of native producers and requires some supporting action from the government.The purpose of this research is to offer opportunities to support the producers and agroprocessors on the terms of WTO.The scientific importance of this research consists in proving that Russian agriculture needs government support based on the nature of market economics and theUSexample as the world’s largest agricultural producer. Practical importance consists in exploring and improving specific events that are held inUlyanovskregion on the terms of WTO’s regulations.Problems of food security are considered from the position of the unity of theory and practice based on macroeconomic and microeconomic approaches. General scientific methods of cognition and traditional methods of economic analysis are used in the article.General results of the research: opportunities to support AIC on the terms of WTO are designated; particular qualities of government support for agro producers in the USA are analyzed; types and forms of supporting native producers and agroprocessors in Ulyanovsk region are considered. Conclusion of the need of improving support of AIC in the way as native food assistance is made.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-100

  3. Greenhouse Gases Emissions Reduction and WTO Trade Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghwan Kim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gases (GHGs cannot be contained within nations' border and climate change is certainly a global issue that requires global actions. Therefore, when a country considers domestic measures to reduce GHGs emissions, their impacts beyond the nation's border should be examined carefully. Possible effects through international trade are particularly important in the globalized world with growing trade and expanding capital movements. After reviewing the current status of multilateral environment agreements (MEAs, how they are related to WTO trade rules, legal questions and dispute cases that are possibly related to GHGs emissions reductioGreenhouse gases (GHGs cannot be contained within nations' border and climate change is certainly a global issue that requires global actions. Therefore, when a country considers domestic measures to reduce GHGs emissions, their impacts beyond the nation's border should be examined carefully. Possible effects through international trade are particularly important in the globalized world with growing trade and expanding capital movements. After reviewing the current status of multilateral environment agreements (MEAs, how they are related to WTO trade rules, legal questions and dispute cases that are possibly related to GHGs emissions reduction, this paper examines recently proposed border GHGs adjustment measures and various WTO agreements as potential tools that are promising or not promising. This paper also suggests how to make WTO’s potential tools ready and how to build global consensus so that we can avoid unilateral trade measures for climate change. Finally, policy implications for Korea are discussed.

  4. Evaluation of German Plum Selections in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grāvīte Ilze

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the suitability of growing plum cultivars and hybrids of German origin in Latvian conditions. In the trial the plum cultivars and hybrids were planted at the Latvia State Institute of Fruit Growing (now, Institute of Horticulture in spring 2008. Six W. Hartmann genotypes (cultivars ‘Tipala’, ‘Tegera’ and ‘Haganta’, and hybrids H-5102, H-3753, and H-3690 from Hohenheim University were included in the study. Prunus cerasifera was used as rootstock. The parameters evaluated were: beginning of flowering, ripening time, average yield (kg per tree, cumulative yield (kg, and average fruit weight from 2012 to 2016, and content of soluble solids from 2014 to 2016. In addition, self-fertility was evaluated in 2015 and 2016 for three cultivars and one hybrid. The winter of 2010/2011 was unfavourable, as plum orchards and most plum cultivars in Latvia suffered winter damage, but cultivars and hybrids in the trial were without damages. Significant damages were not observed in further years. Average flowering time in the four-year period for all cultivars and hybrids was the 1st or 2nd decade of May, harvest time was from the 1st decade of August to the 3rd decade of September. The earliest was hybrid H-3690, and the latest was cv.’Haganta’. The most productive was hybrid H-3690, which gave 42 kg in the 3rd year of yield and had the most rapid rise in yields. ‘Haganta’ had the biggest fruits (50 to 60 g and highest content of soluble solids (17-18 Brix%. Self-fertility level was 40% for ‘Tegera’, 17.4% for ‘Haganta’, 14.5% for H-3690 and 0% for ‘Tipala’. Evaluation of all analysed parameters showed that ‘Tegera’ could be recommended for Latvian growers thanks to good winter hardiness in the research period. ‘Haganta’ is recommended only for warmer regions in Latvia. Hybrid H-3690 will potentially be useful for Latvian growers.

  5. 76 FR 52045 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Diamond...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States--Anti- Dumping Measures... (``WTO Agreement'') concerning anti-dumping measures regarding diamond sawblades and parts thereof from... request dated February 28, 2001 regarding anti-dumping measures on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from...

  6. Heterogeneous trade agreements, WTO membership and international trade : an analysis using matching econometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, Tristan; Trojanowska, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the heterogeneous effects of trade agreements (TAs) and World Trade Organization (WTO) membership on the volume of international trade. We extend Baier and Bergstrand’s (2009a) application of matching econometrics by distinguishing between different types of TAs and WTO

  7. Analysis of Trade Before and After the WTO: A Case Study of South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Ejaz Ali Khan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Trade stimulates economic growth as well as create employment. The basic principles (of the WTO make the system economically more efficient and cut the production and marketing costs. It gives consumers more choice, and a broader range of qualities to choose from. These are the basic benefits of world trading given by the WTO (WTO 2003. A number of studies have explained implications of the WTO with reference to developed and developing countries. How much trade has been increased by nations after the implementation of the WTO remained an ambiguous estimation. The increase in trade can result into benefits of the WTO. Generally, it is taken that developing economies have taken lesser tranche of the global trading. By applying the before-after approach we have tried to estimate that how much trade is increased in South Asian counties. How much the agriculture and industrial sectors were contributing in boosting the trade of the nations before the WTO and how it is doing after the WTO. It concluded that trade of the South Asian nations has not been increased up to the expectations that results in to low gaining of benefits from world trade.

  8. Subsidies in WTO Law and Energy Regulation : Some Implications for Fossil Fuels and Renewable Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean

  9. Subsidy regulation in WTO Law : Some implications for fossil fuels and renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean

  10. Subsidies in WTO Law and Energy Regulation : Some Implications for Fossil Fuels and Renewable Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2018-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean

  11. Protection of Non-Trade Values in WTO Appellate Body Jurisprudence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The article suggests that the constitutional scope of the WTO leaves a wide space for the Appellate Body to protect non-trade values. That has, to some extent, materialized in Appellate Body practice; human health and environment are attaining general protection across the WTO treaties...

  12. The WTO ministerial conference in Seattle - results and future prospects for environmental protection; Die WTO-Ministerkonferenz in Seattle - Ergebnisse und Perspektiven fuer den Umweltschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, P.; Pfahl, S.; Reichert, T. [AG Handel des Forums und Entwicklung im Deutschen Naturschutzring (DNR), Bonn (Germany)

    2000-10-01

    The third Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) took place in Seattle (USA) from November 30{sup th} to December 3{sup rd} 1999. WTO members failed to agree on an agenda for a new round of trade-negotiation that should also include environmental and sustainability aspects. The Seattle Ministerial Conference provoked massive protests from non-governmental organisations (NGO) dealing with environment and development issues. They see the GATT/WTO regime - and globalisation in general - as a threat to their concerns. Against this background, the study analyses possibilities for the integration of environmental and sustainability aspects into upcoming WTO-negotiations. The focus is on views and proposals from international NGOs and critical scientists. First, the study deals with current and potential future areas of conflicts between environmental and trade policies. Furthermore, the environmental aspects of trade liberalisation in specific sectors and regulatory fields are discussed, which are currently negotiated in the WTO (agriculture, services) or which should be included in further negotiations (forest products, investment, etc.). The study moves on to an account of the WTO-Conference in Seattle from an environmental perspective and demonstrate a multitude of factors contributed to the failure of the conference. (orig.) [German] Vom 30.11. bis 03.12.1999 tagte in Seattle (USA) die 3. Ministerkonferenz der Welthandelsorganisation (WTO). Sie scheiterte bei dem Versuch, eine Einigung ueber die Agenda fuer eine neue WTO-Verhandlungsrunde herbeizufuehren, die auch Umwelt- und Nachhaltigkeitsaspekte einschliessen sollte. Die Konferenz stand unter dem starken Eindruck massiver Proteste von zahlreichen Umwelt- und Entwicklungsorganisationen, die im GATT/WTO-Regime - sowie grundsaetzlich in der Globalisierung - eine Bedrohung fuer Umwelt- und Nachhaltigkeitsanliegen sehen. Vor diesem Hintergrund untersucht die Studie die Moeglichkeiten einer

  13. WTO ACCESSION OF BRICS COUNTRIES: THE CHINESE EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mikheeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The stages of reforms under the influence of requirements of the World Trade Organization are considered on the basis of an analysis of Chinese legislation. Four stages of preparation by the People’s Republic of China for accession to the WTO within which there was a transformation of the legal system of China from 1982 to 2001 are described. The sources of Chinese lawmaking are presented and systematized as the basis of the economic legislation of the PRC at the stage of preparation for inclusion of China in the WTO. Attention is drawn to the particularities of the power organization of the Chinese state, in which there is no separation of powers into three branches: legislative, executive and judicial. This, in turn, allows to mark the feature in the economic sphere of legal regulation in China connected with the existence of the rules established by the Supreme National Court as a source of law. To represent the dynamics of normativelegal regulation of foreign trade activities, China has used the system of dialectical and universal methods of knowledge; general scientific methods (induction and deduction and techniques (analysis and synthesis; as well as a special method – formally-legal. The identified course and direction of changes in legal support of domestic and foreign economic processes in China suggests the possibility to consider the experience of China in the promotion of Russia in the international trading community.The authors propose that the entry of China into the WTO is of interest to the BRICS countries as long as China achieves optimal utilization of the WTO’s external economic opportunities. In addition, China has established a legally solid basis for the development of market relations in the state.

  14. Multilateral environmental agreements and the WTO: Platform for mutual support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-08

    The purpose of this report is to identify elements of conflict in the relation between the Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) and the World Trade Organisation (WTO). Potential modifications of the trade framework are discussed together with some indicative solutions. The trade framework should be adapted to allow more extensive and effective use of MEAs. This may be accomplished through an agreed interpretation of the exception clauses contained in Art. XX of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). An interpretive agreement should include specific criteria concerning the conditions under which derogations from the main principles of GATT may apply

  15. Learning in the WTO/DDA Negotiations?: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankyoung Sung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify learning in games in experimental economic settings, and apply their results to real multilateral trade negotiations, such as the Doha Development Agenda (DDA in the World Trade Organizations (WTO. This paper argues that the structure of games including a veto player (Veto games is similar to the WTO/DDA negotiations in that the players do not possess identical power. This paper's main contribution to the literature involves showing that learning about power is dominant over learning from simple repetition in Veto games. Additionally, this paper shows that players are concerned about how much they have gained in previous games in Veto games, although their memories generally do not last beyond the next game, and thus they tend to be selfish as they have less shares. Based on these results, there is a possibility to be more generous in the distribution of benefits by allowing players without veto power to retain special rights so that they would not be totally powerless. It also shows the necessity of having "respite" in the process of negotiations and policy options for choosing partners for winning coalitions.

  16. Effects of WTO on the Textile Industry on Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Abdul Sattar Shah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The current investigates the Effects of WTO on the Textile Industry on Developing Countries. Data were collected from various secondary sources and data is analyzed by using SPSS-20 version statistical software. It was revealed that WTO more industrialized countries consented to export fewer textiles while less industrialized countries enjoyed increased quotas for exporting their textiles. Bangladesh was expected to suffer the most from the ending of the MFA because it was expected to face more competition, particularly from China, it has tried to maintain its competitiveness in the post-quota era. It was further revealed that It has also been examined that all over the world textile industries are facing high inflation which is the hottest issue due to which the cost of doing business is going higher and higher day by day. The Chinese, Indian, Sri Lankan and Bangladeshi textile manufacturers are also out of those affected ones whose major issues are associated with increased cost of production. China’s dominance of the global garments trade has also been affected due to the rise in the costs of material, labour, energy, environmental protection and high interest rate. Furthermore, the environmental standard is also a barrier to many Chinese enterprises; even most of the Chinese enterprises have inputted environmental Standard.

  17. BRICS STATES IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE: THE WTO CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra G. Koval

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The rise of emerging powers in the world economy has a significant impact on the transformation of global economic governance. The countries with emerging economies seek to enhance their role in international economic organizations and decision-making at the global level. The main players here are the BRICS countries. The contradictions between these countries and Western states represent a modern challenge to the functioning of the global governance. This is clearly demonstrated by the failure of the international trade negotiations under the WTO, which leads to the shift of member states’ priorities towards megaregional trade agreements and indicates the need for changes in the organization. The WTO cannot be seen today as a “rich men’s club” since emerging powers are eager to actively participate in trade negotiations, while recognizing the established rules and regulations. Despite the attempts of certain cooperation in their policies, BRICS countries differ in their trade interests. These states not only play different roles at the world markets of goods and services, but also apply various tariff and non-tariff measures. Moreover, a significant number of protectionist measures affects intra-BRICS trade. These differences complicate the cooperation of emerging powers in the international trading system and entangle the process of transformation of global economic governance.

  18. Remote Sensing Observations of Thunderstorm Features in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avotniece Zanita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thunderstorms are the most hazardous meteorological phenomena in Latvia in the summer season, and the assessment of their characteristics is essential for the development of an effective national climate and weather prediction service. However, the complex nature of convective processes sets specific limitations to their observation, analysis and forecasting. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyse thunderstorm features associated with severe thunderstorms observed in weather radar and satellite data in Latvia over the period 2006–2015. The obtained results confirm the applicability of the selected thunderstorm features for thunderstorm nowcasting and analysis in Latvia. The most frequent features observed on days with thunderstorm were maximum radar reflectivities exceeding 50 dBZ and the occurrence of overshooting tops and tilted updrafts, while the occurrence of gravity waves, V-shaped storm structures and small ice particles have been found to be useful indicators of increased thunderstorm severity potential.

  19. Remote Sensing Observations of Thunderstorm Features in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avotniece, Zanita; Briede, Agrita; Klavins, Maris; Aniskevich, Svetlana

    2017-12-01

    Thunderstorms are the most hazardous meteorological phenomena in Latvia in the summer season, and the assessment of their characteristics is essential for the development of an effective national climate and weather prediction service. However, the complex nature of convective processes sets specific limitations to their observation, analysis and forecasting. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyse thunderstorm features associated with severe thunderstorms observed in weather radar and satellite data in Latvia over the period 2006-2015. The obtained results confirm the applicability of the selected thunderstorm features for thunderstorm nowcasting and analysis in Latvia. The most frequent features observed on days with thunderstorm were maximum radar reflectivities exceeding 50 dBZ and the occurrence of overshooting tops and tilted updrafts, while the occurrence of gravity waves, V-shaped storm structures and small ice particles have been found to be useful indicators of increased thunderstorm severity potential.

  20. Lietojuma un apmierinājuma teorija: Facebook lapas "If you like Latvia, Latvia likes you" jauniešu sekotāju analīze

    OpenAIRE

    Koroļkova, Renāte

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir „Lietojuma un apmierinājuma teorija: Facebook lapas "If you like Latvia, Latvia likes you" jauniešu sekotāju analīze”. Darba galvenais jautājums: kādu vajadzību apmierināšanai latviešu jaunieši seko „If you like Latvia, Latvia likes you” Facebook lapai? Lai gūtu atbildi uz izvirzīto jautājumu, tika izvirzīti šāds mērķis: noskaidrot, kādas tēmas tiek aktualizētas „If you like Latvia, Latvia likes you” Facebook profila saturā, kas pievērš jauniešu (latviešu) sekotāju uz...

  1. 78 FR 58378 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Measures on Large...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Anti-Dumping and Countervailing... using the weighted average-to-transaction comparison methodology in anti-dumping investigations, administrative reviews and other segments of anti- dumping proceedings.'' Korea also challenges Commerce's...

  2. 75 FR 60159 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Certain Measures Affecting Electronic Payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China--Certain Measures Affecting Electronic Payment Services AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Office of the United States Trade Representative (``USTR'') is providing...

  3. WTO dispute settlement proceedings: European support for Airbus in the spotlight

    OpenAIRE

    Maennig, Wolfgang; Wittig, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    The bilateral WTO Agreement on Trade in Large Civil Aircraft (TLCA) of 1992 regulated the permitted levels of support for the European and American aviation industries. In October 2004, the US unilaterally withdrew from the TLCA, right as Boeing was about to lose its market leader status. Together with the termination of the TLCA, the US requested the initiation of WTO dispute settlement proceedings against the EU as well as against the governments of Germany, France, the UK and Spain regardi...

  4. Higher education’s contribution to economic performance and innovativeness in Latvia: Exploratory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankevičs Aivars

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed investigation of higher education’s contribution to economic performance and innovativeness in Latvia is necessary because of contradictory facts in the socio-economic reality of Latvian higher education. Despite the fact that investment in the Latvian higher education system results in high participation, the economic and innovation returns, i.e., the profitability of the resulting highly educated labour force, are low. The analysis of the literature has shown that there are other factors that determine higher education’s contribution to economic performance and innovativeness and enable highly skilled specialists to potentially turn their knowledge into innovation and national income; e.g., the quality of higher education and the level of technological development in business. We conducted an empirical analysis of a set of indicators that are potentially significant to economic performance and innovativeness, and concluded that, first, higher education’s contribution to economic performance and innovativeness differs depending on the stage of the country’s economic development; and second, that a country’s ability to attract and retain talented people becomes more significant at each stage of economic development. In Latvia both the ability to attract and retain talented people and the level of technological development are poorly developed, which results in low economic and innovative returns from a relatively large number of highly skilled specialists.

  5. Final Energy Consumption Trends and Drivers in Czech Republic and Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqian Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the trends of final energy consumption in Latvia and Czech Republic. Analysis of final energy consumption during 2000-2013 period indicated the main driving forces of final energy consumption during and after world financial crisis of 2008. The paper aimed to evaluate the impact of economic activity and other factors on final energy consumption. The decomposition of the final energy consumption is assessed by analyzing effect of different drivers by the main end-users sector (industry, transport, households, agriculture, services, activity, demography, lifestyles, structural effects, energy savings etc. The results show that the reduction in final energy consumption in most EU members states before and after year 2008 can be related to the decline in energy intensities within endusers sectors. At the same time, the increase in final energy intensity after the year 2008 is attributed to expansion of energy demand sectors. Comparison of final energy consumption trends and drivers in Latvia and Czech Republic indicated that Czech Republic implemented more policies and measures in industry and tertiary sector and this provided for final energy consumption decreased and huge energy savings in these sectors.

  6. Internet Banking Adoption: Case of Lithuania and Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaile-Sarkane, Elina; Jureviciene, Diva; Skvarciany, Viktorija; Iljins, Juris

    2017-01-01

    The banking sector has developed and extended usage of different services at a distance using the internet in the last decade. Internet-based banking services dominate over other historically provided alternatives. This paper explores the adoption of internet banking in Lithuania and Latvia. Internet banking success model was developed based on…

  7. Technical Assistance to Land Privatisation and Registration in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1998-01-01

    The current situation on Photogrammetry, Digital Mapping and Land Information Systems is described concerning State Land Service in Latvia. The report lists achievements during the project period October 1996 – September 1998, in particular on staff training, production improvements and logistics....

  8. Quality product of Latvia on threshold of the European Union

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Läti turundusnõukogu poolt loodud nn "rohelise lusika" logo, algselt "Quality product of Latvia" nime kandnud kaubamärgist, mis võimaldab märgistada kõrgekvaliteedilisi tooteid nende päritolu rõhutamata

  9. Low Level Caesium Mapping in Latvia Anno 1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina

    1999-01-01

    In Latvia the caesium-137 contamination from the Chernobyl accident and from the nuclear weapon tests in the 1960´es is very low. Conventional techniques for extracting information from the measured spectra cannot be used here. Therefore a new, sensitive technique - the pseudo concentration method...

  10. Low Level Caesium Mapping in Latvia Anno 1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina

    1999-01-01

    In Latvia the caesium-137 contamination from the Chernobyl accident and from the nuclear weapon tests in the 1960´es is very low. Conventional techniques for extracting information from the measured spectra cannot be used here. Therefore a new, sensitive technique - the pseudo concentration method...

  11. The Review of Internet Marketing Use in Latvia's Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloka, Biruta; Kantane, Inara; Walczak, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Development of new technologies and increasing competition require new solutions in business applications in internet marketing and advertising. The paper deals with issues related to advertising activities in internet marketing. There were presented both theoretical findings and empirical analysis of the survey conducted among Latvia's companies.…

  12. The role of transit in the economy of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gžibovska Nataļja

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Transit is an important issue in the history of world economy, including the economy of Latvia. Transit makes a significant contribution to the budget of many transit countries, one of which is the Republic of Latvia. These countries do not have significant natural resources and prefer to focus on logistics and infrastructure in order to facilitate the transit process. This article focuses on the role of transit in the economy of Latvia, whose unique geographical position makes the country an effective transport corridor (bridge in both the west-east and north-south directions. The article presents the results of an opinion poll conducted at Latvian transit enterprises regarding their future development and offers an overview of the main seaports and the Rīga international airport. The author examines the issue of Russia’s accession to the World Trade Organization and its impact on the Latvian transit, the prolongation of EU sanctions against Belarus, and the use of Latvian transport infrastructure for handling the non-military cargo traffic to/from Afghanistan. In conclusion, a forecast of possible transit development in Latvia is provided.

  13. Economic crisis in the Baltic states : Focusing on Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyama Yoji

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the causes of the economic crisis in new EU member states in Central and Eastern Europe, focusing on the Baltic States, especially Latvia. Thanks to the Single Market of the EU, workers in this country became able to migrate to advanced EU countries, especially the UK, decreasing the unemployment rate and at the same time causing a sharp increase in wages due to a tightened labour market. Banks from Nordic countries came to operate in Latvia and competed for market shares, stirring a consumption boom. In a situation in which people can easily get loans denominated in a foreign currency the monetary policies of the central bank are weakened. The Latvian economy already showed signs of overheating in 2005. However in the spring of 2007 the government turned to restrictive policies, causing a depression at the end of 2007. The Lehman shock dealt the Latvian economy its final blow. Latvia set up the introduction of the Euro in 2013 as an exit strategy. Latvia is in a dilemma: if the country does not devalue its national currency and tries to satisfy the Maastricht criteria soon, it will be obliged to adopt pro-cyclical policies, causing economic stagnation.

  14. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunickis M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale.

  15. PARTICULAR ASPECTS OF THE WTO MECHANISMS APPLICATION TO PROTECT THE NATIONAL ECONOMIC INTERESTS OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Us

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyze the issue of applying by Ukraine of mechanisms developed in the legal framework by the World Trade Organization to protect the internal market in order to prepare appropriate recommendations to state power authorities empowered to carry out trade policy. Methodology. The study is based on studying the experience of Ukraine to revise its commitments on tariff lines for the first three-year period after the accession to the WTO, as well as on the analysis of the most resonant steps to protect the internal market taken by Ukraine and the consequences of these steps. Result. The issue of applying by Ukraine of tools developed by the World Trade Organization to protect the interests of national producers has been described in this article. The situation of the use by Ukraine of a right to review the conditions of membership in the WTO has been reviewed step by step starting from the studying of this issue within the country and to the statements by the Government not to use this feature. All the stages of the process of using the possibility to revise the conditions of membership in the WTO have been analyzed as well as the mistakes that led to the absence of the desired result in the end. Also, the basic tools of protection of the domestic market in the WTO system, such as anti-dumping investigation and the investigation concerning the subsidized imports has been considered The dynamics of the use of such investigations by all WTO member countries since the establishment of the WTO, with particular emphasis on the period of the financial and economic crisis of 2008-2010 has been reviewed. The number of successful investigations led to the application of certain protective measures also has been determined. The risks that arise in the absence of the Government of Ukraine steps to improve the efficiency of representation of interests in the WTO have been analyzed. Recommendations improving the use of WTO

  16. Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon; What Are the Consequences of China’s WTO Entry for India’s Trade?

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2005-01-01

    One of the most significant recent developments in world trade has been the entry of China into the World Trade Organization (WTO). This paper examines the implications of China's WTO accession for India's trade, using both econometrics and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. The paper analyzes how India stands to lose or gain from China's WTO entry in terms of both the direct and competitive channels.

  17. Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon: What Are the Consequences of China’s WTO Entry for India’s Trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Valerie Cerra; Sandra A. Rivera; Sweta C. Saxena

    2005-01-01

    One of the most significant recent developments in world trade has been the entry of China into the World Trade Organization (WTO). This paper examines the implications of China’s WTO accession for India’s trade, using both econometrics and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. The paper analyzes how India stands to lose or gain from China’s WTO entry in terms of both the direct and competitive channels.

  18. Psychiatry in Latvia: a journey through the past three centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancāns, Elmārs; Tērauds, Elmārs; Taube, Māaris

    2012-12-01

    While there is close contact established between Latvia and the Nordic psychiatric community now, there are many pages of our history we have not had opportunity to share. The aim of this article is to highlight the most important facts of more than 200 years of history of psychiatry in Latvia. The development of the psychiatric services in Latvia started with the building of an asylum-type establishment at the end of the 1700s. To address the increasing needs, psychiatric hospitals of various size and quality were gradually opened all over the country. Psychiatry as a field of science emerged in Latvia after the Declaration of Independence in 1918. Active and progressive development of services and the academic environment took place between the World Wars. During the Soviet regime, psychiatric services were rebuilt within the frameworks and guidelines of the existing system. Following the restoration of Independence in 1991, a number of rapid and positive changes took place. There was a gradual decrease in the number of hospital beds, outpatient services were developed and modern treatment methods were established. Policy documents in the field of mental health were developed and legislation improved. Active collaboration with other, particularly Scandinavian, countries was developed. Academic education continued and specialist training was provided following European standards. The role of the psychiatric professional organization was strengthened. Many positive changes in the mental healthcare in Latvia have taken place, but there are still some aspects to be addressed. The strengthening of our regional collaboration could be crucial for our future development.

  19. Force

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Forces are at work all around us. Discover what a force is, and different kinds of forces that work on contact and at a distance. We use simple language and vocabulary to make this invisible world easy for students to ""see"" and understand. Examine how forces ""add up"" to create the total force on an object, and reinforce concepts and extend learning with sample problems.

  20. Sustainable development and trade liberalisation: the opportunities and threat roused by the WTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voituriez Tancrede

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The entanglement of trade and sustainable development agenda raises two different and obvious concerns we would like to dwell upon. The first one basically deals with the definition of sustainable development and the fear that the concept might become looser and looser the more it pervades trade and corporate arenas. The second concern pertains to the compatibility of internationdal trade laws embodied within the WTO, with international environment and labour agreements hosted by the UN. This paper provides some argument to the debate by focusing on the implications, on these two areas of concerns, of sustainable development pervading the WTO. Our two main arguments are as follows. Firstly, the social component of sustainable development is today the poor relation of sustainable development’s inscription among the WTO objectives. Secondly, effective restrictions on trade for either health or natural resource preservation are extremely rare. Article XX of the Gatt, allowing for such a restriction (“exception” is the appropriate word, cannot be referred to as long as WTO members omit to abide to non-discriminatory principles in their trade policies. Whatever the reasons one country requests to escape WTO rules, it has to do so while treating its trading partners on the same foot. These two results may reassure those developing countries that fear a “new” or “green” protectionism (which seems more fantasized than real in so far from rich countries. Does it all suggest that WTO principle-compatible trade and sustainable trade is the same animal? The case law would rather suggest that WTO and its sustainable development objective seems more an organisation aimed at preventing countries from using sustainable development as a fallacious argument for trade restriction than an organisation dedicated to promoting sustainable trade per se.

  1. THE POLEMIC OF GIVING DIRECT EFFECT OF WTO LAW AND DSB DECISION TO DOMESTIC LAW FOR INDIVIDUAL’S JUDICIAL PROTECTION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soeparna, Intan

    2016-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, this doctrine is intractable to imply. This article discuss the polemic of giving direct effect of WTO Law and DSB Decision to domestic law to provide judicial protection for individual who becomes victim of WTO violation conducted...

  2. Aspects of morphological diversity of oregano in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Sivicka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Oregano populations are variable by morphology, cytology, genetics, biochemistry and agrobotany. Using international Draft Descriptor Lists it is possible to describe oregano samples and to select the most variable accessions for cultivation of Origanum vulgareL. The aim of this research was to explore the several aspects of morphological diversity of oregano in Latvia. In summer 2012, 44 oregano accessions from an ex situcollection of spice- and medicinal plants of the Laboratory of Cultivated Plants and Apilogy ( Jelgava, 1 Strazdu str. were analysed. Plant growth habit, plant height, number of stems per plant, branching density, colour of the upper surface and shape of blade of the leaf, density of flowers, colour of petals were described in this research. The results showed that oregano accessions differ morphologically in Latvia. It is necessary to continue this research to allow plants to fully express their characteristics and to explore the possible changeableness of parameters.

  3. 75 FR 32533 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States--Anti- Dumping Measures... Tariffs and Trade 1994 (the Anti-Dumping Agreement); Article XVI:4 of the WTO Agreement; part I.2 of... applying so-called ``zeroing'' in the determination of the margins of dumping in the proceedings identified...

  4. Law [Review of: World trade report 2011: the WTO and preferential trade agreements: from co-existence to coherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathis, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    The World Trade Review asked distinguished scholars from the three different fields of economics (Pravin Krishna), political science (Edward D. Mansfield) and law (James H. Mathis) to independently review the WTO's annual World Trade Report for 2011, the theme of which is The WTO and Preferential

  5. Wrestling on the Table: The Contemporary Wedding Meal in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astra Spalvēna

    2012-03-01

    I argue that the wedding ceremony reveals the shift from rites of passage to social distinction. This argument is developed by analysing how social and family relationships, value systems and the ethos as a whole have changed recently in Latvia. The use of the symbolic capacity of wedding food, denoting fertility and prosperity, provides the stability of the structure of the wedding feast, which also affects the structure of the marriage ceremony as a whole.

  6. An empirical study on the effect of WTO membership on Iranian Handicraft industry: A case study of Persian carpet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shirzour Aliabadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The world Trade Organization (WTO is one of the few organizations, which could significantly influence on foreign trade and consequently on the economic structure of the countries. There are literally different people in Iran who either encourage or discourage WTO membership. Therefore, it is important to analyze Iran’s WTO membership to empower Iranian handmade carpet in international trades and to help improvement in quality of production. The purpose of this research is to study the effects of Iran’s membership in WTO to empower this industry by performing an empirical survey among 100 experts in this industry. Findings demonstrate that access to WTO plays an important role on increasing production of handmade carpet and developing this industry. In addition, the industry needs to incorporate the recent advances on technology to ensure cost efficient production materials. The industry also needs more creative and innovative ideas due to an increase competition in handmade carpet producers from other countries.

  7. The Challenge of the GATS for Transition Economies Seeking to Join the WTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Anthony VanDuzer

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Transition economies seeking to join the World Trade Organization (WTO face a variety of distinctive challenges relating to their prospective obligations under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS. Transition economies are characterized by changing market and industry structures on the one hand, and ongoing reforms to their regulatory structures on the other. Both make it extremely difficult for transition economies to develop a position on what WTO services commitments they should undertake in their national schedules of specific commitments. Accession negotiations are further complicated by the evolving nature of GATS rules themselves and the tough negotiating stance taken by existing Members. Based on evidence from recent accessions, the effective minimum requirements relating to services for transition economies seeking to join the WTO are increasing

  8. Short Cycle Higher Education Development in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, Intra

    2017-01-01

    Education plays an important role in the economy and everyday life since economic well-being largely depends on the knowledge, skills and proficiency of the labour force. Thanks to the Bologna reforms, students and graduates are able to move freely throughout the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) where qualifications are recognised as well as…

  9. Institutional Coherence between WTO and IMF: From the Perspective of the Trade Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Dukgeun Ahn

    2000-01-01

    The intertwined relationship between international financial institutions such as the IMF or the World Bank and international trade institutions such as the GATT and the WTO has become by far closer and more complex than ever. In particular, when the roles of the IMF and the World Bank have increased as a result of the recent financial and exchange crisis that swept over the substantial part of the world economy, the new Bretton Woods regime within which it now embraces the WTO has raised a s...

  10. 77 FR 64127 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... COMMISSION Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar from Belarus... concrete reinforcing bar from Latvia and Moldova. The Commission found that the respondent interested party...

  11. The constitution of a new global regime: Higher education in the GATS/WTO framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verger, A.; Epstein, D.; Boden, R.; Deem, R.; Rizvi, F.; Wright, S.

    2007-01-01

    The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), negotiated within the World Trade Organization (WTO), has become the main instrument for the transnationalisation of higher education. It promotes trade liberalisation in services and, thereby, the consumption of distance courses and degrees in

  12. Dispute resolution in NAFTA and the WTO: a useful guide for SADC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the process of developing, structuring and formalising the mechanism for settlement of trade disputes in the SADC region, the system for the settlement of disputes in both NAFTA and the WTO can serve as a useful guide for SADC and even more so for the African Union. The swift, fair and just settlement of especially ...

  13. 77 FR 19745 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States; Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States; Anti- Dumping Measures... order would be likely to lead to the continuation or recurrence of dumping, Certain Frozen Warmwater... methodology for determining margins of dumping in administrative reviews; (8) the practice of requiring...

  14. 77 FR 46788 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duties on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China--Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duties on Certain Automobiles From the United States AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice...

  15. 77 FR 61818 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duties...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States--Anti- Dumping and...-dumping and countervailing duties on certain automobiles from the United States. That request may be found...

  16. WTO oversight over bilateral agreements: from a notification to an examination process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens Ladefoged

    2014-01-01

    The TTIP will – like other free trade agreements (FTAs) – violate one of the cornerstones of the WTO, i.e. the Most-Favoured-Nation (MFN) principle. However, the multilateral trading system has since 1947 permitted the formation of trading blocks and preferential bilateral trading partnerships...... investigate the economic effects of the notified FTAs....

  17. 76 FR 11553 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti Dumping Measures on Corrosion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Korea AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... (``WTO Agreement'') concerning antidumping measures regarding corrosion- resistant carbon steel flat... concerning antidumping measures regarding corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products from Korea. Korea...

  18. FOREIGN INVESTMENTS INTO SVERDLOVSK AREA IN THE CONTEXT OF RUSSIAN CONNECTION TO WTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Kapustina

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics and structure of the foreign investments involved in economy of Sverdlovsk area are analyzed in the article. Consequences of Russian connection to WTO from the view point of foreign investments volumes change are considered. Directions of multilateral regulation of investment measures on the basis of the international arrangements are certain.

  19. Viimase hetke kokkulepe päästis WTO tippkohtumise / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    Kuigi EL-i eelarvekõnelustel Brüsselis jäeti ühine põllumajanduspoliitika puutumata, sunnib WTO tippkohtumisel Hongkongis saavutatud lepe 2013. aastast alates EL-i põllumajanduse toetamist revideerima. Lisa: Politsei vahistas 900 meeleavaldajat

  20. 75 FR 62624 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Final Antidumping Measures on Stainless...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... Measures on Stainless Steel from Mexico AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION... Stainless Steel from Mexico to a panel. The request may be found at http://www.wto.org in document WT/DS344... Stainless Steel from Mexico. The recommendations and rulings stem from the DSB's adoption of the panel and...

  1. WTO law and economics and restrictive practices in energy trade : The case of the OPEC cartel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The World Trade Organization cannot deal comprehensively with restrictive export practices maintained by energy cartels such as the OPEC. The main reason for this is the absence of competition rules in the multilateral trading system. However, in spite of the fact that the WTO does not have rules on

  2. 76 FR 12401 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Certain Measures Affecting Electronic Payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China--Certain Measures Affecting... China affecting electronic payment services for payment card transactions and the suppliers of those...: Although USTR will accept any comments received during the course of the dispute settlement proceedings...

  3. “Trade Liberalization with Chinese Characteristics”: Few Notes on PRC’s WTO Membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Butiseacă

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a significant amount of published empirical studies that describe the relation of the People’s Republic of China with the World Trade Organization as the vehicle through which this country has reached the goal of opening further its domestic economy by freeing its foreign trade. If those ruling the Chinese people’s destiny saw in the WTO accession, along with the acceptance of its basic rules, a path that will lead them to the benefits and opportunities offered by some sectors’ liberalization, this judgment raises several concerns. An obvious one could be: Why not doing this unilaterally? Benefits might have been consistent. Not only that this would have been much easier, if the will of the Party, but the effects of opening market to other nations, within or outside the WTO, could have spurred earlier and stronger. Noteworthy is that many much economically freer countries are not yet members of the WTO. Then, if it is considered that the accession to this organization, by the values, rules and principles that it promotes, will allow any domestic economy to thrive, why do we assist to China’s failure in fulfilling all the WTO membership criteria and in complying with all the rules? In our opinion, Chinese authorities tried to accommodate pragmatically some liberalization to inspire trustworthiness for FDI with a boost for national companies still benefiting from public support and newly opened markets, thus seeking not pure freedom, but wise access to the workings of managed world trade.

  4. Prevalence of tabacco product use in Latvia and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokarevica A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of tobacco products is a major problem having a serious effect on public health. Deaths from external causes are those that can be prevented by ensuring environmental safety and educating the society about the effect of lifestyle habits and behaviour on health of an individual. Not only research data reveal the prevalence of tobacco use but also the rate of tobacco sales. Tobacco industry marketing includes advertising, sales promotion and sponsorship strategies that are aimed at promotion of tobacco use. Demand for tobacco products is influenced also by changes in legislation relating to ban on tobacco advertising and sponsorship. Therefore it is necessary to introduce an agreed strategy for reducing tobacco use. The countries that have ratified the World Health Organisation (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (the Convention should develop and implement an effective tobacco control programme. In Latvia the number of daily smokers gradually decreases thanks to the extensive smoking restrictions though tobacco manufacturers use all the available media, radio and television, newspapers, magazines, advertisements and Internet, to advertise their products. Therefore in order to combat the prevalence of smoking first of all it is necessary to limit cigarette marketing and sales and to carry out monitoring and development of tobacco control measures on the state level. The sales of legal cigarettes have decreased in Latvia starting from 2009. However, the increase in tax rates and prices has contributed to the movement of illegal goods therefore it is necessary to take additional restrictive measures concerning the movement of illegal goods. Though amendments to legislation of Latvia relating to tobacco control comply with the requirements of the WHO Convention it is necessary to evaluate the efficiency of control measures and to improve them. Systematic and comprehensive education of the public is required to encourage the change of

  5. Trace elements in groundwater used for water supply in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retike, Inga; Kalvans, Andis; Babre, Alise; Kalvane, Gunta; Popovs, Konrads

    2014-05-01

    Latvia is rich with groundwater resources of various chemical composition and groundwater is the main drinking source. Groundwater quality can be easily affected by pollution or overexploitation, therefore drinking water quality is an issue of high importance. Here the first attempt is made to evaluate the vast data base of trace element concentrations in groundwater collected by Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. Data sources here range from National monitoring programs to groundwater resources prospecting and research projects. First available historical records are from early 1960, whose quality is impossible to test. More recent systematic research has been focused on the agricultural impact on groundwater quality (Levins and Gosk, 2007). This research was mainly limited to Quaternary aquifer. Monitoring of trace elements arsenic, cadmium and lead was included in National groundwater monitoring program of Latvia in 2008 and 2009, but due to lack of funding the monitoring was suspended until 2013. As a result there are no comprehensive baseline studies regarding the trace elements concentration in groundwater. The aim of this study is to determine natural major and trace element concentration in aquifers mainly used for water supply in Latvia and to compare the results with EU potable water standards. A new overview of artesian groundwater quality will be useful for national and regional planning documents. Initial few characteristic traits of trace element concentration have been identified. For example, elevated fluorine, strontium and lithium content can be mainly associated with gypsum dissolution, but the highest barium concentrations are found in groundwaters with low sulphate content. The groundwater composition data including trace element concentrations originating from heterogeneous sources will be processed and analyzed as a part of a newly developed geologic and hydrogeological data management and modeling system with working name

  6. Short Cycle Higher Education Development in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intra Lūce

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Education plays an important role in the economy and everyday life since economic well-being largely depends on the knowledge, skills and proficiency of the labour force. Thanks to the Bologna reforms, students and graduates are able to move freely throughout the European Higher Education Area (EHEA where qualifications are recognised as well as study stages and study programmes allow students to acquire knowledge, skills and competence. At the same time, it should be admitted that structural reforms are unevenly carried out within the EHEA, for example, provision of short-cycle education and practical implementation of standards and guidelines for higher education in Europe. Although the Bologna process is a voluntary one, it calls for urgent action to create a system of academic degrees in order to facilitate mobility of students, educators and researchers and ensure quality education and training, i.e., the degrees acquired at any higher education institution anywhere in the EHEA will be appropriately recognised elsewhere in this area both to continue studies and to participate in the labour market.

  7. Tan spot - the most harmful wheat leaf disease in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruta Bankina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tan spot (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis is one of the most important wheat diseases in Latvia. Significant spreading of this disease was observed from 1998. Field experiments were carried out at the Research and Training Farm "Peterlauki" of the Latvia University of Agriculture, during 1998-2003. Development of diseases was observed on 14 winter wheat varieties, dynamics of development was investigated on 'Donskaja polukarlikovaja' and 'Stava'. Assessments of the disease severity were carried out on the upper three leaves each week from the start of stem elongation to full ripening. Tan spot was observed at the stage of stem elongation in 2003, and only after flowering in 1999. Increase of the disease severity was slow until stage of milk ripeness, and only in late stages of wheat development sharp increase of the disease was observed. Total rate of infection (through the session of vegetation was very slow (0,01-0,19, but during ripening rate achieved 0,5-0,6. The main reason of so unequal development of the disease seems changes in amount of infection sources. Other possible reason of rapid increase of the disease development is the relationship between leaf age and susceptibility to the disease. Further research is necessary for better understanding of tan spot life cycle.

  8. Wrestling on the Table: The Contemporary Wedding Meal in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astra Spalvēna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE The object of this paper is to examine the contemporary wedding meal in Latvia, focusing on one particular social group of well situated young couples who choose fine dining restaurants or rented venues for their wedding celebrations because they considered restaurant weddings more elaborate and modern. The desire to embrace a modern lifestyle is the way in which to obtain a new identity in a rapidly changing post-socialist world. The aim of present research is to reveal how different traditions intertwine in the wedding meal - new or borrowed, with ancient and national or Soviet traditions. While followers of a modern lifestyle are emphasising a challenge to traditions, it is nevertheless the wedding meal and symbolic practices connected with it that indicates a more or less intentional respect for tradition. I argue that the wedding ceremony reveals the shift from rites of passage to social distinction. This argument is developed by analysing how social and family relationships, value systems and the ethos as a whole have changed recently in Latvia. The use of the symbolic capacity of wedding food, denoting fertility and prosperity, provides the stability of the structure of the wedding feast, which also affects the structure of the marriage ceremony as a whole. 

  9. Ukraina on nõus WTO nimel ekspordimakse vähendama / Signe Ratso ; interv. Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ratso, Signe, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjoni kaubanduse peadirektoraadi direktor Signe Ratso vastab küsimustele Ukraina liitumise kohta WTO-ga ning Ukraina ja EL-i vabakaubanduslepingu sõlmimise kohta. Lisa: Euroopa Liit ja Ukraina

  10. Peran World Trade Organization (WTO) Dalam Penyelesaian Sengketa Perdagangan Terhadap Ekspor Apel Selandia Baru-Australia Tahun 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Rahatesa, Queenta; Pahlawan, Indra

    2017-01-01

    World Trade Organization (WTO) is an International organization that specializes in trade between countries. In 2007, the Australian government had stopped importing New Zealand apples because they had some harmful bacteria there upon New Zealand reported it to the WTO organization.The method used in this research is qualitative research. The data obtained comes from books, journals, theses, documents, articles, internet sites and other sources related to this research. The research accentuat...

  11. How could China's competition policy impact negotiations on an international framework for competition rules in the WTO?

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Marine

    2017-01-01

    The different elements of the question are first analyzed individually. The role and the functioning of the WTO are explored in the first part. The importance of the organization in our globalized economy is highlighted, but also the crisis it is undergoing. The second part focuses on competition policies. It appears to be an important element to address in the WTO given its link with international trade. However, not much is done currently to address competition issues at international scale...

  12. European union emissions trading system with regard to climate change mitigation in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruse, Ilze

    2012-11-01

    The goal of this paper is to analyse the volumes of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the European Union Emissions Trading System's (EU ETS) participants in Latvia in relation to their participation therein. After describing and discussing the EU ETS mechanism and its operation in Latvia in the period 2005-2010, the interconnectedness between the GHG emissions and the EU ETS participants' operation is analysed. The analysis concludes that, although the EU ETS has contributed towards GHG emission reduction, due to the growth of the economy, overall GHG emissions from the EU ETS participants in Latvia are increasing.

  13. Trade Disputes over Renewable Energy Supporting Policies: Recent Cases, WTO Rules, and Possible Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xianli

    2011-01-01

    , even so when such effort comes from a developing country. But it is not true in real life. The longing for renewable energy sometimes gives way to countries’ competition for leadership in clean technologies or companies’ competition for market shares. In 2010 two trade disputes have arisen under...... the WTO, for wind energy supporting policies. Recently, Japan has a trade dispute against Canada related to renewable energy equipment in Ontario. The American United Steelworkers are calling for their government to penalise China for grants to Chinese wind turbine and key component manufacturers....... This paper will examine the interfaces between various wind energy supporting policies and the WTO trade rules. Some trade disputes will be used as case studies to explain the reasons behind such disputes. Suggestions will be provided on how to avoid such disputes in practice....

  14. Theoretical basis of crisis-proof management in industrial enterprises under WTO conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondrateva K.V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Economic science has not yet developed a common understanding of the essence of crisis management in the economic environment. Some authors emphasize on reducing the negative consequences of the crisis. Others urge to reflect on early diagnostics. Russia's accession to the WTO (World Trade Organization requires a new approach to the definition of crisis-proof management. Strategic nature of remedies, strengthening the company's position and competitive advantages may be the keys to success. The article examines topical approaches to crisis-proof management, discloses the problems of crisis-proof management development at industrial enterprises, and presents the author's understanding of the crisis-proof management essence and its interpretation in the new economic conditions determined by WTO rules.

  15. WTO's Most-Favored Nation (MFN Principle and North-South Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungdo Ahn

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Most Favored Nation Treatment of WTO, each contracting party should equally treat all the commodity and service of other parties during the international trade which means that discrimination between parties should be forbidden. On the basis of the treaty established in December 1991 between North & South Korea named, trade between North & South Korea is regarded as internal trade and is duty free. But this treaty was settled without the global agreement so other trade partners raised objection about this. This paper mainly focuses on establishing free trade agreement between North & South Korea, so that flexible project can be made for WTO rules and trade in North & South Korea to be more harmonious.

  16. Effect of NAFTA, EUMFTA and China addition to WTO on the cucumber world market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Guajardo-Quiroga

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically analyzed the potential effects of the complete operation of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA, European Union and Mexico Free Trade Agreement (EUMFTA, and the integration of China to the World Trade Organization (WTO, on the cucumber world market. Special emphasis on the impact on Mexico was presented, from a worldwide perspective. A spatial equilibrium model with endogenous prices was constructed for this purpose. Among the findings are: (1 Mexican producers benefited from the complete implementation of NAFTA and EUMFTA. (2 The incorporation of China as a member of the WTO showed a negligible effect on the commercial flows and prices in the cucumber world market. (3 Mexican cucumber production is highly competitive, in the world market, because it has the lowest supply costs.

  17. The EU as an actor at the WTO: its strengths and weaknesses throughout history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana GARCIANDÍA GARMENDIA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, many reforms took place in the European Union legal and policy framework. Some of those reforms were motivated by the participation of the European Union and its member States in the World Trade Organization. This paper aims to analyze the role of the European Union as an actor in that organization, paying special attention to its mixed legal nature – EU and Member States. With that purpose, the evolution of the relationship between the EU member States and the EU itself as simultaneous actors at the WTO is studied. The division of competences is also reviewed. Finally, the analysis of the EU position in different negotiation rounds (Uruguay, Doha for the agricultural sector is reviewed as an example of the evolution in the protection of European interests. The paper shows that some changes in the Treaty of Lisbon have strengthened the legal framework for the EU to be heard with a unique voice in the WTO

  18. Book review: Unholy trinity: The IMF, World Bank and WTO Richard Peet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Breitenbach

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this timely book Richard Peet and his team lay the foundation with an excellent analysis of the process of globalisation and the resultant emergence of the global economy. The authors are especially critical of the increasing influence of institutions like the International Monetary Fund (IMF, World Bank and World Trade Organisation (WTO on the economy and the consequences experienced by peoples, cultures and the environment. The single ideology of neo-liberalism is blamed for the undesirable outcomes. This book considers concepts of power, political interest, hegemony, discourse, responsibility and the power of practicality, in critically examining the IMF, World Bank and WTO. The conclusion is reached that “all three institutions play roles greatly different from those originally agreed to under the charters that set them up”.

  19. THE POLEMIC OF GIVING DIRECT EFFECT OF WTO LAW AND DSB DECISION TO DOMESTIC LAW FOR INDIVIDUAL’S JUDICIAL PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Soeparna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of WTO Law is to accommodate individual’s right in order to obtain better benefit of international trade. However, when a government violates WTO Law, it is therefore causing deprivation of individual right itself. Direct effect seems to be a feasible doctrine to provide a judicial protection for individual, in order to rebalance the right that is violated. Nevertheless, this doctrine is intractable to imply. This article discuss the polemic of giving direct effect of WTO Law and DSB Decision to domestic law to provide judicial protection for individual who becomes victim of WTO violation conducted by government Tujuan aturan WTO adalah mengakomodasi hak individu untuk memperoleh keuntungan dalam perdagangan internasional, akan tetapi ketika pemerintahnya melanggar aturan WTO, maka akan menyebabkan pelanggaran hak. Oleh karena itu, doktrin direct effect aturan WTO dapat menjadi doktrin yang memberikan perlindungan hukum, dalam rangka menyeimbangkan hak yang dilanggar. Namun, doktrin ini sangat sulit diterapkan, oleh karena itu, artikel ini mendiskusikan polemik dalam menerapkan doktrin direct effect. Aturan WTO dan keputusan DSB agar pemerintah dapat memberikan perlindungan hukum pada individu yang menjadi korban pelanggaran aturan WTO.

  20. Social Emotional Learning: Implementation of Sustainability-Oriented Program in Latvia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baiba Martinsone

    2016-01-01

    This article is focused on the description of the content and the implementation process of an originally developed, culturally appropriate and sustainable social and emotional learning program in Latvia...

  1. Quality benchmarking methodology: Case study of finance and culture industries in Latvia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zemīte, Ieva; Janovs, Valdis; Luka, Ineta

    .... At present companies in Latvia do not carry out mutual benchmarking, and as a result of that do not know how they rank against their peers in terms of quality, as well as they do not see benefits...

  2. Higher education’s contribution to economic performance and innovativeness in Latvia: Exploratory research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stankevics, Aivars; Ignatjeva, Svetlana; Meņsikovs, Vladimirs

    2014-01-01

    A detailed investigation of higher education’s contribution to economic performance and innovativeness in Latvia is necessary because of contradictory facts in the socio-economic reality of Latvian higher education...

  3. The WTO's telecommunications commitments and the credibility of telecommunications regulatory reforms in small island developing states

    OpenAIRE

    'Ofa, Siope Vakataki

    2009-01-01

    Telecommunications regulatory reform is a recent phenomenon in small island developing states, including in five Pacific island states in the past five years. Opportunities for regulatory capture exist when independent regulators are vulnerable to political pressure. There is therefore a case for external multilateral policy restraint to deter policymakers from reneging on policies. This study estimates the impact of the telecommunications commitments of the WTO on a panel data set of 160 ...

  4. 77 FR 2119 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duty Measures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China--Anti-Dumping and Countervailing... Anti-dumping Agreement; Articles 10, 12.3, 12.4.1, 12.7, 12.8, 15.1, 15.2, 15.4, 15.5, 16.1, 19.4, 22.3...

  5. Non-State Global Standard Setting and the WTO: Legitimacy and the Need for Regulatory Space

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Bernstein; Erin Hannah

    2008-01-01

    The proliferation of transnational social and environmental standards developed by non-state governance systems potentially poses a challenge to international trade law and the legitimacy of the World Trade Organization (WTO). These systems in areas including forestry, apparel, tourism, labour practices, agriculture, fisheries, and food operate largely independently of states as well as of traditional standard setting bodies such as the International Organization for Standardization. In lieu ...

  6. Noncompliance, renegotiation, and justice in international adjudication: A WTO-EU perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Shlomo-Agon, Sivan

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on the expanding realm of international adjudication, this paper approaches justice from the domain of the empirical and shows -through a careful, interview-based case-study analysis in the WTO-EU context- that justice in the transnational context is not only a contested concept, but also a multi-faceted one, deeply embedded in notions such as the rule of law, fairness, equality, transformation, and cooperation. Whereas in the past, the primary, if not the sole role of international ...

  7. THE IMPACT OF CHINA´S ACCESSION TO WTO ON THE EXPORTS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. SHAFAEDDIN

    2002-01-01

    Using the "revealed competitive advantage indices" for exports and imports, the paper is devoted to the analyses of the vulnerability of selected developing countries if China´s competitive position is improved due to its entry to WTO. In contrast to the existing literature which concentrates on labour-intensive products as a group, this paper considers products at a disaggregate level since products in the same group are not often homogeneous. In labour-intensive manufactured goods, China co...

  8. Retlig beskyttelse mod salmonella i et EU- og WTO-retligt perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the legal approach to the risk of salmonella infections on the complex interaction between EU Law and international law. It is examined how the latitude of individual states to adopt national food safety measures is restricted by both EU Law and WTO Law. The specific issue...... of protection against salmonella also serves as illustration of the difficult balancing of the interests of high level of food safety and the free movement of goods....

  9. Supply chains, mega-regionals and multilateralism : a road map for the WTO

    OpenAIRE

    HOEKMAN, Bernard M.

    2014-01-01

    With the WTO trade talks deadlocked since 2008, the US and EU are turning towards preferential trade agreements. But these leave out the planet’s more dynamic traders – including large emerging economies such as China, India and Brazil – so such agreements can only have a relatively small positive impact. From a world welfare perspective, deals to further integrate markets need to be multilateral. The challenge is how to get there. This study considers alternative ways forward and proposes sp...

  10. The Oral Microbiome of Smokeless Tobacco Users in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sintija Miļuna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Snus is a tobacco product containing nicotine and is widely used in Sweden. Now it is becoming more and more popular among young athletes and teenagers in Latvia, even though it is forbidden for sale in the European Union. The use of snus is considered to induce various oral illnesses, especially periodontal diseases, diabetes, heart and cardiovascular diseases as well as cancer. Comparison of the microbiome of saliva and tooth biofilm in snus tobacco users with that in people who never use snus showed that, the number and diversity of periodontal pathogenic microorganisms was much higher in samples taken from snus users. The observed features of the oral microbiome, such as the presence of periodontal pathogens and their high concentration, may have adverse effect on periodontal tissues of snus users and their general health in the future.

  11. Business plan of vegetarian lifestyle online shop Green Bean in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Benke, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Gestão The purpose of this document is to present innovative business plan in the field of vegetarianism which is rapidly growing and currently underdeveloped market in Latvia. The idea of family business is to create vegetarian lifestyle online shop with the goal to provide wide range of vegetarian products, inspire in vegetarian cooking, help in meeting other vegetarians as well as inform and give advices about vegetarian lifestyle in Latvia. The methodology us...

  12. Reform of labour taxes in Latvia 2011-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilmārs Šņucins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the motives for and results of the labour tax reforms undertaken by the Latvian government in 2011-2013 with a special focus on the lowwage sector. The reforms were developed with the goal of overcoming negative effects on the labour market caused by the deep economic crisis in 2008-2010 as well as of coping with an increase in labour tax burdens during consolidation. In 2008-2010, Latvia was seriously affected by the global economic crisis and during these years real gross domestic product (GDP declined by 21 percent. Labour market conditions became worse rapidly and at the beginning of 2010, the unemployment rate reached 21.5 per cent of the economically active population. For the period of 2011-2016, the reforms provide for a reduction in the rates of personal income tax (PIT and social security contributions (SSC as well as for an increase in PIT allowances. Taking into account the changes made in labour tax laws, we employed forecasts of average wages and applied the Eurostat methodology to calculate the tax wedge for different groups of employees depending on income level and on the number of their dependants. The results show that the impact of the reform varies greatly and it is more beneficial for employees with dependants and for low-wage earners. The findings of the paper contribute to policy discussions and decisions on the tax wedge, especially in the Euro area. In the period covered by the paper, about half of the Euro area member states (including Latvia received a country-specific recommendation to address this issue in the context of the European Semester.

  13. General Principles of the WTO and European Community Laws in Building International Competition Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Mo Chung

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The World Trade Organization (WTO established a Working Group on the interaction between trade and competition policy in 1996. By the Doha Ministerial Declaration, it recognized the case for international competition policy framework and agreed that the relevant negotiations take place after the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference. The Working Group is meant to focus on the clarification of: core principles, including transparency, non-discrimination and procedural fairness among others in the period until the Fifth Session. This article attempts to clarify the implications of the core (WTO principles to the would-be international competition laws and practices. It further tries to get lessons from competition law and practices of the European Community. Protection of fundamental rights, proportionality, non-discrimination, transparency, supremacy, subsidiarity and direct effect are the general principles of the European Community law to be discussed in relation to the competition law and policy. It concludes that the general principles of the WTO and EC laws provide guiding principles for the future international competition norms, and makes some preliminary assessment of the present Korean competition law and policy in the light of those principles.

  14. WTO Compatibility and Rules of Origin – Assessing Bilateral Trade Agreements between Latin America and East Asia WTO-Kompatibilität und Ursprungsregeln – Eine Bewertung bilateraler Freihandelsabkommen zwischen Lateinamerika und Ostasien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Loewen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Some theorists and practitioners argue that the stability of the global trade system is endangered by trade distorting effects of regional Free Trade Agreements. Does this also hold true for interregional FTAs? Based on criteria, such as scope, rules of origin and WTO notification, it is argued here that interregional FTAs between East Asia and Latin America do not fully confirm the distortion thesis, as the positive effects of WTO-plus elements in the examined FTAs and their positive notification record to the WTO signify. Yet, overlaps between different rules of origin may lessen the multilateral effectiveness of interregional FTAs. Einige Stimmen aus der Wissenschaft und aus der Praxis verweisen auf die Gefährdungen, die von regionalen Freihandelsabkommen auf die Stabilität des Welthandelssystems ausgehen. Lässt sich diese Einschätzung auch auf interregionale Freihandelsabkommen übertragen? In dieser Fokusanalyse wird argumentiert, dass interregionale Handelsabkommen zwischen Ostasien und Lateinamerika diese These nicht zur Gänze stützen. Während einerseits WTO-plus-Elemente in den regionalen FTAs sowie deren gute Notifikationsbilanz bei der WTO das Handelssystem zu stärken scheinen, so schwächen andererseits unterschiedliche Anwendungen von Ursprungsregelungen die multilaterale Effektivität der interregionalen Freihandelsabkommen.

  15. Economic Effects of Russia’s Trade Liberalization: Russia’s WTO Accession and FTAs with EU and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Soo Lee

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the economic impacts of the various liberalization scenarios of Russia (accession to the WTO, Russia-EU FTA, and Korea-Russia FTA using GTAP recursive dynamic and capital accumulation models. To compare liberalization gains from goods liberalization with those from goods-and-services liberalization, the original GTAP database is adjusted by inputting Australian sectoral indices as barriers in the service trade. The major findings and implications of this paper are as follows. First, without simultaneous improvement of market institutions, Russia's liberalization gains from its accession to the WTO are not so great. Second, the inclusion of the services sector in addition to the goods sector in the WTO liberalization scenarios does not greatly expand Russia's economic benefits from trade. This is quite different from the case of China's accession to the WTO. Third, Russia's liberalization gains from the Russia-EU FTA are not so great, either. This result is in contrast to that of CEEC's accession to the EU, where the CEEC enjoys large gaThis paper estimates the economic impacts of the various liberalization scenarios of Russia (accession to the WTO, Russia-EU FTA, and Korea-Russia FTA using GTAP recursive dynamic and capital accumulation models. To compare liberalization gains from goods liberalization with those from goods-and-services liberalization, the original GTAP database is adjusted by inputting Australian sectoral indices as barriers in the service trade. The major findings and implications of this paper are as follows. First, without simultaneous improvement of market institutions, Russia's liberalization gains from its accession to the WTO are not so great. Second, the inclusion of the services sector in addition to the goods sector in the WTO liberalization scenarios does not greatly expand Russia's economic benefits from trade. This is quite different from the case of China's accession to the WTO. Third, Russia

  16. Russia's accession to the WTO as an important factor of the country's integration into the world economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linetsky Alexander

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia's accession to the WTO is an efficient instrument of the country's integration into the globalized world economy. However, it can adversely affect a number of enterprises and industries within the national economy. Thus, there is a need to develop a methodology for the assessment of the preparedness for operating under WTO membership conditions, which can be practically applied in the development of measures aimed at increasing the competitiveness of economic entities. This determines the objective of the research. This article offers the author's assessment of the reasonability of Russia's accession to the WTO and suggests methodological approaches to the assessment of preparedness of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation for functioning in the new economic conditions based on the algorithm of choosing a system of indicators, as well as the organisation of enterprise monitoring according to this system, which makes it possible to formulate rational administrative decisions in order to minimise the adverse effects of Russia's accession to the WTO. The major result of the research is the conclusion that, although the objective of identifying the start position of the constituent entities before the accession to the WTO and its possible implications is quite difficult to attain, it is both theoretically and practically feasible.

  17. Spread of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus in Latvia: Analysis based on Dynamics of Young Ash Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiviņš Māris

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Latvia, during the last 15 years (2000–2015, the area of common ash Fraxinus excelsior forest stands has decreased by 40.6%. The dieback was predominantly caused by the fungal pathogen Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Mostly young stands (up to 40 years old were affected, accounting for 77.3% of the area of dieback. In this paper, we analysed the dynamics of young ash stand area within nature regions in Latvia to attempt to determine patterns of spread and the major migration routes of H. fraxineus. As suggested by the available data, the invasion of the fungal pathogen began in the southern part of Latvia, and then gradually dispersed across the country. The largest decline of young ash stands, during the period 2000–2010, occurred in lowlands. According to our estimate, the average rate of dispersal in Latvia was 40 km per year. At the scale of Latvia, the dispersal routes of fungal pathogen H. fraxineus largely coincide with the major migration corridors of biota and are related to macro-relief forms and their configuration.

  18. Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of Babesia spp. in Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus ticks in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capligina, Valentina; Berzina, Inese; Bormane, Antra; Salmane, Ineta; Vilks, Karlis; Kazarina, Alisa; Bandere, Dace; Baumanis, Viesturs; Ranka, Renate

    2016-03-01

    Babesia spp. are tick-borne protozoan parasites that have been reported in many European countries and are considered to be emerging pathogens. Several Babesia spp. have been identified in ticks in Latvia. Recently, canine babesiosis cases were diagnosed for the first time in Latvia; therefore, continued studies on the prevalence and occurrence of new species are warranted. In the present study, questing tick samples collected in 2005-2007 were screened for the presence of Babesia spp.; in total, 432 Ixodes ricinus and 693 Ixodes persulcatus ticks were analyzed. Babesia spp. were detected in 1.4% of the I. ricinus ticks and in 1.9% of I. persulcatus ticks. Sequencing revealed that ixodid ticks in Latvia contained Babesia microti, Babesia capreoli, and Babesia venatorum. Babesia microti was the most prevalent species, accounting for 58% of all positive samples; moreover, two distinct B. microti genotypes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length 18S rRNA gene of two B. capreoli/B. divergens isolates indicated a closer relationship to the B. capreoli clade than B. divergens. This is the first report of B. venatorum in I. persulcatus ticks in Latvia. Our results suggest that both I. ricinus and I. persulcatus ticks play important roles in the epidemiology of these zoonotic pathogens in Latvia.

  19. Relocation of boilers to Gulbene, Latvia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This report describes the relocation of two coal-fired boilers from Hoeje-Taastrup, Denmark to the City of Gulbene, Latvia and the conversion of one of these boilers to combustion of wood chips. The selection of Gulbene DHE as recipient of the two boilers was made by the Danish Energy Agency. The selection was based on e feasibility study, `Small Boilers Fuel Conversion Study` prepared by the Consulting Engineering Company Birch and Krogeoe/Esbensen in 1994. The recommendations regarding the relocation and conversion of the former coal-fired boilers to use wood chips have been given in a study performed by dk-TEKNIK in the year 1994. The objectives of the Consultant`s project can be summarized as follows: Prequalification of Contractors for the boiler relocation; Preparation of Tender Documents for relocation of two formerly coal-fired boilers placed in Hoeje-Taastrup to Gulbene and conversion of the boilers to combustion of wood fuel; Evaluation and Contracting; Site supervision; Handing-over. The scope of the report describes the final reporting of the boiler relocation to Gulbene. This includes: The process of the relocation; Financial calculations; Experience gained through the project. (EG)

  20. Small-Scale Chp Potential in Latvia and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, A.; Latõšv, E.; Siirde, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the research the small-scale CHP potential of Latvia and Estonia has been defined. Factors, which influence the CHP development, were analyzed in this paper, including political, geographic, climatological, legislative and technological factors. For the small-scale CHP potential assessment the three alternatives were chosen. The first alternative is the case, when only the hot water is taken into account. In this case the CHP can work with full load during the whole year because the heat load will not change (k=0,13). For the second alternative the results of the previous research were used. In this case an optimal relative heat load has been found for a small-scale CHP. This optimum value is 0,3. According to this optimum value the CHP can produce more electricity working with full load than in the first case. However, the CHP does not work whole year round. The third alternative shows the situation for the small-scale CHP when a half of the maximum heat load will be covered by the CHP. The formulas and the results for each case were provided.

  1. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunickis, M.; Dandens, A.; Bariss, U.

    2015-12-01

    Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale. Several pilot projects were implemented to verify the feasibility of smart meters for individual consumer groups. Preliminary calculations indicate that installation of smart meters for approximately 23 % of electricity consumers would be economically viable. Currently, the data for the last two years is available for an in-depth mathematical analysis. The continuous analysis of consumption data would be established, when more measurements from smart meters are available. The extent of introduction of smart meters should be specified during this process in order to gain the maximum benefit for the whole society (consumers, grid companies, state authorities), because there are still many uncertain and variable factors. For example, it is necessary to consider statistical load variations by hour, dependence of electricity consumption on temperature fluctuations, consumer behaviour and demand response to market signals to reduce electricity consumption in the short and long term, consumer's ambitions and capability to install home automation for regulation of electricity consumption. To develop the demand response, it is necessary to analyse the whole array of additional factors, such as expected cost reduction of smart meters, possible extension of their functionality, further development of information exchange systems, as well as standard requirements and different political and regulatory decisions regarding the reduction of electricity consumption and energy efficiency.

  2. Assessment of the vaccine industry in Iran in context of accession to WTO: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Meshkini, Amir; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Dinarvand, Rasoul; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Habibzadeh, Mohammadgafar; Vazirian, Iman

    2012-08-30

    The vaccine industry is one of the most important health-related industries. It can be affected by accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) because of probable dramatic changes in the business environment. Iran has already initiated accession negotiations. In this paper, we investigate the position of, challenges to, and opportunities for vaccine manufacturing in Iran with regard to accession to the WTO. This is a qualitative and cross sectional study. To collect information, we designed a questionnaire and interviewed some of the vaccine industry's key opinion leaders in Iran. Before the interviews were conducted, the questionnaires were sent to these individuals by email. According to the interviewees, the country's main challenges with regard to accession to the WTO are the lack of firm internal intellectual property (IP) rules, not being recognized as pre-qualified by the World Health Organization (WHO), the use of old equipment, and a lack of cooperation with global vaccine companies. Iran's local vaccine industry, with a long history and international reputation that could be used as an advantage, is faced with several challenges, such as problems with keeping up with Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP), a lack of adequate and meaningful investment in research and development (R&D), and limitations on private sector participation in the production of vaccines.Gradual privatization of the industry, improved international relations, utilization of the R&D power of small hi-tech companies, consistent education of human resources, and modernization of infrastructures and equipment are among the suggested solutions.

  3. Assessment of the Vaccine Industry in Iran in Context of Accession to WTO: a Survey Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hashemi Meshkini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background :The vaccine industry is one of the most important health-related industries. It can be affected by accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO because of probable dramatic changes in the business environment. Iran has already initiated accession negotiations. Purpose of the study In this paper, we investigate the position of, challenges to, and opportunities for vaccine manufacturing in Iran with regard to accession to the WTO. Methods:This is a qualitative and cross sectional study. To collect information, we designed a questionnaire and interviewed some of the vaccine industry's key opinion leaders in Iran. Before the interviews were conducted, the questionnaires were sent to these individuals by email. Results:According to the interviewees, the country's main challenges with regard to accession to the WTO are the lack of firm internal intellectual property (IP rules, not being recognized as pre-qualified by the World Health Organization (WHO, the use of old equipment, and a lack of cooperation with global vaccine companies. Major conclusions Iran's local vaccine industry, with a long history and international reputation that could be used as an advantage, is faced with several challenges, such as problems with keeping up with Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP, a lack of adequate and meaningful investment in research and development (R&D, and limitations on private sector participation in the production of vaccines. Gradual privatization of the industry, improved international relations, utilization of the R&D power of small hi-tech companies, consistent education of human resources, and modernization of infrastructures and equipment are among the suggested solutions.

  4. Assessment of the vaccine industry in Iran in context of accession to WTO: a survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi Meshkini Amir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vaccine industry is one of the most important health-related industries. It can be affected by accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO because of probable dramatic changes in the business environment. Iran has already initiated accession negotiations. Purpose of the study In this paper, we investigate the position of, challenges to, and opportunities for vaccine manufacturing in Iran with regard to accession to the WTO. Methods This is a qualitative and cross sectional study. To collect information, we designed a questionnaire and interviewed some of the vaccine industry’s key opinion leaders in Iran. Before the interviews were conducted, the questionnaires were sent to these individuals by email. Results According to the interviewees, the country’s main challenges with regard to accession to the WTO are the lack of firm internal intellectual property (IP rules, not being recognized as pre-qualified by the World Health Organization (WHO, the use of old equipment, and a lack of cooperation with global vaccine companies. Major conclusions Iran’s local vaccine industry, with a long history and international reputation that could be used as an advantage, is faced with several challenges, such as problems with keeping up with Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP, a lack of adequate and meaningful investment in research and development (R&D, and limitations on private sector participation in the production of vaccines. Gradual privatization of the industry, improved international relations, utilization of the R&D power of small hi-tech companies, consistent education of human resources, and modernization of infrastructures and equipment are among the suggested solutions.

  5. Algerian Economy and Multilateral Trading System: Why Is It So Hard to Join the WTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayreddine Belaaze

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to provide a overview on different stages of the negotiations with World Trade Organization, since 1987 date of submission the application for accession, Algeria still trying to snatch accession card with minimum cost, where it tries to provide small guarantees, but some WTO members raises reservations over some issues like aspects related to investment, for example: the Rule of 49/51, and domestic component, prevention of exporting, besides the agricultural issue which takes advantage of domestic subsidies and exporting subsides, also services industry knows low degree of openness, especially In some sensitive areas such as financial services, telecommunications.

  6. Returns to Education During and After the Economic Crisis: Evidence from Latvia 2006–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilerts Karlis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We employ EU-SILC micro data for Latvia to study how returns to education changed during the economic crisis of 2008–2009 and afterwards. We found that returns to education increased significantly during the crisis and decreased slightly during the subsequent economic recovery. The counter-cyclical effect was evident in nearly all population groups. After the crisis, education became more associated than before with a longer working week and a higher employment probability. Furthermore, we show that returns to education in Latvia are generally higher in the capital city and its suburbs than outside the capital city region, as well as for citizens of Latvia than for resident non-citizens and citizens of other countries, but lower for males and young people. Wage differential models reveal a relatively large wage premium for higher education and a rather small one for secondary education. Estimates obtained with instrumental variable (IV models significantly exceed the OLS estimates.

  7. WTO Agreement on Agriculture and its Implication on Rural Development Policies in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erokhin Vasily

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at overview of the history and major contents of the Agreement on Agriculture of the World Trade Organization. Special attention is paid to implications of the Agreement for agricultural and trade policies in developing countries, including Russia, recently accessed the WTO. The differential treatment that developing countries receive under the agreement is investigated. The paper includes an overview of the recently adopted State Program of the Russian Federation for Development of Agriculture and Regulation of Agricultural Commodities Markets in 2013-2020. The research considers four applications of the given State Program: compliance with WTO requirements, state support of agriculture, provision of food security, and ensurance of sustainable rural development. The paper results in the conclusion that state policies in the sphere of rural development have to evolve beyond the traditional, sector-based model, with its almost exclusive focus on agriculture. Contemporary set of tools to ensure sustainable rural development should be based on the multi-sectoral strategies and programs that identify and better exploit the development potential of rural area through a variety of factors: national food security, agricultural production, liberalization of trade and foreign economic activities, support of local producers and rural households, rural infrastructure, environmental and recreational potential.

  8. Applicability of general international law within the WTO dispute settlement system: right to health situation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Medina Amador

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The nexus between human rights and WTO law raises several questions of complex solution. Specifically, regarding the right to health, the existence of multiple circumstances can be foreseen, which may generate potential conflicts with the core values of the multilateral trade system. Within this scenario, the concern around the potential impact pharmaceutical patents may have over access to medicines has emerged. Having in mind the existence of a strong nexus between access to medicines and a plenty fulfillment of the right to health, the necessity on determining the enforcement (or justiciability of the obligation of all states to provide for this right can be noticed, and this, while, at the same time, introducing into a deep analysis about the relationship between both systems. The results obtained will contribute to clarify the role human rights must play within the WTO framework, as well as for examining the potential inclusion of a more benevolent interpretation toward the right to health.

  9. Nitrogen and phosphorus trend analysis in Latvia agricultural monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimanta, Z.; Vircavs, V.; Veinbergs, A.; Lauva, D.; Ambramenko, K.; Gailuma, A.; VÄ«tola, I.

    2012-04-01

    Water quality depends on human activity. Intensive agriculture is one of the main sources, that cause water quality pollution and eutrophication. The use of fertilizers not only improves soil fertility, crop yield and quality, but also causes water pollution. Human activities, including the use of fertilizer, promote nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) concentrations in water. Compared to the 90th agricultural production in Latvia has progressed. Vulnerable zones have been specified in the country. It is situated in the region of Zemgale's south site, within the border Lithuania. There are defined requirements for water and soil protection from agricultural activity that cause nitrate pollution. The EU Nitrates Directive aim is to protect water from nitrate pollution. In Latvia defined nitrate values are: 50 mg/l NO3 or 11.2 mg/l N/NO3 and Ptot - 0.2 mg/l. As agriculture has became intensive and the use of fertilizers has grown, results indicate that the leaching potential and values of N and P has increased. Nutrients leaching in agricultural areas have observed all year in vulnerable zones, but it's values changes depending on season. The highest nutrient concentrations observe in winter and spring periods, particularly in snow and ice melting periods. The lowest values are in summer. Nutrient leaching potencial depends on precipitation, plant vegetation, season, fertilization type and soil cultivation process. N and P leaching can decrease, taking consideration the use time of fertilizers and good agricultural practices. Research objects are monitoring stations Bērze and Mellupīte with tree research scales: drainage fields, small catchments and observation wells. The research analyses N and P concentrations in groundwater (2006-2010) and drain field and small catchment runoff (1995-2010). The aim of the research is to analyze nitrate and phosphorus concentration fluctuations in a time period. To determine nutrient concentrations, water samples were collected

  10. Long-run impacts of China's WTO accession on farm-nonfarm income inequality and rural poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Kym; Huang, Jikun; Ianchovichina, Elena

    2003-01-01

    Many fear China's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) will impoverish its rural people by way of greater import competition in its agricultural markets. Anderson, Huang, and Ianchovichina explore that possibility bearing in mind that, even if producer prices of some (land-intensive) farm products fall, prices of other (labor-intensive) farm products could rise. Also, the remova...

  11. 78 FR 49789 - Request for Comments and Notice of Public Hearing Concerning Russia's Implementation of Its WTO...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... Russia, the United States and Russia both filed letters with the WTO withdrawing their notices of non... hearing will continue on the next business day. Persons wishing to testify at the hearing must provide... submitted electronically containing business confidential information, the file name of the business...

  12. 76 FR 17985 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Frozen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States--Anti- Dumping Measures on Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...

  13. 75 FR 8177 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States--Anti- Dumping Measures... procedures and methodology employed by the United States to determine dumping margins in administrative... on Implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 (the Anti-Dumping...

  14. 78 FR 16754 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States--Anti- Dumping Measures... with respect to certain respondents requesting such revocation; the imposition of anti- dumping duties... Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam insofar as it did not revoke the anti-dumping duty...

  15. 76 FR 12400 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Countervailing and Anti-Dumping Duties on Grain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China--Countervailing and Anti-Dumping... countervailing and anti-dumping duties on Grain Oriented Flat-rolled Electrical Steel (``GOES'') from the United... measures imposing countervailing duties and anti-dumping duties on GOES from the United States are...

  16. Book Review - V Pogoretskyy, Freedom of Transit and Access to Gas Pipeline Networks Under WTO Law (Cambridge University Press, 2017)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2017-01-01

    In Freedom of Transit and Access to Pipeline Networks under WTO Law, the author appropriately introduces the topic by stating that energy is featuring increasingly prominently as a topic in international trade law. Indeed, while being a dormant issue in the World Trade Organization (“WTO” forum for

  17. New members of the WTO : their commitments in agriculture and provisions proposed in the Doha negotiations / Lars Brink

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brink, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Vozdeistvije protsessa VTO na selskoje hozjaistvo v ekonomitsheskihh sistemahh perehoda : 26-29 julja 2003 goda, Tallinn, Estonija : materialõ konferentsii. - Tallinn, 2004, lk. 12-39. WTO uute liikmesriikide ees seisvatest ülesannetest ja kohustustest lähtuvalt Doha arenguvooru raamleppest. Tabelid

  18. Moving beyond teaching and research: economic and social tasks of universities in Latvia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamsone-Fiskovica, Anda; Kristapsons, Janis; Tjunina, Erika; Ulnicane-Ozolina, Inga

    2009-01-01

    As a small European country that joined the European Union in 2004 after being part of the USSR for half a century, Latvia and its system of higher education and research is continually adapting to changing conditions, both nationally and internationally. While it experienced a certain depression in

  19. Intercultural and Media Literacy: Global Tendencies in Metacontent of Teacher Education in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousa, Inga; Stakle, Alnis

    2010-01-01

    Under the influence of processes of globalisation, higher education in the countries of Europe, including Latvia, has been reshaped, restructured, re-evaluated and reoriented towards the establishment of a European higher education area. New issues have emerged at both the content and metacontent level, the most significant of which are…

  20. Multilayered Perspectives on Language Policy in Higher Education: Finland, Estonia, and Latvia in Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep; Saarinen, Taina; Kibbermann, Kerttu

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses language policies in higher education (HE) in Finland, Estonia, and Latvia, as well as the European Union (EU). We take a multilayered approach to language policies in order to illuminate the intertwined nature of local, national, and international language policies in HE. We are particularly interested in the construction of…

  1. Alternative Civil Enculturation: Political Disenchantment and Civic Attitudes in Minority Schools in Estonia, Latvia, and Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubeva, Maria; Austers, Ivars

    2011-01-01

    The article investigates the ways in which minority schools in Latvia, Estonia, and Slovakia resist the dominant narratives of nation and citizenship and provide an alternative model of civil enculturation for students. It provides evidence to support the hypothesis that differences between competing narratives of statehood and nationhood among…

  2. Social Emotional Learning: Implementation of Sustainability-Oriented Program in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsone, Baiba

    2016-01-01

    This article is focused on the description of the content and the implementation process of an originally developed, culturally appropriate and sustainable social and emotional learning program in Latvia. The article also includes the teachers' self-reflected experience illustrated through the perspective of the program's sample activities. The…

  3. Improving the Business Environment in Latvia : The Impact of FIAS Assistance

    OpenAIRE

    Liepina, Sanda; Grava, Lars; Coolidge, Jacqueline

    2008-01-01

    This paper tracks the process through which FIAS, the investment climate advisory service of the World Bank Group advised the government of Latvia from 1998 to 2004 on ways to improve the business environment, achieve higher rates of economic growth, and thereby alleviate poverty. This case study shows that it is reasonable to describe how assistance by FIAS led to an improved business env...

  4. Rol' tranzita v jekonomike Latvii [The role of transit in the economy of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gžibovska Nataļja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transit is an important issue in the history of world economy, including the economy of Latvia. Transit makes a significant contribution to the budget of many transit countries, one of which is the Republic of Latvia. These countries do not have significant natural resources and prefer to focus on logistics and infrastructure in order to facilitate the transit process. This article focuses on the role of transit in the economy of Latvia, whose unique geographical position makes the country an effective transport corridor (bridge in both the west-east and north-south directions. The article presents the results of an opinion poll conducted at Latvian transit enterprises regarding their future development and offers an overview of the main seaports and the Rīga international airport. The author examines the issue of Russia’s accession to the World Trade Organization and its impact on the Latvian transit, the prolongation of EU sanctions against Belarus, and the use of Latvian transport infrastructure for handling the non-military cargo traffic to/from Afghanistan. In conclusion, a forecast of possible transit development in Latvia is provided.

  5. 77 FR 70140 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ...] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, People's Republic of...'') initiated the second Sunset Reviews of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bars from.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bars from...

  6. 77 FR 71631 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... COMMISSION Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Steel Concrete...) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar from...

  7. 78 FR 43858 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ...] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, the People's Republic... Department of Commerce (``Department'') that revocation of the antidumping duty orders \\1\\ on steel concrete... of the continuation of the antidumping duty orders. \\1\\ See Antidumping Duty Orders: Steel Concrete...

  8. Parenting Dimensions in Relation to Pre-Schoolers' Behaviour Problems in Latvia and Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebre, Sandra B.; Jusiene, Roma; Dapkevice, Egle; Skreitule-Pikse, Inga; Bieliauskaite, Rasa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine associations between parenting and child behaviour problems in two neighbouring countries with subtle, yet apparent cultural differences. Participants were mothers and fathers of preschool-age children from Latvia and Lithuania. Parents completed a measure of child-rearing attitudes and reported on their…

  9. Holistic Approach as Viewed by the Basic School Teachers in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badjanova, Jelena; Iliško, Dzintra

    2015-01-01

    The article points to new competencies required from basic school teachers, reinforced by the reform processes in the educational system in Latvia, the quality assurance of educational process, and modernisation and critical re-evaluation of educational materials and standards. The authors view sustainability as an integral part of reform…

  10. A cross-sectional survey of urinary iodine status in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilze Konrade

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that although the overall median UIC in Latvian schoolchildren falls within the lower normal range, almost 50% of the schoolchildren are iodine deficient, especially in urban schools and in the eastern part of Latvia. The absence of a mandatory salt iodization program puts a significant number of children and pregnant women at risk.

  11. Integration of ICT in Teacher Education and Different School Subjects in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangro, Andris; Kangro, Ilze

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of information and communication technology (ICT) to the educational system of Latvia has implemented infrastructural planning since 1985 (Grinfelds, 1996). The initial plan envisaged equipping schools (mainly secondary schools) and institutions of higher education with computer sets, and training teachers and university faculty.…

  12. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Latvia 2007/08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravcenko, Viktors; Kadike, Ilze

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Latvia's arts and cultural education. Cultural and creative dimensions of education in broader sense are responsibility both of the Ministry of Education and Science and the Ministry of Culture. Decisions about the creation of the curriculum related to culture and creativity within education are made at central level. Latvia…

  13. The Latvian Legion (1943-1945) and Its Role in Latvia’s History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    the same time, the ruling czar’s family in Russia was losing its grip and support of population. The Latvian emigrant, publicist and historian Agnis...independence is on the evolutionary path. For Latvia, there are new allies to be found, new economic strategies to be defined, and above all–a settlement with

  14. 78 FR 41079 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Ukraine Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year reviews, the... reinforcing bar from Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine would be likely to lead... dissenting with respect to Belarus, Moldova, and Ukraine. Background The Commission instituted these reviews...

  15. First report of dwarf bunt caused by Tilletia controversa in Latvia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Priekule, I

    2007-01-01

    ... with those of the morphologically similar species in Latvia – Tilletia tritici (syn. T. caries ) ( Priekule, 1997 ). Teliospores were yellow‐brown, globose or subglobose, 19·6 ± 0·58 µ m (16–24  µ m) in diameter, reticulated. Exospores had relatively wide and deep polygonal meshes (areolae); areolae were irregular. The polygonal reticul...

  16. Fruit-Growing in Latvia – Industry and Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufmane Edīte

    2017-06-01

    result of research by the Institute of Horticulture: 1 new local breeding fruit crop cultivars were obtained and recommended for commercial orchards; variety testing including growing technologies was initiated in different regions of Latvia; 2 monitoring of harmful and favourable organisms was conducted in plantations, with development of a system for prognosis and control; and 3 research results were transferred to growers through practical recommendations, publications, seminars and demonstrations.

  17. NORTHERN LEAF BLIGHT HELMINTHOSPORIUM TURCICUM ON MAIZE IN LATVIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treikale, O; Javoisha, B; Pugacheva, E; Vigule, Z; Feodorova-Fedotova, L

    2014-01-01

    In Latvia, climatic factors are influential in spreading of the Northern leaf blight of maize caused by Setosphaeria turcica (SETOTU, anamorph Exserohilum turcicum, Helminthosporium turcicum). The field experiments with the aim to investigate the effect of strobilurines to control of SETOTU in maize and the possibility to have a greening effect on yield and the silage quality parameters there were conducted in Latvian Plant Protection Research Centre in 2010. The effect of fungicides under natural and artificial infection with SETOTU on yield of maize was evaluated in 2012 and 2013. Trials designed with four replicates using randomized blocks, a plot size of 30 m2. Plots were inoculated at beginning of anthesis stage of maize by conidium of local population of H. turcicum propagated on PDA. Application of fungicides has been done in two times. Weather conditions were favourable for infestation of Northern leaf blight in maize. Disease severity was recorded according to the EPPO Guideline PP 1/272(1) on 10 plants from two central rows by 5 layers of leaves. Yield was recorded from two central separately harvested rows of each plot. The silage quality parameters in 2010 were analysed by Blgg BV Company, Netherlands. After the artificial inoculation an increase of the disease pressure in maize was observed. A good effect of the fungicides to control SETOTU was observed in all trials. No significant differences in efficacy were found between the treatments of Propulse (fluopyram 125 g L(-1), prothioconazole 125 g L(-1)), Opera (epoxiconazole 75, pyraclostrobin 199, 5 g L(-1) and Opera N (epoxiconazole 75, pyraclostrobin 102 g L(-1)). The effect of application time at the BBCH 55-59 was higher compared with application time at the BBCH 30-37. Two applications of Propulse compared with the single showed higher effect on SETOTU. The prolonged effect of Propulse on SETOTU was similar to Opera and Opera N. Greening effect was significant for all treatments compared with the

  18. China's WTO commitments in agriculture and impacts of potential OECD agricultural trade liberalizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Frandsen, Søren E.

    2005-01-01

    results depend critically on correctly representing the more complex policy measures, such as the tariff rate quotas. The negative output effects on Chinese agriculture can be alleviated/reversed if the rich OECD countries commit to reform their agriculture policies. The present paper concludes that trade...... general equilibrium simulation results show that China’s WTO commitments will lead to increased agricultural imports and slightly declined outputs in China. The resulting efficiency gains will be negated by terms-of-trade losses, leading to quantitatively small welfare impacts. Furthermore, sectoral...... liberalization should be carried out in both developing and developed countries. Reforming the latter will be particularly helpful in easing the problems facing those developing countries that are carrying out ambitious trade reforms....

  19. Environmental risk, precaution, and scientific rationality in the context of WTO/NAFTA trade rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Pauwelyn, Joost; Smith, Kelly

    2004-04-01

    This article considers the role of scientific rationality in understanding statements of risk produced by a scientific community. An argument is advanced that, while scientific rationality does impose constraints on valid scientific justifications for restrictions on products and practices, it also provides flexibility in the judgments needed to both develop and apply characterizations of risk. The implications of this flexibility for the understanding of risk estimates in WTO and NAFTA deliberations are explored, with the goal of finding an intermediate ground between the view that science unambiguously justifies or rejects a policy, and the view that science is yet another cultural tool that can be manipulated in support of any decision. The result is a proposal for a dialogical view of scientific rationality in which risk estimates are depicted as confidence distributions that follow from a structured dialogue of scientific panels focused on judgments of evidence, evidential reasoning, and epistemic analysis.

  20. WTO Accession, Foreign Bank Entry, and the Productivity of Chinese Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Tat-kei; Qian, Zhenjie; Wang, Luhang

    2016-01-01

    with sales over 5 million RMB, we examine the relationship between foreign bank entry and the industry-level productivity growth of China’s manufacturing sector. Our empirical results suggest that (a) on average, opening up a region for foreign bank entry has no impact on aggregate productivity growth, (b......) however, industries more dependent on external finance grow faster after a region is opened up for foreign bank entry, and (c) these results are due to changes in technical efficiency rather than reallocation. Overall, this paper provides new evidence on the relationship between banking market structure......After China’s accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in December 2001, foreign banks are allowed to enter the Chinese banking market in phases. Using firm-level data from the National Bureau of Statistics of China which cover all state-owned and non state-owned manufacturing firms...

  1. Sustainability by means of processes in the world trade law. Environmental testing and sustainability impact testing; Nachhaltigkeit durch Verfahren im Welthandelsrecht. Umwelt- und Nachhaltigkeitspruefungen und die WTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehring, M.

    2007-07-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration analyzes the correlation between commercial law and sustainable development. The author arranges the new instrument of environmental testing and sustainability impact testing of trade regulations into legal aspects and analyzes the compatibility with legal principles of the World Trade Organization (WTO) as well as their transferability on the WTO. Especially, the environmental protection and sustainability are described as elements of the precautionary principle in the world trade. The process component of the precautionary principle in the WTO law is to the fore. Furthermore, other principles are discussed such as the transparency principle and the differentiated and favoured treatment of developing countries in the WTO law. As an example, the Canadian Environmental Assessment of Trade Negotiations, the Environmental Review of Trade Agreement in the United States of America, the Environmental Assessment in the North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA) as well as the Sustainability Impact Assessment of the European Union are explained and evaluated legally. Furthermore, the author discusses the opportunities and the boundaries of the negotiability of the environmental testing and sustainability impact testing to the WTO. The author suggests a coordination mechanism at the WTO for national environmental and sustainability impact testing.

  2. Opportunities and Threats of Ukrainian Membership in WTO for Engineering under Conditions of Co-operation with EU Countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers consequences of the membership of Ukraine in the World Trade Organisation (WTO for the engineering industry when co-operating with the EU and CU (Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia countries. It shows that, after Ukraine joined WTO, tariff rates for Ukrainian products reduced in general and liberalisation of access to the world market took place. Along with it, the internal market of Ukraine became more open for imported products. The article analyses the structure of export from Ukraine after joining WTO in the context of individual types of products. The article identifies changes that took place in the market of engineering products after Ukraine joined WTO. The article shows that by main indicators of economic security the engineering industry of Ukraine cannot be considered as stable and also that, after joining WTO, main indicators of economic security of the engineering industry of Ukraine have not improved. It analyses the structure of export and import of Ukrainian engineering products to EU, CU and other countries. It proves that the most topical for the Ukrainian engineering industry is the issue of realisation of the import-replacement potential and increase of competitiveness of domestic products. It considers the state and changes, which took place after Ukraine joined WTO, in car building. It identifies main problems of domestic car building. It analyses measures of the state programme of Ukraine on economic development.

  3. The Use of Analytic Network Process for Risk Assessment in Production of Renewable Energy from Agriculture Biomass in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandija Rivza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment is an important factor for successful and sustainable entrepreneurship of bioenergy production that has become one of the priorities in energy sector of Latvia. Promotion of the use of renewable energy is included as one of the strategic goals for European Union (EU and Latvia. As this field of energy production in Latvia is rather new and scantily explored there are many risk factors arising in different stages of production, starting with planning and building of a bioreactor and ending with production and further use and distribution of energy. The present research focuses on risk assessment in renewable energy production form biomass as this kind of energy is seen as a perspective source for renewable energy under the conditions of Latvia. A risk assessment module for renewable energy production made by using the Analytic Network Process (ANP software is described in the paper.

  4. [Sebastian Rimestad. The Challenges of Modernity to the Orthodox Church in Estonia and Latvia (1917-1940)]/ Svetlana Bogojavlenska

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bogojavlenska, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Sebastian Rimestad. The Challenges of Modernity to the Orthodox Church in Estonia and Latvia (1917-1940). (Erfurter Studien zur Kulturgeschichte des orthdoxen Christentums, Bd. 6). Lang, Frankfurt am Main u. a. 2012

  5. Molecular epidemiology and heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in meat products and meat-processing plants and listeriosis in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Berzins, Aivars

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence, contamination and heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes were investigated in meat products and meat-processing plants. Moreover, trends of human listeriosis in Latvia were studied over a 10-year period from 1998 to 2007. A high prevalence (40%) of L. monocytogenes was found in cold-smoked meat products compared with other heat-treated ready-to-eat meat products (0.7%) available in retail markets in Latvia. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and serotyping were ap...

  6. DECLINE OF CENSORSHIP IN SOVIET LATVIA 1985–1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strale, Aina

    2006-12-01

    -estimation of the content of special collections was slow. For this reason one of the main obstacles on the way of libraries’ democratisation and free access to information was – the special collections. Glavlit itself passed orders with the aim of gradual liquidation of the special collections. The librarians felt heartache most of all about the information “arrested” and hidden in the special collections. In June 1988 the current seminar of the librarians and representatives of the committees of culture of the Baltic republics “LiLaEst” was held in Elbi (Estonia. The main topic of the seminar was special collections and the literature exterminated during the soviet time. Following the initiative of the director of the State Library Andris Vilks the order of the State Committee of Culture of LSSR was drafted “About the preservation and use of Latvian exile literature and Lettonica publications in the State Library of Latvia”. It stated that the storage of Latvian and Lettonica publications is the competence of the director of the State Library and the Acquisitions’ Board of the library. This order was passed on September 6, 1989. In his memories Andris Vilks explains this step to be caused by the desire to merge the special collections with the generally available collection in the utmost speed thus giving the readers a chance to access freely this literature. Glavlit – the Main Office for the Protection of the State Secrets against Press of the Council of Ministers of LSSR – was liquidated according to the order of the Council of Ministers of Latvia from August 10, 1990.

  7. Prevalence of IGRA-positivity and risk factors for tuberculosis among injecting drug users in Estonia and Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüütel, Kristi; Karnite, Anda; Talu, Ave; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Kirvelaite, Gunta; Kliiman, Kai; Loit, Helle-Mai; Uusküla, Anneli

    2014-01-01

    Illegal drug use and HIV are independent risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) among injecting drug users (IDU). Estonia and Latvia have experienced high rates of TB as well as IDU and HIV outbreaks. There is a lack of knowledge about TB among IDUs in these countries. The purpose of the current study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection among IDUs in Estonia and Latvia. Participants for this cross-sectional study were recruited from syringe exchange programmes using respondent-driven sampling. For assessing infection with MTB interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) was used. The study included 375 participants from Estonia and 313 from Latvia. The prevalence of IGRA-positivity among IDUs was 7.7% in Estonia and 25.6% in Latvia. HIV-prevalence was 62% in Estonia and 23% in Latvia. In both countries, IGRA-positivity rates did not differ between HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants. IGRA-positivity was independently associated with a prior diagnosis of TB in Estonia and with imprisonment (ever within a lifetime) and preceding contact with a TB patient in Latvia. Our findings indicate there is an urgent need for a more vigorous approach in providing IDUs with TB screening services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Unification of roles of the World Trade Organization (WTO and International Financial Institutions (IFIs in Education: The maintenance of global neoliberal hegemony?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Trisnawati Abbott

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Education is viewed as an instrument for development. Therein lies the importance of education for social change. It is education that makes people aware of the situation around them. Yet, in a different way, education is also an instrument to maintain hegemony. At the international level, the institutions of the World Trade Organization (WTO and the International Financial Institutions (IFIs, such as the World Bank (WB, and International Monetary Fund (IMF are crucial to the determination of the real meaning of education; whether or not education is an instrument for development for maintaining hegemony. The WTO system is arguably more than simply an international institution, but rather it is a center of hegemonic power. The emergence of neoliberalism has been accompanied by the coercion of hegemonic power that results in deleterious effects on human life. In the education sector, through the provision of the WTO General Agreement of Trade and Services (GATS, trade barriers in education are eliminated. Not only education is becoming globalized but also increasingly becoming a competitive commodity. Thus, the commodification of education means that education serves those who can afford to pay. The controversies surrounding the role of the WTO in the trade of education are significant to the debates about Neoliberal ideology and the problems of governance in the realm of globalization. These debates arise not only because of the actions of the WTO, which is deeply informed by Neoliberal ideology, but also because of the diverse beliefs about world economic governance. Not only the WTO, but also the roles of International Financial Institutions in global education revealed controversies. State intervention, for instance is minimized. Government spending in the education sector is reduced. Privatization and commercialization are encouraged. Social injustice seems to be the source of the presupposition of these controversies. This research

  9. How Could Prison Products Come into the International Market? Analysis of the Consistency between WTO and ILO Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixue Shang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in many countries, a increasing number of private companies resort to prison labor. In fact, inmates work more and more for private undertakings both inside and outside prison. In consideration of private companies generally engaged in international trade, prison labor thus participate in global supply chains. Then under such circumstances, there is a developing trend that prison economy is being marketed internationally. Nevertheless, there are some institutional barriers in international trade policies, such as WTO rules, which in principle prohibit prison labor product coming into international market. This research aims to discuss the possibility of exports of prison products in international trade market within WTO/GATT framework. In terms of prisoners’ labor rights protection, by exploring the consistency of WTO rule with ILO standard, the research intends to find the possibility of prison labor product being accepted by the international market. Feasibility analysis is developed in the research to propose constructive suggestion for an open question in the international law.

  10. EU sales ban on new cosmetics tested on animals: impact on alternative methods, WTO implications and animal welfare aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdel, Irmela W

    2004-06-01

    In 1993, the European Union (EU) adopted Directive 93/35/EEC, calling for a sales ban on new cosmetic products containing ingredients tested on animals after 1 January, 1998, provided that alternative methods had been developed by then. In May 2000, for the second time, the European Commission postponed that ban. The Commission justified the repeated postponement of the sales ban by saying that no animal-free methods were available, although three in vitro methods were scientifically approved in 1997. With three years delay, these methods have been published and therefore "made available" in the EU. OECD acceptance is still awaited. Another reason for the postponement was the fear of possible World Trade Organisation (WTO) conflicts. However, according to WTO rules, the protection of public morality or animal health could justify a restriction of the free trade principle. From the animal welfare point of view, an unqualified EU sales ban, combined with an animal testing ban, would provide the incentive to further promote the development and acceptance of alternative methods and to prove that ethical standards are legitimate concerns under WTO rules.

  11. New finding of Trichinella britovi in a European beaver (Castor fiber) in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segliņa, Zanda; Bakasejevs, Eduards; Deksne, Gunita; Spuņģis, Voldemārs; Kurjušina, Muza

    2015-08-01

    We report the first finding of Trichinella britovi in a European beaver. In Latvia, beaver is a common game animal and frequently used in human diet. A high prevalence of Trichinella infections in Latvia is present in the most common hosts-carnivores and omnivores. In total, 182 European beaver muscle samples were tested for Trichinella larvae accordingly to the reference method of European Communities Commission Regulation (EC) No. 2075/2005 (2005). Trichinella britovi larvae were detected in one animal (prevalence 0.5%; intensity 5.92 larvae per gram of muscle). This finding suggests that the consumption of European beaver meat can be a risk to human health. Further studies are needed in order to determine if the present observation represents an isolated individual case or low prevalence of Trichinella infection in beavers.

  12. Anticipated future of Latvia and Russia during a global economic crisis: A mixed methods perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesovs Aleksandrs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-cultural study explored subjective predictors of more positive evaluation of the future of the country during a global socioeconomic crisis. A sequential mixed-method design was chosen for an exploration of students’ expectations in Russia and Latvia as countries contrasting in macro-contextual conditions. In 2009, Study 1 was designed as a thematic analysis of essays on topic “The Future of Latvia/Russia”. The results demonstrated that the future of a country is anticipated by taking into account external influences, the present of the country, and its perceived power and stability. In 2011, Study 2 involved these themes as independent variables in a multiple regression model. The results demonstrated that positive evaluation of the present and higher perceived power of the country are individuallevel predictors of more positive evaluation of its future. Observed concordance of models indicates relatively high importance of subjective view of the country in the changing world.

  13. An Evaluation of the Cross-Sectoral Policy Coordination in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Vītola, A; Šenfelde, M

    2015-01-01

    Key societal challenges are cross-sectoral and do not correspond to administrative structures. The policy coordination enables synergy or at least prevents overlapping and conflicts of sector policies, which is increasingly important due to growing complexity of many policy issues. The article analyses the notion of policy coordination and offers a classification of the types of policy coordination. It also evaluates the policy coordination in Latvia by analysing national legislation, policy ...

  14. Use of Social Media in Corporate Communication in Latvia (2009-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Kazaka

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the framework of the doctoral thesis „Use of Social Media in Corporate Communication in Latvia (2009-2011)” a new theoretical approach to corporate communication in social media was developed which will help companies to successfully organize their communication with target publics in social media and will provide a new social media investigation tool for the researchers. An added communicative value model was developed by the author in the framework of the new t...

  15. Stress-related Psychological Disorders Among Surgical Care Nurses in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Kristaps Circenis; Kristaps Circenis; Liana Deklava

    2011-01-01

    Background: The subject of stress related psychological disorders is considered to be one of the mostcritical problems in the 21st century. Latvia’s social-economic situation is stressful and a lot of nurses stillneed to work more than one shift. There are no complete studies about surgical care nurses and operatingroom nurses burnout, depression, anxiety and compassion fatigue situation in Latvia.Aim and Objectives: Research aim was to find out burnout, depression, compassion fatigue and anx...

  16. The Ethnopolitical Discourse Analysis: Power Relations of Language Communities in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Kļave, Evija

    2010-01-01

    Evija Klave PhD Thesis „The Ethnopolitical Discourse Analysis: Power Relations of Language Communities in Latvia” Annotation In the society of Latvia several indicators of conflict between Latvian and Russian ethnolinguistic groups can be observed. Meanwhile, there are no open socio-political or ethnic conflicts between the both language communities at the group level. The thesis is elaborated in the perspective of interpretative sociology, applying the poststructurali...

  17. Methods of Human Resource Management Evaluation and Directions for Their Improvement in Large Enterprises of Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Peiseniece, Līga

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the dissertation „Methods of Human Resource Management Evaluation and Directions for Their Improvement in Large Enterprises of Latvia” is to establish new methods for efficiency evaluation of human resource management to improve processes of human resource management in large enterprises of Latvia. The first chapter covers the nature and methods of evaluation of human resource management. The necessity of evaluation of human resource management has been based ...

  18. Framing the public: the policy process around xenotransplantation in Latvia and Sweden 1970–2004

    OpenAIRE

    Jekaterina Kaleja; Aivita Putnina

    2011-01-01

    A crucial debate is under way concerning the public's participation in biotechnology decision-making processes. This study, concerning the policy process around xenotransplantation (XTP) in Latvia and Sweden in the period 1970–2004, focuses on how scientific experts and politicians view the public and the public's participation in the process of developing policy regarding XTP. Drawing on interviews with actors involved in XTP in each country, we analyse and explain the inclusion and exclusio...

  19. Current Status of the Equine Sector in the Central Baltic Region (Finland, Latvia and Sweden)

    OpenAIRE

    Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Pinzke, Stefan; Löfqvist, Lotta; Järvinen, Maija; Korpa, Viola; Paula, Līga; Kursitis, Andis

    2013-01-01

    This report covers basic descriptions and characteristics of the equine sector, including statistics on number of horses, horse farms, employment, current structure and recent dynamics in the horse sector in Finland, Latvia and Sweden and also the mobility (e.g. trade, import, export and tourism) within the Central Baltic Region. The information was gathered through literature reviews, round table discussions and interviews with equine organisations and stakeholders, and through visits to far...

  20. Sexuality and nationality: homophobic discourse and the 'national threat' in contemporary Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Mole, R C M

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers why attitudes towards gays and lesbians in Latvia appear to be more intolerant than in all other EU member states. The paper argues that while the legacy of communist discourses on homosexuality and the impact of post-communist transition have played a role in shaping attitudes towards sexuality and sexual minorities in Central and Eastern Europe, these factors cannot sufficiently explain the divergence among post-communist states and, in particular, do ...

  1. Determinants of mental health stigma among pharmacy students in Australia, Belgium, Estonia, Finland, India and Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J S; Aaltonen, S E; Airaksinen, M S; Volmer, D; Gharat, M S; Muceniece, R; Vitola, A; Foulon, V; Desplenter, F A; Chen, T F

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare professionals commonly exhibit negative attitudes toward people with mental disorders. Few international studies have sought to investigate the determinants of stigma. To conduct an international comparison of pharmacy students' stigma towards people with schizophrenia, and to determine whether stigma is consistently associated with stereotypical attributes of people with schizophrenia. Students (n = 649) at eight universities in Australia, Belgium, India, Finland, Estonia and Latvia completed a seven-item Social Distance Scale (SDS) and six items related to stereotypical attributes of people with schizophrenia. Mean SDS scores were 19.65 (+/- 3.97) in Australia, 19.61 (+/- 2.92) in Belgium, 18.75 (+/- 3.57) in India, 18.05 (+/- 3.12) in Finland, and 20.90 (+/- 4.04) in Estonia and Latvia. Unpredictability was most strongly associated with having a high social distance in Australia (beta = -1.285), the perception that people will never recover in India (beta = - 0.881), dangerousness in Finland (beta = -1.473) and the perception of being difficult to talk to in Estonia and Latvia (beta = -2.076). Unpredictability was associated with lower social distance in Belgium (beta = 0.839). The extent to which students held stigmatizing attitudes was similar in each country, however, the determinants of stigma were different. Pharmacy education may need to be tailored to address the determinants of stigma in each country.

  2. Quality benchmarking methodology: Case study of finance and culture industries in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieva Zemīte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Political, socio-economic and cultural changes that have taken place in the world during the last years have influenced all the spheres. Constant improvements are necessary to sustain in rival and shrinking markets. This sets high quality standards for the service industries. Therefore it is important to conduct comparison of quality criteria to ascertain which practices are achieving superior performance levels. At present companies in Latvia do not carry out mutual benchmarking, and as a result of that do not know how they rank against their peers in terms of quality, as well as they do not see benefits in sharing of information and in benchmarking.The purpose of this paper is to determine the criteria of qualitative benchmarking, and to investigate the use of the benchmarking quality in service industries, particularly: finance and culture sectors in Latvia in order to determine the key driving factors of quality, to explore internal and foreign benchmarks, and to reveal the full potential of inputs’ reduction and efficiency growth for the aforementioned industries.Case study and other tools are used to define the readiness of the company for benchmarking. Certain key factors are examined for their impact on quality criteria. The results are based on the research conducted in professional associations in defined fields (insurance and theatre.Originality/value – this is the first study that adopts the benchmarking models for measuring quality criteria and readiness for mutual comparison in insurance and theatre industries in Latvia.

  3. Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) infection in dairy cattle and associated risk factors in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroduske, A; Trofimova, J; Kibilds, J; Papule, U; Sergejeva, M; Rodze, I; Grantina-Ievina, L

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe prevalence and spatial distribution of Coxiella burnetii infections in dairy cow sheds in Latvia and to investigate risk factors contributing to C. burnetii infections. Blood serum samples from abortion cases from 1010 sheds have been tested by ELISA for the presence of C. burnetii antibodies and bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from 252 sheds have been tested by real time polymerase chain reaction and ELISA for the presence of C. burnetii DNA and antibodies. Prevalence of C. burnetii antibody-positive sheds in cases of abortion was 13·4%. A total of 10·7% and 13·2% of dairy cow sheds tested positive for the presence of C. burnetii DNA and antibodies in BTM, respectively. Two distinct areas of clustering of test-positive dairy cattle sheds were identified by spatial scan statistics of abortion cases and randomly sampled BTM samples. Three factors were identified as significantly contributing to the risk of C. burnetii DNA presence in BTM - number of cattle in shed (>200 animals/shed) (OR 3·93), location of the shed within risk area in Northern Latvia (OR 8·29) and for the first time, purchasing cattle from abroad has been shown to significantly increase risk (OR 2·68) of C. burnetii infection in dairy cows in Latvia.

  4. Rehabilitation centers and their role in medical tourism development in latvia

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    Muiznieks A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the research is the possible development of rehabilitation centres in medical tourism. The paper analyses the financial situation of rehabilitation centres in Latvia, the correlation with economical situation in Latvia as well as the comparison of services and prices in Latvian and European rehabilitation centres. A visitors’ survey in order to investigate their satisfaction regarding services was conducted in the rehabilitation centre “Jaunkemeri”. The findings of the survey are summarized as guidelines (proposals for the development of Latvian rehabilitation centres in the context of medical tourism. The main research results are as follows: Latvian rehabilitation centres offer a wide variety of services, the prices of the services are competitive with European ones, and the clients are satisfied with the quality of services and believe that the quality corresponds with the price. However, Latvian rehabilitation centres depend on the economical situation of the country and its financial support, there is a lack of unified standards in Latvia, the Soviet infrastructure dominates and the leisure time activities are limited. The aim of the guidelines is to offer a solution of the problem regarding the possibility to develop rehabilitation centres in order to foster the medical tourism and the ways how to do it.

  5. Characteristic Features of Publications on Architectural Competition Practice in Latvia, 1859–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Leitāne-Šmīdberga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The competition practice has been rather extensively published, as publications on architectural competitions are inseparable from the competition process itself. They are a significant part of representation that explicitly promotes understanding of the design, realization and implementation process, and are a way to communicate the project to the client, jury, community and authorities. Yet, there have always been insufficient consistent critical discussions on the architecture and planning discourse in Latvia, neither on competitions, nor on the related publications. The purpose of the paper is to distinguish features that characterize publications on architectural competitions in Latvia. Methodological principles and systematization of the materials have been carried out according to the historical and logical approach method based on studies of the collected examples and sources of over 1,000 publications on 960 competitions of the past 160 years. The paper systematizes publications on competition practice over the several time periods in Latvia (Russian Empire 1859–1918, Independence 1918–34, Authoritarian Regime 1934–40, Soviet Period 1940–90 and the Second Independence 1991–2013 according to their topics, the author’s professional profiles, type and content and, eventually their characteristic style. Insights into the development of local competition practice through related publications help to explain the formation of a significant part of the local architectural and urban discourse, as its understanding is partially determined by the plurality of representations and interpretations.

  6. Influence of quality of life on the state and development of human capital in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Tsaurkubule

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the essence and forms of interrelation between human capital and quality of life are still insufficiently studied. Therefore, there is a need for defining general components of these categories and areas, where human capital interacts with quality of life. Today, Latvia has been developing in difficult conditions: the population is decreasing, emigration is growing, possibilities of employment are limited, and the income of residents is decreasing. All these factors reduce quality of life for the population and lead to the loss of human resources in the country. The existence of a problem stemming from the relationship between quality of life and human capital establishes the relevance of the research and determines its aim. The main contradiction is between the external positioning of the state as a country successfully overcoming crisis and the growth of internal crisis in the state, leading to the further impoverishment of the population, leading to an increased emigration of the working population of Latvia. The main research question is as follows: how to preserve human resources in the state? Based on an analysis of post-crisis socio-economic processes taking place in the society, recommendations are made to improve the socio-economic policy in ways that improve the welfare of the population of Latvia.

  7. SVHC in imported articles: REACH authorisation requirement justified under WTO rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenten, Julian; Führ, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the REACH Regulation is to ensure a high level of protection of human health and the environment as well as the free circulation of substances on the internal market while enhancing competitiveness and innovation. To this end, REACH introduces, among other instruments, the authorisation regime for substances of very high concern (SVHC) that are listed on Annex XIV of the regulation. After expiration of the transitional period for each Annex XIV-SVHC, articles, such as most products of daily use, produced in the European Economic Area (EEA) may not contain such substances unless an authorisation was granted for the specific use or this use falls within the scope of an exemption from the authorisation requirement. The authorisation scheme does, however, only apply to SVHC used in the EEA. As a consequence, REACH does not regulate SVHC entering the European market as part of imported articles which burden human health and the environment. Moreover, from an economic perspective, domestic articles are subject to stricter requirements than those which are produced abroad, putting actors from within the EEA at competitive disadvantage and thus impeding the intention of REACH to enhance competitiveness and innovation. One option to close this regulatory gap could be to extend the authorisation requirement to SVHC present in imported articles. A legal appraisal on behalf of the German Environment Agency (UBA) assesses whether such option would be in accordance with the specifications of WTO world trade law. It concludes that, measured by the standards of the WTO dispute settlement practice, such an extended authorisation scheme would neither violate the principles of national treatment and most-favoured nation treatment. Also, such regulation would not constitute an unnecessary obstacle to trade, since the extended authorisation requirement would pursue a legitimate objective covered by the regulatory autonomy of the EU and, furthermore, the regulation would

  8. Dispute resolution and “environmental” provisions in the WTO: promising developments for environmental matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Rodríguez Uribe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available International politics are moving towards an economical and culturalunification (globalisation, in which all nations are related by trade interactions.If environmental protection commitments are to be honoured,environmental law has to cease to be considered a separate discipline and find synergies that allow it to become an important stakeholder in trade relations.In this paper it is argued that international commerce and environmentallaw have coevolved in the last three decades to reach a balance embodied in the concept of sustainable development.The essay explores this coevolution, and proposes that the WorldTrade Organization (WTO can play an important role in environmentalprotection goals if its “green provisions” and dispute resolutionmechanism are to be used to promote them, as is already happening. In order to illustrate this point, a brief overview of commercial and environmental treaties signed since the seventies is presented, followed by an explanation of the WTO’s treaty suite provisions that can be considered as “green”, in the hopes of finding convergence points that can be used by the member parties in order not only tojustify the passing of environmental protection domesticlegislations, but also to compel other countries to comply with their obligations in this area.

  9. Using of Protectionism Policy Tools in the context of WTO from the Perspective of Dependency Theory

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    Göksel KARAŞ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, when neoliberal policies have been intensively implemented, the distribution of income between developed and less developed countries in the world has begun to increase inequality. There are discourses that the neoliberal view suggests that today's wealthy countries are successful with free market economics, so that all countries in the world must move to a free market economy system and that neoliberal policies are the only way for development. According to the neoliberal policy which advocates the state neutrality in the economy, the role of the state in the economy should be reduced. As a result, weakening the effectiveness of government policy-setting and implementation in the economy is intended. Thus, developed countries direct the underdeveloped or developing countries in the direction of their own interests. The result of these discourses, the theory of dependence which states that there is a relationship between developed and underdeveloped countries based on power and control, that underdevelopment of underdeveloped countries should be sought in the development process of developed countries has come out. The aim of the study is to assess the results of the use of defense measures in the trade policy implemented under the World Trade Organization (WTO, based on the assumptions of the dependency theory. When the use of defense instruments in trade policy is examined, it appears that these instruments have been effectively used by developed countries that advocate and enforce the free market economy in the world.

  10. Trade rules and exchange rate misalignments: in search for a WTO solution

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    Vera Thorstensen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The debate on the link between trade rules and rules on exchange rates is raising the attention of experts on international trade law and economics. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the impacts of exchange rate misalignments on tariffs as applied by the WTO - World Trade Organization. It is divided into five sections: the first one explains the methodology used to determine exchange rate misalignments and also presents its results for Brazil, U.S. and China; the second summarizes the methodology applied to calculate the impacts of exchange rate misalignments on the level of tariff protection through an exercise of "misalignment tariffication"; the third examines the effects of exchange rate variations on tariffs and their consequences for the multilateral trading system; the fourth one creates a methodology to estimate exchange rates against a currency of the World and a proposal to deal with persistent and significant misalignments related to trade rules. The conclusions are present in the last section.

  11. The compatibility of a 'Local Content' regulation in the Renewable Energy Law with the WTO Agreement; Die Vereinbarkeit einer 'Local Content'-Regelung im EEG mit dem WTO-Recht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, Christian [Kanzlei Schnutenhaus und Kollegen, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    Based on the promotion of power generation from renewable energy sources, the German Renewable Energy Law has contributed significantly to the establishment of a German solar industry. Due to the increasing international competition and the repeated lowering of tariff rates for electricity from photovoltaic systems, the German solar industry increasingly is becoming less competitive. Against this background, the uptake of a so-called local content regulation is required in the Renewable Energy Law. The contribution under consideration reports on the WTO-legal admissibility of such a regulation.

  12. Influence of accessibility of services on Quality of Life of school children with Cerebral Palsy in Latvia

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    Cibule L.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of accessibility of services and health related factors on Quality of Life (QoL of school children with Cerebral Palsy (CP in Latvia. 80 children 47 boys and 33 girls with CP and their parents from all regions of Latvia took part in the study. Mean age of participants was 11,7 (SD± 3,5 years. 50 children without diagnosed chronic diseases formed the control group. Validated evaluation tools were used in the study (KIDSCREEN-52, GMFCS- E&R. The results show lower QoL in children with CP in comparison with their healthy peers and European children. QoL is influenced by the level of gross motor functions, lack of coordination of services, lack of rehabilitation infrastructure and presence of environmental barriers in Latvia.

  13. Does science speak clearly and fairly in trade and food safety disputes? The search for an optimal response of WTO adjudication to problematic international standard-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kuei-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Most international health-related standards are voluntary per se. However, the incorporation of international standard-making into WTO agreements like the SPS Agreement has drastically changed the status and effectiveness of the standards. WTO members are urged to follow international standards, even when not required to comply fully with them. Indeed, such standards have attained great influence in the trade system. Yet evidence shows that the credibility of the allegedly scientific approach of these international standard-setting institutions, especially the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) governing food safety standards, has been eroded and diluted by industrial and political influences. Its decision-making is no longer based on consensus, but voting. The adoption of new safety limits for the veterinary drug ractopamine in 2012, by a very close vote, is simply another instance of the problematic operations of the Codex. These dynamics have led skeptics to question the legitimacy of the standard setting body and to propose solutions to rectify the situation. Prior WTO rulings have yet to pay attention to the defect in the decision-making processes of the Codex. Nevertheless, the recent Appellate Body decision on Hormones II is indicative of a deferential approach to national measures that are distinct from Codex formulas. The ruling also rejects the reliance on those experts who authored the Codex standards to assess new measures of the European Community. This approach provides an opportunity to contemplate what the proper relationship between the WTO and Codex ought to be. Through a critical review of WTO rulings and academic proposals, this article aims to analyze how the WTO ought to define such interactions and respond to the politicized standard-making process in an optimal manner. This article argues that building a more systematic approach and normative basis for WTO judicial review of standard-setting decisions and the selection of technical

  14. Impact of ChinaÂ’s WTO Accession on Farm-Nonfarm Income Inequality and Rural Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Kym Anderson; Jikun Huang; Elena Ianchovichina

    2002-01-01

    Many fear ChinaÂ’s accession to WTO will impoverish its rural people, via greater import competition in its agricultural markets. We explore that possibility bearing in mind that, even if producer prices of some (land-intensive) farm products fall, prices of other (labour-intensive) farm products could rise. Also, the removal of restrictions on exports of textiles and clothing could boost town and village enterprises, so demand for unskilled labour for non-farm work in rural areas may grow ev...

  15. China's proposing behavior in Global Governance: the cases of the WTO Doha Round negotiation and G-20 process

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    Hongsong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines China's proposals on the reform of global governance, and discusses the main features of China's proposing behavior in the cases of the WTO Doha Round negotiation and G-20 Process. The main findings are: (1 in the critical junctures of global governance reform, China engaged the reform of the global governance institutions proactively, and put forward a series of reform proposals; (2 in proposing behavior, China argued the global governance institutions should be properly adjusted without intention to change the basic principles, refrained from playing a leadership role while proposing jointly with other countries, and upheld the principled idea of pro-development.

  16. Evaluation of reed resources in Latvia and analysis of its use for energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubars, Edgars; Noviks, Gotfrids

    2012-04-01

    The increasing demand for energy, limited resources of fossil fuel, as well as pollution of the environment and changes in the global climate have raised more interest about the renewable resources. The use of renewable resources has become a very important partof European Union policy. The aim of the paper was to analyse reed resources in Latvia, its dynamics, volume and quality to produce clean energy. The use of reeds as a renewable energy resource contributes in minimizing fossil fuel consumption. The paper presents the results of a research of reed resources in lakes of Latgale (a region in Latvia). The investigation of reed resources showed that in the region they are scattered and rational usage of them is connected with environmental aspects. The greatest amounts of reed resources are concentrated in the biggest lake in Latvia- Lubana Lake and near to it. Studies showed thatthe reed areas in Lubana Lake and Kvapanu ponds have doubled since 1997 and as a result these water reservoirs are becoming overgrown. Using direct measurement methods and metering from distance, it was stated that the total reed resources of greatest Lake - Lubanas are about 6830 tons year(-1) in area of 734 hectares and are situated in 701 reed blocks. The aggregated reed resources of Latgale region are 18 000 tons year(-1) of dry biomass. The investigation proved that reed resources of the region are sufficient to replace up to 21 thousand tons of different fossil fuels. The physical properties of the reed were measured. Carbon quantity, ash content and structure, moisture content proved that reeds are a profitable fuel for heat energy production. Balanced harvesting of reed gives a positive influence on environment.

  17. Chemical elements in the muscle tissues of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from selected lakes in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudovica, Vita; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2015-10-01

    Fish is a significant source of essential nutrients, as well as toxic elements in the human diet. Concentration of 17 elements was determined in muscles of eels (Anguilla anguilla) collected from five fishing lakes in the territory of Latvia. The concentration of main elements determined in muscle tissues varied within the following ranges: for Pb, 0.019-0.047; Cd, 0.0051-0.011; Hg, 0.13-0.36; Cu, 0.76-0.92; Zn, 28-42; and As, 0.13-0.23 mg kg(-1) wet weight. A positive correlation was revealed between the concentration of Hg in muscles and fish length in inland lakes. Concentration of metals in muscle tissues of eels from brackish coastal and inland lakes was without statistically significant difference. This research demonstrated that the elemental content of Cd and Pb in muscles of the examined fish was lower than the maximum allowed threshold set by the European Union legislation. Mercury content was over the threshold limit for all the analyzed eels if to compare with the Water Framework Directive Environmental Quality Standards. On other side, only 7% of analyzed fish have indicated values that are over threshold limits for mercury established by the European Union food legislation. The current study contributes to the implementation of Water Framework Directive in Latvia by collection of information necessary for the further protection measures of waters. To our knowledge, this study provides the first data on multielemental bioaccumulation in muscle tissues of European eels collected from fishing lakes of Latvia.

  18. THE EFFECTS OF THE WTO AND THE TTIP AGREEMENT ON THE CROATIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vizjak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Immediately after becoming independent on 15 January 1991, the Republic of Croatia became a member of the IMF. Although, as a successor of the former Yugoslavia, it had full GATT membership, and thus membership in the WTO, the Croatian government did not know how to exercise its rights and therefore had to go through the entire procedure in order to access the organisation in 2000. Presently, Croatia is the 28th Member State of the EU and has scarce information about the TTIP, the effects of which will directly affect Croatia as well as all Member States. The purpose of this paper is to realistically analyse the possible effects on our economy in relation to this globally important agreement. The TTIP is a trade agreement between the EU and the USA which has an important economic and geo-strategic interest, since its role is connecting two powerful economies and their common position on the global market as well as long-term pacesetting in relation to other regions in the world, which refers to the standard and the way of doing business. Therefore, we can conclude that the long-term strategic goal is market integration and establishment of grid plans which, once established, will not be able to undergo significant changes. The aim of this paper is to examine the default hypothesis and thus establish facts in relation to trends in international trade and its adaptation to globalization and economic changes in the world as well as its impact on Croatia. The scientific methods used in this paper are methods of systematic analysis, the dialectical and logical method, mostly in the inductive-deductive combination, and vice versa. The scientific contribution is reflected in the development of scientific thought about the importance of the effects of globalization on trade and the economy in general in the world and in Croatia.

  19. First union formation in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: patterns across countries and gender

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    Luule Sakkeus

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the transformation of first union formation in the Baltic countries between the late 1960s and early 1990s, in the context of societal and family-level gender relations. The analyses employ microdata from the European Family and Fertility Surveys program. Our results on the trends indicate that in Estonia and Latvia the shift from direct marriage to cohabitation started well before the fall of socialist regime. Event-history models provide support for a hypothesised association between union formation and gender system, with Lithuania showing more traditional features in both respect, plausibly embedded in long-standing cultural differences between the countries.

  20. Coming of age under Hitler and Stalin: the everyday life of adolescent girls in occupied Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the possibility of the continuation of everyday life in occupied Europe through a case study of the lives of twenty-five adolescent girls and young women living in Latvia between 1939 and 1944. Late adolescence is the period in which young women are struggling to establish some degree of independence, especially through leaving the parental home and entering the labour market. These transitions are the conventional markers of adulthood in modern societies. The article explores how occupation by the Soviet Union and the Third Reich affected daily life and the speed and nature of the transition to adulthood.

  1. The Role of Ecotourism in the Reduction of Anthropogenic Load on Natura 2000 Territories throughout Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitis, Eriks; Leitis, Ēriks

    2011-01-01

    Ecotourism is able to contribute to biodiversity and to ensure the ecosystem function in Latvia through a complicated process of fulfilment of the established criteria for a valid ecotourism. The tourism flow in protected nature territories should be monitored, and the appropriate environmental management, education and a code of conduct need to be introduced. Ecotourism will serve for reducing the social and economic pressures on biodiversity and will promote responsible actions in support of environmentally friendly technologies and approaches. The areas selected for this study are the Natura 2000 territories that have undertaken the development of ecotourism facilities.

  2. The Effect of VAT Rate on Price Setting Behaviour in Latvia: Evidence from CPI Micro Data

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantins Benkovskis; Ludmila Fadejeva

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the inflation effect of recent VAT rate changes in Latvia by using CPI micro data. Our findings suggest that the pass-through of the tax rate to consumer prices is strong in case of upward tax adjustments, especially when there are no demand restrictions, while the pass-through is weaker for tax reductions. The frequency of price changes peaks at the moment of VAT adjustment, which, however, is partially compensated by lower average size of price revisions. The level of p...

  3. High prevalence of Trichinella spp. in sylvatic carnivore mammals of Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deksne, Gunita; Segliņa, Zanda; Jahundoviča, Inese; Esīte, Zanda; Bakasejevs, Eduards; Bagrade, Guna; Keidāne, Dace; Interisano, Marilena; Marucci, Gianluca; Tonanzi, Daniele; Pozio, Edoardo; Kirjušina, Muza

    2016-11-15

    Trichinella spp. are zoonotic parasites transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked meat of different animal species. Carnivore mammals are important reservoir hosts of these nematodes. The aims of this work were to establish the prevalence of Trichinella spp. and infection intensity in sylvatic carnivore mammals of Latvia, to identify the etiological agents at the species level and their circulation in the Latvian regions. From 2010 to 2014, muscle samples were collected from 1286 hunted animals (2 European badgers, 137 pine martens, 24 stone martens, 4 golden jackals, 394 raccoon dogs, 668 red foxes, 23 grey wolves, and 34 Eurasian lynxes). Trichinella spp. larvae were isolated by muscle digestion. Overall, 633 animals (49.2%; 95% CI 46.5%-52.0%) belonging to all the eight investigated species, tested positive for Trichinella spp. larvae. Trichinella britovi was the most common species (94.0%; 95% CI 91.7%-95.7%). Trichinella nativa was detected in 30 animals as single (6, 1.1%; 95% CI 0.4%-2.3%) or mixed infection (24, 4.4%; 95% CI 2.9%-6.4%) with T. britovi. Trichinella spiralis was detected in only three animals as mixed infection with T. britovi. The high prevalence of Trichinella spp. infection in sylvatic carnivore mammals suggests that they are good indicators for the risk assessment of Trichinella spp. in Latvia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Grain Composition and Functional Ingredients of Barley Varieties Created in Latvia

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    Šterna Vita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals, including barley, have been recognised as functional foods that provide beneficial effect on the health of the consumer and decrease the risk of various diseases. The aim of investigation was to determine the grain composition of barley varieties and perspective breeding lines bred in Latvia and to evaluate its functional ingredients. The results of analysis showed that protein content among varieties ranged from 106.6-146.8 g·kg-1, total dietary fibre 187.4-208.2 g·kg-1, β-glucans 42.8 g-49.4 g·kg-1, and amount of α-tocopherol 6.03-8.93 mg·kg-1. The sum of essential amino acids in barley grain samples was from 32.90 g·kg-1 to 38.71 g·kg-1. All varieties of hulled and hulless barley grain were found to be sources of protein with high biological value. Comparison of barley varieties bred in Latvia suggests that variety ‘Kornelija’ outperforms others in protein, dietary fibre and micronutrient content.

  5. Establishment of Nuclear Stock Collections for Apple and Pear in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuļģe Neda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Apples and pears are among the most important commercial fruit species grown in Latvia. Because of suitability to local climatic conditions, mainly domestic cultivars and cultivars originating in neighbouring countries are grown. The planting material of pome fruits produced and used for establishment of new orchards in Latvia corresponds to the Conformitas Agraria Communitatis standard due to the unavailability of nuclear stock. To establish virus-tested, experimental nuclear stock for apple and pear, one to two years old candidate plants were exposed to thermotherapy at +38 °C for 40 to 70 days. The mother trees and candidate plants before treatment were tested for the presence of the four most widespread pome fruit viruses by RT-PCR. The shoot tips of the heat-treated plants were grafted onto seedling rootstocks and were re-tested for the four viruses by RT-PCR during the next three to five vegetation seasons. Several plants of apple cultivars ‘Dace’, ‘Zarja Alatau’, ‘Rubin’, and ‘Ausma’ remained infected either with Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus, Apple stem growing virus or Apple stem pitting virus after the thermotherapy. Tests on woody indicators were carried out to determine possible presence of graft-transmittable organisms according to EPPO guidelines for the establishment of nuclear stock material for pome fruits.

  6. Decadal oscillations of the aquatic chemistry of river waters in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porshnov, Dmitry; Klavins, Maris

    2016-10-01

    Water quality changes of surface waters can be used to assess human impact intensity, but of importance is to consider also impacts of climate change/variability and naturally occurring changes of environmental quality. In Latvia, during the recent decades a major reduction of anthropogenic pressure has happened due to restructuring of economy and industrial production, resulting in major decrease of loading of many groups of pollutants. However, trends and driving factors for other groups of substances have not been much studied. Long term (1980-2012) results of hydrochemical monitoring, performed in rivers of Latvia, are analysed during this study in connection with long-term sets of hydrological and heliophysical data, using standard statistical approaches. Our results indicate that variation of some hydrochemical values, for example COD and total Fe, show clearly visible decadal oscillated character, while variation of some other values, for example phosphate P and total P, show some individual characteristics of decadal oscillations. These results indicate the presence of a large scale, geochemical and geophysical significant process: multiannual pulse of catchment, driven by variation of solar irradiance through complex interactions between global atmospheric circulation, groundwater and surface waterbodies. The process described in our study is significant from a geochemical point of view and must be taken into account in prediction of water quality and quantity. Impacts of natural processes should be considered in the planning of environmental policy.

  7. Pediatric and adolescent tuberculosis in Latvia, 2011-2014: case detection, diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemele, B; Ranka, R; Ozere, I

    2017-06-01

    To perform a comprehensive analysis of case detection, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in children and adolescents in Latvia, and to evaluate the utility of the current approach. A retrospective study of all Latvian children and adolescents diagnosed with TB from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2014. Of 3081 patients diagnosed with TB during 2011-2014, 250 (8%) were aged <18 years, and 80% were identified through contact investigation. Pulmonary TB was diagnosed in 77% of the patients. TB was confirmed bacteriologically in 21% of patients; chest X-ray (CXR) was consistent with TB in 42% of study participants, while 58% of cases were diagnosed with subclinical TB using low-dose computed tomography (CT) after being missed by CXR. Patients with visible abnormalities on CXR had a higher rate of bacteriological confirmation and were more often clinically symptomatic, which indicates active disease. Early diagnosis had a treatment success rate of 100% for drug-resistant and 99% for drug-susceptible TB. TB case detection through contact investigation provided early diagnosis and excellent treatment outcomes in children and adolescents in Latvia. CT was able to identify pathology consistent with subclinical TB in children with a history of exposure.

  8. Healthcare financing reform in Latvia: switching from social health insurance to NHS and back?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitenbergs, Uldis; Brigis, Girts; Quentin, Wilm

    2014-11-01

    In the 1990s, Latvia aimed at introducing Social Health Insurance (SHI) but later changed to a National Health Service (NHS) type system. The NHS is financed from general taxation, provides coverage to the entire population, and pays for a basic service package purchased from independent public and private providers. In November 2013, the Cabinet of Ministers passed a draft Healthcare Financing Law, aiming at increasing public expenditures on health by introducing Compulsory Health Insurance (CHI) and linking entitlement to health services to the payment of income tax. Opponents of the reform argue that linking entitlement to health services to the payment of income tax does not have the potential to increase public expenditures on health but that it can contribute to compromising universal coverage and access to health services of certain population groups. In view of strong opposition, it is unlikely that the law will be adopted before parliamentary elections in October 2014. Nevertheless, the discussion around the law is interesting because of three main reasons: (1) it can illustrate why the concept of SHI remains attractive - not only for Latvia but also for other countries, (2) it shows that a change from NHS to SHI does not imply major institutional reforms, and (3) it demonstrates the potential problems of introducing SHI, i.e. of linking entitlement to health services to the payment of contributions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. DSM energy saving pilot project report. Company Augstceltne Ltd., Riga, Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krievins, P.; Cakuls, A.; Kaross, V.; Jansons, D.

    1995-05-01

    This report is a part of the Joint Latvian - Danish Project DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT AND ENERGY SAVING. The Project is a part of the Danish aid and technology transfer to Latvia. It is the result of collaborative efforts between a Latvian team, consisting of the specialists from Latvenergo and a Danish team, which was represented by Danish Power Consult. The purpose of this pilot project was not only to carry out energy audit in the company Augstceltne Ltd and propose demand side management and energy saving measures. Another task of the project was the application of DPC energy audit methodic, measuring equipment and software in Latvian conditions and the promotion of energy saving programs in Latvia in this way. The Company Augstceltne Ltd was created to rent the rest of premises for many other independent companys and to earn money for surviving. Now the Company has 9 buildings with a total area of 26,920 square meters. The tower block has 23 floors and it is the main business centre. 66 companies are located in the building. (EG)

  10. Decadal oscillations of the aquatic chemistry of river waters in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Porshnov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water quality changes of surface waters can be used to assess human impact intensity, but of importance is to consider also impacts of climate change/variability and naturally occurring changes of environmental quality. In Latvia, during the recent decades a major reduction of anthropogenic pressure has happened due to restructuring of economy and industrial production, resulting in major decrease of loading of many groups of pollutants. However, trends and driving factors for other groups of substances have not been much studied. Long term (1980–2012 results of hydrochemical monitoring, performed in rivers of Latvia, are analysed during this study in connection with long-term sets of hydrological and heliophysical data, using standard statistical approaches. Our results indicate that variation of some hydrochemical values, for example COD and total Fe, show clearly visible decadal oscillated character, while variation of some other values, for example phosphate P and total P, show some individual characteristics of decadal oscillations. These results indicate the presence of a large scale, geochemical and geophysical significant process: multiannual pulse of catchment, driven by variation of solar irradiance through complex interactions between global atmospheric circulation, groundwater and surface waterbodies. The process described in our study is significant from a geochemical point of view and must be taken into account in prediction of water quality and quantity. Impacts of natural processes should be considered in the planning of environmental policy.

  11. Verification of Numerical Weather Prediction Model Results for Energy Applications in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sīle, Tija; Cepite-Frisfelde, Daiga; Sennikovs, Juris; Bethers, Uldis

    2014-05-01

    A resolution to increase the production and consumption of renewable energy has been made by EU governments. Most of the renewable energy in Latvia is produced by Hydroelectric Power Plants (HPP), followed by bio-gas, wind power and bio-mass energy production. Wind and HPP power production is sensitive to meteorological conditions. Currently the basis of weather forecasting is Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models. There are numerous methodologies concerning the evaluation of quality of NWP results (Wilks 2011) and their application can be conditional on the forecast end user. The goal of this study is to evaluate the performance of Weather Research and Forecast model (Skamarock 2008) implementation over the territory of Latvia, focusing on forecasting of wind speed and quantitative precipitation forecasts. The target spatial resolution is 3 km. Observational data from Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre are used. A number of standard verification metrics are calculated. The sensitivity to the model output interpretation (output spatial interpolation versus nearest gridpoint) is investigated. For the precipitation verification the dichotomous verification metrics are used. Sensitivity to different precipitation accumulation intervals is examined. Skamarock, William C. and Klemp, Joseph B. A time-split nonhydrostatic atmospheric model for weather research and forecasting applications. Journal of Computational Physics. 227, 2008, pp. 3465-3485. Wilks, Daniel S. Statistical Methods in the Atmospheric Sciences. Third Edition. Academic Press, 2011.

  12. Morphological Diversity of Phomopsis vaccinii Isolates from Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. in Latvia

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    Vilka Liga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Phomopsis vaccinii cause a serious disease of blueberry, cranberry and other Vaccinium crops in the North America and Europe as well. Over 1000 species names are described by Phomopsis spp., but their biology and life style are mostly unknown. Identification of P. vaccinii by methods of classical phytopathology is difficult and complicate, because many species are morphologically similar to P. vaccinii, and P. vaccinii itself has diverse patterns of colony morphology. For this investigation P. vaccinii isolates were obtained from five cranberry plantations in different locations of Latvia (Babite, Alsunga, Rucava, Ape and Pargauja municipality from berries affected by viscid rot at harvest and storage in 2010. Altogether 44 P. vaccinii isolates were cultivated on potato dextrose agar for description of colony morphology. In order to find some relationships between samples, the isolates were arranged in different groups on the basis of mycelium color and structure (zoning, reverse pigmentation, pycnidium formation time, size, location, number and size of conidia. During this study the colonies of P. vaccinii from cranberry in Latvia showed different morphological features in culture and no relationships between growing regions and groups of isolates were found. P. vaccinii is easy to confuse with other Phomopsis species if only classical phytopathological methods are used.

  13. Quantitative and Qualitative Parameters of Awards in Architecture and Construction Industries of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilze Mikelsone

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available While evaluating the built environment, predominant agreement on what aspects constitute an achievement or failure in architecture is changing in the course of time. The subject of the research is value set agreements in regional comprehension, followed by the generic tree of award in architecture and construction industries of Latvia. Recently, besides the original task of promoting quality, the judgment typology can be considered a significant evidence of what the contemporary questions, problems and challenges consist of in the regional architecture. Based on the method of analytic comparison, this research paper lists regional awards as established public forms of judgment, reflected in professional editions and mass media during the last two decades. By sorting them by responsible initiatives, aim formulations, establishment data, criterion and target audience, the paper focuses on the general examination of affiliation segments and quantitative and qualitative indicators in the awards assigned since 1990. Conclusions include the data on widespread generalizations in the terms of criteria, segmentation and fragmentation, reputation of subjectivity, commercialization and expansive development in awarding, and at the same time raise the lack of constructive criticism culture in Latvia.

  14. DRY CALCAREOUS GRASSLAND COMMUNITIES (FILIPENDULA VULGARIS-HELICTOTRICHON PRATENSE IN WESTERN AND CENTRAL LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. RUSINA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The dry calcareous grassland vegetation of Westem and Central Latvia is described based on 93 rclevés, Ali relevés could be assigned to one community type Filipendula vulgaris-Helictotrichon pratense named according to dominant species. Four variants were distinguished: typicum, Viscaria vulgaris, Astragalus danicus and Carex flacca. Ellenberg indìcator values were calculated to study the ecology of communities. Floristic differences among variants are associated mainly with soil reaction (Ellenberg indicator values for soil pH range from 6.0 to 7.6, but conditions of moisture and fertility are similar among the variants. The calcareous grassland vegetation in Latvia represents transition vegetation between the c1asses Molinio-Arrhenatheretea and Festuco-Brometea. However, ecologically and floristically, these communities are closer to the class Festuco-Brometea and could be assigned to the order Brometalia. For designation to alliance and associations, more data is required. The results are compared with similar communities in other European countries.

  15. WTO Appellate Body, Peru – Additional Duty on Imports of Certain Agriculture Products, WT/DS457/AB/R, 20 July 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathis, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Peru – Agriculture Products case presents an issue of first impression for the relationship between Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) and its substantive rules. While the provisions of the covered agreements cited by the complainant, Guatemala, were not

  16. 25 April 2012 - Latvia Riga Technical University Rector L. Ribickis signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 and CMS experimental cavern with Deputy Spokesperson T. Camporesi and Adviser for the Republic of Latvia T. Kurtyka.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    25 April 2012 - Latvia Riga Technical University Rector L. Ribickis signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 and CMS experimental cavern with Deputy Spokesperson T. Camporesi and Adviser for the Republic of Latvia T. Kurtyka.

  17. Internationalization of Higher Education Institutions in Latvia and Turkey: Its Management and Development during the Last Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burçer, Sibel; Kangro, Ilze

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at examining internationalization in higher education in two countries: Latvia and Turkey. The analysis is based on three dimensions of internationalization: institutional, organizational, and educational. Recently, under the influence of global processes, the internationalization takes form through the perspectives of three…

  18. The Development of Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials Industry in Science and Entrepreneurship: Scientific Indicators. A Case Study of Latvia (Part Three)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geipele, S.; Geipele, I.; Kauskale, L.; Zeltins, N.; Staube, T.; Pudzis, E.

    2017-10-01

    The present scientific paper is the third part and continuation of the indepth scientific study of the developed system of engineering economic indicators, where the authors obtain results from the scientific research presented in a series of works on the development of the nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in science and entrepreneurship in Latvia. Part three determines the crucial scientific indicators of the development of nano-field at the macro, micro, and meso development levels of the economic environment in Latvia. The paper provides the interaction of new identified indicators of nanofield in terms of further scientific and practical activities. Latvia is analysed in comparison with other countries in the world.

  19. Russkie v Latvii: osobennosti sociokul'turnoj adaptacii i identichnosti [Russians in Latvia: Peculiarities of Socio-cultural Adaptation and Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronov Viktor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The author identifies trends and variations of the socio-cultural identity and integration of Russians in Latvia. According to the author, since the middle 1990s, two trends have been recognized - first, the “ingrowing” of ethnic Russians into the life of independent Latvia, and second, forming their new identity. The article presents a number of factors hampering the integration of ethnic Russians into Latvian society. Variations and options of socio-cultural identity and integration (or assimilation of the Russian population of Latvia are shown.

  20. Infant mortality gap in the Baltic region - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - in relation to macroeconomic factors in 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebela, Inguna; Zile, Irisa; Ebela, Danute Razuka; Rozenfelde, Ingrida Rumba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. A constant gap has appeared in infant mortality among the 3 Baltic States - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - since the restoration of independence in 1991. The aim of the study was to compare infant mortality rates in all the 3 Baltic countries and examine some of the macro- and socioeconomic factors associated with infant mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The data were obtained from international databases, such as World Health Organization and EUROSTAT, and the national statistical databases of the Baltic States. The time series data sets (1996-2010) were used in the regression and correlation analysis. RESULTS. In all the 3 Baltic States, a strong and significant correlation was found: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01), Lithuania (r=-0.93, P<0.01), and Estonia (r=-0.91, P<0.01). There was also a correlation between infant mortality and healthcare expenditure in local currency per capita: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01); Lithuania (r=-0.90, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=-0.88, P<0.01). In Latvia (r=0.87, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=0.70; P<0.01), a significant correlation between infant mortality and unemployment levels was observed from 1996 to 2008, whereas the statistical significance disappeared in the period from 1996 to 2010. In Lithuania, the relationship was not significant. CONCLUSIONS. Higher infant mortality rates and a less stable decreasing tendency in Latvia are apparently explained by less successful adaptation to a new political and economic situation and limited skills in adjusting the healthcare system to the reality of life.

  1. Land cover mapping in Latvia using hyperspectral airborne and simulated Sentinel-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovels, Dainis; Filipovs, Jevgenijs; Brauns, Agris; Taskovs, Juris; Erins, Gatis

    2016-08-01

    Land cover mapping in Latvia is performed as part of the Corine Land Cover (CLC) initiative every six years. The advantage of CLC is the creation of a standardized nomenclature and mapping protocol comparable across all European countries, thereby making it a valuable information source at the European level. However, low spatial resolution and accuracy, infrequent updates and expensive manual production has limited its use at the national level. As of now, there is no remote sensing based high resolution land cover and land use services designed specifically for Latvia which would account for the country's natural and land use specifics and end-user interests. The European Space Agency launched the Sentinel-2 satellite in 2015 aiming to provide continuity of free high resolution multispectral satellite data thereby presenting an opportunity to develop and adapted land cover and land use algorithm which accounts for national enduser needs. In this study, land cover mapping scheme according to national end-user needs was developed and tested in two pilot territories (Cesis and Burtnieki). Hyperspectral airborne data covering spectral range 400-2500 nm was acquired in summer 2015 using Airborne Surveillance and Environmental Monitoring System (ARSENAL). The gathered data was tested for land cover classification of seven general classes (urban/artificial, bare, forest, shrubland, agricultural/grassland, wetlands, water) and sub-classes specific for Latvia as well as simulation of Sentinel-2 satellite data. Hyperspectral data sets consist of 122 spectral bands in visible to near infrared spectral range (356-950 nm) and 100 bands in short wave infrared (950-2500 nm). Classification of land cover was tested separately for each sensor data and fused cross-sensor data. The best overall classification accuracy 84.2% and satisfactory classification accuracy (more than 80%) for 9 of 13 classes was obtained using Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier with 109 band

  2. Risk Communication in Assisted Reproduction in Latvia: From Private Experience to Ethical Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Mezinska

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the process of risk communication in the context of assisted reproduction in Latvia. The paper is based on a qualitative methodology and two types of data: media analysis and 30 semi-structured interviews (11 patients, 4 egg donors, 15 experts. The study explores a broad definition of risk communication and explores three types of risks: health, psychosocial, and moral. We ask (1, who is involved in risk communication, (2, how risks are discussed using different channels of communication, and (3, what ethical problems arise during this process. In the process of analysis, we identified four types of information channels and two strategies of risk communication used by patients, as well as several ethical problems. In our view, the analysis of risk communication practices is significant to improve patient/physician relationship, as well as better meet patients' needs for comprehensive risk information.

  3. Study of accessibility and quality of the patient information about medicines in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozolina V.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Receipt of adequate amount of accurate patient information on medicines before their use is one of the main cornerstones of the treatment. Without the information medicines cannot be used safely and effectively. Basically, it can be argued that the information is converting the pharmacologically active substance into the medicinal product. Main source of information for patients in Latvia is Package leaflets. Label of medicines and patient information leaflet are drawn up in compliance with regulatory requirements, but for people it is often difficult to understand information contained in the package leaflets due to the complex language. The readability test – introduced as a mandatory requirement for marketing authorization and renewal of marketing authorization of medicines – improves the quality of package leaflets making them more patient “friendly”.

  4. The Interaction Between Groundwater Fluctuations and Nitrate Nitrogen Concentrations: case study in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinbergs, A.; Vircavs, V.; Abramenko, K.; Lauva, D.; Dimanta, Z.; VÄ«tola, I.; Gailuma, A.

    2012-04-01

    Surface water hydrology and hydro-chemical conditions are deeply connected with processes in soil under natural and artificial affections. Combinations of environmental and human impact factors lead to the different effects of aquatic environment. In Latvia, soil particles and chemical substances are particularly affected by shallow groundwater fluctuations and runoff from soil to open streams because of typically humid climate conditions. Latvia is a country in Baltic Sea region where the pollution with plant nutrients is actual problem. As a negative effect of plant nutrient leaching from soil provoke eutrophication in open streams and water reservoirs and cause increased expenses for farmers to establish nutrient balance within the farm. Decrease of shallow groundwater quality endangers drinking water resources in Latvia. To identify reasons of nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) leaching it's necessary to understand the interactions of natural hydrological processes and NO3-N mobility, as well as artificial influences as leaching with runoff formed by drainage systems and doses of used fertilisers. Most of the agricultural lands is drained because of humid climate conditions. It's significant to estimate the runoff from surface water objects and subsurface drainage, groundwater fluctuations as well as the quality of all the mentioned kind of water source. For the better understanding it's important to get knowledge's of principles of runoff formation and water quality fluctuations and interactions between both of them. For identifying interactions significant data are monitored runoff and water quality measurements in different scale: small catchment, drainage field, groundwater wells as well as trial plots. Research field is based on observed data (2006-2010 year period): measured groundwater level, NO3-N concentration and drainage runoff. Study area is monitoring object Mellupīte (monitored by Latvia University of Agriculture) small catchment with groundwater well MG-1

  5. Ethnic intermarriage in times of social change: the case of Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monden, Christiaan W S; Smits, Jeroen

    2005-05-01

    We gain insight into the dynamics of ethnic intermarriage in times of social change by studying marriages between Latvians and Russians (including Belarussians and Ukrainians) that occurred in Latvia before and after independence from the Soviet Union. Before independence, ethnic intermarriage was already rather common, involving about 17% of the marriages annually. Since independence, intermarriage between Russians and Latvians has increased substantially. Part of this increase can be explained by selective emigration, but at least half of it may be due to integrative processes. Although there were more marriages between Russian men and Latvian women before independence, the gender pattern reversed after independence. Intermarriage levels were the highest among the less educated, children of mixed couples, partners with similar educational levels, and people in the countryside.

  6. Reforming the Multilateral Decision-making Mechanism of the WTO: What is the Role of Emerging Economies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Saurombe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the future of global economic governance in the light of the current state of multilateral trade negotiations. The aim is to analyse identified key historical issues at the heart of the decision-making system of the World Trade Organization (WTO. The current and ongoing Doha Round of trade negotiations and the multilateral system reflect inequalities that still prevail in the global trade architecture. Is there a need for a paradigm shift? The paper will provide recommendations on how reform of the multilateral decision-making structures should focus on promoting the interests of developing countries that have historically been marginalised. Developing countries, like those making up BRICS, stand ready to contribute to the construction of a new international architecture, to bring the voices of the south together on global issues and to deepen their ties in various areas.

  7. Improvement of state regulation of the agrarian sector of the sub-arctic and arctic areas under the WTO membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Aleksandrovich Ivanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the necessity to change the role of the state in technological and socio-economic development of the agricultural sector. The author considers the forms and methods of state regulation and analyses the current budget support provided to agriculture; he highlights its drawbacks with regard to sub-arctic and arctic territories of the Republic of Komi. The article shows the influence of state support on the farmers’ level of income and identifies modernization risks and threats under Russia’s WTO membership. The author proposes measures to improve state support of the agrarian sector and change the adverse conditions of its functioning. He substantiates the approach that helps improve the state regulation of the agrarian sector in the framework of regional and municipal programs for rural development

  8. Cluster Concept in Policy Planning Documents: the Cases of Latvia and Northern Cyprus

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    Zanete Garanti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cluster­based entrepreneurship plays an important role in the economy of the 21st century. A regional cluster can be defined as a combination of 5 dimensions – single sector enterprises that cooperate and compete; supportive enterprises from a wide range of sectors; public and government institutions interested in economic development of the sector and region; other institutions, like research, education, finance and others and the fifth is regional dimension, which combines all four previously mentioned dimensions into one region. From the literature review standpoint, the findings of the authors show that cluster ­based entrepreneurship has an important role in stimulating the firm’s performance, competitiveness and innovation. Authors’ findings show that cluster concept is implemented in the EU policy planning documents at all levels, while in the country level cluster policy is not a single policy issue, but is implemented in industry, regional and other policy aspects. Example from Latvia shows that in recent years cluster­based entrepreneurship plays an important, if not central, role in policy planning documents, while evidence from Northern Cyprus shows that the importance attached to the concept of cluster­based economic development has not yet surfaced in the policy documents. Learning from experience of the EU and Latvia, the authors in cooperation with experts from University of Mediterranean Karpasia suggest policy makers in Northern Cyprus to implement cluster­based entrepreneur­ ship ideas in the policy documents using the bottom­up approach. In this way cluster based entrepreneurship is implemented in policy planning documents in Northern Cyprus at region, industry and national level. This paper is the first attempt towards cluster concept recognition in Northern Cyprus and therefore the topic is opened for further discussions and recommendations. The target audience of this paper is policy makers in Northern Cyprus

  9. HLA B27 allele types in homogeneous groups of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients in Latvia

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    Guseinova Dinara

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is a heterogeneous condition and therapeutic strategies vary in different JIA types. The routinely accepted practice to start with Sulphasalazine (SS as the first line treatment in patients with HLA B27 positive JIA proves to be ineffective in a large proportion of children. Objective to investigate HLA B27 positive JIA patients clinical characteristics, determined HLA B27 allele types and their connection with antirheumatic treatment in homogenous patient groups. Materials and methods 56 patients diagnosed with JIA and observed over the period 2006 to 2009 included in the study. HLAB27 allele types were determined using PCR method. Results In HLA B27 positive JIA patients mean disease onset was 12.34 ± 3.3 years. Most common (44% JIA type was enthesitis related arthritis. Positive response to the treatment with SS was found in 32% of patients, Methotrexate (MTX - in 43%, combined treatment - SS with MTX was effective in 12.5%. 12.5% of patients required combination MTX with Enbrel. Eight HLA B27 allele types were found in JIA patients in Latvia: *2702, *2703, *2704, *2705, *2710, *2715, *2717, *2728. The most common was *2705 - in 55% of cases. Among all the patients enthesitis related arthritis most commonly occurred in patients with HLAB*2705 allele (OR = 2.01, p Conclusions There are 8 different HLA B27 alleles in JIA patients in Latvia and the most common is *2705, but in order to assert them to be disease associated alleles, more extensive studies are needed, including control group of HLA B27 positive healthy individuals. Standard treatment approach with SS proves to be unsatisfactory in the majority of JIA patients. To improve children's quality of life achieving rapid disease control, the first line treatment in HLA B27 positive patients should be MTX. In order to start with the most appropriate drug it is necessary to determine HLAB 27 type at the onset of disease.

  10. Biofuels in transport sector of Latvia: experience, current status and barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigins, R.; Shipkovs, P.

    2014-02-01

    During the last 10 years biofuel production and utilization in the European Union have become more extensive owing to support provided by the relevant EU Directives. Achievement of the main targets defined by Directives was not simple, being confronted with various barriers. Latvia is one of the EU member-countries that have set an ambitious goal as to the production of biofuel and its use in transport. The authors summarize the major achievements of the country in this area and analyze the main barriers to implementation of biofuels in the transport sector, providing an outlook on the current status of the bioenergy and the transport situation in Latvia. Pēdējo 10 gadu laikā biodegvielu ražošana un izmantošana ES ir kļuvusi daudz plašāka, pateicoties spēcīgam Direktīvu atbalstam. Galveno Direktīvu definēto mērķu sasniegšana nebija viegla un saskārās ar dažādiem sarežģījumiem. Latvija ir viena no ES valstīm, kas uzstādīja ambiciozu mērķi biodegvielu ražošanā un tālākā šīs degvielas izmantošanā transportā. Dotais raksts dod ieskatu galvenajos valsts sasniegumos šajā sfērā, kā arī analizē galvenās barjeras, kas traucē biodegvielu ieviešanu transporta sektorā. Tāpat tiek dots ieskats uz valsts esošo situāciju enerģētikā un transportā.

  11. Spruce forests (Ass. Sphango girgensohnii - Piceetum (Br.-Bl. 39 Polak. 62 on excessively moistened peatlands in Latvia

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    Normunds Priedits

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research carried out on swamp spruce forests on peatland in Latvia gives a detailed notion of the phytosociological structure of Ass. Sphagno girgensohnii - Piceetum (Br. - BI. 39 Polak. 62 in the western part of the East-European Plain at the Baltic Sea. The paper reflects one of the aspects of swamp forest investigation results in Latvia on forest communities, its biodiversity and presevation. Ninety-one sample plots with Picea abies as the dominant in the tree layer or co-dominant with Betula pendula, Betula pubescens or Pinus sylvestris are described according to phytosociological Braun-Blanquet methodology. Floristic features of spruce communities belonging to Caricoso-phragmitosa and Dryopterioso-cnricosa forest site types are analysed. The results are compared with similar investigations carried out in the Baltic Sea region states and neighbouring countries.

  12. Stained glass painting during the second half of the 20th century in Latvia, its tendency development in nowadays

    OpenAIRE

    Groza, Vineta

    2012-01-01

    Stained glass painting during the second half of the 20th century in Latvia, its tendency development in nowadays. The stained glass panel ranks among the most interesting fields of monumental decorative art. In Soviet glass art history Latvian stained glass artists occupy the foremost places in this technique. The classical stained glass technique was combined with painting and sandblasting elements, which were incorporated into geometric monumental compositions. Latvian stained glass artist...

  13. The role of the legislative and regulatory branches in promoting the use of geothermal energy in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    I. Skapare; A. Kreslins; Cers, A

    2016-01-01

    Latvia currently is self-sufficient in energy resources up to approximately 35 %. Annual fossil energy prices rise and risks of security of energy supply promote the development legislation in the matter of renewable resources. One of the Latvian Ministry of Economics' recent products is a new draft law called the "Renewable Energy Law", which has been created due to one of the European Union and Latvian national energy policy objectives: to increase the share of renewable e...

  14. The Correspondence of Preventive Social Work of Non-governmental Organizations (NGO) the Actual Social Problems in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Bičkovska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The subject of diploma work is „The Corespondance of Preventive Social Work of Non-governmental Organizations (NGO) the Actual Social Problems in Latvia”. An object of diploma paper is to research the corespondance of preventive social work of NGO the actual social problems in Latvia. Work is structured in five chapters with nine subchapters. Conclusion includes results and discussion which discloses results of empiric research. In the diploma work the authors theoretically analyse ...

  15. Covenant of Mayors: Fuel Switch and Sustainable Demand in signatories from "stress test" countries Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    KONA ALBANA; MELICA GIULIA; GABRIELAITIENE IRENA; RIVAS CALVETE SILVIA; ZANCANELLA PAOLO; IANCU ANDREEA; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; BERTOLDI PAOLO

    2014-01-01

    The Covenant of Mayors (CoM) is the mainstream European movement involving local authorities voluntarily committing to meet and exceed the European Union 20% CO2 reduction objective by 2020 by increasing energy efficiency and through the use of renewable energy sources on their territories. In this report main figures from SEAPs in CoM signatories from "stress test " countries, most exposed to risk related Russian natural gas imports (Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia Finland) a...

  16. Factors associated with Listeria monocytogenes contamination of cold-smoked pork products produced in Latvia and Lithuania.

    OpenAIRE

    Berzins,-A; Horman,-A; Lunden,-J; Korkeala,-H

    2007-01-01

    A total of 312 samples of sliced, vacuum packaged, cold-smoked pork from 15 meat processing plants in Latvia and Lithuania, obtained over a 15-month period from 2003 until 2004, were analyzed for the presence of Listeria monocytogenes at the end of their shelf-life. Overall, 120 samples (38%) tested positive for L. monocytogenes. Despite the long storing period, the levels of L. monocytogenes in cold-smoked pork products were low. Manufacturing processes were studied at seven meat processing ...

  17. River lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis L., fishery in Latvia – insight into the origin of catch statistics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abersons Kaspar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Most research to date on the status of the river lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis L. in Latvia has been done based on catch statistics data. The aim of this study was to explore the present status of the river lamprey fishery in Latvia to improve the understanding of catch statistics data. Currently, river lamprey fishing in Latvia is carried out at 24 fishing grounds located on 17 rivers. The most popular fishing gear is the lamprey fyke net, but lamprey weirs and lamprey trammel nets are also used. The type and design of the fishing gear depends on the parameters of the fishing ground. The catch size is highly variable and is greatly affected by the number of non-resources related circumstances, such as fishing regulations and meteorological factors determining the intensity of lamprey migration during the fishing season and opportunities for fishing during periods of the most intense migration. The fishing effort and the type of fishing gear have also largely changed since the 1960s and 1970s. Therefore, the fluctuation in both the long- and short-term catch data may not correspond to changes in the actual status of the lamprey population.

  18. Investigations on Health Conditions of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident Recovery Workers from Latvia in Late Period after Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reste Jeļena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises the main findings on Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP accident recovery workers from Latvia and their health disturbances, which have been studied by the authors during the last two decades. Approximately 6000 persons from Latvia participated in CNPP clean-up works in 1986–1991. During their work period in Chernobyl they were exposed to external as well as to internal irradiation, but since their return to Latvia they were living in a relatively uncontaminated area. Regular careful medical examinations and clinical studies of CNPP clean-up workers have been conducted during the 25 years after disaster, gathering knowledge on radiation late effects. The aim of the present review is to summarise the most important information about Latvian CNPP clean-up worker health revealed by thorough follow-up and research conducted in the period of 25 years after the accident. This paper reviews data of the Latvian State Register of Persons Exposed to Radiation due to CNPP Accident and gives insight in main health effects found by the researchers from the Centre of Occupational and Radiological Medicine (Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital and Rīga Stradiņš University in a number of epidemiological, clinical, biochemical, immunological, and physiological studies. Latvian research data on health condition of CNPP clean-up workers in the late period after disaster indicate that ionising radiation might cause premature ageing and severe polymorbidity in humans.

  19. Prevalence and sociodemographic characteristics of self-reported suicidal behaviours in Latvia in 2010: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancāns, Elmārs; Pulmanis, Toms; Taube, Māris; Spriņǵe, Lauma; Velika, Biruta; Pudule, Iveta; Grīnberga, Daiga

    2016-01-01

    The fact that Latvia is among the countries with the highest suicide mortality rates in the European Union highlights the importance of research in this field. The aims of the study were to determine the 2010 prevalence of self-reported suicidal behaviours in Latvia, to identify sociodemographic risk factors and to examine sequences for reporting of suicidal behaviours. Computer assisted personal interviews were carried out to gather information on a representative sample of the Latvian population aged 18 to 64 (n = 2816). The study sample was selected using a combination of stratified random sampling and quota methods. Last year prevalence of any type of suicidal behaviour was 18.5% - nearly threefold lower than observed in 2000 (52.6%). Middle age, non-cohabitation status and lower level of education were significant risk factors for serious types of suicidal behaviour (suicidal ideation, suicidal plans, suicide attempts) among men, but only lower level of education was for women. Risk factors regarding mild types of suicidal behaviour (life-weariness, death wishes) were the same for men and women: older and middle aged, non-cohabitation status, and lower level of education. A total of 79.6% reported a continuous pattern of suicidal behaviours. Several sociodemographic risk factors for suicidal behaviours have been found. Further research is needed to clarify additional risk factors, especially in the high-risk groups studied and specific determinants contributing to reduction in prevalence of suicidal behaviours and suicide mortality in Latvia.

  20. Trichinella britovi biomass in naturally infected pine martens (Martes martes) of Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirjušina, Muza; Bakasejevs, Eduards; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Pozio, Edoardo

    2016-11-15

    Parasites of the genus Trichinella are cosmopolitan nematodes infecting primarily wild animals, which represent the main reservoirs of these zoonotic pathogens. To investigate the transmission patterns of Trichinella spp. from wild to domestic animals and to humans and for the risk assessment of these parasites in a geographical area, it is important to know the number of possible transmission events deriving from carcasses of infected hosts. For this purpose, the evaluation of the larval biomass in reservoir hosts is needed. No data is available on how to estimate the biomass of Trichinella spp. larvae in muscles of naturally infected animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larval biomass in naturally infected pine martens (Martes martes) of Latvia, in which the prevalence of Trichinella britovi infection was over 50%. Single muscles or group of muscles (abdomen, back, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, muscles from the head, left and right shoulders, lower and upper parts of the forelimbs and hind limbs, neck, rump with tail, and base and tip of the tongue) were collected from five skinned and eviscerated carcasses of T. britovi infected pine martens. Muscles were entirely removed from the bones and weighted. Each muscle or group of muscles was separately digested to detect the larvae per gram (LPG). Using linear regression, the larval burden in each muscle or group of muscles was evaluated to measure the possible prediction of the total animal larval burden (both as total number of larvae and as average LPG). All muscles were significantly predictive of the total burden with high "goodness of fit" (all adjusted R2>0.80; P≤0.01), and the left shoulder provided the highest adjusted R2 (0.999). Then, to estimate the Trichinella britovi biomass in the pine marten population of Latvia, recent literature data on prevalence (56.2%, 95% CI: 47.8-64.3) and geometric mean LPG (1.26, 95% CI: 0.89-1.79) in the limb muscles of a sample representative of the whole

  1. Assessment of Wind Shear and Wind Energy Potential in the Baltic Sea Region of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrukovs, V.; Bezrukovs, Vl.; Zacepins, A.; Komashilovs, V.

    2015-04-01

    The paper is devoted to the investigation into the wind energy potential based on long-term observations of the wind speed and energy density fluctuations at heights from 10 to 160 m on the Baltic Sea coast of Latvia. During the observations (2004 - 2013), the wind speed and direction values were measured, and the statistical database was accumulated using a LOGGER 9200 Symphonie measuring systems mounted on 60 m masts - one on the western coast and another on the north-east of Latvia. From June 2011 to May 2012, these measurements were complemented with the data for the heights from 40 to 160 m obtained by means of a ZephIR lidar and with the metrological data provided by "Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre" for the same period. The graphs of seasonal fluctuations in the wind speed were obtained for the heights up to 160 m by measurements over the period of 2007 - 2013. The results of the research on the wind speed distribution up to 200 m are promising for evaluation of the wind energy potential of Latvia and will be helpful in assessment of prospective sites for construction of WPPs. Zinātniskais raksts ir veltīts pētījumam par vēja enerģijas potenciālu Latvijas teritorijā, Baltijas jūras piekrastē, balstoties uz ilgtermiņa vēja ātruma un vēja enerģijas blīvuma svārstību novērojumiem no 10 līdz 160 metriem augstumā. Vēja ātruma un vēja virziena mērījumu dati tika iegūti un apkopoti statistiskajā datubāzē laika periodā no 2004 līdz 2013. gadam, izmantojot mērīšanas sistēmu LOGGER 9200 Symphonie, kas bija ierīkotā uz 60 metru augsta masta - viena rietumu piekrastē un otra Latvijas ziemeļu-austrumos. No 2011. gada jūnija līdz 2012. gada maijam mērījumu datubāze tika papildināta ar datiem, kas tika iegūti ar lidaruZephIR augstumos no 40 līdz 160 metriem, un datiem no "Latvijas Vides, ģeoloģijas un meteoroloģijas centra" tam pašam laika periodam. Analizējot mērījumus 2007. g.-2013. g., grafiki ar

  2. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Latvia, 2008–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sangirejeva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: The aim of this study was to describe trends in the management of pregnancies in HIV-infected women and their outcomes, over a 4-year period in Latvia on an Infectology Center of Latvia (LIC basis. Methods: The study of HIV-infected women in Latvia giving birth to one or more children between 1 Jan 2008 and 31 Dec 2011. Results: We identified 199 HIV-infected women with 210 pregnancies. Mean age was 27 years, median baseline pregnancy CD4 count was 452 cells/mm3, the baseline pregnancy plasma viral load (VL was 53,066 copies/ml. Knowledge of HIV status before pregnancy was 60.5%, but 32.5% HIV-positive diagnosis was confirmed during pregnancy and 7.1% after delivery. One pregnant woman's HIV disease progressed to AIDS and death. Women on antiretroviral therapy (ART were 82.3%. Maternal monotherapy with the zidovudine (ZDV rate was 10.4%, dual therapy with nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI - 2.3%, triple therapy with the protease-inhibitor (PI plus NRTI - 87.3%. Median VL at delivery was 1349. A greater proportion of cases 91.5% had a VL <1000 copies/ml, from them 47.4% <40 copies/ml. Vaginal deliveries range was 20.8% of pregnancies and elective cesarean delivery 68.6%. Preterm delivery occurred in 12.1%. Overall mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV rate was 4.3%. Among the 35.5% of mothers initiating ART at 14 weeks’ gestation, MTCT was 1.4%, compared with 1.5% and 3.1% for those initiating ART at <14 weeks (n=67, 31.9% and >24 weeks (n=32, 15.2%. Among 17.6% women, who did not receive prophylactic ART, MTCT rate was 16.2%. 7 of 9 women giving birth to an HIV-positive child were diagnosed with HIV before pregnancy, 1 of 9 during pregnancy, 1 of 9 after delivery. From women giving birth to an HIV-positive child 6 did not receive prophylactic ART, 1 started ART at week 14, 2 after week 14. Conclusions: Women's low education, recurrent pregnancies, intravenous drug use, vaginal deliveries, not receiving

  3. Latvijas reprezentācija sociālā portāla Facebook lapā "If you like Latvia, Latvia likes you" no 2014. gada janvāra līdz 2017. gada aprīlim

    OpenAIRE

    Ruskule, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Bakalaura darba „Latvijas reprezentācija sociālā portāla Facebook lapā „If you like Latvia Latvia likes you” no 2014. gada janvāra līdz 2017. gada aprīlim” mērķis ir sistematizēt un analizēt iegūtos datus par Latviju Facebook lapā „If you like Latvia Latvia likes you”. Bakalaura darba teorētiskajā daļā apskatīts „reprezentācijas” jēdziens. Skaidroti jēdzieni zīmols un valsts reprezentācija. Izveidota nodaļa par sociālajiem tīkliem. Skaidroti arī virtuālo identitāšu veidi un cēloņi. Pētījum...

  4. Electricity savings in Latvia through implementation of labelling directives. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    Legislation on labelling of household appliances was enforced in Latvia July 2001 to implement the European labelling directives. The project 'Electricity Savings in Latvia through Implementation of labelling Directives' was started January 2001 in order to support the implementation of the directives to ensure that they got an immediate effect. The project has included the following activities: Information of the general public and of traders and importers. In relation to the general public the activities consisted of production of a widely spread information brochure, TV-spots and a TV competition and participation in a school project. Seminars and meetings with traders and importers were held to inform about the legislation before it was enforced and to create a network for discussion of practical implementation problems and planning of the information activities. Test and control activities. The purpose of the test and control activities was to strengthen the test and control capacities and to transfer experience from Denmark. This was achieved though workshops for as well inspectors from the Consumer Rights Protection Centre and for members of the voluntary Consumer Protection Clubs. Results: It is assumed that the project has been very successful in the sense that the information about labelling of appliances has been efficiently spread via the information brochure, which was printed in 100.000 copies and distributed in shops, via Latvenergo and the consumer clubs. Furthermore, a cartoon about 'Energy-eaters' produced as part of the project by a very talented Latvian film study (Environmental Film Studio) has been used as TV-spot and has been broadcasted 40 times, including in connection to a morning TV-competition on labelling of appliances. The participatory approach used in the project has resulted in a very dedicated participation from the different stake holders side. Thus there is basis for sustainability in the sense, that a network

  5. The politics behind the implementation of the WTO Paragraph 6 Decision in Canada to increase global drug access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Laura C

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reform of pharmaceutical policy can often involve trade-offs between competing social and commercial goals. Canada's Access to Medicines Regime (CAMR, a legislative amendment that permits compulsory licensing for the production and export of medicines to developing countries, aimed to reconcile these goals. Since it was passed in 2004, only two orders of antiretroviral drugs, enough for 21,000 HIV/AIDS patients in Rwanda have been exported. Future use of the regime appears unlikely. This research aimed to examine the politics of CAMR. Methods Parliamentary Committee hearing transcripts from CAMR's legislative development (2004 and legislative review (2007 were analysed using a content analysis technique to identify how stakeholders who participated in the debates framed the issues. These findings were subsequently analysed using a framework of framing, institutions and interests to determine how these three dimensions shaped CAMR. Results In 2004, policy debates in Canada were dominated by two themes: intellectual property rights and the TRIPS Agreement. The right to medicines as a basic human right and CAMR's potential impact on innovation were hardly discussed. With the Departments of Industry Canada and International Trade as the lead institutions, the goals of protecting intellectual property and ensuring good trade relations with the United States appear to have taken priority over encouraging generic competition to achieve drug affordability. The result was a more limited interpretation of patent flexibilities under the WTO Paragraph 6 Decision. The most striking finding is the minimal discussion over the potential barriers developing country beneficiaries might face when attempting to use compulsory licensing, including their reluctance to use TRIPS flexibilities, their desire to pursue technological development and the constraints inherent in the WTO Paragraph 6 Decision. Instead, these issues were raised in 2007

  6. The politics behind the implementation of the WTO Paragraph 6 Decision in Canada to increase global drug access

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The reform of pharmaceutical policy can often involve trade-offs between competing social and commercial goals. Canada's Access to Medicines Regime (CAMR), a legislative amendment that permits compulsory licensing for the production and export of medicines to developing countries, aimed to reconcile these goals. Since it was passed in 2004, only two orders of antiretroviral drugs, enough for 21,000 HIV/AIDS patients in Rwanda have been exported. Future use of the regime appears unlikely. This research aimed to examine the politics of CAMR. Methods Parliamentary Committee hearing transcripts from CAMR's legislative development (2004) and legislative review (2007) were analysed using a content analysis technique to identify how stakeholders who participated in the debates framed the issues. These findings were subsequently analysed using a framework of framing, institutions and interests to determine how these three dimensions shaped CAMR. Results In 2004, policy debates in Canada were dominated by two themes: intellectual property rights and the TRIPS Agreement. The right to medicines as a basic human right and CAMR's potential impact on innovation were hardly discussed. With the Departments of Industry Canada and International Trade as the lead institutions, the goals of protecting intellectual property and ensuring good trade relations with the United States appear to have taken priority over encouraging generic competition to achieve drug affordability. The result was a more limited interpretation of patent flexibilities under the WTO Paragraph 6 Decision. The most striking finding is the minimal discussion over the potential barriers developing country beneficiaries might face when attempting to use compulsory licensing, including their reluctance to use TRIPS flexibilities, their desire to pursue technological development and the constraints inherent in the WTO Paragraph 6 Decision. Instead, these issues were raised in 2007, which can be partly

  7. The politics behind the implementation of the WTO Paragraph 6 Decision in Canada to increase global drug access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmail, Laura C; Kohler, Jillian Clare

    2012-04-03

    The reform of pharmaceutical policy can often involve trade-offs between competing social and commercial goals. Canada's Access to Medicines Regime (CAMR), a legislative amendment that permits compulsory licensing for the production and export of medicines to developing countries, aimed to reconcile these goals. Since it was passed in 2004, only two orders of antiretroviral drugs, enough for 21,000 HIV/AIDS patients in Rwanda have been exported. Future use of the regime appears unlikely. This research aimed to examine the politics of CAMR. Parliamentary Committee hearing transcripts from CAMR's legislative development (2004) and legislative review (2007) were analysed using a content analysis technique to identify how stakeholders who participated in the debates framed the issues. These findings were subsequently analysed using a framework of framing, institutions and interests to determine how these three dimensions shaped CAMR. In 2004, policy debates in Canada were dominated by two themes: intellectual property rights and the TRIPS Agreement. The right to medicines as a basic human right and CAMR's potential impact on innovation were hardly discussed. With the Departments of Industry Canada and International Trade as the lead institutions, the goals of protecting intellectual property and ensuring good trade relations with the United States appear to have taken priority over encouraging generic competition to achieve drug affordability. The result was a more limited interpretation of patent flexibilities under the WTO Paragraph 6 Decision. The most striking finding is the minimal discussion over the potential barriers developing country beneficiaries might face when attempting to use compulsory licensing, including their reluctance to use TRIPS flexibilities, their desire to pursue technological development and the constraints inherent in the WTO Paragraph 6 Decision. Instead, these issues were raised in 2007, which can be partly accounted for by experience in

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE VEGETATION IN MIDDLE-SIZED STREAMS IN LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. GRINBERGA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study the species diversity and distribution of macrophytes in 131 surveyed sites of middle-sized streams of Latvia were investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the composition of macrophyte vegetation in Latvian streams in relation to the environmental factors (stream width, water depth, substrate type, shading and flow velocity. On the basis of these factors, five major groups of streams were distinguished representing mutually different typical macrophyte communities – (1 fast flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (2 slow flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (3 fast flowing streams on sandy substrate, (4 slow flowing streams on sandy substrate, and (5 streams with soft, silty substrate. Totally, 47 macrophyte taxa were found in the streams. The most common macrophyte species were Nuphar lutea found in 65% of all sites, followed by Sparganium emersum (64%, S. erectum s.l. (48%, Phalaris arundinacea (50%, Alisma plantago-aquatica (54% and Lemna minor (41%. The highest species richness (22 was found in slow flowing streams with gravelly substrate. Species-poor macrophyte communities were characteristic for fast flowing streams on sandy substrate.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE VEGETATION IN MIDDLE-SIZED STREAMS IN LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. GRINBERGA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the species diversity and distribution of macrophytes in 131 surveyed sites of middle-sized streams of Latvia were investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the composition of macrophyte vegetation in Latvian streams in relation to the environmental factors (stream width, water depth, substrate type, shading and flow velocity. On the basis of these factors, five major groups of streams were distinguished representing mutually different typical macrophyte communities – (1 fast flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (2 slow flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (3 fast flowing streams on sandy substrate, (4 slow flowing streams on sandy substrate, and (5 streams with soft, silty substrate. Totally, 47 macrophyte taxa were found in the streams. The most common macrophyte species were Nuphar lutea found in 65% of all sites, followed by Sparganium emersum (64%, S. erectum s.l. (48%, Phalaris arundinacea (50%, Alisma plantago-aquatica (54% and Lemna minor (41%. The highest species richness (22 was found in slow flowing streams with gravelly substrate. Species-poor macrophyte communities were characteristic for fast flowing streams on sandy substrate.

  10. Drugs in the postsocialist transitions of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerspetz, Mikko; Moskalewicz, Jacek

    2002-11-01

    The article discusses problems related to illicit drugs in Poland, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia against the background of the postsocialist transitions of the 1990s. Besides the drug problem, the political and market reforms of the 1990s were accompanied by a surfacing of a variety of social problems, some of which had already been present during the authoritarian socialist regimes. Gaining reliable and comparable statistics on drug-related harm has become very difficult due to changes in treatment system and health statistics. Nevertheless, all available evidence suggests that the use of illicit drugs has grown rapidly in all four countries, it now being close to the Western European level. As a result of international impulses rather than domestic interest, strictly restrictive drug policies have been adopted. Drug problems are aggravated by a marginalisation of a large part of the populations. Accordingly, their reduction may require a more general revision of the four countries' economic and social policies. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. A representation of place attachment: A study of spatial cognition in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilters, Jurgis; Zarina, Liga; Raita, Liva

    2017-04-01

    Perception of geographical space is reflected in place attachment, i.e., a multidimensional cognitive-affective link between humans and their spatial environment. Place attachment balances emotions, conception of proximity. It is both social and spatial cognitive structure. Place attachment has an impact on people's actions, which in turn reversibly affect the environment in which people live. Place attachment provides emotional regulation for humans linking local - neighborhood-scale and country and world-scale environments. In Latvia a large-scale spatial cognition study has been conducted within participatory research project „Telpas pavasaris" ("Spatial Spring") by foundation Viegli. In the study 1523 respondents reported their associations characterizing certain type of places (e.g., safe place, dangerous place, far place, close place, dear place). The answers were analyzed according to several cognitive-affective categories including modes of experience, emotional valence, geographical distance, and perceptual modality. The current results indicate that socio-cognitive and affective information are primary in respect to purely spatial information (referring to spatial objects or regions and their relations). However, different types of geographical places and spatial objects (natural or artefactual) have to be distinguished and are significant to a different degree. Our results are important for environmental and urban planning because they show the ways how socio-cognitive and affective knowledge shapes the spatial cognition of geographic environment.

  12. Cultural Adaptation of Erasmus Students in Latvia and Host University Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vevere Velga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Internationalisation of education and student mobility (incoming and outgoing has become a significant factor in the sphere of higher education. These processes lead to interaction between local students and exchange students, as well as between exchange students and host universities. Being in the foreign country for a certain period (one or two semesters requires some cultural and social adaptation that could or could not be problematic for various reasons. In order to maximise benefits for the exchange students and host universities, it is important to identify existing problems and to offer possible solutions. The aim of the current paper is to research the critical aspects of cultural adaptation process of ERASMUS students in Latvia. The international group that consists of a professor of the University College of Economics and Culture and three exchange students from Italy and Spain carried out the research. The empirical methods used were the following: a survey of ERASMUS students (non-probability purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews with the host university ERASMUS coordinators. The data processing methods were the descriptive statistics as well as the thematic content analysis. On the basis of critical issues identified during the research process, the authors worked a set of practical solutions aimed at the host institutions.

  13. Patient groups in art therapies: A case study of the health care field in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vende K.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to introduce the reader with an example of the arts therapies work in a children hospital in Latvia in order to describe art therapies work similarities and differences in three different specializations. Comparison will take place of patient groups in the work of art therapists in each specialization (art therapy, dance movement therapy and music therapy. The question of the research is: with which patient groups’ a specialist from a particular arts therapies specialization has worked within a year in VSIA BKUS children hospital “Gaiļezers” during the time period from 05.2009 to 05.2010?The results were gained by comparing patient groups at the age from 2,5 to 17 years in the children hospital and they showed that the art therapists and dance movement therapist most frequently were working with patients who have behaviour and emotional disorders. However music therapists are working more frequently with patients who have mental retardation.

  14. Trends in individual reimbursement of orphan drugs in Latvia in 2008–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logviss K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orphan drugs (ODs are medicinal products intended for diagnosis, prevention or treatment of life-threatening or very serious diseases affecting less than 5 in 10 000 people in the European Union (EU. These drugs are called “orphans” because the pharmaceutical industry has little interest, under normal market conditions, in developing and marketing products intended for only a small number of patients suffering from very rare conditions. Because of the small market, ODs are often very expensive. Whereas decisions surrounding orphan designation and marketing authorization of ODs are taken at the EU level, decisions governing pricing and reimbursement of ODs are a member state responsibility. In Latvia drug reimbursement covers drugs which are included in the national reimbursement drug list or, based on the medical council's decision, drugs can also be reimbursed within the framework of individual reimbursement system with limit of 10 000 LVL (€ 14 229 per patient per year. Due to the big costs and the small number of patients ODs are often not included in the reimbursement list and therefore are reimbursed individually.

  15. Influence of environmental factors on the spatial distribution and diversity of forest soil in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonds Kasparinskis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the spatial relationships between environmental factors (Quaternary deposits, topographical situation, land cover, forest site types, tree species, soil texture and soil groups, and their prefix qualifiers (according to the international Food and Agricultural Organization soil classification system World Reference Base for Soil Resources [FAO WRB]. The results show that it is possible to establish relationships between the distribution of environmental factors and soil groups by applying the generalized linear models in data statistical analysis, using the R 2.11.1 software for processing data from 113 sampling plots throughout the forest territory of Latvia.A very high diversity of soil groups in a relatively similar geological structure was revealed. For various reasons there is not always close relationship between the soil group, their prefix qualifiers and Quaternary deposits, as well as between forest site types, the dominant tree species and specific soil group and its prefix qualifiers. Close correlation was established between Quaternary deposits, forest site types, dominant tree species and soil groups within nutrient-poor sediments and very rich deposits containing free carbonates. No significant relationship was detected between the CORINE Land Cover 2005 classes, topographical situation and soil group.

  16. Research review trends of food analysis in Latvia: major and trace element content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane; Klavins, Maris; Rudovica, Vita; Viksna, Arturs

    2013-10-01

    The current paper involves overview of several studies concerning quantitative major and trace element analysis of different food samples, such as products of plant origin, e.g., locally grown vegetables (carrots, onions, potatoes) and products of animal origin derived with or without processing (cottage cheese, eggs, honey). Food samples were collected over the territory of Latvia in the time period 2009-2012. Sample pre-treatment was chosen according to the product specifics but mostly wet mineralization with concentrated nitric acid was applied. Analysis of major elements (e.g., Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na) and trace elements (e.g., As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) was performed by appropriate quantitative analytical technique: atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Not only the influence of environmental factors (e.g., geographical or seasonal impact) was detected in element dissemination in food, also botanical origin (if applicable) and applied agricultural praxis, product processing and storage specifics were found to be important. Possible food contamination by potentially toxic elements can be associated mostly with the consequences of anthropogenic activities. The studies revealed the significance of food research in the context of environmental science.

  17. Factors Influencing Private Customers′ Trust in Internet Banking: Case of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skvarciany Viktorija

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Banking sector has developed and extended the usage of online services in the past decade. In fact, nowadays, Internet-based banking services dominate over other historically provided alternatives. This article discusses private clients′ trust in Internet banking in Latvia. The model of trust in Internet banking was developed based on four factors, distinguished in the scientific literature. They are provided information, bank’s characteristics, ebanking system and website of a bank. Hence, the goal of the research is to measure the impact of distinguished factors on trust in Internet banking. In order to determine how these attributes affect private customers′ trust, correlation and regression analysis were applied. The results showed that the most vital factor affecting private clients’ trust in Internet banking is e-banking system. What is more, it was found that provided information is a statistically insignificant factor and, hence, it was removed from the model. Respondents, being private customers, limit the breadth of study, thus the results do not reflect companies’ trust in Internet banking.

  18. Macro-Elements and Trace Elements in Cereal Grains Cultivated in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jākobsone Ida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based foods have great importance in the compensation of micro- and trace element deficiency, because 50% of the foods produced worldwide are made up of cereal grains. The aim of the research was to determine the concentration of macro-elements and trace elements in different cereals cultivated in Latvia. Various cereals were used in the research: rye (n = 45, barley (n = 54, spring wheat (n = 27, winter wheat (n = 53, triticale (n = 45 and oats (n = 42. Thirteen macro- and trace elements (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca were determined in cereal grain samples (n = 266. Macro-elements and trace elements varied significantly (p < 0.01 or p < 0.001. The highest concentrations of macro- and trace elements were found in oats and the lowest in rye. The obtained data will expand the opportunity for food and nutrition scientists to evaluate content of the examined elements in grain products, and dietary consumption (bioavailability of the examined macro-elements and trace elements.

  19. Species identification, host range and diversity of Cecidophyopsis mites (Acari: Trombidiformes) infesting Ribes in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalažs, Arturs; Moročko-Bičevska, Inga

    2016-06-01

    Cecidophyopsis mites are important pests in all cultivation regions of Ribes causing bud galls and sterility. Despite their economic importance, the knowledge on Cecidophyopsis species infesting Ribes in various areas of the world is still deficient. The present study was carried out to identify Cecidophyopsis species occurring in Latvia on cultivated and wild Ribes, to assess their host range and gain insight into the genetic diversity of these insufficiently studied pests by use of multiplex PCR, rDNA sequences and morphological characters. Cecidophyopsis alpina, C. aurea, C. spicata and C. selachodon were detected to occur in all surveyed habitats. For the first time, C. alpina was identified on blackcurrants and redcurrants, and C. aurea on redcurrants, blackcurrants and alpine currants. The presence of C. ribis was not confirmed with molecular tools during this study. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the presence of four Cecidophyopsis species identified by multiplex PCR. A close phylogenetic relatedness was found for C. aurea and C. alpina, and for C. ribis and C. spicata highlighting the necessity for additional studies. Our findings suggest a need to consider also other Cecidophyopsis species besides C. ribis in breeding programs for host resistance to mites.

  20. High ionospheric activity effects on LatPos RTK network performance in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobelis, D.; Zvirgzds, J.; Kaļinka, M.

    2017-10-01

    Fast and reliable coordinate determination with GNSS in real time is the main objective of continuous operating reference system (CORS) network users. To provide services for coordinate determination, Network-based Real Time Kinematic (NRTK) system called “LatPos” has been established and operated in Latvia since 2006. One of the factors, affecting the performance of LatPos system services, is activity of ionosphere. Ionosphere is a region of the earth’s atmosphere, from about 60 kilometers up to 1000 km above the earth’s surface, in which there is a high concentration of free electrons, spatially variated, affected by space weather, seasonal and solar cycle changes. Ionospheric activity conditions depending on mentioned factors can be analyzed by LatPos system data. Some data processing strategies has been developed and LatPos RTK network performance results obtained, during different ionospheric activity conditions. This paper focused on both segments: the NRTK performance and the rover receiver coordinate determination possibilities in field when high ionospheric activity occurs.

  1. Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from migratory birds in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capligina, Valentina; Salmane, Ineta; Keišs, Oskars; Vilks, Karlis; Japina, Kristine; Baumanis, Viesturs; Ranka, Renate

    2014-02-01

    Migratory birds act as hosts and long-distance vectors for several tick-borne infectious agents. Here, feeding Ixodes ticks were collected from migratory birds during the autumn migration period in Latvia and screened for the presence of epidemiologically important non-viral pathogens. A total of 93 DNA samples of ticks (37 larvae and 56 nymphs) removed from 41 birds (order Passeriformes, 9 species) was tested for Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., and Babesia spp. Borrelia burgdorferi DNA was detected in 18% of the tick samples, and a majority of infected ticks were from thrush (Turdus spp.) birds. Among the infected ticks, Borrelia valaisiana was detected in 41% of cases, Borrelia garinii in 35%, and mixed Bo. valaisiana and Bo. garinii infection in 24%. Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 2% of ticks, R. helvetica in 12%, and Babesia spp. pathogens in 4% of ticks. Among these samples, 3 Babesia species were identified: Ba. divergens, Ba. microti, and Ba. venatorum. Coinfection with different pathogens that included mixed infections with different Borrelia genospecies was found in 20% of nymphal and 3% of larval Ixodes ticks. These results suggest that migratory birds may support the circulation and spread of medically significant zoonoses in Europe. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of Competitiveness and Support Instruments for Heat and Electricity Production from Wood Biomass in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavs, G.; Kudrenickis, I.; Kundzina, A.

    2012-01-01

    Utilisation of renewable energy sources is one of the key factors in a search for efficient ways of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and improving the energy supply security. So far, the district heating supply in Latvia has been based on natural gas, with the wood fuel playing a minor role; the same is true for decentralised combined heat-power (CHP) production. The paper describes a method for evaluation of the economic feasibility of heat and electricity production from wood biomass under the competition between different fuel types and taking into account the electricity market. For the simulation, a cost estimation model is applied. The results demonstrate that wood biomass can successfully be utilised for competitive heat production by boiler houses, while for electricity production by CHP utilities it cannot compete on the market (even despite the low prices on wood biomass fuel) unless particular financial support instruments are applied. The authors evaluate the necessary support level and the impact of two main support instruments - the investment subsidies and the feed-in tariff - on the economic viability of wood-fuelled CHP plants, and show that the feed-in tariff could be considered as an instrument strongly affecting the competitiveness of such type CHP. Regarding the feed-in tariff determination, a compromise should be found between the economy-dictated requirement to develop CHP projects concerning capacities above 5 MWel - on the one hand, and the relatively small heat loads in many Latvian towns - on the other.

  3. The Development of Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials Industry in Science and Entrepreneurship: Socioeconomic and Technical Indicators. A Case Study of Latvia (Part One)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geipele, I.; Geipele, S.; Staube, T.; Ciemleja, G.; Zeltins, N.

    2016-08-01

    The present scientific paper is the first part of two publications, where the authors obtain results from the scientific research presented in a series of works on the development of the nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in science and entrepreneurship in Latvia. The study has a focus on finding proper socioeconomic and technical indicators. It provides resume on a scope of the study. The paper contains the developed structure of engineering economic indicator system, determined groups of indicators for assessment of the development of nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in Latvia and results of the evaluation of the obtained statistics on the economic indicators.

  4. The Development of Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials Industry in Science and Entrepreneurship: Socioeconomic and Technical Indicators. A Case Study of Latvia (Part One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geipele I.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present scientific paper is the first part of two publications, where the authors obtain results from the scientific research presented in a series of works on the development of the nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in science and entrepreneurship in Latvia. The study has a focus on finding proper socioeconomic and technical indicators. It provides resume on a scope of the study. The paper contains the developed structure of engineering economic indicator system, determined groups of indicators for assessment of the development of nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in Latvia and results of the evaluation of the obtained statistics on the economic indicators.

  5. Organizing for Coalition Warfare: The Role of East European Warsaw Pact Forces in Soviet Military Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Central Army Group (NATO) CFM Committee of Foreign Ministers (WTO) C-in-C Commander-in-Chief CP Communist Party CPSU Communist Party of the Soviet Union CWC...8217 4,100 832 2 Navies Major and minor warships 300W Few’ < 1 SOURCES: D. . Ustinov, Marshal of the Soviet Union , Chairman of the Main Editorial Commission...of Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (GSFG) disions with Northern Tier East Europea divisions Soviet armored division, Category 1 1.00 Soviet MD

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT: FUTURE CHALLENGES OF LIEPAJA` S TRAM (LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diāna Līduma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport has always had an important role in the lifestyle of population and development of economy, but the public transport performs mainly the social function – it works for the benefit of the society. Development and quality of services must be provided also for the public transport companies, however, we meet different problems related to infrastructure and traffic for this to happen. To successfully manage and develop a public transport company, it is essential to change the thinking of people in favour of the public transport, not for the personal transport. It is necessary to ensure the sustainability as the main value, which means selection of the right public transport system. The authors relied on the experience of formation of a unified transport system in the world and Latvia’s largest cities’ strategic vision for public transport development. Taking into account the fact that Liepaja is one the three cities in Latvia where the public transport service is provided by a tram, an empiric research was made. Its aim was to clarify the opinion of the inhabitants of Liepaja, regarding the services provided by Liepaja trams, regarding the possible improvements and necessity for development. 200 inhabitants of Liepaja were questioned within the framework of the research. The results of the research revealed that although the tram provides daily the inhabitants of Liepaja with the movement possibilities, unfortunately inhabitants are not ready yet to replace their personal transport with the public transport – tram to settle their daily problems. The results of the research allowed to conclude that future development possibilities and perspectives of the tram in Liepaja City can be related mainly with the creation of a new route, purchase of new carriages and unified public transport system in Liepaja City.

  7. Protein, Amino Acid and Gluten Content in Oat (Avena Sativa L. Grown in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmane Laila

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The rising attention globally on the use of oats and the beneficial effect of oat compounds in nutrition has also increased interest in oat production in Latvia. The aim of this study was to evaluate protein, amino acid and gluten content in husked and hulless oat grains grown in organic and conventional farming systems. Two hulless oat (Avena sativa L. genotypes - the breeding line '33793' and the variety 'Stendes Emilija' and one husked oat variety 'Lizete' from the State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute - were cultivated in 2013 under conventional farming methods using three nitrogen (N application rates (80, 120, and 160 kg·ha-1 and under organic farming. Protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method, amino acid composition by high-performance liquid chromatography method using Waters AccQ Tag, and gluten content by Sandwich R5 ELISA. The results showed that oat genotype had significant effect p < 0.001 on protein and gluten content, as well as on amino acid composition. The applied amount of fertiliser did not have significant effect on the studied quality parameters, but the growing system did (p < 0.001. Higher content of protein was observed in hulless oat samples, compared to that in husked oat samples. There was also a significant difference (p = 0.01 in the total amount of amino acids between husked and hulless oat samples. In hulless oat variety 'Stendes Emilija' and hulless breeding line '33793' the content of gluten was similar and two times higher than in the husked oat variety 'Lizete'. Further breeding work is necessary to obtain oats with a lower content of gluten-like proteins.

  8. Hirnantian (latest Ordovician bio- and chemostratigraphy of the Stirnas-18 core, western Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hints, Linda

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated study of the uppermost Ordovician Porkuni Stage in the Stirnas-18 core, western Latvia, has revealed one of the most complete Hirnantian successions in the eastern Baltic region. The interval is characterized by two shallowing upwards depositional sequences that correspond to the Kuldiga and Saldus formations. The whole-rock carbon stable isotope curve indicates a long rising segment of the Hirnantian carbon isotope excursion, with the highest peak in the upper part of the Kuldiga Formation. The bioclast carbon and oxygen curves fit well with the whole-rock carbon data. Micro- and macrofossil data enabled seven combined associations to be distinguished within the Hirnantian strata. The early Porkuni fauna of the Spinachitina taugourdeaui Biozone, with pre-Hirnantian affinities, is succeeded by an interval with a Hindella–Cliftonia brachiopod association, a specific polychaete fauna, the chitinozoan Conochitina scabra, and the conodont Noixodontus girardeauensis. The middle part of the Kuldiga Formation is characterized by a low-diversity Dalmanella testudinaria brachiopod association, high diversity of scolecodonts, and the occurrence of the chitinozoan Lagenochitina prussica. From the middle part of the Kuldiga Formation the youngest occurrence yet known of the conodont Amorphognathus ordovicicus is reported. Also typical of the Kuldiga Formation is the occurrence of the trilobite Mucronaspis mucronata. The uppermost Hirnantian Saldus Formation contains no shelly fauna, but yields redeposited conodonts and at least partly indigenous chitinozoans and scolecodonts. Palaeontological criteria and stable isotope data enable correlation of the Stirnas section with other Hirnantian successions in the Baltic region and elsewhere.

  9. Opportunities and Threats from Ukrainian Membership in WTO in Foreign Trade for Meat and Milk Products with EU Countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of consequences of Ukrainian membership in World Trade Organisation (WTO in foreign trade of meat and milk products with EU countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia (CU. The article shows that meat and milk products are one of the main export agricultural commodities of the country. It analyses the structure of export of agro-industrial products from Ukraine. It studies situation and changes that took place in the market of meat and meat processing products in Ukraine after its membership in WTO. It shows that Ukrainian export of meat products mainly consists of products with low added value, while products with high added value are imported to Ukraine. It also shows that due to liberalisation of customs rules and the system of trade allocation in the world market of meat and meat products the internal market of Ukraine became unprotected from imported products, which resulted in significant increase of cheaper import into Ukraine and uncompetitiveness of domestic producers of meat products. The article studies situations and shifts that took place in the market of milk and milk products in the result of Ukrainian WTO membership. It proves that the CU market stays, in the middle-term prospect, the most powerful for domestic producers of milk products. It shows that standards of milk quality, applied in EU countries, are higher than in Ukraine and CU, which means it is impossible to compete with EU high technology production. It holds that milk quality increase pursuant to EU standards requires additional investments into re-equipment of the production technology.

  10. The Rhetoric of Legitimacy: Mapping members' expressed views on the WTO dispute settlement mechanism. iCourts Working Paper, No. 16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creamer, Cosette; Godzimirska, Zuzanna

    Since the inception of the WTO, many have speculated on how the Dispute Settlement Mechanism's practices affect its legitimacy and suggested proposals to strengthen it in this respect. However, very few of these proposals are grounded in empirical evidence of what makes the Mechanism legitimate...... of authority over time and across actors. In addition, through an in-depth analysis of statements on focal reports, this paper sheds new light on the sources of an international court's legitimacy by identifying practices that contribute to reducing or enhancing the DSM's legitimacy in the eyes of its primary...

  11. [WTO Case Review Series no. 13] China—Certain Measures Affecting Electronic Payment Services (WT/DS413): Vulnerability of normative structure of GATS (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KUNIMATSU Maki

    2015-01-01

    Because of emerging China UnionPay (CUP) in the global credit card market and its competition with the Visa card, the first World Trade Organization (WTO) case in the financial services sector received attention from the media and commentators. The United States argued that measures by China to establish CUP as the sole supplier of electronic payment services for all domestic transactions in domestic currency, and broad prohibitions on the use of non CUP cards for cross-region or inter-bank t...

  12. Mortality of children under five and prevalence of newborn congenital anomalies in relation to macroeconomic and socioeconomic factors in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebela, Inguna; Zile, Irisa; Zakis, Aleksandrs; Folkmanis, Valdis; Rumba-Rozenfelde, Ingrida

    2011-01-01

    Mortality of infants and children younger than 5 years is a globally recognized and broad national welfare indicator. Scientific literature has data on the correlation of mortality indicators with macroeconomic indicators. It is important to study the associations between prevalence and mortality indicators and socioeconomic factors, since deaths from congenital anomalies account for approximately 25%-30% of all deaths in infancy. The aim of the study was to analyze the overall trend in mortality of infants and young children aged 0 to 4 years in relation to macroeconomic factors in Latvia and prevalence of congenital anomalies in newborns in relation to socioeconomic factors. The Newborns' Register and Causes of Death Register were used as data sources; data on specific socioeconomic factors were retrieved from the Central Statistics Office. The results of the study show a strong correlation between mortality in children younger than 5 years and gross domestic product, as well as health budget in LVL per capita and the national unemployment level. The average decrease in infant mortality from congenital anomalies in Latvia was found to be 6.8 cases per 100,000 live births. There is a strong correlation between child mortality and socioeconomic situation in the country. There is a need to analyze the data on child mortality in a transnational context on a regular basis and studying the correlations between child mortality indicators and socioeconomic indicators and health care management parameters.

  13. Formation of biofilms in drinking water distribution networks, a case study in two cities in Finland and Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtola, Markku J; Juhna, Tālis; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Vartiainen, Terttu; Martikainen, Pertti J

    2004-12-01

    The formation of biofilms in drinking water distribution networks is a significant technical, aesthetic and hygienic problem. In this study, the effects of assimilable organic carbon, microbially available phosphorus (MAP), residual chlorine, temperature and corrosion products on the formation of biofilms were studied in two full-scale water supply systems in Finland and Latvia. Biofilm collectors consisting of polyvinyl chloride pipes were installed in several waterworks and distribution networks, which were supplied with chemically precipitated surface waters and groundwater from different sources. During a 1-year study, the biofilm density was measured by heterotrophic plate counts on R2A-agar, acridine orange direct counting and ATP-analyses. A moderate level of residual chlorine decreased biofilm density, whereas an increase of MAP in water and accumulated cast iron corrosion products significantly increased biofilm density. This work confirms, in a full-scale distribution system in Finland and Latvia, our earlier in vitro finding that biofilm formation is affected by the availability of phosphorus in drinking water.

  14. Qualitative Analysis of Teachers' Written Self-Reflections after Implementation of a Social-Emotional Learning Program in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsone, Baiba; Damberga, Ilze

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze teachers' written self-reflections after implementation of a social-emotional learning program, which was recently developed specifically for the sociocultural context of Latvia. The goal of the analysis was to examine how teachers reflect upon their own strengths and weaknesses in implementing the…

  15. [Baltic eugenics: Bio-politics, race and nation in interwar Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1918-1940] / Raiko Jäärats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jäärats, Raiko, 1980-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic eugenics: Bio-politics, race and nation in interwar Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1918-1940 (On the boundary of two worlds. identity, fredom and moral imagination in the Baltics, 35). Hrsg. von Björn M. Felder und Paul J. Weindling. Rodopi, Amsterdam u.a. 2013

  16. Processes of Localization and Institutionalization of local Managers in Economic Functions in Danish Owned Subsidiaries in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania Around the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    been conducted from 1997 to 2002 among local CEOs, chief accountants and production managers in a Danish SME, using mainly qualitative methods. Data have been compared to primary data from similar companies in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The study has resulted in establishing a model for comparing...

  17. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in statin-treated patients in the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania: Results of the Dyslipidemia International Study (DYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margus Viigimaa

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings indicate many statin-treated patients in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania did not meet target lipid levels and had a very high risk of CVD. Combating other well-known CVD risk factors such as obesity and hypertension is vital to reduce the exceptionally high risk for CVD mortality seen in the Baltic nations.

  18. Population screening for hereditary and familial cancer syndromes in Valka district of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanags Andrejs

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing possibilities of cancer prevention and treatment as well as the increasing knowledge about hereditary cancers require proper identification of the persons at risk. The aim of this study was to test the outcome of population screening in the scientific and practical evaluation of hereditary cancer. Methods Population screening for hereditary cancer was carried out retrospectively in a geographic area of Latvia. Family cancer histories were collected from 18642 adults representing 76.6% of the population of this area. Hereditary cancer syndromes were diagnosed clinically. Molecular testing for BRCA1 founder mutations 300 T/G, 4153delA and 5382insC was conducted in 588 persons who reported at least one case of breast or ovary cancer among blood relatives. Results Clinically, 74 (0.40%; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.32 - 0.50% high-risk and 548 (2.94%, 95% CI: 2.71 - 3.19 moderate-risk hereditary cancer syndromes were detected covering wide cancer spectrum. All syndromes were characterised by high cancer frequency among blood relatives ranging 8.6 - 46.2% in contrast to spouse correlation of 2.5 - 3.6%. The mean age of cancer onset ranged 38.0 - 72.0 years in different syndromes. The BRCA1 gene mutations were identified in 10 (1.7%; 95% CI: 0.9 - 3.1% probands. Families with established BRCA1 gene founder mutations were identified with the frequency 1:2663 clinically screened persons. Conclusions Population screening is a useful practical tool for the identification of persons belonging to families with high frequency of malignant tumours. The whole hereditary and familial cancer spectrum along with the age structure was identified adjusting follow-up guidelines. Another benefit of the population screening is the possibility to identify oncologically healthy persons belonging to hereditary and familial cancer families so that appropriate surveillance can be offered. Clinical diagnostics is appropriate for population

  19. INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF LEAF AND FRUIT DISEASES OF PLUMS IN LATVIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantina-Ievina, L; Stanke, L

    2015-01-01

    In the present study six plum orchards in Latvia were examined during 2014. One orchard was commercial with integrated pest management (IPM) practices, one was with organic management, two orchards were scientific collections and in two orchards plums were grown as a minor crop, using IPM practices. The shot-hole disease (Wilsonomyces carpophilus) and fruit rot were monitored in the field. Samples of twigs and leaves were taken for further examination if some other disease symptoms were observed. In total, 50 European plum (Prunus domestica) and six diploid plum cultivars were inspected. The fruit rot was assessed also in the laboratory to determine the latent infection with Monilinia spp. on immature fruits. Monilinia spp. isolates from all orchards were subjected to fungicide sensitivity tests. Incidence and severity of shot-hole disease was significantly different among various orchards when the same cultivar was compared, as well as between diploid and European plum cultivars. The average incidence of shot-hole disease was 41% in diploid plums and 80% in European plums, while the average severity was 9 and 15%, respectively. In the field, fruit rot caused only by Monilinia spp. was detected. The average incidence of brown rot on diploid plums was less than 1%, but on European plums it was 3.6%. The latent infection tests showed that plum fruits had higher incidence of brown rot than was observed in the field, up to 44% on particular cultivars. Additionally, from the fruits subjected to these tests, Botrytis cinerea, Diaporthe eres and Colletotrichum spp. were isolated. This means that in specific weather and management conditions the fruit rot incidence in the field could be several times higher. Examination of samples of twigs, leaves and fruits in the laboratory showed the presence of D. eres in samples from all orchards. In one of the scientific collections D. eres was isolated from twigs, leaves and fruits, and was more often found on the individuals

  20. Factors affecting breeding dispersal of European ducks on Engure Marsh, Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blums, P.; Nichols, J.D.; Lindberg, M.S.; Hines, J.E.; Mednis, A.

    2003-01-01

    1. We used up to 35 years of capture-recapture data from nearly 3300 individual female ducks nesting on Engure Marsh, Latvia, and multistate modelling to test predictions about the influence of environmental, habitat and management factors on breeding dispersal probability within the marsh. 2. Analyses based on observed dispersal distances of common pochards and tufted ducks provided no evidence that breeding success in year t influenced dispersal distance between t and t + 1. 3. Breeding dispersal distances (year t to t + 1) of pochards and tufted ducks were associated with a delay in relative nest initiation dates in year t + 1. The delay was greater for pochards (c. 4 days) than for tufted ducks (c. 2 days) when females dispersed > 0.8 km. 4. Northern shovelers and tufted ducks moved from a large island to small islands at low water levels and from small islands to the large island at high water levels before the construction of elevated small islands (1960-82). Following this habitat management (1983-94). breeding fidelity was extremely high and not influenced by water level in the marsh for either species. 5. Because pochard nesting habitats in black-headed gull colonies were saturated during the entire study period, nesting females moved into and out of colonies with similar probabilities. Local survival probabilities and incubation body masses were higher for both yearlings (SY) and adults (ASY) nesting within gull colonies, suggesting that these females were of better quality than females nesting outside of the colonies. 6. Tufted ducks showed higher probabilities of moving from islands to emergent marshes when water levels were higher both before and after habitat management. However, rates of movement for a given water level were higher during the period before management than after. 7. Both pochards and tufted ducks exhibited asymmetric movement with respect to proximity to water, with higher movement probabilities to near-water nesting locations than

  1. Eco-innovation, international trade, WTO and climate: Key issues for an ecological industrial policy. Documentation of a workshop on March 12, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Jutta; Kahlenborn, Walter [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Gather, Corinna (eds.) [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Within the meeting of the German Federal Environment Agency (Dessau, Federal Republic of Germany) and the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Natural Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) at 12th March, 2008, the following reports were held: (a) Trade Policy and Climate Change - An overview from the perspective of an ecological industrial policy (Jutta Hoppe et al.); (b) Kyoto, Post-Kyoto and the WTO (Malena Sell); (c) Climate change, trade and competitiveness (Aaron Cosby, John Drexhage); (d) Unilateral climate policy and implications for trade policy (Susanne Droege); (e) Trade in environmental goods and services relevant to climate-change mitigation: Opportunities and challenges for new industries in the European Union (Mahesh Sugathan); (f) The relevance of WTO activities and rules in the climate change debate (Ludivine Tamiotti); (g) Like-products, energy standards and labelling (Roland Ismer); (h) EC Trade policy and climate challenges: An overview of EC trade policy approaches to climate change (Ditte Juul-Joergensen); (i) Opportunities and constraints for an integrated European climate and trade policy (Ulrich Hoffmann); (j) Climate change, eco-innovation, and EU trade policy: a critical assessment (Daniel Mittler); (k) Resume: Key Issues for an Ecological Industrial policy (Jutta Hoppe, Walter Kahlenborn).

  2. [Richard C. M. Mole: The Baltic states from the Soviet Union to the European Union. Identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Mole, Richard C. M. The Baltic States from the Soviet Union to the European Union : identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. London ; New York : Routledge, 2012, 2013

  3. Main tasks of social worker in reducing poverty for families with children and social inclusion policy in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrodele-Dubrovska I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion is an inability of an individual or a group of persons to integrate into society due to poverty, insufficient education, unemployment, discrimination or other causes in Latvia. Welfare of families is influenced not only by the employment of its members, but also by the amount of their salary. Limited amount of family’s financial resources make a person to refuse himself a lot of things or restrict expenses to minimum thus increasing the risk of exclusion of the household. When finding a solution of social problems faced by families with children it is essential to involve a social worker. Well-being of children must be in focus of social work practice, in addition taking the special care for their safety and welfare.

  4. From social pathologies to individual psyches: psychiatry navigating socio-political currents in 20th-century Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lūse, Agita

    2011-03-01

    The paper explores psychiatry's responses to the twentieth-century socio-political currents in Latvia by focusing on social objectives, clinical ideologies, and institutional contexts of Soviet mental health care. The tradition of German biological psychiatry in which Baltic psychiatrists had been trained blended well with the materialistic monism of Soviet psychoneurology. Pavlov's teaching of the second signal system was well suited to Soviet ideological needs: speech stimuli were seen as a vehicle for moulding the individual's mind. The transformation in diagnostic practices during the 1970s and 1980s reflected the demise of optimism about the capacity of the self to model itself to the needs of the society. Latvian psychiatry was prepared to embrace more individualistic and pessimistic theories of the self.

  5. Melanoma risk associated with MC1R gene variants in Latvia and the functional analysis of rare variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozola, Aija; Azarjana, Kristīne; Doniņa, Simona; Proboka, Guna; Mandrika, Ilona; Petrovska, Ramona; Cēma, Ingrīda; Heisele, Olita; Eņģele, Ludmila; Streinerte, Baiba; Pjanova, Dace

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the association of melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R) variants with melanoma risk in a Latvian population, the MC1R gene was sequenced in 200 melanoma patients and 200 control persons. A functional study of previously uncharacterized, rare MC1R variants was also performed. In total, 26 different MC1R variants, including two novel variants Val165Ile and Val188Ile, were detected. The highest risk of melanoma was associated with the Arg151Cys variant (odds ratio (OR) 4.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.19-9.14, PMC1R variants revealed that a subset of them is functionally relevant. Our results support the contribution of MC1R variants to a genetic predisposition to melanoma in Latvia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The prevalence and the socio – economic costs of smoking among the working age population in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokarevica A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is a health problem, the costs of which include sickness, pain, grief and misery. But tobacco use also imposes a significant economic burden on society. One efficient way to assess the adverse health effects of smoking on a society is to translate smoking-caused illnesses, premature mortality, and productivity losses into economic terms, a universal marker for measuring the adverse effects of smoking. Due to the high proportion of smokers, Latvia faces high male mortality from smoking-related diseases; life expectancy for men in the age group 35–64 years is 2.44 years less than for non-smokers in the same age group, losing 37% of total lost years of life and therefore the government loses approximately 45 88346 Euro per year from YPLL from smoking related diseases.

  7. Impact of Parents' Motivation for Ethnocultural Continuity and Acculturation Strategies on Acculturation of Children in Russian Families in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabichenko T.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents outcomes of an empirical research on the relationship between motivation for ethnocultural continuity and acculturation strategies in ethnocultural minorities (with Russians in Latvia as an example. Since acculturation is a process that affects several generations, we adopted a research plan that involved representatives of two generations of a family (parents and children. 112 Russian families participated in the research (parents: N=112, age 35—59, Me=42; children: N=112, age 16—24, Me=17. A questionnaire we used included J. Berry's acculturation strategies, scales of satisfaction with life and oneself, and the Motivation for Ethnocultural Continuity scale by C. Ward. The employed structural modeling revealed that acculturation strategies of the children correlate significantly with those of their parents as well as with their own motivation for ethnicultural continuity. The adolescents' choice of integration strategy is positively related to their satisfaction with themselves; however, in the cases of marginalization and assimilation this relation is negative.

  8. Sail-Type Wind Turbine for Autonomous Power Supplay: Possible Use in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakipova, S.; Jakovics, A.

    2014-12-01

    Under the conditions of continuous increase in the energy consumption, sharply rising prices of basic energy products (gas, oil, coal), deterioration of environment, etc., it is of vital importance to develop methods and techniques for heat and power generation from renewables. The paper considers the possibility to use a sail-type wind turbine for autonomous power supply in Latvia, taking into account its climatic conditions. The authors discuss the problems of developing a turbine of the type that would operate efficiently at low winds, being primarily designed to supply power to small buildings and farms distant from centralized electricity networks. The authors consider aerodynamic characteristics of such a turbine and the dependence of the thrust moment of its pilot model on the airflow rate at different angles of attack. The pilot model with a changeable blade shape has been tested and shows a good performance. Darbs veltīts vienam no atjaunojamo enerģiju veidiem - vēja enerģijai, analizētas tās izmantošanas iespējas. Vispirms īsi raksturota vēja enerģijas izmantošana pasaulē, kā arī vērtētas izmantošanas perspektīvas no inženiertehniskā un klimatisko apstākļu viedokļa. Turpinājumā raksturota situācija Latvijā, t. sk., arī vēja potenciāla pieejamība dažādos reģionos, kā arī vēja enerģijas izmantošanas efektivitāti raksturojošie lielumi. Konstatējot problēmu, rast vēja turbīnu risinājumus Latvijas apstākļiem ar maziem vidējiem vēja ātrumiem, izveidots buras tipa turbīnas modelis. Šī modeļa raksturlielumu izpēte veikta vēja tunelī Karagandas universitātē, konstatējot relatīvi labus efektivitātes rādītājus tiešai un pretējai vēja plūsmai. Izmantojot mērījumu rezultātus, ierosināti sistēmas uzlabojumi, kurus plānots pētīt turpmāk. Šādas sistēmas potenciāli var rast lietojumu tur, kur nepieciešami autonomi enerģijas avoti.

  9. Telecommunication Reform and WTO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of the negotiations on telecommunication liberalisation in the World Trade Organization.......An analysis of the negotiations on telecommunication liberalisation in the World Trade Organization....

  10. The Department of Baltic Philology (1921–1940 established by Jānis Endzelīns at the University of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma Kļaviņa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of the Department of Baltic Philology of the Faculty of Philology and Philosophy at the University of Latvia. The department was established in the academic year of 1920/1921 by professor Jānis Endzelīns, who also acted as head of the department throughout its existence. Using the documents available at the Latvian State Historical Archives and the Museum of the University of Latvia, as well as published memories, the article provides a characterization of the establishment process of this department as an unprecedented one among the universities around the globe. The article also describes study programmes and their development, students and graduates, academic personnel, international relations of the department and its reputation.

  11. Uncertainties and Solutions Related to Use of WRB (2007) in the Boreo-nemoral zone, Case of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparinskis, Raimonds; Nikodemus, Olgerts; Rolavs, Nauris

    2014-05-01

    Relatively high diversity of soils groups according to the WRB (2007) classification is observed in forest ecosystems in the boreo-nemoral zone in Latvia. This is due to the geological genesis of area and environmental conditions (Kasparinskis, Nikodemus, 2012), as well as historical land use and management (Nikodemus et al., 2013). Due to the relatively young soils, Albic, Spodic and Cambic horizons are relatively weakly expressed in many cases. Relatively well developed Albic horizons occur in sandy forest soils, but unusually well expressed Spodic features are observed. In some cases there is a Cambic horizon, however location of Cambisols in the WRB (2007) soil classification sequence does not provide an opportunity to classify these soils as Cambisols, but they are classified as Arenosols. This sequence does not reflect the logical sheme of soil development, and therefore raises the question about location of Podzols, Arenosols and Cambisols in the sequence of WRB (2007) soil classification. Soils with two parent materials (abrupt textural change) are relatively common in Latvia, where conceptually on the small scale mapping results in classification as the soil group Planosols, but in many cases there is occurrence of Fluvic materials, as parent material in the upper part of the soil profile is formed by Baltic Ice lake sandy sediments - this leads to question about the location of Fluvisols and Planosols in the sequence of the WRB (2007) soil classification. Soil research has found cases, where a relatively well developed Spodic horizon was established as the result of ground water table depth in areas of abrupt textural change. In this case the profile corresponds to the soil group of Podzols, however in some cases - Gleysols not Planosols due to a high ground water table. Therefore there is a need for discussion also about the location of Podzols and Planosols in the sequence of the WRB (2007) soil classification. The above mentioned questions raise

  12. A tale of two re-branded cities:Riga, Latvia and Aarhus, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locmele, Gunta; Mousten, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    This study shows how Riga and Arhus identified, formulated and communicated city re-branding. Our analysis concentrates on resident responses to city re-branding and how such responses could force the municipalities to withdraw their re-branding. A city loses its identity if it is globalized...

  13. The role of the legislative and regulatory branches in promoting the use of geothermal energy in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.; Cers, A.

    2016-09-01

    Latvia currently is self-sufficient in energy resources up to approximately 35 %. Annual fossil energy prices rise and risks of security of energy supply promote the development legislation in the matter of renewable resources. One of the Latvian Ministry of Economics' recent products is a new draft law called the "Renewable Energy Law", which has been created due to one of the European Union and Latvian national energy policy objectives: to increase the share of renewable energy up to 40 % by 2020 (Moore and Vanags, 2012). Currently, geothermal energy potential is assessed at 1 × 1013 kWh; nevertheless, it is difficult for geothermal energy to compete with other renewable energy resources in the Latvian energy market. A great job has been done in recent years at the legislative branch to choose the right methods for supporting the use of renewable energy resources. This paper aims is analysis of current situation and assessment of Latvian legislation possibilities to promote the use of geothermal energy.

  14. The sedimentary sequence from the Lake Ķūži outcrop, central Latvia: implications for late glacial stratigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Koff

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sediment samples from an outcrop in the near-shore area of Lake Ķūži (Vidzeme Heights, Central Latvia were investigated using palaeobotanical (pollen and macrofossil analysis and lithological (grain-size analysis methods and accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating. A dark, organic-rich sediment layer was found below 1.7 m of sandy layers approximately 30 cm above the present lake level. Radiocarbon dating of a wood sample from the lowermost layer (11 050 ± 60 14C BP, 13 107–12 721 cal BP shows that the layer is of late glacial age. The composition of the pollen spectra is characterized by Betula nana, Cyperaceae pollen and spores of Equisetum, confirming that the lowermost sediments were formed during the late glacial. Fossils of obligate aquatic organisms in the upper layer, which include oospores of Characeae and seeds of Potamogeton, indicate an open water environment. Pollen of Myriophyllum and Potamogeton and non-pollen palynomorphs, such as algal Botryococcus and Pediastrum cf. boryanum, confirm this conclusion. The pollen assemblage from the greyish loam layer following this lacustrine phase shows a pattern characteristic of the Younger Dryas vegetation before the start of the real expansion of birch forests at the beginning of the Holocene.

  15. Palaeopathological Evidence of Infectious Disease in a Skeletal Population from Late Medieval Riga, Latvia (15Th-17Th Centuries AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhards Guntis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of infectious disease in the Dome Church (Riga Cathedral Cemetery population, dating from the late medieval period (15th-17th centuries AD. A total of 274 individuals were macroscopically observed for evidence of infectious disease, and seven individuals with lesions possibly associated with a bacterial infection affecting the skeleton were selected for further analysis. Pathological changes on the outer table of the skull and in the long bones of legs characteristic of venereal syphilis were observed in four female and one male individual. Likewise, changes possibly related to late congenital syphilis were observed in a 14-15-year-old non-adult individual. All these individuals were buried in a small area adjacent to the northern wall of the Dome Church, which possibly belonged to a hospital or a shelter. The evidence for venereal syphilis from the cemetery complements historical data about the spread of the disease in Riga during the 16th-17th centuries AD. One adult male individual had destructive changes in the lower spine, which could be associated with tuberculosis (TB. So far, this is the first individual with possible TB from the archaeological populations of Riga. This research provides unique evidence about infectious disease in skeletal populations from the late medieval period in Latvia, and the results will be used as the basis for future research in the subject, including extraction of ancient pathogen DNA.

  16. Projekts tūrisma aģentūras "Outdoortaste Latvia" izveidošana

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrjušenko, Vladimirs

    2017-01-01

    Projekts SIA "Outdoortaste Latvia" paredz nodibināt uzņēmumu, kurš sniegs tūrisma pakalpojumus, kā Latvijas iedzīvotājiem, tā arī cilvēkiem no ārvalstīm, pirmkārt no Baltijas valstīm. Ideja ir tāda, ka uzņēmums piedāvās izvēlēties vienu no ceļojumu veidiem Grūzijā vai Armēnijā. Viens no piedāvātajiem veidiem ir ekstremālais tūrisms, un lielākais uzņēmuma piedāvāto pakalpojumu klāsts sastāv tieši no ekstremālās un aktīvās atpūtas un ceļojumu veidiem. Tas arī padara uzņēmuma SIA "Outdoortaste L...

  17. Cumulative Small Effect Genetic Markers and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Serrano-Fernandez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continued identification of new low-penetrance genetic variants for colorectal cancer (CRC raises the question of their potential cumulative effect among compound carriers. We focused on 6 SNPs (rs380284, rs4464148, rs4779584, rs4939827, rs6983267, and rs10795668, already described as risk markers, and tested their possible independent and combined contribution to CRC predisposition. Material and Methods. DNA was collected and genotyped from 2330 unselected consecutive CRC cases and controls from Estonia (166 cases and controls, Latvia (81 cases and controls, Lithuania (123 cases and controls, and Poland (795 cases and controls. Results. Beyond individual effects, the analysis revealed statistically significant linear cumulative effects for these 6 markers for all samples except of the Latvian one (corrected P value = 0.018 for the Estonian, corrected P value = 0.0034 for the Lithuanian, and corrected P value = 0.0076 for the Polish sample. Conclusions. The significant linear cumulative effects demonstrated here support the idea of using sets of low-risk markers for delimiting new groups with high-risk of CRC in clinical practice that are not carriers of the usual CRC high-risk markers.

  18. Factors associated with Listeria monocytogenes contamination of cold-smoked pork products produced in Latvia and Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bērziņs, Aivars; Hörman, Ari; Lundén, Janne; Korkeala, Hannu

    2007-04-10

    A total of 312 samples of sliced, vacuum packaged, cold-smoked pork from 15 meat processing plants in Latvia and Lithuania, obtained over a 15-month period from 2003 until 2004, were analyzed for the presence of Listeria monocytogenes at the end of their shelf-life. Overall, 120 samples (38%) tested positive for L. monocytogenes. Despite the long storing period, the levels of L. monocytogenes in cold-smoked pork products were low. Manufacturing processes were studied at seven meat processing plants. A new approach with a logistic multivariable regression model was applied to identify the main factors associated with L. monocytogenes contamination during the manufacturing of cold-smoked pork products. Brining by injection was a significant factor (odds ratio 10.66; P or = 12 h) had a significant predictive value (odds ratio 24.38; Pmeat processing plants. In two meat processing plants, persistent L. monocytogenes strains belonging to serotypes 1/2a and 1/2c were found.

  19. 從WTO生技產品案爭端解決小組報告看GMO國際貿易中國際貿易法與國際環境法之衝突與解決可能 Conflicts and Resolutions of International Trade Law and International Law of Environment in International Trade of GMOs: A Perspective of WTO Biotech Products Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    許耀明 Yao-Ming Hsu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available 本文從國際貿易法與國際環境法一般理論角度出發,討論WTO 法規範體系與其他多邊環境協定之貿易措施間可能之衝突,並分析WTO 貿易與環境委員會以及爭端解決機制對於前述衝突之防止與多邊主義協商方式之提倡。其次,針對前述解決方式之不足,本文從法律解釋與法規範衝突法則之角度,論述前述可能衝突之調和方式。最後,本文以新近WTO 生技產品案報告為例,討論WTO 爭端解決機制中適用其他國際法規範之可能性以為說明。 From general theories of international trade law and international law of environment, this article focuses on the possible conflicts between WTO legal systems and Multilateral Environmental Agreements. It illustrates the possible resolutions from the point of view of Committee on Trade and Environment (CTE in WTO and its Dispute Settlement Body (DSB, and their promotion of multilateralism. Besides, this article analyses the possible resolutions from the legal interpretation and the rules of Conflicts of Norms, too. At last, it indicates an example of these possible conflicts and resolutions, the recent WTO Biotech Products Case, to demonstrate the possibility for the DSB to refer to others international norms in concrete cases.

  20. From the Green Room to the Court Room (And Back: Judicial Clarification of Ambiguity in WTO Law and the Effects on Subsequent Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Flett

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The WTO provides an opportunity to observe the recent creation, development and operation of a "hard law" adjudicative legal system, with legal subjects of greatly varying degrees of power, embedded within an intensely political environment. Between these parallel political and legal communities there are numerous points of contact. At each point of contact one finds played out (or to be played out and resolved, re-iteratively, the basic drama between power-based and rules-based approaches to disputes. An examination of the Dispute Settlement Understanding and of subsequent developments - from the particular perspective of a participant within the WTO legal system - suggests that the rules-based approach was initiated in a somewhat low profile manner. Once the process had been quietly booted-up, ambiguity and discretion embedded in the rules has been systematically crystallizing, under the influence of lawyers and adjudicators acting both in and out of the court room, so as to substantially further develop and consolidate a more complete rules-based operating system. This is something to which the Members themselves do not appear to have objected. In the long term, the fundamental driving motor for this process, which ultimately outweighs all other considerations, is a necessity recognised by all participants and their constituents – that is, legal security and predictability for firms engaged in international trade. However, the legitimacy of particular outcomes will ultimately continue to rest upon the rationality, reasonableness and openness of adjudicators and their judgments. This repetitive process of shared experience and palliative outcome is progressively binding the political and legal communities together in a shared fate. The process is proving remarkably successful, and may both serve as a model for (and have spill-over effects in other areas of international law. Ultimately, the system's continued success depends upon jealously

  1. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  2. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  3. Multilateral trade measures in a post-2012 climate change regime? What can be taken from the Montreal Protocol and the WTO?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhongxiang, E-mail: ZhangZ@EastWestCenter.or [Research Program, East-West Center, 1601 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848-1601 (United States); Center for Energy Economics and Strategy Studies, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); China Centre for Urban and Regional Development Research, Peking University, Beijing (China); Center for Environment and Development, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2009-12-15

    The climate-trade nexus gains increasing attention as governments are taking great efforts to forge a post-2012 climate change regime to succeed the Kyoto Protocol. This raises the issues of the scope of trade-related measures and of when and how they could be used. This paper discusses how far trade-related measures should be incorporated in that context. Drawing on an analogy to the Montreal Protocol and comparing developing country's climate mitigation and adaptation needs with the funding available, the paper argues that such measures should initially be applied only among Annex I or II countries. To discipline the use of unilateral trade measures at the international level, the paper emphasizes a need to define comparable climate efforts. Moreover, the Lieberman-Warner bill in the US Senate-taken as a proxy for future US climate legislation-is assessed, and found to be neither effective nor likely to be WTO-consistent. The paper is concluded by arguing that, in order to encourage developing countries to do more to combat climate change, developed countries should focus on carrots. Sticks can be incorporated, but only if they are credible and realistic and serve as a useful supplement to push developing countries to take actions or adopt policies and measures earlier than would otherwise have been the case.

  4. Multilateral trade measures in a post-2012 climate change regime? What can be taken from the Montreal Protocol and the WTO?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, ZhongXiang [Research Program, East-West Center, 1601 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848-1601 (United States); Center for Energy Economics and Strategy Studies, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); China Centre for Urban and Regional Development Research, Peking University, Beijing (China); Center for Environment and Development, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2009-12-15

    The climate-trade nexus gains increasing attention as governments are taking great efforts to forge a post-2012 climate change regime to succeed the Kyoto Protocol. This raises the issues of the scope of trade-related measures and of when and how they could be used. This paper discusses how far trade-related measures should be incorporated in that context. Drawing on an analogy to the Montreal Protocol and comparing developing country's climate mitigation and adaptation needs with the funding available, the paper argues that such measures should initially be applied only among Annex I or II countries. To discipline the use of unilateral trade measures at the international level, the paper emphasizes a need to define comparable climate efforts. Moreover, the Lieberman-Warner bill in the US Senate-taken as a proxy for future US climate legislation - is assessed, and found to be neither effective nor likely to be WTO-consistent. The paper is concluded by arguing that, in order to encourage developing countries to do more to combat climate change, developed countries should focus on carrots. Sticks can be incorporated, but only if they are credible and realistic and serve as a useful supplement to push developing countries to take actions or adopt policies and measures earlier than would otherwise have been the case. (author)

  5. Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions--Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dace, Elina; Muizniece, Indra; Blumberga, Andra; Kaczala, Fabio

    2015-09-15

    European Union (EU) Member States have agreed to limit their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS). That includes also emissions from agricultural sector. Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established a methodology for assessment of GHG emissions from agriculture, the forecasting options are limited, especially when policies and their interaction with the agricultural system are tested. Therefore, an advanced tool, a system dynamics model, was developed that enables assessment of effects various decisions and measures have on agricultural GHG emissions. The model is based on the IPCC guidelines and includes the main elements of an agricultural system, i.e. land management, livestock farming, soil fertilization and crop production, as well as feedback mechanisms between the elements. The case of Latvia is selected for simulations, as agriculture generates 22% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the country. The results demonstrate that there are very limited options for GHG mitigation in the agricultural sector. Thereby, reaching the non-ETS GHG emission targets will be very challenging for Latvia, as the level of agricultural GHG emissions will be exceeded considerably above the target levels. Thus, other non-ETS sectors will have to reduce their emissions drastically to "neutralize" the agricultural sector's emissions for reaching the EU's common ambition to move towards low-carbon economy. The developed model may serve as a decision support tool for impact assessment of various measures and decisions on the agricultural system's GHG emissions. Although the model is applied to the case of Latvia, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to agricultural systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze decisions and measures in other countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  6. Self-reported suicide attempts and exposure to different types of violence and neglect during childhood: Findings from a young adult population survey in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springe, Lauma; Pulmanis, Toms; Velika, Biruta; Pudule, Iveta; Grīnberga, Daiga; Villeruša, Anita

    2016-06-01

    Suicide rates in Latvia are among the highest in the EU. Among 18-25 year-old young adults, it is the second leading cause of death. This study investigates the prevalence of self-reported suicide attempts in young adults and examines its association with neglect or violence of a physical, emotional or sexual nature. A questionnaire was administered to 1259 young adults 18-25 years of age, selected by targeted quota sampling from secondary and vocational schools. The prevalence of self-reported suicide attempts was 6.1%. Physical and emotional adverse experiences showed clear associations with attempted suicide. Although prevalence of reported physical neglect was higher than for physical violence (27.0% versus 16.3%, respectively) the latter posed a higher risk for attempted suicide (OR = 4.0; 95% CI, 2.4-6.6). Conversely, emotional violence had a higher prevalence than emotional neglect (31.5% vs. 23.6%, respectively), but neglect showed a stronger association with attempted suicide (OR = 4.4; 95% CI, 2.6-7.3). CONCLUSIONS THE HIGH OR FOR ATTEMPTED SUICIDE ASSOCIATED WITH EMOTIONAL NEGLECT, TOGETHER WITH FINDINGS THAT EMOTIONAL VIOLENCE HAD THE HIGHEST PREVALENCE, AND THAT EMOTIONAL NEGLECT AND EMOTIONAL VIOLENCE SHOWED THE HIGHEST POPULATION ATTRIBUTABLE RISK FRACTION POPAR% OF 468 AND 404, RESPECTIVELY, SUGGESTED THAT EMOTIONAL FACTORS MERIT SPECIAL ATTENTION IN FURTHER INVESTIGATIONS OF ATTEMPTED SUICIDE AMONG YOUNG ADULTS IN LATVIA THE TARGETED QUOTA SAMPLING METHOD FROM FIVE CITIES REPRESENTING ALL REGIONS OF LATVIA AND 438% OF ITS POPULATION, ENSURE NATIONAL RELEVANCE OF OUR FINDINGS FOR POLICY AND PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT BY LEGISLATIVE, EDUCATIONAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH INSTITUTIONS. © 2016 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  7. The Development of Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials Industry in Science and Entrepreneurship: Socioeconomic and Technical Indicators. A Case Study of Latvia (Part Two)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geipele, I.; Geipele, S.; Staube, T.; Ciemleja, G.; Zeltins, N.

    2016-10-01

    Part two of the in-depth scientific study clarifies the significant social and technical indicators of the development of nano-field at the macro, micro, and meso development levels of the economic environment in Latvia in the framework of the given theme. The analytical assessment of numerical change in socioeconomic and technical factors clearly demonstrates the interaction of nano-field with the development of science and manufacture, as found out in the study. The identified indicators are proposed to use for research, comparison and implementation in any other country of the world.

  8. The Development of Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials Industry in Science and Entrepreneurship: Socioeconomic and Technical Indicators. A Case Study of Latvia (Part Two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geipele I.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Part two of the in-depth scientific study clarifies the significant social and technical indicators of the development of nano-field at the macro, micro, and meso development levels of the economic environment in Latvia in the framework of the given theme. The analytical assessment of numerical change in socioeconomic and technical factors clearly demonstrates the interaction of nano-field with the development of science and manufacture, as found out in the study. The identified indicators are proposed to use for research, comparison and implementation in any other country of the world.

  9. Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions — Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dace, Elina, E-mail: elina.dace@rtu.lv [Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University, Azenes 12/1, Riga LV1048 (Latvia); Muizniece, Indra; Blumberga, Andra [Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University, Azenes 12/1, Riga LV1048 (Latvia); Kaczala, Fabio [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Faculty of Health & Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, SE-39182 Kalmar (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    European Union (EU) Member States have agreed to limit their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS). That includes also emissions from agricultural sector. Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established a methodology for assessment of GHG emissions from agriculture, the forecasting options are limited, especially when policies and their interaction with the agricultural system are tested. Therefore, an advanced tool, a system dynamics model, was developed that enables assessment of effects various decisions and measures have on agricultural GHG emissions. The model is based on the IPCC guidelines and includes the main elements of an agricultural system, i.e. land management, livestock farming, soil fertilization and crop production, as well as feedback mechanisms between the elements. The case of Latvia is selected for simulations, as agriculture generates 22% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the country. The results demonstrate that there are very limited options for GHG mitigation in the agricultural sector. Thereby, reaching the non-ETS GHG emission targets will be very challenging for Latvia, as the level of agricultural GHG emissions will be exceeded considerably above the target levels. Thus, other non-ETS sectors will have to reduce their emissions drastically to “neutralize” the agricultural sector's emissions for reaching the EU's common ambition to move towards low-carbon economy. The developed model may serve as a decision support tool for impact assessment of various measures and decisions on the agricultural system's GHG emissions. Although the model is applied to the case of Latvia, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to agricultural systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze decisions and measures in other countries. - Highlights:

  10. MARKETING - MANAGEMENT AS A SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF THE INTEGRATION OF THE FOREIGN STUDENTS IN LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Владимировна Голубкова

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The process of integration of foreign students during their education at the present stage, in Latvia occurs extremely slowly.  It is determined, first of all, by the lack of scientifically proven study of the given problem. The solution of this problem is possible by the concentration in the single scheme of the theoretical aspects of marketing – management, logical constructs of the estimation criterion, allowing developing the marketing conceptions and finding an opportunity of its implementation through the creation of an organization that offers a product that meets the needs and demands of the consumer – the foreign student. The potential market and target consumer – the foreign students who studying in the universities located in the same geographical segment, defined as the result of marketing research and conducted polling has allowed defining the product and necessity of founding an organization, offering this product. For this purpose is developed the commodity portfolio based on the balance of its structure carried out the forecasting of the strategic planning and is determined its consumption value. The analysis of the competitive environment has allowed identifying the competitors in the geographical segment and a new method of the estimation of the competitiveness, to suggest the new type of competitive strategy, the strategy of the management for an organization. Having determined the necessity of creation of an organization is given the assessment of the possibility of the creation of an organization, offering a product that meets the needs, requirements of the consumer – the foreign student that proves the solution of the problem of the integration process through the exchange as the key category of marketing.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-6

  11. Should we adjust health education methodology to low-educated employees needs? Findings from Latvia, Poland, Slovenia and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska, Elżbieta; Puchalski, Krzysztof; Goszczyńska, Eliza; Pyżalski, Jacek

    2014-06-01

    The presented study explored health beliefs and experiences as well as health education needs of low-educated employees (LEEs) (incomplete primary, primary, lower secondary and basic vocational education) in comparison to those with higher education (secondary and tertiary education) in four European countries: Latvia, Poland, Slovenia and Spain. The main aim was to identify a specificity of low-educated employees (LEEs) by capturing their opinions, experiences, attitudes and needs concerning health education. The sample consisted of 1691 individuals with the status of an employee (approximately 400 respondents in each of 4 countries participating in the project). The respondents were aged 25-54 (both the control group and the target group consisted in 1/3 of the following age groups: 25-34, 35-44 and 45-54). The respondents were interviewed during the years 2009 and 2010 with a structured questionnaire concerning their health, health behaviours as well as educational needs concerning health education. The study revealed substantial differences in the attitudes of people from this group concerning methodology of health education. LEEs prefer more competitions and campaigns and less written educational materials in comparison to those with higher education. Additionally, they more often perceive a fee, longer time, necessity to take part in a knowledge test and a concern that their health will be checked as factors that can discourage them from taking part in a health training. On the other hand, LEEs can by encouraged to take part in such a training by a media broadcast concerning the event, snacks or lottery during the training, or financial incentives. The results of the study proved the need for specific health education guidelines to conduct health education for low-educated employees. These guidelines should take in account the sources of health education preferred by LEEs as well as the factors that can encourage/discourage their participation in trainings

  12. Clinical aspects of the health disturbances in Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident clean-up workers (liquidators) from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglite, M E; Zvagule, T J; Rainsford, K D; Reste, J D; Curbakova, E V; Kurjane, N N

    2009-06-01

    The health status of some 6,000 workers from Latvia who went to clean-up the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) site following the explosion on 26 April 1986 has been analyzed. The data on these workers have been recorded in the Latvian State Register of Occupational disease patients and people exposed to ionizing radiation due to Chernobyl NPP accident (Latvian State Register) that was established in 1994. From these data, estimates have been made of external ionizing radiation to which these workers were exposed together with observations on the impact of exposure to heavy metals (especially lead and zinc) and radioactive isotopes released during the reactor 'meltdown'. These factors along with psycho-emotional and social-economic stresses account for a marked excess of mortality and morbidity in the group of CNPP accident clean-up workers compared with that of the non-exposed normal Latvian population adjusted for age and sex. The number of diseases or conditions in the CNPP accident clean-up workers has progressively risen from an average of 1.3 in 1986 to 10.9 in 2007. This exceeds for the Latvian population when adjusted for age and sex. The most serious conditions affect the nervous, digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, endocrine (especially thyroid) and immunological systems. While the morbidity associated with diseases of the respiratory and digestive systems has decreased in recent years that in the other systems is increasing. In recent years, there has been an increased occurrence of cancers affecting the thyroid, prostate and stomach. Clinical and laboratory investigations suggest that surviving CNPP accident clean-up workers exhibit signs of immuno-inflammatory reactions causing premature aging with evidence of autoimmune diseases and immunological deficiencies or abnormalities. It is suggested that the CNPP accident clean-up workers may have a specific syndrome, the 'Chernobyl post-radiation neurosomatic polypathy', due to sustained oxidant

  13. Forced marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Guidelines to help A&E staff and other healthcare professionals who suspect cases of forced marriage were launched this month by the government. The guidelines provide practical advice on how to recognise the warning signs, and what to do if patients disclose that they have been, or are about to be, forced to marry. The guidelines, Dealing with Cases of Forced Marriage, are available at www.fco.gov.uk/forcedmarriage.

  14. [On the improvement of the legal support of the food safety in the conditions of trade and economic integration of states-members of the Customs union and the Russian Federation's accession to the WTO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragina, I V; Aksenova, O I; Bokit'ko, B G; Gorsky, A A

    2013-01-01

    In the article priority activities of The Federal Service for the Oversight of Consumer Protection and Welfare on improvement of standard legal support of safety of foodstuff and control of compliance of foodstuff to legislation requirements are reported. The main documents directed on harmonization of the international requirements with national ones and requirements of the Customs union on safety of foodstuff are submitted. Work within a framework of Russian Federation's accession to the WTO is described. And data on control of quality and safety of foodstuff are provided also.

  15. Legal consequences and problems of the servitudes of right of way established by administrative acts in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinsberga J.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The right to own a property is guaranteed by the Article 105 of the Constitution of the Republic of Latvia that in the same time stipulates that the said rights may be restricted only in accordance with law. This legitimate property right restriction is determined in Article 928 of the Civil Law: the ownership may be restricted both by private intent and by law. One of the restrictions of ownership rights is the servitude of right of way which is established by law, a contract, a court judgement, or a will. During the land reform, the State Forest Service, land commissions, and municipalities had the legal basis to establish the servitude of right of way also by an administrative act, taking a corresponding decision. However, many decisions were insufficient and legally incorrect. As a result, today the servitudes of right of way established by the administrative acts during the period of the land reform do not fulfil their purpose and cause a number of legal and practical problems both to owners of immovable property and to state institutions. In order to explore these problems, referring to the Article 7 of the Paragraph 105 of the protocol resolution No.56 of the Cabinet of Ministers from 29 October 2013, the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development in cooperation with the Ministry of Transport, the Ministry of Justice, and the Ministry of Agriculture issued the Conceptual Report “On the Problems Occurring in Relation with the Servitudes of Right of Way Established during the Land Reform and Their Possible Solutions” (hereinafter – the Conceptual Report. In general there are 2 possible solutions, but for the second solution there are five courses of action, one of which – in cases when there is a road on private property that is needed for public use it is to be determined as an encumbrance of the immovable property “Public road”. The aim of the research is by analysis of the problems of the servitudes of

  16. Genotype-phenotype correlations among BRCA1 4153delA and 5382insC mutation carriers from Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Mutations in the high penetrance breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 account for a significant percentage of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer cases. Genotype-phenotype correlations of BRCA1 mutations located in different parts of the BRCA1 gene have been described previously; however, phenotypic differences of specific BRCA1 mutations have not yet been fully investigated. In our study, based on the analysis of a population-based series of unselected breast and ovarian cancer cases in Latvia, we show some aspects of the genotype-phenotype correlation among the BRCA1 c.4034delA (4153delA) and c.5266dupC (5382insC) founder mutation carriers. Methods We investigated the prevalence of the BRCA1 founder mutations c.4034delA and c.5266dupC in a population-based series of unselected breast (n = 2546) and ovarian (n = 795) cancer cases. Among the BRCA1 mutation carriers identified in this analysis we compared the overall survival, age at diagnosis and family histories of breast and ovarian cancers. Results We have found that the prevalence of breast and ovarian cancer cases (breast: ovarian cancer ratio) differs significantly among the carriers of the c.5266dupC and c.4034delA founder mutations (OR = 2.98, 95%CI = 1.58 to 5.62, P prevalence of breast and ovarian cancer cases among the 1st and 2nd degree relatives of the c.4034delA and c.5266dupC mutation carriers. In addition, among the breast cancer cases the c.4034delA mutation has been associated with a later age of onset and worse clinical outcomes in comparison with the c.5266dupC mutation. Conclusions Our data suggest that the carriers of the c.4034delA and c.5266dupC founder mutations have different risks of breast and ovarian cancer development, different age of onset and prognosis of breast cancer. PMID:22032251

  17. 9th January 2012 - Indonesian Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador Triansyah Djani to to the United Nations, WTO and other International Organisations in Geneva signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Adviser E. Tsesmelis, visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 and CMS underground experimental area with Collaboration Spokesperson J. Incandela.

    CERN Multimedia

    Estelle Spirig

    2012-01-01

    9th January 2012 - Indonesian Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador Triansyah Djani to to the United Nations, WTO and other International Organisations in Geneva signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Adviser E. Tsesmelis, visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 and CMS underground experimental area with Collaboration Spokesperson J. Incandela.

  18. 從WTO生技產品案爭端解決小組報告看GMO國際貿易中國際貿易法與國際環境法之衝突與解決可能 Conflicts and Resolutions of International Trade Law and International Law of Environment in International Trade of GMOs: A Perspective of WTO Biotech Products Case

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    許耀明 Yao-Ming Hsu

    2007-01-01

    ... 生技產品案報告為例,討論WTO 爭端解決機制中適用其他國際法規範之可能性以為說明。 From general theories of international trade law and international law of environment, this article focuses...

  19. Psychological variables underlying political orientations in an old and a new democracy: A comparative study between Sweden and Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimdins, Girts; Sandgren, Maria; Montgomery, Henry

    2016-10-01

    This study examines in detail the psychological variables underlying ideological political orientation, and structure and contents of this orientation, in Sweden and Latvia. Individual political orientation is conceptualized on two dimensions: acceptance vs. rejection of social change and acceptance vs. rejection of inequality. Swedish (N = 320) and Latvian (N = 264) participants completed measures of political orientation, Social Dominance Orientation (SDO), Right Wing Authoritarianism (RWA), self vs. other orientation, tolerance for ambiguity, humanism and normativism, core political values, system justification, as well as moral foundations questionnaire and portrait values questionnaire. The results showed that the relation among the measured variables was similar in both samples. Swedish participants showed stronger endorsement of egalitarian attitudes and social values, whereas we found more self-enhancing and socially conservative values and attitudes among the Latvian participants. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. African Journals Online: Latvia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... France, MEtropolitan, French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern Territories, Gabon, Gambia, The, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Gibraltar, Greece, Greenland, Grenada, Guam, Guatemala, Guernsey, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong SAR, China, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, ...

  1. Investing in Youth: Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  2. Kononov v. Latvia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mälksoo, Lauri, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    17. mail 2010 tegi Euroopa Inimõiguste Kohtu suurkoda otsuse asjas Kononov vs. Läti, otsustades, et Läti ei rikkunud Euroopa inimõiguste ja põhivabaduste kaitse konventsiooni artiklit 7, kui mõistis Vassili Kononovi süüdi Teise maailmasõja ajal Lätis toimepandud sõjakuriteos

  3. Solución de disputas en la OMC: un análisis a partir de la sociología de Pierre Bourdieu WTO dispute settlement: a sociolegal analysis from the Pierre Bourdieu's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Fontoura Costa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El sistema de arreglo de disputas de la OME es muy estudiado y produce literatura muy divulgada. Sin embargo, hay pocos estudios empíricos sobre los perfiles de miembros de grupos especiales y del órgano de Apelación y, asimismo, su influencia en la articulación de un campo jurídico internacional al derredor de los órganos de arreglo de disputas. Ese estudio tiene el objetivo hacer disponibles algunas informaciones y analizarlas bajo la luz de algunos conceptos de la sociología de Pierre Bourdieu, en particular da de campo jurídico y de habitus, para comprender como se produce la jurificación internacional. Los resultados indican similitudes entre el campo jurídico de la omc y los campos jurídicos estatales.The WTO's dispute settlement system is a much studied subject and the literature thereon is widespread. Nevertheless, there are few empirical studies on panelists' and Appellate Body members' profiles as well as their influence on the articulation of an international legal field around the dispute resolution organizations. This study aims to make available some information on these profiles and analyze them under the light of some concepts of Pierre Bourdieu's sociology, mainly the legal field and the development of social habitus, in order to understand how international legalization of the trade law takes place. The results point out the similarities between the WTO's legal field and the state legal fields.

  4. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    The cluster theory attributed to Michael Porter has significantly influenced industrial policies in countries across Europe and North America since the beginning of the 1990s. Institutions such as the EU, OECD and the World Bank and governments in countries such as the UK, France, The Netherlands......, Portugal and New Zealand have adopted the concept. Public sector interventions that aim to support cluster development in industries most often focus upon economic policy goals such as enhanced employment and improved productivity, but rarely emphasise broader societal policy goals relating to e.......g. sustainability or quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore how and to what extent public sector interventions that aim at forcing cluster development in industries can support sustainable development as defined in the Brundtland tradition and more recently elaborated in such concepts as eco-industrialism...

  5. Coriolis Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciuc, Daly; Solschi, Viorel

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the Coriolis effect is essential for explaining the movement of air masses and ocean currents. The lesson we propose aims to familiarize students with the manifestation of the Coriolis effect. Students are guided to build, using the GeoGebra software, a simulation of the motion of a body, related to a rotating reference system. The mathematical expression of the Coriolis force is deduced, for particular cases, and the Foucault's pendulum is presented and explained. Students have the opportunity to deepen the subject, by developing materials related to topics such as: • Global Wind Pattern • Ocean Currents • Coriolis Effect in Long Range Shooting • Finding the latitude with a Foucault Pendulum

  6. A 38-year study on Trichinella spp. in wild boar (Sus scrofa) of Latvia shows a stable incidence with an increased parasite biomass in the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirjušina, Muza; Deksne, Gunita; Marucci, Gianluca; Bakasejevs, Eduards; Jahundoviča, Inese; Daukšte, Anžela; Zdankovska, Aleksandra; Bērziņa, Zanda; Esīte, Zanda; Bella, Antonino; Galati, Fabio; Krūmiņa, Angelika; Pozio, Edoardo

    2015-03-01

    Trichinella spp. are zoonotic parasites transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked meat of different animal species. The most common source of infection for humans is meat from pigs and wild boar (Sus scrofa). The aim of the present work was to evaluate the incidence of Trichinella spp. infections in wild boar hunted in Latvia over a 38 year interval (1976 to 2013). A total 120,609 wild boars were individually tested for Trichinella spp. by trichinoscopy and, in case of negativity, by artificial digestion of 25 g muscles, in the 1976-2005 period, and by artificial digestion of 25-50 g muscles in the 2006-2013 period. Trichinella spp. larvae were identified at the species level by multiplex PCR. In the study period, the overall prevalence of infected wild boar was 2.5%. Trichinella britovi was the predominant (90%) species. The incidence of Trichinella spp. infection in wild boar exhibited two different trends. From 1976 to 1987, the incidence of infected/hunted wild boar increased from 0.23% to 2.56%, then it decreased to 0.19 in 1994. Thereafter, the incidence fluctuated between 0.05% and 0.37%. A statistically significant (P Trichinella spp. incidence in hunted wild boar and the number of snow cover days from 1976 to 1993. From 1997 to 2013, the estimated wild boar population of Latvia increased by 4.9 times and the hunting bag by 9.7 times, with a stable incidence of Trichinella spp. in the population. It follows that the biomass of Trichinella spp. larvae and of T. britovi, in particular, increased. The incidence trends of Trichinella spp. in wild boar could be related to the role played by the snow in reducing the thermal shock and muscle putrefaction which increases the survival of the larvae in muscle tissues of carrion in the 1976-1993 period; and, in the 1997-2013 period, to the increased biomass of Trichinella spp. due to the increased carnivore populations, which are the main reservoirs of these parasites.

  7. 國民健康與WTO規範 ― 以我國推動之「國血自足」政策為探討中心 National Health and WTO Rules − Focusing on the Study of the Blood Self-sufficiency Policy Promoted by Our Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    倪貴榮 Kuei-Jung Ni

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available 血液製品屬於生物製品,主要指以人類血液爲原料,採用生物科技或分離純化技術製備的生物活性製劑。1975 年WHO 曾以決議建議推行使用國人血液及血漿之自給自足的政策,嗣後為多國採納而予立法實施。我國並非聯合國成員,亦非WHO 會員國,但為維護國民健康及積極與世界接軌,目前正推動是項政策。惟WHO 所建議實施之以保護人民健康為宗旨之國血自足措施,因對外國血液產品,產生一定程度之排擠,卻可能與WTO 的自由貿易宗旨發生衝突。由於我國已是 WTO 會員,理應遵循WTO 國民待遇等不歧視原則,若實行國血自足政策則可能引發違反WTO 規範義務之疑慮。惟由WTO 案例法顯示,其已較能承認各國為維護公共利益所為措施之正當性,而在適用法律上,已作更為平衡與彈性的處置。本文將比較各國相關政策,研究WTO有關法理,並特別藉前例之解析,以助釐清我國立法政策是否與 WTO 規範相容,並提供一些政策建議。 Blood-related products derive from living organisms. They refer to the human blood based bio-active biotechnology products, which are manufactured by purification steps. In 1975, the World Health Organization (WHO of the United Nations (U.N. adopted a decision, recommending the alleged “blood selfsufficiency” policy. Since then, some countries have endorsed such a policy and incorporated it into their legislations. Taiwan is neither a member of the U.N., nor of the WHO. Nevertheless, the government has been promoting the policy for several years with a view to the preservation of public health and the conformity with the global trend. Given the certain degree of the exclusion of foreign products caused by the implementation of the policy, there seems to be a possible conflict between the measure and the object of trade liberalization honored by the World Trade

  8. Life satisfaction in older women in Latvia and Sweden-relations to standard of living, aspects of health and coping behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Vibeke; Haak, Maria; Tomsone, Signe; Iwarsson, Susanne; Gräsbeck, Anne

    2012-12-01

    To study and compare associations between life satisfaction and standard of living, health, and coping behaviour in older single-living women in two countries with different political, economical and cultural situations: Latvia and Sweden. Cross sectional data included 260 Latvian and 288 Swedish women, aged 75-84 and 80-89, from the ENABLE-AGE Survey Study. Life satisfaction was assessed by the question: All in all, how satisfied are you with your life? Standard of living was assessed by economic and housing conditions, and health by perceived and objective health and activities in daily living. Three factors, Fight, Helplessness, and Distraction, were obtained from the Coping Patterns Schedule. Correlations between Life satisfaction and standard of living, health, and coping were calculated. The variance in Life satisfaction explained by these variables was obtained in each sample by ordinal regression models. Life satisfaction was significantly lower in the Latvian sample than in the Swedish. Standard of living was lower and health poorer in the younger Latvian sample than in the Swedish, but more of the variance in Life satisfaction was explained in the Latvian sample by standard of living (18% vs 2%) and less by health (6% vs 15%). Coping factors explained 29% of the variation in Life satisfaction in the Latvian sample as opposed to 15% in the Swedish. For single-living older women low standard of living seems to be a more serious obstacle than poor health, making it difficult to obtain a reasonable life satisfaction.

  9. Contenciosos brasileiros na Organização Mundial do Comércio (OMC: pauta comercial, política e instituições Brazil litigation in the WTO: trade mix, politics and institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Arbix

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo busca analisar a formulação da política comercial brasileira, de relevância e complexidade crescentes, no caso das demandas brasileiras ao Órgão de Solução de Controvérsias (OSC da Organização Mundial do Comércio (OMC. Examina-se a centralização de tal política no Poder Executivo com foco em seus processos decisórios, a partir do contexto econômico e político pertinente para a seleção das demandas apresentadas a tal mecanismo de solução de controvérsias. Além de se perscrutar o funcionamento da Câmara de Comércio Exterior (Camex e sua interação com outros órgãos estatais, investiga-se a dinâmica da condução dos contenciosos e de suas repercussões na agenda comercial da OMC. Constata-se que, à margem do desenho institucional focalizado na Camex, a escolha das demandas responde à pauta comercial e ao impacto nas negociações internacionais do país, acompanhando a pauta de exportação e os principais parceiros comerciais do Brasil, no marco da Rodada Doha da OMC. Marcadas por constrangimentos internos e externos, portanto, as estratégias sobre litígios comerciais internacionais demandam transparência e cooperação aperfeiçoadas com o setor privado.This study seeks to analyze Brazil's foreign trade policy, which is of growing importance and complexity, in the particular case of litigation with the WTO's Dispute Settlement Body. Such policy centralization with the Executive Branch is examined with focus on the decision making processes, with grounds on the political and economical context relevant to the selection of disputes to be initiated with the mentioned dispute settlement mechanism. Brazilian Chamber of Foreign Commerce (Camex's operations are scrutinized, as well as its interactions with other state bodies, which is followed by an investigation of the dynamics of the disputes' conduction and their repercussion on the WTO's trade agenda. Perceived results are that, despite decisions

  10. Malaysia and forced migration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arzura Idris

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the phenomenon of "forced migration" in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants...

  11. Living in Latvia after stroke: the association between functional, social and personal factors and the level of self-perceived disability-a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bērziņa, Guna; Smilškalne, Baiba; Vētra, Anita; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S

    2016-06-24

    To investigate how functional, social and personal factors are associated with self-perceived level of disability in the chronic phase of stroke in a Latvian stroke population. The consequences of stroke can vary greatly and often leads to long-term disability that, according to the WHO definitions, depends on the interaction between the person and his/her context. Cross-sectional study with retrospective data gathering. Community-dwelling persons who received specialised in-patient rehabilitation after stroke in Latvia. Of 600 persons after stroke who were identified through hospital register and selected for the study, 255 were included in the analysis. The medical information and discharge data of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) was extracted from medical records. Participants filled out a questionnaire on sociodemographic information and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0), either in Latvian or Russian, depending on their wish when contacted for their oral agreement to participate. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted to find a model that best explains the variance in WHODAS 2.0 scores. The models explained 23-43.5% of variance in outcomes. The best explained WHODAS 2.0 domains were 'mobility' and 'self-care'. The significant factors were level of independence in 'self-care', 'locomotion' and 'communication' according to FIM, as well as working status, time since rehabilitation, age, gender, living alone or in family and preferred language. Functional, social and personal factors are of similar importance when explaining self-perceived disability in the chronic phase of stroke. Some, but not all, of the factors are modifiable by the healthcare system. Therefore, a complex approach and involvement of medical, social and political systems is needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Handbook of force transducers

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanescu, Dan Mihai

    2011-01-01

    Part I introduces the basic ""Principles and Methods of Force Measurement"" acording to a classification into a dozen of force transducers types: resistive, inductive, capacitive, piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electrodynamic, magnetoelastic, galvanomagnetic (Hall-effect), vibrating wires, (micro)resonators, acoustic and gyroscopic. Two special chapters refer to force balance techniques and to combined methods in force measurement. Part II discusses the ""(Strain Gauge) Force Transducers Components"", evolving from the classical force transducer to the digital / intelligent one, with the inco

  13. The swim force as a body force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wen; Brady, John

    2015-11-01

    Net (as opposed to random) motion of active matter results from an average swim (or propulsive) force. It is shown that the average swim force acts like a body force - an internal body force [Yan and Brady, Soft Matter, DOI:10.1039/C5SM01318F]. As a result, the particle-pressure exerted on a container wall is the sum of the swim pressure [Takatori et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2014, 113, 028103] and the `weight' of the active particles. A continuum mechanical description is possible when variations occur on scales larger than the run length of the active particles and gives a Boltzmann-like distribution from a balance of the swim force and the swim pressure. Active particles may also display `action at a distance' and accumulate adjacent to (or be depleted from) a boundary without any external forces. In the momentum balance for the suspension - the mixture of active particles plus fluid - only external body forces appear.

  14. Forces in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-07-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced by an observer in general coordinates. The general force is then applied to the local co-moving coordinate system of a uniformly accelerating observer, leading to an expression of the inertial force experienced by the observer. Next, applying the general force in Schwarzschild coordinates is shown to lead to familiar expressions of the gravitational force. As a more complex demonstration, the general force is applied to an observer in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates near a rotating, Kerr black hole. It is then shown that when the angular momentum of the black hole goes to zero, the force on the observer reduces to the force on an observer held stationary in Schwarzschild coordinates. As a final consideration, the force on an observer moving in rotating coordinates is derived. Expressing the force in terms of Christoffel symbols in rotating coordinates leads to familiar expressions of the centrifugal and Coriolis forces on the observer. It is envisioned that the techniques presented herein will be most useful to graduate level students, as well as those undergraduate students having experience with general relativity and tensor analysis.

  15. Labor Force Participation Rate

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...

  16. Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

  17. Trois familles, quatre forces

    CERN Multimedia

    Augereau, J F

    2002-01-01

    ENSEMBLE DE QUATRE ARTICLES - LARGE HADRON COLLIDER: Le monde des particules tel que nous le connaissons aujourd'hui est constitue de trois familles de quatre membres. Ces particules sont collees les unes aux autres par des forces. Celles-ci, au nombre de quatre - gravitation, force forte, force electromagnetique et force faible -, sont " portees " par d'autres particules dont certaines sont a decouvrir (graviton) et d'autres deja identifiees (gluons, photons, bosons W et Z) (1/2 page).

  18. French Nuclear Forces,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-05

    International Defense Review, and Foreign Affairs have published articles treating various as- .1 pects of France’s Forces Nucleaires Strategiques(FNS...forces(La Force Nucleaire Strategique or FNS) consist of three systems similar to the American triad. France’s tactical nuclear forces(L’Arme... Nucleaire Tactique or ANT) include a variety of land- and carrier-based aircraft and a tactical missile--Pluton--deployed by the French Army. Thirty-four M

  19. Forces in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  20. Mechanotransduction: use the force(s)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paluch, Ewa K; Nelson, Celeste M; Biais, Nicolas; Fabry, Ben; Moeller, Jens; Pruitt, Beth L; Wollnik, Carina; Kudryasheva, Galina; Rehfeldt, Florian; Federle, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Mechanotransduction - how cells sense physical forces and translate them into biochemical and biological responses - is a vibrant and rapidly-progressing field, and is important for a broad range of biological phenomena...

  1. Collaboration of Business and Science in Latvia ES struktūrinių fondų parama ekonominės aplinkos kūrimui per verslo ir mokslo bendradarbiavimą Latvijoje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Meženiece

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The article analyses the good practice of Finland, which reconstructed the path changing towards building innovation-based economy, and Denmark, where the several programmes for network building and enhancement of collaboration between entrepreneurs as well as entrepreneurs and research institutes were introduced successfully, in order to make recomendations for development of economic environment in Latvia. The authors consider, that in the case of Latvia, at first, the government must take action in order to establish the macro-level environment that enables conditions for innovative self-renewing systems as well as introduce schemes that would facilitate knowledge spillover and commercialization, promote business activities of academic staff and researchers, as well as formation of networks and clusters.

    Article in English

    Straipsnyje analizuojama kitų šalių geroji praktika, siekiant suformuoti su Latvijos ekonominės aplinkos plėtra susijusius siūlymus. Analizei pasirinkta Suomijos geroji praktika, pagrįsta inovacijomis ekonomika ir Danijos programos, susijusios su tinklo kūrimu ir bendradarbiavimo stiprinimu tarp verslininkų ir mokslinio tyrimo institutų. Autoriai mano, kad Latvijos atveju vyriausybė turi imtis atitinkamų veiksmų, siekdama sukurti makrolygmens aplinką, kuri leistų taikyti įvairias sistemas, palengvinančias žinių sklaidą ir komercializaciją, skatintų mokslininkų ir tyrėjų aktyvumą verslo veikloje, taip pat formuotų tinklų ir klasterių plėtrą.

    Straipsnis anglų kalba

  2. Latvia, Estonia differ on sugar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Läti põllumajandusministri Martins Roze sõnul ei toeta Läti Euroopa Komisjoni reformikava suhkruturu liberaliseerimiseks, samal seisukohal näib olevat suhkrutootmisega tegelev Leedu. Eesti põllumajandusministeerium reformile vastu ei seisa

  3. Unknown Latvia / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2011-01-01

    Hiljuti ilmunud raamatu "Riga - the Civilization of Nobody" filosoofist autor Arvydas Juozaitis kohtus Vilniuses lugejatega. Raamatus käsitletakse tänapäeva Läti poliitikat, kultuuri, demograafiat ja ajalugu

  4. StringForce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barendregt, Wolmet; Börjesson, Peter; Eriksson, Eva

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present the forced collaborative interaction game StringForce. StringForce is developed for a special education context to support training of collaboration skills, using readily available technologies and avoiding the creation of a "mobile bubble". In order to play String......Force two or four physically collocated tablets are required. These tablets are connected to form one large shared game area. The game can only be played by collaborating. StringForce extends previous work, both technologically and regarding social-emotional training. We believe String......Force to be an interesting demo for the IDC community, as it intertwines several relevant research fields, such as mobile interaction and collaborative gaming in the special education context....

  5. Disputas comerciais e magnanimidade: um estudo do mecanismo de solução de controvérsias da Organização Mundial de Comércio à luz da teoria dos movimentos Magnanimity and WTO disputes: an examination of early settlement in trade disputes using theory of moves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane de Andrade Lucena Carneiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Por que disputas comerciais no âmbito da Organização Mundial de Comércio (OMC são decididas predominantemente de forma amigável, não obstante a existência de um sofisticado mecanismo quasi-adjudicatório para a resolução dessas controvérsias? Como explicar a preferência da parte que inicia uma disputa pela solução amigável, quando se sabe que a OMC, em média, decide 64% dos casos a favor do iniciante? Este artigo analisa padrões de solução de controvérsias no sistema do Acordo Geral de Tarifas e Comércio e da Organização Mundial de Comércio (GATT/OMC, por meio da teoria dos movimentos (BRAMS, 1994, com o propósito de estudar as escolhas estratégicas disponíveis para as partes. Propõe-se que, no sistema do GATT/OMC, as partes em uma disputa comercial agem de forma magnânima quando abrem mão do melhor resultado em um jogo. Esta ação é racional porque ela oferece à parte demandada maiores chances de se alcançar uma solução amigável da disputa. Esse comportamento não encontra explicação satisfatória no conceito de equilíbrio míope da teoria dos jogos tradicional. Em contrapartida, a teoria dos movimentos incorpora a noção de equilíbrio não-míope ao seu modelo de tomada de decisões. Este artigo explica o comportamento não-míope e racional dos jogadores quando estes buscam o segundo melhor resultado no jogo. Três disputas comerciais ilustram a análise e caracterizam situações em que: (i a solução amigável advém do comportamento magnânimo; (ii a solução amigável ocorre a despeito do comportamento magnânimo; e (iii não há solução amigável.Why most trade disputes in the World Trade Organization (WTO end in a friendly settlement, despite the existence of a sophisticated dispute settlement mechanism? How can we explain the complainant's preference for a friendly settlement when we know that the WTO decides 64% of the cases in favor of the complainant? In this article I discuss patterns

  6. Measurement of Surface Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-16

    structural force is often observed on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, respectively. These forces are referred to in the literature as hydration and...47,481. One parameter, the effective molecular diffusivity in a pore (e.g., zeolite or polymer), has been indirectly related to transport limited rates...adhesion force (2 g.N) and a marked increase in rate of Fe(CN)6 -3 reduction. Both effects were ascribed to the more hydrophilic nature of the activated

  7. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  8. Case Study: The Withdrawal of Russian Military Forces from the Baltic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Llthuama, Latvia and Estoma regained the independence they had lost at the start of the Second World War The opportumty for these new states to...Russia was perceived as pursuing a pohcy of mtlmldatlon toward Latvia, Lithuania and Estoma As the Russia-Baltic dialogue began to deteriorate m 1993... Estoma Finally, Moscow needed good relations \\~th Vllnrus to ensure easy access to Kalmmgrad, the exclave on the Baltic Sea that was physically

  9. Intermolecular and surface forces

    CERN Document Server

    Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2011-01-01

    This reference describes the role of various intermolecular and interparticle forces in determining the properties of simple systems such as gases, liquids and solids, with a special focus on more complex colloidal, polymeric and biological systems. The book provides a thorough foundation in theories and concepts of intermolecular forces, allowing researchers and students to recognize which forces are important in any particular system, as well as how to control these forces. This third edition is expanded into three sections and contains five new chapters over the previous edition.· starts fr

  10. Forces in yeast flocculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2015-01-01

    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

  11. ``Force-free'' electrophoresis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yariv, Ehud

    2006-03-01

    When a colloidal particle is exposed to an externally applied electric field, it acquires an electrophoretic velocity, resulting from fluid slip occurring across the Debye screening layer. When the field is uniformly applied, it is usually assumed that the net neutrality of the combined particle-layer system implies that the net electric force acting on it must vanish. This assumption of "force-free" phoretic motion has been employed extensively to describe electrophoresis in both unbounded and bounded fluid domains [J. L. Anderson, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 21, 61 (1989)]. A careful inspection reveals here that this intuitive premise may fail when the fluid domain is bounded, in which case a nonzero electric force (resembling dielectrophoretic forces in nonuniformly applied fields) may actually exist. Such forces (represented via surface integrals of Maxwell stresses) result in particle motion above and beyond the one driven by the phoretic slip mechanism. A positive demonstration for the existence of a such a force is provided for a standard sphere-wall configuration, where the applied field acts parallel to the wall. In that scenario, particle motion consists of a (familiar) slip-driven contribution parallel to the wall, together with a superimposed force-driven drift away from the wall. An analogy with pressure forces occurring at incompressible and inviscid potential flows is presented.

  12. Quantum fictitious forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I; Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder

    2002-01-01

    We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii) ...

  13. Multidomain proteins under force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Orero, Jessica; Rivas-Pardo, Jaime Andrés; Popa, Ionel

    2017-04-28

    Advancements in single-molecule force spectroscopy techniques such as atomic force microscopy and magnetic tweezers allow investigation of how domain folding under force can play a physiological role. Combining these techniques with protein engineering and HaloTag covalent attachment, we investigate similarities and differences between four model proteins: I10 and I91-two immunoglobulin-like domains from the muscle protein titin, and two α + β fold proteins-ubiquitin and protein L. These proteins show a different mechanical response and have unique extensions under force. Remarkably, when normalized to their contour length, the size of the unfolding and refolding steps as a function of force reduces to a single master curve. This curve can be described using standard models of polymer elasticity, explaining the entropic nature of the measured steps. We further validate our measurements with a simple energy landscape model, which combines protein folding with polymer physics and accounts for the complex nature of tandem domains under force. This model can become a useful tool to help in deciphering the complexity of multidomain proteins operating under force.

  14. Multidomain proteins under force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Orero, Jessica; Andrés Rivas-Pardo, Jaime; Popa, Ionel

    2017-04-01

    Advancements in single-molecule force spectroscopy techniques such as atomic force microscopy and magnetic tweezers allow investigation of how domain folding under force can play a physiological role. Combining these techniques with protein engineering and HaloTag covalent attachment, we investigate similarities and differences between four model proteins: I10 and I91—two immunoglobulin-like domains from the muscle protein titin, and two α + β fold proteins—ubiquitin and protein L. These proteins show a different mechanical response and have unique extensions under force. Remarkably, when normalized to their contour length, the size of the unfolding and refolding steps as a function of force reduces to a single master curve. This curve can be described using standard models of polymer elasticity, explaining the entropic nature of the measured steps. We further validate our measurements with a simple energy landscape model, which combines protein folding with polymer physics and accounts for the complex nature of tandem domains under force. This model can become a useful tool to help in deciphering the complexity of multidomain proteins operating under force.

  15. OOTW Force Design Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  16. Forced magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekstein, G.

    2017-10-01

    This is a tutorial-style selective review explaining basic concepts of forced magnetic reconnection. It is based on a celebrated model of forced reconnection suggested by J. B. Taylor. The standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory of this process has been pioneered by Hahm & Kulsrud (Phys. Fluids, vol. 28, 1985, p. 2412). Here we also discuss several more recent developments related to this problem. These include energetics of forced reconnection, its Hall-mediated regime, and nonlinear effects with the associated onset of the secondary tearing (plasmoid) instability.

  17. Hanscom Air Force Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MIT Lincoln Laboratory occupies 75 acres (20 acres of which are MIT property) on the eastern perimeter of Hanscom Air Force Base, which is at the nexus of Lexington,...

  18. Bow Crushing Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of these notes is to present a basis for the estimation of the internal collision forces between conventinal merchant vessels and large volume offshore structures in the form of gravity-supported offshore installations and bridges crossing international shipping routes.The main emphasis...... is on the presentation of impact loads on fixed offshore structures due to bow collisions. The crushing forces are determined as functions of vessels size, vessels speed, bow profile, collision angles and eccentric impacts....

  19. The amazing normal forces

    OpenAIRE

    Petrache, Horia I.

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript is written for students in introductory physics classes to address some of the common difficulties and misconceptions of the normal force, especially the relationship between normal and friction forces. Accordingly, it is intentionally informal and conversational in tone to teach students how to build an intuition to complement mathematical formalism. This is accomplished by beginning with common and everyday experience and then guiding students toward two realizations: (i) Th...

  20. Air Force Leadership Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    general officer statistics bear out that the group is 94% white and only 7% female as opposed to the overall Air Force population that is 72% white and 20...programmed, over time, to think about skin color and gender. The Air Force is trying to change this programming by adding other words to describe...Officer Corps, those officers in the ranks of O-7 through O-10 indicates that cohort of officers is 94% white and only 7% female. Since officer

  1. A simple force platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde-Petersen, F

    1975-01-01

    The force platform consists of a sandwhich of steel, Rockwool and concrete plates about 900 X 700 mm in surface. Four steel rings were bolted to the under side of the steel plate in each corner. Each steel ring was furnished with only one strain gauge, two of which were placed on the outer- respectively on the inner side of each ring. The four strain gauges were connected to a measuring bridge. Before mounting the rings on the steel plate, the sensitivity to pressure of each ring was adjusted in such a way that they were all similar. Because of this the platform responded with a signal which was independent of where a pressure was applied within the surface of the platform. The platform showed a rectilinear response for static forces up to 500 kp with a stable zero value. In response to dynamic forces the platform showed a resononance frequency of about 50 Hz, with a damping factor of 0.15. Calibration of dynamic forces was carried out by calculation of the forces during a vertical jump compared with what would be expected from the time of flight also registered by the platform-measuring-bridge-ink-writer-set-up. The time of flight was significantly higher (11%) than exected from the time-force relations beforetake-off. This was esplained partly by the relatively low damping factor in the system, partly by the subjects not extending their knees at landing on the platform.

  2. Confusion around the tidal force and the centrifugal force

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuda, Takuya; Boffin, Henri M J

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the tidal force, whose notion is sometimes misunderstood in the public domain literature. We discuss the tidal force exerted by a secondary point mass on an extended primary body such as the Earth. The tidal force arises because the gravitational force exerted on the extended body by the secondary mass is not uniform across the primary. In the derivation of the tidal force, the non-uniformity of the gravity is essential, and inertial forces such as the centrifugal force are not needed. Nevertheless, it is often asserted that the tidal force can be explained by the centrifugal force. If we literally take into account the centrifugal force, it would mislead us. We therefore also discuss the proper treatment of the centrifugal force.

  3. Measurement of the $W\\to l\

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B.S.; Ackers, M.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Aleppo, M.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, J.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M-L.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arms, K.E.; Armstrong, S.R.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baker, S; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, M.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bates, R.L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Belhorma, B.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, G.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G.P.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Binder, M.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bischof, R.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Boaretto, C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bobrovnikov, V.B.; Bocci, A.; Bocian, D.; Bock, R.; Boddy, C.R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Boser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C.N.; Booth, P.; Booth, J.R.A.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; 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Sakamoto, H.; Sala, P.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B.M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B.H.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H.G.; Sanders, M.P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandhu, P.; Sandoval, T.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sanny, B.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sartisohn, G.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Savard, P.; Savine, A.Y.; Savinov, V.; Savva, P.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D.H.; Says, L.P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scallon, O.; Scannicchio, D.A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schafer, U.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A.C.; Schaile, D.; Schaller, M.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schamov, A.G.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V.A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M.I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J.L.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, M.P.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitz, M.; Scholte, R.C.; Schoning, A.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schreiner, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schroers, M.; Schroff, D.; Schuh, S.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schumacher, J.W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B.A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schweiger, D.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W.G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S.C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J.M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D.M.; Sellden, B.; Sellers, G.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M.E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L.Y.; Shank, J.T.; Shao, Q.T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P.B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, C.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shield, P.; Shimizu, S.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M.J.; Shupe, M.A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S.B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N.B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.; Sjolin, J.; Sjursen, T.B.; Skinnari, L.A.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloan, T.J.; Sloper, J.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S.Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L.N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B.C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K.M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A.A.; Snow, S.W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C.A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A.A.; Solovyanov, O.V.; Soluk, R.; Sondericker, J.; Soni, N.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sorbi, M.; Sosebee, M.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Spencer, E.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiriti, E.; Spiwoks, R.; Spogli, L.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R.D.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S.N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R.W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E.A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stastny, J.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steele, G.; Stefanidis, E.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H.J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G.A.; Stiller, W.; Stockmanns, T.; Stockton, M.C.; Stodulski, M.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strang, M.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Strohmer, R.; Strom, D.M.; Strong, J.A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Stupak, J.; Sturm, P.; Soh, D.A.; Su, D.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suita, K.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V.V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.H.; Sundermann, J.E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M.R.; Suzuki, Y.; Sviridov, Yu.M.; Swedish, S.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szczygiel, R.R.; Szeless, B.; Szymocha, T.; Sanchez, J.; Ta, D.; Taboada Gameiro, S.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M.C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tani, K.; Tappern, G.P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F.E.; Taylor, G.; Taylor, G.N.; Taylor, R.P.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K.K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P.K.; Tennenbaum-Katan, Y.D.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R.J.; Tevlin, C.M.; Thadome, J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Thompson, E.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, R.J.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R.P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Tikhonov, Y.A.; Timmermans, C.J.W.P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F.J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokar, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, D.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tonazzo, A.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N.D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torro Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D.R.; Traynor, D.; Trefzger, T.; Treis, J.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T.N.; Tripiana, M.F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocme, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J.C-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P.V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E.G.; Tsukerman, I.I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuggle, J.M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P.M.; Twomey, M.S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Typaldos, D.; Tyrvainen, H.; Tzamarioudaki, E.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D.G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valderanis, C.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J.A.; Van Berg, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; Van Eijk, B.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J.J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Ventura, S.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vertogardov, L.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villani, E.G.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Virchaux, M.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A.P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vovenko, A.S.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.C.; Wang, S.M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Webel, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S.J.; Whitaker, S.P.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S.R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H.G.; Will, J.Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B.M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Xu, N.; Yabsley, B.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, S.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, W-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, H.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V.G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo.K.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zdrazil, M.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P.F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, A.V.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zilka, B.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V.V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    First measurements of the W -> lnu and Z/gamma* -> ll (l = e, mu) production cross sections in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV are presented using data recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The results are based on 2250 W -> lnu and 179 Z/gamma* -> ll candidate events selected from a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 320 nb-1. The measured total W and Z/gamma*-boson production cross sections times the respective leptonic branching ratios for the combined electron and muon channels are $\\stotW$ * BR(W -> lnu) = 9.96 +- 0.23(stat) +- 0.50(syst) +- 1.10(lumi) nb and $\\stotZg$ * BR(Z/gamma* -> ll) = 0.82 +- 0.06(stat) +- 0.05(syst) +- 0.09(lumi) nb (within the invariant mass window 66 < m_ll < 116 GeV). The W/Z cross-section ratio is measured to be 11.7 +- 0.9(stat) +- 0.4(syst). In addition, measurements of the W+ and W- production cross sections and of the lepton charge asymmetry are reported. Theoretical predictions based on NNLO QCD calculations are f...

  4. TRIPs Agreement, Important Multilateral WTO Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Maria Florescu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting the content and the frame of the TRIPs. Agreement. It starts by introducing the reader to the terms that defined the world economical climate by the time of the Agreement negociation. Also, it explains the need of having an Agreement on intellectual property rights with impact on the business world. Moreover, the article reviews the main provisions of the Agreement and the most important intellectual property rights.

  5. 121 | Page WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION (WTO): TRADE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    human rights and fundamental freedoms can be fully realized. ..... to copy technologies developed in economically advanced countries ... will be accepted for reasons of international standards such as safety and packaging which for.

  6. The WTO, agriculture and sustainable development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wohlmeyer, Heinrich; Quendler, Theodore

    2002-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 The development of foreign trade policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Basic assumptions and their validity...

  7. Radiative forcing by contrails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Meerkötter

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A parametric study of the instantaneous radiative impact of contrails is presented using three different radiative transfer models for a series of model atmospheres and cloud parameters. Contrails are treated as geometrically and optically thin plane parallel homogeneous cirrus layers in a static atmosphere. The ice water content is varied as a function of ambient temperature. The model atmospheres include tropical, mid-latitude, and subarctic summer and winter atmospheres. Optically thin contrails cause a positive net forcing at top of the atmosphere. At the surface the radiative forcing is negative during daytime. The forcing increases with the optical depth and the amount of contrail cover. At the top of the atmosphere, a mean contrail cover of 0.1% with average optical depth of 0.2 to 0.5 causes about 0.01 to 0.03 Wm-2 daily mean instantaneous radiative forcing. Contrails cool the surface during the day and heat the surface during the night, and hence reduce the daily temperature amplitude. The net effect depends strongly on the daily variation of contrail cloud cover. The indirect radiative forcing due to particle changes in natural cirrus clouds may be of the same magnitude as the direct one due to additional cover.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology · radiative processes

  8. Radiative forcing by contrails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Meerkötter

    Full Text Available A parametric study of the instantaneous radiative impact of contrails is presented using three different radiative transfer models for a series of model atmospheres and cloud parameters. Contrails are treated as geometrically and optically thin plane parallel homogeneous cirrus layers in a static atmosphere. The ice water content is varied as a function of ambient temperature. The model atmospheres include tropical, mid-latitude, and subarctic summer and winter atmospheres. Optically thin contrails cause a positive net forcing at top of the atmosphere. At the surface the radiative forcing is negative during daytime. The forcing increases with the optical depth and the amount of contrail cover. At the top of the atmosphere, a mean contrail cover of 0.1% with average optical depth of 0.2 to 0.5 causes about 0.01 to 0.03 Wm-2 daily mean instantaneous radiative forcing. Contrails cool the surface during the day and heat the surface during the night, and hence reduce the daily temperature amplitude. The net effect depends strongly on the daily variation of contrail cloud cover. The indirect radiative forcing due to particle changes in natural cirrus clouds may be of the same magnitude as the direct one due to additional cover.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology · radiative processes

  9. Radiative forcing by contrails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerkoetter, R.; Schumann, U. [DLR Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Phys. der Atmosphaere; Doelling, D.R.; Minnis, P. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center; Nakajima, T.; Tsushima, Y. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Center for Climate System Research

    1999-08-01

    A parametric study of the instantaneous radiative impact of contrails is presented using three different radiative transfer models for a series of model atmospheres and cloud parameters. Contrails are treated as geometrically and optically thin plane parallel homogeneous cirrus layers in a static atmosphere. The ice water content is varied as a function of ambient temperature. The model atmospheres include tropical, midlatitude, and subarctic summer and winter atmospheres. Optically thin contrails cause a positive net forcing at top of the atmosphere. At the surface the radiative forcing is negative during daytime. The forcing increases with the optical depth and the amount of contrail cover. At the top of the atmosphere, a mean contrail cover of 0.1% with average optical depth of 0.2 to 0.5 causes about 0.01 to 0.03 Wm{sup -2} daily mean instantaneous radiative forcing. Contrails cool the surface during the day and heat the surface during the night, and hence reduce the daily temperature amplitude. The net effect depends strongly on the daily variation of contrail cloud cover. The indirect radiative forcing due to particle changes in natural cirrus clouds may be of the same magnitude as the direct one due to additional cover. (orig.) 78 refs.

  10. Radiative Forcing of Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Boucher, Olivier; Haigh, J.; Hauglustaine, D.; Haywood, J.; Myhre, G.; Nakajima, Takahito; Shi, Guangyu; Solomon, S.; Betts, Robert E.; Charlson, R.; Chuang, C. C.; Daniel, J. S.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Feichter, J.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Forster, P. M.; Ghan, Steven J.; Jones, A.; Kiehl, J. T.; Koch, D.; Land, C.; Lean, J.; Lohmann, Ulrike; Minschwaner, K.; Penner, Joyce E.; Roberts, D. L.; Rodhe, H.; Roelofs, G.-J.; Rotstayn, Leon D.; Schneider, T. L.; Schumann, U.; Schwartz, Stephen E.; Schwartzkopf, M. D.; Shine, K. P.; Smith, Steven J.; Stevenson, D. S.; Stordal, F.; Tegen, I.; van Dorland, R.; Zhang, Y.; Srinivasan, J.; Joos, Fortunat

    2001-10-01

    Chapter 6 of the IPCC Third Assessment Report Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Sections include: Executive Summary 6.1 Radiative Forcing 6.2 Forcing-Response Relationship 6.3 Well-Mixed Greenhouse Gases 6.4 Stratospheric Ozone 6.5 Radiative Forcing By Tropospheric Ozone 6.6 Indirect Forcings due to Chemistry 6.7 The Direct Radiative Forcing of Tropospheric Aerosols 6.8 The Indirect Radiative Forcing of Tropospheric Aerosols 6.9 Stratospheric Aerosols 6.10 Land-use Change (Surface Albedo Effect) 6.11 Solar Forcing of Climate 6.12 Global Warming Potentials hydrocarbons 6.13 Global Mean Radiative Forcings 6.14 The Geographical Distribution of the Radiative Forcings 6.15 Time Evolution of Radiative Forcings Appendix 6.1 Elements of Radiative Forcing Concept References.

  11. ForcePAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemann, J.; Damkilde, Lars

    2009-01-01

    ForcePAD is a 2-dimensional finite element application that started as a concept application for finite element modeling. Over the course of 10 years the application has been evolved into an application that is used extensively in both an educational setting as well as a tool for design and engin......ForcePAD is a 2-dimensional finite element application that started as a concept application for finite element modeling. Over the course of 10 years the application has been evolved into an application that is used extensively in both an educational setting as well as a tool for design...... and engineering. In the latest version of ForcePAD an optimization module was added to enable to take advantage of topology optimization in the design process....

  12. Rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Aagaard, Per; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of rate of force development during rapid contractions has recently become quite popular for characterising explosive strength of athletes, elderly individuals and patients. The main aims of this narrative review are to describe the neuromuscular determinants of rate of force...... development and to discuss various methodological considerations inherent to its evaluation for research and clinical purposes. Rate of force development (1) seems to be mainly determined by the capacity to produce maximal voluntary activation in the early phase of an explosive contraction (first 50-75 ms......), particularly as a result of increased motor unit discharge rate; (2) can be improved by both explosive-type and heavy-resistance strength training in different subject populations, mainly through an improvement in rapid muscle activation; (3) is quite difficult to evaluate in a valid and reliable way...

  13. Forces in strategy formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Elmer Fly; Sanchez, Ron

    2008-01-01

    literature. Based on an extensive review of relevant theory and empirical work in strategic decision-making, organizational change theory, cognitive and social psychology, and strategy processes, seven kinds of ''forces'' - rational, imposed, teleological, learning, political, heuristic, and social......This chapter proposes that organizational strategy formation should be characterized theoretically as a process that is subject to several interacting forces, rather than represented by separate discrete decisionmodels or theoretic perspectives, as is commonly done in the strategic management...... - are identified as interacting in and having significant influence on the strategy formation process. It is further argued that by applying a holistic ''forces-view'' of the significant and interacting influences on strategy formation, we can better understand the dynamics and challenges in managing the process...

  14. Electrochemical force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen; Collins, Liam F.; Rodriguez, Brian J.

    2017-01-10

    A system and method for electrochemical force microscopy are provided. The system and method are based on a multidimensional detection scheme that is sensitive to forces experienced by a biased electrode in a solution. The multidimensional approach allows separation of fast processes, such as double layer charging, and charge relaxation, and slow processes, such as diffusion and faradaic reactions, as well as capturing the bias dependence of the response. The time-resolved and bias measurements can also allow probing both linear (small bias range) and non-linear (large bias range) electrochemical regimes and potentially the de-convolution of charge dynamics and diffusion processes from steric effects and electrochemical reactivity.

  15. Rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Aagaard, Per; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    ), particularly as a result of increased motor unit discharge rate; (2) can be improved by both explosive-type and heavy-resistance strength training in different subject populations, mainly through an improvement in rapid muscle activation; (3) is quite difficult to evaluate in a valid and reliable way......The evaluation of rate of force development during rapid contractions has recently become quite popular for characterising explosive strength of athletes, elderly individuals and patients. The main aims of this narrative review are to describe the neuromuscular determinants of rate of force...

  16. Air Force Security Forces Professionalism: Useful Insights for Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Air Force Security Forces Professionalism· tns19hts for Leaders Secrest Justin D .. Major, USAF USMC Command and Staff...corporateness characteristics as theorized by Samuel P. Huntingon, yields helpful insights for current and future-generation leaders . Huntington theorizes...theory, this analysis examines professoonalism in Air Force Security Forces. Security Forces expertise developed as career field leaders constantly

  17. Activation force splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Erleben, Kenny

    We present a method for simulating the active contraction of deformable models, usable for interactive animation of soft deformable objects. We present a novel physical principle as the governing equation for the coupling between the low dimensional 1D activation force model and the higher...

  18. Muscle contraction and force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Risbo, Jens; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction studies often focus solely on myofibres and the proteins known to be involved in the processes of sarcomere shortening and cross-bridge cycling, but skeletal muscle also comprises a very elaborate ancillary network of capillaries, which not only play a vital role in terms of nu...... contributor to force transfer within muscular tissue....

  19. Forced Displacement and Refugee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rutinwa: Forced Displacement and Refugee Rights in the Great Lakes 1 3 with the new problems associated with refugees, such as those outlined above. An effective system for refugee protection must be holistic and address the refugee problem at the levels of pre- vention, response and solution. At the level of prevention, ...

  20. The Dynamic Force Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, John B.; Black, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    We examine an experimental apparatus that is used to motivate the connections between the basic properties of vectors, potential functions, systems of nonlinear equations, and Newton's method for nonlinear systems of equations. The apparatus is an adaptation of a force table where we remove the center-pin and allow the center-ring to move freely.…

  1. Wearing Forces Spectacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Graham

    2012-01-01

    When providing training to teachers struggling with the concept of forces, the author encourages them to start with something within the experience of the children they are teaching. For example, show them photographs taken on windy days, such as that of a tree, and ask them to explain what is happening. This encourages the children to focus on…

  2. Perpendicular-Force Latch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, John P.; Buck, Peter A.; Williams, Michael D.

    1990-01-01

    Latching mechanism simultaneously applies force in two perpendicular directions to install or remove electronic-equipment modules. Used to simplify installation and removal of modular equipment where movement restricted by protective clothing as in hazardous environments or where installation and removal to be performed by robots or remote manipulators. Concept adaptable to hydraulic, pneumatic, and mechanical systems.

  3. Atomic Force Microscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Atomic Force Microscopy - A Tool to Unveil the Mystery of Biological Systems ... Transcription and Disease Laboratory, Molecular Biology and Genetics Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore 560 ...

  4. Magnetic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abelmann, Leon

    Principle of MFM In magnetic force microscopy (MFM), the magnetic stray field above a very flat specimen, or sample, is detected by placing a small magnetic element, the tip, mounted on a cantilever spring very close to the surface of the sample (Figure 1). Typical dimensions are a cantilever length

  5. Biodegradable Piezoelectric Force Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Eli J; Ke, Kai; Chorsi, Meysam T; Wrobel, Kinga S; Miller, Albert N; Patel, Avi; Kim, Insoo; Feng, Jianlin; Yue, Lixia; Wu, Qian; Kuo, Chia-Ling; Lo, Kevin W-H; Laurencin, Cato T; Ilies, Horea; Purohit, Prashant K; Nguyen, Thanh D

    2018-01-30

    Measuring vital physiological pressures is important for monitoring health status, preventing the buildup of dangerous internal forces in impaired organs, and enabling novel approaches of using mechanical stimulation for tissue regeneration. Pressure sensors are often required to be implanted and directly integrated with native soft biological systems. Therefore, the devices should be flexible and at the same time biodegradable to avoid invasive removal surgery that can damage directly interfaced tissues. Despite recent achievements in degradable electronic devices, there is still a tremendous need to develop a force sensor which only relies on safe medical materials and requires no complex fabrication process to provide accurate information on important biophysiological forces. Here, we present a strategy for material processing, electromechanical analysis, device fabrication, and assessment of a piezoelectric Poly-l-lactide (PLLA) polymer to create a biodegradable, biocompatible piezoelectric force sensor, which only employs medical materials used commonly in Food and Drug Administration-approved implants, for the monitoring of biological forces. We show the sensor can precisely measure pressures in a wide range of 0-18 kPa and sustain a reliable performance for a period of 4 d in an aqueous environment. We also demonstrate this PLLA piezoelectric sensor can be implanted inside the abdominal cavity of a mouse to monitor the pressure of diaphragmatic contraction. This piezoelectric sensor offers an appealing alternative to present biodegradable electronic devices for the monitoring of intraorgan pressures. The sensor can be integrated with tissues and organs, forming self-sensing bionic systems to enable many exciting applications in regenerative medicine, drug delivery, and medical devices.

  6. Principles and applications of force spectroscopy using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Kyu; Kim, Woong; Park, Joon Won [Dept. of Chemistry, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy is a powerful technique for addressing single molecules. Unseen structures and dynamics of molecules have been elucidated using force spectroscopy. Atomic force microscope (AFM)-based force spectroscopy studies have provided picoNewton force resolution, subnanometer spatial resolution, stiffness of substrates, elasticity of polymers, and thermodynamics and kinetics of single-molecular interactions. In addition, AFM has enabled mapping the distribution of individual molecules in situ, and the quantification of single molecules has been made possible without modification or labeling. In this review, we describe the basic principles, sample preparation, data analysis, and applications of AFM-based force spectroscopy and its future.

  7. Force Modulator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond Clark

    2009-04-30

    Many metal parts manufacturers use large metal presses to shape sheet metal into finished products like car body parts, jet wing and fuselage surfaces, etc. These metal presses take sheet metal and - with enormous force - reshape the metal into a fully formed part in a manner of seconds. Although highly efficient, the forces involved in forming metal parts also damage the press itself, limit the metals used in part production, slow press operations and, when not properly controlled, cause the manufacture of large volumes of defective metal parts. To date, the metal-forming industry has not been able to develop a metal-holding technology that allows full control of press forces during the part forming process. This is of particular importance in the automotive lightweighting efforts under way in the US automotive manufacturing marketplace. Metalforming Controls Technology Inc. (MC2) has developed a patented press control system called the Force Modulator that has the ability to control these press forces, allowing a breakthrough in stamping process control. The technology includes a series of hydraulic cylinders that provide controlled tonnage at all points in the forming process. At the same time, the unique cylinder design allows for the generation of very high levels of clamping forces (very high tonnages) in very small spaces; a requirement for forming medium and large panels out of HSS and AHSS. Successful production application of these systems testing at multiple stamping operations - including Ford and Chrysler - has validated the capabilities and economic benefits of the system. Although this technology has been adopted in a number of stamping operations, one of the primary barriers to faster adoption and application of this technology in HSS projects is system cost. The cost issue has surfaced because the systems currently in use are built for each individual die as a custom application, thus driving higher tooling costs. This project proposed to better

  8. Force Feedback Joystick

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    I-FORCE, a computer peripheral from Immersion Corporation, was derived from virtual environment and human factors research at the Advanced Displays and Spatial Perception Laboratory at Ames Research Center in collaboration with Stanford University Center for Design Research. Entrepreneur Louis Rosenberg, a former Stanford researcher, now president of Immersion, collaborated with Dr. Bernard Adelstein at Ames on studies of perception in virtual reality. The result was an inexpensive way to incorporate motors and a sophisticated microprocessor into joysticks and other game controllers. These devices can emulate the feel of a car on the skid, a crashing plane, the bounce of a ball, compressed springs, or other physical phenomenon. The first products incorporating I-FORCE technology include CH- Products' line of FlightStick and CombatStick controllers.

  9. Suicide and forced marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Walter, Garry

    2013-03-01

    The prevailing view that the vast majority of those who complete suicide have an underlying psychiatric disorder has been recently challenged by research on the contribution of "predicaments", in the absence of mental illness, to suicide. In this paper, we sought data to support the notion that forced marriage may lead to suicide without the presence of psychiatric disorder. Historical records, newspapers, and the electronic media were searched for examples. Two examples from ancient times and six from the last hundred years were located and described. These cases suggest that forced marriage may lead to suicide and complements earlier findings that loss of fortune, health, liberty, and reputation may lead to suicide in the absence of mental disorder.

  10. Air Force Smart Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-19

    bases and missions toward an enterprise solution for incorporating smart technologies in the future (defined in the Information Environment Mission... technology might enrich and protect our nation, businesses, and lives. As a human-centric design center, we seek out unique ways to connect Air Force...warfighters with current and future technology in meaningful ways. We look to transfer, license, and share promising prototypes, solutions, and knowledge

  11. Is Gravity Entropic Force?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjia Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available If we assume that the source of thermodynamic system, ρ and p, are also the source of gravity, then either thermal quantities, such as entropy, temperature, and chemical potential, can induce gravitational effects, or gravity can induce thermal effects. We find that gravity can be seen as entropic force only for systems with constant temperature and zero chemical potential. The case for Newtonian approximation is discussed.

  12. Health of the Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    for disease preven- tion which can also reduce the transmission of other sexually transmitted infec- tions (STIs). However, rates are considered con...65 HEALTH OF THE FORCE Chlamydia Sexually transmitted infections such as chla- mydia can impact medical readiness and Soldier well-being. Most...particularly among women , who may experience pelvic inflammatory disease , ec- topic pregnancy, and infertility. Therefore, it is rec- ommended that

  13. ``Force,'' ontology, and language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2009-06-01

    We introduce a linguistic framework through which one can interpret systematically students’ understanding of and reasoning about force and motion. Some researchers have suggested that students have robust misconceptions or alternative frameworks grounded in everyday experience. Others have pointed out the inconsistency of students’ responses and presented a phenomenological explanation for what is observed, namely, knowledge in pieces. We wish to present a view that builds on and unifies aspects of this prior research. Our argument is that many students’ difficulties with force and motion are primarily due to a combination of linguistic and ontological difficulties. It is possible that students are primarily engaged in trying to define and categorize the meaning of the term “force” as spoken about by physicists. We found that this process of negotiation of meaning is remarkably similar to that engaged in by physicists in history. In this paper we will describe a study of the historical record that reveals an analogous process of meaning negotiation, spanning multiple centuries. Using methods from cognitive linguistics and systemic functional grammar, we will present an analysis of the force and motion literature, focusing on prior studies with interview data. We will then discuss the implications of our findings for physics instruction.

  14. Gap Task Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Lissuaer, D

    One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...

  15. Force transmission in epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Claudia G; Martin, Adam C

    2016-03-01

    In epithelial tissues, cells constantly generate and transmit forces between each other. Forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton regulate tissue shape and structure and also provide signals that influence cells' decisions to divide, die, or differentiate. Forces are transmitted across epithelia because cells are mechanically linked through junctional complexes, and forces can propagate through the cell cytoplasm. Here, we review some of the molecular mechanisms responsible for force generation, with a specific focus on the actomyosin cortex and adherens junctions. We then discuss evidence for how these mechanisms promote cell shape changes and force transmission in tissues. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Optimizing Global Force Management for Special Operations Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    FORCE MANAGEMENT FOR SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES by Emily A. LaCaille December 2016 Thesis Advisor: Paul L. Ewing Second Reader: Jeffrey...Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget...DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPTIMIZING GLOBAL FORCE MANAGEMENT FOR SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6

  17. Identity of Innovative Multifunctional Material Manufacturing Business in Latvia / Inovatīvu Daudzfunkcionālo Materiālu Ražotāju Identitāte Latvijā

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geipele, I.; Staube, T.; Ciemleja, G.; Zeltins, N.; Ekmanis, Yu.

    2015-08-01

    The publication comprises the results from the practical scientific investigation to define the profile and distinctions of the Latvian innovative multifunctional material manufacturing industry. The research is carried out by a holistic approach, including expert interviews, qualitative analysis of the official register data, practical survey, and financial data analysis. The paper seeks to give the detailed data on a technological profile of the mentioned representative companies, if there is a synergy or tough competition in the Latvian market. The current research is topical, because it is unique and does not have analogues in Latvia, and the research is timely due to correspondence with recently stated Research and Innovation Strategies for Smart Specialisation in Latvia. The main findings are associated with recognition of the factors that make impact on commercialisation of the finished goods, obtained financial results and planned directions of development of the respondent companies. Publikācija sniedz veiktā zinātniski praktiskā pētījuma rezultātus, kura ietvaros tika noteikts Latvijas inovatīvu daudzfunkcionālo materiālu ražotāju darbības profils un identitāte. Pētījumā tika izmantota kompleksās analīzes metode, kas ietvēra ekspertu intervijas, uzņēmumu oficiāli reģistrēto datu kvalitatīvo analīzi, zinātniski praktisko aptauju, kā arī pētāmo uzņēmumu finanšu darbības rezultātu analīzi. Zinātniskais darbs sniedz izsmeļošu informāciju par mērķa uzņēmumu tehnoloģisko profilu un pēta, vai Latvijas mērķa ražošanas nozarē ir sinerģijas vai sīvās konkurences pazīmes. Šim zinātniskajam pētījumam ir noteikta aktualitāte saskaņā ar tā unikalitāti Latvijas valsts mērogā un atbilstība Viedās specializācijas stratēģijai. Pētījuma galvenie secinājumi ir saistīti ar uzņēmumu produkcijas komercializācijas ietekmējošo faktoru apzināšanu, sasniegtajiem finansiālajiem rezultātiem un pl

  18. Special Operations Forces and Conventional Forces: Integration, Interoperability, and Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-07

    in enemy territory, working with indige - nous forces, and performing deep reconnais- sance, strikes, and raids. The 1993 version of the manual still...designated combat zones, like training and advising indig - enous security forces, and operating differently SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES AND CONVENTIONAL

  19. Force modulation for improved conductive-mode atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, W.W.; Sebastian, Abu; Despont, Michel; Pozidis, Haris

    We present an improved conductive-mode atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) method by modulating the applied loading force on the tip. Unreliable electrical contact and tip wear are the primary challenges for electrical characterization at the nanometer scale. The experiments show that force modulation

  20. Force tracing: a method to sculpt the optical force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Alireza; Caloz, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    A brief description of the long-standing problem of the optical momentum in media and its resolution is given. The method of force tracing to trace optical force fields along the trajectories of light rays is reviewed and a few illustrative examples are shown. Then, based on the method of force tracing, several graded-index devices performing interesting optical manipulations are reviewed.

  1. Force Dynamics of Verb Complementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Woźny

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Force Dynamics of Verb Complementation The concepts of motion and force are both extensively discussed in cognitive linguistics literature. But they are discussed separately. The first usually in the context of ‘motion situations’ (Talmy, Slobin, Zlatev, the other as part of the Force Dynamics framework, which was developed by Talmy. The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to argue that the concepts of force and motion should not be isolated but considered as two inseparable parts of force-motion events. The second goal is to prove that the modified Force Dynamics (force-motion framework can be used for precise characterization of the verb complementation patterns. To this end, a random sample of 50 sentences containing the verb ‘went’ is analyzed, demonstrating the differences between the categories of intensive and intransitive complementation with respect to the linguistically coded parameters of force and motion.

  2. Grasping 2010 with Naval Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnett, Roger

    1998-01-01

    This article focuses on how naval combat forces should be employed in 2010. Narrowing that focus presumes the Nation will want to maintain capable forces to underwrite its security and that of its allies and friends around the globe...

  3. Modernization of African Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa.......Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa....

  4. The law of electromagnetic force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J. Kutkovetskyy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Calculation peculiarities for Lorentz force, Ampere force, interaction of parallel electric currents, and the moment of electrical machines are analyzed. They have exceptions on application, and they are the rules which result from the law of electromagnetic force as coordinate derivative of the operating magnetic flow. An addition to the direction of electromagnetic force action is proposed. Standards of salient-pole electrical machine designing are considered.

  5. Why is the magnetic force similar to a Coriolis force?

    OpenAIRE

    Royer, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    It is pointed out that the underlying reason why the magnetic force is similar to a Coriolis force is that it is caused by Thomas rotations, induced by successions of non-collinear Lorentz boosts. The magnetic force may even be viewed as a kind of Coriolis force (making perhaps more acceptable the apparent non-existence of magnetic monopoles). We also show that under a change of inertial frames, Faraday lines of force Lorentz contract as if 'etched' in space, while 'Coriolis' terms get added on.

  6. Atomic Force Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  7. Causal Entropic Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissner-Gross, A. D.; Freer, C. E.

    2013-04-01

    Recent advances in fields ranging from cosmology to computer science have hinted at a possible deep connection between intelligence and entropy maximization, but no formal physical relationship between them has yet been established. Here, we explicitly propose a first step toward such a relationship in the form of a causal generalization of entropic forces that we find can cause two defining behaviors of the human “cognitive niche”—tool use and social cooperation—to spontaneously emerge in simple physical systems. Our results suggest a potentially general thermodynamic model of adaptive behavior as a nonequilibrium process in open systems.

  8. Small amplitude atomic force spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, Sissi; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Ebeling, Daniel; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Bhushan, Bharat

    2011-01-01

    Over the years atomic force microscopy has developed from a pure imaging technique to a tool that can be employed for measuring quantitative tip–sample interaction forces. In this chapter we provide an overview of various techniques to extract quantitative tip–sample forces focusing on both

  9. Force and motion

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Intimidated by inertia? Frightened by forces? Mystified by Newton s law of motion? You re not alone and help is at hand. The stop Faking It! Series is perfect for science teachers, home-schoolers, parents wanting to help with homework all of you who need a jargon-free way to learn the background for teaching middle school physical science with confidence. With Bill Roberton as your friendly, able but somewhat irreverent guide, you will discover you CAN come to grips with the basics of force and motion. Combining easy-to-understand explanations with activities using commonly found equipment, this book will lead you through Newton s laws to the physics of space travel. The book is as entertaining as it is informative. Best of all, the author understands the needs of adults who want concrete examples, hands-on activities, clear language, diagrams and yes, a certain amount of empathy. Ideas For Use Newton's laws, and all of the other motion principles presented in this book, do a good job of helping us to underst...

  10. Magnetic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeri, Daniele; Dong, Chunhua; Reggente, Melania; Angeloni, Livia; Barteri, Mario; Scaramuzzo, Francesca A; De Angelis, Francesca; Marinelli, Fiorenzo; Antonelli, Flavia; Rinaldi, Federica; Marianecci, Carlotta; Carafa, Maria; Sorbo, Angela; Sordi, Daniela; Arends, Isabel WCE; Rossi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is an atomic force microscopy (AFM) based technique in which an AFM tip with a magnetic coating is used to probe local magnetic fields with the typical AFM spatial resolution, thus allowing one to acquire images reflecting the local magnetic properties of the samples at the nanoscale. Being a well established tool for the characterization of magnetic recording media, superconductors and magnetic nanomaterials, MFM is finding constantly increasing application in the study of magnetic properties of materials and systems of biological and biomedical interest. After reviewing these latter applications, three case studies are presented in which MFM is used to characterize: (i) magnetoferritin synthesized using apoferritin as molecular reactor; (ii) magnetic nanoparticles loaded niosomes to be used as nanocarriers for drug delivery; (iii) leukemic cells labeled using folic acid-coated core-shell superparamagnetic nanoparticles in order to exploit the presence of folate receptors on the cell membrane surface. In these examples, MFM data are quantitatively analyzed evidencing the limits of the simple analytical models currently used. Provided that suitable models are used to simulate the MFM response, MFM can be used to evaluate the magnetic momentum of the core of magnetoferritin, the iron entrapment efficiency in single vesicles, or the uptake of magnetic nanoparticles into cells. PMID:25050758

  11. Force-gradient sensitive Kelvin probe force microscopy by dissipative electrostatic force modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Miyahara, Yoichi; Grutter, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We report a Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) implementation using the dissipation signal of a frequency modulation atomic force microscopy that is capable of detecting the gradient of electrostatic force rather than electrostatic force. It features a simple implementation and faster scanning as it requires no low frequency modulation. We show that applying a coherent ac voltage with two times the cantilever oscillation frequency induces the dissipation signal proportional to the electrost...

  12. Short-range fundamental forces

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, I; Buchner, M; Fedorov, V V; Hoedl, S; Lambrecht, A; Nesvizhevsky, V V; Pignol, G; Protasov, K V; Reynaud, S; Sobolev, Yu

    2011-01-01

    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces, 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Differe nt experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experim ents. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments.

  13. Equivalent linearization of nonlinear forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Guang; Xue, Zhongqing

    1987-07-01

    A method used for equivalent linearization of the two orthogonal squeeze-film forces is extended here to the general case of n degrees of freedom and n components of nonlinear forces, and the expressions for equivalent linear coefficients are derived. Nonlinear forces can be linearized by the methods of Fourier expansion, active and reactive powers, or mean-square error. The n components of nonlinear forces can all be expressed formally as the sum of an average force, a linear spring force, and a linear damping force. This paper also gives a flow chart for calculating the steady-state responses of a nonlinear system with many degrees of freedom, using the method of equivalent linearization. The resulting saving in computation time is demonstrated by a numerical example of a flexible rotor-bearing system with a noncentralized squeeze-film damper.

  14. Flow mechanotransduction regulates traction forces, intercellular forces, and adherens junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Lucas H.; Jahn, Jessica R.; Jung, Joon I.; Shuman, Benjamin R.; Feghhi, Shirin; Han, Sangyoon J.; Rodriguez, Marita L.

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial cells respond to fluid shear stress through mechanotransduction responses that affect their cytoskeleton and cell-cell contacts. Here, endothelial cells were grown as monolayers on arrays of microposts and exposed to laminar or disturbed flow to examine the relationship among traction forces, intercellular forces, and cell-cell junctions. Cells under laminar flow had traction forces that were higher than those under static conditions, whereas cells under disturbed flow had lower traction forces. The response in adhesion junction assembly matched closely with changes in traction forces since adherens junctions were larger in size for laminar flow and smaller for disturbed flow. Treating the cells with calyculin-A to increase myosin phosphorylation and traction forces caused an increase in adherens junction size, whereas Y-27362 cause a decrease in their size. Since tugging forces across cell-cell junctions can promote junctional assembly, we developed a novel approach to measure intercellular forces and found that these forces were higher for laminar flow than for static or disturbed flow. The size of adherens junctions and tight junctions matched closely with intercellular forces for these flow conditions. These results indicate that laminar flow can increase cytoskeletal tension while disturbed flow decreases cytoskeletal tension. Consequently, we found that changes in cytoskeletal tension in response to shear flow conditions can affect intercellular tension, which in turn regulates the assembly of cell-cell junctions. PMID:22447948

  15. Force oscillations simulating breathing maneuvers do not prevent force adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Chris; Jiao, Yuekan; Seow, Chun Y; Paré, Peter D; Bossé, Ynuk

    2012-07-01

    Airway inflammation in patients with asthma exposes the airway smooth muscle (ASM) to a variety of spasmogens. These spasmogens increase ASM tone, which can lead to force adaptation. Length oscillations of ASM, which occur in vivo due to breathing maneuvers, can attenuate force adaptation. However, in the presence of tone, the force oscillations required to achieve these length oscillations may be unphysiologic (i.e., magnitude greater than the ones achieved due to the swings in transpulmonary pressure required for breathing). In the present study, we applied force oscillations simulating the tension oscillations experienced by the wall of a fourth-generation airway during tidal breathing with or without deep inspirations (DI) to ASM. The goal was to investigate whether force adaptation occurs in conditions mimicking breathing maneuvers. Tone was induced by carbachol (average, 20 nM), and the force-generating capacity of the ASM was assessed at 5-minute intervals before and after carbachol administration using electrical field stimulations (EFS). The results show that force oscillations applied before the introduction of tone had a small effect on the force produced by EFS (declined to 96.8% [P > 0.05] and 92.3% [P breathing oscillations (25%). These force oscillations did not prevent force adaptation (gain of force of 11.2 ± 2.2 versus 13.5 ± 2.7 and 11.2 ± 3.0% in static versus dynamic conditions with or without DI, respectively). The lack of effect of simulated breathing maneuvers on force adaptation suggests that this gain in ASM force may occur in vivo and could contribute to the development of airway hyperresponsiveness.

  16. Chin force in violin playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    Force generated between the left mandible of violinists and the chinrest of the violin was examined using a force-sensing chinrest developed in this study. A strain-gauge force sensor was built, and it was fixed between the violin's top plate and a chin cup. Fifteen professional/amateur violinists held the violin statically, played musical scales with different sound properties and sounding techniques, as well as an excerpt from a Max Bruch concerto. Peak and mean forces were evaluated for each task. In a separate experiment, lateral movement of the lower teeth due to different levels of voluntary chin force exertion was measured. Static holding forces observed were 15 and 22 N with and without the help of the left hand, respectively. Peak force increased from 16 N at soft dynamics to 20 N at strong dynamics during scales. The force further increased to 29 N with the use of vibrato technique and 35 N during shifts. Tempo and hand position did not affect the force. Playing a Bruch concerto induced a mean peak force of 52 N, ranging from 31 to 82 N among the violinists. The developed force-sensing chinrest could accurately record the generated chin force. Typical chin force to stabilize the violin during ordinary musical performance was less than 30 N, but it could momentarily exceed 50 N when technically demanding musical pieces were performed. The lateral shift of the mandible was fairly small (<0.4 mm) even with high chin-force exertion, possibly due to clenching of the molars.

  17. Force protection: today's reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Ron

    2004-11-11

    Most US infrastructure and major chemical manufacturing facilities as well as their supporting utility systems are inherently vulnerable to a terrorist attack. Force protection is a military and civilian term used to protect personnel and critical facilities and assets against would-be aggressors or terrorists. The war on terrorism is a 200-300-year war. Terrorist attacks on US soil could become as common-place as in the State of Israel. It is very easy to penetrate infrastructure or plants as evidenced by vulnerability assessments performed for states, cities, plants, and military facilities by Versar and others around the country. Chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive weapons can be readily used to attack facilities in the US. This paper will explain some of those vulnerabilities, outline the current DoD standard as it relates to vulnerability assessments, and explain how this may be used in commercial applications to deter potential aggressors.

  18. [Galileo and centrifugal force].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilain, Christiane

    This work intends to focus on Galileo's study of what is now called "centrifugal force," within the framework of the Second Day of his Dialogo written in 1632, rather than on the previously published commentaries on the topic. Galileo proposes three geometrical demonstrations in order to prove that gravity will always overcome centrifugalforce, and that the potential rotation of the Earth, whatever its speed, cannot in any case project objects beyond it. Each of these demonstrations must consequently contain an error and it has seemed to us that the first one had not been understood up until now. Our analysis offers an opportunity to return to Galileo's geometrical representation of dynamical questions; actually, we get an insight into the sophistication of Galileo's practices more than into his mistakes. Our second point, concerning the historiography of the problem, shows an evolution from anachronic critics to more contextual considerations, in the course of the second half of the twentieth century.

  19. Silicon force sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, Paul C.; Crenshaw, Thomas B.; Nishida, Erik E.; Burnett, Damon J.; Lantz, Jeffrey W.

    2016-07-05

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a sensor for measurement of high forces and/or high load shock rate(s), whereby the sensor utilizes silicon as the sensing element. A plate of Si can have a thinned region formed therein on which can be formed a number of traces operating as a Wheatstone bridge. The brittle Si can be incorporated into a layered structure comprising ductile and/or compliant materials. The sensor can have a washer-like configuration which can be incorporated into a nut and bolt configuration, whereby tightening of the nut and bolt can facilitate application of a compressive preload upon the sensor. Upon application of an impact load on the bolt, the compressive load on the sensor can be reduced (e.g., moves towards zero-load), however the magnitude of the preload can be such that the load on the sensor does not translate to tensile stress being applied to the sensor.

  20. Forced cocurrent smoldering combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, Sudip S.; Pagni, Patrick J.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos

    1987-01-01

    An analytical model of cocurrent smoldering combustion through a very porous solid fuel is developed. Smoldering is initiated at the top of a long radially insulated uniform fuel cylinder, so that the smolder wave propagates downward, opposing an upward-forced flow of oxidizer, with the solid fuel and the gaseous oxidizer entering the reaction zone from the same direction (hence, cocurrent). Radiative heat transfer was incorporated using a diffusion approximation, and smoldering was modeled using a one-step reaction mechanism. The results indicate that, for a given fuel, the final temperature depends only on the initial oxygen mass flux, increasing logarithmically with the mass flux. The smolder velocity is linearly dependent on the initial oxygen mass flux, and, at a fixed value of the flux, increases with initial oxygen mass fraction. The mathematical relationship determining the conditions for steady smolder propagation is presented.

  1. Forced Migration: Refugee Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Joyceen S.

    2015-01-01

    Undocumented migration is a global phenomenon that manifests in various contexts. This article describes the impact of the movement of large numbers of people in several African countries, producing a unique type of migrant—the refugee. We describe issues that refugee movements create on fragile health care systems, situations that precipitate refugee movements, certain human rights violations that are of particular concern such as gender based violence (GBV) and child soldiers, and lastly, implications for nursing practice and policy. We use examples from several countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Mozambique. Drawing on key documents from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, current literature, as well as the international experience of the authors, this article presents an overview of forced migration and discusses opportunities for nurses to impact research, practice and policy related to refugee health. PMID:25645484

  2. Automated force controller for amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagi, Atsushi, E-mail: atsushi.miyagi@inserm.fr, E-mail: simon.scheuring@inserm.fr; Scheuring, Simon, E-mail: atsushi.miyagi@inserm.fr, E-mail: simon.scheuring@inserm.fr [U1006 INSERM, Université Aix-Marseille, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13009 Marseille (France)

    2016-05-15

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is widely used in physics, chemistry, and biology to analyze the topography of a sample at nanometer resolution. Controlling precisely the force applied by the AFM tip to the sample is a prerequisite for faithful and reproducible imaging. In amplitude modulation (oscillating) mode AFM, the applied force depends on the free and the setpoint amplitudes of the cantilever oscillation. Therefore, for keeping the applied force constant, not only the setpoint amplitude but also the free amplitude must be kept constant. While the AFM user defines the setpoint amplitude, the free amplitude is typically subject to uncontrollable drift, and hence, unfortunately, the real applied force is permanently drifting during an experiment. This is particularly harmful in biological sciences where increased force destroys the soft biological matter. Here, we have developed a strategy and an electronic circuit that analyzes permanently the free amplitude of oscillation and readjusts the excitation to maintain the free amplitude constant. As a consequence, the real applied force is permanently and automatically controlled with picoNewton precision. With this circuit associated to a high-speed AFM, we illustrate the power of the development through imaging over long-duration and at various forces. The development is applicable for all AFMs and will widen the applicability of AFM to a larger range of samples and to a larger range of (non-specialist) users. Furthermore, from controlled force imaging experiments, the interaction strength between biomolecules can be analyzed.

  3. Quadriceps force and anterior tibial force occur obviously later than vertical ground reaction force: a simulation study

    OpenAIRE

    Ueno, Ryo; Ishida, Tomoya; Yamanaka, Masanori; Taniguchi, Shohei; Ikuta, Ryohei; Samukawa, Mina; Saito, Hiroshi; Tohyama, Harukazu

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although it is well known that quadriceps force generates anterior tibial force, it has been unclear whether quadriceps force causes great anterior tibial force during the early phase of a landing task. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the quadriceps force induced great anterior tibial force during the early phase of a landing task. Methods: Fourteen young, healthy, female subjects performed a single-leg landing task. Muscle force and anterior tibial force w...

  4. MEMS Bragg grating force sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Hansen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    We present modeling, design, fabrication and characterization of a new type of all-optical frequency modulated MEMS force sensor based on a mechanically amplified double clamped waveguide beam structure with integrated Bragg grating. The sensor is ideally suited for force measurements in harsh...... environments and for remote and distributed sensing and has a measured sensitivity of -14 nm/N, which is several times higher than what is obtained in conventional fiber Bragg grating force sensors. © 2011 Optical Society of America....

  5. Stochastic force in gravitational systems

    OpenAIRE

    Del Popolo, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper I study the probability distribution of the gravitational force in gravitational systems through numerical experiments. I show that Kandrup's (1980) and Antonuccio-Delogu & Atrio-Barandela's (1992) theories describe correctly the stochastic force probability distribution respectively in inhomogeneous and clustered systems. I find equations for the probability distribution of stochastic forces in finite systems, both homogeneous and clustered, which I use to compare the theoretic...

  6. Force generation by titin folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mártonfalvi, Zsolt; Bianco, Pasquale; Naftz, Katalin; Ferenczy, György G; Kellermayer, Miklós

    2017-07-01

    Titin is a giant protein that provides elasticity to muscle. As the sarcomere is stretched, titin extends hierarchically according to the mechanics of its segments. Whether titin's globular domains unfold during this process and how such unfolded domains might contribute to muscle contractility are strongly debated. To explore the force-dependent folding mechanisms, here we manipulated skeletal-muscle titin molecules with high-resolution optical tweezers. In force-clamp mode, after quenching the force (force trace contained rapid fluctuations and a gradual increase of average force, indicating that titin can develop force via dynamic transitions between its structural states en route to the native conformation. In 4 M urea, which destabilizes H-bonds hence the consolidated native domain structure, the net force increase disappeared but the fluctuations persisted. Thus, whereas net force generation is caused by the ensemble folding of the elastically-coupled domains, force fluctuations arise due to a dynamic equilibrium between unfolded and molten-globule states. Monte-Carlo simulations incorporating a compact molten-globule intermediate in the folding landscape recovered all features of our nanomechanics results. The ensemble molten-globule dynamics delivers significant added contractility that may assist sarcomere mechanics, and it may reduce the dissipative energy loss associated with titin unfolding/refolding during muscle contraction/relaxation cycles. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  7. Wind Forces on Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container...... are presented as nondimensional coefficients. It is concluded, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck, and the results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container stacking configuration on a similar container ship....

  8. Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (MRFM) system, developed by ARL, is the world's most sensitive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis tool,...

  9. Measuring Forces between Oxide Surfaces Using the Atomic Force Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Guldberg; Høj, Jakob Weiland

    1996-01-01

    The interactions between colloidal particles play a major role in processing of ceramics, especially in casting processes. With the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) it is possible to measure the inter-action force between a small oxide particle (a few micron) and a surface as function of surface...

  10. Role of attractive forces in tapping tip force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhle, Anders; Sørensen, Alexis Hammer; Bohr, Jakob

    1997-01-01

    We present experimental and numerical results demonstrating the drastic influence of attractive forces on the behaviour of the atomic force microscope when operated in the resonant tapping tip mode in an ambient environment. It is often assumed that tapping is related to repulsive interaction...

  11. Deep atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, H.; Drake, B.; Randall, C.; Hansma, P. K. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) possesses several desirable imaging features including the ability to produce height profiles as well as two-dimensional images, in fluid or air, at high resolution. AFM has been used to study a vast selection of samples on the scale of angstroms to micrometers. However, current AFMs cannot access samples with vertical topography of the order of 100 μm or greater. Research efforts have produced AFM scanners capable of vertical motion greater than 100 μm, but commercially available probe tip lengths are still typically less than 10 μm high. Even the longest probe tips are below 100 μm and even at this range are problematic. In this paper, we present a method to hand-fabricate “Deep AFM” probes with tips of the order of 100 μm and longer so that AFM can be used to image samples with large scale vertical topography, such as fractured bone samples.

  12. Comprehending illocutionary force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgraves, T; Ashley, A

    2001-01-01

    According to speech act theory (Searle, 1969), utterances have both a propositional content and an illocutionary force (the speech act performed with the utterance). Four experiments were conducted to examine whether utterance comprehension involves speech act recognition. Participants in all experiments first read remarks that could be characterized by a particular speech act (e.g., beg). A recognition probe reaction time procedure was used in Experiments 1 and 2; participants indicated whether a probe word had literally appeared in the last remark that they had read. Participants were significantly slower at making this judgment (and made significantly more errors) when the probe represented the speech act performed with the prior remark than when it did not. A lexical decision task was used in Experiments 3 and 4, and participants were significantly faster at verifying target words representing the speech act performed with a remark, relative to control words. Overall, the results suggest that speech act recognition may be an important component of the comprehension of conversational remarks.

  13. Forces of nature

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2072602

    2016-01-01

    A breathtaking and beautiful exploration of our planet. This groundbreaking book, which accompanies the new BBC1 TV series, provides the deepest answers to the simplest questions. 'Why is the sky blue?' 'Why is the Earth round?' 'Why is every snowflake unique?' To answer these and many other questions, Professor Brian Cox will reveal some of the most extraordinary phenomena and events on Earth and in the Universe and beyond. From the immensity of Earth's globe to all the world's myriad snowflakes, the forces of nature shape everything we see. Pushed to extremes, the results are astonishing. From the realm of auroras to the heart of our planet, the ingredients that make everything on Earth connect each one of us in an eternal cycle of life. Brian will reveal why Earth is the most colourful world we know, exploring the white light of the sun as it travels through the darkness of space until it hits Earth's atmosphere where it begins a new journey, splitting into a rainbow of colours. From the great plains of th...

  14. Tunneling magnetic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Edward R.; Gomez, Romel D.; Adly, Amr A.; Mayergoyz, Isaak D.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a powerful new tool for studying the magnetic patterns on magnetic recording media. This was accomplished by modifying a conventional scanning tunneling microscope. The fine-wire probe that is used to image surface topography was replaced with a flexible magnetic probe. Images obtained with these probes reveal both the surface topography and the magnetic structure. We have made a thorough theoretical analysis of the interaction between the probe and the magnetic fields emanating from a typical recorded surface. Quantitative data about the constituent magnetic fields can then be obtained. We have employed these techniques in studies of two of the most important issues of magnetic record: data overwrite and maximizing data-density. These studies have shown: (1) overwritten data can be retrieved under certain conditions; and (2) improvements in data-density will require new magnetic materials. In the course of these studies we have developed new techniques to analyze magnetic fields of recorded media. These studies are both theoretical and experimental and combined with the use of our magnetic force scanning tunneling microscope should lead to further breakthroughs in the field of magnetic recording.

  15. Bacterial adhesion force quantification by fluidic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthoff, Eva; Ossola, Dario; Zambelli, Tomaso; Vorholt, Julia A.

    2015-02-01

    Quantification of detachment forces between bacteria and substrates facilitates the understanding of the bacterial adhesion process that affects cell physiology and survival. Here, we present a method that allows for serial, single bacterial cell force spectroscopy by combining the force control of atomic force microscopy with microfluidics. Reversible bacterial cell immobilization under physiological conditions on the pyramidal tip of a microchanneled cantilever is achieved by underpressure. Using the fluidic force microscopy technology (FluidFM), we achieve immobilization forces greater than those of state-of-the-art cell-cantilever binding as demonstrated by the detachment of Escherichia coli from polydopamine with recorded forces between 4 and 8 nN for many cells. The contact time and setpoint dependence of the adhesion forces of E. coli and Streptococcus pyogenes, as well as the sequential detachment of bacteria out of a chain, are shown, revealing distinct force patterns in the detachment curves. This study demonstrates the potential of the FluidFM technology for quantitative bacterial adhesion measurements of cell-substrate and cell-cell interactions that are relevant in biofilms and infection biology.Quantification of detachment forces between bacteria and substrates facilitates the understanding of the bacterial adhesion process that affects cell physiology and survival. Here, we present a method that allows for serial, single bacterial cell force spectroscopy by combining the force control of atomic force microscopy with microfluidics. Reversible bacterial cell immobilization under physiological conditions on the pyramidal tip of a microchanneled cantilever is achieved by underpressure. Using the fluidic force microscopy technology (FluidFM), we achieve immobilization forces greater than those of state-of-the-art cell-cantilever binding as demonstrated by the detachment of Escherichia coli from polydopamine with recorded forces between 4 and 8 nN for many

  16. Force-gradient sensitive Kelvin probe force microscopy by dissipative electrostatic force modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Yoichi; Grutter, Peter

    2017-04-01

    We report a Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) implementation using the dissipation signal of a frequency modulation atomic force microscopy that is capable of detecting the gradient of electrostatic force rather than electrostatic force. It features a simple implementation and faster scanning as it requires no low frequency modulation. We show that applying a coherent ac voltage with two times the cantilever oscillation frequency induces the dissipation signal proportional to the electrostatic force gradient which depends on the effective dc bias voltage including the contact potential difference. We demonstrate the KPFM images of a MoS2 flake taken with the present method are in quantitative agreement with those taken with the frequency modulated Kelvin probe force microscopy technique.

  17. Force balancing in mammographic compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branderhorst, W., E-mail: w.branderhorst@amc.nl; Groot, J. E. de; Lier, M. G. J. T. B. van; Grimbergen, C. A. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Academic Medical Center, P.O. Box 22660, Amsterdam 1100 DD (Netherlands); Sigmascreening B.V., Meibergdreef 45, Amsterdam 1105 BA (Netherlands); Neeter, L. M. F. H.; Heeten, G. J. den [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Academic Medical Center, P.O. Box 22660, Amsterdam 1100 DD (Netherlands); Neeleman, C. [Sigmascreening B.V., Meibergdreef 45, Amsterdam 1105 BA (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: In mammography, the height of the image receptor is adjusted to the patient before compressing the breast. An inadequate height setting can result in an imbalance between the forces applied by the image receptor and the paddle, causing the clamped breast to be pushed up or down relative to the body during compression. This leads to unnecessary stretching of the skin and other tissues around the breast, which can make the imaging procedure more painful for the patient. The goal of this study was to implement a method to measure and minimize the force imbalance, and to assess its feasibility as an objective and reproducible method of setting the image receptor height. Methods: A trial was conducted consisting of 13 craniocaudal mammographic compressions on a silicone breast phantom, each with the image receptor positioned at a different height. The image receptor height was varied over a range of 12 cm. In each compression, the force exerted by the compression paddle was increased up to 140 N in steps of 10 N. In addition to the paddle force, the authors measured the force exerted by the image receptor and the reaction force exerted on the patient body by the ground. The trial was repeated 8 times, with the phantom remounted at a slightly different orientation and position between the trials. Results: For a given paddle force, the obtained results showed that there is always exactly one image receptor height that leads to a balance of the forces on the breast. For the breast phantom, deviating from this specific height increased the force imbalance by 9.4 ± 1.9 N/cm (6.7%) for 140 N paddle force, and by 7.1 ± 1.6 N/cm (17.8%) for 40 N paddle force. The results also show that in situations where the force exerted by the image receptor is not measured, the craniocaudal force imbalance can still be determined by positioning the patient on a weighing scale and observing the changes in displayed weight during the procedure. Conclusions: In mammographic breast

  18. Force balancing in mammographic compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branderhorst, W; de Groot, J E; Neeter, L M F H; van Lier, M G J T B; Neeleman, C; den Heeten, G J; Grimbergen, C A

    2016-01-01

    In mammography, the height of the image receptor is adjusted to the patient before compressing the breast. An inadequate height setting can result in an imbalance between the forces applied by the image receptor and the paddle, causing the clamped breast to be pushed up or down relative to the body during compression. This leads to unnecessary stretching of the skin and other tissues around the breast, which can make the imaging procedure more painful for the patient. The goal of this study was to implement a method to measure and minimize the force imbalance, and to assess its feasibility as an objective and reproducible method of setting the image receptor height. A trial was conducted consisting of 13 craniocaudal mammographic compressions on a silicone breast phantom, each with the image receptor positioned at a different height. The image receptor height was varied over a range of 12 cm. In each compression, the force exerted by the compression paddle was increased up to 140 N in steps of 10 N. In addition to the paddle force, the authors measured the force exerted by the image receptor and the reaction force exerted on the patient body by the ground. The trial was repeated 8 times, with the phantom remounted at a slightly different orientation and position between the trials. For a given paddle force, the obtained results showed that there is always exactly one image receptor height that leads to a balance of the forces on the breast. For the breast phantom, deviating from this specific height increased the force imbalance by 9.4 ± 1.9 N/cm (6.7%) for 140 N paddle force, and by 7.1 ± 1.6 N/cm (17.8%) for 40 N paddle force. The results also show that in situations where the force exerted by the image receptor is not measured, the craniocaudal force imbalance can still be determined by positioning the patient on a weighing scale and observing the changes in displayed weight during the procedure. In mammographic breast compression, even small changes in the

  19. Societal Forces That ERODE Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert; Kaufman, James C.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: Creativity is an indispensable force in intellectual, social, cultural, and economic development. Yet societal forces conspire to erode it. Educators have despaired for many years over how schools often fail to encourage creativity, but society as a whole is just as guilty. But how do schools and society fail to encourage, or…

  20. Force.com enterprise architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Fawcett, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This book is for advanced Force.com developers and architects who need to understand the Salesforce platform from the perspective of enterprise-level requirements. You should have an existing understanding of Apex and Visualforce. Those familiar with other enterprise software ecosystems will also find this book ideal as they adopt Force.com.