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Sample records for wsn eco-mac protocol

  1. Mac protocols for wireless sensor network (wsn): a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, J.; Akram, Q.; Saleem, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Data communication between nodes is carried out under Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol which is defined at data link layer. The MAC protocols are responsible to communicate and coordinate between nodes according to the defined standards in WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks). The design of a MAC protocol should also address the issues of energy efficiency and transmission efficiency. There are number of MAC protocols that exist in the literature proposed for WSN. In this paper, nine MAC protocols which includes S-MAC, T-MAC, Wise-MAC, Mu-MAC, Z-MAC, A-MAC, D-MAC, B-MAC and B-MAC+ for WSN have been explored, studied and analyzed. These nine protocols are classified in contention based and hybrid (combination of contention and schedule based) MAC protocols. The goal of this comparative study is to provide a basis for MAC protocols and to highlight different mechanisms used with respect to parameters for the evaluation of energy and transmission efficiency in WSN. This study also aims to give reader a better understanding of the concepts, processes and flow of information used in these MAC protocols for WSN. A comparison with respect to energy reservation scheme, idle listening avoidance, latency, fairness, data synchronization, and throughput maximization has been presented. It was analyzed that contention based MAC protocols are less energy efficient as compared to hybrid MAC protocols. From the analysis of contention based MAC protocols in term of energy consumption, it was being observed that protocols based on preamble sampling consume lesser energy than protocols based on static or dynamic sleep schedule. (author)

  2. Cluster chain based energy efficient routing protocol for moblie WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Ziyu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the ubiquitous smart devices acting as mobile sensor nodes in the wireless sensor networks(WSNs to sense and transmit physical information,routing protocols should be designed to accommodate the mobility issues,in addition to conventional considerations on energy efficiency.However,due to frequent topology change,traditional routing schemes cannot perform well.Moreover,existence of mobile nodes poses new challenges on energy dissipation and packet loss.In this paper,a novel routing scheme called cluster chain based routing protocol(CCBRP is proposed,which employs a combination of cluster and chain structure to accomplish data collection and transmission and thereafter selects qualified cluster heads as chain leaders to transmit data to the sink.Furthermore,node mobility is handled based on periodical membership update of mobile nodes.Simulation results demonstrate that CCBRP has a good performance in terms of network lifetime and packet delivery,also strikes a better balance between successful packet reception and energy consumption.

  3. Survey is based on Synchronized and Asynchronized Approach of MAC Protocols in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Chaurasia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A wireless network is made of spatially distributed autonomous devices. These devices are called sensors. The sensor is used for monitoring physical or environmental conditions. The potential application of wireless sensor network is environmental monitoring, healthcare applications and tactical systems. In this paper focus is on the MAC protocol for WSN. Wireless sensor network is deployed for wide range to send and receive data with the help of medium. Here literature survey of MAC protocol based on the synchronized and asynchronized approach is described which is used to meet different objective like access a medium, statistical channel allocation, spectrum utilization

  4. The Architecture of WiFi-Based WSN for AMR System and E-HWMP Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li LI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available With the development of SoC technology in recent years, the ultra-low power WiFi System on SoC Chip has emerged. As a result, WiFi-based Wireless Sensor Networks come into use, especially used in Automatic Meter Reading. While because the nodes of Wireless Sensor Networks have limited energy supply, smaller storage capability and slower calculation ability, the current WiFi technology cannot be directly applied to WiFi-based Wireless Sensor Networks. The protocols should be upgraded and the security algorithms should be improved to meet the new requests. Firstly, this article describes the network architecture of WiFi-based WSN for AMR system and discusses the reason for using this analogous Mesh architecture. Secondly, the new Hardware architecture of WiFi-based WSN node is designed to realize the AMR system and verify the research work. The node can collect the data of power meter by WiFi and can be powered by a Lithium Battery. Thirdly, on the basis of study work of WiFi original routing protocol HWMP, a new method on improving the energy saving ability of HWMP to adapt the new features of WiFi-based WSN is proposed. And the simulation work on the new routing protocol E-HWMP has been done with NS2 and the simulation results show that the life cycle of the network has been extended to some degree.

  5. Rancang Bangun Instrumen Sistem Buoy Menggunakan A-Wsn Protokol Zigbee Untuk Pengamatan Ekosistem Pesisir (Development of Buoy System Instrument using A-WSN ZigBee Protocol for Coastal Ecosystem Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acta Withamana

    2013-12-01

    resolution of sampling. Mooring buoy has been used as one of the options to carry out the task. However the big dimension in the existing buoy system is not suitable for coastal ecosystem monitoring. Rapid development in semiconductor technology has brought wireless sensor network (WSN. ZigBee communication protocol has the advantage of energy efficient and ease of implementation. This research was conducted to developing mooring buoy platform as well as analyzes the possibility of WSN to be implemented in coastal environment. The test on performance of developed mooring buoy was good and stable as the platform of instrument. The network performance of ZigBee radio gave 100% data transmitting and receiving success ratio in the static test. Using four Ni-MH batteries, the instrument can be operated for roughly 39 hours for coordinator and router, and 89 hours for end device. The sea field test shows that the worst is 84.94% success ratio on E1 and the greatest is 100% success ratio on R1 and E3. The received temperature data also accurate to describe the distribution of sea surface temperature at Panggang Island. Results of this study suggest that application of Buoy System instrument using  ZigBee-WSN protocol has the potential to be used in the observation activities of coastal ecosystems. Keywords: mooring buoy, instrument, WSN, ZigBee, coastal observation

  6. Multi-Gateway-Based Energy Holes Avoidance Routing Protocol for WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Sharma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, efficient energy conservation is required to prolong the lifetime of the network. In this work, we have given emphasis on balanced energy consumption and energy holes avoidance. This paper proposes a multi-gateway-based approach to reduce the transmission distance between the sender and the sink node. The area to be monitored is divided into regions and gateway nodes are deployed at optimal positions. We have designed a transmission scheme, in which sensors in the sink region communicate directly to the sink, sensors in the gateway region communicate directly to the gateway, and sensors in the cluster region transmit their data directly to their respective cluster head which transmits data to the gateway in its region. If the distance between a cluster head and the sink is less than the distance between the cluster head and the gateway node, the cluster head transmits data to the sink instead of the gateway node. We have compared the proposed protocol with Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH, Gateway Based Energy Aware Multi-Hop Routing (M-GEAR, and Gateway Based Stable Election Protocol (GSEP protocols. The protocol performs better than other protocols in terms of throughput, stability period, lifetime, residual energy, and the packet transmitted to the sink.

  7. Pithy Review on Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks and Least Routing Time Opportunistic Technique in WSN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman Arafath, Mohammed; Rahman Khan, Khaleel Ur; Sunitha, K. V. N.

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays due to most of the telecommunication standard development organizations focusing on using device-to-device communication so that they can provide proximity-based services and add-on services on top of the available cellular infrastructure. An Oppnets and wireless sensor network play a prominent role here. Routing in these networks plays a significant role in fields such as traffic management, packet delivery etc. Routing is a prodigious research area with diverse unresolved issues. This paper firstly focuses on the importance of Opportunistic routing and its concept then focus is shifted to prime aspect i.e. on packet reception ratio which is one of the highest QoS Awareness parameters. This paper discusses the two important functions of routing in wireless sensor networks (WSN) namely route selection using least routing time algorithm (LRTA) and data forwarding using clustering technique. Finally, the simulation result reveals that LRTA performs relatively better than the existing system in terms of average packet reception ratio and connectivity.

  8. DESIGN OF ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK (WSN) USING PASCAL GRAPH

    OpenAIRE

    Deepali Panwar; Subhrendu Guha Neogi

    2013-01-01

    Development of energy efficient Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) routing protocol is nowadays main area of interest amongst researchers. This research is an effort in designing energy efficient Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) routing protocol under certain parameters consideration. Research report discusses various existing WSN routing protocols and propose a new WSN energy efficient routing protocol. Results show a significant improvement in life cycle of the nodes and enhancement ...

  9. Formal Modeling of Greedy Nodes in 802.15.4 WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef Hammal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with formal specification of the non-slotted CSMA/CA protocol in wireless sensor networks(WSN whose some nodes own a greedy behavior. This protocol requires sensor nodes to wait some time before initiating a transmission, whereas greedy nodes may try to reduce their waiting duration, which may penalize other nodes. To analyze their impact on WSN mode in operation, we use timed automata of the model-checker UPPAAL to capture the abstract behavior of communication medium, sane, and greedy nodes in WSN. This enables the use of analysis tools to check whether these models satisfy intended properties.

  10. Environment Emulation For Wsn Testbed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Kapłoniak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of applications for wireless sensor networks is a challenging task. For this reason, several testbed platforms have been created. They simplify the manageability of nodes by offering easy ways of programming and debugging sensor nodes. These platforms, sometimes composed of dozens of sensors, provide a convenient way for carrying out research on medium access control and data exchange between nodes. In this article, we propose the extension of the WSN testbed, which could be used for evaluating and testing the functionality of sensor networks applications by emulating a real-world environment.

  11. Study of Wireless Authentication Center with Mixed Encryption in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqin Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available WSN (wireless sensor network has been used in a wide range of applications nowadays. Sensor networks may often relay critical data; thus, security must be a high priority. However, due to their limited computational, energy, and storage resources, sensor nodes are vulnerable to attack. So how to protect sensor nodes from attacks without raising computational capability and energy consumption is a worthwhile issue. A WAC (wireless authentication center with mixed encryption named “MEWAC” is proposed. MEWAC is based on MCU (Microcontroller Unit and WiFi (Wireless Fidelity module and uses RSA, AES (Advanced Encryption Standard, and SHA-1 (Secure Hash Algorithm 1 to provide high performance authentication and data encryption services for sensor nodes. The experimental results show that MEWAC has the advantages of low cost, low power consumption, good performance, and stability; moreover, the authentication protocol improves the security of WSN and reduces the overhead in node authentication.

  12. RFID-WSN integrated architecture for energy and delay- aware routing a simulation approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Jameel; Tayyab, Muhammad; Nawaz, Menaa

    2015-01-01

    The book identifies the performance challenges concerning Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and analyzes their impact on the performance of routing protocols. It presents a thorough literature survey to identify the issues affecting routing protocol performance, as well as a mathematical model for calculating the end-to-end delays of the routing protocol ACQUIRE; a comparison of two routing protocols (ACQUIRE and DIRECTED DIFFUSION) is also provided for evaluation purposes. On the basis of the results and literature review, recommendations are made for better selection of protocols regarding the nature of the respective application and related challenges. In addition, this book covers a proposed simulator that integrates both RFID and WSN technologies. Therefore, the manuscript is divided in two major parts: an integrated architecture of smart nodes, and a power-optimized protocol for query and information interchange.

  13. An Effective Hybrid Routing Algorithm in WSN: Ant Colony Optimization in combination with Hop Count Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailian Jiang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Low cost, high reliability and easy maintenance are key criteria in the design of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSNs. This paper investigates the existing ant colony optimization (ACO-based WSN routing algorithms and the minimum hop count WSN routing algorithms by reviewing their strengths and weaknesses. We also consider the critical factors of WSNs, such as energy constraint of sensor nodes, network load balancing and dynamic network topology. Then we propose a hybrid routing algorithm that integrates ACO and a minimum hop count scheme. The proposed algorithm is able to find the optimal routing path with minimal total energy consumption and balanced energy consumption on each node. The algorithm has unique superiority in terms of searching for the optimal path, balancing the network load and the network topology maintenance. The WSN model and the proposed algorithm have been implemented using C++. Extensive simulation experimental results have shown that our algorithm outperforms several other WSN routing algorithms on such aspects that include the rate of convergence, the success rate in searching for global optimal solution, and the network lifetime.

  14. An Optimized WSN Design for Latency-Critical Smart Grid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounib Khanafer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of the Internet of Things (IoT systems such as the smart grid, Body Area Networks (BANs, and the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS is driving Wireless Sensor Network (WSN systems to the limit in terms of abilities and performance. WSNs were initially designed for low power, low data rate, and latency-tolerant applications. However, this paradigm is changing because of the nature of the new applications. Therefore, instead of only focusing on power-efficient WSN design, researchers and industries are now developing Quality of Service (QoS protocols for WSNs. In addition to that, latency- and reliability-critical protocol designs are also becoming significantly important in WSNs. In this paper, we present an overview of some important smart grid latency-critical applications and highlight WSNs implementation challenges for these smart grid applications. Furthermore, we develop and evaluate two novel optimization models that solve for the optimum values of the end-to-end latency and power consumption in a clustered WSN given lower bounds on reliability and other network parameters.

  15. Power Balance AODV Routing Algorithm of WSN in Precision Agriculture Environment Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Qin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As one of important technologies of IOT (Internet of Things, WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks has been widely used in precision agriculture environment monitoring. WSN is a kind of energy-constrained network, but power balance is not taken into account in traditional routing protocols. A novel routing algorithm, named Power Balance Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (PB-AODV, is proposed on cross-layer design. In the route discovery process of PB-AODV, routing path is established by the Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI value. The optimal transmitting power, which is computed according to RSSI value, power threshold and node’s surplus energy, is encapsulated into Route Reply Packet. Hence, the sender node can adjust its transmission power to save energy according to the Route Reply Packet. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is effective for load balancing, and increases the WSN’s lifetime 14.3% consequently.

  16. Analysis of Energy Efficiency in WSN by Considering SHM Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Naresh Babu, Merugu; Raju, Kota Solomon, Dr; Sharma, Sudhir Kumar, Dr; Jain, Vaibhav

    2017-08-01

    The Wireless Sensor Network is composed of a significant number of autonomous nodes deployed in an extensive or remote area. In WSN, the sensor nodes have a limited transmission range, processing speed and storage capabilities as well as their energy resources are also limited. In WSN all nodes are not directly connected. The primary objective for all kind of WSN is to enhance and optimize the network lifetime i.e. to minimize the energy consumption in the WSN. There are lots of applications of WSN out of which this research paper focuses upon the Structural Health Monitoring application in which 50 Meter bridge has been taken as a test application for the simulation purpose.

  17. Design and Implementation of a Mobile Multihop WSN for AGV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A system data sharing protocol of mobile WSN named synchronous dynamic multihop data sharing protocol (S-DMDS is presented for automated guided vehicle (AGV system. It is a cross-layer protocol designed from route layer to MAC layer. By adopting a concept of system data sharing, it is possible to make each node exchange the data timely with all the other nodes. It is also a topology-agnostic protocol which has no knowledge of neighbors, routes, or next hops. From the results of the 16-nodes simulation, S-DMDS protocol is proved to be efficient exchange data timely between the devices of AGV system in mobile multihop situation. Moreover, it also shows that S-DMDS significantly outperforms NST-AODV with investing about 41.6% system sharing delay as well as 80% RAM consumption. At last, 5-node experiment indicates that S-DMDS can work well in real environment.

  18. An Integral Model for Target Tracking Based on the Use of a WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Manzoni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of wireless sensor networks (WSN in tracking applications is growing at a fast pace. In these applications, the sensor nodes discover, monitor and track an event or target object. A significant number of proposals relating the use of WSNs for target tracking have been published to date. However, they either focus on the tracking algorithm or on the communication protocol, and none of them address the problem integrally. In this paper, a comprehensive proposal for target detection and tracking is discussed. We introduce a tracking algorithm to detect and estimate a target location. Moreover, we introduce a low-overhead routing protocol to be used along with our tracking algorithm. The proposed algorithm has low computational complexity and has been designed considering the use of a mobile sink while generating minimal delay and packet loss. We also discuss the results of the evaluation of the proposed algorithms.

  19. Optimization and Verification of the TR-MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morshed, S.; Heijenk, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Energy-efficiency is an important requirement in the design of communication protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSN). TR-MAC is an energy-efficient medium access control (MAC) layer protocol for low power WSN that exploits transmitted-reference (TR) modulation in the physical layer. The

  20. Integrated Toolset for WSN Application Planning, Development, Commissioning and Maintenance: The WSN-DPCM ARTEMIS-JU Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulos, Christos; Asimogloy, Katerina; Chiti, Sarah; D'Onofrio, Luca; Gianfranceschi, Simone; He, Danping; Iodice, Antonio; Koubias, Stavros; Koulamas, Christos; Lavagno, Luciano; Lazarescu, Mihai T; Mujica, Gabriel; Papadopoulos, George; Portilla, Jorge; Redondo, Luis; Riccio, Daniele; Riesgo, Teresa; Rodriguez, Daniel; Ruello, Giuseppe; Samoladas, Vasilis; Stoyanova, Tsenka; Touliatos, Gerasimos; Valvo, Angela; Vlahoy, Georgia

    2016-06-02

    In this article we present the main results obtained in the ARTEMIS-JU WSN-DPCM project between October 2011 and September 2015. The first objective of the project was the development of an integrated toolset for Wireless sensor networks (WSN) application planning, development, commissioning and maintenance, which aims to support application domain experts, with limited WSN expertise, to efficiently develop WSN applications from planning to lifetime maintenance. The toolset is made of three main tools: one for planning, one for application development and simulation (which can include hardware nodes), and one for network commissioning and lifetime maintenance. The tools are integrated in a single platform which promotes software reuse by automatically selecting suitable library components for application synthesis and the abstraction of the underlying architecture through the use of a middleware layer. The second objective of the project was to test the effectiveness of the toolset for the development of two case studies in different domains, one for detecting the occupancy state of parking lots and one for monitoring air concentration of harmful gasses near an industrial site.

  1. Integrated Toolset for WSN Application Planning, Development, Commissioning and Maintenance: The WSN-DPCM ARTEMIS-JU Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Antonopoulos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the main results obtained in the ARTEMIS-JU WSN-DPCM project between October 2011 and September 2015. The first objective of the project was the development of an integrated toolset for Wireless sensor networks (WSN application planning, development, commissioning and maintenance, which aims to support application domain experts, with limited WSN expertise, to efficiently develop WSN applications from planning to lifetime maintenance. The toolset is made of three main tools: one for planning, one for application development and simulation (which can include hardware nodes, and one for network commissioning and lifetime maintenance. The tools are integrated in a single platform which promotes software reuse by automatically selecting suitable library components for application synthesis and the abstraction of the underlying architecture through the use of a middleware layer. The second objective of the project was to test the effectiveness of the toolset for the development of two case studies in different domains, one for detecting the occupancy state of parking lots and one for monitoring air concentration of harmful gasses near an industrial site.

  2. Behavioral Modeling of WSN MAC Layer Security Attacks: A Sequential UML Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawar, Pranav M.; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2012-01-01

    is the vulnerability to security attacks/threats. The performance and behavior of a WSN are vastly affected by such attacks. In order to be able to better address the vulnerabilities of WSNs in terms of security, it is important to understand the behavior of the attacks. This paper addresses the behavioral modeling...... of medium access control (MAC) security attacks in WSNs. The MAC layer is responsible for energy consumption, delay and channel utilization of the network and attacks on this layer can introduce significant degradation of the individual sensor nodes due to energy drain and in performance due to delays....... The behavioral modeling of attacks will be beneficial for designing efficient and secure MAC layer protocols. The security attacks are modeled using a sequential diagram approach of Unified Modeling Language (UML). Further, a new attack definition, specific to hybrid MAC mechanisms, is proposed....

  3. A Comprehensive Approach to WSN-Based ITS Applications: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Garcia-Haro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform sensing tasks, most current Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS rely on expensive sensors, which offer only limited functionality. A more recent trend consists of using Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN for such purpose, which reduces the required investment and enables the development of new collaborative and intelligent applications that further contribute to improve both driving safety and traffic efficiency. This paper surveys the application of WSNs to such ITS scenarios, tackling the main issues that may arise when developing these systems. The paper is divided into sections which address different matters including vehicle detection and classification as well as the selection of appropriate communication protocols, network architecture, topology and some important design parameters. In addition, in line with the multiplicity of different technologies that take part in ITS, it does not consider WSNs just as stand-alone systems, but also as key components of heterogeneous systems cooperating along with other technologies employed in vehicular scenarios.

  4. Patch Transporter: Incentivized, Decentralized Software Patch System for WSN and IoT Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JongHyup

    2018-01-01

    In the complicated settings of WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks) and IoT (Internet of Things) environments, keeping a number of heterogeneous devices updated is a challenging job, especially with respect to effectively discovering target devices and rapidly delivering the software updates. In this paper, we convert the traditional software update process to a distributed service. We set an incentive system for faithfully transporting the patches to the recipient devices. The incentive system motivates independent, self-interested transporters for helping the devices to be updated. To ensure the system correctly operates, we employ the blockchain system that enforces the commitment in a decentralized manner. We also present a detailed specification for the proposed protocol and validate it by model checking and simulations for correctness. PMID:29438337

  5. Patch Transporter: Incentivized, Decentralized Software Patch System for WSN and IoT Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JongHyup

    2018-02-13

    [-12]In the complicated settings of WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks) and IoT (Internet of Things) environments, keeping a number of heterogeneous devices updated is a challenging job, especially with respect to effectively discovering target devices and rapidly delivering the software updates. In this paper, we convert the traditional software update process to a distributed service. We set an incentive system for faithfully transporting the patches to the recipient devices. The incentive system motivates independent, self-interested transporters for helping the devices to be updated. To ensure the system correctly operates, we employ the blockchain system that enforces the commitment in a decentralized manner. We also present a detailed specification for the proposed protocol and validate it by model checking and simulations for correctness.

  6. Patch Transporter: Incentivized, Decentralized Software Patch System for WSN and IoT Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JongHyup Lee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the complicated settings of WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks and IoT (Internet of Things environments, keeping a number of heterogeneous devices updated is a challenging job, especially with respect to effectively discovering target devices and rapidly delivering the software updates. In this paper, we convert the traditional software update process to a distributed service. We set an incentive system for faithfully transporting the patches to the recipient devices. The incentive system motivates independent, self-interested transporters for helping the devices to be updated. To ensure the system correctly operates, we employ the blockchain system that enforces the commitment in a decentralized manner. We also present a detailed specification for the proposed protocol and validate it by model checking and simulations for correctness.

  7. Activity Modelling and Comparative Evaluation of WSN MAC Security Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawar, Pranav M.; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2012-01-01

    and initiate security attacks that disturb the normal functioning of the network in a severe manner. Such attacks affect the performance of the network by increasing the energy consumption, by reducing throughput and by inducing long delays. Of all existing WSN attacks, MAC layer attacks are considered...... the most harmful as they directly affect the available resources and thus the nodes’ energy consumption. The first endeavour of this paper is to model the activities of MAC layer security attacks to understand the flow of activities taking place when mounting the attack and when actually executing it....... The second aim of the paper is to simulate these attacks on hybrid MAC mechanisms, which shows the performance degradation of aWSN under the considered attacks. The modelling and implementation of the security attacks give an actual view of the network which can be useful in further investigating secure...

  8. WSN-Based Space Charge Density Measurement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dawei; Yuan, Haiwen; Lv, Jianxun; Ju, Yong

    2017-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line endures the drawback of large area, because of which the utilization of cable for space charge density monitoring system is of inconvenience. Compared with the traditional communication network, wireless sensor network (WSN) shows advantages in small volume, high flexibility and strong self-organization, thereby presenting great potential in solving the problem. Additionally, WSN is more suitable for the construction of distributed space charge density monitoring system as it has longer distance and higher mobility. A distributed wireless system is designed for collecting and monitoring the space charge density under HVDC transmission lines, which has been widely applied in both Chinese state grid HVDC test base and power transmission projects. Experimental results of the measuring system demonstrated its adaptability in the complex electromagnetic environment under the transmission lines and the ability in realizing accurate, flexible, and stable demands for the measurement of space charge density.

  9. Developing security tools of WSN and WBAN networks applications

    CERN Document Server

    A M El-Bendary, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on two of the most rapidly developing areas in wireless technology (WT) applications, namely, wireless sensors networks (WSNs) and wireless body area networks (WBANs). These networks can be considered smart applications of the recent WT revolutions. The book presents various security tools and scenarios for the proposed enhanced-security of WSNs, which are supplemented with numerous computer simulations. In the computer simulation section, WSN modeling is addressed using MATLAB programming language.

  10. Multi-WSN Simulator with Log Data for Efficient Sensing on Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Young-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Yen, Neil Y.; Park, Jong Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    WSN (wireless sensor network) technology came to become fairly activated and as WSN is a part of the world’s environment, research on it is considered important. WSN automated life and work; miniaturized wireless sensor nodes enable observational measurement in regions where access by humans is difficult or periodic sensing data is necessary. Thousands of such sensor nodes are needed. However, when they are wrongly placed in an observed area, sensor node batteries may run out fast or disconne...

  11. Achieving sink node anonymity in tactical wireless sensor networks using a reactive routing protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    node anonymity, base station anonymity, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), Lightweight Ad hoc On-Demand – Next Generation ... Generation (LOADng) reactive-routing protocol to achieve anonymity. This modified protocol prevents an attacker from identifying the sink node without...within the constraints of WSN communication protocols, specifically IEEE 802.15.4. We use and modify the Lightweight Ad hoc On-Demand – Next Generation

  12. RUMUSAN METODE DETEKSI PENCURIAN LISTRIK MEMANFAATKAN PERANGKAT WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sony

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mendeteksi kasus pencurian listrik di Indonesia memerlukan usaha dan biaya yang besar. PLN saat ini masih menggunakan metode lama dalam mendeteksi kasus pencurian yaitu dengan memeriksa pola tagihan listrik yang didapatkan dari pencatatan secara manual oleh petugas. Penelitian ini mengajukan suatu metode deteksi pencurian listrik dengan memanfaatkan perangkat WSN yang dipasangkan dimeteran pelanggan untuk memonitor jumlah pemakaian listrik. Logika pendeteksian adalah dengan membandingkan data konsumsi pada pelanggan dengan data jumlah listrik yang disalurkan oleh gardu penyalur pada suatu cakupan wilayah. Hasil penelitian berupa simulasi dengan bantuan perangkat lunak Excel, hasil simulasi menunjukkan keefektifan penggunaan metode yang diajukan dengan tingkat akurasi yang tinggi.Detecting theft electricity in Indonesia require enormous amount of efforts and money. PLN until these days still using the old school method to detect this case by checking the pattren of customers electricity bills manualy by the PLN employee. Purposed method in this research is to detect leak of electricity by spreading WSN devices inside each customers meteran to monitor total power consumtion. Logic of the method is compare sum of power consumtion in a testing area with amount of electricity flow in that area by monitor the gardu penyalur conductor. Result of this research is excel simulation, simulation outcome shows that using the purposed to decided system status is effective in the system operational with high accuracy with the actual condition.        

  13. Synchronous Firefly Algorithm for Cluster Head Selection in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhanan Baskaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN consists of small low-cost, low-power multifunctional nodes interconnected to efficiently aggregate and transmit data to sink. Cluster-based approaches use some nodes as Cluster Heads (CHs and organize WSNs efficiently for aggregation of data and energy saving. A CH conveys information gathered by cluster nodes and aggregates/compresses data before transmitting it to a sink. However, this additional responsibility of the node results in a higher energy drain leading to uneven network degradation. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH offsets this by probabilistically rotating cluster heads role among nodes with energy above a set threshold. CH selection in WSN is NP-Hard as optimal data aggregation with efficient energy savings cannot be solved in polynomial time. In this work, a modified firefly heuristic, synchronous firefly algorithm, is proposed to improve the network performance. Extensive simulation shows the proposed technique to perform well compared to LEACH and energy-efficient hierarchical clustering. Simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed method in decreasing the packet loss ratio by an average of 9.63% and improving the energy efficiency of the network when compared to LEACH and EEHC.

  14. Measurement of agricultural parameters using wireless sensor network (WSN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaña-Moya, Javier; Sánchez-Almeida, Tarquino; Salgado-Reyes, Nelson

    2018-04-01

    The technological advances have allowed to create new applications in telecommunications, applying low power and reduced costs in their equipment, thus achieving the evolution of new wireless networks or also denominated Wireless Sensor Network. These technologies allow the generation of measurements and analysis of environmental parameter data and soil. Precision agriculture requires parameters for the improvement of production, obtained through WSN technologies. This research analyzes the climatic requirements and soil parameters in a rose plantation in a greenhouse at an altitude of 3,100 meters above sea level. In the present investigation, maximum parameters were obtained in the production of roses, which are in the optimum range of production, whereas the minimum parameters of temperature, humidity and luminosity, evidenced that these parameters can damage the plants, since temperatures less than 10 °C slow down the growth of the plant and allow the proliferation of diseases and fungi.

  15. Novel Strategy to Improve the Performance of Localization in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vasim Babu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel strategy of discrete energy consumption model for WSN based on quasi Monte Carlo and crude Monte Carlo method is developed. In our model the discrete hidden Markov process plays a major role in analyzing the node location in heterogeneous media. In this energy consumption model we use both static and dynamic sensor nodes to monitor the optimized energy of all sensor nodes in which every sensor state can be considered as the dynamic Bayesian network. By using this method the power is assigned in terms of dynamic manner to each sensor over discrete time steps to control the graphical structure of our network. The simulation and experiment result shows that our proposed methods are better in terms of localization accuracy and possess minimum computational time over existing localization method.

  16. Fuzzy adaptive Kalman filter for indoor mobile target positioning with INS/WSN integrated method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海; 李威; 罗成名

    2015-01-01

    Pure inertial navigation system (INS) has divergent localization errors after a long time. In order to compensate the disadvantage, wireless sensor network (WSN) associated with the INS was applied to estimate the mobile target positioning. Taking traditional Kalman filter (KF) as the framework, the system equation of KF was established by the INS and the observation equation of position errors was built by the WSN. Meanwhile, the observation equation of velocity errors was established by the velocity difference between the INS and WSN, then the covariance matrix of Kalman filter measurement noise was adjusted with fuzzy inference system (FIS), and the fuzzy adaptive Kalman filter (FAKF) based on the INS/WSN was proposed. The simulation results show that the FAKF method has better accuracy and robustness than KF and EKF methods and shows good adaptive capacity with time-varying system noise. Finally, experimental results further prove that FAKF has the fast convergence error, in comparison with KF and EKF methods.

  17. A Compact Annular Ring Microstrip Antenna for WSN Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daihua Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A compact annular ring microstrip antenna was proposed for a wireless sensor network (WSN application in the 2.4 GHz band. In this paper the major considerations of the conformal antenna design were the compact size and the impact on antenna’s performance of a steel installation base. By using a chip resistor of large resistance (120 Ω the antenna size was reduced to 38% of that a conventional annular ring patch antenna. With the addition of the steel installation base the resonant frequency of the antenna increases about 4.2% and the bandwidth reduces from 17.5% to 11.7% by adjusting the load resistance simultaneously. Several key parameters were discussed and optimized, and the antenna was fabricated and its performance measured. The antenna is well matched at 2.4 GHz with 34.2 dB return loss and –2.5 dBi peak gain. Meanwhile, it exhibits excellent radiation patterns with very low cross-polarization levels.

  18. Optimization of RFID network planning using Zigbee and WSN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnan, Khalid; Ahmed, Aftab; Badrul-aisham, Bakhsh, Qadir

    2015-05-01

    Everyone wants to be ease in their life. Radio frequency identification (RFID) wireless technology is used to make our life easier. RFID technology increases productivity, accuracy and convenience in delivery of service in supply chain. It is used for various applications such as preventing theft of automobiles, tolls collection without stopping, no checkout lines at grocery stores, managing traffic, hospital management, corporate campuses and airports, mobile asset tracking, warehousing, tracking library books, and to track a wealth of assets in supply chain management. Efficiency of RFID can be enhanced by integrating with wireless sensor network (WSN), zigbee mesh network and internet of things (IOT). The proposed system is used for identifying, sensing and real-time locating system (RTLS) of items in an indoor heterogeneous region. The system gives real-time richer information of object's characteristics, location and their environmental parameters like temperature, noise and humidity etc. RTLS reduce human error, optimize inventory management, increase productivity and information accuracy at indoor heterogeneous network. The power consumption and the data transmission rate of the system can be minimized by using low power hardware design.

  19. A Reference Model for Monitoring IoT WSN-Based Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capella, Juan Vicente; Campelo, José Carlos; Bonastre, Alberto; Ors, Rafael

    2016-10-30

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is, at this moment, one of the most promising technologies that has arisen for decades. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are one of the main pillars for many IoT applications, insofar as they require to obtain context-awareness information. The bibliography shows many difficulties in their real implementation that have prevented its massive deployment. Additionally, in IoT environments where data producers and data consumers are not directly related, compatibility and certification issues become fundamental. Both problems would profit from accurate knowledge of the internal behavior of WSNs that must be obtained by the utilization of appropriate tools. There are many ad-hoc proposals with no common structure or methodology, and intended to monitor a particular WSN. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a structured three-layer reference model for WSN Monitoring Platforms (WSN-MP), which offers a standard environment for the design of new monitoring platforms to debug, verify and certify a WSN's behavior and performance, and applicable to every WSN. This model also allows the comparative analysis of the current proposals for monitoring the operation of WSNs. Following this methodology, it is possible to achieve a standardization of WSN-MP, promoting new research areas in order to solve the problems of each layer.

  20. Improvement In MAODV Protocol Using Location Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Sharnjeet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving is difficult in wireless sensor network (WSN due to limited resources. Each node in WSN is constrained by their limited battery power for their energy. The energy is reduced as the time goes off due to the packet transmission and reception. Energy management techniques are necessary to minimize the total power consumption of all the nodes in the network in order to maximize its life span. Our proposed protocol Location based routing (LBR aimed to find a path which utilizes the minimum energy to transmit the packets between the source and the destination. The required energy for the transmission and reception of data is evaluated in MATLAB. LBR is implemented on Multicast Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol (MAODV to manage the energy consumption in the transmission and reception of data. Simulation results of LBR show the energy consumption has been reduced.

  1. A Fuzzy Adaptive Tightly-Coupled Integration Method for Mobile Target Localization Using SINS/WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, mobile target localization for enclosed environments has been a growing interest. In this paper, we have proposed a fuzzy adaptive tightly-coupled integration (FATCI method for positioning and tracking applications using strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS and wireless sensor network (WSN. The wireless signal outage and severe multipath propagation of WSN often influence the accuracy of measured distance and lead to difficulties with the WSN positioning. Note also that the SINS are known for their drifted error over time. Using as a base the well-known loosely-coupled integration method, we have built a tightly-coupled integrated positioning system for SINS/WSN based on the measured distances between anchor nodes and mobile node. The measured distance value of WSN is corrected with a least squares regression (LSR algorithm, with the aim of decreasing the systematic error for measured distance. Additionally, the statistical covariance of measured distance value is used to adjust the observation covariance matrix of a Kalman filter using a fuzzy inference system (FIS, based on the statistical characteristics. Then the tightly-coupled integration model can adaptively adjust the confidence level for measurement according to the different measured accuracies of distance measurements. Hence the FATCI system is achieved using SINS/WSN. This innovative approach is verified in real scenarios. Experimental results show that the proposed positioning system has better accuracy and stability compared with the loosely-coupled and traditional tightly-coupled integration model for WSN short-term failure or normal conditions.

  2. RELIABLE DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING PROTOCOL (RDSRP FOR ENERGY HARVESTING WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Narasimhan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs carry noteworthy pros over traditional communication. Though, unkind and composite environments fake great challenges in the reliability of WSN communications. It is more vital to develop a reliable unipath dynamic source routing protocol (RDSRPl for WSN to provide better quality of service (QoS in energy harvesting wireless sensor networks (EH-WSN. This paper proposes a dynamic source routing approach for attaining the most reliable route in EH-WSNs. Performance evaluation is carried out using NS-2 and throughput and packet delivery ratio are chosen as the metrics.

  3. Selection application for platforms and security protocols suitable for wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S; Newe, T; Lochmann, S

    2009-01-01

    There is a great number of platforms and security protocols which can be used for wireless sensor networks (WSN). All these platforms and protocols have different properties with certain advantages and disadvantages. For a good choice of platform and an associated protocol, these advantages and disadvantages should be compared and the best for the appropriate WSN chosen. To select a Security protocol and a wireless platform suitable for a specific application a software tool will be developed. That tool will enable wireless network deployment engineers to easily select a suitable wireless platform for their application based on their network needs and application security requirements.

  4. A Passive Testing Approach for Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Che

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart systems are today increasingly developed with the number of wireless sensor devices drastically increasing. They are implemented within several contexts throughout our environment. Thus, sensed data transported in ubiquitous systems are important, and the way to carry them must be efficient and reliable. For that purpose, several routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks (WSN. However, one stage that is often neglected before their deployment is the conformance testing process, a crucial and challenging step. Compared to active testing techniques commonly used in wired networks, passive approaches are more suitable to the WSN environment. While some works propose to specify the protocol with state models or to analyze them with simulators and emulators, we here propose a logic-based approach for formally specifying some functional requirements of a novel WSN routing protocol. We provide an algorithm to evaluate these properties on collected protocol execution traces. Further, we demonstrate the efficiency and suitability of our approach by its application into common WSN functional properties, as well as specific ones designed from our own routing protocol. We provide relevant testing verdicts through a real indoor testbed and the implementation of our protocol. Furthermore, the flexibility, genericity and practicability of our approach have been proven by the experimental results.

  5. New experience in atmospheric monitoring in Moscow city on the base of WSN technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavin, Alex; Litvinov, Artur; Baskakov, Sergey; Chesalova, Elena

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this report is to present the gas emission of H2 in the general composition of atmospheric pollution of Moscow city. We start the project at the beginning of 2015 year in two Moscow academicals organization -Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry and Moscow Geological State Museum. One place is in the center of Moscow, near the Kremlin and other one is in the most clear zone of Moscow - Moscow State University place, Vorobyevy Mountains (high point of Moscow). We plan to compare these regions by the concentration of H2 and other gases (CH4, SO2) for green gas pollution. Application network of monitoring is composed of gas sensors (H2, CH4), complex autonomous equipment for measurement temperature, pressure, humidity and network of telecommunications (used ZigBee protocol). Our project offer the technical solutions for monitoring network on the base of WSN (wireless sensor network) technology and the high-sensitive sensors of hydrogen and methane, software and electronic equipment with a transmitter network. This work is the first project in Russia. Gas sensors for monitoring system were developed on the base of MIS-structures (metal-insulator-semiconductor). MIS-sensors are suitable for measuring the concentrations of the following gases: hydrogen, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen dioxide, ethylmercaptan, chlorine and ammonia. The basis of the sensor is MIS - structure Pd-Ta2O5-SiO2-Si,), which capacitance changes when reaction with gases occurs. The sensor fabrication technology is based on the microelectronics device fabrication technologies and the thin film laser deposition technique. Sensor can be used for measuring the concentration of any gas among noted before, in ambient temperature range -30..+40°C and RH 30-90% (30°C).Three gas sensors with analog interface were made for our experimental monitoring system. Original calibration was made using calibration by special standard mixture of H2 and atmosphere. There are 10-15 points

  6. Modeling Energy & Reliability of a CNT based WSN on an HPC Setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Pathak

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the effect of innovations in Nanotechnology on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN and have modeled Carbon Nanotube (CNT based sensor nodes from a device prospective. A WSN model has been programmed in Simulink-MATLAB and a library has been developed. Integration of CNT in WSN for various modules such as sensors, microprocessors, batteries etc has been shown. Also average energy consumption for the system has been formulated and its reliability has been shown holistically. A proposition has been put forward on the changes needed in existing sensor node structure to improve its efficiency and to facilitate as well as enhance the assimilation of CNT based devices in a WSN. Finally we have commented on the challenges that exist in this technology and described the important factors that need to be considered for calculating reliability. This research will help in practical implementation of CNT based devices and analysis of their key effects on the WSN environment. The work has been executed on Simulink and Distributive Computing toolbox of MATLAB. The proposal has been compared to the recent developments and past experimental results reported in this field. This attempt to derieve the energy consumption and reliability implications will help in development of real devices using CNT which is a major hurdle in bringing the success from lab to commercial market. Recent research in CNT has been used to model an energy efficient model which will also lead to the development CAD tools. Library for Reliability and Energy consumption includes analysis of various parts of a WSN system which is being constructed from CNT. Nano routing in a CNT system is also implemented with its dependencies. Finally the computations were executed on a HPC setup and the model showed remarkable speedup.

  7. The design of tea garden environmental monitoring system based on WSN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huajun; Yuan, Lina

    2018-01-01

    Through the application of wireless sensor network (WSN) in tea garden, it can realize the change of traditional tea garden to the modern ones, and effectively improves the comprehensive productive capacity of tea garden. According to the requirement of real-time remote in agricultural information collection and monitoring and the power supply affected by environmental limitations, based on WSN, this paper designs a set of tea garden environmental monitoring system, which achieves the monitoring nodes with ad-hoc network as well as automatic acquisition and transmission to the tea plantations of air temperature, light intensity, soil temperature and humidity.

  8. A WSN-based tool for urban and industrial fire-fighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De San Bernabe Clemente, Alberto; Martínez-de Dios, José Ramiro; Ollero Baturone, Aníbal

    2012-11-06

    This paper describes a WSN tool to increase safety in urban and industrial fire-fighting activities. Unlike most approaches, we assume that there is no preexisting WSN in the building, which involves interesting advantages but imposes some constraints. The system integrates the following functionalities: fire monitoring, firefighter monitoring and dynamic escape path guiding. It also includes a robust localization method that employs RSSI-range models dynamically trained to cope with the peculiarities of the environment. The training and application stages of the method are applied simultaneously, resulting in significant adaptability. Besides simulations and laboratory tests, a prototype of the proposed system has been validated in close-to-operational conditions.

  9. Evaluation of video transmission of MAC protocols in wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulidin, Mahmuddin, M.; Kamaruddin, L. M.; Elsaikh, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a wireless network which consists of sensor nodes scattered in a particular area which are used to monitor physical or environment condition. Each node in WSN is also scattered in sensor field, so an appropriate scheme of MAC protocol should have to develop communication link for data transferring. Video transmission is one of the important applications for the future that can be transmitted with low aspect in side of cost and also power consumption. In this paper, comparison of five different MAC WSN protocol for video transmission namely IEEE 802.11 standard, IEEE 802.15.4 standard, CSMA/CA, Berkeley-MAC, and Lightweight-MAC protocol are studied. Simulation experiment has been conducted in OMNeT++ with INET network simulator software to evaluate the performance. Obtained results indicate that IEEE 802.11 works better than other protocol in term of packet delivery, throughput, and latency.

  10. Comparative Study of Temporal Aspects of Data Collection Using Remote Database vs. Abstract Database in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmen BELFKIH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The real-time aspect is an important factor for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN applications, which demand a timely data delivery, to reflect the current state of the environment. However, most existing works in the field of sensor networks are only interested in data processing and energy consumption, to improve the lifetime of WSN. Extensive researches have been done on data processing in WSN. Some works have been interested in improving data collection methods, and others have focused on various query processing techniques. In recent years, the query processing using abstract database technology like Cougar and TinyDB has shown efficient results in many researches. This paper presents a study of timing properties through two data processing techniques for WSN. The first is based on a warehousing approach, in which data are collected and stored on a remote database. The second is based on query processing using an abstract database like TinyDB. This study has allowed us to identify some factors which enhance the respect of temporal constraints.

  11. Architecture for WSN Nodes Integration in Context Aware Systems Using Semantic Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larizgoitia, Iker; Muguira, Leire; Vazquez, Juan Ignacio

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are becoming extremely popular in the development of context aware systems. Traditionally WSN have been focused on capturing data, which was later analyzed and interpreted in a server with more computational power. In this kind of scenario the problem of representing the sensor information needs to be addressed. Every node in the network might have different sensors attached; therefore their correspondent packet structures will be different. The server has to be aware of the meaning of every single structure and data in order to be able to interpret them. Multiple sensors, multiple nodes, multiple packet structures (and not following a standard format) is neither scalable nor interoperable. Context aware systems have solved this problem with the use of semantic technologies. They provide a common framework to achieve a standard definition of any domain. Nevertheless, these representations are computationally expensive, so a WSN cannot afford them. The work presented in this paper tries to bridge the gap between the sensor information and its semantic representation, by defining a simple architecture that enables the definition of this information natively in a semantic way, achieving the integration of the semantic information in the network packets. This will have several benefits, the most important being the possibility of promoting every WSN node to a real semantic information source.

  12. Congestion Control for a Fair Packet Delivery in WSN: From a Complex System Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aguirre-Guerrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose that packets travelling across a wireless sensor network (WSN can be seen as the active agents that make up a complex system, just like a bird flock or a fish school, for instance. From this perspective, the tools and models that have been developed to study this kind of systems have been applied. This is in order to create a distributed congestion control based on a set of simple rules programmed at the nodes of the WSN. Our results show that it is possible to adapt the carried traffic to the network capacity, even under stressing conditions. Also, the network performance shows a smooth degradation when the traffic goes beyond a threshold which is settled by the proposed self-organized control. In contrast, without any control, the network collapses before this threshold. The use of the proposed solution provides an effective strategy to address some of the common problems found in WSN deployment by providing a fair packet delivery. In addition, the network congestion is mitigated using adaptive traffic mechanisms based on a satisfaction parameter assessed by each packet which has impact on the global satisfaction of the traffic carried by the WSN.

  13. Optimal Service Distribution in WSN Service System Subject to Data Security Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhao; Xiong, Naixue; Huang, Yannong; Gu, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Services composition technology provides a flexible approach to building Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Service Applications (WSA) in a service oriented tasking system for WSN. Maintaining the data security of WSA is one of the most important goals in sensor network research. In this paper, we consider a WSN service oriented tasking system in which the WSN Services Broker (WSB), as the resource management center, can map the service request from user into a set of atom-services (AS) and send them to some independent sensor nodes (SN) for parallel execution. The distribution of ASs among these SNs affects the data security as well as the reliability and performance of WSA because these SNs can be of different and independent specifications. By the optimal service partition into the ASs and their distribution among SNs, the WSB can provide the maximum possible service reliability and/or expected performance subject to data security constraints. This paper proposes an algorithm of optimal service partition and distribution based on the universal generating function (UGF) and the genetic algorithm (GA) approach. The experimental analysis is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the suggested algorithm. PMID:25093346

  14. An Energy Aware Adaptive Sampling Algorithm for Energy Harvesting WSN with Energy Hungry Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srbinovski, Bruno; Magno, Michele; Edwards-Murphy, Fiona; Pakrashi, Vikram; Popovici, Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor nodes have a limited power budget, though they are often expected to be functional in the field once deployed for extended periods of time. Therefore, minimization of energy consumption and energy harvesting technology in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are key tools for maximizing network lifetime, and achieving self-sustainability. This paper proposes an energy aware Adaptive Sampling Algorithm (ASA) for WSN with power hungry sensors and harvesting capabilities, an energy management technique that can be implemented on any WSN platform with enough processing power to execute the proposed algorithm. An existing state-of-the-art ASA developed for wireless sensor networks with power hungry sensors is optimized and enhanced to adapt the sampling frequency according to the available energy of the node. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using two in-field testbeds that are supplied by two different energy harvesting sources (solar and wind). Simulation and comparison between the state-of-the-art ASA and the proposed energy aware ASA (EASA) in terms of energy durability are carried out using in-field measured harvested energy (using both wind and solar sources) and power hungry sensors (ultrasonic wind sensor and gas sensors). The simulation results demonstrate that using ASA in combination with an energy aware function on the nodes can drastically increase the lifetime of a WSN node and enable self-sustainability. In fact, the proposed EASA in conjunction with energy harvesting capability can lead towards perpetual WSN operation and significantly outperform the state-of-the-art ASA. PMID:27043559

  15. An Energy Aware Adaptive Sampling Algorithm for Energy Harvesting WSN with Energy Hungry Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Srbinovski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor nodes have a limited power budget, though they are often expected to be functional in the field once deployed for extended periods of time. Therefore, minimization of energy consumption and energy harvesting technology in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN are key tools for maximizing network lifetime, and achieving self-sustainability. This paper proposes an energy aware Adaptive Sampling Algorithm (ASA for WSN with power hungry sensors and harvesting capabilities, an energy management technique that can be implemented on any WSN platform with enough processing power to execute the proposed algorithm. An existing state-of-the-art ASA developed for wireless sensor networks with power hungry sensors is optimized and enhanced to adapt the sampling frequency according to the available energy of the node. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using two in-field testbeds that are supplied by two different energy harvesting sources (solar and wind. Simulation and comparison between the state-of-the-art ASA and the proposed energy aware ASA (EASA in terms of energy durability are carried out using in-field measured harvested energy (using both wind and solar sources and power hungry sensors (ultrasonic wind sensor and gas sensors. The simulation results demonstrate that using ASA in combination with an energy aware function on the nodes can drastically increase the lifetime of a WSN node and enable self-sustainability. In fact, the proposed EASA in conjunction with energy harvesting capability can lead towards perpetual WSN operation and significantly outperform the state-of-the-art ASA.

  16. Energy Aware GPSR Routing Protocol in a Wireless Sensor Network ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy is the scarce resource in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), and it determines the lifetime of WSNs. For this reason, WSN algorithms and routing protocols should be selected in a manner which fulfills these energy requirements. This paper presents a solution to increase the lifetime of WSNs by decreasing their ...

  17. Throughput, latency and cost comparisons of microcontroller-based implementations of wireless sensor network (WSN) in high jump sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Afandi; Roslan, Muhammad Faris; Amira, Abbes

    2017-09-01

    In high jump sports, approach take-off speed and force during the take-off are two (2) main important parts to gain maximum jump. To measure both parameters, wireless sensor network (WSN) that contains microcontroller and sensor are needed to describe the results of speed and force for jumpers. Most of the microcontroller exhibit transmission issues in terms of throughput, latency and cost. Thus, this study presents the comparison of wireless microcontrollers in terms of throughput, latency and cost, and the microcontroller that have best performances and cost will be implemented in high jump wearable device. In the experiments, three (3) parts have been integrated - input, process and output. Force (for ankle) and global positioning system (GPS) sensor (for body waist) acts as an input for data transmission. These data were then being processed by both microcontrollers, ESP8266 and Arduino Yun Mini to transmit the data from sensors to the server (host-PC) via message queuing telemetry transport (MQTT) protocol. The server acts as receiver and the results was calculated from the MQTT log files. At the end, results obtained have shown ESP8266 microcontroller had been chosen since it achieved high throughput, low latency and 11 times cheaper in term of prices compared to Arduino Yun Mini microcontroller.

  18. An Authentication Protocol for Future Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Kang, Shin-Gak

    2017-04-28

    Authentication is one of the essential security services in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for ensuring secure data sessions. Sensor node authentication ensures the confidentiality and validity of data collected by the sensor node, whereas user authentication guarantees that only legitimate users can access the sensor data. In a mobile WSN, sensor and user nodes move across the network and exchange data with multiple nodes, thus experiencing the authentication process multiple times. The integration of WSNs with Internet of Things (IoT) brings forth a new kind of WSN architecture along with stricter security requirements; for instance, a sensor node or a user node may need to establish multiple concurrent secure data sessions. With concurrent data sessions, the frequency of the re-authentication process increases in proportion to the number of concurrent connections. Moreover, to establish multiple data sessions, it is essential that a protocol participant have the capability of running multiple instances of the protocol run, which makes the security issue even more challenging. The currently available authentication protocols were designed for the autonomous WSN and do not account for the above requirements. Hence, ensuring a lightweight and efficient authentication protocol has become more crucial. In this paper, we present a novel, lightweight and efficient key exchange and authentication protocol suite called the Secure Mobile Sensor Network (SMSN) Authentication Protocol. In the SMSN a mobile node goes through an initial authentication procedure and receives a re-authentication ticket from the base station. Later a mobile node can use this re-authentication ticket when establishing multiple data exchange sessions and/or when moving across the network. This scheme reduces the communication and computational complexity of the authentication process. We proved the strength of our protocol with rigorous security analysis (including formal analysis using the BAN

  19. A SURVEY ON MULTICAST ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR PERFORMANCE EVALUATION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suruliandi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multicast is a process used to transfer same message to multiple receivers at the same time. This paper presents the simulation and analysis of the performance of six different multicast routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. They are On Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP, Protocol for Unified Multicasting through Announcement (PUMA, Multicast Adhoc On demand Distance Vector Protocol (MAODV, Overlay Boruvka-based Adhoc Multicast Protocol (OBAMP, Application Layer Multicast Algorithm (ALMA and enhanced version of ALMA (ALMA-H for WSN. Among them, ODMRP, MAODV and PUMA are reactive protocols while OBAMP, ALMA and ALMA-H are proactive protocols. This paper compares the performance of these protocols with common parameters such as Throughput, Reliability, End-to-End delay and Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR with increasing the numbers of nodes and increasing the speed of the nodes. The main objective of this work is to select the efficient multicast routing protocol for WSN among six multicast routing protocol based on relative strength and weakness of each protocol. The summary of above six multicast routing protocols is presented with a table of different performance characteristics. Experimental result shows that ODMRP attains higher throughput, reliability and higher packet delivery ratio than other multicast routing protocol, while incurring far less end-to-end delay.

  20. Research on Improved DV-HOP Algorithm against Wormhole Attacks in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xue-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The secure location of node is significant in the WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks of the troop frontier defence system. The wormhole attack is a big threat in the secure location. The credibility of the beacon node was used to determine the malicious nodes produced by wormhole attack in the WSN. The estimated method of multibeacon nodes was adopted to improve DV-HOP algorithm after excluding the malicious nodes. In this paper, we compared the basic DV-HOP algorithm and the improved DV-HOP algorithm in the coverage percentage and the error of network localization by simulating. The simulation results indicate that the improved DV-HOP algorithm makes the localization coverage percentage can reach 90% on a certain scale of the network, and it makes the error percentage lower when the number of beacons is different.

  1. On Developing a Novel Versatile Framework for Heterogeneous Home Monitoring WSN networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. P. Antonopoulos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to deploy efficient and versatile WSN networks in the home environment is and will remain in the years to come a cornerstone objective in wireless networking. Respective services are continuously expanding requiring novel design and implementation approaches able to cover all relative present and even more importantly future requirements. This paper aims to present and convey knowledge and experience gained from such an effort in the context of home monitoring. Respective discussion covers all relative aspects and analyzes all critical challenges addressed ranging from identification and specification of the main requirements, to possible implementation approaches considered and finally the actual development undertaken. The final outcome considering the WSN home monitoring infrastructure as well as extracted knowledge and practical conclusions can be proven useful for further extending such an endeavour or even pursuing a different approach.

  2. A WSN-Based Tool for Urban and Industrial Fire-Fighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Ollero Baturone

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a WSN tool to increase safety in urban and industrial fire-fighting activities. Unlike most approaches, we assume that there is no preexisting WSN in the building, which involves interesting advantages but imposes some constraints. The system integrates the following functionalities: fire monitoring, firefighter monitoring and dynamic escape path guiding. It also includes a robust localization method that employs RSSI-range models dynamically trained to cope with the peculiarities of the environment. The training and application stages of the method are applied simultaneously, resulting in significant adaptability. Besides simulations and laboratory tests, a prototype of the proposed system has been validated in close-to-operational conditions.

  3. Monitoring of ph, redox and turbidity in a water treatment plant using WSN with ZIGBEE technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Fonseca-Gonzaléz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a WSN using Zigbee technology (Standart IEEE 802.15.4, With the help of the XBee of Maxtream modules the communication is carried out between a remote water treatment plant towards a ccordinator node. The acqired data are entered to a microcontroller which takes care of the processing to be able to transmit and visualized under a graphical user interface in Matlab

  4. Design and Implementation of PV based Energy Harvester for WSN Node with MAIC algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJENDRAN, H.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are hardly in need of an additional source of power other than the normally used batteries, to increase the lifetime considerably. In this paper, mathematical modeling of photovoltaic energy harvesting (PVEH system for the WSN is presented. The system comprises of the solar PV panel, boost converter as maximum power point tracker with moving averaged incremental conductance (MAIC maximum power point (MPP algorithm, Ni-MH battery for energy storage, compensator, buck regulator and the mathematically modeled WSN mote. MAIC algorithm is proposed to avoid the effect of drastic variations in input irradiance, in locking the MPP point. WSN mote is modeled in both active and sleep state based on the power consumption. To maintain the voltage stability, proper compensator has been designed for the proposed system. The performance of the system is tested for dynamic variations of environmental conditions using MATLAB simulation. The proposed system has 50 to 60 percent improved conversion efficiency when compared to the conventional direct coupling method. The parameters of the photovoltaic panel model have been validated through experimentation. Also the practical verification of the operation of MPPT circuit has been performed.

  5. A Tabu Search WSN Deployment Method for Monitoring Geographically Irregular Distributed Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN deployment issue. We assume that the observed area is characterized by the geographical irregularity of the sensed events. Formally, we consider that each point in the deployment area is associated a differentiated detection probability threshold, which must be satisfied by our deployment method. Our resulting WSN deployment problem is formulated as a Multi-Objectives Optimization problem, which seeks to reduce the gap between the generated events detection probabilities and the required thresholds while minimizing the number of deployed sensors. To overcome the computational complexity of an exact resolution, we propose an original pseudo-random approach based on the Tabu Search heuristic. Simulations show that our proposal achieves better performances than several other approaches proposed in the literature. In the last part of this paper, we generalize the deployment problem by including the wireless communication network connectivity constraint. Thus, we extend our proposal to ensure that the resulting WSN topology is connected even if a sensor communication range takes small values.

  6. A Tabu Search WSN Deployment Method for Monitoring Geographically Irregular Distributed Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitsaadi, Nadjib; Achir, Nadjib; Boussetta, Khaled; Pujolle, Guy

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we address the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) deployment issue. We assume that the observed area is characterized by the geographical irregularity of the sensed events. Formally, we consider that each point in the deployment area is associated a differentiated detection probability threshold, which must be satisfied by our deployment method. Our resulting WSN deployment problem is formulated as a Multi-Objectives Optimization problem, which seeks to reduce the gap between the generated events detection probabilities and the required thresholds while minimizing the number of deployed sensors. To overcome the computational complexity of an exact resolution, we propose an original pseudo-random approach based on the Tabu Search heuristic. Simulations show that our proposal achieves better performances than several other approaches proposed in the literature. In the last part of this paper, we generalize the deployment problem by including the wireless communication network connectivity constraint. Thus, we extend our proposal to ensure that the resulting WSN topology is connected even if a sensor communication range takes small values.

  7. An ACOR-Based Multi-Objective WSN Deployment Example for Lunar Surveying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Matencio, Pablo

    2016-02-06

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can gather in situ real data measurements and work unattended for long periods, even in remote, rough places. A critical aspect of WSN design is node placement, as this determines sensing capacities, network connectivity, network lifetime and, in short, the whole operational capabilities of the WSN. This paper proposes and studies a new node placement algorithm that focus on these aspects. As a motivating example, we consider a network designed to describe the distribution of helium-3 (³He), a potential enabling element for fusion reactors, on the Moon. ³He is abundant on the Moon's surface, and knowledge of its distribution is essential for future harvesting purposes. Previous data are inconclusive, and there is general agreement that on-site measurements, obtained over a long time period, are necessary to better understand the mechanisms involved in the distribution of this element on the Moon. Although a mission of this type is extremely complex, it allows us to illustrate the main challenges involved in a multi-objective WSN placement problem, i.e., selection of optimal observation sites and maximization of the lifetime of the network. To tackle optimization, we use a recent adaptation of the ant colony optimization (ACOR) metaheuristic, extended to continuous domains. Solutions are provided in the form of a Pareto frontier that shows the optimal equilibria. Moreover, we compared our scheme with the four-directional placement (FDP) heuristic, which was outperformed in all cases.

  8. A General Self-Organized Tree-Based Energy-Balance Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhao; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Liefeng; Tian, Kaiyun

    2014-04-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a system composed of a large number of low-cost micro-sensors. This network is used to collect and send various kinds of messages to a base station (BS). WSN consists of low-cost nodes with limited battery power, and the battery replacement is not easy for WSN with thousands of physically embedded nodes, which means energy efficient routing protocol should be employed to offer a long-life work time. To achieve the aim, we need not only to minimize total energy consumption but also to balance WSN load. Researchers have proposed many protocols such as LEACH, HEED, PEGASIS, TBC and PEDAP. In this paper, we propose a General Self-Organized Tree-Based Energy-Balance routing protocol (GSTEB) which builds a routing tree using a process where, for each round, BS assigns a root node and broadcasts this selection to all sensor nodes. Subsequently, each node selects its parent by considering only itself and its neighbors' information, thus making GSTEB a dynamic protocol. Simulation results show that GSTEB has a better performance than other protocols in balancing energy consumption, thus prolonging the lifetime of WSN.

  9. A Lightweight Medium Access Protocol (LMAC) for Wireless Sensor Networks: Reducing Preamble Transmissions and Transceiver State Switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present an energy-efficient medium access protocol designed for wireless sensor networks. Although the protocol uses TDMA to give nodes in the WSN the opportunity to communicate collision-free, the network is self-organizing in terms of time slot assignment and synchronization. The

  10. A Hierarchical Energy Efficient Reliable Transport Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhudutta Mohanty

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The two important requirements for many Wireless Senor Networks (WSNs are prolonged network lifetime and end-to-end reliability. The sensor nodes consume more energy during data transmission than the data sensing. In WSN, the redundant data increase the energy consumption, latency and reduce reliability during data transmission. Therefore, it is important to support energy efficient reliable data transport in WSNs. In this paper, we present a Hierarchical Energy Efficient Reliable Transport Protocol (HEERTP for the data transmission within the WSN. This protocol maximises the network lifetime by controlling the redundant data transmission with the co-ordination of Base Station (BS. The proposed protocol also achieves end-to-end reliability using a hop-by-hop acknowledgement scheme. We evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol through simulation. The simulation results reveal that our proposed protocol achieves better performance in terms of energy efficiency, latency and reliability than the existing protocols.

  11. QoS and energy aware cooperative routing protocol for wildfire monitoring wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalej, Mohamed; Cherif, Sofiane; Besbes, Hichem

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are presented as proper solution for wildfire monitoring. However, this application requires a design of WSN taking into account the network lifetime and the shadowing effect generated by the trees in the forest environment. Cooperative communication is a promising solution for WSN which uses, at each hop, the resources of multiple nodes to transmit its data. Thus, by sharing resources between nodes, the transmission quality is enhanced. In this paper, we use the technique of reinforcement learning by opponent modeling, optimizing a cooperative communication protocol based on RSSI and node energy consumption in a competitive context (RSSI/energy-CC), that is, an energy and quality-of-service aware-based cooperative communication routing protocol. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs well in terms of network lifetime, packet delay, and energy consumption.

  12. A Review on State of Art Variants of LEACH Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuvaraj P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in wireless communication lead to many improvements in application specific wireless sensor network (WSN deployment. Sensing different data from different environments is essential to monitor and control the situations. For instance, it is very important to sense the forest fire as early as possible to control the upshot. So efficient and timely gathering of the data from a network of small sensor nodes is necessary. In WSN, the small sized sensor nodes are working with very small batteries with limited energy. Since those are randomly deployed over a wide area, replacement of battery or recharging is not feasible. So, for getting prolonged life time of WSN, energy efficient operation is the key factor. Among many protocols proposed for enhancing the life time of WSN, the clustering based hierarchical protocols are popular and gaining the attention of researchers because of their high energy efficiency. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH is energy efficient hierarchical, clustering based protocol. It is considered as the base of many hierarchical clustering protocols. In this paper, some of the recent tailored protocols proposed to strengthen LEACH are examined.

  13. The deployment of carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) for ambient air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwatpongsakorn, Chaichana; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2014-06-16

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The system has been deployed over two weeks during Fall 2010, and Summer 2011-2012, traffic data was also recorded by using a manual traffic counter and a video camcorder to characterize vehicles at the intersection 24 h, particularly, during the morning and evening peak hour periods. According to the field test results, the 1 hr-average CO concentrations were found to range from 0.1-1.0 ppm which is lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 35 ppm on a one-hour averaging period. During rush hour periods, the traffic volume at the intersection varied from 2,067 to 3,076 vehicles per hour with 97% being passenger vehicles. Furthermore, the traffic volume based on a 1-h average showed good correlation (R2 = 0.87) with the 1-h average CO-WSN concentrations for morning and evening peak time periods whereas CO-WSN results provided a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.42) with 24 hours traffic volume due to fluctuated changes of meteorological conditions. It is concluded that the performance and the reliability of wireless ambient air monitoring networks can be used as an alternative method for real time air monitoring.

  14. A comprehensive WSN-based approach to efficiently manage a Smart Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sandoval, Ruben; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe; Garcia-Haro, Joan; Flynn, David

    2014-10-10

    The Smart Grid (SG) is conceived as the evolution of the current electrical grid representing a big leap in terms of efficiency, reliability and flexibility compared to today's electrical network. To achieve this goal, the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are considered by the scientific/engineering community to be one of the most suitable technologies to apply SG technology to due to their low-cost, collaborative and long-standing nature. However, the SG has posed significant challenges to utility operators-mainly very harsh radio propagation conditions and the lack of appropriate systems to empower WSN devices-making most of the commercial widespread solutions inadequate. In this context, and as a main contribution, we have designed a comprehensive ad-hoc WSN-based solution for the Smart Grid (SENSED-SG) that focuses on specific implementations of the MAC, the network and the application layers to attain maximum performance and to successfully deal with any arising hurdles. Our approach has been exhaustively evaluated by computer simulations and mathematical analysis, as well as validation within real test-beds deployed in controlled environments. In particular, these test-beds cover two of the main scenarios found in a SG; on one hand, an indoor electrical substation environment, implemented in a High Voltage AC/DC laboratory, and, on the other hand, an outdoor case, deployed in the Transmission and Distribution segment of a power grid. The results obtained show that SENSED-SG performs better and is more suitable for the Smart Grid than the popular ZigBee WSN approach.

  15. Wi-GIM system: a new wireless sensor network (WSN) for accurate ground instability monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucchi, Lorenzo; Trippi, Federico; Schina, Rosa; Fornaciai, Alessandro; Gigli, Giovanni; Nannipieri, Luca; Favalli, Massimiliano; Marturia Alavedra, Jordi; Intrieri, Emanuele; Agostini, Andrea; Carnevale, Ennio; Bertolini, Giovanni; Pizziolo, Marco; Casagli, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Landslides are among the most serious and common geologic hazards around the world. Their impact on human life is expected to increase in the next future as a consequence of human-induced climate change as well as the population growth in proximity of unstable slopes. Therefore, developing better performing technologies for monitoring landslides and providing local authorities with new instruments able to help them in the decision making process, is becoming more and more important. The recent progresses in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) allow us to extend the use of wireless technologies in landslide monitoring. In particular, the developments in electronics components have permitted to lower the price of the sensors and, at the same time, to actuate more efficient wireless communications. In this work we present a new wireless sensor network (WSN) system, designed and developed for landslide monitoring in the framework of EU Wireless Sensor Network for Ground Instability Monitoring - Wi-GIM project (LIFE12 ENV/IT/001033). We show the preliminary performance of the Wi-GIM system after the first period of monitoring on the active Roncovetro Landslide and on a large subsiding area in the neighbourhood of Sallent village. The Roncovetro landslide is located in the province of Reggio Emilia (Italy) and moved an inferred volume of about 3 million cubic meters. Sallent village is located at the centre of the Catalan evaporitic basin in Spain. The Wi-GIM WSN monitoring system consists of three levels: 1) Master/Gateway level coordinates the WSN and performs data aggregation and local storage; 2) Master/Server level takes care of acquiring and storing data on a remote server; 3) Nodes level that is based on a mesh of peripheral nodes, each consisting in a sensor board equipped with sensors and wireless module. The nodes are located in the landslide ground perimeter and are able to create an ad-hoc WSN. The location of each sensor on the ground is

  16. ERT to aid in WSN based early warning system for landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    T, H.

    2017-12-01

    Amrita University's landslide monitoring and early warning system using Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) consists of heterogeneous sensors like rain gauge, moisture sensor, piezometer, geophone, inclinometer, tilt meter etc. The information from the sensors are accurate and limited to that point. In order to monitor a large area, ERT can be used in conjunction with WSN technology. To accomplish the feasibility of ERT in landslide early warning along with WSN technology, we have conducted experiments in Amrita's landslide laboratory setup. The experiment was aimed to simulate landslide, and monitor the changes happening in the soil using moisture sensor and ERT. Simulating moisture values from resistivity measurements to a greater accuracy can help in landslide monitoring for large areas. For accomplishing the same we have adapted two mathematical approaches, 1) Regression analysis between resistivity measurements and actual moisture values from moisture sensor, and 2) Using Waxman Smith model to simulate moisture values from resistivity measurements. The simulated moisture values from Waxman Smith model is compared with the actual moisture values and the Mean Square Error (MSE) is found to be 46.33. Regression curve is drawn for the resistivity vs simulated moisture values from Waxman model, and it is compared with the regression curve of actual model, which is shown in figure-1. From figure-1, it is clear that there the regression curve from actual moisture values and the regression curve from simulated moisture values, follow the similar pattern and there is a small difference between them. Moisture values can be simulated to a greater accuracy using actual regression equation, but the limitation is that, regression curves will differ for different sites and different soils. Regression equation from actual moisture values can be used, if we have conducted experiment in the laboratory for a particular soil sample, otherwise with the knowledge of soil properties

  17. Refrigerated Fruit Storage Monitoring Combining Two Different Wireless Sensing Technologies: RFID and WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Badia-Melis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Every day, millions of tons of temperature-sensitive goods are produced, transported, stored or distributed worldwide, thus making their temperature and humidity control essential. Quality control and monitoring of goods during the cold chain is an increasing concern for producers, suppliers, logistic decision makers and consumers. In this paper we present the results of a combination of RFID and WSN devices in a set of studies performed in three commercial wholesale chambers of 1848 m3 with different set points and products. Up to 90 semi-passive RFID temperature loggers were installed simultaneously together with seven motes, during one week in each chamber. 3D temperature mapping charts were obtained and also the psychrometric data model from ASABE was implemented for the calculation of enthalpy changes and the absolute water content of air. Thus thank to the feedback of data, between RFID and WSN it is possible to estimate energy consumption in the cold room, water loss from the products and detect any condensation over the stored commodities.

  18. A WSN based Environment and Parameter Monitoring System for Human Health Comfort: A Cloud Enabled Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manohara Pai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The number and type of sensors measuring physical and physiological parameters have seen dramatic increase due to progress in the MEMS and Nano Technology. The Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs in turn is bringing new applications in environment monitoring and healthcare in order to improve the quality of service especially in hospitals. The adequacy of WSNs to gather critical information has provided solution but with limited storage, computation and scalability. This limitation is addressed by integrating WSN with cloud services. But, once the data enters the cloud the owner has no control over it. Hence confidentiality and integrity of the data being stored in the cloud are compromised. In this proposed work, secure sensor-cloud architecture for the applications in healthcare is implemented by integrating two different clouds. The sink node of WSN outsources data into the cloud after performing operations to secure the data. Since the SaaS and IaaS environments of Cloud Computing are provided by two different cloud service providers (CSPs, both the CSPs will not have complete information of the architecture. This provides inherent security as data storage and data processing are done on different clouds.

  19. Field dynamic testing on a Cyprus concrete highway bridge using Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votsis, Renos A.; Kyriakides, Nicholas; Tantele, Elia A.; Chrysostomou, Christis Z.; Onoufriou, Toula

    2014-08-01

    The aims of the bridge management authorities are to ensure that bridges fulfil their purpose and functionality during their design life. So, it is important to identify and quantify the deterioration of the structural condition early so that a timely application of an intervention will avoid more serious problems and increased costs at a later stage. A measure to enhance the effectiveness of the existing structural evaluation by visual inspection is instrumental monitoring using sensors. The activities performed in this process belong to the field of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). The SHM offers opportunities for continuous or periodic monitoring on bridges and technological advances allow nowadays the employment of wireless sensors networks (WSN) for this task. A SHM application using WSN was implemented on a multi-span reinforced concrete (RC) highway bridge in Limassol with the objective to study its dynamic characteristics and performance. Part of the specific bridge will be replaced and this offered a unique opportunity for measurements before and after construction so that apparent changes in the dynamic characteristics of the bridge will be identified after the repairing work. The measurements provided indications on the frequencies and mode shapes of the bridge and the response amplitude during the passing of traffic. The latter enabled the investigation of the dependency of the bridge's structural damping to the amplitude of vibration induced by the passing of traffic. The results showed that as the excitation increases the magnitude of modal damping increases as well.

  20. Electric Power Self-Supply Module for WSN Sensor Node Based on MEMS Vibration Energy Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyang Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an electric power self-supply module for the wireless sensor network (WSN sensor node. The module includes an electromagnetic vibration energy harvester based on micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS technology and a processing circuit. The vibration energy harvester presented in this paper is fabricated by an integrated microfabrication process and consists of four similar and relatively independent beam vibration elements. The main functions of the processing circuit are to convert the output of the harvester from unstable alternating current (AC to stable direct current (DC, charge the super capacitor, and ensure the stable output of the super capacitor. The preliminary test results of the harvester chip show that the chip can output discontinuous pulse voltage, and the range of the voltage value is from tens to hundreds of millivolts in the vibration frequency range of 10–90 Hz. The maximum value that can be reached is 563 mV (at the vibration frequency of 18 Hz. The results of the test show that the harvester can output a relatively high voltage, which can meet the general electric power demand of a WSN sensor node.

  1. Receiver-initiated medium access control protocols for wireless sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Di Mauro, Alessio; Vithanage, Madava D.

    2015-01-01

    One of the fundamental building blocks of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is the Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol, that part of the system governing when and how two independent neighboring nodes activate their respective transceivers to directly interact. Historically, data exchange has always...

  2. Generando entornos de investigación y desarrollo utilizando redes inalámbricas de sensores (WSN)

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa, Eduardo Omar; Godoy, Diego Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Las Redes Inalámbricas de Sensores (WSN) jugarán un papel preponderante tanto en las actividades académicas y como en el desarrollo en nuestro país. En este artículo se reportan actividades desarrolladas en dos universidades argentinas, utilizando a la tecnología WSN como disparador de actividades de investigación, desarrollo. La aplicación de ésta tecnología de última generación se enmarcan en el dominio de “Internet de las Cosas” y “Ciudades Inteligentes”. Las actividades teórico-práctic...

  3. Performance Analysis of AODV Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network based Smart Metering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, Hasan; Jung, Low Tang

    2013-01-01

    Today no one can deny the need for Smart Grid and it is being considered as of utmost importance to upgrade outdated electric infrastructure to cope with the ever increasing electric load demand. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is considered a promising candidate for internetworking of smart meters with the gateway using mesh topology. This paper investigates the performance of AODV routing protocol for WSN based smart metering deployment. Three case studies are presented to analyze its performance based on four metrics of (i) Packet Delivery Ratio, (ii) Average Energy Consumption of Nodes (iii) Average End-End Delay and (iv) Normalized Routing Load.

  4. Data aggregation in wireless sensor networks using the SOAP protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Yasiri, A; Sunley, A

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) offer an increasingly attractive method of data gathering in distributed system architectures and dynamic access via wireless connectivity. Wireless sensor networks have physical and resource limitations, this leads to increased complexity for application developers and often results in applications that are closely coupled with network protocols. In this paper, a data aggregation framework using SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) on wireless sensor networks is presented. The framework works as a middleware for aggregating data measured by a number of nodes within a network. The aim of the study is to assess the suitability of the protocol in such environments where resources are limited compared to traditional networks

  5. Data aggregation in wireless sensor networks using the SOAP protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Yasiri, A; Sunley, A [School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, Greater Manchester, M5 4WT (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) offer an increasingly attractive method of data gathering in distributed system architectures and dynamic access via wireless connectivity. Wireless sensor networks have physical and resource limitations, this leads to increased complexity for application developers and often results in applications that are closely coupled with network protocols. In this paper, a data aggregation framework using SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) on wireless sensor networks is presented. The framework works as a middleware for aggregating data measured by a number of nodes within a network. The aim of the study is to assess the suitability of the protocol in such environments where resources are limited compared to traditional networks.

  6. SNMS: an intelligent transportation system network architecture based on WSN and P2P network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; LIU Yuan-an; TANG Bi-hua

    2007-01-01

    With the development of city road networks, the question of how to obtain information about the roads is becoming more and more important. In this article, sensor network with mobile station (SNMS), a novel two-tiered intelligent transportation system (ITS) network architecture based on wireless sensor network (WSN) and peer-to-peer (P2P) network, is proposed to provide significant traffic information about the road and thereby, assist travelers to take optimum decisions when they are driving. A detailed explanation with regard to the strategy of each level as well as the design of two main components in the network, sensor unit (SU) and mobile station (MS), is presented. Finally, a representative scenario is described to display the operation of the system.

  7. Resource efficient data compression algorithms for demanding, WSN based biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulos, Christos P; Voros, Nikolaos S

    2016-02-01

    During the last few years, medical research areas of critical importance such as Epilepsy monitoring and study, increasingly utilize wireless sensor network technologies in order to achieve better understanding and significant breakthroughs. However, the limited memory and communication bandwidth offered by WSN platforms comprise a significant shortcoming to such demanding application scenarios. Although, data compression can mitigate such deficiencies there is a lack of objective and comprehensive evaluation of relative approaches and even more on specialized approaches targeting specific demanding applications. The research work presented in this paper focuses on implementing and offering an in-depth experimental study regarding prominent, already existing as well as novel proposed compression algorithms. All algorithms have been implemented in a common Matlab framework. A major contribution of this paper, that differentiates it from similar research efforts, is the employment of real world Electroencephalography (EEG) and Electrocardiography (ECG) datasets comprising the two most demanding Epilepsy modalities. Emphasis is put on WSN applications, thus the respective metrics focus on compression rate and execution latency for the selected datasets. The evaluation results reveal significant performance and behavioral characteristics of the algorithms related to their complexity and the relative negative effect on compression latency as opposed to the increased compression rate. It is noted that the proposed schemes managed to offer considerable advantage especially aiming to achieve the optimum tradeoff between compression rate-latency. Specifically, proposed algorithm managed to combine highly completive level of compression while ensuring minimum latency thus exhibiting real-time capabilities. Additionally, one of the proposed schemes is compared against state-of-the-art general-purpose compression algorithms also exhibiting considerable advantages as far as the

  8. Deployment Strategies and Clustering Protocols Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chérif Diallo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks face significant design challenges due to limited computing and storage capacities and, most importantly, dependence on limited battery power. Energy is a critical resource and is often an important issue to the deployment of sensor applications that claim to be omnipresent in the world of future. Thus optimizing the deployment of sensors becomes a major constraint in the design and implementation of a WSN in order to ensure better network operations. In wireless networking, clustering techniques add scalability, reduce the computation complexity of routing protocols, allow data aggregation and then enhance the network performance. The well-known MaxMin clustering algorithm was previously generalized, corrected and validated. Then, in a previous work we have improved MaxMin by proposing a Single- node Cluster Reduction (SNCR mechanism which eliminates single-node clusters and then improve energy efficiency. In this paper, we show that MaxMin, because of its original pathological case, does not support the grid deployment topology, which is frequently used in WSN architectures. The unreliability feature of the wireless links could have negative impacts on Link Quality Indicator (LQI based clustering protocols. So, in the second part of this paper we show how our distributed Link Quality based d- Clustering Protocol (LQI-DCP has good performance in both stable and high unreliable link environments. Finally, performance evaluation results also show that LQI-DCP fully supports the grid deployment topology and is more energy efficient than MaxMin.

  9. A Study on an Energy Conservation and Interconnection Scheme between WSN and Internet Based on the 6LoWPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runtong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN, which has broad application prospects, consists of small nodes with sensing, computation, and communications capabilities. IPv6 is used over low power WPAN (wireless personal area network which is run by 6LoWPAN technology on the LoWPAN devices. In order to establish seamless connection of two heterogeneous networks, that is, WSN and IPv6 network, this paper proposes an improved energy conservation and interconnection scheme (ECIS based on the analysis of the current schemes. Detailed design of each functional component in the new scheme is proposed, and an expansion of the SSCS module in NS2 802.15.4 simulator is examined. Comprehensive experiments on the simulation platform show that the newly proposed scheme is advantageous over existing results.

  10. Design of a WSN-Based Monitoring System for Avoiding Collision of Tower Cranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiannong Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tower cranes in large construction projects are likely to collide with other cranes close to them during the operation, which is a severe hazard to the security of the staff. Thus, a WSN- based monitoring system for avoiding collision of tower cranes is proposed. The 3D data positioning technology is used to install angle and position sensors at intervals in the cranes in order to collect position data in real time. After the data are sent to the upper computer, the computer calculates the distance using the 3D positioning technique and sets a proper threshold for alarm. When the measured distance is smaller than the threshold, the alarm is set off to prevent collision. In the experiment, three pairs of cranes 15-22 m in height that are located separately are tested in terms of errors in data collection and in alarms. The experimental results show that the proposed system has an alarm accuracy of 99.3 %, and thus, is highly applicable.

  11. A Quality-Aware Relay Node Placement Algorithm to Connect Disjoint WSN Segments with Topology Reorganized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zimu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Connecting numerous separate parts can be indispensable to simply WSNs that operate autonomously or partitions of a single segmented WSN. Linking them is subject to different intersegment quality of communication and service (QoC and QoS while relay nodes are deployed with their exact number and positions left to define, which is the problem that we focus on. Finding the optimal number and position of relays is NP-hard and therefore heuristics and approximation are pursued. This paper presents an effective approach to deploy appropriate relays to satisfy both the QoC and QoS requirements by introducing probabilistic topology control. The key idea is to regulate a new parallel rule and cost function for segments, which eventually maximizes the utilization of deployed node and avoids the deployment of additional relays as much as possible. The optimization problem is then mapped to finding the path that fulfills the both requirements together with least overheads. The experimental result is validated that although the number of relays is slightly increased to meet extra requirements, the network connectivity can be improved by up to 289.5 % with reorganized topology.

  12. Power/Energy Estimator for Designing WSN Nodes with Ambient Energy Harvesting Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutel Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs consist of spatially distributed autonomous sensors to cooperatively monitor physical conditions. Thus, the node battery autonomy is critical. To outperform it, most WSNs rely on the harvesting capability. As nodes can recharge whenever energy is available, the problem is to determine at design time the node autonomy. For our project, we solve it by creating a power/energy estimator that simulates business scenarios to predict node autonomy; the estimation concerns both power and energy features. Based on node architecture configuration, its Dynamic Power Management (DPM policy, and environmental conditions, we present a simulator that helps identify power consumption hot spots and make critical choices during the system design. It also helps to scale the energy storage system as well as the energy harvesters correctly. The hardware part is modelled using the FLPA methodology to develop different node component models with a variable accuracy. For the logical part, we developped a specific DPM by integrating meteorology and weather forecast behaviours. The novelty comes from the ability to simulate the WSN harvesting capability and to estimate at runtime the remaining duration of each service.

  13. Fuzzy Computing Model of Activity Recognition on WSN Movement Data for Ubiquitous Healthcare Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Shu-Yin; Kan, Yao-Chiang; Chen, Yun-Shan; Tu, Ying-Ching; Lin, Hsueh-Chun

    2016-12-03

    Ubiquitous health care (UHC) is beneficial for patients to ensure they complete therapeutic exercises by self-management at home. We designed a fuzzy computing model that enables recognizing assigned movements in UHC with privacy. The movements are measured by the self-developed body motion sensor, which combines both accelerometer and gyroscope chips to make an inertial sensing node compliant with a wireless sensor network (WSN). The fuzzy logic process was studied to calculate the sensor signals that would entail necessary features of static postures and dynamic motions. Combinations of the features were studied and the proper feature sets were chosen with compatible fuzzy rules. Then, a fuzzy inference system (FIS) can be generated to recognize the assigned movements based on the rules. We thus implemented both fuzzy and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems in the model to distinguish static and dynamic movements. The proposed model can effectively reach the recognition scope of the assigned activity. Furthermore, two exercises of upper-limb flexion in physical therapy were applied for the model in which the recognition rate can stand for the passing rate of the assigned motions. Finally, a web-based interface was developed to help remotely measure movement in physical therapy for UHC.

  14. Fuzzy Computing Model of Activity Recognition on WSN Movement Data for Ubiquitous Healthcare Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous health care (UHC is beneficial for patients to ensure they complete therapeutic exercises by self-management at home. We designed a fuzzy computing model that enables recognizing assigned movements in UHC with privacy. The movements are measured by the self-developed body motion sensor, which combines both accelerometer and gyroscope chips to make an inertial sensing node compliant with a wireless sensor network (WSN. The fuzzy logic process was studied to calculate the sensor signals that would entail necessary features of static postures and dynamic motions. Combinations of the features were studied and the proper feature sets were chosen with compatible fuzzy rules. Then, a fuzzy inference system (FIS can be generated to recognize the assigned movements based on the rules. We thus implemented both fuzzy and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems in the model to distinguish static and dynamic movements. The proposed model can effectively reach the recognition scope of the assigned activity. Furthermore, two exercises of upper-limb flexion in physical therapy were applied for the model in which the recognition rate can stand for the passing rate of the assigned motions. Finally, a web-based interface was developed to help remotely measure movement in physical therapy for UHC.

  15. Performance evaluation of spatial vector routing protocol for wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, J.; Jokhio, I.

    2012-01-01

    WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks) is an emerging area of research. Researchers worldwide are working on the issues faced by sensor nodes. Communication has been a major issue in wireless networks and the problem is manifolds in WSN s because of the limited resources. The routing protocol in such networks plays a pivotal role, as an effective routing protocol could significantly reduce the energy consumed in transmitting and receiving data packets throughout a network. In this paper the performance of SVR (Spatial Vector Routing) an energy efficient, location aware routing protocol is compared with the existing location aware protocols. The results from the simulation trials show the performance of SVR. (author)

  16. Standards-Based Wireless Sensor Networking Protocols for Spaceflight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Raymond S.

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the capacity to revolutionize data gathering in both spaceflight and terrestrial applications. WSNs provide a huge advantage over traditional, wired instrumentation since they do not require wiring trunks to connect sensors to a central hub. This allows for easy sensor installation in hard to reach locations, easy expansion of the number of sensors or sensing modalities, and reduction in both system cost and weight. While this technology offers unprecedented flexibility and adaptability, implementing it in practice is not without its difficulties. Recent advances in standards-based WSN protocols for industrial control applications have come a long way to solving many of the challenges facing practical WSN deployments. In this paper, we will overview two of the more promising candidates - WirelessHART from the HART Communication Foundation and ISA100.11a from the International Society of Automation - and present the architecture for a new standards-based sensor node for networking and applications research.

  17. Analytical approach to cross-layer protocol optimization in wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2008-04-01

    In the distributed operations of route discovery and maintenance, strong interaction occurs across mobile ad hoc network (MANET) protocol layers. Quality of service (QoS) requirements of multimedia service classes must be satisfied by the cross-layer protocol, along with minimization of the distributed power consumption at nodes and along routes to battery-limited energy constraints. In previous work by the author, cross-layer interactions in the MANET protocol are modeled in terms of a set of concatenated design parameters and associated resource levels by multivariate point processes (MVPPs). Determination of the "best" cross-layer design is carried out using the optimal control of martingale representations of the MVPPs. In contrast to the competitive interaction among nodes in a MANET for multimedia services using limited resources, the interaction among the nodes of a wireless sensor network (WSN) is distributed and collaborative, based on the processing of data from a variety of sensors at nodes to satisfy common mission objectives. Sensor data originates at the nodes at the periphery of the WSN, is successively transported to other nodes for aggregation based on information-theoretic measures of correlation and ultimately sent as information to one or more destination (decision) nodes. The "multimedia services" in the MANET model are replaced by multiple types of sensors, e.g., audio, seismic, imaging, thermal, etc., at the nodes; the QoS metrics associated with MANETs become those associated with the quality of fused information flow, i.e., throughput, delay, packet error rate, data correlation, etc. Significantly, the essential analytical approach to MANET cross-layer optimization, now based on the MVPPs for discrete random events occurring in the WSN, can be applied to develop the stochastic characteristics and optimality conditions for cross-layer designs of sensor network protocols. Functional dependencies of WSN performance metrics are described in

  18. A Cross-Layer, Anomaly-Based IDS for WSN and MANET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouri, Amar; Morgera, Salvatore D; Bencherif, Mohamed A; Manthena, Raju

    2018-02-22

    Intrusion detection system (IDS) design for mobile adhoc networks (MANET) is a crucial component for maintaining the integrity of the network. The need for rapid deployment of IDS capability with minimal data availability for training and testing is an important requirement of such systems, especially for MANETs deployed in highly dynamic scenarios, such as battlefields. This work proposes a two-level detection scheme for detecting malicious nodes in MANETs. The first level deploys dedicated sniffers working in promiscuous mode. Each sniffer utilizes a decision-tree-based classifier that generates quantities which we refer to as correctly classified instances (CCIs) every reporting time. In the second level, the CCIs are sent to an algorithmically run supernode that calculates quantities, which we refer to as the accumulated measure of fluctuation (AMoF) of the received CCIs for each node under test (NUT). A key concept that is used in this work is that the variability of the smaller size population which represents the number of malicious nodes in the network is greater than the variance of the larger size population which represents the number of normal nodes in the network. A linear regression process is then performed in parallel with the calculation of the AMoF for fitting purposes and to set a proper threshold based on the slope of the fitted lines. As a result, the malicious nodes are efficiently and effectively separated from the normal nodes. The proposed scheme is tested for various node velocities and power levels and shows promising detection performance even at low-power levels. The results presented also apply to wireless sensor networks (WSN) and represent a novel IDS scheme for such networks.

  19. From WSN towards WoT: Open API Scheme Based on oneM2M Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeho; Choi, Sung-Chan; Ahn, Il-Yeup; Sung, Nak-Myoung; Yun, Jaeseok

    2016-01-01

    Conventional computing systems have been able to be integrated into daily objects and connected to each other due to advances in computing and network technologies, such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs), forming a global network infrastructure, called the Internet of Things (IoT). To support the interconnection and interoperability between heterogeneous IoT systems, the availability of standardized, open application programming interfaces (APIs) is one of the key features of common software platforms for IoT devices, gateways, and servers. In this paper, we present a standardized way of extending previously-existing WSNs towards IoT systems, building the world of the Web of Things (WoT). Based on the oneM2M software platforms developed in the previous project, we introduce a well-designed open API scheme and device-specific thing adaptation software (TAS) enabling WSN elements, such as a wireless sensor node, to be accessed in a standardized way on a global scale. Three pilot services are implemented (i.e., a WiFi-enabled smart flowerpot, voice-based control for ZigBee-connected home appliances, and WiFi-connected AR.Drone control) to demonstrate the practical usability of the open API scheme and TAS modules. Full details on the method of integrating WSN elements into three example systems are described at the programming code level, which is expected to help future researchers in integrating their WSN systems in IoT platforms, such as oneM2M. We hope that the flexibly-deployable, easily-reusable common open API scheme and TAS-based integration method working with the oneM2M platforms will help the conventional WSNs in diverse industries evolve into the emerging WoT solutions. PMID:27782058

  20. From WSN towards WoT: Open API Scheme Based on oneM2M Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeho Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional computing systems have been able to be integrated into daily objects and connected to each other due to advances in computing and network technologies, such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs, forming a global network infrastructure, called the Internet of Things (IoT. To support the interconnection and interoperability between heterogeneous IoT systems, the availability of standardized, open application programming interfaces (APIs is one of the key features of common software platforms for IoT devices, gateways, and servers. In this paper, we present a standardized way of extending previously-existing WSNs towards IoT systems, building the world of the Web of Things (WoT. Based on the oneM2M software platforms developed in the previous project, we introduce a well-designed open API scheme and device-specific thing adaptation software (TAS enabling WSN elements, such as a wireless sensor node, to be accessed in a standardized way on a global scale. Three pilot services are implemented (i.e., a WiFi-enabled smart flowerpot, voice-based control for ZigBee-connected home appliances, and WiFi-connected AR.Drone control to demonstrate the practical usability of the open API scheme and TAS modules. Full details on the method of integrating WSN elements into three example systems are described at the programming code level, which is expected to help future researchers in integrating their WSN systems in IoT platforms, such as oneM2M. We hope that the flexibly-deployable, easily-reusable common open API scheme and TAS-based integration method working with the oneM2M platforms will help the conventional WSNs in diverse industries evolve into the emerging WoT solutions.

  1. From WSN towards WoT: Open API Scheme Based on oneM2M Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeho; Choi, Sung-Chan; Ahn, Il-Yeup; Sung, Nak-Myoung; Yun, Jaeseok

    2016-10-06

    Conventional computing systems have been able to be integrated into daily objects and connected to each other due to advances in computing and network technologies, such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs), forming a global network infrastructure, called the Internet of Things (IoT). To support the interconnection and interoperability between heterogeneous IoT systems, the availability of standardized, open application programming interfaces (APIs) is one of the key features of common software platforms for IoT devices, gateways, and servers. In this paper, we present a standardized way of extending previously-existing WSNs towards IoT systems, building the world of the Web of Things (WoT). Based on the oneM2M software platforms developed in the previous project, we introduce a well-designed open API scheme and device-specific thing adaptation software (TAS) enabling WSN elements, such as a wireless sensor node, to be accessed in a standardized way on a global scale. Three pilot services are implemented (i.e., a WiFi-enabled smart flowerpot, voice-based control for ZigBee-connected home appliances, and WiFi-connected AR.Drone control) to demonstrate the practical usability of the open API scheme and TAS modules. Full details on the method of integrating WSN elements into three example systems are described at the programming code level, which is expected to help future researchers in integrating their WSN systems in IoT platforms, such as oneM2M. We hope that the flexibly-deployable, easily-reusable common open API scheme and TAS-based integration method working with the oneM2M platforms will help the conventional WSNs in diverse industries evolve into the emerging WoT solutions.

  2. An energy efficient and dynamic time synchronization protocol for wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anran; Bai, Fengshan

    2017-01-01

    Time synchronization is an important support technology of WSN(Wireless Sensor Network), and plays an irreplaceable role in the development of WSN. In view of the disadvantage of the traditional timing sync protocol for sensor networks (TPSN), we present a Physical Timing-sync Protocol (PTPSN) that aims at reducing the energy consumption of the synchronization process and realizes a dynamic Network. The algorithm broadcasts reference message to select some nodes in specific area. The receiver calculate offset of every selected node, and then calculate the average of offset to compensate for clock skew . At the same time ,we add time-filter process to ensure the security of the algorithm for time synchronization. The experiment results show that our algorithm is efficient in both saving energy consumption and dynamic network, and it can effectively resist attacks.

  3. Development of Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network Using Neuro-Fuzzy Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie, E Golden; Selvi, S Tamil

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of sensor nodes with limited processing capability and limited nonrechargeable battery power. Energy consumption in WSN is a significant issue in networks for improving network lifetime. It is essential to develop an energy aware clustering protocol in WSN to reduce energy consumption for increasing network lifetime. In this paper, a neuro-fuzzy energy aware clustering scheme (NFEACS) is proposed to form optimum and energy aware clusters. NFEACS consists of two parts: fuzzy subsystem and neural network system that achieved energy efficiency in forming clusters and cluster heads in WSN. NFEACS used neural network that provides effective training set related to energy and received signal strength of all nodes to estimate the expected energy for tentative cluster heads. Sensor nodes with higher energy are trained with center location of base station to select energy aware cluster heads. Fuzzy rule is used in fuzzy logic part that inputs to form clusters. NFEACS is designed for WSN handling mobility of node. The proposed scheme NFEACS is compared with related clustering schemes, cluster-head election mechanism using fuzzy logic, and energy aware fuzzy unequal clustering. The experiment results show that NFEACS performs better than the other related schemes.

  4. Development of Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network Using Neuro-Fuzzy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Golden Julie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs consist of sensor nodes with limited processing capability and limited nonrechargeable battery power. Energy consumption in WSN is a significant issue in networks for improving network lifetime. It is essential to develop an energy aware clustering protocol in WSN to reduce energy consumption for increasing network lifetime. In this paper, a neuro-fuzzy energy aware clustering scheme (NFEACS is proposed to form optimum and energy aware clusters. NFEACS consists of two parts: fuzzy subsystem and neural network system that achieved energy efficiency in forming clusters and cluster heads in WSN. NFEACS used neural network that provides effective training set related to energy and received signal strength of all nodes to estimate the expected energy for tentative cluster heads. Sensor nodes with higher energy are trained with center location of base station to select energy aware cluster heads. Fuzzy rule is used in fuzzy logic part that inputs to form clusters. NFEACS is designed for WSN handling mobility of node. The proposed scheme NFEACS is compared with related clustering schemes, cluster-head election mechanism using fuzzy logic, and energy aware fuzzy unequal clustering. The experiment results show that NFEACS performs better than the other related schemes.

  5. Consolidation of a WSN and Minimax Method to Rapidly Neutralise Intruders in Strategic Installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Ribeiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the sensitive international situation caused by still-recent terrorist attacks, there is a common need to protect the safety of large spaces such as government buildings, airports and power stations. To address this problem, developments in several research fields, such as video and cognitive audio, decision support systems, human interface, computer architecture, communications networks and communications security, should be integrated with the goal of achieving advanced security systems capable of checking all of the specified requirements and spanning the gap that presently exists in the current market. This paper describes the implementation of a decision system for crisis management in infrastructural building security. Specifically, it describes the implementation of a decision system in the management of building intrusions. The positions of the unidentified persons are reported with the help of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. The goal is to achieve an intelligent system capable of making the best decision in real time in order to quickly neutralise one or more intruders who threaten strategic installations. It is assumed that the intruders’ behaviour is inferred through sequences of sensors’ activations and their fusion. This article presents a general approach to selecting the optimum operation from the available neutralisation strategies based on a Minimax algorithm. The distances among different scenario elements will be used to measure the risk of the scene, so a path planning technique will be integrated in order to attain a good performance. Different actions to be executed over the elements of the scene such as moving a guard, blocking a door or turning on an alarm will be used to neutralise the crisis. This set of actions executed to stop the crisis is known as the neutralisation strategy. Finally, the system has been tested in simulations of real situations, and the results have been evaluated according to the final

  6. Consolidation of a WSN and Minimax method to rapidly neutralise intruders in strategic installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conesa-Muñoz, Jesus; Ribeiro, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Due to the sensitive international situation caused by still-recent terrorist attacks, there is a common need to protect the safety of large spaces such as government buildings, airports and power stations. To address this problem, developments in several research fields, such as video and cognitive audio, decision support systems, human interface, computer architecture, communications networks and communications security, should be integrated with the goal of achieving advanced security systems capable of checking all of the specified requirements and spanning the gap that presently exists in the current market. This paper describes the implementation of a decision system for crisis management in infrastructural building security. Specifically, it describes the implementation of a decision system in the management of building intrusions. The positions of the unidentified persons are reported with the help of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). The goal is to achieve an intelligent system capable of making the best decision in real time in order to quickly neutralise one or more intruders who threaten strategic installations. It is assumed that the intruders' behaviour is inferred through sequences of sensors' activations and their fusion. This article presents a general approach to selecting the optimum operation from the available neutralisation strategies based on a Minimax algorithm. The distances among different scenario elements will be used to measure the risk of the scene, so a path planning technique will be integrated in order to attain a good performance. Different actions to be executed over the elements of the scene such as moving a guard, blocking a door or turning on an alarm will be used to neutralise the crisis. This set of actions executed to stop the crisis is known as the neutralisation strategy. Finally, the system has been tested in simulations of real situations, and the results have been evaluated according to the final state of the intruders

  7. An Energy-efficient Clock Synchronization Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Albu, Roxana; Labit, Yann; Thierry, Gayraud; Pascal, Berthou

    2010-01-01

    5p.; International audience; The behavior of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is nowadays widely analyzed. One of the most important issues is related to their energy consumption, as this has a major impact on the network lifetime. Another important application requirement is to ensure data sensing synchronization, which leads to additional energy consumption as a high number of messages is sent and received at each node. Our proposal consists in implementing a combined synchronization protocol...

  8. A Performance Study of LEACH and Direct Diffusion Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakher, S.; Sharshar, K.; Moawad, M.I.; Shokair, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is composed of a large number of sensor nodes with limited computation communication, and battery facilities. One of the common applications of this network is environment monitoring through sensing motion, measuring temperature, humidity and radiation. One of the basic activities in WSN is data gathering which represents a great challenge. Many routing protocols are proposed for that network to collect and aggregate the data. The most popular ones are hierarchy and data centric routing protocols. The main goal of this study is to identify the most preferable routing protocol, to be used in each mobility model. This paper studies the performance of LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) from hierarchy routing protocol and direct diffusion from data centric routing protocol which is not clarified until now. Moreover, a comparison between LEACH and direct diffusion protocol using NS2 simulator will be made, and an analysis of these protocols will be conducted. The comparison includes packet delivery ratio, throughput, average energy ratio, average delay, network lifetime, and routing overhead. The performance is evaluated by varying the number of sensor nodes under three mobility models Reference Point Group Mobility Model (RPGM), Manhattan and random waypoint mobility model. Simulation results show that LEACH routing protocol has a good performance in RPGM and Manhattan than random waypoint mobility model. Direct diffusion has a good performance in random waypoint mobility model than in RPGM and Manhattan mobility model

  9. Energy efficient structure-free data aggregation and delivery in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhudutta Mohanty

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs, the energy consumption due to the sensed data transmission is more than processing data locally within the sensor node. The data aggregation is one of the techniques to conserve energy by eliminating the redundant data transmission in dense WSNs. In this paper, we propose an energy efficient structure-free data aggregation and delivery (ESDAD protocol, which aggregates the redundant data in the intermediate nodes. In the proposed protocol, waiting time for packets at each intermediate node is calculated very sensibly so that data can be aggregated efficiently in the routing path. The sensed data packets are transmitted judicially to the aggregation point for data aggregation. The ESDAD protocol computes a cost function for structure-free, next-hop node selection and performs near source data aggregation. The buffer of each node is partitioned to maintain different types of flows for fair and efficient data delivery. The transmission rates of the sources and intermediate nodes are adjusted during congestion. The performance of the proposed protocol is evaluated through extensive simulations. The simulation results reveal that it outperforms the existing structure-free protocols in terms of energy efficiency, reliability and on-time delivery ratio.

  10. Geochronology and petrogenesis of the Early Cretaceous A-type granite from the Feie'shan W-Sn deposit in the eastern Guangdong Province, SE China: Implications for W-Sn mineralization and geodynamic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Mao, Jingwen; Santosh, M.; Bao, Zhian; Zeng, Xiaojian; Jia, Lihui

    2018-02-01

    The Feie'shan greisen-type W-Sn deposit in the eastern Guangdong Province forms part of the Southeastern Coastal Metallogenic Belt (SCMB) in South China. Here we present zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology of the biotite granite which shows a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 134.7 ± 2.0 Ma, consistent with the zircon U-Pb, biotite 40Ar-39Ar and molybdenite Re-Os ages in the previous study. The biotite granite is peraluminous and belongs to high-K calc-alkaline type. It is characterized by high SiO2, K2O, F, K2O + Na2O and FeOt/(FeOt + MgO), and low CaO, MgO, TiO2 and P2O5 contents, enrichment in Rb, Cs, Th and U, and depletion in Ba, Sr, Zr, Ti and P, with flat REE patterns and distinctly negative Eu anomalies, showing an A2-type affinity. The rocks also display extremely low Ba, Sr and Ti concentrations and high Rb/Sr, Rb/Ba and low CaO/(Na2O + K2O) ratios, indicating high degree of fractionation. Zircon grains from the granite have low Eu/Eu* and Ce4 +/Ce3 + ratios, suggesting low oxygen fugacity. The highly fractionated and reduced features imply that the Feie'shan mineralization is genetically related to the biotite granite. The εNd(t) values and zircon εHf(t) values of the biotite granite range from - 2.96 to - 1.95 and - 5.69 to 0.62, with two-stage Nd and Hf model ages (TDM2) of 1083 to 1164 Ma and 1150 to 1552 Ma, indicating that they were derived from magma hybridization between anatectic granitic and mantle-derived mafic magmas. In combination with previous studies, we propose a geodynamic model for the 145―135 Ma W-Sn mineral system and related magmatism in the southwestern domain of the SCMB. After ca. 145 Ma, the subduction orientation of the Izanagi plate changed from oblique to parallel with respect to the continental margin resulting in large-scale lithosphere extension and thinning, which led to the upwelling of asthenosphere. The ascending mantle-derived mafic magmas provided not only supplied the heat for crustal remelting but also added

  11. SPICE modelling of a coupled piezoelectric-bimetal heat engine for autonomous Wireless Sensor Nodes (WSN) power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boughaleb, J; Monfray, S; Vine, G; Arnaud, A; Puscasu, O; Maitre, C; Trochut, S; Hasbani, F; Di Gilio, T; Heinrich, V; Urard, P; Grasset, J C; Boeuf, F; Skotnicki, T [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monet – 38920 Crolles (France); Cottinet, P J; Guyomar, D [LGEF, INSA Lyon, 8 rue de la Physique – 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Boisseau, S; Duret, A B [CEA-LETI, 17 rue des Martyrs – 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Quenard, S [CEA-LITEN, 17 rue des Martyrs – 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2014-11-27

    This paper deals with an electrical modelling and optimization of a thermal energy harvester dedicated to power autonomous systems. Such devices based on bimetal strips and piezoceramics turn thermal gradients into electricity by a two-step conversion mechanism. This work focuses first on a demonstration of a ST-WSN (GreenNet demonstration platform) supplied by the harvester to validate, for the first time, the harvesters viability. That demonstration focuses attention on the need for an optimized power management circuit for piezoelectric generators able to reach output voltages up to 20 V. The work deals then with the proposal of an equivalent lumped element model of the piezoelectric transducer with its SPICE implementation to enable the optimization of a dedicated power management circuit based on the Pulsed Synchronous Charge Extractor (PSCE). Simulations using the SPICE model and the power management circuit lead to an increased extracted power by 144%.

  12. SPICE modelling of a coupled piezoelectric-bimetal heat engine for autonomous Wireless Sensor Nodes (WSN) power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boughaleb, J; Monfray, S; Vine, G; Arnaud, A; Puscasu, O; Maitre, C; Trochut, S; Hasbani, F; Di Gilio, T; Heinrich, V; Urard, P; Grasset, J C; Boeuf, F; Skotnicki, T; Cottinet, P J; Guyomar, D; Boisseau, S; Duret, A B; Quenard, S

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with an electrical modelling and optimization of a thermal energy harvester dedicated to power autonomous systems. Such devices based on bimetal strips and piezoceramics turn thermal gradients into electricity by a two-step conversion mechanism. This work focuses first on a demonstration of a ST-WSN (GreenNet demonstration platform) supplied by the harvester to validate, for the first time, the harvesters viability. That demonstration focuses attention on the need for an optimized power management circuit for piezoelectric generators able to reach output voltages up to 20 V. The work deals then with the proposal of an equivalent lumped element model of the piezoelectric transducer with its SPICE implementation to enable the optimization of a dedicated power management circuit based on the Pulsed Synchronous Charge Extractor (PSCE). Simulations using the SPICE model and the power management circuit lead to an increased extracted power by 144%

  13. SPICE modelling of a coupled piezoelectric-bimetal heat engine for autonomous Wireless Sensor Nodes (WSN) power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughaleb, J.; Monfray, S.; Vine, G.; Cottinet, P. J.; Arnaud, A.; Boisseau, S.; Duret, A. B.; Quenard, S.; Puscasu, O.; Maitre, C.; Trochut, S.; Hasbani, F.; Di Gilio, T.; Heinrich, V.; Urard, P.; Grasset, J. C.; Boeuf, F.; Guyomar, D.; Skotnicki, T.

    2014-11-01

    This paper deals with an electrical modelling and optimization of a thermal energy harvester dedicated to power autonomous systems. Such devices based on bimetal strips and piezoceramics turn thermal gradients into electricity by a two-step conversion mechanism. This work focuses first on a demonstration of a ST-WSN (GreenNet demonstration platform) supplied by the harvester to validate, for the first time, the harvesters viability. That demonstration focuses attention on the need for an optimized power management circuit for piezoelectric generators able to reach output voltages up to 20 V. The work deals then with the proposal of an equivalent lumped element model of the piezoelectric transducer with its SPICE implementation to enable the optimization of a dedicated power management circuit based on the Pulsed Synchronous Charge Extractor (PSCE). Simulations using the SPICE model and the power management circuit lead to an increased extracted power by 144%.

  14. An Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network Using Double Trapdoor Chameleon Hash Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejeshwari Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN, a type of communication system, is normally deployed into the unattended environment where the intended user can get access to the network. The sensor nodes collect data from this environment. If the data are valuable and confidential, then security measures are needed to protect them from the unauthorized access. This situation requires an access control protocol (ACP in the design of sensor network because of sensor nodes which are vulnerable to various malicious attacks during the authentication and key establishment and the new node addition phase. In this paper, we propose a secured ACP for such WSN. This protocol is based on Elliptic Curve Discrete Log Problem (ECDLP and double trapdoor chameleon hash function which secures the WSN from malicious attacks such as node masquerading attack, replay attack, man-in-the-middle attack, and forgery attacks. Proposed ACP has a special feature known as session key security. Also, the proposed ACP is more efficient as it requires only one modular multiplication during the initialization phase.

  15. Privacy-preserving data aggregation protocols for wireless sensor networks: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Rabindra; Chang, Jae-Woo

    2010-01-01

    Many wireless sensor network (WSN) applications require privacy-preserving aggregation of sensor data during transmission from the source nodes to the sink node. In this paper, we explore several existing privacy-preserving data aggregation (PPDA) protocols for WSNs in order to provide some insights on their current status. For this, we evaluate the PPDA protocols on the basis of such metrics as communication and computation costs in order to demonstrate their potential for supporting privacy-preserving data aggregation in WSNs. In addition, based on the existing research, we enumerate some important future research directions in the field of privacy-preserving data aggregation for WSNs.

  16. Privacy-Preserving Data Aggregation Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabindra Bista

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Many wireless sensor network (WSN applications require privacy-preserving aggregation of sensor data during transmission from the source nodes to the sink node. In this paper, we explore several existing privacy-preserving data aggregation (PPDA protocols for WSNs in order to provide some insights on their current status. For this, we evaluate the PPDA protocols on the basis of such metrics as communication and computation costs in order to demonstrate their potential for supporting privacy-preserving data aggregation in WSNs. In addition, based on the existing research, we enumerate some important future research directions in the field of privacy-preserving data aggregation for WSNs.

  17. Implementation Of The Precision Agriculture Using LEACH Protocol Of Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Than Htike Aung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of wireless sensor network technology leads to develop advanced systems for real-time monitoring. Wireless sensor network WSN is a major technology that drives the development of precision agriculture.By forming wireless sensor networkagricultural practicescan be made good monitoring systems.Various agricultural parameters like soil moisture temperature and humidity are monitored by monitoring units.The paper explains about how to utilize thesensors in agricultural practices and explains about routing protocols of wireless sensor network. In this paper agricultural parameter of temperature will monitor with the use of LEACH protocol.

  18. Real time control “es-dawet” mixer using dasboard based on PLC and WSN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siagian, Pandapotan; Hutauruk, Sindak; Kisno

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to monitor and acquire the remote parameters like Speed control a DC Motor, IR Sensor, Temperature of pasteurize mix of ice cream, and send these real values over wireless network. A proposed system is dashboard monitoring system for PLC based system wirelessly using ZigBee protocol. To implement this a ZigBee model is connected to a programmed digital signal controller which would transmit the data to Zigbee coordinator which is connected to a PC through RS232 serial communication. Person can need only to send the reply about the process that is to be carried out and PLC will check the status of the web base sent by person and take the action according to it where wired communication is either more expensive or impossible due to physical conditions. A low cost system for measured the parameters of motor such as IR Sensor, Speed control a DC Motor by PWM and temperature with Zigbee protocol connectivity. A database is built to execute monitoring and to save the motor parameters received by radio frequency (RF) data acquisition system. Experimental results show that the proposed system is less costly, provides higher accuracy as well as safe and gives visual environment.

  19. Bioremediation protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheehan, David

    1997-01-01

    ..., .. . . . . .. ,. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . .. 3 2 Granular Nina Sludge Christiansen, Consortia lndra for Bioremediation, M. Mathrani, and Birgitte K. Ahring . 23 PART II PROTOCOLS...

  20. Cross-layer protocol design for QoS optimization in real-time wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2010-04-01

    The metrics of quality of service (QoS) for each sensor type in a wireless sensor network can be associated with metrics for multimedia that describe the quality of fused information, e.g., throughput, delay, jitter, packet error rate, information correlation, etc. These QoS metrics are typically set at the highest, or application, layer of the protocol stack to ensure that performance requirements for each type of sensor data are satisfied. Application-layer metrics, in turn, depend on the support of the lower protocol layers: session, transport, network, data link (MAC), and physical. The dependencies of the QoS metrics on the performance of the higher layers of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model of the WSN protocol, together with that of the lower three layers, are the basis for a comprehensive approach to QoS optimization for multiple sensor types in a general WSN model. The cross-layer design accounts for the distributed power consumption along energy-constrained routes and their constituent nodes. Following the author's previous work, the cross-layer interactions in the WSN protocol are represented by a set of concatenated protocol parameters and enabling resource levels. The "best" cross-layer designs to achieve optimal QoS are established by applying the general theory of martingale representations to the parameterized multivariate point processes (MVPPs) for discrete random events occurring in the WSN. Adaptive control of network behavior through the cross-layer design is realized through the parametric factorization of the stochastic conditional rates of the MVPPs. The cross-layer protocol parameters for optimal QoS are determined in terms of solutions to stochastic dynamic programming conditions derived from models of transient flows for heterogeneous sensor data and aggregate information over a finite time horizon. Markov state processes, embedded within the complex combinatorial history of WSN events, are more computationally

  1. Experimental Evaluation of Simulation Abstractions for Wireless Sensor Network MAC Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Halkes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs is often performed through simulation. These simulations necessarily abstract away from reality in many ways. However, the impact of these abstractions on the results of the simulations has received only limited attention. Moreover, many studies on the accuracy of simulation have studied either the physical layer and per link effects or routing protocol effects. To the best of our knowledge, no other work has focused on the study of the simulation abstractions with respect to MAC protocol performance. In this paper, we present the results of an experimental study of two often used abstractions in the simulation of WSN MAC protocols. We show that a simple SNR-based reception model can provide quite accurate results for metrics commonly used to evaluate MAC protocols. Furthermore, we provide an analysis of what the main sources of deviation are and thereby how the simulations can be improved to provide even better results.

  2. The Comparative Study Some of Reactive and Proactive Routing Protocols in The Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Ali Hussien

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The wireless sensor network (WSN consists mostly of a large number of nodes in a large area where not all nodes are directly connected. The applications of comprise a wide variety of scenarios.The mobile nodes are free to move because this network has selfــstructured topology. Routing protocols are responsible for detecting and maintaining paths in the network, and it classified into reactive (OnـــDemand, proactive (Table driven, and hybrid. In this paper represents a performance study of some WSN routing protocols: the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV, and Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector (DSDV. The comparison made according to important metrics like packet delivery ratio (PDR, total packets dropped, Average end-to-end delay (Avg EED, and normalized routing load under the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP and User Datagram Protocol (UDP traffic connection and with varying number of nodes, pause time; and  varying speed. In this work used (NSــ2.35 that installed on (Ubuntu 14.04 operating system to implementing the scenario. Conclude that the DSR has better performance in TCP connection; while the DSDV has better performance in UDP protocol.

  3. Modeling and Simulation of a Novel Relay Node Based Secure Routing Protocol Using Multiple Mobile Sink for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumathy Perumal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Data gathering and optimal path selection for wireless sensor networks (WSN using existing protocols result in collision. Increase in collision further increases the possibility of packet drop. Thus there is a necessity to eliminate collision during data aggregation. Increasing the efficiency is the need of the hour with maximum security. This paper is an effort to come up with a reliable and energy efficient WSN routing and secure protocol with minimum delay. This technique is named as relay node based secure routing protocol for multiple mobile sink (RSRPMS. This protocol finds the rendezvous point for optimal transmission of data using a “splitting tree” technique in tree-shaped network topology and then to determine all the subsequent positions of a sink the “Biased Random Walk” model is used. In case of an event, the sink gathers the data from all sources, when they are in the sensing range of rendezvous point. Otherwise relay node is selected from its neighbor to transfer packets from rendezvous point to sink. A symmetric key cryptography is used for secure transmission. The proposed relay node based secure routing protocol for multiple mobile sink (RSRPMS is experimented and simulation results are compared with Intelligent Agent-Based Routing (IAR protocol to prove that there is increase in the network lifetime compared with other routing protocols.

  4. GA-DoSLD: Genetic Algorithm Based Denial-of-Sleep Attack Detection in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahalakshmi Gunasekaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Denial-of-sleep (DoSL attack is a special category of denial-of-service attack that prevents the battery powered sensor nodes from going into the sleep mode, thus affecting the network performance. The existing schemes used for the DoSL attack detection do not provide an optimal energy conservation and key pairing operation. Hence, in this paper, an efficient Genetic Algorithm (GA based denial-of-sleep attack detection (GA-DoSLD algorithm is suggested for analyzing the misbehaviors of the nodes. The suggested algorithm implements a Modified-RSA (MRSA algorithm in the base station (BS for generating and distributing the key pair among the sensor nodes. Before sending/receiving the packets, the sensor nodes determine the optimal route using Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV protocol and then ensure the trustworthiness of the relay node using the fitness calculation. The crossover and mutation operations detect and analyze the methods that the attackers use for implementing the attack. On determining an attacker node, the BS broadcasts the blocked information to all the other sensor nodes in the network. Simulation results prove that the suggested algorithm is optimal compared to the existing algorithms such as X-MAC, ZKP, and TE2P schemes.

  5. Security Property Validation of the Sensor Network Encryption Protocol (SNEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salekul Islam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been designed to be deployed in an unsecured, public environment, secured communication is really vital for their wide-spread use. Among all of the communication protocols developed for WSN, the Security Protocols for Sensor Networks (SPINS is exceptional, as it has been designed with security as a goal. SPINS is composed of two building blocks: Secure Network Encryption Protocol (SNEP and the “micro” version of the Timed Efficient Streaming Loss-tolerant Authentication (TESLA, named μTESLA. From the inception of SPINS, a number of efforts have been made to validate its security properties. In this paper, we have validated the security properties of SNEP by using an automated security protocol validation tool, named AVISPA. Using the protocol specification language, HLPSL, we model two combined scenarios—node to node key agreement and counter exchange protocols—followed by data transmission. Next, we validate the security properties of these combined protocols, using different AVISPA back-ends. AVISPA reports the models we have developed free from attacks. However, by analyzing the key distribution sub-protocol, we find one threat of a potential DoS attack that we have demonstrated by modeling in AVISPA. Finally, we propose a modification, and AVISPA reports this modified version free from the potential DoS attack.

  6. SELF-POWERED WIRELESS SENSOR NODE POWER MODELING BASED ON IEEE 802.11 COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivek Agarwal; Raymond A. DeCarlo; Lefteri H. Tsoukalas

    2016-04-01

    considerations that must also be taken into account when computing the power consumption associated with each task. The considerations includes: number of events occurring in a fixed active time period and the duration of each event, event-information processing time, total communication time, number of retransmission, etc. Additionally, at the network level the communication of information data packets between WSNs involves collisions, latency, andretransmission, which result in unanticipated power losses. This paper presents stochastic modeling of power demand for a schedule-driven WSN utilizing Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, IEEE, 802.11 communication protocols. The model captures the generic operation of a schedule-driven WSN when an external event occurs, i.e., sensing, following by processing, and followed by communication. The results are verified via simulation.

  7. Dynamic Voltage-Frequency and Workload Joint Scaling Power Management for Energy Harvesting Multi-Core WSN Node SoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a scheduling and power management solution for energy harvesting heterogeneous multi-core WSN node SoC such that the system continues to operate perennially and uses the harvested energy efficiently. The solution consists of a heterogeneous multi-core system oriented task scheduling algorithm and a low-complexity dynamic workload scaling and configuration optimization algorithm suitable for light-weight platforms. Moreover, considering the power consumption of most WSN applications have the characteristic of data dependent behavior, we introduce branches handling mechanism into the solution as well. The experimental result shows that the proposed algorithm can operate in real-time on a lightweight embedded processor (MSP430, and that it can make a system do more valuable works and make more than 99.9% use of the power budget.

  8. On Event/Time Triggered and Distributed Analysis of a WSN System for Event Detection, Using Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Maria Dima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Event detection in realistic WSN environments is a critical research domain, while the environmental monitoring comprises one of its most pronounced applications. Although efforts related to the environmental applications have been presented in the current literature, there is a significant lack of investigation on the performance of such systems, when applied in wireless environments. Aiming at addressing this shortage, in this paper an advanced multimodal approach is followed based on fuzzy logic. The proposed fuzzy inference system (FIS is implemented on TelosB motes and evaluates the probability of fire detection while aiming towards power conservation. Additionally to a straightforward centralized approach, a distributed implementation of the above FIS is also proposed, aiming towards network congestion reduction while optimally distributing the energy consumption among network nodes so as to maximize network lifetime. Moreover this work proposes an event based execution of the aforementioned FIS aiming to further reduce the computational as well as the communication cost, compared to a periodical time triggered FIS execution. As a final contribution, performance metrics acquired from all the proposed FIS implementation techniques are thoroughly compared and analyzed with respect to critical network conditions aiming to offer realistic evaluation and thus objective conclusions’ extraction.

  9. Bidirectional multi-optical line terminals incorporated converged WSN-PON network using M/M/1 queuing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Love; Sharma, Vishal; Singh, Amarpal

    2017-12-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have an assortment of application areas, for instance, civil, military, and video surveillance with restricted power resources and transmission link. To accommodate the massive traffic load in hefty sensor networks is another key issue. Subsequently, there is a necessity to backhaul the sensed information of such networks and prolong the transmission link to access the distinct receivers. Passive Optical Network (PON), a next-generation access technology, comes out as a suitable candidate for the convergence of the sensed data to the core system. The earlier demonstrated work with single-OLT-PON introduces an overloaded buffer akin to video surveillance scenarios. In this paper, to combine the bandwidth potential of PONs with the mobility capability of WSNs, the viability for the convergence of PONs and WSNs incorporating multi-optical line terminals is demonstrated to handle the overloaded OLTs. The existing M/M/1 queue theory with interleaving polling with adaptive cycle time as dynamic bandwidth algorithm is used to shun the probability of packets clash. Further, the proposed multi-sink WSN and multi-OLT PON converged structure is investigated in bidirectional mode analytically and through computer simulations. The observations establish the proposed structure competent to accommodate the colossal data traffic through less time consumption.

  10. Harvesting energy an sustainable power source, replace batteries for powering WSN and devices on the IoT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Vadean, A.; Pop, P. P.; Latinovic, T.; Barz, C.; Lung, C.

    2017-05-01

    Harvesting energy from nonconventional sources in the environment has received increased attention over the past decade from researchers who study these alternative energy sources for low power applications. Although that energy harvested is small and in the order of milliwatt, it can provide enough power for wireless sensors and other low-power applications. In the environment there is a lot of wasted energy that can be converted into electricity to power the various circuits and represents a potentially cheap source of power. Energy harvesting is important because it offers an alternative power supply for electronic devices where is does not exist conventional energy sources. This technology applied in a wireless sensor network (WSN) and devices on the IoT, will eliminate the need for network-based energy and conventional batteries, will minimize maintenance costs, eliminate cables and batteries and is ecological. It has the same advantage in applications from remote locations, underwater, and other hard to reach places where conventional batteries and energy are not suitable. Energy harvesting will promote environmentally friendly technologies that will save energy, will reduce CO2 emissions, which makes this technology indispensable for achieving next-generation smart cities and sustainable society. In response to the challenges of energy, in this article we remind the basics of harvesting energy and we discuss the various applications of this technology where traditional batteries cannot be used.

  11. Evaluation of svr: a wireless sensor network routing protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, J.; Khanzada, T.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    The advancement in technology has made it possible to create small in size, low cost sensor nodes. However, the small size and low cost of such nodes comesat at price that is, reduced processing power, low memory and significantly small battery energy storage. WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks) are inherently ad hoc in nature and are assumed to work in the toughest terrain. The network lifetime plays a pivotal role in a wireless sensor network. A long network lifetime, could be achieved by either making significant changes in these low cost devices, which is not a feasible solution or by improving the means of communication throughout the network. The communication in such networks could be improved by employing energy efficient routing protocols, to route the data throughout the network. In this paper the SVR (Spatial Vector Routing) protocol is compared against the most common WSN routing protocols, and from the results it could be inferred that the SVR protocol out performs its counterparts. The protocol provides an energy efficient means of communication in the network. (author)

  12. Comparative Study on Various Authentication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswari, S Raja; Seenivasagam, V

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices with low cost, low power, and short-ranged wireless communication. The sensors can communicate with each other to form a network. In WSNs, broadcast transmission is widely used along with the maximum usage of wireless networks and their applications. Hence, it has become crucial to authenticate broadcast messages. Key management is also an active research topic in WSNs. Several key management schemes have been introduced, and their benefits are not recognized in a specific WSN application. Security services are vital for ensuring the integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of the critical information. Therefore, the authentication mechanisms are required to support these security services and to be resilient to distinct attacks. Various authentication protocols such as key management protocols, lightweight authentication protocols, and broadcast authentication protocols are compared and analyzed for all secure transmission applications. The major goal of this survey is to compare and find out the appropriate protocol for further research. Moreover, the comparisons between various authentication techniques are also illustrated.

  13. Comparative Study on Various Authentication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswari, S. Raja; Seenivasagam, V.

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices with low cost, low power, and short-ranged wireless communication. The sensors can communicate with each other to form a network. In WSNs, broadcast transmission is widely used along with the maximum usage of wireless networks and their applications. Hence, it has become crucial to authenticate broadcast messages. Key management is also an active research topic in WSNs. Several key management schemes have been introduced, and their benefits are not recognized in a specific WSN application. Security services are vital for ensuring the integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of the critical information. Therefore, the authentication mechanisms are required to support these security services and to be resilient to distinct attacks. Various authentication protocols such as key management protocols, lightweight authentication protocols, and broadcast authentication protocols are compared and analyzed for all secure transmission applications. The major goal of this survey is to compare and find out the appropriate protocol for further research. Moreover, the comparisons between various authentication techniques are also illustrated. PMID:26881272

  14. Wireless Sensor Node Power Profiling Based on IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.15.4 Communication Protocols. Modeling and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Richardson, Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Yanliang [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-10-01

    retransmission, which result in unanticipated power losses. This report focuses rigorous stochastic modeling of power demand for a schedule-driven WSN utilizing Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 802.11 and 802.15.4 communication protocols. The model captures the generic operation of a schedule-driven WSN when an external event occurs, i.e., sensing, following by processing, and followed by communication. The report will present development of an expression to compute the expected energy consumption per operational cycle of a schedule-driven WSN by taking into consideration the node level activities, i.e., sensing and processing, and the network level activities, i.e., channel access, packet collision, retransmission attempts, and transmission of a data packet.

  15. Evaluación de las topologías físicas de redes WSN para la medición de variables ambientales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Saigua Carvajal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un estudio comparativo entre las topologías físicas que apoyan WSN con el fin de determinar la más eficaz aplicado a una red inalámbrica de sensores ambientales. La investigación se realizó mediante el apoyo del Network Simulator 2 (NS-2, que permite crear un entorno similar al real y simulado su funcionamiento, para determinar la mejor topología de un método inductivo se aplicó para evaluar los datos de NS-2 que se basaron en las métricas de rendimiento, tales como: el envío de paquetes, el consumo de energía y la cobertura. Como resultado se obtuvo que la topología física estrella es la mejor manera de aplicar una red WSN para las mediciones ambientales, que tiene una relación de Entrega de paquetes del 97,9%, el rendimiento de 0,7542 Kbps, un retraso de 0,0162 ms, un consumo de energía bajo y una mayor área de cobertura del sensor.   Abstract This paper presents a comparative study between physical topologies that support WSN in order to determine the most efficient applied to a wireless network of environmental sensors. The research was performed by the support of Network Simulator 2 (NS-2, it allows to create an environment similar to real and simulated its operation, to determine the best topology an inductive method was applied to evaluate the data from NS-2 that were based on the performance metrics such as: sending packages, energy consumption and coverage. As a result it was obtained that the star physical topology is the best to implement a WSN network for environmental measurements, that has Packet Delivery Ratio of 97,9 %, Throughput of 0,7542 Kbps, a delay of 0,0162 ms, a low energy consumption and a greater sensor coverage area.

  16. Cryptographic Protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Martin Joakim Bittel

    cryptography was thus concerned with message confidentiality and integrity. Modern cryptography cover a much wider range of subjects including the area of secure multiparty computation, which will be the main topic of this dissertation. Our first contribution is a new protocol for secure comparison, presented...... implemented the comparison protocol in Java and benchmarks show that is it highly competitive and practical. The biggest contribution of this dissertation is a general framework for secure multiparty computation. Instead of making new ad hoc implementations for each protocol, we want a single and extensible...... in Chapter 2. Comparisons play a key role in many systems such as online auctions and benchmarks — it is not unreasonable to say that when parties come together for a multiparty computation, it is because they want to make decisions that depend on private information. Decisions depend on comparisons. We have...

  17. Immunochemical protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pound, John D

    1998-01-01

    ... easy and important refinements often are not published. This much anticipated 2nd edition of Immunochemzcal Protocols therefore aims to provide a user-friendly up-to-date handbook of reliable techniques selected to suit the needs of molecular biologists. It covers the full breadth of the relevant established immunochemical methods, from protein blotting and immunoa...

  18. A secured authentication protocol for wireless sensor networks using elliptic curves cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsiu-Lien; Chen, Tien-Ho; Liu, Pin-Chuan; Kim, Tai-Hoo; Wei, Hsin-Wen

    2011-01-01

    User authentication is a crucial service in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) that is becoming increasingly common in WSNs because wireless sensor nodes are typically deployed in an unattended environment, leaving them open to possible hostile network attack. Because wireless sensor nodes are limited in computing power, data storage and communication capabilities, any user authentication protocol must be designed to operate efficiently in a resource constrained environment. In this paper, we review several proposed WSN user authentication protocols, with a detailed review of the M.L Das protocol and a cryptanalysis of Das' protocol that shows several security weaknesses. Furthermore, this paper proposes an ECC-based user authentication protocol that resolves these weaknesses. According to our analysis of security of the ECC-based protocol, it is suitable for applications with higher security requirements. Finally, we present a comparison of security, computation, and communication costs and performances for the proposed protocols. The ECC-based protocol is shown to be suitable for higher security WSNs.

  19. Performance Comparison of Wireless Sensor Network Standard Protocols in an Aerospace Environment: ISA100.11a and ZigBee Pro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Raymond S.; Barton, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Standards-based wireless sensor network (WSN) protocols are promising candidates for spacecraft avionics systems, offering unprecedented instrumentation flexibility and expandability. Ensuring reliable data transport is key, however, when migrating from wired to wireless data gathering systems. In this paper, we conduct a rigorous laboratory analysis of the relative performances of the ZigBee Pro and ISA100.11a protocols in a representative crewed aerospace environment. Since both operate in the 2.4 GHz radio frequency (RF) band shared by systems such as Wi-Fi, they are subject at times to potentially debilitating RF interference. We compare goodput (application-level throughput) achievable by both under varying levels of 802.11g Wi-Fi traffic. We conclude that while the simpler, more inexpensive ZigBee Pro protocol performs well under moderate levels of interference, the more complex and costly ISA100.11a protocol is needed to ensure reliable data delivery under heavier interference. This paper represents the first published, rigorous analysis of WSN protocols in an aerospace environment that we are aware of and the first published head-to-head comparison of ZigBee Pro and ISA100.11a.

  20. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Benjamin E; Hendrick, Paul; Bateman, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    avoidance behaviours, catastrophising, self-efficacy, sport and leisure activity participation, and general quality of life. Follow-up will be 3 and 6 months. The analysis will focus on descriptive statistics and confidence intervals. The qualitative components will follow a thematic analysis approach....... DISCUSSION: This study will evaluate the feasibility of running a definitive large-scale trial on patients with patellofemoral pain, within the NHS in the UK. We will identify strengths and weaknesses of the proposed protocol and the utility and characteristics of the outcome measures. The results from...... this study will inform the design of a multicentre trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN35272486....

  1. IMHRP: Improved Multi-Hop Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianhua; Ruan, Danwei; Hong, Yadong; Zhao, Ziming; Zheng, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a self-organizing system formed by a large number of low-cost sensor nodes through wireless communication. Sensor nodes collect environmental information and transmit it to the base station (BS). Sensor nodes usually have very limited battery energy. The batteries cannot be charged or replaced. Therefore, it is necessary to design an energy efficient routing protocol to maximize the network lifetime. This paper presents an improved multi-hop routing protocol (IMHRP) for homogeneous networks. In the IMHRP protocol, based on the distances to the BS, the CH nodes are divided into internal CH nodes and external CH nodes. The set-up phase of the protocol is based on the LEACH protocol and the minimum distance between CH nodes are limited to a special constant distance, so a more uniform distribution of CH nodes is achieved. In the steady-state phase, the routes of different CH nodes are created on the basis of the distances between the CH nodes. The energy efficiency of communication can be maximized. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can more effectively reduce the energy consumption of each round and prolong the network lifetime compared with LEACH protocol and MHT protocol.

  2. Geochronology and Genesis of the Xitian W-Sn Polymetallic Deposit in Eastern Hunan Province, South China: Evidence from Zircon U-Pb and Muscovite Ar-Ar Dating, Petrochemistry, and Wolframite Sr-Nd-Pb Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingya Cao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The recently explored Xitian tungsten-tin (W-Sn polymetallic ore field, located in Hunan province, South China, is one of the largest ore fields in the Nanling Range (NLR. Two major metallogenic types appeared in this ore field, skarn- and quartz vein-type. They are distributed within Longshang, Heshuxia, Shaiheling, Hejiangkou, Goudalan, and so on. Hydrothermal zircons from two altered granites yielded U-Pb ages of 152.8 ± 1.1 Ma, and 226.0 ± 2.8 Ma, respectively. Two muscovite samples from ore-bearing quartz vein yielded 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 156.6 ± 0.7 Ma, 149.5 ± 0.8 Ma, respectively. Combined with the geological evidence, two metallogenic events are proposed in the Xitian ore field, with skarn-type W-Sn mineralization in Late Triassic (Indosinian and quartz vein/greisen type W-Sn mineralization in Late Jurassic (Yanshanian. The relatively low Ce/Ce* ratios and high Y/Ho ratios in zircons from two altered granites indicate that the hydrothermal fluids of two metallogenic events are characterized by low oxygen fugacities and enrichment in F. The similar chondrite-normalized patterns between the skarn and Xitian Indosinian granites and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of wolframite suggest that the metal sources for both types W-Sn mineralization are derived from a crustal source.

  3. Monitoring Street-Level Spatial-Temporal Variations of Carbon Monoxide in Urban Settings Using a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzai-Hung Wen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has become a severe environmental problem due to urbanization and heavy traffic. Monitoring street-level air quality is an important issue, but most official monitoring stations are installed to monitor large-scale air quality conditions, and their limited spatial resolution cannot reflect the detailed variations in air quality that may be induced by traffic jams. By deploying wireless sensors on crossroads and main roads, this study established a pilot framework for a wireless sensor network (WSN-based real-time monitoring system to understand street-level spatial-temporal changes of carbon monoxide (CO in urban settings. The system consists of two major components. The first component is the deployment of wireless sensors. We deployed 44 sensor nodes, 40 transmitter nodes and four gateway nodes in this study. Each sensor node includes a signal processing module, a CO sensor and a wireless communication module. In order to capture realistic human exposure to traffic pollutants, all sensors were deployed at a height of 1.5 m on lampposts and traffic signs. The study area covers a total length of 1.5 km of Keelung Road in Taipei City. The other component is a map-based monitoring platform for sensor data visualization and manipulation in time and space. Using intensive real-time street-level monitoring framework, we compared the spatial-temporal patterns of air pollution in different time periods. Our results capture four CO concentration peaks throughout the day at the location, which was located along an arterial and nearby traffic sign. The hourly average could reach 5.3 ppm from 5:00 pm to 7:00 pm due to the traffic congestion. The proposed WSN-based framework captures detailed ground information and potential risk of human exposure to traffic-related air pollution. It also provides street-level insights into real-time monitoring for further early warning of air pollution and urban environmental management.

  4. Monitoring street-level spatial-temporal variations of carbon monoxide in urban settings using a wireless sensor network (WSN) framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tzai-Hung; Jiang, Joe-Air; Sun, Chih-Hong; Juang, Jehn-Yih; Lin, Tzu-Shiang

    2013-11-27

    Air pollution has become a severe environmental problem due to urbanization and heavy traffic. Monitoring street-level air quality is an important issue, but most official monitoring stations are installed to monitor large-scale air quality conditions, and their limited spatial resolution cannot reflect the detailed variations in air quality that may be induced by traffic jams. By deploying wireless sensors on crossroads and main roads, this study established a pilot framework for a wireless sensor network (WSN)-based real-time monitoring system to understand street-level spatial-temporal changes of carbon monoxide (CO) in urban settings. The system consists of two major components. The first component is the deployment of wireless sensors. We deployed 44 sensor nodes, 40 transmitter nodes and four gateway nodes in this study. Each sensor node includes a signal processing module, a CO sensor and a wireless communication module. In order to capture realistic human exposure to traffic pollutants, all sensors were deployed at a height of 1.5 m on lampposts and traffic signs. The study area covers a total length of 1.5 km of Keelung Road in Taipei City. The other component is a map-based monitoring platform for sensor data visualization and manipulation in time and space. Using intensive real-time street-level monitoring framework, we compared the spatial-temporal patterns of air pollution in different time periods. Our results capture four CO concentration peaks throughout the day at the location, which was located along an arterial and nearby traffic sign. The hourly average could reach 5.3 ppm from 5:00 pm to 7:00 pm due to the traffic congestion. The proposed WSN-based framework captures detailed ground information and potential risk of human exposure to traffic-related air pollution. It also provides street-level insights into real-time monitoring for further early warning of air pollution and urban environmental management.

  5. Monitoring Street-Level Spatial-Temporal Variations of Carbon Monoxide in Urban Settings Using a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tzai-Hung; Jiang, Joe-Air; Sun, Chih-Hong; Juang, Jehn-Yih; Lin, Tzu-Shiang

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution has become a severe environmental problem due to urbanization and heavy traffic. Monitoring street-level air quality is an important issue, but most official monitoring stations are installed to monitor large-scale air quality conditions, and their limited spatial resolution cannot reflect the detailed variations in air quality that may be induced by traffic jams. By deploying wireless sensors on crossroads and main roads, this study established a pilot framework for a wireless sensor network (WSN)-based real-time monitoring system to understand street-level spatial-temporal changes of carbon monoxide (CO) in urban settings. The system consists of two major components. The first component is the deployment of wireless sensors. We deployed 44 sensor nodes, 40 transmitter nodes and four gateway nodes in this study. Each sensor node includes a signal processing module, a CO sensor and a wireless communication module. In order to capture realistic human exposure to traffic pollutants, all sensors were deployed at a height of 1.5 m on lampposts and traffic signs. The study area covers a total length of 1.5 km of Keelung Road in Taipei City. The other component is a map-based monitoring platform for sensor data visualization and manipulation in time and space. Using intensive real-time street-level monitoring framework, we compared the spatial-temporal patterns of air pollution in different time periods. Our results capture four CO concentration peaks throughout the day at the location, which was located along an arterial and nearby traffic sign. The hourly average could reach 5.3 ppm from 5:00 pm to 7:00 pm due to the traffic congestion. The proposed WSN-based framework captures detailed ground information and potential risk of human exposure to traffic-related air pollution. It also provides street-level insights into real-time monitoring for further early warning of air pollution and urban environmental management. PMID:24287859

  6. A survey on bio inspired meta heuristic based clustering protocols for wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, A.; Nandakumar, S.

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that utilizing a mobile sink to harvest and carry data from a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) can improve network operational efficiency as well as maintain uniform energy consumption by the sensor nodes in the network. Due to Sink mobility, the path between two sensor nodes continuously changes and this has a profound effect on the operational longevity of the network and a need arises for a protocol which utilizes minimal resources in maintaining routes between the mobile sink and the sensor nodes. Swarm Intelligence based techniques inspired by the foraging behavior of ants, termites and honey bees can be artificially simulated and utilized to solve real wireless network problems. The author presents a brief survey on various bio inspired swarm intelligence based protocols used in routing data in wireless sensor networks while outlining their general principle and operation.

  7. Beyond protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Branquart, Etienne; Casaer, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment tools for listing invasive alien species need to incorporate all available evidence and expertise. Beyond the wealth of protocols developed to date, we argue that the current way of performing risk analysis has several shortcomings. In particular, lack of data on ecological impact...... information on risk and the exploration of improved methods for decision making on biodiversity management. This is crucial for efficient conservation resource allocation and uptake by stakeholders and the public......., transparency and repeatability of assessments as well as the incorporation of uncertainty should all be explicitly considered. We recommend improved quality control of risk assessments through formalized peer review with clear feedback between assessors and reviewers. Alternatively, a consensus building...

  8. A Decentralized Fuzzy C-Means-Based Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Moh’d Alia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs is a vital consideration when designing wireless networking protocols. In this paper, we propose a Decentralized Fuzzy Clustering Protocol, named DCFP, which minimizes total network energy dissipation to promote maximum network lifetime. The process of constructing the infrastructure for a given WSN is performed only once at the beginning of the protocol at a base station, which remains unchanged throughout the network’s lifetime. In this initial construction step, a fuzzy C-means algorithm is adopted to allocate sensor nodes into their most appropriate clusters. Subsequently, the protocol runs its rounds where each round is divided into a CH-Election phase and a Data Transmission phase. In the CH-Election phase, the election of new cluster heads is done locally in each cluster where a new multicriteria objective function is proposed to enhance the quality of elected cluster heads. In the Data Transmission phase, the sensing and data transmission from each sensor node to their respective cluster head is performed and cluster heads in turn aggregate and send the sensed data to the base station. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol improves network lifetime, data delivery, and energy consumption compared to other well-known energy-efficient protocols.

  9. A decentralized fuzzy C-means-based energy-efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alia, Osama Moh'd

    2014-01-01

    Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a vital consideration when designing wireless networking protocols. In this paper, we propose a Decentralized Fuzzy Clustering Protocol, named DCFP, which minimizes total network energy dissipation to promote maximum network lifetime. The process of constructing the infrastructure for a given WSN is performed only once at the beginning of the protocol at a base station, which remains unchanged throughout the network's lifetime. In this initial construction step, a fuzzy C-means algorithm is adopted to allocate sensor nodes into their most appropriate clusters. Subsequently, the protocol runs its rounds where each round is divided into a CH-Election phase and a Data Transmission phase. In the CH-Election phase, the election of new cluster heads is done locally in each cluster where a new multicriteria objective function is proposed to enhance the quality of elected cluster heads. In the Data Transmission phase, the sensing and data transmission from each sensor node to their respective cluster head is performed and cluster heads in turn aggregate and send the sensed data to the base station. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol improves network lifetime, data delivery, and energy consumption compared to other well-known energy-efficient protocols.

  10. A Decentralized Fuzzy C-Means-Based Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a vital consideration when designing wireless networking protocols. In this paper, we propose a Decentralized Fuzzy Clustering Protocol, named DCFP, which minimizes total network energy dissipation to promote maximum network lifetime. The process of constructing the infrastructure for a given WSN is performed only once at the beginning of the protocol at a base station, which remains unchanged throughout the network's lifetime. In this initial construction step, a fuzzy C-means algorithm is adopted to allocate sensor nodes into their most appropriate clusters. Subsequently, the protocol runs its rounds where each round is divided into a CH-Election phase and a Data Transmission phase. In the CH-Election phase, the election of new cluster heads is done locally in each cluster where a new multicriteria objective function is proposed to enhance the quality of elected cluster heads. In the Data Transmission phase, the sensing and data transmission from each sensor node to their respective cluster head is performed and cluster heads in turn aggregate and send the sensed data to the base station. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol improves network lifetime, data delivery, and energy consumption compared to other well-known energy-efficient protocols. PMID:25162060

  11. Intrusion Detection Algorithm for Mitigating Sinkhole Attack on LEACH Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeeth Kumar Sundararajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor network (WSN, the sensors are deployed and placed uniformly to transmit the sensed data to a centralized station periodically. So, the major threat of the WSN network layer is sinkhole attack and it is still being a challenging issue on the sensor networks, where the malicious node attracts the packets from the other normal sensor nodes and drops the packets. Thus, this paper proposes an Intrusion Detection System (IDS mechanism to detect the intruder in the network which uses Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH protocol for its routing operation. In the proposed algorithm, the detection metrics, such as number of packets transmitted and received, are used to compute the intrusion ratio (IR by the IDS agent. The computed numeric or nonnumeric value represents the normal or malicious activity. As and when the sinkhole attack is captured, the IDS agent alerts the network to stop the data transmission. Thus, it can be a resilient to the vulnerable attack of sinkhole. Above all, the simulation result is shown for the proposed algorithm which is proven to be efficient compared with the existing work, namely, MS-LEACH, in terms of minimum computational complexity and low energy consumption. Moreover, the algorithm was numerically analyzed using TETCOS NETSIM.

  12. IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) heterogeneous networking infrastructure for energy efficient building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Saad, Leila; Chauvenet, Cedric; Tourancheau, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing developments of home, building and city automation, Power Line Communication (PLC) networking is called for unprecedented usage, especially for energy efficiency improvement. Our view of the future building networking infrastructure places PLC as the central point. We point that while Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is necessary in the sensor and actuator networking infrastructure, PLC is mandatory for the smart-grid metering and command infrastructure. PLC will also serve the sensor/actuator infrastructure when the energy requirement of the probing system itself cannot be fulfilled by autonomous battery and harvesting based nodes. PLC may also provide the numerous bridges necessary to sustain a long lifetime (years) with the battery based WSN part of the infrastructure. This new role of PLC networking will be possible only if the interoperability between all media and technology is made possible. Thanks to the converging design of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) networking layers, we show that such a full inter-interoperability is already possible even in very tiny constrained networking devices. Moreover, the low power PLC technology used in our experiments will be able to provide this smart grid monitoring without impacting noticeably the overall energy balance of the monitored system.

  13. FuGeF: A Resource Bound Secure Forwarding Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Idris Abubakar; Mohd Hanapi, Zurina; Sali, A; Zulkarnain, Zuriati A

    2016-06-22

    Resource bound security solutions have facilitated the mitigation of spatio-temporal attacks by altering protocol semantics to provide minimal security while maintaining an acceptable level of performance. The Dynamic Window Secured Implicit Geographic Forwarding (DWSIGF) routing protocol for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has been proposed to achieve a minimal selection of malicious nodes by introducing a dynamic collection window period to the protocol's semantics. However, its selection scheme suffers substantial packet losses due to the utilization of a single distance based parameter for node selection. In this paper, we propose a Fuzzy-based Geographic Forwarding protocol (FuGeF) to minimize packet loss, while maintaining performance. The FuGeF utilizes a new form of dynamism and introduces three selection parameters: remaining energy, connectivity cost, and progressive distance, as well as a Fuzzy Logic System (FLS) for node selection. These introduced mechanisms ensure the appropriate selection of a non-malicious node. Extensive simulation experiments have been conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed FuGeF protocol as compared to DWSIGF variants. The simulation results show that the proposed FuGeF outperforms the two DWSIGF variants (DWSIGF-P and DWSIGF-R) in terms of packet delivery.

  14. Low-Power Wireless Sensor Networks Protocols, Services and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Suhonen, Jukka; Kaseva, Ville; Hämäläinen, Timo D; Hännikäinen, Marko

    2012-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is an ad-hoc network technology comprising even thousands of autonomic and self-organizing nodes that combine environmental sensing, data processing, and wireless networking. The applications for sensor networks range from home and industrial environments to military uses. Unlike the traditional computer networks, a WSN is application-oriented and deployed for a specific task. WSNs are data centric, which means that messages are not send to individual nodes but to geographical locations or regions based on the data content. A WSN node is typically battery powered and characterized by extremely small size and low cost. As a result, the processing power, memory, and energy resources of an individual sensor node are limited. However, the feasibility of a WSN lies on the collaboration between the nodes. A reference WSN node comprises a Micro-Controller Unit (MCU) having few Million Instructions Per Second (MIPS) processing speed, tens of kilobytes program memory, few kilobytes data m...

  15. Mobile Device Based Dynamic Key Management Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Ling Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless sensor network (WSN applications have tended to transmit data hop by hop, from sensor nodes through cluster nodes to the base station. As a result, users must collect data from the base station. This study considers two different applications: hop by hop transmission of data from cluster nodes to the base station and the direct access to cluster nodes data by mobile users via mobile devices. Due to the hardware limitations of WSNs, some low-cost operations such as symmetric cryptographic algorithms and hash functions are used to implement a dynamic key management. The session key can be updated to prevent threats of attack from each communication. With these methods, the data gathered in wireless sensor networks can be more securely communicated. Moreover, the proposed scheme is analyzed and compared with related schemes. In addition, an NS2 simulation is developed in which the experimental results show that the designed communication protocol is workable.

  16. Vertical Protocol Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The security of key exchange and secure channel protocols, such as TLS, has been studied intensively. However, only few works have considered what happens when the established keys are actually used—to run some protocol securely over the established “channel”. We call this a vertical protocol.......e., that the combination cannot introduce attacks that the individual protocols in isolation do not have. In this work, we prove a composability result in the symbolic model that allows for arbitrary vertical composition (including self-composition). It holds for protocols from any suite of channel and application...

  17. Transpressional folding and associated cross-fold jointing controlling the geometry of post-orogenic vein-type W-Sn mineralization: examples from Minas da Panasqueira, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Dominique; Vieira, Romeu; Muchez, Philippe; Sintubin, Manuel

    2018-02-01

    The world-class W-Sn Panasqueira deposit consists of an extensive, subhorizontal vein swarm, peripheral to a late-orogenic greisen cupola. The vein swarm consists of hundreds of co-planar quartz veins that are overlapping and connected laterally over large distances. Various segmentation structures, a local zigzag geometry, and the occurrence of straight propagation paths indicate that they exploited a regional joint system. A detailed orientation analysis of the systematic joints reveals a geometrical relationship with the subvertical F2 fold generation, reflecting late-Variscan transpression. The joints are consistently orthogonal to the steeply plunging S0-S2 intersection lineation, both on the regional and the outcrop scale, and are thus defined as cross-fold or ac-joints. The joint system developed during the waning stages of the Variscan orogeny, when already uplifted to an upper-crustal level. Veining reactivated these cross-fold joints under the conditions of hydraulic overpressures and low differential stress. The consistent subperpendicular orientation of the veins relative to the non-cylindrical F2 hinge lines, also when having an inclined attitude, demonstrates that veining did not occur during far-field horizontal compression. Vein orientation is determined by local stress states variable on a meter-scale but with the minimum principal stress consistently subparallel to fold hinge lines. The conspicuous subhorizontal attitude of the Panasqueira vein swarm is thus dictated by the geometry of late-orogenic folds, which developed synchronous with oroclinal buckling of the Ibero-Armorican arc.

  18. A novel multi-scale adaptive sampling-based approach for energy saving in leak detection for WSN-based water pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqib, Najam us; Faizan Mysorewala, Muhammad; Cheded, Lahouari

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel monitoring strategy for a wireless sensor networks (WSNs)-based water pipeline network. Our strategy uses a multi-pronged approach to reduce energy consumption based on the use of two types of vibration sensors and pressure sensors, all having different energy levels, and a hierarchical adaptive sampling mechanism to determine the sampling frequency. The sampling rate of the sensors is adjusted according to the bandwidth of the vibration signal being monitored by using a wavelet-based adaptive thresholding scheme that calculates the new sampling frequency for the following cycle. In this multimodal sensing scheme, the duty-cycling approach is used for all sensors to reduce the sampling instances, such that the high-energy, high-precision (HE-HP) vibration sensors have low duty cycles, and the low-energy, low-precision (LE-LP) vibration sensors have high duty cycles. The low duty-cycling (HE-HP) vibration sensor adjusts the sampling frequency of the high duty-cycling (LE-LP) vibration sensor. The simulated test bed considered here consists of a water pipeline network which uses pressure and vibration sensors, with the latter having different energy consumptions and precision levels, at various locations in the network. This is all the more useful for energy conservation for extended monitoring. It is shown that by using the novel features of our proposed scheme, a significant reduction in energy consumption is achieved and the leak is effectively detected by the sensor node that is closest to it. Finally, both the total energy consumed by monitoring as well as the time to detect the leak by a WSN node are computed, and show the superiority of our proposed hierarchical adaptive sampling algorithm over a non-adaptive sampling approach.

  19. Optimized energy-delay sub-network routing protocol development and implementation for wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonda, James W; Zawodniok, Maciej; Jagannathan, S; Watkins, Steve E

    2008-01-01

    The development and the implementation issues of a reactive optimized energy-delay sub-network routing (OEDSR) protocol for wireless sensor networks (WSN) are introduced and its performance is contrasted with the popular ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol. Analytical results illustrate the performance of the proposed OEDSR protocol, while experimental results utilizing a hardware testbed under various scenarios demonstrate improvements in energy efficiency of the OEDSR protocol. A hardware platform constructed at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), now the Missouri University of Science and Technology (MST), based on the Generation 4 Smart Sensor Node (G4-SSN) prototyping platform is also described. Performance improvements are shown in terms of end-to-end (E2E) delay, throughput, route-set-up time and drop rates and energy usage is given for three topologies, including a mobile topology. Additionally, results from the hardware testbed provide valuable lessons for network deployments. Under testing OEDSR provides a factor of ten improvement in the energy used in the routing session and extends network lifetime compared to AODV. Depletion experiments show that the time until the first node failure is extended by a factor of three with the network depleting and network lifetime is extended by 6.7%

  20. Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol to Enhance Performance of Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network: EECPEP-HWSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh V. Purkar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous wireless sensor network (HWSN fulfills the requirements of researchers in the design of real life application to resolve the issues of unattended problem. But, the main constraint faced by researchers is the energy source available with sensor nodes. To prolong the life of sensor nodes and thus HWSN, it is necessary to design energy efficient operational schemes. One of the most suitable approaches to enhance energy efficiency is the clustering scheme, which enhances the performance parameters of WSN. A novel solution proposed in this article is to design an energy efficient clustering protocol for HWSN, to enhance performance parameters by EECPEP-HWSN. The proposed protocol is designed with three level nodes namely normal, advanced, and super, respectively. In the clustering process, for selection of cluster head we consider different parameters available with sensor nodes at run time that is, initial energy, hop count, and residual energy. This protocol enhances the energy efficiency of HWSN and hence improves energy remaining in the network, stability, lifetime, and hence throughput. It has been found that the proposed protocol outperforms than existing well-known LEACH, DEEC, and SEP with about 188, 150, and 141 percent respectively.

  1. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-03-31

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  2. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks. PMID:27043572

  3. The French dosimetry protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutreix, A.

    1985-01-01

    After a general introduction the protocol is divided in five sections dealing with: determination of the quality of X-ray, γ-ray and electron beams; the measuring instrument; calibration of the reference instrument; determination of the reference absorbed dose in the user's beams; determination of the absorbed dose in water at other points, in other conditions. The French protocol is not essentially different from the Nordic protocol and it is based on the experience gained in using both the American and the Nordic protocols. Therefore, only the main difference with the published protocols are discussed. (Auth.)

  4. FUZZY LOGIC BASED ENERGY EFFICIENT PROTOCOL IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Wei Siew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been vastly developed due to the advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS using WSN to study and monitor the environments towards climates changes. In environmental monitoring, sensors are randomly deployed over the interest area to periodically sense the physical environments for a few months or even a year. Therefore, to prolong the network lifetime with limited battery capacity becomes a challenging issue. Low energy adaptive cluster hierarchical (LEACH is the common clustering protocol that aim to reduce the energy consumption by rotating the heavy workload cluster heads (CHs. The CHs election in LEACH is based on probability model which will lead to inefficient in energy consumption due to least desired CHs location in the network. In WSNs, the CHs location can directly influence the network energy consumption and further affect the network lifetime. In this paper, factors which will affect the network lifetime will be presented and the demonstration of fuzzy logic based CH selection conducted in base station (BS will also be carried out. To select suitable CHs that will prolong the network first node dies (FND round and consistent throughput to the BS, energy level and distance to the BS are selected as fuzzy inputs.

  5. Protocol Implementation Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno; Probst, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    Users expect communication systems to guarantee, amongst others, privacy and integrity of their data. These can be ensured by using well-established protocols; the best protocol, however, is useless if not all parties involved in a communication have a correct implementation of the protocol and a...... Generator framework based on the LySatool and a translator from the LySa language into C or Java....... necessary tools. In this paper, we present the Protocol Implementation Generator (PiG), a framework that can be used to add protocol generation to protocol negotiation, or to easily share and implement new protocols throughout a network. PiG enables the sharing, verification, and translation...

  6. a transport layer protocol using adaptive loss recovery method for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ayhan Kİraz

    Recently, critical projects were developed using wireless sensor network (WSN) such as medical and military ... provide high reliability, low power consumption, low end- to-end ... transmission and lower end-to-end packet latency values.

  7. Network protocols and sockets

    OpenAIRE

    BALEJ, Marek

    2010-01-01

    My work will deal with network protocols and sockets and their use in programming language C#. It will therefore deal programming network applications on the platform .NET from Microsoft and instruments, which C# provides to us. There will describe the tools and methods for programming network applications, and shows a description and sample applications that work with sockets and application protocols.

  8. Protocol Fuel Mix reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The protocol in this document describes a method for an Electricity Distribution Company (EDC) to account for the fuel mix of electricity that it delivers to its customers, based on the best available information. Own production, purchase and sale of electricity, and certificates trading are taken into account. In chapter 2 the actual protocol is outlined. In the appendixes additional (supporting) information is given: (A) Dutch Standard Fuel Mix, 2000; (B) Calculation of the Dutch Standard fuel mix; (C) Procedures to estimate and benchmark the fuel mix; (D) Quality management; (E) External verification; (F) Recommendation for further development of the protocol; (G) Reporting examples

  9. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...

  10. Playing With Population Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Koegler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Population protocols have been introduced as a model of sensor networks consisting of very limited mobile agents with no control over their own movement: A collection of anonymous agents, modeled by finite automata, interact in pairs according to some rules. Predicates on the initial configurations that can be computed by such protocols have been characterized under several hypotheses. We discuss here whether and when the rules of interactions between agents can be seen as a game from game theory. We do so by discussing several basic protocols.

  11. ATM and Internet protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Bentall, M; Turton, B

    1998-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a protocol that allows data, sound and video being transferred between independent networks via ISDN links to be supplied to, and interpreted by, the various system protocols.ATM and Internet Protocol explains the working of the ATM and B-ISDN network for readers with a basic understanding of telecommunications. It provides a handy reference to everyone working with ATM who may not require the full standards in detail, but need a comprehensive guide to ATM. A substantial section is devoted to the problems of running IP over ATM and there is some discussion o

  12. Mobile Internet Protocol Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brachfeld, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    ...) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Mobile IP allows mobile computers to send and receive packets addressed with their home network IP address, regardless of the IP address of their current point of attachment on the Internet...

  13. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  14. Performance Comparison of Wireless Sensor Network Standard Protocols in an Aerospace Environment: ISA100.11a and ZigBee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Raymond S.; Barton, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) can provide a substantial benefit in spacecraft systems, reducing launch weight and providing unprecedented flexibility by allowing instrumentation capabilities to grow and change over time. Achieving data transport reliability on par with that of wired systems, however, can prove extremely challenging in practice. Fortunately, much progress has been made in developing standard WSN radio protocols for applications from non-critical home automation to mission-critical industrial process control. The relative performances of candidate protocols must be compared in representative aerospace environments, however, to determine their suitability for spaceflight applications. In this paper, we will present the results of a rigorous laboratory analysis of the performance of two standards-based, low power, low data rate WSN protocols: ZigBee Pro and ISA100.11a. Both are based on IEEE 802.15.4 and augment that standard's specifications to build complete, multi-hop networking stacks. ZigBee Pro targets primarily the home and office automation markets, providing an ad-hoc protocol that is computationally lightweight and easy to implement in inexpensive system-on-a-chip components. As a result of this simplicity, however, ZigBee Pro can be susceptible to radio frequency (RF) interference. ISA100.11a, on the other hand, targets the industrial process control market, providing a robust, centrally-managed protocol capable of tolerating a significant amount of RF interference. To achieve these gains, a coordinated channel hopping mechanism is employed, which entails a greater computational complexity than ZigBee and requires more sophisticated and costly hardware. To guide future aerospace deployments, we must understand how well these standards relatively perform in analog environments under expected operating conditions. Specifically, we are interested in evaluating goodput -- application level throughput -- in a representative crewed environment

  15. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Saleem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP involves an artificial immune system (AIS that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2 and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  16. In silico toxicology protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Glenn J; Ahlberg, Ernst; Akahori, Yumi; Allen, David; Amberg, Alexander; Anger, Lennart T; Aptula, Aynur; Auerbach, Scott; Beilke, Lisa; Bellion, Phillip; Benigni, Romualdo; Bercu, Joel; Booth, Ewan D; Bower, Dave; Brigo, Alessandro; Burden, Natalie; Cammerer, Zoryana; Cronin, Mark T D; Cross, Kevin P; Custer, Laura; Dettwiler, Magdalena; Dobo, Krista; Ford, Kevin A; Fortin, Marie C; Gad-McDonald, Samantha E; Gellatly, Nichola; Gervais, Véronique; Glover, Kyle P; Glowienke, Susanne; Van Gompel, Jacky; Gutsell, Steve; Hardy, Barry; Harvey, James S; Hillegass, Jedd; Honma, Masamitsu; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Hughes, Kathy; Johnson, Candice; Jolly, Robert; Jones, David; Kemper, Ray; Kenyon, Michelle O; Kim, Marlene T; Kruhlak, Naomi L; Kulkarni, Sunil A; Kümmerer, Klaus; Leavitt, Penny; Majer, Bernhard; Masten, Scott; Miller, Scott; Moser, Janet; Mumtaz, Moiz; Muster, Wolfgang; Neilson, Louise; Oprea, Tudor I; Patlewicz, Grace; Paulino, Alexandre; Lo Piparo, Elena; Powley, Mark; Quigley, Donald P; Reddy, M Vijayaraj; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Ruiz, Patricia; Schilter, Benoit; Serafimova, Rositsa; Simpson, Wendy; Stavitskaya, Lidiya; Stidl, Reinhard; Suarez-Rodriguez, Diana; Szabo, David T; Teasdale, Andrew; Trejo-Martin, Alejandra; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Vuorinen, Anna; Wall, Brian A; Watts, Pete; White, Angela T; Wichard, Joerg; Witt, Kristine L; Woolley, Adam; Woolley, David; Zwickl, Craig; Hasselgren, Catrin

    2018-04-17

    The present publication surveys several applications of in silico (i.e., computational) toxicology approaches across different industries and institutions. It highlights the need to develop standardized protocols when conducting toxicity-related predictions. This contribution articulates the information needed for protocols to support in silico predictions for major toxicological endpoints of concern (e.g., genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity, acute toxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity) across several industries and regulatory bodies. Such novel in silico toxicology (IST) protocols, when fully developed and implemented, will ensure in silico toxicological assessments are performed and evaluated in a consistent, reproducible, and well-documented manner across industries and regulatory bodies to support wider uptake and acceptance of the approaches. The development of IST protocols is an initiative developed through a collaboration among an international consortium to reflect the state-of-the-art in in silico toxicology for hazard identification and characterization. A general outline for describing the development of such protocols is included and it is based on in silico predictions and/or available experimental data for a defined series of relevant toxicological effects or mechanisms. The publication presents a novel approach for determining the reliability of in silico predictions alongside experimental data. In addition, we discuss how to determine the level of confidence in the assessment based on the relevance and reliability of the information. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Compromises Between Quality of Service Metrics and Energy Consumption of Hierarchical and Flat Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensors Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelbari BEN YAGOUTA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is wireless network composed of spatially distributed and tiny autonomous nodes, which cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions. Among the concerns of these networks is prolonging the lifetime by saving nodes energy. There are several protocols specially designed for WSNs based on energy conservation. However, many WSNs applications require QoS (Quality of Service criteria, such as latency, reliability and throughput. In this paper, we will compare three routing protocols for wireless sensors network LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy, AODV (Ad hoc on demand Distance Vector and LABILE (Link Quality-Based Lexical Routing using Castalia simulator in terms of energy consumption, throughput, reliability and latency time of packets received by sink under different conditions to determinate the best configurations that offers the most suitable compromises between energy conservation and all QoS metrics for each routing protocols. The results show that, the best configurations that offer the suitable compromises between energy conservation and all QoS metrics is a large number of deployed nodes with low packet rate for LEACH (300 nodes and 1 packet/s, a medium number of deployed nodes with low packet rate For AODV (100 nodes and 1 packet/s and a very low nodes density with low packet rate for LABILE (50 nodes and 1 packet/s.

  18. On the Performance of the Current MANET Routing Protocols for VoIP, HTTP, and FTP Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheb A. Jabbar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances of ensemble mobile environment of smart devices with embedded sensors have enabled the MANET to play a key role in the smart cities as well as WSN and WMN. However, these smart devices are still limited in terms of energy, processor, and memory. Moreover, the efficient routing for reliable network connectivity at anytime, anywhere, and about everything is still a challenge in multihop wireless networks. This paper evaluates the QoS and energy efficiency of three active routing protocols: (i OLSRv2, a successor to OLSR, (ii DYMO, a successor to both DSR and AODV, and (iii MP-OLSR multipath extension to OLSRv2. In contrast to the related previous works which focused only on CBR traffic without considering the influence of specific traffic types on the performance of routing protocols, this work focused on this area from a different perspective. It evaluates the performance of three internet-based traffic types that can be used in the smart city applications: VoIP, HTTP, and FTP using different simulation models. The impact of the network density, load traffic, and nodes mobility on the considered protocols was evaluated by considering particular performance metrics for each traffic application. Based on the results, the study concludes by presenting useful recommendations for future work.

  19. Business protocol in integrated Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelová, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The first chapter devotes to definitions of basic terms such as protocol or business protocol, to differences between protocol and etiquette, and between social etiquette and business etiquette. The second chapter focuses on the factors influencing the European business protocol. The third chapter is devoted to the etiquette of business protocol in the European countries. It touches the topics such as punctuality and planning of business appointment, greeting, business cards, dress and appear...

  20. Security Protocols in a Nutshell

    OpenAIRE

    Toorani, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Security protocols are building blocks in secure communications. They deploy some security mechanisms to provide certain security services. Security protocols are considered abstract when analyzed, but they can have extra vulnerabilities when implemented. This manuscript provides a holistic study on security protocols. It reviews foundations of security protocols, taxonomy of attacks on security protocols and their implementations, and different methods and models for security analysis of pro...

  1. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  2. Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation; Protocol Monitoring Energiebesparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Mannaerts, H. [Centraal Planburea CPB, Den Haag (Netherlands); Tinbergen, W. [Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek CBS, Den Haag (Netherlands); Vreuls, H.H.J. [Nederlandse onderneming voor energie en milieu Novem, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wesselink, B. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    On request of the Dutch ministry of Economic Affairs five institutes have collaborated to create a 'Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation', a common method and database to calculate the amount of energy savings realised in past years. The institutes concerned are the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB), the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), the National Agency for Energy and Environment (Novem) and the Netherlands Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM). The institutes have agreed upon a clear definition of energy use and energy savings. The demarcation with renewable energy, the saving effects of substitution between energy carriers and the role of import and export of energy have been elaborated. A decomposition method is used to split up the observed change in energy use in a number of effects, on a national and sectoral level. This method includes an analysis of growth effects, effects of structural changes in production and consumption activities and savings on end use or with more efficient conversion processes. To calculate these effects the total energy use is desegregated as much as possible. For each segment a reference energy use is calculated according to the trend in a variable which is supposed to be representative for the use without savings. The difference with the actual energy use is taken as the savings realised. Results are given for the sectors households, industry, agriculture, services and government, transportation and the energy sector; as well as a national figure. A special feature of the protocol method is the application of primary energy use figures in the determination of savings for end users. This means that the use of each energy carrier is increased with a certain amount, according to the conversion losses caused elsewhere in the energy system. The losses concern the base year energy sector and losses abroad for imports of secondary

  3. Immunocytochemical methods and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Javois, Lorette C

    1999-01-01

    ... monoclonal antibodies to study cell differentiation during embryonic development. For a select few disciplines volumes have been published focusing on the specific application of immunocytochemical techniques to that discipline. What distinguished Immunocytochemical Methods and Protocols from earlier books when it was first published four years ago was i...

  4. Critical Response Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Charlene; Roehrig, Gillian; Bakkum, Kris; Dubinsky, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the Critical Response Protocol (CRP), an arts-based technique that engages students in equitable critical discourse and aligns with the "Next Generation Science Standards" vision for providing students opportunities for language learning while advancing science learning (NGSS Lead States 2013). CRP helps teachers…

  5. Linear Logical Voting Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeYoung, Henry; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Current approaches to electronic implementations of voting protocols involve translating legal text to source code of an imperative programming language. Because the gap between legal text and source code is very large, it is difficult to trust that the program meets its legal specification. In r...

  6. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...

  7. Model Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwood, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war a series of events has changed the circumstances and requirements of the safeguards system. The discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq, the continuing difficulty in verifying the initial report of Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon entry into force of their safeguards agreement, and the decision of the South African Government to give up its nuclear weapons program and join the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons have all played a role in an ambitious effort by IAEA Member States and the Secretariat to strengthen the safeguards system. A major milestone in this effort was reached in May 1997 when the IAEA Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements. The Model Additional Protocol was negotiated over a period of less than a year by an open-ended committee of the Board involving some 70 Member States and two regional inspectorates. The IAEA is now in the process of negotiating additional protocols, State by State, and implementing them. These additional protocols will provide the IAEA with rights of access to information about all activities related to the use of nuclear material in States with comprehensive safeguards agreements and greatly expanded physical access for IAEA inspectors to confirm or verify this information. In conjunction with this, the IAEA is working on the integration of these measures with those provided for in comprehensive safeguards agreements, with a view to maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency, within available resources, the implementation of safeguards. Details concerning the Model Additional Protocol are given. (author)

  8. DCE: A Distributed Energy-Efficient Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network Based on Double-Phase Cluster-Head Election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ruisong; Yang, Wei; Wang, Yipeng; You, Kaiming

    2017-05-01

    Clustering is an effective technique used to reduce energy consumption and extend the lifetime of wireless sensor network (WSN). The characteristic of energy heterogeneity of WSNs should be considered when designing clustering protocols. We propose and evaluate a novel distributed energy-efficient clustering protocol called DCE for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks, based on a Double-phase Cluster-head Election scheme. In DCE, the procedure of cluster head election is divided into two phases. In the first phase, tentative cluster heads are elected with the probabilities which are decided by the relative levels of initial and residual energy. Then, in the second phase, the tentative cluster heads are replaced by their cluster members to form the final set of cluster heads if any member in their cluster has more residual energy. Employing two phases for cluster-head election ensures that the nodes with more energy have a higher chance to be cluster heads. Energy consumption is well-distributed in the proposed protocol, and the simulation results show that DCE achieves longer stability periods than other typical clustering protocols in heterogeneous scenarios.

  9. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  10. Epistemic Protocols for Distributed Gossiping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof R. Apt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gossip protocols aim at arriving, by means of point-to-point or group communications, at a situation in which all the agents know each other's secrets. We consider distributed gossip protocols which are expressed by means of epistemic logic. We provide an operational semantics of such protocols and set up an appropriate framework to argue about their correctness. Then we analyze specific protocols for complete graphs and for directed rings.

  11. Symmetric cryptographic protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on protocols and constructions that make good use of symmetric pseudo random functions (PRF) like block ciphers and hash functions - the building blocks for symmetric cryptography. Readers will benefit from detailed discussion of several strategies for utilizing symmetric PRFs. Coverage includes various key distribution strategies for unicast, broadcast and multicast security, and strategies for constructing efficient digests of dynamic databases using binary hash trees.   •        Provides detailed coverage of symmetric key protocols •        Describes various applications of symmetric building blocks •        Includes strategies for constructing compact and efficient digests of dynamic databases

  12. Diplomacy and Diplomatic Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lect. Ph.D Oana Iucu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to observe relationships and determining factors between diplomacyand diplomatic protocol as outlined by historical and contextual analyses. The approach is very dynamic,provided that concepts are able to show their richness, antiquity and polyvalence at the level of connotations,semantics, grammatical and social syntax. The fact that this information is up to date determines anattitude of appreciation and a state of positive contamination.

  13. Automatic Validation of Protocol Narration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, Pierpablo

    2003-01-01

    We perform a systematic expansion of protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to make precise some of the detailed checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we...

  14. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nemr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children, 29.25 (adult women, 22.75 (adult men, and 27.10 (seniors. CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics.

  15. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemr, Katia; Simões-Zenari, Marcia; da Trindade Duarte, João Marcos; Lobrigate, Karen Elena; Bagatini, Flavia Alves

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors) divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children), 29.25 (adult women), 22.75 (adult men), and 27.10 (seniors). CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics. PMID:27074171

  16. An Energy Centric Cluster-Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosen, A S M Sanwar; Cho, Gi Hwan

    2018-05-11

    Clustering is an effective way to prolong the lifetime of a wireless sensor network (WSN). The common approach is to elect cluster heads to take routing and controlling duty, and to periodically rotate each cluster head's role to distribute energy consumption among nodes. However, a significant amount of energy dissipates due to control messages overhead, which results in a shorter network lifetime. This paper proposes an energy-centric cluster-based routing mechanism in WSNs. To begin with, cluster heads are elected based on the higher ranks of the nodes. The rank is defined by residual energy and average distance from the member nodes. With the role of data aggregation and data forwarding, a cluster head acts as a caretaker for cluster-head election in the next round, where the ranks' information are piggybacked along with the local data sending during intra-cluster communication. This reduces the number of control messages for the cluster-head election as well as the cluster formation in detail. Simulation results show that our proposed protocol saves the energy consumption among nodes and achieves a significant improvement in the network lifetime.

  17. CENTERA: A Centralized Trust-Based Efficient Routing Protocol with Authentication for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Tajeddine

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present CENTERA, a CENtralized Trust-based Efficient Routing protocol with an appropriate authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSN. CENTERA utilizes the more powerful base station (BS to gather minimal neighbor trust information from nodes and calculate the best routes after isolating different types of “bad” nodes. By periodically accumulating these simple local observations and approximating the nodes’ battery lives, the BS draws a global view of the network, calculates three quality metrics—maliciousness, cooperation, and compatibility—and evaluates the Data Trust and Forwarding Trust values of each node. Based on these metrics, the BS isolates “bad”, “misbehaving” or malicious nodes for a certain period, and put some nodes on probation. CENTERA increases the node’s bad/probation level with repeated “bad” behavior, and decreases it otherwise. Then it uses a very efficient method to distribute the routing information to “good” nodes. Based on its target environment, and if required, CENTERA uses an authentication scheme suitable for severely constrained nodes, ranging from the symmetric RC5 for safe environments under close administration, to pairing-based cryptography (PBC for hostile environments with a strong attacker model. We simulate CENTERA using TOSSIM and verify its correctness and show some energy calculations.

  18. CENTERA: A Centralized Trust-Based Efficient Routing Protocol with Authentication for Wireless Sensor Networks †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddine, Ayman; Kayssi, Ayman; Chehab, Ali; Elhajj, Imad; Itani, Wassim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present CENTERA, a CENtralized Trust-based Efficient Routing protocol with an appropriate authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSN). CENTERA utilizes the more powerful base station (BS) to gather minimal neighbor trust information from nodes and calculate the best routes after isolating different types of “bad” nodes. By periodically accumulating these simple local observations and approximating the nodes' battery lives, the BS draws a global view of the network, calculates three quality metrics—maliciousness, cooperation, and compatibility—and evaluates the Data Trust and Forwarding Trust values of each node. Based on these metrics, the BS isolates “bad”, “misbehaving” or malicious nodes for a certain period, and put some nodes on probation. CENTERA increases the node's bad/probation level with repeated “bad” behavior, and decreases it otherwise. Then it uses a very efficient method to distribute the routing information to “good” nodes. Based on its target environment, and if required, CENTERA uses an authentication scheme suitable for severely constrained nodes, ranging from the symmetric RC5 for safe environments under close administration, to pairing-based cryptography (PBC) for hostile environments with a strong attacker model. We simulate CENTERA using TOSSIM and verify its correctness and show some energy calculations. PMID:25648712

  19. CENTERA: a centralized trust-based efficient routing protocol with authentication for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddine, Ayman; Kayssi, Ayman; Chehab, Ali; Elhajj, Imad; Itani, Wassim

    2015-02-02

    In this paper, we present CENTERA, a CENtralized Trust-based Efficient Routing protocol with an appropriate authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSN). CENTERA utilizes the more powerful base station (BS) to gather minimal neighbor trust information from nodes and calculate the best routes after isolating different types of "bad" nodes. By periodically accumulating these simple local observations and approximating the nodes' battery lives, the BS draws a global view of the network, calculates three quality metrics-maliciousness, cooperation, and compatibility-and evaluates the Data Trust and Forwarding Trust values of each node. Based on these metrics, the BS isolates "bad", "misbehaving" or malicious nodes for a certain period, and put some nodes on probation. CENTERA increases the node's bad/probation level with repeated "bad" behavior, and decreases it otherwise. Then it uses a very efficient method to distribute the routing information to "good" nodes. Based on its target environment, and if required, CENTERA uses an authentication scheme suitable for severely constrained nodes, ranging from the symmetric RC5 for safe environments under close administration, to pairing-based cryptography (PBC) for hostile environments with a strong attacker model. We simulate CENTERA using TOSSIM and verify its correctness and show some energy calculations.

  20. Mineralogy, stable isotopes (δ18O and δ34S and 40Ar-39Ar geochronology studies on the hydrothermal carapace of the Igarapé Manteiga W-Sn Deposit, Rondônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Marcela Fernandes do Nascimento

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Igarapé Manteiga W-Sn deposit is formed by a granite stock that intrudes in the Paleoproterozoic basement. The mineralization is encapsulated in an alumino-siliceous hydrothermal carapace formed by greisen, vein-veinlets and breccia, developed in the apex zone of a granite stock. At this site, wolframite, cassiterite and sulfides-minerals, as well as siderite, monazite, xenotime, hematite and others, are spread out or in massive clusters associated with quartz, topaz, zinnwaldite and fluorite. Wolframite is not zoned and relatively rich in Fe, and poor in Nb and Ta. Cassiterite exhibits growth-zones with light-yellow to dark-orange colors, and is rich in Ta, and poor in Ti, W, Mn and U. Oxygen and sulfur (δ18O and δ34S isotope data on the ore- and sulfide-minerals indicates that it is a magmatic source, with closing temperatures from 230°C to 480°C. The hydrothermal phase was cyclical and protractedly active, promoting greisenization and hydrofracturing. The lowering of temperature and the change in the composition of fluids (from oxidized to reduced controlled the precipitation of the hydrothermal mineral assemblage. The 40Ar-39Ar analyses reveal a plateau age of 988 Ma, interpreted as the closure time for the hydrothermal processes responsible for mineralization, which is linked to the final magmatic evolution of the Rondônia Intrusive Suite (995-991 Ma.

  1. Mineralogy, stable isotopes (δ18O and δ34S) and 40Ar-39Ar geochronology studies on the hydrothermal carapace of the Igarapé Manteiga W-Sn Deposit, Rondônia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Thais Marcela Fernandes do; Souza, Valmir da Silva

    2017-01-01

    The Igarapé Manteiga W-Sn deposit is formed by a granite stock that intrudes in the Paleoproterozoic basement. The mineralization is encapsulated in an alumino-siliceous hydrothermal carapace formed by greisen, vein-veinlets and breccia, developed in the apex zone of a granite stock. At this site, wolframite, cassiterite and sulfides-minerals, as well as siderite, monazite, xenotime, hematite and others, are spread out or in massive clusters associated with quartz, topaz, zinnwaldite and fluorite. Wolframite is not zoned and relatively rich in Fe, and poor in Nb and Ta. Cassiterite exhibits growth-zones with light-yellow to dark-orange colors, and is rich in Ta, and poor in Ti, W, Mn and U. Oxygen and sulfur (δ 18 O and δ 34 S) isotope data on the ore- and sulfide-minerals indicates that it is a magmatic source, with closing temperatures from 230° C to 480° C. The hydrothermal phase was cyclical and protractedly active, promoting greisenization and hydrofracturing. The lowering of temperature and the change in the composition of fluids (from oxidized to reduced) controlled the precipitation of the hydrothermal mineral assemblage. The 40 Ar- 39 Ar analyses reveal a plateau age of 988 Ma, interpreted as the closure time for the hydrothermal processes responsible for mineralization, which is linked to the final magmatic evolution of the Rondônia Intrusive Suite (995-991Ma). (author)

  2. A Scalable Context-Aware Objective Function (SCAOF of Routing Protocol for Agricultural Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, IoT (Internet of Things technologies have seen great advances, particularly, the IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-power and Lossy Networks (RPL, which provides a powerful and flexible routing framework that can be applied in a variety of application scenarios. In this context, as an important role of IoT, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs can utilize RPL to design efficient routing protocols for a specific application to increase the ubiquity of networks with resource-constrained WSN nodes that are low-cost and easy to deploy. In this article, our work starts with the description of Agricultural Low-power and Lossy Networks (A-LLNs complying with the LLN framework, and to clarify the requirements of this application-oriented routing solution. After a brief review of existing optimization techniques for RPL, our contribution is dedicated to a Scalable Context-Aware Objective Function (SCAOF that can adapt RPL to the environmental monitoring of A-LLNs, through combining energy-aware, reliability-aware, robustness-aware and resource-aware contexts according to the composite routing metrics approach. The correct behavior of this enhanced RPL version (RPAL was verified by performance evaluations on both simulation and field tests. The obtained experimental results confirm that SCAOF can deliver the desired advantages on network lifetime extension, and high reliability and efficiency in different simulation scenarios and hardware testbeds.

  3. A Scalable Context-Aware Objective Function (SCAOF) of Routing Protocol for Agricultural Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPAL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yibo; Chanet, Jean-Pierre; Hou, Kun-Mean; Shi, Hongling; de Sousa, Gil

    2015-08-10

    In recent years, IoT (Internet of Things) technologies have seen great advances, particularly, the IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-power and Lossy Networks (RPL), which provides a powerful and flexible routing framework that can be applied in a variety of application scenarios. In this context, as an important role of IoT, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) can utilize RPL to design efficient routing protocols for a specific application to increase the ubiquity of networks with resource-constrained WSN nodes that are low-cost and easy to deploy. In this article, our work starts with the description of Agricultural Low-power and Lossy Networks (A-LLNs) complying with the LLN framework, and to clarify the requirements of this application-oriented routing solution. After a brief review of existing optimization techniques for RPL, our contribution is dedicated to a Scalable Context-Aware Objective Function (SCAOF) that can adapt RPL to the environmental monitoring of A-LLNs, through combining energy-aware, reliability-aware, robustness-aware and resource-aware contexts according to the composite routing metrics approach. The correct behavior of this enhanced RPL version (RPAL) was verified by performance evaluations on both simulation and field tests. The obtained experimental results confirm that SCAOF can deliver the desired advantages on network lifetime extension, and high reliability and efficiency in different simulation scenarios and hardware testbeds.

  4. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel

    1999-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.1999, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to:Bureau des cartes, bâtiment 33.1-025Should the 3 spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose 2 passport photographs for a new card.In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.Personnel DivisionTel. 79494/74683

  5. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  6. Sincalide - the final protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, E.A.; Notghi, A.; Hesslewood, S.R.; Harding, L.K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: HIDA biliary studies examine the gallbladder (GB) to give a percentage ejection fraction (EF). Porcine CCK was an accepted agent for stimulating the GB prior to being withdrawn in the UK from 1998. Sincalide (a synthetic CCK) was the suggested replacement. We have tried many administration regimes in an attempt to get results comparable with our established CCK protocols. Dose concentration and length of infusion times have been studied. Initially a dose of 10 ngm/kg/min given over 2 minutes (manufacturer's recommended dose) was used. This gave falsely low ejection fractions. The dose was reduced to 3 ngm/kg/min over 3 minutes as it was felt the higher dose may be causing constriction of the sphincter of Oddi. This gave a slight improvement with 22 % of patients having normal EF (>35 %). The length of infusion was extended to 15 minutes and the dose concentration reduced again to 0.6 ngm/kg/min. 62 % of patients had a normal EF. However, on many of the curves the gallbladder was still contracting on completion of the 15 minute infusion and began to refill immediately after stopping Sincalide. A further change of protocol was indicated. The infusion time was extended to 30 minutes and the dose concentration per minute kept the same. Imaging began at 30 minutes post HIDA injection and continued for a total of 50 minutes. Sincalide infusion began at 35 minutes if a GB was visualized. This protocol has been performed on 17 patients. 53 % of these had a normal result (comparable with a normal rate of 40 % previously established with CCK) with a mean EF of 60 %. The mean EF of patients with abnormal studies was 15 %. Curves showed a plateau by 30 minutes in 94 % of patients indicating that gallbladder contraction was complete. No normal range is available so results were compared with ultrasound (US). All patients who had an abnormal US scan also had abnormal HIDA results. Three patients had a normal US scan and abnormal HIDA study. These are currently

  7. Distributed Network Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(II different from Controlting Office) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) S Office of Naval Research Unclassified...All protocols are extended to networks with changing. topology. S80 8 4 246 DD0I iA 1473 EDITION OF INOV 65 IS OBSOLETE 8 0 24 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...to the netowrk . f) Each node knows its adjacent links, but not necessarily the identity of its neighbors, i.e. the nodes at the other end of the links

  8. Security and SCADA protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igure, V. M.; Williams, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks have replaced discrete wiring for many industrial processes, and the efficiency of the network alternative suggests a trend toward more SCADA networks in the future. This paper broadly considers SCADA to include distributed control systems (DCS) and digital control systems. These networks offer many advantages, but they also introduce potential vulnerabilities that can be exploited by adversaries. Inter-connectivity exposes SCADA networks to many of the same threats that face the public internet and many of the established defenses therefore show promise if adapted to the SCADA differences. This paper provides an overview of security issues in SCADA networks and ongoing efforts to improve the security of these networks. Initially, a few samples from the range of threats to SCADA network security are offered. Next, attention is focused on security assessment of SCADA communication protocols. Three challenges must be addressed to strengthen SCADA networks. Access control mechanisms need to be introduced or strengthened, improvements are needed inside of the network to enhance security and network monitoring, and SCADA security management improvements and policies are needed. This paper discusses each of these challenges. This paper uses the Profibus protocol as an example to illustrate some of the vulnerabilities that arise within SCADA networks. The example Profibus security assessment establishes a network model and an attacker model before proceeding to a list of example attacks. (authors)

  9. [Computerized clinical protocol for occlusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsench, J; Ferrer, J; Nogueras, J

    1988-11-01

    In making a protocol it is necessary that all members of the team who are going to collect information have the same unity of criterion about the different variables that compose it. The drawing up of this document is as much or more necessary than the protocol itself. In this work we all data collected in the protocol and we give the explanations of each concept.

  10. Static Validation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, P.

    2005-01-01

    We methodically expand protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to specify some of the checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques ...... suffice to identify several authentication flaws in symmetric and asymmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder symmetric key, Otway-Rees, Yahalom, Andrew secure RPC, Needham-Schroeder asymmetric key, and Beller-Chang-Yacobi MSR...

  11. Unconditionally Secure Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Sigurd Torkel

    This thesis contains research on the theory of secure multi-party computation (MPC). Especially information theoretically (as opposed to computationally) secure protocols. It contains results from two main lines of work. One line on Information Theoretically Secure Oblivious RAMS, and how....... We construct an oblivious RAM that hides the client's access pattern with information theoretic security with an amortized $\\log^3 N$ query overhead. And how to employ a second server that is guaranteed not to conspire with the first to improve the overhead to $\\log^2 N$, while also avoiding...... they are used to speed up secure computation. An Oblivious RAM is a construction for a client with a small $O(1)$ internal memory to store $N$ pieces of data on a server while revealing nothing more than the size of the memory $N$, and the number of accesses. This specifically includes hiding the access pattern...

  12. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Pepe, Alberto; Pepe, Alberto; Yeomans, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should naturally guide authors towards OA publication and CERN wants to help reach a full...

  13. MC-LMAC: A Multi-Channel MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durmaz, O.; Jansen, P.G.; Mullender, Sape J.

    2008-01-01

    In traditional wireless sensor network (WSN) applications, energy efficiency is considered to be the most important concern whereas utilizing the use of bandwidth and maximizing the throughput are of secondary importance. However, recent applications, such as structural health monitoring, require

  14. Gene probes: principles and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aquino de Muro, Marilena; Rapley, Ralph

    2002-01-01

    ... of labeled DNA has allowed genes to be mapped to single chromosomes and in many cases to a single chromosome band, promoting significant advance in human genome mapping. Gene Probes: Principles and Protocols presents the principles for gene probe design, labeling, detection, target format, and hybridization conditions together with detailed protocols, accom...

  15. Developing frameworks for protocol implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Barros Barbosa, C.; de barros Barbosa, C.; Ferreira Pires, Luis

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a method to develop frameworks for protocol implementation. Frameworks are software structures developed for a specific application domain, which can be reused in the implementation of various different concrete systems in this domain. The use of frameworks support a protocol

  16. Potential of Wake-Up Radio-Based MAC Protocols for Implantable Body Sensor Networks (IBSN—A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignesh Raja Karuppiah Ramachandran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of nano-technology, medical sensors and devices are becoming highly miniaturized. Consequently, the number of sensors and medical devices being implanted to accurately monitor and diagnose a disease is increasing. By measuring the symptoms and controlling a medical device as close as possible to the source, these implantable devices are able to save lives. A wireless link between medical sensors and implantable medical devices is essential in the case of closed-loop medical devices, in which symptoms of the diseases are monitored by sensors that are not placed in close proximity of the therapeutic device. Medium Access Control (MAC is crucial to make it possible for several medical devices to communicate using a shared wireless medium in such a way that minimum delay, maximum throughput, and increased network life-time are guaranteed. To guarantee this Quality of Service (QoS, the MAC protocols control the main sources of limited resource wastage, namely the idle-listening, packet collisions, over-hearing, and packet loss. Traditional MAC protocols designed for body sensor networks are not directly applicable to Implantable Body Sensor Networks (IBSN because of the dynamic nature of the radio channel within the human body and the strict QoS requirements of IBSN applications. Although numerous MAC protocols are available in the literature, the majority of them are designed for Body Sensor Network (BSN and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. To the best of our knowledge, there is so far no research paper that explores the impact of these MAC protocols specifically for IBSN. MAC protocols designed for implantable devices are still in their infancy and one of their most challenging objectives is to be ultra-low-power. One of the technological solutions to achieve this objective so is to integrate the concept of Wake-up radio (WuR into the MAC design. In this survey, we present a taxonomy of MAC protocols based on their use of Wu

  17. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, A.; Yeomans, J.

    2007-10-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should guide authors naturally towards OA publication, and CERN wants to help reach a full open access publishing environment for the particle physics community and related sciences in the next few years.

  18. Effectiveness of oxaliplatin desensitization protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortijo-Cascajares, Susana; Nacle-López, Inmaculada; García-Escobar, Ignacio; Aguilella-Vizcaíno, María José; Herreros-de-Tejada, Alberto; Cortés-Funes Castro, Hernán; Calleja-Hernández, Miguel-Ángel

    2013-03-01

    Hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) to antineoplastic drugs can force doctors to stop treatment and seek other alternatives. These alternatives may be less effective, not as well tolerated and/or more expensive. Another option is to use desensitization protocols that induce a temporary state of tolerance by gradually administering small quantities of the antineoplastic drug until the therapeutic dosage is reached. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of oxaliplatin desensitization protocols. A retrospective observational study was carried out between January 2006 and May 2011. The inclusion criteria were patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment with oxaliplatin who had developed an HSR to the drug and who were candidates for continuing the treatment using a desensitization protocol. The patients' clinical records were reviewed and variables were gathered relating to the patient, the treatment, the HSR, and the desensitization protocol administered. The data were analysed using version 18.0 of the statistics program SPSS. A total of 53 desensitization protocols were administered to 21 patients. In 89 % of these cases, no new reactions occurred while the drug was being administered. New reactions of mild severity only occurred in 11 % of cases, and none of these reactions were severe enough for treatment to be stopped. All patients were able to complete the desensitization protocol. This study confirms that oxaliplatin desensitization protocols are safe and effective and allow patients to continue with the treatment that initially caused an HSR.

  19. Energy-Efficient Boarder Node Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M.

    2014-01-01

    -synchronous feature with a low duty cycle, which is advantageous for reducing the latency and energy consumption for several WSN application areas to improve the throughput. BN-MAC uses a unique window slot size to enhance the contention resolution issue for improved throughput. BN-MAC also prefers to communicate within a one-hop destination using Anycast, which maintains load balancing to maintain network reliability. BN-MAC is introduced with the goal of supporting four major application areas: monitoring and behavioral areas, controlling natural disasters, human-centric applications, and tracking mobility and static home automation devices from remote places. These application areas require a congestion-free mobility-supported MAC protocol to guarantee reliable data delivery. BN-MAC was evaluated using network simulator-2 (ns2) and compared with other hybrid MAC protocols, such as Zebra medium access control (Z-MAC), advertisement-based MAC (A-MAC), Speck-MAC, adaptive duty cycle SMAC (ADC-SMAC), and low-power real-time medium access control (LPR-MAC). The simulation results indicate that BN-MAC is a robust and energy-efficient protocol that outperforms other hybrid MAC protocols in the context of quality of service (QoS) parameters, such as energy consumption, latency, throughput, channel access time, successful delivery rate, coverage efficiency, and average duty cycle. PMID:24625737

  20. Energy-efficient boarder node medium access control protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M

    2014-03-12

    -synchronous feature with a low duty cycle, which is advantageous for reducing the latency and energy consumption for several WSN application areas to improve the throughput. BN-MAC uses a unique window slot size to enhance the contention resolution issue for improved throughput. BN-MAC also prefers to communicate within a one-hop destination using Anycast, which maintains load balancing to maintain network reliability. BN-MAC is introduced with the goal of supporting four major application areas: monitoring and behavioral areas, controlling natural disasters, human-centric applications, and tracking mobility and static home automation devices from remote places. These application areas require a congestion-free mobility-supported MAC protocol to guarantee reliable data delivery. BN-MAC was evaluated using network simulator-2 (ns2) and compared with other hybrid MAC protocols, such as Zebra medium access control (Z-MAC), advertisement-based MAC (A-MAC), Speck-MAC, adaptive duty cycle SMAC (ADC-SMAC), and low-power real-time medium access control (LPR-MAC). The simulation results indicate that BN-MAC is a robust and energy-efficient protocol that outperforms other hybrid MAC protocols in the context of quality of service (QoS) parameters, such as energy consumption, latency, throughput, channel access time, successful delivery rate, coverage efficiency, and average duty cycle.

  1. Energy-Efficient Boarder Node Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque

    2014-03-01

    -synchronous feature with a low duty cycle, which is advantageous for reducing the latency and energy consumption for several WSN application areas to improve the throughput. BN-MAC uses a unique window slot size to enhance the contention resolution issue for improved throughput. BN-MAC also prefers to communicate within a one-hop destination using Anycast, which maintains load balancing to maintain network reliability. BN-MAC is introduced with the goal of supporting four major application areas: monitoring and behavioral areas, controlling natural disasters, human-centric applications, and tracking mobility and static home automation devices from remote places. These application areas require a congestion-free mobility-supported MAC protocol to guarantee reliable data delivery. BN-MAC was evaluated using network simulator-2 (ns2 and compared with other hybrid MAC protocols, such as Zebra medium access control (Z-MAC, advertisement-based MAC (A-MAC, Speck-MAC, adaptive duty cycle SMAC (ADC-SMAC, and low-power real-time medium access control (LPR-MAC. The simulation results indicate that BN-MAC is a robust and energy-efficient protocol that outperforms other hybrid MAC protocols in the context of quality of service (QoS parameters, such as energy consumption, latency, throughput, channel access time, successful delivery rate, coverage efficiency, and average duty cycle.

  2. The temperature-sensitive and attenuation phenotypes conferred by mutations in the influenza virus PB2, PB1, and NP genes are influenced by the species of origin of the PB2 gene in reassortant viruses derived from influenza A/California/07/2009 and A/WSN/33 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Andrew J; Santos, Celia P; Godbout, Rachel A; Subbarao, Kanta

    2014-11-01

    Live attenuated influenza vaccines in the United States are derived from a human virus that is temperature sensitive (ts), characterized by restricted (≥ 100-fold) replication at 39 °C. The ts genetic signature (ts sig) has been mapped to 5 loci in 3 genes: PB1 (391 E, 581 G, and 661 T), PB2 (265 S), and NP (34 G). However, when transferred into avian and swine influenza viruses, only partial ts and attenuation phenotypes occur. To investigate the reason for this, we introduced the ts sig into the human origin virus A/WSN/33 (WSN), the avian-origin virus A/Vietnam/1203/04 (VN04), and the swine origin triple-reassortant 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus A/California/07/2009 (CA07), which contains gene segments from human, avian, and swine viruses. The VN04(ts sig) and CA07(ts sig) viruses replicated efficiently in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells at 39 °C, but the replication of WSN(ts sig) was restricted ≥ 100-fold compared to that at 33 °C. Reassortant CA07(ts sig) viruses were generated with individual polymerase gene segments from WSN, and vice versa. Only ts sig viruses with a PB2 gene segment derived from WSN were restricted in replication ≥ 100-fold at 39 °C. In ferrets, the CA07(ts sig) virus replicated in the upper and lower respiratory tract, but the replication of a reassortant CA07(ts sig) virus with a WSN PB2 gene was severely restricted in the lungs. Taken together, these data suggest that the origin of the PB2 gene segment influences the ts phenotype in vitro and attenuation in vivo. This could have implications for the design of novel live vaccines against animal origin influenza viruses. Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) on temperature-sensitive (ts) backbones derived from animal origin influenza viruses are being sought for use in the poultry and swine industries and to protect people against animal origin influenza. However, inserting the ts genetic signature from a licensed LAIV backbone fails to fully attenuate these viruses. Our

  3. Deterministic secure communication protocol without using entanglement

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Qing-yu

    2003-01-01

    We show a deterministic secure direct communication protocol using single qubit in mixed state. The security of this protocol is based on the security proof of BB84 protocol. It can be realized with current technologies.

  4. SIP protocol model for OMNET++

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kucerak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes our new SIP protocol implementation for the OMNeT++ simulation framework. OMNeT++ simulation framework provides an extensive support of IP related protocols, nevertheless a working SIP protocol implementation is missing. Real measurements were also done using a SIPp traffic generator and the results are compared to those obtained by our new SIP model. Since this work is a part of bigger project concerned strictly on measuring "first response times" over networks with a faulty transmission links, the actually collected statistics are focused only this way.

  5. The HPA photon protocol and proposed electron protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitchford, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Hospital Physicists Association (HPA) photon dosimetry protocol has been produced and was published in 1983. Revised values of some components of Csub(lambda) and refinements introduced into the theory in the last few years have enabled new Csub(lambda) values to be produced. The proposed HPA electron protocol is at present in draft form and will be published shortly. Both protocels are discussed. (Auth.)

  6. Solar energy harvesting for a WSN router

    OpenAIRE

    León Márquez, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of the Internet of Things has caused the proliferation of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) used to capture and distribute all kind of data. These WSNs need to be completely autonomous in order to be easily deployable and therefore the use of renewable energies such as sunlight is often the only option available to supply these systems. There are currently a variety of applications supplied with small photovoltaic (PV) systems. In order to increase the efficiency of these PV syste...

  7. Threshold-based Adaptive Detection for WSN

    KAUST Repository

    Abuzaid, Abdulrahman I.

    2014-01-06

    Efficient receiver designs for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are becoming increasingly important. Cooperative WSNs communicated with the use of L sensors. As the receiver is constrained, it can only process U out of L sensors. Channel shortening and reduced-rank techniques were employed to design the preprocessing matrix. In this work, a receiver structure is proposed which combines the joint iterative optimization (JIO) algorithm and our proposed threshold selection criteria. This receiver structure assists in determining the optimal Uopt. It also provides the freedom to choose U

  8. Threshold-based Adaptive Detection for WSN

    KAUST Repository

    Abuzaid, Abdulrahman I.; Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    Efficient receiver designs for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are becoming increasingly important. Cooperative WSNs communicated with the use of L sensors. As the receiver is constrained, it can only process U out of L sensors. Channel shortening and reduced-rank techniques were employed to design the preprocessing matrix. In this work, a receiver structure is proposed which combines the joint iterative optimization (JIO) algorithm and our proposed threshold selection criteria. This receiver structure assists in determining the optimal Uopt. It also provides the freedom to choose U

  9. Antibody engineering: methods and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chames, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    "Antibody Engineering: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition was compiled to give complete and easy access to a variety of antibody engineering techniques, starting from the creation of antibody repertoires and efficient...

  10. Implementation of postoperative handoff protocol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Standardised handoff protocols have become necessary patient ... improve the perioperative handoff communications from the cardiac operating theatres to the ICU. ..... as you can imagine, there was push-back to the change.

  11. Data Exchange Protocol in Repsail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gucma Maciej

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Article presents implantation and theoretical considerations of data exchange protocol developed for the RepSail project, where main objective was design and building innovative hybrid yacht. One of problems during the design process was improper functioning of data exchange protocols that were available in the commercially available devices to mention navigation purpose NMEA183 or 2000 as well as automation dedicated ones (CAN and similar. Author shows the basis of the dedicated format of exchange for in board devices.

  12. The Groningen protocol: another perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jotkowitz, A B; Glick, S

    2006-01-01

    The Groningen protocol allows for the euthanasia of severely ill newborns with a hopeless prognosis and unbearable suffering. We understand the impetus for such a protocol but have moral and ethical concerns with it. Advocates for euthanasia in adults have relied on the concept of human autonomy, which is lacking in the case of infants. In addition, biases can potentially influence the decision making of both parents and physicians. It is also very difficult to weigh the element of quality of...

  13. Improving the communication reliability of body sensor networks based on the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Diogo; Afonso, José A

    2014-03-01

    Body sensor networks (BSNs) enable continuous monitoring of patients anywhere, with minimum constraints to daily life activities. Although the IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee(®) (ZigBee Alliance, San Ramon, CA) standards were mainly developed for use in wireless sensors network (WSN) applications, they are also widely used in BSN applications because of device characteristics such as low power, low cost, and small form factor. However, compared with WSNs, BSNs present some very distinctive characteristics in terms of traffic and mobility patterns, heterogeneity of the nodes, and quality of service requirements. This article evaluates the suitability of the carrier sense multiple access-collision avoidance protocol, used by the IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee standards, for data-intensive BSN applications, through the execution of experimental tests in different evaluation scenarios, in order to take into account the effects of contention, clock drift, and hidden nodes on the communication reliability. Results show that the delivery ratio may decrease substantially during transitory periods, which can last for several minutes, to a minimum of 90% with retransmissions and 13% without retransmissions. This article also proposes and evaluates the performance of the BSN contention avoidance mechanism, which was designed to solve the identified reliability problems. This mechanism was able to restore the delivery ratio to 100% even in the scenario without retransmissions.

  14. Monoclonal antibodies technology. Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevado Castro, B.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Immunization. The first step in preparing useful monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is to immunize an animal (Balb/c for example) with an appropriate antigen. Methods (only for soluble antigen): Solubilize selected antigen in Phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.2-7.4, ideally at a final concentration per animal between 10 to 50 μg/ml. It is recommended that the antigen under consideration be incorporated into the emulsion adjuvants in 1:1 volumetric relation. We commonly use Frend's adjuvant (FA) to prepared immunized solution. The first immunization should be prepared with complete FA, and the another could be prepared with incomplete FA. It is recommended to inject mice with 0.2 ml intraperitoneal (ip) or subcutaneous (sc). Our experience suggests the sc route is the preferred route. A minimum protocol for immunizing mice to generate cells for preparing hybridomas is s follows: immunize sc on day 0, boost sc on day 21, take a trial bleeding on day 26; if antibody titters are satisfactory, boost ip on day 35 with antigen only, and remove the spleen to obtain cells for fusion on day 38. Fusion protocol. The myeloma cell line we are using is X63 Ag8.653. At the moment of fusion myeloma cells need a good viability (at least a 95%). 1. Remove the spleen cells from immunized mice using sterile conditions. An immune spleen should yield between 7 a 10x10 7 nucleated cells. 2. Place the spleen in 20 ml of serum-free RPMI 1640 in a Petri dish. Using a needle and syringe, inject the spleen with medium to distend and disrupt the spleen stroma and free the nucleated cells. 3. Flush the cell suspension with a Pasteur pipet to disperse clumps of cells. 4. Centrifuge the spleen cell suspension at 250g for 10 min. Resuspend the pellet in serum-free RPMI 1640. Determine cell concentration using Neuhabuer chamber. 5. Mix the myeloma cells and spleen cells in a conical 50-ml tube in serum-free RPMI 1640, 1 x10 7 spleen cells to 1x10 6 myeloma cells (ratio 10:1). Centrifuge

  15. FTUC: A Flooding Tree Uneven Clustering Protocol for a Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Pillement, Sebastien; Xu, Du

    2017-11-23

    Clustering is an efficient approach in a wireless sensor network (WSN) to reduce the energy consumption of nodes and to extend the lifetime of the network. Unfortunately, this approach requires that all cluster heads (CHs) transmit their data to the base station (BS), which gives rise to the long distance communications problem, and in multi-hop routing, the CHs near the BS have to forward data from other nodes that lead those CHs to die prematurely, creating the hot zones problem. Unequal clustering has been proposed to solve these problems. Most of the current algorithms elect CH only by considering their competition radius, leading to unevenly distributed cluster heads. Furthermore, global distances values are needed when calculating the competition radius, which is a tedious task in large networks. To face these problems, we propose a flooding tree uneven clustering protocol (FTUC) suited for large networks. Based on the construction of a tree type sub-network to calculate the minimum and maximum distances values of the network, we then apply the unequal cluster theory. We also introduce referenced position circles to evenly elect cluster heads. Therefore, cluster heads are elected depending on the node's residual energy and their distance to a referenced circle. FTUC builds the best inter-cluster communications route by evaluating a cluster head cost function to find the best next hop to the BS. The simulation results show that the FTUC algorithm decreases the energy consumption of the nodes and balances the global energy consumption effectively, thus extending the lifetime of the network.

  16. Families of quantum fingerprinting protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovitz, Benjamin; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2018-03-01

    We introduce several families of quantum fingerprinting protocols to evaluate the equality function on two n -bit strings in the simultaneous message passing model. The original quantum fingerprinting protocol uses a tensor product of a small number of O (logn ) -qubit high-dimensional signals [H. Buhrman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 167902 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.167902], whereas a recently proposed optical protocol uses a tensor product of O (n ) single-qubit signals, while maintaining the O (logn ) information leakage of the original protocol [J. M. Arazola and N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 89, 062305 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.062305]. We find a family of protocols which interpolate between the original and optical protocols while maintaining the O (logn ) information leakage, thus demonstrating a tradeoff between the number of signals sent and the dimension of each signal. There has been interest in experimental realization of the recently proposed optical protocol using coherent states [F. Xu et al., Nat. Commun. 6, 8735 (2015), 10.1038/ncomms9735; J.-Y. Guan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 240502 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.240502], but as the required number of laser pulses grows linearly with the input size n , eventual challenges for the long-time stability of experimental setups arise. We find a coherent state protocol which reduces the number of signals by a factor 1/2 while also reducing the information leakage. Our reduction makes use of a simple modulation scheme in optical phase space, and we find that more complex modulation schemes are not advantageous. Using a similar technique, we improve a recently proposed coherent state protocol for evaluating the Euclidean distance between two real unit vectors [N. Kumar et al., Phys. Rev. A 95, 032337 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.032337] by reducing the number of signals by a factor 1/2 and also reducing the information leakage.

  17. A Review of Various Security Protocols in Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Anupma Sangwan; Deepti Sindhu; Kulbir Singh

    2011-01-01

    Sensor networks are highly distributed networks of small, lightweight wireless sensor nodes, deployed in large numbers to monitor the environment or system by the measurement of physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, or relative humidity, sound, vibration, motion or pollutants, at different locations. A WSN [1] is composed of a large number of low-cost sensor nodes (SNs) and one or several base stations (BS) or destination nodes. SNs are typically small wireless devices with limit...

  18. The Network Protocol Analysis Technique in Snort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Xiu

    Network protocol analysis is a network sniffer to capture data for further analysis and understanding of the technical means necessary packets. Network sniffing is intercepted by packet assembly binary format of the original message content. In order to obtain the information contained. Required based on TCP / IP protocol stack protocol specification. Again to restore the data packets at protocol format and content in each protocol layer. Actual data transferred, as well as the application tier.

  19. Understanding protocol performance: impact of test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    This is the second of two articles that examine the factors that determine protocol performance. The objective of these articles is to provide a general understanding of protocol performance that can be used to estimate performance, establish limits on performance, decide if a protocol is justified, and ultimately select a protocol. The first article was concerned with protocol criterion and test correlation. It demonstrated the advantages and disadvantages of different criterion when all tests had the same performance. It also examined the impact of increasing test correlation on protocol performance and the characteristics of the different criteria. To examine the impact on protocol performance when individual tests in a protocol have different performance. This is evaluated for different criteria and test correlations. The results of the two articles are combined and summarized. A mathematical model is used to calculate protocol performance for different protocol criteria and test correlations when there are small to large variations in the performance of individual tests in the protocol. The performance of the individual tests that make up a protocol has a significant impact on the performance of the protocol. As expected, the better the performance of the individual tests, the better the performance of the protocol. Many of the characteristics of the different criteria are relatively independent of the variation in the performance of the individual tests. However, increasing test variation degrades some criteria advantages and causes a new disadvantage to appear. This negative impact increases as test variation increases and as more tests are added to the protocol. Best protocol performance is obtained when individual tests are uncorrelated and have the same performance. In general, the greater the variation in the performance of tests in the protocol, the more detrimental this variation is to protocol performance. Since this negative impact is increased as

  20. The Geneva Protocol of 1925

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Elroy, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that when President Gerald Ford signed the instruments of ratification for the Geneva Protocol of 1925 on January 22, 1975, a tortured, half-century-long chapter in U.S. arms control policy was brought to a close. Fifty years earlier, at the Geneva Conference for the Control of the International Trade in Arms, Munitions and Implements of War, the United States had played a key role in drafting and reaching agreement on the Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare. The protocol, signed by thirty nations, including the United States, on June 17, 1925, prohibits the use in war of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and of all analogous liquids, materials or devices as well as the use of bacteriological methods of warfare

  1. The Kyoto protocol development; La viabilite du protocole de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R. [Harvard Univ., Barrow, AK (United States); Guesneris, R. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-04-01

    From the author R. Cooper point of view the Kyoto Protocol is a flawed concept. The reasons for dropping Kyoto are presented in this paper insisting that rejecting Kyoto not means to imply that global climate change is not a serious problem. After a presentation of the US policy facing the Climatic Change, some concluding propositions are proposed. (A.L.B.)

  2. Symbolic Analysis of Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten

    We present our work on using abstract models for formally analysing cryptographic protocols: First, we present an ecient method for verifying trace-based authenticity properties of protocols using nonces, symmetric encryption, and asymmetric encryption. The method is based on a type system...... of Gordon et al., which we modify to support fully-automated type inference. Tests conducted via an implementation of our algorithm found it to be very ecient. Second, we show how privacy may be captured in a symbolic model using an equivalencebased property and give a formal denition. We formalise...

  3. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...

  4. Improving the DGK comparison protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veugen, P.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    When processing signals in the encrypted domain, homomorphic encryption can be used to enable linear operations on encrypted data. Comparison of encrypted data however requires an additional protocol between the parties and will be relatively expensive. A well-known and frequently used comparison

  5. Performance Evaluation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Curti, Michele

    2005-01-01

    We use a special operational semantics which drives us in inferring quantitative measures on systems describing cryptographis cryptographic protocols. We assign rates to transitions by only looking at these labels. The rates reflect the distributed architecture running applications and the use...... of possibly different cryptosystems. We then map transition systems to Markov chains and evaluate performance of systems, using standard tools....

  6. Art. 1 Eerste Protocol EVRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmann, E.

    2014-01-01

    Het recht op bezit is niet in het Europees Verdrag ter bescherming van de rechten van de mens en de fundamentele vrijheden (hierna: EVRM) neergelegd, maar in het Eerste Protocol daarbij (hierna: EP), dat in 1954 in werking is getreden. Het is van belang voor ogen te houden dat de Tweede Wereldoorlog

  7. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  8. Affinity biosensors: techniques and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogers, Kim R; Mulchandani, Ashok

    1998-01-01

    ..., and government to begin or expand their biosensors research. This volume, Methods in Biotechnology vol. 7: Affinity Biosensors: Techniques and Protocols, describes a variety of classical and emerging transduction technologies that have been interfaced to bioaffinity elements (e.g., antibodies and receptors). Some of the reas...

  9. High Entropy Random Selection Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Buhrman (Harry); M. Christandl (Matthias); M. Koucky (Michal); Z. Lotker (Zvi); B. Patt-Shamir; M. Charikar; K. Jansen; O. Reingold; J. Rolim

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we construct protocols for two parties that do not trust each other, to generate random variables with high Shannon entropy. We improve known bounds for the trade off between the number of rounds, length of communication and the entropy of the outcome.

  10. A Student Teamwork Induction Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, Caroline; Spong, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Faulty group processes have harmful effects on performance but there is little research about intervention protocols to pre-empt them in higher education. This naturalistic experiment compared a control cohort with an inducted cohort. The inducted cohort attended a workshop, consultations, elected a leader and used tools (a group log and group…

  11. Cognitive Communications Protocols for SATCOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-20

    communications protocols for satellite and space communications with possible broad applications in defense, homeland-security as well as consumer ...communications with possible broad applications in defense, homeland-security, and civilian as well as consumer telecommunications. Such cognitive...vulnerable against smart jammers that may attempt to learn the cognitive radios own behavior . In response, our second class of proposed algorithms

  12. Group covariant protocols for quantum string commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurumaru, Toyohiro

    2006-01-01

    We study the security of quantum string commitment (QSC) protocols with group covariant encoding scheme. First we consider a class of QSC protocol, which is general enough to incorporate all the QSC protocols given in the preceding literatures. Then among those protocols, we consider group covariant protocols and show that the exact upperbound on the binding condition can be calculated. Next using this result, we prove that for every irreducible representation of a finite group, there always exists a corresponding nontrivial QSC protocol which reaches a level of security impossible to achieve classically

  13. Using Ovsynch protocol versus Cosynch protocol in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Valeriu Caraba

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As a research on the reproductive physiology and endocrinology surrounding the estrous cycle in dairy cattle has been compiled, several estrous synchronization programs have been developed for use with dairy cows. These include several programs that facilitate the mass breeding of all animals at a predetermined time (timed-AI rather than the detection of estrus. We studied on 15 dary cows which were synchronized by Ovsynch and Cosynch programs. The estrus response for cows in Ovsynch protocol was of 63%. Pregnancy per insemination at 60 days was of 25%. Estrus response for cow in Cosynch protocol was of 57%. Pregnancy per insemination at 60 days was of 57%. Synchronization of ovulation using Ovsynch protocols can provide an effective way to manage reproduction in lactating dairy cows by eliminating the need for estrus detection. These are really efficient management programs for TAI of dairy cows that are able to reduce both the labour costs and the extra handling to daily estrus detection and AI.

  14. Phase Transition in Protocols Minimizing Work Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon, Alexandre P.; Horowitz, Jordan M.

    2018-05-01

    For two canonical examples of driven mesoscopic systems—a harmonically trapped Brownian particle and a quantum dot—we numerically determine the finite-time protocols that optimize the compromise between the standard deviation and the mean of the dissipated work. In the case of the oscillator, we observe a collection of protocols that smoothly trade off between average work and its fluctuations. However, for the quantum dot, we find that as we shift the weight of our optimization objective from average work to work standard deviation, there is an analog of a first-order phase transition in protocol space: two distinct protocols exchange global optimality with mixed protocols akin to phase coexistence. As a result, the two types of protocols possess qualitatively different properties and remain distinct even in the infinite duration limit: optimal-work-fluctuation protocols never coalesce with the minimal-work protocols, which therefore never become quasistatic.

  15. Database communication protocol analyses and security detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Qun; Liu Qiushi

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we introduced the analysis of TDS protocol in the communication application between Client and Server about SYBASE and MICROSOFT SQL SERVER and do some test for some bugs existed in the protocol. (authors)

  16. Developing security protocols in χ-Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Milicia, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    It is of paramount importance that a security protocol effectively enforces the desired security requirements. The apparent simplicity of informal protocol descriptions hides the inherent complexity of their interactions which, often, invalidate informal correctness arguments and justify the effort...

  17. From protocol to published report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Louise; Callréus, Torbjörn; Petersen, Lene Grejs

    2016-01-01

    and published reports of academic clinical drug trials. METHODS: A comparison was made between study protocols and their corresponding published reports. We assessed the overall consistency, which was defined as the absence of discrepancy regarding study type (categorized as either exploratory or confirmatory...... in 1999, 2001, and 2003, 95 of which fulfilled the eligibility criteria and had at least one corresponding published report reporting data on trial subjects. Overall consistency was observed in 39% of the trials (95% CI: 29 to 49%). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) constituted 72% (95% CI: 63 to 81......%) of the sample, and 87% (95% CI: 80 to 94%) of the trials were hospital based. CONCLUSIONS: Overall consistency between protocols and their corresponding published reports was low. Motivators for the inconsistencies are unknown but do not seem restricted to economic incentives....

  18. Superposition Attacks on Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Funder, Jakob Løvstad; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2011-01-01

    of information. In this paper, we introduce a fundamentally new model of quantum attacks on classical cryptographic protocols, where the adversary is allowed to ask several classical queries in quantum superposition. This is a strictly stronger attack than the standard one, and we consider the security......Attacks on classical cryptographic protocols are usually modeled by allowing an adversary to ask queries from an oracle. Security is then defined by requiring that as long as the queries satisfy some constraint, there is some problem the adversary cannot solve, such as compute a certain piece...... of several primitives in this model. We show that a secret-sharing scheme that is secure with threshold $t$ in the standard model is secure against superposition attacks if and only if the threshold is lowered to $t/2$. We use this result to give zero-knowledge proofs for all of NP in the common reference...

  19. Feasible quantum communication complexity protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, Ernesto F.

    2002-01-01

    I show that a simple multiparty communication task can be performed more efficiently with quantum communication than with classical communication, even with low detection efficiency η. The task is a communication complexity problem in which distant parties need to compute a function of the distributed inputs, while minimizing the amount of communication between them. A realistic quantum optical setup is suggested that can demonstrate a five-party quantum protocol with higher-than-classical performance, provided η>0.33

  20. Cost estimation of Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giulio, Enzo

    2005-01-01

    This article proposes a reflection on important aspects in the costs determination performance of Kyoto Protocol. The evaluation of the main models evidence possible impacts on the economies. A key role in the determination of the cost is represented by the relative hypothesis to emission trading and the projects CDM-JI and from the political capacity at the cost negative or equal to zero [it

  1. Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, Cheryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  2. Behavior Protocols for Software Components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plášil, František; Višňovský, Stanislav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 11 (2002), s. 1056-1076 ISSN 0098-5589 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2030902; GA ČR GA201/99/0244 Grant - others:Eureka(XE) Pepita project no.2033 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : behavior protocols * component-based programming * software architecture Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 1.170, year: 2002

  3. Desensitization protocols and their outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfo, Kwaku; Lu, Amy; Ling, Min; Akalin, Enver

    2011-04-01

    In the last decade, transplantation across previously incompatible barriers has increasingly become popular because of organ donor shortage, availability of better methods of detecting and characterizing anti-HLA antibodies, ease of diagnosis, better understanding of antibody-mediated rejection, and the availability of effective regimens. This review summarizes all manuscripts published since the first publication in 2000 on desensitized patients and discusses clinical outcomes including acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection rate, the new agents available, kidney paired exchange programs, and the future directions in sensitized patients. There were 21 studies published between 2000 and 2010, involving 725 patients with donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs) who underwent kidney transplantation with different desensitization protocols. All studies were single center and retrospective. The patient and graft survival were 95% and 86%, respectively, at a 2-year median follow-up. Despite acceptable short-term patient and graft survivals, acute rejection rate was 36% and acute antibody-mediated rejection rate was 28%, which is significantly higher than in nonsensitized patients. Recent studies with longer follow-up of those patients raised concerns about long-term success of desensitization protocols. The studies utilizing protocol biopsies in desensitized patients also reported higher subclinical and chronic antibody-mediated rejection. An association between the strength of DSAs determined by median fluorescence intensity values of Luminex single-antigen beads and risk of rejection was observed. Two new agents, bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, and eculizumab, an anti-complement C5 antibody, were recently introduced to desensitization protocols. An alternative intervention is kidney paired exchange, which should be considered first for sensitized patients. © 2011 by the American Society of Nephrology

  4. Bioinspired Security Analysis of Wireless Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrocchi, Marinella; Spognardi, Angelo; Santi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    work, this paper investigates feasibility of adopting fraglets as model for specifying security protocols and analysing their properties. In particular, we give concrete sample analyses over a secure RFID protocol, showing evolution of the protocol run as chemical dynamics and simulating an adversary...

  5. Formal analysis of a fair payment protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Cederquist; M.T. Dashti (Mohammad)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe formally specify a payment protocol. This protocol is intended for fair exchange of time-sensitive data. Here the ?-CRL language is used to formalize the protocol. Fair exchange properties are expressed in the regular alternation-free ?-calculus. These properties are then verified

  6. Formal Analysis of a Fair Payment Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederquist, J.G.; Dashti, M.T.

    2004-01-01

    We formally specify a payment protocol. This protocol is intended for fair exchange of timesensitive data. Here the μCRL language is used to formalize the protocol. Fair exchange properties are expressed in the regular alternation-free μ-calculus. These properties are then verified using the finite

  7. Formal Analysis of a Fair Payment Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederquist, J.G.; Dashti, Muhammad Torabi; Dimitrakos, Theo; Martinelli, Fabio

    We formally specify a payment protocol described by Vogt et al. This protocol is intended for fair exchange of time-sensitive data. Here the mCRL language is used to formalize the protocol. Fair exchange properties are expressed in the regular alternation-free mu-calculus. These properties are then

  8. Advanced dementia pain management protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro-Lorite, Mercedes; Canalias-Reverter, Montserrat

    Pain management in advanced dementia is complex because of neurological deficits present in these patients, and nurses are directly responsible for providing interventions for the evaluation, management and relief of pain for people suffering from this health problem. In order to facilitate and help decision-makers, pain experts recommend the use of standardized protocols to guide pain management, but in Spain, comprehensive pain management protocols have not yet been developed for advanced dementia. This article reflects the need for an integrated management of pain in advanced dementia. From the review and analysis of the most current and relevant studies in the literature, we performed an approximation of the scales for the determination of pain in these patients, with the observational scale PAINAD being the most recommended for the hospital setting. In addition, we provide an overview for comprehensive management of pain in advanced dementia through the conceptual framework «a hierarchy of pain assessment techniques by McCaffery and Pasero» for the development and implementation of standardized protocols, including a four-phase cyclical process (evaluation, planning/performance, revaluation and recording), which can facilitate the correct management of pain in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

    1992-12-01

    Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

  10. Ancestors protocol for scalable key management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Gollmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Group key management is an important functional building block for secure multicast architecture. Thereby, it has been extensively studied in the literature. The main proposed protocol is Adaptive Clustering for Scalable Group Key Management (ASGK. According to ASGK protocol, the multicast group is divided into clusters, where each cluster consists of areas of members. Each cluster uses its own Traffic Encryption Key (TEK. These clusters are updated periodically depending on the dynamism of the members during the secure session. The modified protocol has been proposed based on ASGK with some modifications to balance the number of affected members and the encryption/decryption overhead with any number of the areas when a member joins or leaves the group. This modified protocol is called Ancestors protocol. According to Ancestors protocol, every area receives the dynamism of the members from its parents. The main objective of the modified protocol is to reduce the number of affected members during the leaving and joining members, then 1 affects n overhead would be reduced. A comparative study has been done between ASGK protocol and the modified protocol. According to the comparative results, it found that the modified protocol is always outperforming the ASGK protocol.

  11. Generalized routing protocols for multihop relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2011-07-01

    Performance of multihop cooperative networks depends on the routing protocols employed. In this paper we propose the last-n-hop selection protocol, the dual path protocol, the forward-backward last-n-hop selection protocol and the forward-backward dual path protocol for the routing of data through multihop relay networks. The average symbol error probability performance of the schemes is analysed by simulations. It is shown that close to optimal performance can be achieved by using the last-n-hop selection protocol and its forward-backward variant. Furthermore we also compute the complexity of the protocols in terms of number of channel state information required and the number of comparisons required for routing the signal through the network. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. Asymptotic adaptive bipartite entanglement-distillation protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostens, Erik; Dehaene, Jeroen; De Moor, Bart

    2006-01-01

    We present an asymptotic bipartite entanglement-distillation protocol that outperforms all existing asymptotic schemes. This protocol is based on the breeding protocol with the incorporation of two-way classical communication. Like breeding, the protocol starts with an infinite number of copies of a Bell-diagonal mixed state. Breeding can be carried out as successive stages of partial information extraction, yielding the same result: one bit of information is gained at the cost (measurement) of one pure Bell state pair (ebit). The basic principle of our protocol is at every stage to replace measurements on ebits by measurements on a finite number of copies, whenever there are two equiprobable outcomes. In that case, the entropy of the global state is reduced by more than one bit. Therefore, every such replacement results in an improvement of the protocol. We explain how our protocol is organized as to have as many replacements as possible. The yield is then calculated for Werner states

  13. Short Review on Quantum Key Distribution Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampouris, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    Cryptographic protocols and mechanisms are widely investigated under the notion of quantum computing. Quantum cryptography offers particular advantages over classical ones, whereas in some cases established protocols have to be revisited in order to maintain their functionality. The purpose of this paper is to provide the basic definitions and review the most important theoretical advancements concerning the BB84 and E91 protocols. It also aims to offer a summary on some key developments on the field of quantum key distribution, closely related with the two aforementioned protocols. The main goal of this study is to provide the necessary background information along with a thorough review on the theoretical aspects of QKD, concentrating on specific protocols. The BB84 and E91 protocols have been chosen because most other protocols are similar to these, a fact that makes them important for the general understanding of how the QKD mechanism functions.

  14. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, A. (Achla); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  15. Publication trends of study protocols in rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Tiago S; Colquhoun, Heather L

    2017-09-04

    Growing evidence points for the need to publish study protocols in the health field. To observe whether the growing interest in publishing study protocols in the broader health field has been translated into increased publications of rehabilitation study protocols. Observational study using publication data and its indexation in PubMed. Not applicable. Not applicable. PubMed was searched with appropriate combinations of Medical Subject Headings up to December 2014. The effective presence of study protocols was manually screened. Regression models analyzed the yearly growth of publications. Two-sample Z-tests analyzed whether the proportion of Systematic Reviews (SRs) and Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) among study protocols differed from that of the same designs for the broader rehabilitation research. Up to December 2014, 746 publications of rehabilitation study protocols were identified, with an exponential growth since 2005 (r2=0.981; p<0.001). RCT protocols were the most common among rehabilitation study protocols (83%), while RCTs were significantly more prevalent among study protocols than among the broader rehabilitation research (83% vs. 35.8%; p<0.001). For SRs, the picture was reversed: significantly less common among study protocols (2.8% vs. 9.3%; p<0.001). Funding was more often reported by rehabilitation study protocols than the broader rehabilitation research (90% vs. 53.1%; p<0.001). Rehabilitation journals published a significantly lower share of rehabilitation study protocols than they did for the broader rehabilitation research (1.8% vs.16.7%; p<0.001). Identifying the reasons for these discrepancies and reverting unwarranted disparities (e.g. low rate of publication for rehabilitation SR protocols) are likely new avenues for rehabilitation research and its publication. SRs, particularly those aggregating RCT results, are considered the best standard of evidence to guide rehabilitation clinical practice; however, that standard can be improved

  16. Protein blotting protocol for beginners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasovits, Lars A

    2014-01-01

    The transfer and immobilization of biological macromolecules onto solid nitrocellulose or nylon (polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF)) membranes subsequently followed by specific detection is referred to as blotting. DNA blots are called Southerns after the inventor of the technique, Edwin Southern. By analogy, RNA blots are referred to as northerns and protein blots as westerns (Burnette, Anal Biochem 112:195-203, 1981). With few exceptions, western blotting involves five steps, namely, sample collection, preparation, separation, immobilization, and detection. In this chapter, protocols for the entire process from sample collection to detection are described.

  17. Optical protocols for terabit networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, P. L.; Lambert, J. L.; Morookian, J. M.; Bergman, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new fiber-optic local area network technology providing 100X improvement over current technology, has full crossbar funtionality, and inherent data security. Based on optical code-division multiple access (CDMA), using spectral phase encoding/decoding of optical pulses, networking protocols are implemented entirely in the optical domain and thus conventional networking bottlenecks are avoided. Component and system issues for a proof-of-concept demonstration are discussed, as well as issues for a more practical and commercially exploitable system. Possible terrestrial and aerospace applications of this technology, and its impact on other technologies are explored. Some initial results toward realization of this concept are also included.

  18. Using semantics for representing experimental protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Olga; García, Alexander; López, Federico; Corcho, Oscar

    2017-11-13

    An experimental protocol is a sequence of tasks and operations executed to perform experimental research in biological and biomedical areas, e.g. biology, genetics, immunology, neurosciences, virology. Protocols often include references to equipment, reagents, descriptions of critical steps, troubleshooting and tips, as well as any other information that researchers deem important for facilitating the reusability of the protocol. Although experimental protocols are central to reproducibility, the descriptions are often cursory. There is the need for a unified framework with respect to the syntactic structure and the semantics for representing experimental protocols. In this paper we present "SMART Protocols ontology", an ontology for representing experimental protocols. Our ontology represents the protocol as a workflow with domain specific knowledge embedded within a document. We also present the S ample I nstrument R eagent O bjective (SIRO) model, which represents the minimal common information shared across experimental protocols. SIRO was conceived in the same realm as the Patient Intervention Comparison Outcome (PICO) model that supports search, retrieval and classification purposes in evidence based medicine. We evaluate our approach against a set of competency questions modeled as SPARQL queries and processed against a set of published and unpublished protocols modeled with the SP Ontology and the SIRO model. Our approach makes it possible to answer queries such as Which protocols use tumor tissue as a sample. Improving reporting structures for experimental protocols requires collective efforts from authors, peer reviewers, editors and funding bodies. The SP Ontology is a contribution towards this goal. We build upon previous experiences and bringing together the view of researchers managing protocols in their laboratory work. Website: https://smartprotocols.github.io/ .

  19. Physical Therapy Protocols for Arthroscopic Bankart Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFroda, Steven F; Mehta, Nabil; Owens, Brett D

    Outcomes after arthroscopic Bankart repair can be highly dependent on compliance and participation in physical therapy. Additionally, there are many variations in physician-recommended physical therapy protocols. The rehabilitation protocols of academic orthopaedic surgery departments vary widely despite the presence of consensus protocols. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. Web-based arthroscopic Bankart rehabilitation protocols available online from Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited orthopaedic surgery programs were included for review. Individual protocols were reviewed to evaluate for the presence or absence of recommended therapies, goals for completion of ranges of motion, functional milestones, exercise start times, and recommended time to return to sport. Thirty protocols from 27 (16.4%) total institutions were identified out of 164 eligible for review. Overall, 9 (30%) protocols recommended an initial period of strict immobilization. Variability existed between the recommended time periods for sling immobilization (mean, 4.8 ± 1.8 weeks). The types of exercises and their start dates were also inconsistent. Goals to full passive range of motion (mean, 9.2 ± 2.8 weeks) and full active range of motion (mean, 12.2 ± 2.8 weeks) were consistent with other published protocols; however, wide ranges existed within the reviewed protocols as a whole. Only 10 protocols (33.3%) included a timeline for return to sport, and only 3 (10%) gave an estimate for return to game competition. Variation also existed when compared with the American Society of Shoulder and Elbow Therapists' (ASSET) consensus protocol. Rehabilitation protocols after arthroscopic Bankart repair were found to be highly variable. They also varied with regard to published consensus protocols. This discrepancy may lead to confusion among therapists and patients. This study highlights the importance of attending surgeons being very clear and specific with

  20. Implementation of the Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    The Rio Earth summit in 1992 has been the starting point of an international awareness about the global risk of climatic change. At this occasion, the richest countries committed themselves to stabilize their greenhouse gas emissions and to reach by the year 2000 an emissions level equivalent to the one of 1990. The Kyoto protocol in 1997 has permitted to convert this will into juridically constraining quantitative commitments. In 2005, Russia ratified the protocol while in 2001 the USA refused to do so. Because the commitments signed are ambitious, flexibility mechanisms have been implemented: 'emission permits' (emissions trading), 'joint implementation' allowing the investments abroad for greenhouse gases abatement in another developed country, and 'clean development mechanisms' when investments are made in a developing country. The Marrakech conference of December 2001 has permitted to fix up the eligibility criteria of projects belonging to the joint implementation and clean development mechanisms. The effective implementation of these mechanisms still raises technical difficulties to evaluate and measure the effective abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. (J.S.)

  1. Latest approaches of Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matei, M.; Matei, L.

    2005-01-01

    Recently EURELECTRIC welcome the proposal of new EC Directive concerning the inclusion in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) of credits from the project mechanisms - Joint Implementation (JI) and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The proposed Directive is an amendment to the EU Emissions Trading Directive adopted in June 2003. EURELECTRIC calls for unlimited use of credits in ETS. The draft Directive provides for the application of these mechanisms to begin as of 2008, on condition that the Kyoto Protocol does actually enter into force, an event which is still dependent on Russia's ratification. Such ratification has been subject to contradictory statements from the Russian Government, and the question of whether their signature to the Protocol is forthcoming is still fraught with uncertainty. Although it is not anticipated that significant quantities of JI or CDM certified credits will be available in the period 2005-2007, those that do become available would provide some additional liquidity in the emissions trading market. There is a direct relation between the coming ETS and electricity pricing: environmental policy is the driver, based on the need to switch to a low-carbon future and manage the necessary investments in a rational manner - and emissions trading is the best solution available. Romania has good opportunities to be involved in the greenhouse gases market, both in ETS and JI mechanisms. Some JI projects between Romanian and The Netherlands are already done or underway. (author)

  2. Summary Report on Unconditionally Secure Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Salvail, Louis; Cachin, Christian

    This document describes the state of the art snd some of the main open problems in the area of unconditionally secure cryptographic protocols. The most essential part of a cryptographic protocol is not its being secure. Imagine a cryptographic protocol which is secure, but where we do not know...... that it is secure. Such a protocol would do little in providing security. When all comes to all, cryptographic security is done for the sake of people, and the essential part of security is for people what it has always been, namely to feel secure. To feel secure employing a given cryptographic protocol we need...... to know that is is secure. I.e. we need a proof that it is secure. Today the proof of security of essentially all practically employed cryptographic protocols relies on computational assumptions. To prove that currently employed ways to communicate securely over the Internet are secure we e.g. need...

  3. In-memory interconnect protocol configuration registers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kevin Y.; Roberts, David A.

    2017-09-19

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for moving the interconnect protocol configuration registers into the main memory space of a node. The region of memory used for storing the interconnect protocol configuration registers may also be made cacheable to reduce the latency of accesses to the interconnect protocol configuration registers. Interconnect protocol configuration registers which are used during a startup routine may be prefetched into the host's cache to make the startup routine more efficient. The interconnect protocol configuration registers for various interconnect protocols may include one or more of device capability tables, memory-side statistics (e.g., to support two-level memory data mapping decisions), advanced memory and interconnect features such as repair resources and routing tables, prefetching hints, error correcting code (ECC) bits, lists of device capabilities, set and store base address, capability, device ID, status, configuration, capabilities, and other settings.

  4. The Simplest Protocol for Oblivious Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chou, Tung; Orlandi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Oblivious Transfer (OT) is the fundamental building block of cryptographic protocols. In this paper we describe the simplest and most efficient protocol for 1-out-of-n OT to date, which is obtained by tweaking the Diffie-Hellman key-exchange protocol. The protocol achieves UC-security against...... active and adaptive corruptions in the random oracle model. Due to its simplicity, the protocol is extremely efficient and it allows to perform m 1-out-of-n OTs using only: - Computation: (n+1)m+2 exponentiations (mn for the receiver, mn+2 for the sender) and - Communication: 32(m+1) bytes (for the group...... optimizations) is at least one order of magnitude faster than previous work. Category / Keywords: cryptographic protocols / Oblivious Transfer, UC Security, Elliptic Curves, Efficient Implementation...

  5. In-memory interconnect protocol configuration registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kevin Y.; Roberts, David A.

    2017-09-19

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for moving the interconnect protocol configuration registers into the main memory space of a node. The region of memory used for storing the interconnect protocol configuration registers may also be made cacheable to reduce the latency of accesses to the interconnect protocol configuration registers. Interconnect protocol configuration registers which are used during a startup routine may be prefetched into the host's cache to make the startup routine more efficient. The interconnect protocol configuration registers for various interconnect protocols may include one or more of device capability tables, memory-side statistics (e.g., to support two-level memory data mapping decisions), advanced memory and interconnect features such as repair resources and routing tables, prefetching hints, error correcting code (ECC) bits, lists of device capabilities, set and store base address, capability, device ID, status, configuration, capabilities, and other settings.

  6. Building Automation Systems Using Wireless Sensor Networks: Radio Characteristics and Energy Efficient Communication Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shu, F.; Halgamuge, M.N.; Chen, W.

    2009-01-01

    Building automation systems (BAS) are typically used to monitor and control heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, manage building facilities (e.g., lighting, safety, and security), and automate meter reading. In recent years, the technology of wireless sensor network (WSN) has

  7. Blockchain Consensus Protocols in the Wild

    OpenAIRE

    Cachin, Christian; Vukolić, Marko

    2017-01-01

    A blockchain is a distributed ledger for recording transactions, maintained by many nodes without central authority through a distributed cryptographic protocol. All nodes validate the information to be appended to the blockchain, and a consensus protocol ensures that the nodes agree on a unique order in which entries are appended. Consensus protocols for tolerating Byzantine faults have received renewed attention because they also address blockchain systems. This work discusses the process o...

  8. VANET Routing Protocols: Pros and Cons

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Bijan; Ibrahim, Md.; Bikas, Md. Abu Naser

    2012-01-01

    VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network) is a new technology which has taken enormous attention in the recent years. Due to rapid topology changing and frequent disconnection makes it difficult to design an efficient routing protocol for routing data among vehicles, called V2V or vehicle to vehicle communication and vehicle to road side infrastructure, called V2I. The existing routing protocols for VANET are not efficient to meet every traffic scenarios. Thus design of an efficient routing protocol h...

  9. Security analysis of session initiation protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, Lucas E.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The goal of this thesis is to investigate the security of the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). This was accomplished by researching previously discovered protocol and implementation vulnerabilities, evaluating the current state of security tools and using those tools to discover new vulnerabilities in SIP software. The CVSS v2 system was used to score protocol and implementation vulnerabilities to give them a meaning that was us...

  10. Bitcoin-NG: A Scalable Blockchain Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Eyal, Ittay; Gencer, Adem Efe; Sirer, Emin Gun; van Renesse, Robbert

    2015-01-01

    Cryptocurrencies, based on and led by Bitcoin, have shown promise as infrastructure for pseudonymous online payments, cheap remittance, trustless digital asset exchange, and smart contracts. However, Bitcoin-derived blockchain protocols have inherent scalability limits that trade-off between throughput and latency and withhold the realization of this potential. This paper presents Bitcoin-NG, a new blockchain protocol designed to scale. Based on Bitcoin's blockchain protocol, Bitcoin-NG is By...

  11. Telomerase Repeated Amplification Protocol (TRAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-11-20

    Telomeres are found at the end of eukaryotic linear chromosomes, and proteins that bind to telomeres protect DNA from being recognized as double-strand breaks thus preventing end-to-end fusions (Griffith et al. , 1999). However, due to the end replication problem and other factors such as oxidative damage, the limited life span of cultured cells (Hayflick limit) results in progressive shortening of these protective structures (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The ribonucleoprotein enzyme complex telomerase-consisting of a protein catalytic component hTERT and a functional RNA component hTR or hTERC - counteracts telomere shortening by adding telomeric repeats to the end of chromosomes in ~90% of primary human tumors and in some transiently proliferating stem-like cells (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). This results in continuous proliferation of cells which is a hallmark of cancer. Therefore, telomere biology has a central role in aging, cancer progression/metastasis as well as targeted cancer therapies. There are commonly used methods in telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) (Mender and Shay, 2015b), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this detailed protocol we describe Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP). The TRAP assay is a popular method to determine telomerase activity in mammalian cells and tissue samples (Kim et al. , 1994). The TRAP assay includes three steps: extension, amplification, and detection of telomerase products. In the extension step, telomeric repeats are added to the telomerase substrate (which is actually a non telomeric oligonucleotide, TS) by telomerase. In the amplification step, the extension products are amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers (TS upstream primer and ACX downstream primer) and in the detection step, the presence or absence of telomerase is

  12. Search and nonsearch protocols for radiographic consultation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swensson, R.G.; Theodore, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Six radiologists, acting as film reviewers, used two different consultation protocols to differentiate among 292 ambiguous findings on chest films: 120 simulated nodules and 172 normal findings (previous readers' false-positive reports of nodules). The non-search protocol identified each finding (by location), and reviewers rated its likelihood as a nodule. The search protocol, which asked reviewers to report and rate all locations regarded as possible nodules on each film, assigned a default negative rating to any unreported finding (nodule or normal). Receiver operator characteristic analyses demonstrated a significantly higher accuracy for each reviewer's search- protocol discriminations between these nodules and confusing normal findings

  13. Adaptive Protocols for Mobile Wireless Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pursley, Michael B

    2005-01-01

    .... Research results are presented on adaptive, energy-efficient, distributed protocols for mobile wireless networks that must operate effectively over unreliable communication links in highly dynamic...

  14. Mac protocols for cyber-physical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a literature review of various wireless MAC protocols and techniques for achieving real-time and reliable communications in the context of cyber-physical systems (CPS). The evaluation analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 for CPS therein will give insights into configuration and optimization of critical design parameters of MAC protocols. In addition, this book also presents the design and evaluation of an adaptive MAC protocol for medical CPS, which exemplifies how to facilitate real-time and reliable communications in CPS by exploiting IEEE 802.15.4 based MAC protocols. This book wil

  15. Efficient secure two-party protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Hazay, Carmit

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive study of efficient protocols and techniques for secure two-party computation -- both general constructions that can be used to securely compute any functionality, and protocols for specific problems of interest. The book focuses on techniques for constructing efficient protocols and proving them secure. In addition, the authors study different definitional paradigms and compare the efficiency of protocols achieved under these different definitions.The book opens with a general introduction to secure computation and then presents definitions of security for a

  16. Multimode Communication Protocols Enabling Reconfigurable Radios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlemann Lars

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the realization and application of a generic protocol stack for reconfigurable wireless communication systems. This focus extends the field of software-defined radios which usually concentrates on the physical layer. The generic protocol stack comprises common protocol functionality and behavior which are extended through specific parts of the targeted radio access technology. This paper considers parameterizable modules of basic protocol functions residing in the data link layer of the ISO/OSI model. System-specific functionality of the protocol software is realized through adequate parameterization and composition of the generic modules. The generic protocol stack allows an efficient realization of reconfigurable protocol software and enables a completely reconfigurable wireless communication system. It is a first step from side-by-side realized, preinstalled modes in a terminal towards a dynamic reconfigurable anymode terminal. The presented modules of the generic protocol stack can also be regarded as a toolbox for the accelerated and cost-efficient development of future communication protocols.

  17. Tool Supported Analysis of Web Services Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Abinoam P.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Srba, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    We describe an abstract protocol model suitable for modelling of web services and other protocols communicating via unreliable, asynchronous communication channels. The model is supported by a tool chain where the first step translates tables with state/transition protocol descriptions, often used...... e.g. in the design of web services protocols, into an intermediate XML format. We further translate this format into a network of communicating state machines directly suitable for verification in the model checking tool UPPAAL. We introduce two types of communication media abstractions in order...

  18. Attack strategies on quantum cryptographic protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, S.; Suda, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Quantum key distribution (QKD) and quantum authentication (QA) have been a topic of extensive research in the last 20 years. In course of that many attacks on QKD and QA protocols have been studied. Among these, Zhang, Lee and Guo presented an attack on a QKD protocol using entanglement swapping. Based on that strategy we take a look at other protocols to inspect how much information an adversary may get if he shares entanglement with either one or both parties. We will present some protocols where an adversary can even get full information about the key using entanglement. (author)

  19. Secure Multi-Player Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehr, Serge

    While classically cryptography is concerned with the problem of private communication among two entities, say players, in modern cryptography multi-player protocols play an important role. And among these, it is probably fair to say that secret sharing, and its stronger version verifiable secret...... sharing (VSS), as well as multi-party computation (MPC) belong to the most appealing and/or useful ones. The former two are basic tools to achieve better robustness of cryptographic schemes against malfunction or misuse by “decentralizing” the security from one single to a whole group of individuals...... (captured by the term threshold cryptography). The latter allows—at least in principle—to execute any collaboration among a group of players in a secure way that guarantees the correctness of the outcome but simultaneously respects the privacy of the participants. In this work, we study three aspects...

  20. Software for simulating IMRT protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Thelma C.F.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de, E-mail: tcff@ufmg.b, E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2009-07-01

    The Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy - IMRT is an advanced technique to cancer treatment widely used on oncology around the world. The present paper describes the SOFT-RT software which is a tool for simulating IMRT protocol. Also, it will be present a cerebral tumor case of studied in which three irradiation windows with distinct orientation were applied. The SOFT-RT collect and export data to MCNP code. This code simulates the photon transport on the voxel model. Later, a out-module from SOFT-RT import the results and express the dose-response superimposing dose and voxel model in a tree-dimensional graphic representation. The present paper address the IMRT software and its function as well a cerebral tumor case of studied is showed. The graphic interface of the SOFT-RT illustrates the example case. (author)

  1. Software for simulating IMRT protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Thelma C.F.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de

    2009-01-01

    The Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy - IMRT is an advanced technique to cancer treatment widely used on oncology around the world. The present paper describes the SOFT-RT software which is a tool for simulating IMRT protocol. Also, it will be present a cerebral tumor case of studied in which three irradiation windows with distinct orientation were applied. The SOFT-RT collect and export data to MCNP code. This code simulates the photon transport on the voxel model. Later, a out-module from SOFT-RT import the results and express the dose-response superimposing dose and voxel model in a tree-dimensional graphic representation. The present paper address the IMRT software and its function as well a cerebral tumor case of studied is showed. The graphic interface of the SOFT-RT illustrates the example case. (author)

  2. Fetal MRI: techniques and protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter Christian; Prayer, Lucas

    2004-01-01

    The development of ultrafast sequences has led to a significant improvement in fetal MRI. Imaging protocols have to be adjusted to the rapidly developing fetal central nervous system (CNS) and to the clinical question. Sequence parameters must be changed to cope with the respective developmental stage, to produce images free from motion artefacts and to provide optimum visualization of the region and focus of interest. In contrast to postnatal studies, every suspect fetal CNS abnormality requires examination of the whole fetus and the extrafetal intrauterine structures including the uterus. This approach covers both aspects of fetal CNS disorders: isolated and complex malformations and cerebral lesions arising from the impaired integrity of the feto-placental unit. (orig.)

  3. Analysing Protocol Stacks for Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Han; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    We show an approach, CaPiTo, to model service-oriented applications using process algebras such that, on the one hand, we can achieve a certain level of abstraction without being overwhelmed by the underlying implementation details and, on the other hand, we respect the concrete industrial...... standards used for implementing the service-oriented applications. By doing so, we will be able to not only reason about applications at different levels of abstractions, but also to build a bridge between the views of researchers on formal methods and developers in industry. We apply our approach...... to the financial case study taken from Chapter 0-3. Finally, we develop a static analysis to analyse the security properties as they emerge at the level of concrete industrial protocols....

  4. Protocol Monitoring Passive Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Ham, E.R.; Bosselaar, L.

    1998-01-01

    A method has been developed by means of which the contribution of passive solar energy to the Dutch energy balance can be quantified univocally. The contribution was 57 PJ in 1990 and also 57 PJ in 1995. The efficiency of passive solar energy systems increased from -31.5% to -28.1% in the period 1990-1995, mainly as a result of the use of extra insulating glazing. As a result of the reduction of energy consumption for heating in houses it is expected that the extra contribution of 2 PJ will not be realized in the year 2010. It is suggested that the method to determine the absolute contribution of passive solar energy to the energy demand of dwellings is to be included in the protocol monitoring renewable energy. For the method to be included in the energy statistics of Statistics Netherlands (CBS) it can be considered only to take into account the difference compared to 1990. 11 refs

  5. Fetal MRI: techniques and protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Neuroradiology, University Clinics of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-10, 1090, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter Christian [Department of Anatomy, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Lucas [Diagnosezentrum Urania, Vienna (Austria)

    2004-09-01

    The development of ultrafast sequences has led to a significant improvement in fetal MRI. Imaging protocols have to be adjusted to the rapidly developing fetal central nervous system (CNS) and to the clinical question. Sequence parameters must be changed to cope with the respective developmental stage, to produce images free from motion artefacts and to provide optimum visualization of the region and focus of interest. In contrast to postnatal studies, every suspect fetal CNS abnormality requires examination of the whole fetus and the extrafetal intrauterine structures including the uterus. This approach covers both aspects of fetal CNS disorders: isolated and complex malformations and cerebral lesions arising from the impaired integrity of the feto-placental unit. (orig.)

  6. Wind power agreement protocol; Protocole d'accord eolien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this protocol of agreement is to propose to wind turbine fitters some models of contracts allowing the setting up of wind turbines on agricultural lots. These documents, which make an indissociable ensemble, apply to both phases of development of a wind power project: the feasibility study phase, for a duration comprised between 2 and 5 years (studies, administrative procedures, precise definition of the project), and the construction, exploitation and dismantling phase. These documents will serve as common guidelines for both the farmers and the wind turbine designers. Both parties agree to meet together in the future to propose some modifications of these texts if necessary. The four models of contracts are attached to the document: contract for the feasibility study phase, first contract between the landlord and the farmer for the cancellation of the rural lease, second contract between the landlord and the wind power exploitation company for the common right lease, and the third contract between the farmer and the wind power company for the indemnification convention. (J.S.)

  7. Analysis of a security protocol in ?CRL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Pang

    2002-01-01

    textabstractNeedham-Schroeder public-key protocol; With the growth and commercialization of the Internet, the security of communication between computers becomes a crucial point. A variety of security protocols based on cryptographic primitives are used to establish secure communication over

  8. An Argument Approach to Observation Protocol Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Courtney A.; Gitomer, Drew H.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Hamre, Bridget K.; Pianta, Robert C.; Qi, Yi

    2012-01-01

    This article develops a validity argument approach for use on observation protocols currently used to assess teacher quality for high-stakes personnel and professional development decisions. After defining the teaching quality domain, we articulate an interpretive argument for observation protocols. To illustrate the types of evidence that might…

  9. Model checking the HAVi leader election protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.T. Romijn (Judi)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe HAVi specification proposes an architecture for audio/video interoperability in home networks. Part of the HAVi specification is a distributed leader election protocol. We have modelled this leader election protocol in Promela and Lotos and have checked several properties with the

  10. Climate Change And The Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of global warming is addressed. Changes in earth surface temperature, emission of CO 2 and other four major green house gases are presented. Effect of global warming on weather, ocean, and ecosystem is discussed. A brief history of the Kyoto protocol starting from the 151 Earth Summit in 1972 is outlined. An overview of the protocol and a brief summary are given

  11. Kyoto Protocol: trade versus the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loose, H.

    2001-01-01

    Could the signatories to the Kyoto Protocol find themselves up against the WTO? This paper examines how the climate change agreement could conflict with trade rules, and shows that there are potentially serious conflicts in the interface between the WTO and the Kyoto Protocol. It argues for dialogue and debate before it is too late. (author)

  12. Network Coding Protocols for Smart Grid Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Rui; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Phulpin, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    We propose a robust network coding protocol for enhancing the reliability and speed of data gathering in smart grids. At the heart of our protocol lies the idea of tunable sparse network coding, which adopts the transmission of sparsely coded packets at the beginning of the transmission process b...

  13. Quantum Communication Attacks on Classical Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    , one can show that the protocol remains secure even under such an attack. However, there are also cases where the honest players are quantum as well, even if the protocol uses classical communication. For instance, this is the case when classical multiparty computation is used as a “subroutine......In the literature on cryptographic protocols, it has been studied several times what happens if a classical protocol is attacked by a quantum adversary. Usually, this is taken to mean that the adversary runs a quantum algorithm, but communicates classically with the honest players. In several cases......” in quantum multiparty computation. Furthermore, in the future, players in a protocol may employ quantum computing simply to improve efficiency of their local computation, even if the communication is supposed to be classical. In such cases, it no longer seems clear that a quantum adversary must be limited...

  14. Cryptanalysis of the arbitrated quantum signature protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Fei; Qin Sujuan; Guo Fenzhuo; Wen Qiaoyan

    2011-01-01

    As a new model for signing quantum messages, arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) has recently received a lot of attention. In this paper we study the cryptanalysis of previous AQS protocols from the aspects of forgery and disavowal. We show that in these protocols the receiver, Bob, can realize existential forgery of the sender's signature under known message attack. Bob can even achieve universal forgery when the protocols are used to sign a classical message. Furthermore, the sender, Alice, can successfully disavow any of her signatures by simple attack. The attack strategies are described in detail and some discussions about the potential improvements of the protocols are given. Finally we also present several interesting topics on AQS protocols that can be studied in future.

  15. Nucleic acid protocols: Extraction and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed El-Ashram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield and quality are fundamental features for any researchers during nucleic acid extraction. Here, we describe a simplified, semi-unified, effective, and toxic material free protocol for extracting DNA and RNA from different prokaryotic and eukaryotic sources exploiting the physical and chemical properties of nucleic acids. Furthermore, this protocol showed that DNA and RNA are under triple protection (i.e. EDTA, SDS and NaCl during lysis step, and this environment is improper for RNase to have DNA liberated of RNA and even for DNase to degrade the DNA. Therefore, the complete removal of RNA under RNase influence is achieved when RNase is added after DNA extraction, which gives optimal quality with any protocols. Similarly, DNA contamination in an isolated RNA is degraded by DNase to obtain high-quality RNA. Our protocol is the protocol of choice in terms of simplicity, recovery time, environmental safety, amount, purity, PCR and RT-PCR applicability.

  16. Quantum Communication Attacks on Classical Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    , one can show that the protocol remains secure even under such an attack. However, there are also cases where the honest players are quantum as well, even if the protocol uses classical communication. For instance, this is the case when classical multiparty computation is used as a “subroutine......” in quantum multiparty computation. Furthermore, in the future, players in a protocol may employ quantum computing simply to improve efficiency of their local computation, even if the communication is supposed to be classical. In such cases, it no longer seems clear that a quantum adversary must be limited......In the literature on cryptographic protocols, it has been studied several times what happens if a classical protocol is attacked by a quantum adversary. Usually, this is taken to mean that the adversary runs a quantum algorithm, but communicates classically with the honest players. In several cases...

  17. A Comparison Between Inter-Asterisk eXchange Protocol and Jingle Protocol: Session Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Haj Aliwi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, many multimedia conferencing and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP applications have been developed due to the use of signaling protocols in providing video, audio and text chatting services between at least two participants. This paper compares between two widely common signaling protocols: InterAsterisk eXchange Protocol (IAX and the extension of the eXtensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (Jingle in terms of delay time during call setup, call teardown, and media sessions.

  18. A family of multi-party authentication protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, C.J.F.; Mauw, S.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a family of multi-party authentication protocols and discuss six novel protocols, which are members of this family. The first three generalize the well-known Needham-Schroeder-Lowe public-key protocol, the Needham-Schroeder private-key protocol, and the Bilateral Key Exchange protocol.

  19. Universally composable protocols with relaxed set-up assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barak, Boaz; Canetti, Ran; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2004-01-01

    A desirable goal for cryptographic protocols is to guarantee security when the protocol is composed with other protocol instances. Universally composable (UC) protocols provide this guarantee in a strong sense: A protocol remains secure even when composed concurrently with an unbounded number of ...

  20. Live chat alternative security protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, J. P. R.; Nugraha, E.; Febriany, A.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia is one of the largest e-commerce markets in Southeast Asia, as many as 5 million people do transactions in e-commerce, therefore more and more people use live chat service to communicate with customer service. In live chat, the customer service often asks customers’ data such as, full name, address, e-mail, transaction id, which aims to verify the purchase of the product. One of the risks that will happen is sniffing which will lead to the theft of confidential information that will cause huge losses to the customer. The anticipation that will be done is build an alternative security protocol for user interaction in live chat by using a cryptographic algorithm that is useful for protecting confidential messages. Live chat requires confidentiality and data integration with encryption and hash functions. The used algorithm are Rijndael 256 bits, RSA, and SHA256. To increase the complexity, the Rijndael algorithm will be modified in the S-box and ShiftRow sections based on the shannon principle rule, the results show that all pass the Randomness test, but the modification in Shiftrow indicates a better avalanche effect. Therefore the message will be difficult to be stolen or changed.

  1. A Simple XML Producer-Consumer Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There are many different projects from government, academia, and industry that provide services for delivering events in distributed environments. The problem with these event services is that they are not general enough to support all uses and they speak different protocols so that they cannot interoperate. We require such interoperability when we, for example, wish to analyze the performance of an application in a distributed environment. Such an analysis might require performance information from the application, computer systems, networks, and scientific instruments. In this work we propose and evaluate a standard XML-based protocol for the transmission of events in distributed systems. One recent trend in government and academic research is the development and deployment of computational grids. Computational grids are large-scale distributed systems that typically consist of high-performance compute, storage, and networking resources. Examples of such computational grids are the DOE Science Grid, the NASA Information Power Grid (IPG), and the NSF Partnerships for Advanced Computing Infrastructure (PACIs). The major effort to deploy these grids is in the area of developing the software services to allow users to execute applications on these large and diverse sets of resources. These services include security, execution of remote applications, managing remote data, access to information about resources and services, and so on. There are several toolkits for providing these services such as Globus, Legion, and Condor. As part of these efforts to develop computational grids, the Global Grid Forum is working to standardize the protocols and APIs used by various grid services. This standardization will allow interoperability between the client and server software of the toolkits that are providing the grid services. The goal of the Performance Working Group of the Grid Forum is to standardize protocols and representations related to the storage and distribution of

  2. The Development of Korea Additional Protocol System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Hye Won; Yeo, Jin Kyun

    2008-01-01

    The Agreement between the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the IAEA for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (the Safeguards Agreement) entered into force on 14 November 1975. The Additional Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement (the Additional Protocol) was signed on 21 June 1999 and entered into force on 19 February 2004. ROK has been submitting annual updated reports of initial declaration on every May 15th since August 2004. Additional protocol reports were submitted through Protocol Reporter provided by IAEA. Annual declarations were simply uploaded and stored in the Accounting Information Treatment System of KINAC, which did not provide data analysis and management function. There have been demands for improvement to handle ever-increasing information. KAPS (Korea Additional Protocol System) has been developed to assist and administrate the additional protocol related works effectively. The new system enables integrated management including composition of additional protocol report and version control, periodical update of related information, results of IAEA complementary access to each facility

  3. New logistics protocols for distributed interactive simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Darrin; Morrison, John; Katz, Warren; Felton, Erik; Herman, Deborah A.

    1995-06-01

    In today's environment, the transportation and maintenance of military forces is nearly as important as combat operations. Rapid deployment to regions of low-intensity conflict will become a very common training scenario for the U.S. military. Thus it is desirable to apply distributed simulation technology to train logistics personnel in their combat support roles. Currently, distributed interactive simulation (DIS) only contains rudimentary logistics protocols. This paper introduces new protocols designed to handle the logistics problem. The Newtonian protocol takes a physics-based approach to modeling interactions on the simulation network. This protocol consists of a family of protocol data units (PDUs) which are used to communicate forces in different circumstances. The protocol implements a small set of physical relations. This represents a flexible and general mechanism to describe battlefield interactions between network entities. The migratory object protocol (MOP) family addresses the transfer of control. General mechanisms provide the means to simulate resupply, repair, and maintenance of entities at any level of abstraction (individual soldier to division). It can also increase the fidelity of mine laying, enable handover of weapons for terminal guidance, allow for the distribution of aggregate-level simulation entities, provide capabilities for the simulation of personnel, etc.

  4. Mineralogy, stable isotopes (δ{sup 18}O and δ{sup 34}S) and {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar geochronology studies on the hydrothermal carapace of the Igarapé Manteiga W-Sn Deposit, Rondônia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Thais Marcela Fernandes do; Souza, Valmir da Silva, E-mail: thais.marcela@gmail.com, E-mail: valmirsouzaunb@gmail.com [Geosciences Postgraduate Program, Universidade Federal do Amazonas – UFAM, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2017-10-15

    The Igarapé Manteiga W-Sn deposit is formed by a granite stock that intrudes in the Paleoproterozoic basement. The mineralization is encapsulated in an alumino-siliceous hydrothermal carapace formed by greisen, vein-veinlets and breccia, developed in the apex zone of a granite stock. At this site, wolframite, cassiterite and sulfides-minerals, as well as siderite, monazite, xenotime, hematite and others, are spread out or in massive clusters associated with quartz, topaz, zinnwaldite and fluorite. Wolframite is not zoned and relatively rich in Fe, and poor in Nb and Ta. Cassiterite exhibits growth-zones with light-yellow to dark-orange colors, and is rich in Ta, and poor in Ti, W, Mn and U. Oxygen and sulfur (δ{sup 18}O and δ{sup 34}S) isotope data on the ore- and sulfide-minerals indicates that it is a magmatic source, with closing temperatures from 230° C to 480° C. The hydrothermal phase was cyclical and protractedly active, promoting greisenization and hydrofracturing. The lowering of temperature and the change in the composition of fluids (from oxidized to reduced) controlled the precipitation of the hydrothermal mineral assemblage. The {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar analyses reveal a plateau age of 988 Ma, interpreted as the closure time for the hydrothermal processes responsible for mineralization, which is linked to the final magmatic evolution of the Rondônia Intrusive Suite (995-991Ma). (author)

  5. The Kyoto Protocol. An economic appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, M.

    2000-05-01

    This paper examines the overall economics of the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, in three main parts. The first part explores the structure of the Protocol and how this matches against classical economic criteria of an 'optimal' climate change agreement. This discussion also considers the nature of and reasons for shortcomings, and the prospects for its evolution. Given the various flexibilities in the agreement, the Kyoto Protocol is far more economically efficient in its structure than any previous global environmental agreement. The central conclusion is that, from an economic perspective, the Protocol's structure for industrialised country commitments is as good as could reasonably be expected. The second part of the paper explores more closely the economics of the commitments themselves and how they combine with the various flexibilities, briefly reviewing the available literature and using a simple spreadsheet model of how the commitments might combine with trading mechanisms under a range of assumptions. Flexibility is intrinsic and necessary, but it is argued that the allocations to Russia and Ukraine in particular mean that unlimited flexibility could render the Protocol's commitments weaker in their impacts than is economically desirable to address climate change. It is argued that, should this prove to be the case, access to the large surplus in the transition economies could be used as a control valve to limit the costs of the Protocol to within acceptable limits. Finally, the paper considers the issues of developing country involvement in the Kyoto Protocol, and the Protocol's longer-term impact and evolution, including its impact on technological evolution and dissemination and the evolution of future commitments. It is argued that taking account of such issues critically affects views of the Protocol

  6. Energy Efficient Network Protocols for Wireless and Mobile Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sivalingam, Krishna

    2001-01-01

    ... (also called power aware) network protocols for wireless and mobile networks. Battery power limitations are a very serious concern, and it is essential to study energy efficient protocol design at different layers of the network protocol stack...

  7. Event-by-event simulation of quantum cryptography protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, S.; Raedt, H. De

    We present a new approach to simulate quantum cryptography protocols using event-based processes. The method is validated by simulating the BB84 protocol and the Ekert protocol, both without and with the presence of an eavesdropper.

  8. Protocolized hyperventilation enhances electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arriba-Arnau, Aida; Dalmau, Antonia; Soria, Virginia; Salvat-Pujol, Neus; Ribes, Carmina; Sánchez-Allueva, Ana; Menchón, José Manuel; Urretavizcaya, Mikel

    2017-08-01

    Hyperventilation is recommended in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) to enhance seizures and to increase patients' safety. However, more evidence is needed regarding its effects and the optimum method of application. This prospective study involving 21 subjects compared two procedures, protocolized hyperventilation (PHV) and hyperventilation as usual (HVau), applied to the same patient in two consecutive sessions. Transcutaneous partial pressure of carbon dioxide (TcPCO 2 ) was measured throughout all sessions. Ventilation parameters, hemodynamic measures, seizure characteristics, and side effects were also explored. PHV resulted in lower TcPCO 2 after hyperventilation (p=.008) and over the whole session (p=.035). The lowest TcPCO 2 was achieved after voluntary hyperventilation. Changes in TcPCO 2 from baseline showed differences between HVau and PHV at each session time-point (all p<.05). Between- and within-subjects factors were statistically significant in a general linear model. Seizure duration was greater in PHV sessions (p=.028), without differences in other seizure quality parameters or adverse effects. Correlations were found between hypocapnia induction and seizure quality indexes. Secondary outcomes could be underpowered. PHV produces hypocapnia before the stimulus, modifies patients' TcPCO 2 values throughout the ECT session and lengthens seizure duration. Voluntary hyperventilation is the most important part of the PHV procedure with respect to achieving hypocapnia. A specific ventilation approach, CO 2 quantification and monitoring may be advisable in ECT. PHV is easy to apply in daily clinical practice and does not imply added costs. Ventilation management has promising effects in terms of optimizing ECT technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The protocol amending the 1963 Vienna Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, V.

    2006-01-01

    Technically the Vienna Convention was revised by the adoption of the protocol to amend the instrument. and according to Article 19 of the protocol 'A State which is Party to this Protocol but not to the 1963 Vienna Convention shall be bound by the provisions of that Convention as amended by this Protocol in relation to other States Parties hereto, and failing an expression of a different intention by that State at the time of deposit of an instrument referred to in Article 20 shall be bound by the provisions of the 1963 Vienna Convention in relation to States which are only Parties thereto'. This solution has created a special situation, because after the entry into force of the protocol there will be living together or operating in practice 'two' Vienna Conventions, notably the convention's original text of 1963 and its new version as amended by the protocol. After the protocol has come into force, a state may only accede to the amended version, but in the inter se relations of the States Party to the 'old' Vienna Convention the provisions of that convention will remain in force until such time as they have acceded to the new protocol. This rather complicated situation is nevertheless understandable and is fully in accord with Article 40 of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, which provides for the amendment of multilateral treaties. In 1989 the negotiations on the revision of the Vienna Convention had begun with the aim of strengthening the existing nuclear liability regime and of improving the situation of potential victims of nuclear accidents. The Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention serves those purposes; it also reflects a good compromise, since it is the outcome of a negotiation process in which experts from both nuclear and non-nuclear states, from Contacting Parties and non-Contracting Parties were very active. That affords some assurance that the compromise solution reached is acceptable to all States participating in the adoption of

  10. Advanced Internet Protocols, Services, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Oki, Eiji; Tatipamula, Mallikarjun; Vogt, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Today, the internet and computer networking are essential parts of business, learning, and personal communications and entertainment. Virtually all messages or transactions sent over the internet are carried using internet infrastructure- based on advanced internet protocols. Advanced internet protocols ensure that both public and private networks operate with maximum performance, security, and flexibility. This book is intended to provide a comprehensive technical overview and survey of advanced internet protocols, first providing a solid introduction and going on to discu

  11. Security Protocol Review Method Analyzer(SPRMAN)

    OpenAIRE

    Navaz, A. S. Syed; Narayanan, H. Iyyappa; Vinoth, R.

    2013-01-01

    This Paper is designed using J2EE (JSP, SERVLET), HTML as front end and a Oracle 9i is back end. SPRMAN is been developed for the client British Telecom (BT) UK., Telecom company. Actually the requirement of BT is, they are providing Network Security Related Products to their IT customers like Virtusa,Wipro,HCL etc., This product is framed out by set of protocols and these protocols are been associated with set of components. By grouping all these protocols and components together, product is...

  12. Analyzing security protocols in hierarchical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ye; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    Validating security protocols is a well-known hard problem even in a simple setting of a single global network. But a real network often consists of, besides the public-accessed part, several sub-networks and thereby forms a hierarchical structure. In this paper we first present a process calculus...... capturing the characteristics of hierarchical networks and describe the behavior of protocols on such networks. We then develop a static analysis to automate the validation. Finally we demonstrate how the technique can benefit the protocol development and the design of network systems by presenting a series...

  13. Establishing treatment protocols for clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Jerry R

    2003-03-01

    Each farm has a unique mix of mastitis pathogens and management procedures that have evolved over time. The herd veterinarian should work with the manager/owner to systematically develop treatment protocols that meet the needs and management of the farm. To establish a mastitis treatment protocol, it is necessary to develop a system to routinely identify clinical mastitis cases, develop a herd-specific severity level assessment system, manage the clinical mastitis cases based on severity level and culture result (when available), avoid antibiotic residues, and monitor the success of the system and alter the protocol as necessary.

  14. Overview of the InterGroup protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berket, Karlo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Agarwal, Deborah A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Melliar-Smith, P. Michael [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Moser, Louise E. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Existing reliable ordered group communication protocols have been developed for local-area networks and do not, in general, scale well to large numbers of nodes and wide-area networks. The InterGroup suite of protocols is a scalable group communication system that introduces a novel approach to handling group membership, and supports a receiver-oriented selection of service. The protocols are intended for a wide-area network, with a large number of nodes, that has highly variable delays and a high message loss rate, such as the Internet. The levels of the message delivery service range from unreliable unordered to reliable group timestamp ordered.

  15. The Singapore protocol [for quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englert, B.

    2005-01-01

    The qubit protocol for quantum key distribution presented in this talk is fully tomographic and more efficient than other tomographic protocols. Under ideal circumstances the efficiency is log 2 (4/3) = 0.415 key bits per qubit sent, which is 25% more than the efficiency of 1/3 = 0.333 for the standard 6-state protocol. One can extract 0.4 key bits per qubit by a simple two-way communication scheme, and can so get close to the information-theoretical limit. The noise thresholds for secure key bit generation in the presence of unbiased noise will be reported and discussed. (author)

  16. A Logical Analysis of Quantum Voting Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Soroush Rafiee; Shirinkalam, Elahe; Smets, Sonja

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we provide a logical analysis of the Quantum Voting Protocol for Anonymous Surveying as developed by Horoshko and Kilin in (Phys. Lett. A 375, 1172-1175 2011). In particular we make use of the probabilistic logic of quantum programs as developed in (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 53, 3628-3647 2014) to provide a formal specification of the protocol and to derive its correctness. Our analysis is part of a wider program on the application of quantum logics to the formal verification of protocols in quantum communication and quantum computation.

  17. Taking an idea to a research protocol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... Review Article: Taking an idea to a research protocol ... step is to identify the knowledge gap within the intended field of research by examining the background ... be found by writing a critical narrative review of the literature.

  18. Security Protocols: Specification, Verification, Implementation, and Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almousa, Omar

    An important aspect of Internet security is the security of cryptographic protocols that it deploys. We need to make sure that such protocols achieve their goals, whether in isolation or in composition, i.e., security protocols must not suffer from any aw that enables hostile intruders to break...... results. The most important generalization is the support for all security properties of the geometric fragment proposed by [Gut14]....... their security. Among others, tools like OFMC [MV09b] and Proverif [Bla01] are quite efficient for the automatic formal verification of a large class of protocols. These tools use different approaches such as symbolic model checking or static analysis. Either approach has its own pros and cons, and therefore, we...

  19. Oxygen tolerance test : A standardised protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D K Ghosh

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: By following a standardised protocol for Oxygen Tolerance Test, an objective assessment and recordkeeping is possible. This shall entail a more effective screening during the initial diving medical examination.

  20. Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ling Hung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission speed of acoustic waves in water is much slower than that of radio waves in terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Thus, the propagation delay in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN is much greater. Longer propagation delay leads to complicated communication and collision problems. To solve collision problems, some studies have proposed waiting mechanisms; however, long waiting mechanisms result in low bandwidth utilization. To improve throughput, this study proposes a slotted medium access control protocol to enhance bandwidth utilization in UASNs. The proposed mechanism increases communication by exploiting temporal and spatial resources that are typically idle in order to protect communication against interference. By reducing wait time, network performance and energy consumption can be improved. A performance evaluation demonstrates that when the data packets are large or sensor deployment is dense, the energy consumption of proposed protocol is less than that of existing protocols as well as the throughput is higher than that of existing protocols.

  1. Authentication Protocol using Quantum Superposition States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanamori, Yoshito [University of Alaska; Yoo, Seong-Moo [University of Alabama, Huntsville; Gregory, Don A. [University of Alabama, Huntsville; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    When it became known that quantum computers could break the RSA (named for its creators - Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman) encryption algorithm within a polynomial-time, quantum cryptography began to be actively studied. Other classical cryptographic algorithms are only secure when malicious users do not have sufficient computational power to break security within a practical amount of time. Recently, many quantum authentication protocols sharing quantum entangled particles between communicators have been proposed, providing unconditional security. An issue caused by sharing quantum entangled particles is that it may not be simple to apply these protocols to authenticate a specific user in a group of many users. An authentication protocol using quantum superposition states instead of quantum entangled particles is proposed. The random number shared between a sender and a receiver can be used for classical encryption after the authentication has succeeded. The proposed protocol can be implemented with the current technologies we introduce in this paper.

  2. Technical Analysis of SSP-21 Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromberger, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-09

    As part of the California Energy Systems for the Twenty-First Century (CES-21) program, in December 2016 San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E) contracted with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to perform an independent verification and validation (IV&V) of a white paper describing their Secure SCADA Protocol for the Twenty-First Century (SSP-21) in order to analyze the effectiveness and propriety of cryptographic protocol use within the SSP-21 specification. SSP-21 is designed to use cryptographic protocols to provide (optional) encryption, authentication, and nonrepudiation, among other capabilities. The cryptographic protocols to be used reflect current industry standards; future versions of SSP-21 will use other advanced technologies to provide a subset of security services.

  3. Adaptive security protocol selection for mobile computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pontes Soares Rocha, B.; Costa, D.N.O.; Moreira, R.A.; Rezende, C.G.; Loureiro, A.A.F.; Boukerche, A.

    2010-01-01

    The mobile computing paradigm has introduced new problems for application developers. Challenges include heterogeneity of hardware, software, and communication protocols, variability of resource limitations and varying wireless channel quality. In this scenario, security becomes a major concern for

  4. Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set Z D n associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of Z D n into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analytically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension D. When D is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively

  5. Saudi Arabia and CERN sign protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...

  6. Verbal protocols as methodological resources: research evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Baldo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at reflecting on the use of verbal protocols as a methodological resource in qualitative research, more specifically on the aspect regarded as the main limitation of a study about lexical inferencing in L2 (BALDO; VELASQUES, 2010: its subjective trait. The article begins with a brief literature review on protocols, followed by a description of the study in which they were employed as methodological resources. Based on that, protocol subjectivity is illustrated through samples of unparalleled data classification, carried out independently by two researchers. In the final section, the path followed to minimize the problem is presented, intending to contribute to improve efficiency in the use of verbal protocols in future research.

  7. Real-Time Fault Tolerant Networking Protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henzinger, Thomas A

    2004-01-01

    We made significant progress in the areas of video streaming, wireless protocols, mobile ad-hoc and sensor networks, peer-to-peer systems, fault tolerant algorithms, dependability and timing analysis...

  8. Development of measurement protocols for quantum magnetometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stark, Alexander

    and protocols to enhance the lifetime and the coherences of the NV center with the overall goal of enhancing the capabilities of this sensor in the field of magnetometry. In order to realize complex protocols, a sophisticated software control of the measurement setup is required. A general software framework......, is serving as rigorous framework to reduce the complexity of the setup configuration by a fundamental separation of tasks. As a consequence, the general idea of this framework is not limited to experiments with color centers in diamond, but can find application in any laboratory environment. The measurement...... of magnetic fields in the high-frequency GHz regimes is challenging. In this thesis, a continuous dynamical decoupling protocol is developed and implemented, which extends the capabilities of the NV sensor to probe GHz signals with a narrow bandwidth. Moreover, the protocol protects the system from noise...

  9. How to write a research protocol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A research protocol is best viewed as a key to open the gates between the researcher and ... studies will be quantitative designs and these form the focus of this paper. ..... applied to the underlying clinical problem addressed by the study.

  10. Compiling symbolic attacks to protocol implementation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rusinowitch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently efficient model-checking tools have been developed to find flaws in security protocols specifications. These flaws can be interpreted as potential attacks scenarios but the feasability of these scenarios need to be confirmed at the implementation level. However, bridging the gap between an abstract attack scenario derived from a specification and a penetration test on real implementations of a protocol is still an open issue. This work investigates an architecture for automatically generating abstract attacks and converting them to concrete tests on protocol implementations. In particular we aim to improve previously proposed blackbox testing methods in order to discover automatically new attacks and vulnerabilities. As a proof of concept we have experimented our proposed architecture to detect a renegotiation vulnerability on some implementations of SSL/TLS, a protocol widely used for securing electronic transactions.

  11. Language, Semantics, and Methods for Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico

    events. Methods like strand spaces and the inductive method of Paulson have been designed to support an intensional, event-based, style of reasoning. These methods have successfully tackled a number of protocols though in an ad hoc fashion. They make an informal spring from a protocol to its......-nets. They have persistent conditions and as we show in this thesis, unfold under reasonable assumptions to a more basic kind of nets. We relate SPL-nets to strand spaces and inductive rules, as well as trace languages and event structures so unifying a range of approaches, as well as providing conditions under...... reveal. The last few years have seen the emergence of successful intensional, event-based, formal approaches to reasoning about security protocols. The methods are concerned with reasoning about the events that a security protocol can perform, and make use of a causal dependency that exists between...

  12. Implementation of the Additional Protocol in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, T.

    2001-01-01

    The Additional Protocol between Japan and the IAEA entered into force in December 1999. To come into force a series of implementation trials of Additional Protocol was carried out at two Japanese representative nuclear research centers, i.e. Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Oarai Engineering Center of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute (JNC). These trials were proposed by Japan and were conducted in cooperation with the IAEA Secretariat. In addition, Japan amended 'the Law for the Regulation of Reactors etc.', to collect adequate information to submit to the IAEA, to arrange the surrounding for the complementary access, etc. In addition, Japan Submitted the Initial Declaration of the Additional Protocol within 180 days of the entry into force of the Protocol, in the middle of June, 2000

  13. Field Monitoring Protocol. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hancock, C. E. [Mountain Energy Partnership, Longmont, CO (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  14. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  15. An Evaluation Methodology for Protocol Analysis Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Main Memory Requirement NS: Needham-Schroeder NSL: Needham-Schroeder-Lowe OCaml : Objective Caml POSIX: Portable Operating System...methodology is needed. A. PROTOCOL ANALYSIS FIELD As with any field, there is a specialized language used within the protocol analysis community. Figure...ProVerif requires that Objective Caml ( OCaml ) be installed on the system, OCaml version 3.09.3 was installed. C. WINDOWS CONFIGURATION OS

  16. Topology Discovery Using Cisco Discovery Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Sergio R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of discovering network topology in proprietary networks. Namely, we investigate topology discovery in Cisco-based networks. Cisco devices run Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) which holds information about these devices. We first compare properties of topologies that can be obtained from networks deploying CDP versus Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) and Management Information Base (MIB) Forwarding Database (FDB). Then we describe a method of discovering topology ...

  17. Emulation of Industrial Control Field Device Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    today. The protocol operates at the application layer of the open systems interconnection ( OSI ) model, meaning it operates independently of the...the OSI model. Their job is to receive serial data from an MTU in the Modbus RTU or ASCII protocol, encapsulate and transmit the data to another modem...facing connection and out-of-band logging capabilities over the other LAN -facing connection. Despite the fact that the hardware configuration of the

  18. A Review of Fair Exchange Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah AlOtaibi; Hamza Aldabbas

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the Internet has become an essential business platform, aiding trading, distribution and sales between organisations, consumers and even between consumers themselves. This technology revolution has brought e-commerce to an entirely new level, which therefore has raised some new security issues. Security protocols in e-commerce are required to manage the transactions between buyers and sellers. In order to engage customers in e-commerce, these protocols should be well formulated and ...

  19. Recursion vs. Replication in Simple Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huttel, Hans; Srba, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    We use some recent techniques from process algebra to draw several conclusions about the well studied class of ping-pong protocols introduced by Dolev and Yao. In particular we show that all nontrivial properties, including reachability and equivalence checking wrt. the whole van Glabbeek's spect...... of messages in the sense of Amadio, Lugiez and Vanackere. We conclude by showing that reachability analysis for a replicative variant of the protocol becomes decidable....

  20. Broadening and Simplifying the First SETI Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, M. A. G.

    The Declaration of Principles Concerning Activities Following the Detection of Extraterrestrial Intelligence, known informally as the First SETI Protocol, is the primary existing international guidance on this subject. During the fifteen years since the document was issued, several people have suggested revisions or additional protocols. This article proposes a broadened and simplified text that would apply to the detection of alien technology in our solar system as well as to electromagnetic signals from more remote sources.

  1. Hybrid Long-Distance Entanglement Distribution Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, J.B.; Rigas, I.; Polzik, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a hybrid (continuous-discrete variable) quantum repeater protocol for long-distance entanglement distribution. Starting from states created by single-photon detection, we show how entangled coherent state superpositions can be generated by means of homodyne detection. We show that near......-deterministic entanglement swapping with such states is possible using only linear optics and homodyne detectors, and we evaluate the performance of our protocol combining these elements....

  2. Dynamic Aggregation Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mounir Said , Adel; William Ibrahim , Ashraf; Soua , Ahmed; Afifi , Hossam

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Sensor networks suffer from limited capabilities such as bandwidth, low processing power, and memory size. There is therefore a need for protocols that deliver sensor data in an energy-efficient way to the sink. One of those techniques, it gathers sensors' data in a small size packet suitable for transmission. In this paper, we propose a new Effective Data Aggregation Protocol (DAP) to reduce the energy consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which prolongs the...

  3. Optimistic protocol for partitioned distributed database systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, S.B.

    1982-01-01

    A protocol for transaction processing during partition failures is presented which guarantees mutual consistency between copies of data-items after repair is completed. The protocol is optimistic in that transactions are processed without restrictions during the failure; conflicts are detected at repair time using a precedence graph and are resolved by backing out transactions according to some backout strategy. The protocol is then evaluated using simulation and probabilistic modeling. In the simulation, several parameters are varied such as the number of transactions processed in a group, the type of transactions processed, the number of data-items present in the database, and the distribution of references to data-items. The simulation also uses different backout strategies. From these results we note conditions under which the protocol performs well, i.e., conditions under which the protocol backs out a small percentage of the transaction run. A probabilistic model is developed to estimate the expected number of transactions backed out using most of the above database and transaction parameters, and is shown to agree with simulation results. Suggestions are then made on how to improve the performance of the protocol. Insights gained from the simulation and probabilistic modeling are used to develop a backout strategy which takes into account individual transaction costs and attempts to minimize total backout cost. Although the problem of choosing transactions to minimize total backout cost is, in general, NP-complete, the backout strategy is efficient and produces very good results

  4. Network-topology-adaptive quantum conference protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Sheng; Wang Jian; Tang Chao-Jing; Zhang Quan

    2011-01-01

    As an important application of the quantum network communication, quantum multiparty conference has made multiparty secret communication possible. Previous quantum multiparty conference schemes based on quantum data encryption are insensitive to network topology. However, the topology of the quantum network significantly affects the communication efficiency, e.g., parallel transmission in a channel with limited bandwidth. We have proposed two distinctive protocols, which work in two basic network topologies with efficiency higher than the existing ones. We first present a protocol which works in the reticulate network using Greeberger—Horne—Zeilinger states and entanglement swapping. Another protocol, based on quantum multicasting with quantum data compression, which can improve the efficiency of the network, works in the star-like network. The security of our protocols is guaranteed by quantum key distribution and one-time-pad encryption. In general, the two protocols can be applied to any quantum network where the topology can be equivalently transformed to one of the two structures we propose in our protocols. (general)

  5. Simulation and Evaluation of CTP and Secure-CTP Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pecho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses characteristics and qualities of two routing protocols – Collection Tree Protocol and its secure modification. The original protocol, as well as other protocols for wireless sensors, solves only problems of ra- dio communication and limited resources. Our design of the secure protocol tries to solve also the essential security ob- jectives. For the evaluation of properties of our protocol in large networks, a TOSSIM simulator was used. Our effort was to show the influence of the modification of the routing protocol to its behavior and quality of routing trees. We have proved that adding security into protocol design does not necessarily mean higher demands for data transfer, power consumption or worse protocol efficiency. In the paper, we manifest that security in the protocol may be achieved with low cost and may offer similar performance as the original protocol.

  6. MDEP Protocol VICWG-01. MDEP Protocol: Witnessed, Joint, and Multinational Vendor Inspection Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) was launched in 2006 by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) with the aim of developing innovative approaches to leverage the resources and knowledge of national regulatory authorities reviewing new reactor designs. MDEP full members are regulators from Canada, People's Republic of China, Finland, France, India, Japan, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, South Africa, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The United Arab Emirates and Turkey are associate members. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) acts as the Technical Secretariat for the MDEP. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) participates in many of the MDEP activities, including harmonisation efforts. The Vendor Inspection Cooperation Working Group (VICWG) is one of the issue-specific working groups that the MDEP members are undertaking with one long term goal of the VICWG being to maximize the use of the results obtained from other regulator's efforts in inspecting vendors. To accomplish this goal, it is vital that the regulators learn about each other's procedures, processes, and regulations. To facilitate the learning process the VICWG is coordinating vendor inspections among the involved regulatory authorities with the purpose of enhancing the understanding of each other's vendor inspection procedures. This programme is administered by the NEA. Involvement in specific inspections provides a number of opportunities for member state regulators to witness other regulators' inspection methods, gain useful information on the quality systems and manufacturing arrangements of specific vendors and where appropriate, actively participate in the inspection. The purpose of this protocol is to provide guidance to regulators that wish to carry out vendor inspections or participate in or witness other regulators' vendor inspections. It also provides

  7. Protocol of Magnetic Field Area Network and its Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Yunjae; Kang, Shinjae; Lim, Seungok; Kahng, Hyunkook

    2012-01-01

    The social needs are increasing in the wireless communication technology based on sensors for the monitoring of natural disasters such as avalanche and storm, the management of underground conditions from ground sinking and landslide, the monitoring of pipes, wires buried under the ground, the management of building and bridge, and the monitoring of the pollutions such as soils and water. However, the conventional wireless communication systems based on EM (Electro Magnetic) waves have not supported reliable communication because of large signal strength attenuation around soil, water, and metals. In order to handle this problem, various efforts in the wireless communication area have been conducted. Magnetic Field Area Network (MFAN) supports the reliable communication service without large signal attenuation around water, soil, and metal. Therefore, Magnetic Field Area Network (MFAN) is expected to be one of promising solutions to the limit of the conventional technologies such as Radio Frequency Indentification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

  8. Protocol of Magnetic Field Area Network and its Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Yunjae; Kang, Shinjae; Lim, Seungok [Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kahng, Hyunkook [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The social needs are increasing in the wireless communication technology based on sensors for the monitoring of natural disasters such as avalanche and storm, the management of underground conditions from ground sinking and landslide, the monitoring of pipes, wires buried under the ground, the management of building and bridge, and the monitoring of the pollutions such as soils and water. However, the conventional wireless communication systems based on EM (Electro Magnetic) waves have not supported reliable communication because of large signal strength attenuation around soil, water, and metals. In order to handle this problem, various efforts in the wireless communication area have been conducted. Magnetic Field Area Network (MFAN) supports the reliable communication service without large signal attenuation around water, soil, and metal. Therefore, Magnetic Field Area Network (MFAN) is expected to be one of promising solutions to the limit of the conventional technologies such as Radio Frequency Indentification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

  9. Routing protocols for wireless sensor networks: What the literature says?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Sarkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs plays a significant role in the field of environment-oriented monitoring, traffic monitoring, etc. Here, wide contributions that are made toward routing in WSN are explored. The paper mainly aims to categorize the routing problems and examines the routing-related optimization problems. For achieving the motive, 50 papers from the standard journals are collected and primarily reviewed in a chronological way. Later, various features that are related to energy, security, speed and reliability problems of routing are discussed. Subsequently, the literature is analyzed based on the simulation environment and experimental setup, awareness over the Quality of Service (QoS and the deployment against various applications. In addition, the optimization of the routing algorithms and the meta-heuristic study of routing optimization are explored. Routing is a vast area with numerous unsolved issues and hence, various research gaps along with future directions are also presented.

  10. Protocol for Communication Networking for Formation Flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Esther; Okino, Clayton; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren

    2009-01-01

    An application-layer protocol and a network architecture have been proposed for data communications among multiple autonomous spacecraft that are required to fly in a precise formation in order to perform scientific observations. The protocol could also be applied to other autonomous vehicles operating in formation, including robotic aircraft, robotic land vehicles, and robotic underwater vehicles. A group of spacecraft or other vehicles to which the protocol applies could be characterized as a precision-formation- flying (PFF) network, and each vehicle could be characterized as a node in the PFF network. In order to support precise formation flying, it would be necessary to establish a corresponding communication network, through which the vehicles could exchange position and orientation data and formation-control commands. The communication network must enable communication during early phases of a mission, when little positional knowledge is available. Particularly during early mission phases, the distances among vehicles may be so large that communication could be achieved only by relaying across multiple links. The large distances and need for omnidirectional coverage would limit communication links to operation at low bandwidth during these mission phases. Once the vehicles were in formation and distances were shorter, the communication network would be required to provide high-bandwidth, low-jitter service to support tight formation-control loops. The proposed protocol and architecture, intended to satisfy the aforementioned and other requirements, are based on a standard layered-reference-model concept. The proposed application protocol would be used in conjunction with conventional network, data-link, and physical-layer protocols. The proposed protocol includes the ubiquitous Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocol to be used in the datalink layer. In addition to its widespread and proven use in

  11. MODELLING AND VERIFICATION OF KITSAT PACKET COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ro Lee

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, in order to verify KITSAT 1/2 packet communication protocols, we model the AX.25 protocol and PACSAT protocol by using an extended Petri net and then verify the correctness, boundedness, liveness and deadlock freeness of packet protocols by utilizing reachability trees.

  12. Differential phase-time shifting protocol for QKD (DPTS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Bacco, Davide; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge

    2016-01-01

    We explore the implementation of a novel protocol for fiber-based high-dimensional quantum key distribution (QKD) which improves over the traditional DPS-QKD and COW protocols.......We explore the implementation of a novel protocol for fiber-based high-dimensional quantum key distribution (QKD) which improves over the traditional DPS-QKD and COW protocols....

  13. Implementation Of The Precision Agriculture Using LEACH Protocol Of Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Than Htike Aung; Su Su Yi Mon; Chaw Myat Nwe; Zaw Min Naing; HLa Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of wireless sensor network technology leads to develop advanced systems for real-time monitoring. Wireless sensor network WSN is a major technology that drives the development of precision agriculture.By forming wireless sensor networkagricultural practicescan be made good monitoring systems.Various agricultural parameters like soil moisture temperature and humidity are monitored by monitoring units.The paper explains about how to utilize thesensors in agricultural practices and...

  14. A Cryptographic Moving-Knife Cake-Cutting Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Manabe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a cake-cutting protocol using cryptography when the cake is a heterogeneous good that is represented by an interval on a real line. Although the Dubins-Spanier moving-knife protocol with one knife achieves simple fairness, all players must execute the protocol synchronously. Thus, the protocol cannot be executed on asynchronous networks such as the Internet. We show that the moving-knife protocol can be executed asynchronously by a discrete protocol using a secure auction protocol. The number of cuts is n-1 where n is the number of players, which is the minimum.

  15. Welfare Quality assessment protocol for laying hens = Welfare Quality assessment protocol voor leghennen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, van T.G.C.M.; Gunnink, H.; Reenen, van C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Results of a study on the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for laying hens. It reports the development of the integration of welfare assessment as scores per criteria as well as simplification of the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol. Results are given from assessment of 122 farms.

  16. Nursing Music Protocol and Postoperative Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Michael J; Coto, Jeffrey

    2018-04-01

    Pain has always been a major concern for patients and nurses during the postoperative period. Therapies, medicines, and protocols have been developed to improve pain and anxiety but have undesirable risks to the patient. Complementary and alternative medicine therapies have been studied but have not been applied as regular protocols in the hospital setting. Music is one type of complementary and alternative medicine therapy that has been reported to have favorable results on reducing postoperative pain, anxiety, and opioid usage. However, music lacks a protocol that nurses can implement during the perioperative process. This paper is an in-depth literature review assessing a best practice recommendation and protocol that establishes a consensus in the use of music therapy. The results suggest that music therapy may consist of calming, soft tones of 60-80 beats per minute for at least 15-30 minutes at least twice daily during the pre- and postoperative periods. It is suggested that music only be used in conjunction with standards of care and not as the primary intervention of pain or anxiety. This evidence suggests that proper use of music therapy can significantly reduce surgical pain. Implementing these protocols and allowing the freedom of nursing staff to use them may lead to greater reductions in surgical pain and anxiety and a reduction in opioid use. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. WDM Network and Multicasting Protocol Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Kirci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical technology gains extensive attention and ever increasing improvement because of the huge amount of network traffic caused by the growing number of internet users and their rising demands. However, with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM, it is easier to take the advantage of optical networks and optical burst switching (OBS and to construct WDM networks with low delay rates and better data transparency these technologies are the best choices. Furthermore, multicasting in WDM is an urgent solution for bandwidth-intensive applications. In the paper, a new multicasting protocol with OBS is proposed. The protocol depends on a leaf initiated structure. The network is composed of source, ingress switches, intermediate switches, edge switches, and client nodes. The performance of the protocol is examined with Just Enough Time (JET and Just In Time (JIT reservation protocols. Also, the paper involves most of the recent advances about WDM multicasting in optical networks. WDM multicasting in optical networks is given as three common subtitles: Broadcast and-select networks, wavelength-routed networks, and OBS networks. Also, in the paper, multicast routing protocols are briefly summarized and optical burst switched WDM networks are investigated with the proposed multicast schemes.

  18. A Lightweight Protocol for Secure Video Streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venčkauskas, Algimantas; Morkevicius, Nerijus; Bagdonas, Kazimieras; Damaševičius, Robertas; Maskeliūnas, Rytis

    2018-05-14

    The Internet of Things (IoT) introduces many new challenges which cannot be solved using traditional cloud and host computing models. A new architecture known as fog computing is emerging to address these technological and security gaps. Traditional security paradigms focused on providing perimeter-based protections and client/server point to point protocols (e.g., Transport Layer Security (TLS)) are no longer the best choices for addressing new security challenges in fog computing end devices, where energy and computational resources are limited. In this paper, we present a lightweight secure streaming protocol for the fog computing "Fog Node-End Device" layer. This protocol is lightweight, connectionless, supports broadcast and multicast operations, and is able to provide data source authentication, data integrity, and confidentiality. The protocol is based on simple and energy efficient cryptographic methods, such as Hash Message Authentication Codes (HMAC) and symmetrical ciphers, and uses modified User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets to embed authentication data into streaming data. Data redundancy could be added to improve reliability in lossy networks. The experimental results summarized in this paper confirm that the proposed method efficiently uses energy and computational resources and at the same time provides security properties on par with the Datagram TLS (DTLS) standard.

  19. Two Cheers for the Trafficking Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne T Gallagher

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Trafficking Protocol makes an easy target for attack. Its origins lie in an attempt to control a particularly exploitative form of migration that was challenging the ability of States to control their own borders. Its parent instrument is a framework agreement to address transnational organised crime. While paying fleeting attention to the rights of victims, the Protocol, with its emphasis on criminalisation and border protection is nowhere near being a human rights treaty. On top of all that it does not even have a credible enforcement mechanism, allowing states parties wide latitude in interpreting and applying their obligations. Strangely, these seemingly insurmountable flaws have not stopped the Protocol’s emergence as perhaps the single most important development in the fight against human trafficking. Without the Protocol, arguments around definitions would have continued to block the evolution of principles and rules. Without the Protocol it is likely that the human rights system would have continued its shameful tradition of sidelining issues such as forced labour, forced sex, forced marriage and the ritual exploitation of migrant workers through debt. Most critically, the Protocol provided the impetus and template for a series of legal and political developments that, over time, have served to ameliorate some of its greatest weaknesses, including the lack of human rights protections and of a credible oversight mechanism.

  20. Supporting Adaptation of Wireless Communication Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhomeja, L.D.; Soomro, I.A.; Malkani, Y.A.

    2016-01-01

    Pervasive devices such as mobile phones and PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants) come with different wireless communication capabilities, for example, WiFi (Wireless Fidelity), Bluetooth, IrDA (Infrared), etc. In order for pervasive devices to interact with each other, they need to have matching (alike) communication capabilities, otherwise such heterogeneous devices would not be able to interact with each other. In this paper we address this issue and propose a system that makes devices with heterogeneous wireless communication capabilities communicate with each other. The proposed system supports adaptation of wireless communication protocols through a proxy, which sits between a client and a server, and supports adaptation of wireless communication protocols. Its functionality involves intercepting a request made by a client with a different wireless communication capability (e.g. Bluetooth) from what the server has (e.g. WiFi), connecting to the server and then sending results back to the client. We have tested the system by implementing a messaging service application and running it on the system. The proxy supports all Bluetooth protocols, i.e. OBEX (Object Exchange), L2CAP (Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol), RFCOM (Radio Frequency Communication) and WiFi protocol and can run on (J2MW (Java 2 Micro Edition) enabled mobile phones which support both Bluetooth and WiFi capabilities. (author)

  1. Controlled Delegation Protocol in Mobile RFID Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang MingHour

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve off-line delegation for mobile readers, we propose a delegation protocol for mobile RFID allowing its readers access to specific tags through back-end server. That is to say, reader-tag mutual authentication can be performed without readers being connected to back-end server. Readers are also allowed off-line access to tags' data. Compared with other delegation protocols, our scheme uniquely enables back-end server to limit each reader's reading times during delegation. Even in a multireader situation, our protocol can limit reading times and reading time periods for each of them and therefore makes back-end server's delegation more flexible. Besides, our protocol can prevent authorized readers from transferring their authority to the unauthorized, declining invalid access to tags. Our scheme is proved viable and secure with GNY logic; it is against certain security threats, such as replay attacks, denial of service (DoS attacks, Man-in-the-Middle attacks, counterfeit tags, and breaches of location and data privacy. Also, the performance analysis of our protocol proves that current tags can afford the computation load required in this scheme.

  2. Decellularization of placentas: establishing a protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.P.C. Leonel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biological biomaterials for tissue engineering purposes can be produced through tissue and/or organ decellularization. The remaining extracellular matrix (ECM must be acellular and preserve its proteins and physical features. Placentas are organs of great interest because they are discarded after birth and present large amounts of ECM. Protocols for decellularization are tissue-specific and have not been established for canine placentas yet. This study aimed at analyzing a favorable method for decellularization of maternal and fetal portions of canine placentas. Canine placentas were subjected to ten preliminary tests to analyze the efficacy of parameters such as the type of detergents, freezing temperatures and perfusion. Two protocols were chosen for further analyses using histology, scanning electron microscopy, immunofluorescence and DNA quantification. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS was the most effective detergent for cell removal. Freezing placentas before decellularization required longer periods of incubation in different detergents. Both perfusion and immersion methods were capable of removing cells. Placentas decellularized using Protocol I (1% SDS, 5 mM EDTA, 50 mM TRIS, and 0.5% antibiotic preserved the ECM structure better, but Protocol I was less efficient to remove cells and DNA content from the ECM than Protocol II (1% SDS, 5 mM EDTA, 0.05% trypsin, and 0.5% antibiotic.

  3. A More Efficient Contextuality Distillation Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hui-xian; Cao, Huai-xin; Wang, Wen-hua; Fan, Ya-jing; Chen, Liang

    2018-03-01

    Based on the fact that both nonlocality and contextuality are resource theories, it is natural to ask how to amplify them more efficiently. In this paper, we present a contextuality distillation protocol which produces an n-cycle box B ∗ B ' from two given n-cycle boxes B and B '. It works efficiently for a class of contextual n-cycle ( n ≥ 4) boxes which we termed as "the generalized correlated contextual n-cycle boxes". For any two generalized correlated contextual n-cycle boxes B and B ', B ∗ B ' is more contextual than both B and B '. Moreover, they can be distilled toward to the maximally contextual box C H n as the times of iteration goes to infinity. Among the known protocols, our protocol has the strongest approximate ability and is optimal in terms of its distillation rate. What is worth noting is that our protocol can witness a larger set of nonlocal boxes that make communication complexity trivial than the protocol in Brunner and Skrzypczyk (Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 160403 2009), this might be helpful for exploring the problem that why quantum nonlocality is limited.

  4. Efficient Communication Protocols for Deciding Edit Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jowhari, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present two communication protocols on computing edit distance. In our first result, we give a one-way protocol for the following Document Exchange problem. Namely given x ∈ Σn to Alice and y ∈ Σn to Bob and integer k to both, Alice sends a message to Bob so that he learns x...... or truthfully reports that the edit distance between x and y is greater than k. For this problem, we give a randomized protocol in which Alice transmits at most O ˜ (klog 2 n) bits and each party’s time complexity is O ˜ (nlogn+k 2 log 2 n) . Our second result is a simultaneous protocol for edit distance over...... permutations. Here Alice and Bob both send a message to a third party (the referee) who does not have access to the input strings. Given the messages, the referee decides if the edit distance between x and y is at most k or not. For this problem we give a protocol in which Alice and Bob run a O...

  5. A Lightweight Buyer-Seller Watermarking Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongdong Wu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The buyer-seller watermarking protocol enables a seller to successfully identify a traitor from a pirated copy, while preventing the seller from framing an innocent buyer. Based on finite field theory and the homomorphic property of public key cryptosystems such as RSA, several buyer-seller watermarking protocols (N. Memon and P. W. Wong (2001 and C.-L. Lei et al. (2004 have been proposed previously. However, those protocols require not only large computational power but also substantial network bandwidth. In this paper, we introduce a new buyer-seller protocol that overcomes those weaknesses by managing the watermarks. Compared with the earlier protocols, ours is n times faster in terms of computation, where n is the number of watermark elements, while incurring only O(1/lN times communication overhead given the finite field parameter lN. In addition, the quality of the watermarked image generated with our method is better, using the same watermark strength.

  6. A class-chest for deriving transport protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strayer, W.T.

    1996-10-01

    Development of new transport protocols or protocol algorithms suffers from the complexity of the environment in which they are intended to run. Modeling techniques attempt to avoid this by simulating the environment. Another approach to promoting rapid prototyping of protocols and protocol algorithms is to provide a pre-built infrastructure that is common to transport protocols, so that the focus is placed on the protocol-specific aspects. The Meta-Transport Library is a library of C++ base classes that implement or abstract out the mundane functions of a protocol, new protocol implementations are derived from base classes. The result is a fully viable user- level transport protocol implementation, with emphasis on modularity. The collection of base classes form a ``class-chest`` of tools .from which protocols can be developed and studied with as little change to a normal UNIX environment as possible.

  7. An one-time-pad key communication protocol with entanglement

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Qing-yu

    2003-01-01

    We present an one-time-pad key communication protocol that allows secure direct communication with entanglement. Alice can send message to Bob in a deterministic manner by using local measurements and public communication. The theoretical efficiency of this protocol is double compared with BB84 protocol. We show this protocol is unconditional secure under arbitrary quantum attack. And we discuss that this protocol can be perfectly implemented with current technologies.

  8. Objective and automated protocols for the evaluation of biomedical search engines using No Title Evaluation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagne, Fabien

    2008-02-29

    The evaluation of information retrieval techniques has traditionally relied on human judges to determine which documents are relevant to a query and which are not. This protocol is used in the Text Retrieval Evaluation Conference (TREC), organized annually for the past 15 years, to support the unbiased evaluation of novel information retrieval approaches. The TREC Genomics Track has recently been introduced to measure the performance of information retrieval for biomedical applications. We describe two protocols for evaluating biomedical information retrieval techniques without human relevance judgments. We call these protocols No Title Evaluation (NT Evaluation). The first protocol measures performance for focused searches, where only one relevant document exists for each query. The second protocol measures performance for queries expected to have potentially many relevant documents per query (high-recall searches). Both protocols take advantage of the clear separation of titles and abstracts found in Medline. We compare the performance obtained with these evaluation protocols to results obtained by reusing the relevance judgments produced in the 2004 and 2005 TREC Genomics Track and observe significant correlations between performance rankings generated by our approach and TREC. Spearman's correlation coefficients in the range of 0.79-0.92 are observed comparing bpref measured with NT Evaluation or with TREC evaluations. For comparison, coefficients in the range 0.86-0.94 can be observed when evaluating the same set of methods with data from two independent TREC Genomics Track evaluations. We discuss the advantages of NT Evaluation over the TRels and the data fusion evaluation protocols introduced recently. Our results suggest that the NT Evaluation protocols described here could be used to optimize some search engine parameters before human evaluation. Further research is needed to determine if NT Evaluation or variants of these protocols can fully substitute

  9. Analysis of Security Protocols by Annotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Han

    . The development of formal techniques, e.g. control flow analyses, that can check various security properties, is an important tool to meet this challenge. This dissertation contributes to the development of such techniques. In this dissertation, security protocols are modelled in the process calculus LYSA......The trend in Information Technology is that distributed systems and networks are becoming increasingly important, as most of the services and opportunities that characterise the modern society are based on these technologies. Communication among agents over networks has therefore acquired a great...... deal of research interest. In order to provide effective and reliable means of communication, more and more communication protocols are invented, and for most of them, security is a significant goal. It has long been a challenge to determine conclusively whether a given protocol is secure or not...

  10. Breaking Megrelishvili protocol using matrix diagonalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzaki, Muhammad; Triantoro Murdiansyah, Danang; Adi Prabowo, Satrio

    2018-03-01

    In this article we conduct a theoretical security analysis of Megrelishvili protocol—a linear algebra-based key agreement between two participants. We study the computational complexity of Megrelishvili vector-matrix problem (MVMP) as a mathematical problem that strongly relates to the security of Megrelishvili protocol. In particular, we investigate the asymptotic upper bounds for the running time and memory requirement of the MVMP that involves diagonalizable public matrix. Specifically, we devise a diagonalization method for solving the MVMP that is asymptotically faster than all of the previously existing algorithms. We also found an important counterintuitive result: the utilization of primitive matrix in Megrelishvili protocol makes the protocol more vulnerable to attacks.

  11. Automatic Generation of Network Protocol Gateways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromberg, Yérom-David; Réveillère, Laurent; Lawall, Julia

    2009-01-01

    for describing protocol behaviors, message structures, and the gateway logic.  Z2z includes a compiler that checks essential correctness properties and produces efficient code. We have used z2z to develop a number of gateways, including SIP to RTSP, SLP to UPnP, and SMTP to SMTP via HTTP, involving a range......The emergence of networked devices in the home has made it possible to develop applications that control a variety of household functions. However, current devices communicate via a multitude of incompatible protocols, and thus gateways are needed to translate between them.  Gateway construction......, however, requires an intimate knowledge of the relevant protocols and a substantial understanding of low-level network programming, which can be a challenge for many application programmers. This paper presents a generative approach to gateway construction, z2z, based on a domain-specific language...

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging protocols for paediatric neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, Dawn E.; Thompson, Clare; Gunny, Roxanne; Jones, Rod; Cox, Tim; Chong, Wui Khean

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, radiologists are encouraged to have protocols for all imaging studies and to include imaging guidelines in care pathways set up by the referring clinicians. This is particularly advantageous in MRI where magnet time is limited and a radiologist's review of each patient's images often results in additional sequences and longer scanning times without the advantage of improvement in diagnostic ability. The difficulties of imaging small children and the challenges presented to the radiologist as the brain develops are discussed. We present our protocols for imaging the brain and spine of children based on 20 years experience of paediatric neurological MRI. The protocols are adapted to suit children under the age of 2 years, small body parts and paediatric clinical scenarios. (orig.)

  13. Demarcation of Security in Authentication Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2011-01-01

    Security analysis of communication protocols is a slippery business; many “secure” protocols later turn out to be insecure. Among many, two complains are more frequent: inadequate definition of security and unstated assumptions in the security model. In our experience, one principal cause...... for such state of affairs is an apparent overlap of security and correctness, which may lead to many sloppy security definitions and security models. Although there is no inherent need to separate security and correctness requirements, practically, such separation is significant. It makes security analysis...... easier, and enables us to define security goals with a fine granularity. We present one such separation, by introducing the notion of binding sequence as a security primitive. A binding sequence, roughly speaking, is the only required security property of an authentication protocol. All other...

  14. Will OPEC lose from the Kyoto Protocol?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, Jon; Dessai, Suraje; Webber, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A range of energy-economy models forecast losses to members of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) should the Kyoto Protocol come into force. These forecasts are a powerful influence in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiations. They are used by OPEC to advance the agenda on the impacts of response measures, covertly arguing for compensation for lost oil revenues arising from implementation of the Protocol. This paper discusses this issue, and explores the key assumptions of these models and their uncertainties. Assumptions about carbon leakage, future availability of oil reserves, substitution, innovation, and capital turnover are considered. The paper suggests that losses will not affect OPEC countries equally, and that these losses are not likely to be as substantial as the models forecast. A range of policy measures are proposed to lessen any impact the Protocol may have on OPEC

  15. Structured Transition Protocol for Children with Cystinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Raina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The transition from pediatric to adult medical services has a greater impact on the care of adolescents or young adults with chronic diseases such as cystinosis. This transition period is a time of psychosocial development and new responsibilities placing these patients at increased risk of non-adherence. This can lead to serious adverse effects such as graft loss and progression of the disease. Our transition protocol will provide patients, families, physicians, and all those involved a structured guide to transitioning cystinosis patients. This structured protocol depends on four areas of competency: Recognition, Insight, Self-reliance, and Establishment of healthy habits (RISE. This protocol has not been tested and therefore challenges not realized. With a focus on medical, social, and educational/vocational aspects, we aim to improve transition for cystinosis patients in all aspects of their lives.

  16. Newborn hearing screening protocol in tuscany region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrettini, Stefano; Ghirri, Paolo; Lazzerini, Francesco; Lenzi, Giovanni; Forli, Francesca

    2017-09-20

    Newborn hearing screening has to be considered the first step of a program for the identification, diagnosis, treatment and habilitation/rehabilitation of children with hearing impairment. In Tuscany Region of Italy, the universal newborn hearing screening is mandatory since november 2007. The first guidelines for the execution of the screening have been released in June 2008; then many other Italian regions partially or totally adopted these guidelines. On the basis of the experience from 2008 and according to the recent evidences in the scientific literature, a new screening protocol was released in Tuscany region. The new protocol is an evolution of the previous one. Some issues reported in the previous protocol and in the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing statement published in 2007 were revised, such as the risk factors for auditory neuropathy and for late onset, progressive or acquired hearing loss. The new updated guidelines were submitted to the Sanitary Regional Council and then they have been approved in August 2016. The updated screening protocol is mainly aimed to identify newborns with a congenital moderate-to-profound hearing loss, but it also provides indications for the audiological follow-up of children with risk's factor for progressive or late onset hearing loss; further it provides indications for the audiological surveillance of children at risk for acquired hearing impairment. Then, in the new guidelines the role of the family paediatrician in the newborn hearing screening and audiological follow-up and surveillance is underscored. Finally the new guidelines provide indications for the treatment with hearing aids and cochlear implant, in accordance with the recent Italian Health Technology Assessment (HTA) guidelines. In the paper we report the modality of execution of the universal newborn hearing screening in the Tuscany Region, according to the recently updated protocol. The main features of the protocol and the critical issues are

  17. Turf Conversion Measurement and Verification Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stoughton, Kate M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Figueroa, Jorge [Western Resource Advocates, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    This measurement and verification (M and V) protocol provides procedures for energy service companies (ESCOs) and water efficiency service companies (WESCOs) to determine water savings as a result of water conservation measures (WCMs) in energy performance contracts associated with converting turfgrass or other water-intensive plantings to water-wise and sustainable landscapes. The water savings are determined by comparing the baseline water use to the water use after the WCM has been implemented. This protocol outlines the basic structure of the M and V plan, and details the procedures to use to determine water savings.

  18. Outdoor Irrigation Measurement and Verification Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stoughton, Kate M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Figueroa, Jorge [Western Resource Advocates, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    This measurement and verification (M&V) protocol provides procedures for energy service companies (ESCOs) and water efficiency service companies (WESCOs) to determine water savings resulting from water conservation measures (WCMs) in energy performance contracts associated with outdoor irrigation efficiency projects. The water savings are determined by comparing the baseline water use to the water use after the WCM has been implemented. This protocol outlines the basic structure of the M&V plan, and details the procedures to use to determine water savings.

  19. Study Application of RADIUS Protocol on Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Fang; YANG Huan-yu; LI Hong

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents how to apply the RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service)protocol ,which is generally applied to dial-up network, to the authentication & charge of Broad Band accessing control system on Ethernet. It is provided that the Broad Band accessing control system included a self-designed communication protocol is used in communicating between an terminal user and Network Access Server .The interface module on the servers side and the Radius system is also given in this article.

  20. Vicissitudes of Nagoya Protocol in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Blanco, Diana Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources is not only one of the central objectives of the Nagoya Protocol, but also a challenge for communities of scientists, researchers, and indigenous ancestral generally for the educational community. It is therefore essential to know what the real and material implications for the population, the ratification of the Nagoya Protocol, which despite having sufficient justification and argued, highlights the need to develop legal tools, economic, technological and education for proper and fair implementation.

  1. Evolution of a C2 protocol gateway

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, A

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available real-time or slower than real-time, depending on the type of link and the data source: The gateway normally reads logged raw protocol data much faster than real-time; a simulation could also start running slower than real-time if it requires too... inherent support for logging and playback of the raw protocol data. From a software architecture perspective, each link has a corresponding link component that is responsible for opening and closing the connection, as well as reading and writing...

  2. Sessions and Separability in Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Guttman, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Despite much work on sessions and session types in non- adversarial contexts, session-like behavior given an active adversary has not received an adequate definition and proof methods. We provide a syntactic property that guarantees that a protocol has session-respecting executions. Any uncomprom......Despite much work on sessions and session types in non- adversarial contexts, session-like behavior given an active adversary has not received an adequate definition and proof methods. We provide a syntactic property that guarantees that a protocol has session-respecting executions. Any...

  3. A robust ECC based mutual authentication protocol with anonymity for session initiation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Zahid; Chen, Gongliang; Li, Jianhua; Li, Linsen; Alzahrani, Bander

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few years, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is found as a substantial application-layer protocol for the multimedia services. It is extensively used for managing, altering, terminating and distributing the multimedia sessions. Authentication plays a pivotal role in SIP environment. Currently, Lu et al. presented an authentication protocol for SIP and profess that newly proposed protocol is protected against all the familiar attacks. However, the detailed analysis describes that the Lu et al.'s protocol is exposed against server masquerading attack and user's masquerading attack. Moreover, it also fails to protect the user's identity as well as it possesses incorrect login and authentication phase. In order to establish a suitable and efficient protocol, having ability to overcome all these discrepancies, a robust ECC-based novel mutual authentication mechanism with anonymity for SIP is presented in this manuscript. The improved protocol contains an explicit parameter for user to cope the issues of security and correctness and is found to be more secure and relatively effective to protect the user's privacy, user's masquerading and server masquerading as it is verified through the comprehensive formal and informal security analysis.

  4. A robust ECC based mutual authentication protocol with anonymity for session initiation protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Mehmood

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP is found as a substantial application-layer protocol for the multimedia services. It is extensively used for managing, altering, terminating and distributing the multimedia sessions. Authentication plays a pivotal role in SIP environment. Currently, Lu et al. presented an authentication protocol for SIP and profess that newly proposed protocol is protected against all the familiar attacks. However, the detailed analysis describes that the Lu et al.'s protocol is exposed against server masquerading attack and user's masquerading attack. Moreover, it also fails to protect the user's identity as well as it possesses incorrect login and authentication phase. In order to establish a suitable and efficient protocol, having ability to overcome all these discrepancies, a robust ECC-based novel mutual authentication mechanism with anonymity for SIP is presented in this manuscript. The improved protocol contains an explicit parameter for user to cope the issues of security and correctness and is found to be more secure and relatively effective to protect the user's privacy, user's masquerading and server masquerading as it is verified through the comprehensive formal and informal security analysis.

  5. A Clustering Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinke Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic topology of a mobile ad hoc network poses a real challenge in the design of hierarchical routing protocol, which combines proactive with reactive routing protocols and takes advantages of both. And as an essential technique of hierarchical routing protocol, clustering of nodes provides an efficient method of establishing a hierarchical structure in mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper, we designed a novel clustering algorithm and a corresponding hierarchical routing protocol for large-scale mobile ad hoc networks. Each cluster is composed of a cluster head, several cluster gateway nodes, several cluster guest nodes, and other cluster members. The proposed routing protocol uses proactive protocol between nodes within individual clusters and reactive protocol between clusters. Simulation results show that the proposed clustering algorithm and hierarchical routing protocol provide superior performance with several advantages over existing clustering algorithm and routing protocol, respectively.

  6. Static Validation of a Voting Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Andersen, Esben Heltoft; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2005-01-01

    is formalised in an extension of the LySa process calculus with blinding signatures. The analysis, which is fully automatic, pinpoints previously undiscovered flaws related to verifiability and accuracy and we suggest modifications of the protocol needed for validating these properties....

  7. Development of bull trout sampling protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. F. Thurow; J. T. Peterson; J. W. Guzevich

    2001-01-01

    This report describes results of research conducted in Washington in 2000 through Interagency Agreement #134100H002 between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS). The purpose of this agreement is to develop a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) sampling protocol by integrating...

  8. A Verifiable Language for Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde

    We develop a formal language for specifying cryptographic protocols in a structured and clear manner, which allows verification of many interesting properties; in particular confidentiality and integrity. The study sheds new light on the problem of creating intuitive and human readable languages...

  9. The Nagoya Protocol: Fragmentation or Consolidation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Richerzhagen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In October, 2010, a protocol on access and benefit-sharing (ABS of genetic resources was adopted, the so-called Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Before the adoption of the Nagoya Protocol, the governance architecture of ABS was already characterized by a multifaceted institutional environment. The use of genetic resources is confronted with many issues (conservation, research and development, intellectual property rights, food security, health issues, climate change that are governed by different institutions and agreements. The Nagoya Protocol contributes to increased fragmentation. However, the question arises whether this new regulatory framework can help to advance the implementation of the ABS provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD. This paper attempts to find an answer to that question by following three analytical steps. First, it analyzes the causes of change against the background of theories of institutional change. Second, it aims to assess the typology of the architecture in order to find out if this new set of rules will contribute to a more synergistic, cooperative or conflictive architecture of ABS governance. Third, the paper looks at the problem of “fit” and identifies criteria that can be used to assess the new ABS governance architecture with regard to its effectiveness.

  10. Real-time communication protocols: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, F.T.Y.; Jansen, P.G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes several existing data link layer protocols that provide real-time capabilities on wired networks, focusing on token-ring and Carrier Sense Multiple Access based networks. Existing modifications to provide better real-time capabilities and performance are also described. Finally

  11. Protocol design and implementation using formal methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Pires, L.F.; Vissers, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a number of formal methods that support correct protocol design and implementation. These methods are placed in the framework of a design methodology for distributed systems that was studied and developed within the ESPRIT II Lotosphere project (2304). The paper focuses on

  12. On BAN logics for industrial security protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agray, N.; Hoek, van der W.; Vink, de E.P.; Dunin-Keplicz, B.; Nawarecki, E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on two case-studies of applying BAN logic to industrial strength security protocols. These studies demonstrate the flexibility of the BAN language, as it caters for the addition of appropriate constructs and rules. We argue that, although a semantical foundation of the formalism

  13. Radiotherapy QA of the DAHANCA 19 protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samsøe, E.; Andersen, E.; Hansen, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: It has been demonstrated that nonadherence to protocol-specified radiotherapy (RT) requirements is associated with reduced survival, local control and potentially increased toxicity [1]. Thus, quality assurance (QA) of RT is important when evaluating the results of clinical...

  14. Recursion Versus Replication in Simple Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Srba, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    We use some very recent techniques from process algebra to draw interesting conclusions about the well studied class of ping-pong protocols introduced by Dolev and Yao. In particular we show that all nontrivial properties, including reachability and equivalence checking wrt. the whole van Glabbee...

  15. Semantics and logic for security protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, B.P.F.; Hasuo, I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a sound BAN-like logic for reasoning about security protocols with theorem prover support. The logic has formulas for sending and receiving messages (with nonces, public and private encryptions, etc.), and has both temporal and epistemic operators (describing the knowledge of

  16. Monitoring System with Two Central Facilities Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caesar Firdaus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The security of data and information on government’s information system required proper way of defending against threat. Security aspect can be achieved by using cryptography algorithm, applying information hiding concept, and implementing security protocol. In this research, two central facilities protocol was implemented on Research and Development Center of Mineral and Coal Technology’s Cooperation Contract Monitoring System by utilizing AES and whitespace manipulation algorithm. Adjustment on the protocol by creating several rule of validation ID’s generation and checking processes could fulfill two of four cryptography objectives, consist of authentication and non-repudiation. The solid collaboration between central legitimization agency (CLA, central tabulating facility (CTF, and client is the main idea in two central facilities protocol. The utilization of AES algorithm could defend the data on transmission from man in the middle attack scenario. On the other hand, whitespace manipulation algorithm provided data integrity aspect of the document that is uploaded to the system itself. Both of the algorithm fulfill confidentiality, data integrity, and authentication.

  17. Formalization of Quantum Protocols using Coq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap Boender

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantum Information Processing, which is an exciting area of research at the intersection of physics and computer science, has great potential for influencing the future development of information processing systems. The building of practical, general purpose Quantum Computers may be some years into the future. However, Quantum Communication and Quantum Cryptography are well developed. Commercial Quantum Key Distribution systems are easily available and several QKD networks have been built in various parts of the world. The security of the protocols used in these implementations rely on information-theoretic proofs, which may or may not reflect actual system behaviour. Moreover, testing of implementations cannot guarantee the absence of bugs and errors. This paper presents a novel framework for modelling and verifying quantum protocols and their implementations using the proof assistant Coq. We provide a Coq library for quantum bits (qubits, quantum gates, and quantum measurement. As a step towards verifying practical quantum communication and security protocols such as Quantum Key Distribution, we support multiple qubits, communication and entanglement. We illustrate these concepts by modelling the Quantum Teleportation Protocol, which communicates the state of an unknown quantum bit using only a classical channel.

  18. Equilibria of Generalized Cut and Choose Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Caragiannis, Ioannis; Kurokawa, David

    Classic cake cutting protocols — which fairly allocate a divisible good among agents with heterogeneous preferences — are susceptible to manipulation. Do their strategic outcomes still guarantee fairness? To answer this question we adopt a novel algo rithmic approach, proposing a concrete computa...

  19. Behaviour Protocols Verification: Fighting State Explosion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mach, M.; Plášil, František; Kofroň, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2005), s. 22-30 ISSN 1525-9293 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/03/0672 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : formal verification * software components * stateexplos ion * behavior protocols * parse trees Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  20. An evidence based blunt trauma protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, R. van; Kool, D.R.; Lubeek, S.F.K.; Dekker, H.M.; Brink, M.; Deunk, J.; Edwards, M.J.R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Currently CT is rapidly implemented in the evaluation of trauma patients. In anticipation of a large international multicentre trial, this study's aim was to evaluate the clinical feasibility of a new diagnostic protocol, used for the primary radiological evaluation in adult blunt

  1. IPv6: The Next Generation Internet Protocol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 3. IPv6: The Next Generation Internet Protocol - IPv4 and its Shortcomings. Harsha Srinath. General Article Volume 8 Issue 3 March 2003 pp 33-41. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  2. IPv6: The Next Generation Internet Protocol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 4. IPv6: The Next Generation Internet Protocol - New Features in IPv6. Harsha Srinath. General Article Volume 8 Issue 4 April 2003 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. Rethinking Protocol Analysis from a Cultural Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagorinsky, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Outlines a cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) perspective that accounts for protocol analysis along three key dimensions: the relationship between thinking and speech from a representational standpoint; the social role of speech in research methodology; and the influence of speech on thinking and data collection. (Author/VWL)

  4. Current Sterilization Protocols-An Orthodontic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Vinod Korath

    2010-01-01

    Part I of this article focuses on the working principles of various methods of sterilization with an appraisalof their effects on orthodontic instruments. Additionally,contributory factors of instrument damage is enumerated to emphasis the importance of adhering to precise protocols and manufacturer recommendations as well as in alleviating some misconceptions about sterilization induced instrument damage.

  5. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Aguilar Igartua, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR) protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation). PMID:27669254

  6. International protocol on volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, J.-P.

    1992-01-01

    In August 1991, negotiations between Canada, the USA, and 33 European countries led to an international protocol on reducing the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), which are responsible for serious ozone pollution problems. This was the third transborder pollution agreement developed under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Certain aspects of negotiations related to an earlier protocol developed for SO 2 and nitrogen oxide emissions had reappeared during the VOC negotiations, and these aspects are discussed. The VOC protocol proposes three approaches to satisfy basic obligations: reducing VOC emissions of a country by 30%, reducing VOC emissions by 30% in certain regions, and ensuring a freeze in VOC emissions in a country starting on a specified date. The protocol also introduces a new concept, that of zones of tropospheric ozone management. In Canada, plans for management of nitrogen oxides and VOC have been adapted to the ozone problem, and the management plan has been developed by a consultation process involving all sectors of society including industry, environmental groups, and governments. In Canada, it will be sufficient to reduce total VOC emissions by 16% during a first phase and to increase these reductions slightly in the second phase. Special ozone management zones in the Quebec City/Windsor corridor and the Fraser River valley have been established

  7. Performance comparison of secure comparison protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerschbaum, F.; Biswas, D.; Hoogh, de S.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Secure multiparty computation (SMC) has gained tremendous importance with the growth of the Internet and e-commerce, where mutually untrusted parties need to jointly compute a function of their private inputs. However, SMC protocols usually have very high computational complexities, rendering them

  8. Novel protocol for persister cells isolation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia J Cañas-Duarte

    Full Text Available Bacterial persistence, where a fraction of a population presents a transient resistance to bactericidal substances, has great medical importance due to its relation with the appearance of antibiotic resistances and untreatable bacterial chronic infections. The mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain largely unknown in spite of recent advances, in great part because of the difficulty in isolating the very small fraction of the population that is in this state at any given time. Current protocols for persister isolation have resulted in possible biases because of the induction of this state by the protocol itself. Here we present a novel protocol that allows rapid isolation of persister cells both from exponential and stationary phase. Moreover, it is capable of differentiating between type I and type II persister cells, which should allow the field to move beyond its current state of studying only one type. While this protocol prompts a revision of many of the current results, it should greatly facilitate further advances in the field.

  9. Direct data access protocols benchmarking on DPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furano, Fabrizio; Devresse, Adrien; Keeble, Oliver; Mancinelli, Valentina

    2015-12-01

    The Disk Pool Manager is an example of a multi-protocol, multi-VO system for data access on the Grid that went though a considerable technical evolution in the last years. Among other features, its architecture offers the opportunity of testing its different data access frontends under exactly the same conditions, including hardware and backend software. This characteristic inspired the idea of collecting monitoring information from various testbeds in order to benchmark the behaviour of the HTTP and Xrootd protocols for the use case of data analysis, batch or interactive. A source of information is the set of continuous tests that are run towards the worldwide endpoints belonging to the DPM Collaboration, which accumulated relevant statistics in its first year of activity. On top of that, the DPM releases are based on multiple levels of automated testing that include performance benchmarks of various kinds, executed regularly every day. At the same time, the recent releases of DPM can report monitoring information about any data access protocol to the same monitoring infrastructure that is used to monitor the Xrootd deployments. Our goal is to evaluate under which circumstances the HTTP-based protocols can be good enough for batch or interactive data access. In this contribution we show and discuss the results that our test systems have collected under the circumstances that include ROOT analyses using TTreeCache and stress tests on the metadata performance.

  10. Quantum protocols within Spekkens' toy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disilvestro, Leonardo; Markham, Damian

    2017-05-01

    Quantum mechanics is known to provide significant improvements in information processing tasks when compared to classical models. These advantages range from computational speedups to security improvements. A key question is where these advantages come from. The toy model developed by Spekkens [R. W. Spekkens, Phys. Rev. A 75, 032110 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevA.75.032110] mimics many of the features of quantum mechanics, such as entanglement and no cloning, regarded as being important in this regard, despite being a local hidden variable theory. In this work, we study several protocols within Spekkens' toy model where we see it can also mimic the advantages and limitations shown in the quantum case. We first provide explicit proofs for the impossibility of toy bit commitment and the existence of a toy error correction protocol and consequent k -threshold secret sharing. Then, defining a toy computational model based on the quantum one-way computer, we prove the existence of blind and verified protocols. Importantly, these two last quantum protocols are known to achieve a better-than-classical security. Our results suggest that such quantum improvements need not arise from any Bell-type nonlocality or contextuality, but rather as a consequence of steering correlations.

  11. SPECT/CT workflow and imaging protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckers, Catherine [University Hospital of Liege, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Oncological Imaging, Department of Medical Physics, Liege (Belgium); Hustinx, Roland [University Hospital of Liege, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Oncological Imaging, Department of Medical Physics, Liege (Belgium); Domaine Universitaire du Sart Tilman, Service de Medecine Nucleaire et Imagerie Oncologique, CHU de Liege, Liege (Belgium)

    2014-05-15

    Introducing a hybrid imaging method such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT greatly alters the routine in the nuclear medicine department. It requires designing new workflow processes and the revision of original scheduling process and imaging protocols. In addition, the imaging protocol should be adapted for each individual patient, so that performing CT is fully justified and the CT procedure is fully tailored to address the clinical issue. Such refinements often occur before the procedure is started but may be required at some intermediate stage of the procedure. Furthermore, SPECT/CT leads in many instances to a new partnership with the radiology department. This article presents practical advice and highlights the key clinical elements which need to be considered to help understand the workflow process of SPECT/CT and optimise imaging protocols. The workflow process using SPECT/CT is complex in particular because of its bimodal character, the large spectrum of stakeholders, the multiplicity of their activities at various time points and the need for real-time decision-making. With help from analytical tools developed for quality assessment, the workflow process using SPECT/CT may be separated into related, but independent steps, each with its specific human and material resources to use as inputs or outputs. This helps identify factors that could contribute to failure in routine clinical practice. At each step of the process, practical aspects to optimise imaging procedure and protocols are developed. A decision-making algorithm for justifying each CT indication as well as the appropriateness of each CT protocol is the cornerstone of routine clinical practice using SPECT/CT. In conclusion, implementing hybrid SPECT/CT imaging requires new ways of working. It is highly rewarding from a clinical perspective, but it also proves to be a daily challenge in terms of management. (orig.)

  12. SPECT/CT workflow and imaging protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckers, Catherine; Hustinx, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Introducing a hybrid imaging method such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT greatly alters the routine in the nuclear medicine department. It requires designing new workflow processes and the revision of original scheduling process and imaging protocols. In addition, the imaging protocol should be adapted for each individual patient, so that performing CT is fully justified and the CT procedure is fully tailored to address the clinical issue. Such refinements often occur before the procedure is started but may be required at some intermediate stage of the procedure. Furthermore, SPECT/CT leads in many instances to a new partnership with the radiology department. This article presents practical advice and highlights the key clinical elements which need to be considered to help understand the workflow process of SPECT/CT and optimise imaging protocols. The workflow process using SPECT/CT is complex in particular because of its bimodal character, the large spectrum of stakeholders, the multiplicity of their activities at various time points and the need for real-time decision-making. With help from analytical tools developed for quality assessment, the workflow process using SPECT/CT may be separated into related, but independent steps, each with its specific human and material resources to use as inputs or outputs. This helps identify factors that could contribute to failure in routine clinical practice. At each step of the process, practical aspects to optimise imaging procedure and protocols are developed. A decision-making algorithm for justifying each CT indication as well as the appropriateness of each CT protocol is the cornerstone of routine clinical practice using SPECT/CT. In conclusion, implementing hybrid SPECT/CT imaging requires new ways of working. It is highly rewarding from a clinical perspective, but it also proves to be a daily challenge in terms of management. (orig.)

  13. Bayesian adaptive survey protocols for resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Transparency in resource management decisions requires a proper accounting of uncertainty at multiple stages of the decision-making process. As information becomes available, periodic review and updating of resource management protocols reduces uncertainty and improves management decisions. One of the most basic steps to mitigating anthropogenic effects on populations is determining if a population of a species occurs in an area that will be affected by human activity. Species are rarely detected with certainty, however, and falsely declaring a species absent can cause improper conservation decisions or even extirpation of populations. We propose a method to design survey protocols for imperfectly detected species that accounts for multiple sources of uncertainty in the detection process, is capable of quantitatively incorporating expert opinion into the decision-making process, allows periodic updates to the protocol, and permits resource managers to weigh the severity of consequences if the species is falsely declared absent. We developed our method using the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas), a threatened species precinctive to the Central Valley of California, as a case study. Survey date was negatively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake, and water temperature was positively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake at a sampled location. Reporting sampling effort, timing and duration of surveys, and water temperatures would allow resource managers to evaluate the probability that the giant gartersnake occurs at sampled sites where it is not detected. This information would also allow periodic updates and quantitative evaluation of changes to the giant gartersnake survey protocol. Because it naturally allows multiple sources of information and is predicated upon the idea of updating information, Bayesian analysis is well-suited to solving the problem of developing efficient sampling protocols for species of

  14. The comparative cost analysis of EAP Re-authentication Protocol and EAP TLS Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Mehla; Bhawna Gupta

    2010-01-01

    the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is a generic framework supporting multiple types of authentication methods. In systems where EAP is used for authentication, it is desirable to not repeat the entire EAP exchange with another authenticator. The EAP reauthentication Protocol provides a consistent, methodindependentand low-latency re-authentication. It is extension to current EAP mechanism to support intradomain handoff authentication. This paper analyzed the performance of the EAP r...

  15. Cross-Layer Protocol as a Better Option in Wireless Mesh Network with Respect to Layered-Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Abdulwahab Al-Ahdal; Dr. V. P. Pawar; G. N. Shinde

    2014-01-01

    The Optimal way to improve Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) performance is to use a better network protocol, but whether layered-protocol design or cross-layer design is a better option to optimize protocol performance in WMNs is still an on-going research topic. In this paper, we focus on cross-layer protocol as a better option with respect to layered-protocol. The layered protocol architecture (OSI) model divides networking tasks into layers and defines a pocket of services for each layer to b...

  16. Power Saving MAC Protocols for WSNs and Optimization of S-MAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simarpreet Kaur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Low power MAC protocols have received a lot of consideration in the last few years because of their influence on the lifetime of wireless sensor networks. Since, sensors typically operate on batteries, replacement of which is often difficult. A lot of work has been done to minimize the energy expenditure and prolong the sensor lifetime through energy efficient designs, across layers. Meanwhile, the sensor network should be able to maintain a certain throughput in order to fulfill the QoS requirements of the end user, and to ensure the constancy of the network. This paper introduces different types of MAC protocols used for WSNs and proposes S‐MAC, a Medium‐Access Control protocol designed for Wireless Sensor Networks. S‐MAC uses a few innovative techniques to reduce energy consumption and support selfconfiguration. A new protocol is suggested to improve the energy efficiency, latency and throughput of existing MAC protocol for WSNs. A modification of the protocol is then proposed to eliminate the need for some nodes to stay awake longer than the other nodes which improves the energy efficiency, latency and throughput and hence increases the life span of a wireless sensor network.

  17. Sufficient Conditions for Vertical Composition of Security Protocols (Extended Version)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Viganò, Luca

    a certain kind of channel as a goal and another secure protocol P2 that assumes this kind of channel, can we then derive that their vertical composition P2[P1] is secure? It is well known that protocol composition can lead to attacks even when the individual protocols are all secure in isolation......Vertical composition of security protocols means that an application protocol (e.g., a banking service) runs over a channel established by another protocol (e.g., a secure channel provided by TLS). This naturally gives rise to a compositionality question: given a secure protocol P1 that provides....... In this paper, we formalize seven easy-to-check static conditions that support a large class of channels and applications and that we prove to be su_cient for vertical security protocol composition....

  18. SPIRIT 2013 Statement: defining standard protocol items for clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, An-Wen; Tetzlaff, Jennifer M; Altman, Douglas G; Laupacis, Andreas; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Krle A-Jerić, Karmela; Hrobjartsson, Asbjørn; Mann, Howard; Dickersin, Kay; Berlin, Jesse A; Dore, Caroline J; Parulekar, Wendy R; Summerskill, William S M; Groves, Trish; Schulz, Kenneth F; Sox, Harold C; Rockhold, Frank W; Rennie, Drummond; Moher, David

    2015-12-01

    The protocol of a clinical trial serves as the foundation for study planning, conduct, reporting, and appraisal. However, trial protocols and existing protocol guidelines vary greatly in content and quality. This article describes the systematic development and scope of SPIRIT (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials) 2013, a guideline for the minimum content of a clinical trial protocol. The 33-item SPIRIT checklist applies to protocols for all clinical trials and focuses on content rather than format. The checklist recommends a full description of what is planned; it does not prescribe how to design or conduct a trial. By providing guidance for key content, the SPIRIT recommendations aim to facilitate the drafting of high-quality protocols. Adherence to SPIRIT would also enhance the transparency and completeness of trial protocols for the benefit of investigators, trial participants, patients, sponsors, funders, research ethics committees or institutional review boards, peer reviewers, journals, trial registries, policymakers, regulators, and other key stakeholders.

  19. Analytical protocols for characterisation of sulphur-free lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, R.J.A.; Abächerli, A.; Semke, H.; Malherbe, R.; Käuper, P.; Nadif, A.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2004-01-01

    Interlaboratory tests for chemical characterisation of sulphur-free lignins were performed by five laboratories to develop useful analytical protocols, which are lacking, and identify quality-related properties. Protocols have been established for reproducible determination of the chemical

  20. Large family of quantum weak coin-flipping protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochon, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Each classical public-coin protocol for coin flipping is naturally associated with a quantum protocol for weak coin flipping. The quantum protocol is obtained by replacing classical randomness with quantum entanglement and by adding a cheat detection test in the last round that verifies the integrity of this entanglement. The set of such protocols defines a family which contains the protocol with bias 0.192 previously found by the author, as well as protocols with bias as low as 1/6 described herein. The family is analyzed by identifying a set of optimal protocols for every number of messages. In the end, tight lower bounds for the bias are obtained which prove that 1/6 is optimal for all protocols within the family

  1. Principles of the new quantum cryptography protocols building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurochkin, V.; Kurochkin, Yu.

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of the quantum cryptography protocols is the maximal secrecy under the conditions of the real experiment. This work presents the result of the new protocol building with the use of the secrecy maximization. While using some well-known approaches this method has allowed one to achieve completely new results in quantum cryptography. The process of the protocol elaboration develops from the standard BB84 protocol upgrading to the building of completely new protocol with arbitrary large bases number. The secrecy proofs of the elaborated protocol appear to be natural continuation of the protocol building process. This approach reveals possibility to reach extremely high parameters of the protocol. It suits both the restrictions of contemporary technologies and requirements for high bit rate while being absolutely secret

  2. Path Loss Analysis of WSN Wave Propagation in Vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, Naseer; Aljunid, S A; Ahmad, R B; Malek, M F; Salim, M S; Kamaruddin, R

    2013-01-01

    Deployment of a successful wireless sensor network requires precise prediction models that provide a reliable communication links of wireless nodes. Prediction models fused with foliage models provide sensible parameters of wireless nodes separation distance, antenna height, and power transmission which affect the reliability and communication coverage of a network. This paper review the line of sight and the two ray propagation models combined with the most known foliage models that cover the propagation of wireless communications in vegetative environments, using IEEE 802.15.4 standard. Simulation of models is presented and the impacts of the communication parameters, environment and vegetation have been reported.

  3. Hybrid Firefly Variants Algorithm for Localization Optimization in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. SrideviPonmalar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Localization is one of the key issues in wireless sensor networks. Several algorithms and techniques have been introduced for localization. Localization is a procedural technique of estimating the sensor node location. In this paper, a novel three hybrid algorithms based on firefly is proposed for localization problem. Hybrid Genetic Algorithm-Firefly Localization Algorithm (GA-FFLA, Hybrid Differential Evolution-Firefly Localization Algorithm (DE-FFLA and Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization -Firefly Localization Algorithm (PSO-FFLA are analyzed, designed and implemented to optimize the localization error. The localization algorithms are compared based on accuracy of estimation of location, time complexity and iterations required to achieve the accuracy. All the algorithms have hundred percent estimation accuracy but with variations in the number of firefliesr requirements, variation in time complexity and number of iteration requirements. Keywords: Localization; Genetic Algorithm; Differential Evolution; Particle Swarm Optimization

  4. Harvesting-Aware Energy Management for Environmental Monitoring WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Rodway

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks can be used to collect data in remote locations, especially when energy harvesting is used to extend the lifetime of individual nodes. However, in order to use the collected energy most effectively, its consumption must be managed. In this work, forecasts of diurnal solar energies were made based on measurements of atmospheric pressure. These forecasts were used as part of an adaptive duty cycling scheme for node level energy management. This management was realized with a fuzzy logic controller that has been tuned using differential evolution. Controllers were created using one and two days of energy forecasts, then simulated in software. These controllers outperformed a human-created reference controller by taking more measurements while using less reserve energy during the simulated period. The energy forecasts were comparable to other available methods, while the method of tuning the fuzzy controller improved overall node performance. The combination of the two is a promising method of energy management.

  5. Self-Powered WSN for Distributed Data Center Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Brunelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring environmental parameters in data centers is gathering nowadays increasing attention from industry, due to the need of high energy efficiency of cloud services. We present the design and the characterization of an energy neutral embedded wireless system, prototyped to monitor perpetually environmental parameters in servers and racks. It is powered by an energy harvesting module based on Thermoelectric Generators, which converts the heat dissipation from the servers. Starting from the empirical characterization of the energy harvester, we present a power conditioning circuit optimized for the specific application. The whole system has been enhanced with several sensors. An ultra-low-power micro-controller stacked over the energy harvesting provides an efficient power management. Performance have been assessed and compared with the analytical model for validation.

  6. An Efficient WSN Simulator for GPU-Based Node Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, An Na; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Barolli, Leonard; Jeong, Young-Sik

    2013-01-01

    In wireless sensor network, when these sensors are wrongly placed in an observation region, they can quickly run out of batteries or be disconnected. These incidents may result in huge losses in terms of sensing data from numerous sensors and their costs. For this reason, a number of simulators have been developed as tools for effective design and verification before the actual arrangement of sensors. While a number of simulators have been developed, simulation results can be fairly limited a...

  7. Symbolic Model Checking and Analysis for E-Commerce Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Jing-Hua; ZHANG Mei; LI Xiang

    2005-01-01

    A new approach is proposed for analyzing non-repudiation and fairness of e-commerce protocols. The authentication e-mail protocol CMP1 is modeled as finite state machine and analyzed in two vital aspects - non-repudiation and fairness using SMV. As a result, the CMP1 protocol is not fair and we have improved it. This result shows that it is effective to analyze and check the new features of e-commerce protocols using SMV model checker

  8. Effectiveness and Limitations of E-Mail Security Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    M. Tariq Banday

    2011-01-01

    Simple Mail Transport Protocol is the most widely adopted protocol for e-mail delivery. However, it lackssecurity features for privacy, authentication of sending party, integrity of e-mail message, nonrepudiationand consistency of e-mail envelope. To make e-mail communication secure and private,e-mail servers incorporate one or more security features using add-on security protocols. The add-onsecurity protocols provide a reasonable security but have several limitations. This paper discussesli...

  9. Securing statically-verified communications protocols against timing attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael; Gilmore, Stephen; Hillston, Jane

    2004-01-01

    We present a federated analysis of communication protocols which considers both security properties and timing. These are not entirely independent observations of a protocol; by using timing observations of an executing protocol it is possible to deduce derived information about the nature...... of the communication even in the presence of unbreakable encryption. Our analysis is based on expressing the protocol as a process algebra model and deriving from this process models analysable by the Imperial PEPA Compiler and the LySatool....

  10. Re-examining the security of blind quantum signature protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingming; Chen Xiubo; Niu Xinxin; Yang Yixian

    2012-01-01

    Recently, blind quantum signature (BQS) protocols have been proposed with the help of a third-party verifier. However, our research shows that some of the BQS protocols are unable to complete the blind signature task fairly if the verifier is dishonest. Indeed, these protocols can be viewed as variants of the classical digital signature scheme of symmetric-key cryptography. If nobody is trusted in such protocols, digital signature cannot be implemented since disagreements cannot be solved fairly.

  11. Optimized UAV Communication Protocol Based on Prior Locations

    OpenAIRE

    Sboui, Lokman; Rabah, Abdullatif

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we adopt a new communication protocol between the UAV and fixed on-ground nodes. This protocol tends to reduce communication power consumption by stopping communication if the channel is not good to communicate (i.e. far nodes, obstacles, etc.) The communication is performed using the XBee 868M standard and Libelium wapsmotes. Our designed protocol is based on a new communication model that we propose in this paper. The protocole decides wether to communicate or not after compu...

  12. An Optimal Non-Interactive Message Authentication Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Pasini, Sylvain; Vaudenay, Serge

    2006-01-01

    Vaudenay recently proposed a message authentication protocol which is interactive and based on short authenticated strings (SAS). We study here SAS-based non-interactive message authentication protocols (NIMAP). We start by the analysis of two popular non-interactive message authentication protocols. The first one is based on a collision-resistant hash function and was presented by Balfanz et al. The second protocol is based on a universal hash function family and was proposed by Gehrmann, Mi...

  13. CBHRP: A Cluster Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Rashed, M. G.; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Rahim, M. Sajjadur; Ullah, Sk. Enayet

    2012-01-01

    A new two layer hierarchical routing protocol called Cluster Based Hierarchical Routing Protocol (CBHRP) is proposed in this paper. It is an extension of LEACH routing protocol. We introduce cluster head-set idea for cluster-based routing where several clusters are formed with the deployed sensors to collect information from target field. On rotation basis, a head-set member receives data from the neighbor nodes and transmits the aggregated results to the distance base station. This protocol ...

  14. A model based security testing method for protocol implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu Long; Xin, Xiao Long

    2014-01-01

    The security of protocol implementation is important and hard to be verified. Since the penetration testing is usually based on the experience of the security tester and the specific protocol specifications, a formal and automatic verification method is always required. In this paper, we propose an extended model of IOLTS to describe the legal roles and intruders of security protocol implementations, and then combine them together to generate the suitable test cases to verify the security of protocol implementation.

  15. Mouse cell culture - Methods and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The mouse is, out of any doubt, the experimental animal par excellence for many many colleagues within the scientific community, notably for those working in mammalian biology (in a broad sense, from basic genetic to modeling human diseases, starting at least from 1664 Robert Hooke experiments on air’s propertyn. Not surprising then that mouse cell cultures is a well established field of research itself and that there are several handbooks devoted to this discipline. Here, Andrew Ward and David Tosh provide a necessary update of the protocols currently needed. In fact, nearly half of the book is devoted to stem cells culture protocols, mainly embryonic, from a list of several organs (kidney, lung, oesophagus and intestine, pancreas and liver to mention some........

  16. Gamma camera performance: technical assessment protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolster, A.A.; Waddington, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    This protocol addresses the performance assessment of single and dual headed gamma cameras. No attempt is made to assess the performance of any associated computing systems. Evaluations are usually performed on a gamma camera commercially available within the United Kingdom and recently installed at a clinical site. In consultation with the manufacturer, GCAT selects the site and liaises with local staff to arrange a mutually convenient time for assessment. The manufacturer is encouraged to have a representative present during the evaluation. Three to four days are typically required for the evaluation team to perform the necessary measurements. When access time is limited, the team will modify the protocol to test the camera as thoroughly as possible. Data are acquired on the camera's computer system and are subsequently transferred to the independent GCAT computer system for analysis. This transfer from site computer to the independent system is effected via a hardware interface and Interfile data transfer. (author)

  17. Kyoto protocol and Nepal's energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokharel, Shaligram

    2007-01-01

    Nepal has recently ratified Kyoto Protocol, which considers justifiable use of resources to limit or reduce the emission of gases that contribute to green house gas inventory in the atmosphere. Nepal's per capita green gas (GHG) emission from energy use is insignificant. However, it is important for Nepal to adopt environmentally friendly energy options based on local resources like hydropower and biomass. Nepal can benefit from the provisions of clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) or carbon funds being promoted by various organizations in order to obtain funding for new projects that reduce GHG emissions (ER). Funding can be generated through Carbon trading in international market as well. In this paper, the country's current contribution to GHG due to energy consumption is evaluated. Options for promoting more sustainable and environmentally friendly projects have also been discussed

  18. Automated Verification of Quantum Protocols using MCMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Belardinelli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a methodology for the automated verification of quantum protocols using MCMAS, a symbolic model checker for multi-agent systems The method is based on the logical framework developed by D'Hondt and Panangaden for investigating epistemic and temporal properties, built on the model for Distributed Measurement-based Quantum Computation (DMC, an extension of the Measurement Calculus to distributed quantum systems. We describe the translation map from DMC to interpreted systems, the typical formalism for reasoning about time and knowledge in multi-agent systems. Then, we introduce dmc2ispl, a compiler into the input language of the MCMAS model checker. We demonstrate the technique by verifying the Quantum Teleportation Protocol, and discuss the performance of the tool.

  19. May the Kyoto protocol produce results?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaureguy-Naudin, M.

    2009-01-01

    A not well managed drastic reduction of greenhouse emissions might result in significant decrease of living standards, but without such reduction efforts, climate change might have five to twenty times higher costs. Thus, while indicating estimated consequences or evolutions of greenhouse emissions and temperature, the author stresses the need of emission reduction. She discusses the role of economic instruments which can be used in policies aimed at the struggle against climate change. She recalls the emission reduction commitments specified in the Kyoto protocol, discusses the present status, operation and results of the international emission trading scheme, the lessons learned after the first years of operation, comments the involvement of emerging countries in relationship with another mechanism defined in the protocol: the Clean Development Mechanism

  20. Direct data access protocols benchmarking on DPM

    CERN Document Server

    Furano, Fabrizio; Keeble, Oliver; Mancinelli, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    The Disk Pool Manager is an example of a multi-protocol, multi-VO system for data access on the Grid that went though a considerable technical evolution in the last years. Among other features, its architecture offers the opportunity of testing its different data access frontends under exactly the same conditions, including hardware and backend software. This characteristic inspired the idea of collecting monitoring information from various testbeds in order to benchmark the behaviour of the HTTP and Xrootd protocols for the use case of data analysis, batch or interactive. A source of information is the set of continuous tests that are run towards the worldwide endpoints belonging to the DPM Collaboration, which accumulated relevant statistics in its first year of activity. On top of that, the DPM releases are based on multiple levels of automated testing that include performance benchmarks of various kinds, executed regularly every day. At the same time, the recent releases of DPM can report monitoring infor...

  1. Internet Core Protocols Help for Network Administrators

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Eric

    2000-01-01

    If you've ever been responsible for a network, you know that sinkingfeeling: your pager has gone off at 2 a.m., the network is broken, and you can't figure out why by using a dial-in connection from home. You drive into the office, dig out your protocol analyzer, and spend the next fourhours trying to put things back together before the staff shows up for work. When this happens, you often find yourself looking at the low-level guts of the Internet protocols: you're deciphering individual packets, trying to figure out what is (or isn't) happening. Until now, the only real guide to the protoc

  2. UV Impacts Avoided by the Montreal Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul; McKenzie, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Temporal and geographical variabilities in the future "World Expected" UV environment are compared with the "World Avoided", which would have occurred without the Montreal Protocol on protection of the ozone layer and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Based on calculations of clear-sky UV irradiances, the effects of the Montreal Protocol have been hugely beneficial to avoid the health risks, such as skin cancer, which are associated with high UV, while there is only a small increase in health risks, such as vitamin D deficiency, that are associated with low UV. However, interactions with climate change may lead to changes in cloud and albedo, and possibly behavioural changes which could also be important.

  3. Protocol for the verification of minimum criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaggiano, M.; Spiccia, P.; Gaetano Arnetta, P.

    2014-01-01

    This Protocol has been prepared with reference to the provisions of article 8 of the Legislative Decree of May 26, 2000 No. 187. Quality controls of radiological equipment fit within the larger 'quality assurance Program' and are intended to ensure the correct operation of the same and the maintenance of that State. The pursuit of this objective guarantees that the radiological equipment subjected to those controls also meets the minimum criteria of acceptability set out in annex V of the aforementioned legislative decree establishing the conditions necessary to allow the functions to which each radiological equipment was designed, built and for which it is used. The Protocol is established for the purpose of quality control of radiological equipment of Cone Beam Computer Tomography type and reference document, in the sense that compliance with stated tolerances also ensures the subsistence minimum acceptability requirements, where applicable.

  4. Analysis of Security Protocols in Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Alessandro

    Embedded real-time systems have been adopted in a wide range of safety-critical applications—including automotive, avionics, and train control systems—where the focus has long been on safety (i.e., protecting the external world from the potential damage caused by the system) rather than security (i.......e., protecting the system from the external world). With increased connectivity of these systems to external networks the attack surface has grown, and consequently there is a need for securing the system from external attacks. Introducing security protocols in safety critical systems requires careful...... in this direction is to extend saturation-based techniques so that enough state information can be modelled and analysed. Finally, we present a methodology for proving the same security properties in the computational model, by means of typing protocol implementations....

  5. Gamma camera performance: technical assessment protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolster, A.A. [West Glasgow Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Clinical Physics; Waddington, W.A. [University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom). Inst. of Nuclear Medicine

    1996-12-31

    This protocol addresses the performance assessment of single and dual headed gamma cameras. No attempt is made to assess the performance of any associated computing systems. Evaluations are usually performed on a gamma camera commercially available within the United Kingdom and recently installed at a clinical site. In consultation with the manufacturer, GCAT selects the site and liaises with local staff to arrange a mutually convenient time for assessment. The manufacturer is encouraged to have a representative present during the evaluation. Three to four days are typically required for the evaluation team to perform the necessary measurements. When access time is limited, the team will modify the protocol to test the camera as thoroughly as possible. Data are acquired on the camera`s computer system and are subsequently transferred to the independent GCAT computer system for analysis. This transfer from site computer to the independent system is effected via a hardware interface and Interfile data transfer. (author).

  6. Advanced routing protocols for wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Campista , Miguel Elias Mitre

    2014-01-01

    This text introduces the principles of routing protocols and metrics as they affect wireless networking environments, specifically in urban areas. Timely because of the recent rise in small city life, this topic includes the consideration of ad hoc, mesh, vehicular, sensor, and delay tolerant networks. These approaches are each unique, and author Miguel Mitre Campista provides a thorough, but accessible, explanation of their individual characteristics for engineers, computer scientists, IT professionals, and curious Internet users.

  7. Montreal Protocol Benefits simulated with CCM SOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Egorova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ozone depletion is caused by the anthropogenic increase of halogen-containing species in the atmosphere, which results in the enhancement of the concentration of reactive chlorine and bromine in the stratosphere. To reduce the influence of anthropogenic ozone-depleting substances (ODS, the Montreal Protocol was agreed by Governments in 1987, with several Amendments and Adjustments adopted later. In order to assess the benefits of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments and Adjustments (MPA on ozone and UV radiation, two different runs of the chemistry-climate model (CCM SOCOL have been carried out. The first run was driven by the emission of ozone depleting substances (ODS prescribed according to the restrictions of the MPA. For the second run we allow the ODS to grow by 3% annually. We find that the MPA would have saved up to 80% of the global annual total ozone by the end of the 21st century. Our calculations also show substantial changes of the stratospheric circulation pattern as well as in surface temperature and precipitations that could occur in the world without MPA implementations. To illustrate the changes in UV radiation at the surface and to emphasise certain features, which can only be seen for some particular regions if the influence of the cloud cover changes is accounted for, we calculate geographical distribution of the erythemally weighted irradiance (Eery. For the no Montreal Protocol simulation Eery increases by factor of 4 to 16 between the 1970s and 2100. For the scenario including the Montreal Protocol it is found that UV radiation starts to decrease in 2000, with continuous decline of 5% to 10% at middle latitudes in the both Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

  8. 47 CFR 11.31 - EAS protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EAS protocol. 11.31 Section 11.31... characters. FM or TV call signs must use a slash ASCII character number 47 (/) in lieu of a dash. (c) The EAS... the State EAS Mapbook. FIPS# State: AL 01 AK 02 AZ 04 AR 05 CA 06 CO 08 CT 09 DE 10 DC 11 FL 12 GA 13...

  9. Building America House Simulation Protocols (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.; Engebrecht, C.

    2010-10-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  10. D-RATS 2011: RAFT Protocol Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz, Hans

    2011-01-01

    A brief overview presentation on the protocol used during the D-RATS2011 field test for file transfer from the field-test robots at Black Point Lava Flow AZ to Johnson Space Center, Houston TX over a simulated time-delay. The file transfer actually uses a commercial implementation of an open communications standard. The focus of the work lies on how to make the state of the distributed system observable.

  11. Mobile opportunistic networks architectures, protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Denko, Mieso K

    2011-01-01

    Widespread availability of pervasive and mobile devices coupled with recent advances in networking technologies make opportunistic networks one of the most promising communication technologies for a growing number of future mobile applications. Covering the basics as well as advanced concepts, this book introduces state-of-the-art research findings, technologies, tools, and innovations. Prominent researchers from academia and industry report on communication architectures, network algorithms and protocols, emerging applications, experimental studies, simulation tools, implementation test beds,

  12. Modeling and Verification of the Bitcoin Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhary, Kaylash; Fehnker, Ansgar; van de Pol, Jaco; Stoelinga, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    Bitcoin is a popular digital currency for online payments, realized as a decentralized peer-to-peer electronic cash system. Bitcoin keeps a ledger of all transactions; the majority of the participants decides on the correct ledger. Since there is no trusted third party to guard against double spending, and inspired by its popularity, we would like to investigate the correctness of the Bitcoin protocol. Double spending is an important threat to electronic payment systems. Double spending would...

  13. Witnet: A Decentralized Oracle Network Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    de Pedro, Adán Sánchez; Levi, Daniele; Cuende, Luis Iván

    2017-01-01

    Witnet is a decentralized oracle network (DON) that connects smart contracts to the outer world. Generally speaking, it allows any piece of software to retrieve the contents published at any web address at a certain point in time, with complete and verifiable proof of its integrity and without blindly trusting any third party. Witnet runs on a blockchain with a native protocol token (called Wit), which miners-called witnesses-earn by retrieving, attesting and delivering web contents for clien...

  14. Internet of Things: Architectures, Protocols, and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sethi, Pallavi; Sarangi, Smruti R.

    2017-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is defined as a paradigm in which objects equipped with sensors, actuators, and processors communicate with each other to serve a meaningful purpose. In this paper, we survey state-of-the-art methods, protocols, and applications in this new emerging area. This survey paper proposes a novel taxonomy for IoT technologies, highlights some of the most important technologies, and profiles some applications that have the potential to make a striking difference in human ...

  15. MR efficiency using automated MRI-desktop eProtocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Xu, Yanzhe; Panda, Anshuman; Zhang, Min; Hanson, James; Su, Congzhe; Wu, Teresa; Pavlicek, William; James, Judy R.

    2017-03-01

    MRI protocols are instruction sheets that radiology technologists use in routine clinical practice for guidance (e.g., slice position, acquisition parameters etc.). In Mayo Clinic Arizona (MCA), there are over 900 MR protocols (ranging across neuro, body, cardiac, breast etc.) which makes maintaining and updating the protocol instructions a labor intensive effort. The task is even more challenging given different vendors (Siemens, GE etc.). This is a universal problem faced by all the hospitals and/or medical research institutions. To increase the efficiency of the MR practice, we designed and implemented a web-based platform (eProtocol) to automate the management of MRI protocols. It is built upon a database that automatically extracts protocol information from DICOM compliant images and provides a user-friendly interface to the technologists to create, edit and update the protocols. Advanced operations such as protocol migrations from scanner to scanner and capability to upload Multimedia content were also implemented. To the best of our knowledge, eProtocol is the first MR protocol automated management tool used clinically. It is expected that this platform will significantly improve the radiology operations efficiency including better image quality and exam consistency, fewer repeat examinations and less acquisition errors. These protocols instructions will be readily available to the technologists during scans. In addition, this web-based platform can be extended to other imaging modalities such as CT, Mammography, and Interventional Radiology and different vendors for imaging protocol management.

  16. An entanglement concentration protocol for cluster states using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pram/086/05/0973-0983 ... The purpose of this paper is a proposal on entanglement concentration protocol forcluster states. The protocol ... We also make a comparative numerical study of the residual entanglement left out after the execution of each step of the protocol.

  17. Feeling Is Believing: A Secure Template Exchange Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhan, I.R.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Lee, Seong-Whan; Li, Stan Z.

    We use grip pattern based biometrics as a secure side channel to achieve pre-authentication in a protocol that sets up a secure channel between two hand held devices. The protocol efficiently calculates a shared secret key from biometric data. The protocol is used in an application where grip

  18. Caltech computer scientists develop FAST protocol to speed up Internet

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Caltech computer scientists have developed a new data transfer protocol for the Internet fast enough to download a full-length DVD movie in less than five seconds. The protocol is called FAST, standing for Fast Active queue management Scalable Transmission Control Protocol" (1 page).

  19. A correctness proof of the bakery protocol in $ mu $CRL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); H.P. Korver

    1994-01-01

    textabstractA specification of a bakery protocol is given in $mu$CRL. We provide a simple correctness criterion for the protocol. Then the protocol is proven correct using a proof system that has been developed for $mu$CRL. The proof primarily consists of algebraic manipulations based on

  20. FLIP: An Internetwork Protocol for Supporting Distributed Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaashoek, M.F.; van Renesse, R.; van Staveren, H.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    Most modern network protocols give adequate support for traditional applications such as file transfer and remote login. Distributed applications, however, have different requirements 1993. Instead of using ad hoc protocols to meet each of the new requirements, we have designed a new protocol,

  1. On consensus through communication without a commonly known protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Tsakas Elias; Voorneveld Mark

    2010-01-01

    The present paper extends the standard model of pairwise communication among Bayesianagents to cases where the structure of the communication protocol is not commonly known.We show that, even under strict conditions on the structure of the protocols and the nature of the transmitted signals, a consensus may never be reached if very little asymmetric information about the protocol is introduced.

  2. An improved AODV routing protocol based on tower structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yong Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposed a new routing protocol(IAODV based on tower structure in the Ad Hoc network for the problem which Location Routing Protocol need hardware and Complex algorithm. By the simulation, The complexity of the new routing protocol is reduced without reducing the performance of the network.

  3. The Groningen Protocol - the Jewish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Steinberg, Avraham; Blazer, Shraga; Jotkowitz, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Despite significant advances in neonatology, there will always be newborns with serious life-threatening conditions creating most difficult bioethical dilemmas. Active euthanasia for adult patients is one of the most controversial bioethical questions; for severely ill neonates, the issue is even more complex, due to their inability to take part in any decision concerning their future. The Groningen Protocol introduced in 2005 by P.J. Sauer proposes criteria allowing active euthanasia for severely ill, not necessarily terminal, newborns with incurable conditions and poor quality of life in order to spare them unbearable suffering. We discuss the ethical dilemma and ideological foundations of the protocol, the opinions of its defenders and critics, and the dangers involved. The Jewish perspective relating to the subject is presented based on classical Jewish sources, which we trust may enrich modern bioethical debates. In Jewish law, the fetus acquires full legal status only after birth. However, while the lives of terminally ill neonates must in no way be actively destroyed or shortened, there is no obligation to make extraordinary efforts to prolong their lives. Accurate preimplantation or prenatal diagnosis might significantly reduce the incidence of nonviable births, but active killing of infants violates the basic foundations of Jewish law, and opens the 'slippery slope' for uncontrolled abuse. Therefore, we call upon the international medical and bioethical community to reject the Groningen Protocol that permits euthanization and to develop ethical guidelines for the optimal care of severely compromised neonates. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Modeling and Verification of the Bitcoin Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaylash Chaudhary

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bitcoin is a popular digital currency for online payments, realized as a decentralized peer-to-peer electronic cash system. Bitcoin keeps a ledger of all transactions; the majority of the participants decides on the correct ledger. Since there is no trusted third party to guard against double spending, and inspired by its popularity, we would like to investigate the correctness of the Bitcoin protocol. Double spending is an important threat to electronic payment systems. Double spending would happen if one user could force a majority to believe that a ledger without his previous payment is the correct one. We are interested in the probability of success of such a double spending attack, which is linked to the computational power of the attacker. This paper examines the Bitcoin protocol and provides its formalization as an UPPAAL model. The model will be used to show how double spending can be done if the parties in the Bitcoin protocol behave maliciously, and with what probability double spending occurs.

  5. Analysis of Security Protocols for Mobile Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazid, Mohammad; Zeadally, Sherali; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga

    2016-11-01

    Mobile Healthcare (mHealth) continues to improve because of significant improvements and the decreasing costs of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs). mHealth is a medical and public health practice, which is supported by mobile devices (for example, smartphones) and, patient monitoring devices (for example, various types of wearable sensors, etc.). An mHealth system enables healthcare experts and professionals to have ubiquitous access to a patient's health data along with providing any ongoing medical treatment at any time, any place, and from any device. It also helps the patient requiring continuous medical monitoring to stay in touch with the appropriate medical staff and healthcare experts remotely. Thus, mHealth has become a major driving force in improving the health of citizens today. First, we discuss the security requirements, issues and threats to the mHealth system. We then present a taxonomy of recently proposed security protocols for mHealth system based on features supported and possible attacks, computation cost and communication cost. Our detailed taxonomy demonstrates the strength and weaknesses of recently proposed security protocols for the mHealth system. Finally, we identify some of the challenges in the area of security protocols for mHealth systems that still need to be addressed in the future to enable cost-effective, secure and robust mHealth systems.

  6. 'BREAKS' Protocol for Breaking Bad News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Vijayakumar; Bista, Bibek; Koshy, Cheriyan

    2010-05-01

    Information that drastically alters the life world of the patient is termed as bad news. Conveying bad news is a skilled communication, and not at all easy. The amount of truth to be disclosed is subjective. A properly structured and well-orchestrated communication has a positive therapeutic effect. This is a process of negotiation between patient and physician, but physicians often find it difficult due to many reasons. They feel incompetent and are afraid of unleashing a negative reaction from the patient or their relatives. The physician is reminded of his or her own vulnerability to terminal illness, and find themselves powerless over emotional distress. Lack of sufficient training in breaking bad news is a handicap to most physicians and health care workers. Adherence to the principles of client-centered counseling is helpful in attaining this skill. Fundamental insight of the patient is exploited and the bad news is delivered in a structured manner, because the patient is the one who knows what is hurting him most and he is the one who knows how to move forward. Six-step SPIKES protocol is widely used for breaking bad news. In this paper, we put forward another six-step protocol, the BREAKS protocol as a systematic and easy communication strategy for breaking bad news. Development of competence in dealing with difficult situations has positive therapeutic outcome and is a professionally satisfying one.

  7. [Protocols for the health surveillance of fisherman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleo, Leonardo; Cannizzaro, Emanuele; Lovreglio, Piero; Basso, Antonella; D'Errico, Maria Nicolà; Pira, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    To define protocols for health surveillance of workers in the marine fishing sector for specific occupational risk factors, considering the latest and most advanced scientific knowledge. The specific literature was analyzed to identify the occupational risk factors to which fishermen are exposed. Then, for each risk factor a protocol for the relative health checkups and their time schedule was defined. The risk factors to which fishermen are exposed are essentially noise, vibrations, solar and ultraviolet radiation, climatic agents (heat, cold, wind, rain, damp), chemical agents, shifts, work rate, night work, physical strain, stress, manual handling of loads, upper limb repetitive tasks, incongruous postures. The health protocols stipulate the health screening investigations to be carried out in all workers of a homogeneous group, and in-depth diagnostic investigations to be carried out in symptomatic workers. Complementary health investigations must be focused on a functional exploration of the organs specifically exposed to the risk factor. For hearing impairments due to noise exposure, the medico-legal measures with which the occupational health physician must comply, in cases of occupational disease, are indicated.

  8. Biologic comparison of partial breast irradiation protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstein, Barry S.; Lymberis, Stella C.; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the dose/fractionation schedules currently used in ongoing clinical trials of partial breast irradiation (PBI) by comparing their biologically effective dose (BED) values to those of three standard whole breast protocols commonly used after segmental mastectomy in the treatment of breast cancer. Methods and materials: The BED equation derived from the linear-quadratic model for radiation-induced cell killing was used to calculate the BEDs for three commonly used whole breast radiotherapy regimens, in addition to a variety of external beam radiotherapy, as well as high-dose-rate and low-dose-rate brachytherapy, PBI protocols. Results: The BED values of most PBI protocols resulted in tumor control BEDs roughly equivalent to a 50-Gy standard treatment, but consistently lower than the BEDs for regimens in which the tumor bed receives a total dose of either 60 Gy or 66 Gy. The BED values calculated for the acute radiation responses of erythema and desquamation were nearly all lower for the PBI schedules, and the late-response BEDs for most PBI regimens were in a similar range to the BEDs for the standard treatments. Conclusion: Biologically effective dose modeling raises the concern that inadequate doses might be delivered by PBI to ensure optimal in-field tumor control

  9. Interoperability and Reliability of Multiplatform MPLS VPN: Comparison of Traffic Engineering with RSVP-TE Protocol and LDP Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanang Ismail

    2017-10-01

    48% of packet loss per 100 sent packets while on RSVP packet loss percentage is 35.5% per 100 sent packets. Both protocols have interoperability on the third layer of multiplatform MPLS VPN, but on heavy loaded traffic condition, RSVP protocol has better reliability than the LDP protocol.

  10. Incorporating ethical principles into clinical research protocols: a tool for protocol writers and ethics committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rebecca H; Wacholtz, Mary C; Barnes, Mark; Boggs, Liam; Callery-D'Amico, Susan; Davis, Amy; Digilova, Alla; Forster, David; Heffernan, Kate; Luthin, Maeve; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; McNair, Lindsay; Miller, Jennifer E; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Van Campen, Luann; Wilenzick, Mark; Wolf, Delia; Woolston, Cris; Aldinger, Carmen; Bierer, Barbara E

    2016-04-01

    A novel Protocol Ethics Tool Kit ('Ethics Tool Kit') has been developed by a multi-stakeholder group of the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard. The purpose of the Ethics Tool Kit is to facilitate effective recognition, consideration and deliberation of critical ethical issues in clinical trial protocols. The Ethics Tool Kit may be used by investigators and sponsors to develop a dedicated Ethics Section within a protocol to improve the consistency and transparency between clinical trial protocols and research ethics committee reviews. It may also streamline ethics review and may facilitate and expedite the review process by anticipating the concerns of ethics committee reviewers. Specific attention was given to issues arising in multinational settings. With the use of this Tool Kit, researchers have the opportunity to address critical research ethics issues proactively, potentially speeding the time and easing the process to final protocol approval. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Maximally efficient protocols for direct secure quantum communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Anindita [Department of Physics and Materials Science Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida, UP-201307 (India); Department of Physics and Center for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, Block EN, Sector V, Kolkata 700091 (India); Pathak, Anirban, E-mail: anirban.pathak@jiit.ac.in [Department of Physics and Materials Science Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida, UP-201307 (India); RCPTM, Joint Laboratory of Optics of Palacky University and Institute of Physics of Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. Listopadu 12, 77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2012-10-01

    Two protocols for deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) using GHZ-like states have been proposed. It is shown that one of these protocols is maximally efficient and that can be modified to an equivalent protocol of quantum secure direct communication (QSDC). Security and efficiency of the proposed protocols are analyzed and compared. It is shown that dense coding is sufficient but not essential for DSQC and QSDC protocols. Maximally efficient QSDC protocols are shown to be more efficient than their DSQC counterparts. This additional efficiency arises at the cost of message transmission rate. -- Highlights: ► Two protocols for deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) are proposed. ► One of the above protocols is maximally efficient. ► It is modified to an equivalent protocol of quantum secure direct communication (QSDC). ► It is shown that dense coding is sufficient but not essential for DSQC and QSDC protocols. ► Efficient QSDC protocols are always more efficient than their DSQC counterparts.

  12. A case for evaluating sensor network protocols concurrently

    KAUST Repository

    Gnawali, Omprakash; Guibas, Leonidas; Levis, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Researchers typically evaluate and compare protocols on the testbeds by running them one at a time. This methodology ignores the variation in link qualities and wireless environment across these experiments. These variations can introduce significant noise in the results. Evaluating two protocols concurrently, however, suffers from inter-protocol interactions. These interactions can perturb performance even under very light load, especially timing and timing sensitive protocols. We argue that the benefits of running protocols concurrently greatly outweigh the disadvantages. Protocols rarely run in isolation in real networks, and so considering such interactions is valuable. Although the wireless environment is still uncontrolled, concurrent evaluations make comparisons fair and more statistically sound. Through experiments on two testbeds, we make the case for evaluating and comparing low data-rate sensor network protocols by running them concurrently. Copyright 2010 ACM.

  13. A secure key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; Luan Da-Peng

    2013-01-01

    To guarantee the security of communication in the public channel, many key agreement protocols have been proposed. Recently, Gong et al. proposed a key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps with password sharing. In this paper, Gong et al.'s protocol is analyzed, and we find that this protocol exhibits key management issues and potential security problems. Furthermore, the paper presents a new key agreement protocol based on enhanced Chebyshev polynomials to overcome these problems. Through our analysis, our key agreement protocol not only provides mutual authentication and the ability to resist a variety of common attacks, but also solve the problems of key management and security issues existing in Gong et al.'s protocol

  14. SPP: A data base processor data communications protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishwick, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and implementation of a data communications protocol for the Intel Data Base Processor (DBP) is defined. The protocol is termed SPP (Service Port Protocol) since it enables data transfer between the host computer and the DBP service port. The protocol implementation is extensible in that it is explicitly layered and the protocol functionality is hierarchically organized. Extensive trace and performance capabilities have been supplied with the protocol software to permit optional efficient monitoring of the data transfer between the host and the Intel data base processor. Machine independence was considered to be an important attribute during the design and implementation of SPP. The protocol source is fully commented and is included in Appendix A of this report.

  15. Climate change scenarios and Technology Transfer Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kypreos, Socrates; Turton, Hal

    2011-01-01

    We apply a specific version of MERGE-ETL, an integrated assessment model, to study global climate policies supported by Technology Transfer Protocols (TTPs). We model a specific formulation of such a TTP where donor countries finance via carbon tax revenues, the diffusion of carbon-free technologies in developing countries (DCs) and quantify its benefits. Industrialized countries profit from increased technology exports, global diffusion of advanced technology (leading to additional technology learning and cost reductions) and reduced climate damages through the likelihood of greater global participation in a new international agreement. DCs experience increased welfare from access to subsidized technology, and profit from the reduction of damages related to climate change and expected secondary benefits of carbon abatement (such as reduced local and regional air pollution). The analysis identifies potential candidate technologies that could be supported under a TTP, and the impact of a TTP on economic development (including the flow of transfer subsidies) and global emissions. Although a TTP may encourage additional participation, such a proposal is only likely to be successful if an increased willingness to pay to avoid climate damages is accepted, first by the present and future generations of the industrialized world and later on, when sufficient economic growth is accumulated, by today's developing countries. - Research Highlights: → Climate policy scenarios are assessed with differentiated commitments in carbon emission control supported by Technology Transfer Protocols. → Donor countries finance, via carbon-tax revenues, the exports of carbon-free technologies in developing countries helping to get a new international agreement. → Developing countries experience increased welfare from access to subsidized technology, and profit from the reduction of damages related to climate change and secondary benefits. → Under Technology Protocols alone and

  16. Observing documentary reading by verbal protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujita Mariangela Spotti Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Verifies the applicability to research on indexers' reading strategies of the process observing technique known as Verbal Protocol or Thinking Aloud. This interpretative-qualitative data collecting technique allows the observation of different kinds of process during the progress of different kinds of tasks. Presents a theoretical investigation into "reading" and into formal methodological procedures to observe reading processes. Describes details of the methodological procedures adopted in five case studies with analysis of samples of data. The project adopted three kinds of parameters for data analysis: theoretical, normative, empirical (derived from observations made in the first case study. The results are compared, and important conclusions regarding documentary reading are drawn.

  17. Rosetta Ligand docking with flexible XML protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmon, Gordon; Meiler, Jens

    2012-01-01

    RosettaLigand is premiere software for predicting how a protein and a small molecule interact. Benchmark studies demonstrate that 70% of the top scoring RosettaLigand predicted interfaces are within 2Å RMSD from the crystal structure [1]. The latest release of Rosetta ligand software includes many new features, such as (1) docking of multiple ligands simultaneously, (2) representing ligands as fragments for greater flexibility, (3) redesign of the interface during docking, and (4) an XML script based interface that gives the user full control of the ligand docking protocol.

  18. Right to Food and the Nagoya Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Ysabel Bazán Barba

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the perspective of Environmental Law, the juridical-sociological aspect addresses the problem for the Right to Food, which has been intensified by the lack of equity, social justice and mainly by environmental degradation. Based on theoretical research, the Constitution and international treaties on the subject, the problem of hunger is studied, with emphasis on the Nagoya Protocol – a new international instrument for access and distribution of genetic resources. It aims to analyze the geopolitics behind the hunger issue; the indiscriminate use of agrochemicals; the monopoly of seeds; and the lives wasted in the process of maintenance/circulation in the food market.

  19. Protocol for counterfactually transporting an unknown qubit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim eSalih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum teleportation circumvents the uncertainty principle using dual channels: a quantum one consisting of previously-shared entanglement, and a classical one, together allowing the disembodied transport of an unknown quantum state over distance. It has recently been shown that a classical bit can be counterfactually communicated between two parties in empty space, Alice and Bob. Here, by using our dual version of the chained quantum Zeno effect to achieve a counterfactual CNOT gate, we propose a protocol for transporting an unknown qubit counterfactually, that is without any physical particles travelling between Alice and Bob—no classical channel and no previously-shared entanglement.

  20. A Safe Protocol for Amalgam Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana G. Colson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's environment has different impacts on our body than previous generations. Heavy metals are a growing concern in medicine. Doctors and individuals request the removal of their amalgam (silver mercury restorations due to the high mercury content. A safe protocol to replace the silver mercury filling will ensure that there is minimal if any absorption of materials while being removed. Strong alternative white composite and lab-processed materials are available today to create a healthy and functioning mouth. Preparation of the patient prior to the procedure and after treatment is vital to establish the excretion of the mercury from the body.