WorldWideScience

Sample records for written procedures exemplified

  1. Failure to Follow Written Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Most tasks in aviation have a mandated written procedure to be followed specifically under the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 14, Section 43.13(a). However, the incidence of Failure to Follow Procedure (FFP) events continues to be a major iss...

  2. Recommendations for reducing ambiguity in written procedures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Laura E.

    2009-11-01

    Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous work instructions (WIs) and operating procedures (OPs) can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. This report outlines some of the sources of ambiguity in written English and describes three recommendations for reducing ambiguity in WIs and OPs. The recommendations are based on commonly used research techniques in the fields of linguistics and cognitive psychology. The first recommendation is to gather empirical data that can be used to improve the recommended word lists that are provided to technical writers. The second recommendation is to have a review in which new WIs and OPs and checked for ambiguities and clarity. The third recommendation is to use self-paced reading time studies to identify any remaining ambiguities before the new WIs and OPs are put into use. If these three steps are followed for new WIs and OPs, the likelihood of human errors related to ambiguity could be greatly reduced.

  3. Paperwork at the service of safety? Workers' reluctance against written procedures exemplified by the concept of ‘seamanship'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    epitomized in the concept of seamanship. Their objections suits well in Dreyfus and Dreyfus' model of skill acquisition: while novices steadily follow context-independent rules, the expert's behaviour goes beyond analytical rationality, and is situational, experience-based, and intuitive. The Aristotelian...... concept of phronesis brings us further by adding a reflexive, social and ethical dimension to the expert's knowledge. Phronesis is, like expertise, contextual, experience-based knowledge; but it is also value- and action-oriented. While phronesis rests on value rationality, ‘techne' (know how'), another...... Aristotelian concept, is based on instrumental rationality and is production-oriented. Phronesis is, inter alia, choosing the proper techne for the circumstances. However, the seamen fear a development where techne predominates at the expanse of phronesis. The case raises issues on which conditions...

  4. 21 CFR 111.16 - What are the requirements under this subpart C for written procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements under this subpart C for written procedures? 111.16 Section 111.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  5. 21 CFR 111.103 - What are the requirements under this subpart F for written procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements under this subpart F for written procedures? 111.103 Section 111.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  6. 21 CFR 111.503 - What are the requirements under this subpart N for written procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements under this subpart N for written procedures? 111.503 Section 111.503 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  7. 21 CFR 111.403 - What are the requirements under this subpart L for written procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements under this subpart L for written procedures? 111.403 Section 111.403 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  8. 21 CFR 111.353 - What are the requirements under this subpart K for written procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements under this subpart K for written procedures? 111.353 Section 111.353 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  9. 21 CFR 111.453 - What are the requirements under this subpart for M written procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements under this subpart for M written procedures? 111.453 Section 111.453 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  10. 21 CFR 111.8 - What are the requirements under this subpart B for written procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements under this subpart B for written procedures? 111.8 Section 111.8 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  11. 21 CFR 111.153 - What are the requirements under this subpart G for written procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements under this subpart G for written procedures? 111.153 Section 111.153 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  12. 21 CFR 111.25 - What are the requirements under this subpart D for written procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements under this subpart D for written procedures? 111.25 Section 111.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  13. 21 CFR 111.553 - What are the requirements under this subpart O for written procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements under this subpart O for written procedures? 111.553 Section 111.553 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  14. 21 CFR 111.303 - What are the requirements under this subpart J for written procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements under this subpart J for written procedures? 111.303 Section 111.303 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  15. Sylvicultural procedures in catchment areas of the mountain streams as exemplified by the Skrzyczne massif in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małek Stanisław

    2014-03-01

    , major roads, climate and plant floors and forest habitat types. The total length of streams was ascertained. The catchment areas and areas along their beds were determined by adopting variable distances from the beds, depending on climate and plant zones and the slope gradient. The adopted distances were: 5 m in the upper forest zone, 10 m in the middle forest zone, 20 m in the lower forest zone on both sides of the bed and in the headwater area within the radius of 10 m from a source. Specific sylvicultural procedures in headwater areas and in the neighbourhood of watercourses were described in each climatic and vegetation zones.

  16. 12 CFR 550.140 - Must I adopt and follow written policies and procedures in exercising fiduciary powers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... procedures in exercising fiduciary powers? 550.140 Section 550.140 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FIDUCIARY POWERS OF SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Exercising Fiduciary Powers § 550.140 Must I adopt and follow written policies and procedures in exercising fiduciary powers? You...

  17. 10 CFR 35.41 - Procedures for administrations requiring a written directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... identity is verified before each administration; and (2) Each administration is in accordance with the... identity of the patient or human research subject; (2) Verifying that the administration is in accordance with the treatment plan, if applicable, and the written directive; (3) Checking both manual and...

  18. Right of action and participation in administrative procedure of foreign neighbours as exemplified by Atomic Energy Law and the Law on Immission Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukes, R.; Dehmer, R.; Wendling, K.

    1986-01-01

    The article deals with the question whether the exclusion of foreigners from participation in a licensing procedure pursuant to Atomic Energy Law (Administrative Court Oldenburg, February 6, 1985) may be transferred to the licensing procedure pursuant to the Federal Art on Protection Against Harmful Effects on the Environment. A further problem concerns the consideration of foreign neighbours' interests by the licensing authority. While the authors accept the latter, they refuse the right of action of foreigners. (CW) [de

  19. Successful Written Subject-Verb Agreement: An Online Analysis of the Procedure Used by Students in Grades 3, 5 and 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamargot, Denis; Flouret, Lisa; Larocque, Denis; Caporossi, Gilles; Pontart, Virginie; Paduraru, Carmen; Morisset, Pauline; Fayol, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to (1) investigate the procedure responsible for successful written subject-verb agreement, and (2) describe how it develops across grades. Students in Grades 3, 5 and 12 were asked to read noun-noun-verb sentences aloud (e.g., "Le chien des voisins mange" ["The dog of the neighbors eats"]) and write out…

  20. Written versus verbal consent: a qualitative study of stakeholder views of consent procedures used at the time of recruitment into a peripartum trial conducted in an emergency setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, J; Hallowell, N; Snowdon, C; Norman, J E; Carruthers, K; Denison, F C

    2017-05-24

    Obtaining prospective written consent from women to participate in trials when they are experiencing an obstetric emergency is challenging. Alternative consent pathways, such as gaining verbal consent at enrolment followed, later, by obtaining written consent, have been advocated by some clinicians and bioethicists but have received little empirical attention. We explored women's and staff views about the consent procedures used during the internal pilot of a trial (GOT-IT), where the protocol permitted staff to gain verbal consent at recruitment. Interviews with staff (n = 27) and participating women (n = 22). Data were analysed thematically and interviews were cross-compared to identify differences and similarities in participants' views about the consent procedures used. Women and some staff highlighted benefits to obtaining verbal consent at trial enrolment, including expediting recruitment and reducing the burden on those left exhausted by their births. However, most staff with direct responsibility for taking consent expressed extreme reluctance to proceed with enrolment until they had obtained written consent, despite being comfortable using verbal procedures in their clinical practice. To account for this resistance, staff drew a strong distinction between research and clinical care and suggested that a higher level of consent was needed when recruiting into trials. In doing so, staff emphasised the need to engage women in reflexive decision-making and highlighted the role that completing the consent form could play in enabling and evidencing this process. While most staff cited their ethical responsibilities to women, they also voiced concerns that the absence of a signed consent form at recruitment could expose them to greater risk of litigation were an individual to experience a complication during the trial. Inexperience of recruiting into peripartum trials and limited availability of staff trained to take consent also reinforced preferences for

  1. Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) – Opinion by written procedure – Review of scientific advice for 2013- part I – Advice on stocks in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The scientific advice on the stocks and fisheries in the Baltic Sea in 2013 evaluated and endorsed by the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) by written procedure in June 2012 on a request by the European Commission......The scientific advice on the stocks and fisheries in the Baltic Sea in 2013 evaluated and endorsed by the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) by written procedure in June 2012 on a request by the European Commission...

  2. Discharge communication from inpatient care: an audit of written medical discharge summary procedure against the new National Health Service Standard for clinical handover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Daniel Brooks; Parsons, Shaun R; Gill, Stephen D; Hughes, Andrew J

    2015-04-01

    To audit written medical discharge summary procedure and practice against Standard Six (clinical handover) of the Australian National Safety and Quality Health Service Standards at a major regional Victorian health service. Department heads were invited to complete a questionnaire about departmental discharge summary practices. Twenty-seven (82%) department heads completed the questionnaire. Seven (26%) departments had a documented discharge summary procedure. Fourteen (52%) departments monitored discharge summary completion and 13 (48%) departments monitored the timeliness of completion. Seven (26%) departments informed the patient of the content of the discharge summary and six (22%) departments provided the patient with a copy. Seven (26%) departments provided training for staff members on how to complete discharge summaries. Completing discharge summaries was usually delegated to the medical intern. The introduction of the National Service Standards prompted an organisation-wide audit of discharge summary practices against the external criterion. There was substantial variation in the organisation's practices. The Standards and the current audit results highlight an opportunity for the organisation to enhance and standardise discharge summary practices and improve communication with general practice.

  3. Safety training and safe operating procedures written for PBFA [Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator] II and applicable to other pulsed power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, G.L.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1986-12-01

    To ensure that work in advancing pulsed power technology is performed with an acceptably low risk, pulsed power research facilities at Sandia National Laboratories must satisfy general safety guidelines established by the Department of Energy, policies and formats of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Department, and detailed procedures formulated by the Pulsed Power Sciences Directorate. The approach to safety training and to writing safe operating procedures, and the procedures presented here are specific to the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) Facility but are applicable as guidelines to other research and development facilities which have similar hazards

  4. Safety training and safe operating procedures written for PBFA (Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator) II and applicable to other pulsed power facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, G.L.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1986-12-01

    To ensure that work in advancing pulsed power technology is performed with an acceptably low risk, pulsed power research facilities at Sandia National Laboratories must satisfy general safety guidelines established by the Department of Energy, policies and formats of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Department, and detailed procedures formulated by the Pulsed Power Sciences Directorate. The approach to safety training and to writing safe operating procedures, and the procedures presented here are specific to the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) Facility but are applicable as guidelines to other research and development facilities which have similar hazards.

  5. WRITTEN COMMUNICATION IN BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Oana COSMAN

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the work of researchers primarily interested in the investigation of written communication in business settings. The author regards 'business discourse' as a field of study with distinct features in the domain of discourse analysis. Thus, the paper overviews the most important contributions to the development of written business discourse with a number of landmark studies. To gain a greater understanding of the written business discourse, the author also investigates some...

  6. 37 CFR 251.43 - Written cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and redirect) must be referenced. (d) In the case of a royalty fee distribution proceeding, each party... ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.43 Written cases. (a) All parties who have filed a notice of...

  7. 29 CFR 100.610 - Written demand for payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedures § 100.610 Written demand for payment. (a) The NLRB will promptly make written demand upon the debtor for payment of money or the return of specific property. The written demand for payment will be... late charges will be 60 days from the date that the demand letter is mailed or hand-delivered. (b) The...

  8. 45 CFR 99.26 - Unsponsored written material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unsponsored written material. 99.26 Section 99.26 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS FOR THE CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Hearing Procedures § 99.26 Unsponsored written material. Letters...

  9. A Discourse on Tragedy in Traditional Yoruba Drama as Exemplified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many theatre scholars have come to accept the norm that only the Western form of tragedy as exemplified by Aristotle as the only tragedy but this has proven to be wrong owing to the fact that Arthur Miller theorized the tragedy of the common man. However, Soyinka the first African to theorize on tragedy has provided us with ...

  10. Reconsidering Written Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal P. Sarma

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of elite thinkers in Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries pursued an agenda which historian Paolo Rossi calls the “quest for a universal language,” a quest which was deeply interwoven with the emergence of the scientific method. From a modern perspective, one of the many surprising aspects of these efforts is that they relied on a diverse array of memorization techniques as foundational elements. In the case of Leibniz’s universal calculus, the ultimate vision was to create a pictorial language that could be learned by anyone in a matter of weeks and which would contain within it a symbolic representation of all domains of contemporary thought, ranging from the natural sciences, to theology, to law. In this brief article, I explore why this agenda might have been appealing to thinkers of this era by examining ancient and modern memory feats. As a thought experiment, I suggest that a society built entirely upon memorization might be less limited than we might otherwise imagine, and furthermore, that cultural norms discouraging the use of written language might have had implications for the development of scientific methodology. Viewed in this light, the efforts of Leibniz and others seem significantly less surprising. I close with some general observations about cross-cultural origins of scientific thought.

  11. Teaching Computation in Primary School without Traditional Written Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Concerns regarding the dominance of the traditional written algorithms in schools have been raised by many mathematics educators, yet the teaching of these procedures remains a dominant focus in in primary schools. This paper reports on a project in one school where the staff agreed to put the teaching of the traditional written algorithm aside,…

  12. For whom were Gospels written?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bauckham

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This arlcie challenges the current consensus in Gospels scholarship that each Gospel was written for a specific church or group of churches. It argues that, since all our evidence about the early Christian movement shows it to have been a network of communities in constant, close communication, since all our evidence about early Christian leaders, such as might have written Gospels, shows them to have been typically people who travelled widely around the churches, and since, moreover, the evidence we have about early Christian literature shows that it did in fact circulate rapidily and widely, the strong probability is that the Gospels were written for general circulation around all the churches.

  13. [Biosocial phenomena in unicellular organisms (exemplified by data concerning Prokaryota)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleskin, A V

    2009-01-01

    This review deals with the issue of applicability of biosocial concepts and terms to microorganisms. The main emphasis is placed on recent data obtained in studies of bacteria. They demonstrate various forms of collective behavior including affiliation (cohesion), cooperation, coordinated aggression, and avoidance behavior (vis-a-vis "outgroups"). Bacterial systems are also characterized by contact and distant communication; the latter mediated by chemical signals (including pheromones/autoinducers employed by quorum-sensing systems) or physical factors. Bacteria form supracellular systems (colonies, biofilms, flocs, etc.) that can be regarded as bacterial biosocial systems, by analogy to animal congregations. These bacterial biosocial systems are characterized by coherence, life-cycle ("culture ontogeny" in N.D. Yerusalimsky's usage), and hierarchical or network organization. Bacterial cells in biosocial systems are morphologically differentiated and, in a large number of bacterial species, functionally specialized. Cells collectively form structures that function as "organs" of the whole biosocial system (exemplified by water channels, colony-coating membranes, hemoprotein-containing hemosomes, and extracellular matrix as the structural basis of a colony/biofilm). The biosocial approach to microorganisms promotes interactions between microbiology, cytology, and ethology. It is also of practical value for medicine and biotechnology.

  14. Minimal Poems Written in 1979 Minimal Poems Written in 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sirangelo Maggio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The reading of M. van der Slice's Minimal Poems Written in 1979 (the work, actually, has no title reminded me of a book I have seen a long time ago. called Truth, which had not even a single word printed inside. In either case we have a sample of how often excentricities can prove efficient means of artistic creativity, in this new literary trend known as Minimalism. The reading of M. van der Slice's Minimal Poems Written in 1979 (the work, actually, has no title reminded me of a book I have seen a long time ago. called Truth, which had not even a single word printed inside. In either case we have a sample of how often excentricities can prove efficient means of artistic creativity, in this new literary trend known as Minimalism.

  15. 12 CFR 516.110 - Who may submit a written comment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who may submit a written comment? 516.110 Section 516.110 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES Comment Procedures § 516.110 Who may submit a written comment? Any person may submit a...

  16. 10 CFR 26.27 - Written policy and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., or possession of illegal drugs on or off site; (ii) The abuse of legal drugs and alcohol; and (iii) The misuse of prescription and over-the-counter drugs; (2) Describe the requirement that individuals... stress, fatigue, or illness, and the use of prescription and over-the-counter medications that could...

  17. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  18. Nutritional and respiratory pathways to parasitism exemplified in the Turbellaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, J B

    1997-06-01

    has a modified epidermis performing both digestive and absorptive functions. Most of these entosymbiotes show a shift from the lipid storage characteristic of free-living and ectosymbiotic species to the glycogen storage predominating in the Neodermata. In both groups this emphasis on carbohydrate metabolism is often independent of the PO2 of their environment. Both groups also show high fecundity and it is suggested that there is a direct relationship between this and glycogen storage. High fecundity, while clearly of adaptive value in entosymbiotes, is arguably primarily related to the assured food supply conferred by the entosymbiotic habit and thus can be viewed as a consequence of the latter rather than a prerequisite for it. Some entosymbiotic Turbellaria have evolved physiologically active haemoglobins, allowing them to abstract oxygen preferentially from host tissues; some have also evolved facultative glycolytic mechanisms comparable to those of the Cestoda. All these adaptations to ecto- and entosymbiotic life in the Turbellaria exemplify possible pathways to wholly parasitic lifestyles, with total metabolic dependence on the hosts, which may have been followed during the evolution of the Neodermata.

  19. 47 CFR 76.936 - Written decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.936 Written decision. (a) A franchising authority... of interested parties. A franchising authority is not required to issue a written decision that...

  20. THE WRITTEN DISCOURSE OF INTERVIEWING STYLE FOR A MAGAZINE INTERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Barrot

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper examines the written discourse of interviewing style for the purpose of print publication. Specifically, this paper sought to describe and explain the phases of interviewing procedures, the typology of the questions, and the transitional strategies executed by Oprah Winfrey during her interviews for O Magazine. One hundred and ten (110 response-soliciting statements were subjected to discourse analytic procedure to determine the features of such utterances. The results showed that her interview procedure follows a certain pattern that contributes to her ability to maintain the intimacy, familiarity, and dynamics of conversation. Further, results revealed that the interviewer employs a variety of response-soliciting strategies and transitional strategies that unconsciously put the control and authority in the conversation to the interviewees. Finally, some pedagogical implications were also presented for classroom use. Keywords: discourse analysis, interviewing style, interview questions, written discourse

  1. Blast injury face: An exemplified review of management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Singh, Arun Kumar; Kumar, Parmod; Shenoy, Yogesh Ramdas; Verma, Anoop K.; Borole, Ateesh Jayram; Prasad, Veerendra

    2013-01-01

    Facial injuries are extremely common due to increased incidence of vehicular and industrial trauma and warfare injuries. But isolated injury to the face due to low voltage cells exploding is rare. In blast injury, the force can cause massive soft tissue injury, along with injury to facial fractures and damage to adnexa. Facial injury is not life threatening unless associated with other injuries of the skull and airway. The major risks to airway in facial trauma are due to anatomic alteration of patient's airway through bony and soft tissue disruption and increased chances of aspiration. The past several decades have seen a rapid growth in the range of procedures available for reconstructive purposes. However, the essential preliminary management is a must and needs to be structured. The patient, a 10-year-old boy, was joining three pencil batteries in series and twisting the wire with his teeth when one battery exploded causing severe injuries to midface and mandibular region. After stabilization, the patient was taken up for surgery. A cap splint with zygomatic suspension was done for the maxilla, and wiring of residual mandibular segments with lining and skin cover provided by a deltopectoral flap was done. Reconstructive surgeries for reconstruction of the upper lip and maintenance of oral continence were planned for the future. The present case stresses the importance of educating the masses about unsafe handling of low voltage devices, management of airway, massive soft tissue injury, along with facial fractures and damage to adnexa. PMID:24163550

  2. 37 CFR 251.44 - Filing and service of written cases and pleadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.44 Filing and service of written cases and pleadings. (a) Filing of pleadings. In a royalty fee distribution proceeding or...

  3. Feedforward: helping students interpret written feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Hurford, Donna; Read, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    "Assessment for Learning is the process of seeking and interpreting evidence for use by learners... "(Assessment Reform Group, 2002, p.2): for the Higher Education tutor, written feedback forms an integral part of this. This short article reports on teaching methods to engage students in feedback and assessment of their written work.

  4. An International Perspective on Value Learning in the Kindergarten--Exemplified by the Value Forgiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnestad, Arve; Mørreaunet, Sissel; Onyango, Silas

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights value learning in kindergartens exemplified by the value of forgiveness. Values are basic ideas on human behaviour and they function as a compass that helps children to make choices and priorities in their lives, to choose between good or bad, right or wrong. Value learning is an important part of the educational work in a…

  5. Character Journaling through Social Networks: Exemplifying Tenets of the New Literacy Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John Wesley; Hungerford-Kresser, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Countering reactionary attempts to ban social media from schools is a strong research based rationale for bringing social media into the literacy classroom. When used as a medium to explore literature--or more specifically for interactive character journaling--this medium exemplifies how meaning is created by individuals' interactions with…

  6. 10 CFR 2.813 - Written communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... other written communications under the regulations of this chapter is requested but not required to cite whenever practical, in the upper right corner of the first page of the submission, the specific regulation...

  7. Content validation applied to job simulation and written examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, L.M.; McCutchen, M.A.; White, A.S.; Huenefeld, J.C.

    1984-08-01

    The application of content validation strategies in work settings have become increasingly popular over the last few years, perhaps spurred by an acknowledgment in the courts of content validation as a method for validating employee selection procedures (e.g., Bridgeport Guardians v. Bridgeport Police Dept., 1977). Since criterion-related validation is often difficult to conduct, content validation methods should be investigated as an alternative for determining job related selection procedures. However, there is not yet consensus among scientists and professionals concerning how content validation should be conducted. This may be because there is a lack of clear cut operations for conducting content validation for different types of selection procedures. The purpose of this paper is to discuss two content validation approaches being used for the development of a licensing examination that involves a job simulation exam and a written exam. These represent variations in methods for applying content validation. 12 references

  8. Accurate modeling of UV written waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure.......BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure....

  9. Accurate modelling of UV written waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure.......BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure....

  10. Evanescent fields of laser written waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukić, Dario; Pohl, Thomas; Götte, Jörg B.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the evanescent field at the surface of laser written waveguides. The waveguides are written by a direct femtosecond laser writing process into fused silica, which is then sanded down to expose the guiding layer. These waveguides support eigenmodes which have an evanescent field reaching into the vacuum above the waveguide. We study the governing wave equations and present solution for the fundamental eigenmodes of the modified waveguides.

  11. Probabilistic Fatigue Analysis of Jacket Support Structures for Offshore Wind Turbines Exemplified on Tubular Joints

    OpenAIRE

    Kelma, Sebastian; Schaumann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The design of offshore wind turbines is usually based on the semi-probabilistic safety concept. Using probabilistic methods, the aim is to find an advanced structural design of OWTs in order to improve safety and reduce costs. The probabilistic design is exemplified on tubular joints of a jacket substructure. Loads and resistance are considered by their respective probability distributions. Time series of loads are generated by fully-coupled numerical simulation of the offshore wind turbine. ...

  12. Participation in Written Government Consultations in Denmark and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of instruments of public consultation in liberal democracies, little is known of how the design and use of these instruments affect stakeholder participation in practice. The article examines participation in written government consultations in an analysis of approximately...... 5,000 responses to consultations in Denmark and the UK in the first half of 2008. It shows that participation is highly conditional upon system-and actor-level characteristics in practice. Our findings indicate that, even if liberal democracies have adopted similar procedures for actor consultation...

  13. Written Language Shift among Norwegian Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil ÖZERK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In Norway there are two written Norwegian languages, Bokmål and Nynorsk. Of these two written languages Bokmål is being used by the majority of the people, and Bokmål has the highest prestige in the society. This article is about the shift of written language from Nynorsk to Bokmål among young people in a traditional Nynorsk district in the country. Drawing on empirical data we conclude that many adolescents are experiencing written language shift. We discuss various reasons for this phenomenon in the linguistic landscape of Norway. In our discussions we emphasize the importance of the school with regard to language maintenance and language revitalization. We call for a new language policy in the educational system that can prevent language shift. Having several dialects and two officially written forms of Norwegian in the country, creates a special linguistic landscape in Norway. Despite the fact that the Norwegian language situation is in several ways unique, it’s done very little research on how the existing policy works in practice. Our research reveals that the existing language policy and practice in the school system is not powerful enough to prevent language shift and language decay among the youngsters. The school system functions like a fabric for language shift.

  14. Interpretation of Written Contracts in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Andrews

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the leading principles governing interpretation of written contracts under English law. This is a comprehensive and incisive analysis of the current law and of the relevant doctrines, including the equitable principles of rectification, as well as the powers of appeal courts or of the High Court when hearing an appeal from an arbitral award. The topic of interpretation of written contracts is fast-moving. It is of fundamental importance because this is the most significant commercial focus for dispute and because of the number of cross-border transactions to which English law is expressly applied by businesses.

  15. Poling of UV-written Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Hübner, Jörg

    1999-01-01

    We report poling of UV-written silica waveguides. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.05 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. No measurable decay in the induced electro-optic effect was detected after nine months......We report poling of UV-written silica waveguides. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.05 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. No measurable decay in the induced electro-optic effect was detected after nine months...

  16. Oral vs. written evaluation of students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asklund, U.; Bendix, Lars Gotfred

    2003-01-01

    In this short paper we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of oral and written evaluation of students. First in more general terms and then followed by details of what we did in our course and our experience. Finally, we outline some topics for further study and discussions......In this short paper we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of oral and written evaluation of students. First in more general terms and then followed by details of what we did in our course and our experience. Finally, we outline some topics for further study and discussions...

  17. Procedure for Validation of Aggregators Providing Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Daniel Esteban Morales; Gehrke, Oliver; Thavlov, Anders

    2016-01-01

    of small heterogeneous resources that are geographically distributed. Therefore, a new test procedure must be designed for the aggregator validation. This work proposes such a procedure and exemplifies is with a study case. The validation of aggregators is essential if aggregators are to be integrated...... succesfully into the power system....

  18. Classifying Written Texts Through Rhythmic Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balint, Mihaela; Dascalu, Mihai; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Rhythm analysis of written texts focuses on literary analysis and it mainly considers poetry. In this paper we investigate the relevance of rhythmic features for categorizing texts in prosaic form pertaining to different genres. Our contribution is threefold. First, we define a set of rhythmic

  19. Comparisons between written and computerised patient histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaak, Martien; Westerman, R. Frans; van Bemmel, Jan H.

    1987-01-01

    Patient histories were obtained from 99 patients in three different ways: by a computerised patient interview (patient record), by the usual written interview (medical record), and by the transcribed record, which was a computerised version of the medical record. Patient complaints, diagnostic

  20. Cue Reliance in L2 Written Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechmann, Daniel; Kerz, Elma

    2014-01-01

    Second language learners reach expert levels in relative cue weighting only gradually. On the basis of ensemble machine learning models fit to naturalistic written productions of German advanced learners of English and expert writers, we set out to reverse engineer differences in the weighting of multiple cues in a clause linearization problem. We…

  1. On written expression of primary school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Normative rules of standard Serbian language are acquired during primary and secondary education through curriculum demands of Serbian language instruction, which takes place in three fields: grammar, orthography and culture of expression. Topic of interest in this paper is the quality of written expression of 6th and 7th grade pupils, in the context of all three fields specified to be mastered by the curriculum of Serbian language. Research comprised 148 primary school pupils from Belgrade. Linguistic analysis of spontaneously created written text was performed, in the conditions where it was not explicitly demanded form the pupil to write correctly. The results indicate that the majority of pupils make spelling and grammatical errors, meeting the condition for the basic level of mastering the knowledge in Serbian language according to the standards specified for the end of compulsory education. In addition to this, a considerable majority of pupils has a satisfactory level of culture of written expression. Pupils more often make spelling than grammatical errors. Seventh grade pupils are better than sixth grade pupils with respect to adhering to grammar rules and according to culture of written expression, while the mark in Serbian language and general school achievement of pupils correlate only with the degree of adhering to the orthographic rules. It was concluded that not only individual programs of support for pupils who make more errors are necessary, but also launching national projects for the development of linguistic competence of the young in Serbia.

  2. Learners' right to freedom of written expression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Learners' right to freedom of written expression. W.J. van Vollenhoven. Department of Education Management and Policy Studies, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 South Africa wvvollen@postino.up.ac.za. Charles I. Glenn. Training and Policy Studies of the University Professors' Program, University of Boston. Although ...

  3. 34 CFR 32.9 - Written decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the employee has submitted the financial statement and written explanation required under § 32.4(c... stating the facts supporting the nature and origin of the debt and the hearing official's analysis... determination of the existence and the amount of the overpayment or the extreme financial hardship caused by the...

  4. Increasing advertising power via written scent references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Breulmann, Svenja; Bialkova, Svetlana; Bialkova, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory cues in advertisements can evoke positive consumer emotions and product attitudes, yet including real scent in advertising is not always feasible. This study aimed at investigating whether written scent references could produce effects similar to real scents. Participants in online

  5. Written mathematical traditions in Ancient Mesopotamia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Writing, as well as various mathematical techniques, were created in proto-literate Uruk in order to serve accounting, and Mesopotamian mathematics as we know it was always expressed in writing. In so far, mathematics generically regarded was always part of the generic written tradition....

  6. Differential Prediction of FAA Academy Performance on the Basis of Race and Written Air Traffic Control Specialist Aptitude Test Scores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broach, Dana

    1999-01-01

    The written air traffic control specialist (ATCS) aptitude test battery was evaluated for evidence of predictive bias within the framework of the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (29 CFR 1607...

  7. Written narrative practices in elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano-Soares, Soraia; Soares, Aparecido José Couto; Cárnio, Maria Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Promotion of a written narratives production program in the third grade of an Elementary School. To analyze two written narrative practice proposals in order to verify which resources are more efficient in benefitting the textual productions of third grade Elementary School students. Sixty students were selected from two third grade groups of a public Elementary School in São Paulo (Brazil). For the analysis, students were divided into two groups (Group A and Group B). Fourteen children's storybooks were used. In Group A, the story was orally told by the researchers in a colloquial manner, keeping the narrator role and the original structure proposed by the author. In Group B, the story was fully read. The book was projected onto a screen and read aloud so the students could follow the reading and observe the corresponding illustrations. Voice changing resources in the characters' dialogues were used. In the overall comparison, statistically significant results were found for moment (initial and final assessments) and for interaction between groups. It was observed that both groups presented substantial development from initial to final assessment. The Written Narratives Promotion Program based on the shared reading of children's storybooks constituted a more effective strategy than telling the stories using a single reader.

  8. Emergency procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed - Emergency Procedures: emergency equipment, emergency procedures; emergency procedure involving X-Ray equipment; emergency procedure involving radioactive sources

  9. Written Communications Simulation: Write Me a Letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This simulation is intended for use as a culminating activity after students have been exposed to personal and/or business letter writing, use of reference manuals, typing of letters, mailing procedures, typing of numbers, punctuation practice, and filing procedures. Stated objectives are to enable students to type a mailable letter; to inspect,…

  10. Exemplifying whole-plant ozone uptake in adult forest trees of contrasting species and site conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, Angela J.; Wieser, Gerhard; Metzger, Ursula; Loew, Markus; Wipfler, Philip; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Whole-tree O 3 uptake was exemplified for Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Larix decidua in stands at high and low altitude and contrasting water availability through sap flow measurement in tree trunks, intrinsically accounting for drought and boundary layer effects on O 3 flux. O 3 uptake of evergreen spruce per unit foliage area was enhanced by 100% at high relative to low elevation, whereas deciduous beech and larch showed similar uptake regardless of altitude. The responsiveness of the canopy conductance to water vapor and, as a consequence, O 3 uptake to soil moisture and air humidity did not differ between species. Unifying findings at the whole-tree level will promote cause-effect based O 3 risk assessment and modeling. - Sap flow-based assessment of whole-tree O 3 uptake reflects similar responsiveness of canopy conductance and O 3 uptake across contrasting tree species and site conditions

  11. Anatexis and metamorphism in tectonically thickened continental crust exemplified by the Sevier hinterland, western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino Douce, Alberto E.; Humphreys, Eugene D.; Johnston, A. Dana

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a thermal and petrologic model of anatexis and metamorphism in regions of crustal thickening exemplified by the Sevier hinterland in western North America, and uses the model to examine the geological and physical processes leading to crustally derived magmatism. The results of numerical experiments show that anatexis was an inevitable end-product of Barrovian metamorphism in the thickened crust of the late Mesozoic Sevier orogenic belt and that the advection of heat across the lithosphere, in the form of mantle-derived mafic magmas, was not required for melting of metasedimentary rocks. It is suggested that, in the Sevier belt, as in other intracontinental orogenic belts, anatexis occurred in the midcrust and not at the base of the crust.

  12. 28 CFR 40.3 - Communication of procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication of procedures. 40.3 Section... Standards for Inmate Grievance Procedures § 40.3 Communication of procedures. The written grievance... inmate and employee shall, upon arrival at the institution, receive written notification and an oral...

  13. Roy Reider (1914-1979) selections from his written and spoken words

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxton, H.C.

    1980-01-01

    Comments by Roy Reider on chemical criticality control, the fundamentals of safety, policy and responsibility, on written procedures, profiting from accidents, safety training, early history of criticality safety, requirements for the possible, the value of enlightened challenge, public acceptance of a new risk, and on prophets of doom are presented

  14. SAFE-P: System for Assurance of Flight Executable Procedures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA operates manned spacecraft according to rigorously-defined standard operating procedures. Unfortunately, operating procedures are often written in different...

  15. Modeling statistical properties of written text.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Angeles Serrano

    Full Text Available Written text is one of the fundamental manifestations of human language, and the study of its universal regularities can give clues about how our brains process information and how we, as a society, organize and share it. Among these regularities, only Zipf's law has been explored in depth. Other basic properties, such as the existence of bursts of rare words in specific documents, have only been studied independently of each other and mainly by descriptive models. As a consequence, there is a lack of understanding of linguistic processes as complex emergent phenomena. Beyond Zipf's law for word frequencies, here we focus on burstiness, Heaps' law describing the sublinear growth of vocabulary size with the length of a document, and the topicality of document collections, which encode correlations within and across documents absent in random null models. We introduce and validate a generative model that explains the simultaneous emergence of all these patterns from simple rules. As a result, we find a connection between the bursty nature of rare words and the topical organization of texts and identify dynamic word ranking and memory across documents as key mechanisms explaining the non trivial organization of written text. Our research can have broad implications and practical applications in computer science, cognitive science and linguistics.

  16. Written argument underlying the Brokdorf verdict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    In December 1979, the Schleswig administrative court delivered its judgment (AZ.: 10 A 512/76) against the plaintiffs (four neighbouring communities and nine individuals), who had brought in an action against the first part-construction permit for the Brokdorf nuclear power plant, issued on October 25, 1976. In mid-march 1980, the written argument underlying this court ruling (58 pages) has been sent out. The written argument conscientiously explains the reasoning of the court which delivered its verdict after several days of oral proceedings in October and November 1979, and clearly states the position of the court with regard to the limits of control by administrative jurisdiction as well as to the controversial legal problem of whether there is a lawful connection between the licensing in accordance with section 7, sub-section 2 of the AtG (Atomic Energy Act) and sufficient nuclear waste management provisions according to section 9a AtG. The court ruling declared the action to be substantially admissible but hot well-founded. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Written culture: reading pratices and printed book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Eugenia Cavalcante

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The history of the written culture and the reading practices is the subject argued in this article. It aims at to understand the trajectory of the printed book in its materiality, as well as the processes delineated from the undisputed cultural presence and politics of this support for the modern society. Search to evidence the reading practices, the phenomena and the mutations that fortify such support per centuries, approaching the “book crisis”, its causes and effects. Therefore, it deals with the particularitities of the written culture, that if they had accomplished in the Siècle des Lumières and if they had consecrated in “acting” of the spirit of the authors and the readers of that time, whose propagation influenced the western person. It analyzes the sociological and historical conditions of the place of the modern reader between Science, Philosophy and Romance, continuously transformed for the renewal of the thought and the culture.

  18. Analysis of children's narrative written by women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Sánchez-Pinilla

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Our work tries to approach the study of a corpus of children’s literature published in the adults’ Spanish press during the period from 1920 to 1939 and whose authorship is feminine. It’s fundamental aims, are therefore, to make this production visible; to analyze the different aesthetic and ideological propacals formalised in this writing and reintegrate this artistic production into the literary system which it took place, since it is born inside of this and they are the subsequent historical circumstances that isolate it and turn it into a minor writing. The work is constituted in three phases: women authors who publish in the last third of the nineteenth century; authors who published between 1900 and 1920, and authors writing between 1920 and 1939. The areas for which these women produced are are the school, the family, the woman’s associacions, the editorial, the wold of drawing, and the written press.

  19. The influence of channel deepening on estuarine turbidity levels and dynamics, as exemplified by the Ems estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, V.N.; Schuttelaars, H.M.; van Beusekom, J.E.E.; Talke, S.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823554; de Swart, H.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073449725

    2014-01-01

    Active deepening of tidal channels usually results in the alteration of the vertical and the horizontal tide. This may lead to concurrent significant increases in mean suspended matter concentrations (SPM) in coastal plain estuaries, the turbidity maximum (ETM) included. This is exemplified by an

  20. Oral and Literate Strategies in Spoken and Written Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah

    1982-01-01

    Discusses comparative analysis of spoken and written versions of a narrative to demonstrate that features which have been identified as characterizing oral discourse are also found in written discourse and that the written short story combines syntactic complexity expected in writing with features which create involvement expected in speaking.…

  1. 21 CFR 211.150 - Distribution procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Holding and Distribution § 211.150 Distribution procedures. Written procedures shall be established, and followed, describing the... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution procedures. 211.150 Section 211.150...

  2. Erich Fromm's productivity: creativity as exemplified by Joyce's blooming of Leopold and Molly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Valentina

    2005-01-01

    According to Erich Fromm, the productive character expresses what he called the life force in ways that are, by nature, artistic in quality. His valuing of the vital and the artistic, fueled by this life force in our potential to be human, serves as the cornerstone of his model of psychoanalysis. Gilbert Rose, author of Necessary Illusion: Art as "Witness", also has identified the parallel between analytic and artistic processes, building on the assumption that the therapeutic alliance and the aesthetic alliance are one and the same. In elaborating this assumption and extending the parallel between Rose and Fromm, I draw the conclusion that the qualities of relationships have an impact on one's ability to express oneself creatively, to live an artistic life--that is, to live productively. Psychoanalysis is, in practice, a process that is artistic, creative, and re-creative in nature. To the degree that authentic expression of emotionally charged implicit knowledge of the ineffable (the emotional life that resides deep in the bodymind) results in transformation and healing, the process is artistic in nature. This process is exemplified by examining the life and literary creations of James Joyce, especially Joyce's characters of Molly and Leopold Bloom in Ulysses.

  3. The bureaucratization of war: moral challenges exemplified by the covert lethal drone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Adams

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article interrogates the bureaucratization of war, incarnate in the covert lethal drone. Bureaucracies are criticized typically for their complexity, inefficiency, and inflexibility. This article is concerned with their moral indifference. It explores killing, which is so highly administered, so morally remote, and of such scale, that we acknowledge a covert lethal program. This is a bureaucratized program of assassination in contravention of critical human rights. In this article, this program is seen to compromise the advance of global justice. Moreover, the bureaucratization of lethal force is seen to dissolve democratic ideals from within. The bureaucracy isolates the citizens from lethal force applied in their name. People are killed, in the name of the State, but without conspicuous justification, or judicial review, and without informed public debate. This article gives an account of the risk associated with the bureaucratization of the State's lethal power. Exemplified by the covert drone, this is power with formidable reach. It is power as well, which requires great moral sensitivity. Considering the drone program, this article identifies challenges, which will become more prominent and pressing, as technology advances.

  4. 46 CFR 221.85 - Hearing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 221.85 Hearing procedures. (a) The Hearing Officer shall conduct a fair and impartial proceeding in... the authentication of any written exhibit or statement. (c) At the close of the Party's presentation...

  5. 48 CFR 1503.500-71 - Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for: (1) A written code of business ethics and conduct and an ethics training program for all employees; (2) Periodic reviews of company business practices, procedures, policies and internal controls...

  6. Guideline for the preparation of safe operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinnett, L.; Carroll, M.M.; Crooks, D.L.; Doyle, J.R.; Jeblick, H.G.; Kessel, D.S.; Tippy, M.W.; Stuckey, J.M.

    1981-03-01

    These procedures are written for activities that involve the use of explosives, dangerous chemicals, radioactive materials, hazardous sytems, and for certain types of operational facilities which present hazards. This guideline presents a suggested Safe Operating Procedures format

  7. Enraf Series 854 advanced technology gauge (ATG) acceptance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure was written to test the Enraf Series 854 Advanced Technology Gauge (ATG) prior to installation in the Tank Farms. The procedure sets various parameters and verifies that the gauge is functional

  8. Cascaded processing in written compound word production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond eBertram

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the intricate interplay between central linguistic processing and peripheral motor processes during typewriting. Participants had to typewrite two-constituent (noun-noun Finnish compounds in response to picture presentation while their typing behavior was registered. As dependent measures we used writing onset time to assess what processes were completed before writing and inter-key intervals to assess what processes were going on during writing. It was found that writing onset time was determined by whole word frequency rather than constituent frequencies, indicating that compound words are retrieved as whole orthographic units before writing is initiated. In addition, we found that the length of the first syllable also affects writing onset time, indicating that the first syllable is fully prepared before writing commences. The inter-key interval results showed that linguistic planning is not fully ready before writing, but cascades into the motor execution phase. More specifically, inter-key intervals were largest at syllable and morpheme boundaries, supporting the view that additional linguistic planning takes place at these boundaries. Bigram and trigram frequency also affected inter-key intervals with shorter intervals corresponding to higher frequencies. This can be explained by stronger memory traces for frequently co-occurring letter sequences in the motor memory for typewriting. These frequency effects were even larger in the second than in the first constituent, indicating that low-level motor memory starts to become more important during the course of writing compound words. We discuss our results in the light of current models of morphological processing and written word production.

  9. Cascaded processing in written compound word production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Raymond; Tønnessen, Finn Egil; Strömqvist, Sven; Hyönä, Jukka; Niemi, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the intricate interplay between central linguistic processing and peripheral motor processes during typewriting. Participants had to typewrite two-constituent (noun-noun) Finnish compounds in response to picture presentation while their typing behavior was registered. As dependent measures we used writing onset time to assess what processes were completed before writing and inter-key intervals to assess what processes were going on during writing. It was found that writing onset time was determined by whole word frequency rather than constituent frequencies, indicating that compound words are retrieved as whole orthographic units before writing is initiated. In addition, we found that the length of the first syllable also affects writing onset time, indicating that the first syllable is fully prepared before writing commences. The inter-key interval results showed that linguistic planning is not fully ready before writing, but cascades into the motor execution phase. More specifically, inter-key intervals were largest at syllable and morpheme boundaries, supporting the view that additional linguistic planning takes place at these boundaries. Bigram and trigram frequency also affected inter-key intervals with shorter intervals corresponding to higher frequencies. This can be explained by stronger memory traces for frequently co-occurring letter sequences in the motor memory for typewriting. These frequency effects were even larger in the second than in the first constituent, indicating that low-level motor memory starts to become more important during the course of writing compound words. We discuss our results in the light of current models of morphological processing and written word production.

  10. Inferring genetic connectivity in real populations, exemplified by coastal and oceanic Atlantic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Ingrid; Hauser, Lorenz; Jorde, Per Erik; Knutsen, Halvor; Punt, André E; Rogers, Lauren A; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2018-04-19

    Genetic data are commonly used to estimate connectivity between putative populations, but translating them to demographic dispersal rates is complicated. Theoretical equations that infer a migration rate based on the genetic estimator F ST , such as Wright's equation, F ST ≈ 1/(4 N e m + 1), make assumptions that do not apply to most real populations. How complexities inherent to real populations affect migration was exemplified by Atlantic cod in the North Sea and Skagerrak and was examined within an age-structured model that incorporated genetic markers. Migration was determined under various scenarios by varying the number of simulated migrants until the mean simulated level of genetic differentiation matched a fixed level of genetic differentiation equal to empirical estimates. Parameters that decreased the N e / N t ratio (where N e is the effective and N t is the total population size), such as high fishing mortality and high fishing gear selectivity, increased the number of migrants required to achieve empirical levels of genetic differentiation. Higher maturity-at-age and lower selectivity increased N e / N t and decreased migration when genetic differentiation was fixed. Changes in natural mortality, fishing gear selectivity, and maturity-at-age within expected limits had a moderate effect on migration when genetic differentiation was held constant. Changes in population size had the greatest effect on the number of migrants to achieve fixed levels of F ST , particularly when genetic differentiation was low, F ST ≈ 10 -3 Highly variable migration patterns, compared with constant migration, resulted in higher variance in genetic differentiation and higher extreme values. Results are compared with and provide insight into the use of theoretical equations to estimate migration among real populations. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  11. Informed consent and the readability of the written consent form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanadarajah, N; El-Daly, I; Mamarelis, G; Sohail, M Z; Bates, P

    2017-11-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to objectively ascertain the level of readability of standardised consent forms for orthopaedic procedures. Methods Standardised consent forms (both in summary and detailed formats) endorsed by the British Orthopaedic Association (BOA) were retrieved from orthoconsent.com and assessed for readability. This involved using an online tool to calculate the validated Flesch reading ease score (FRES). This was compared with the FRES for the National Health Service (NHS) Consent Form 1. Data were analysed and interpreted according to the FRES grading table. Results The FRES for Consent Form 1 was 55.6, relating to the literacy expected of an A level student. The mean FRES for the BOA summary consent forms (n=27) was 63.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 61.2-66.0) while for the detailed consent forms (n=32), it was 68.9 (95% CI: 67.7-70.0). All BOA detailed forms scored >60, correlating to the literacy expected of a 13-15-year-old. The detailed forms had a higher FRES than the summary forms (p<0.001). Conclusions This study demonstrates that the BOA endorsed standardised consent forms are much easier to read and understand than the NHS Consent Form 1, with the detailed BOA forms being the easiest to read. Despite this, owing to varying literacy levels, a significant proportion of patients may struggle to give informed consent based on the written information provided to them.

  12. The challenge of giving written thesis feedback to nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvesson, Hanna; Borglin, Gunilla

    2014-11-01

    Providing effective written feedback on nursing student's assignments can be a challenging task for any assessor. Additionally, as the student groups tend to become larger, written feedback is likely to gain an overall more prominent position than verbal feedback. Lack of formal training or regular discussion in the teaching faculty about the skill set needed to provide written feedback could negatively affect the students' learning abilities. In this brief paper, we discuss written feedback practices, whilst using the Bachelor of Science in Nursing thesis as an example. Our aim is to highlight the importance of an informed understanding of the impact written feedback can have on students. Creating awareness about this can facilitate the development of more strategic and successful written feedback strategies. We end by offering examples of some relatively simple strategies for improving this practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Written Teacher Feedback: Aspects of Quality, Benefits and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmeier, Monika; Grob, Regula; Nielsen, Jan Alexis

    2018-01-01

    was provided based on rubrics and templates for open comments. For this purpose, written teacher feedback itself, student artefacts and data from questionnaires were analysed. Furthermore, the benefits and challenges that teachers noticed in using written feedback will be examined. Finally......, it will be discussed which means of support for teachers seem necessary in order to foster the implementation of written teacher feedback as part of formative assessment in inquiry-based science education....

  14. Age of acquisition and word frequency in written picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, P; Fayol, M; Chalard, M

    2001-05-01

    This study investigates age of acquisition (AoA) and word frequency effects in both spoken and written picture naming. In the first two experiments, reliable AoA effects on object naming speed, with objective word frequency controlled for, were found in both spoken (Experiment 1) and written picture naming (Experiment 2). In contrast, no reliable objective word frequency effects were observed on naming speed, with AoA controlled for, in either spoken (Experiment 3) or written (Experiment 4) picture naming. The implications of the findings for written picture naming are briefly discussed.

  15. 19 CFR 148.111 - Written declaration for unaccompanied articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written declaration for unaccompanied articles... of the United States § 148.111 Written declaration for unaccompanied articles. The baggage... covers articles which do not accompany him and: (a) The articles are entitled to free entry under the $1...

  16. 12 CFR 704.16 - Contracts/written agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contracts/written agreements. 704.16 Section 704.16 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.16 Contracts/written agreements. Services, facilities, personnel, or equipment...

  17. Concreteness and Imagery Effects in the Written Composition of Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoski, Mark; Kealy, William A.; Goetz, Ernest T.; Paivio, Allan

    1997-01-01

    In two experiments, undergraduates (n=48 and n=50) composed written definitions of concrete and abstract nouns that were matched for frequency of use and meaningfulness. Results support previous research suggesting that common cognitive mechanisms underlie production of spoken and written language as explained by dual coding theory. (SLD)

  18. 42 CFR 2.16 - Security for written records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security for written records. 2.16 Section 2.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.16 Security for written records...

  19. The Written Communication Skills That Matter Most for Accountants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Tracey J.; Simons, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of effective written communication skills to the discipline of accounting, faculty must emphasize these skills in their classroom in order to adequately prepare students for successful careers in the field. Since 2000, only two studies in the accounting literature have examined which written communication skills are needed by…

  20. Towards a Theory of Vernacularisation: Insights from Written Chinese Vernaculars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Don

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the history of four Chinese vernaculars which have developed written forms, and argues that five of the patterns Hanan identifies in the early development of Bai Hua can also be found in the early development of written Wu, Cantonese, and Minnan. In each of the cases studied, there is a clear pattern of early use of the…

  1. 49 CFR 1018.20 - Written demand for payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Collection of Claims § 1018.20 Written demand for payment. (a) The Board shall make appropriate written demand upon the debtor for payment of money in terms which specify: (1) The basis for the indebtedness... the debtor has explicitly refused to pay, or that sending a further demand is futile. Depending upon...

  2. The Influence of Process Drama on Elementary Students' Written Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alida

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the influence of process drama on fourth grade students' written language productivity and specificity. Participants included 16 students with learning and/or behavioral challenges at an urban public charter school. The influence of process drama on students' written language was compared across contextualized and…

  3. Appropriating Written French: Literacy Practices in a Parisian Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Elsie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine French language instruction in an elementary classroom serving primarily children of Afro-French immigrants in Paris. I show that a prevalent French language ideology privileges written over oral expression and associates full mastery of written French with rational thought and full inclusion in the French polity. This…

  4. Quantity and quality of written feedback, action plans, and student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Mini-clinical-evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) assessment forms that have been modified with the addition of specific spaces on separate sheets are expected to improve the quantity and quality of written feedback and the action plan for further learning which is agreed upon, and to encourage written reflection.

  5. 5 CFR 179.306 - Written agreement for repayment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Written agreement for repayment. 179.306 Section 179.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 179.306 Written agreement for repayment. A debtor who admits...

  6. A textual production from teaching procedures: a design as written appearance guiding teaching job

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia Gonçalves

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to reflect on the application of didactic instruments for teaching Portuguese Language, mainly focused on writing. For this purpose, we used the Sociodiscursivo Interactionism perspective (ISD, based on the writings of Bronckart (1999, 2006. The assumptions of Vygotsky (1988 were also extremely important for our research. As for the methodological instrument analysis, we use a Didactic Sequence (DOLZ, NOVERRAZ e SCHNEUWLY, 2004, whose purpose is the internalization of various genres of text. From the results of the application, was marked the relationship between the conception of the institutions of writing and the way as this object is developed.

  7. 10 CFR 35.390 - Training for use of unsealed byproduct material for which a written directive is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., radionuclide handling, quality assurance, and clinical use of unsealed byproduct material for which a written... the related radiation surveys; (B) Performing quality control procedures on instruments used to... 200 hours of classroom and laboratory training, in basic radionuclide handling techniques applicable...

  8. Efficiency of Oral Incremental Rehearsal versus Written Incremental Rehearsal on Students' Rate, Retention, and Generalization of Spelling Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Dru; Joseph, Laurice M.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila; Konrad, Moira

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficiency of an incremental rehearsal oral versus an incremental rehearsal written procedure on a sample of primary grade children's weekly spelling performance. Participants included five second and one first grader who were in need of help with their spelling according to their teachers. An…

  9. Quantization Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, J. A.; Martin, R.

    1976-01-01

    We present in this work a review of the conventional quantization procedure, the proposed by I.E. Segal and a new quantization procedure similar to this one for use in non linear problems. We apply this quantization procedures to different potentials and we obtain the appropriate equations of motion. It is shown that for the linear case the three procedures exposed are equivalent but for the non linear cases we obtain different equations of motion and different energy spectra. (Author) 16 refs

  10. Teaching Written Communication Strategies: A Training to Improve Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane Benali Taouis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research can be described as an experimental quantitative one including: a strategy training; two homogenous experimental groups with different levels of proficiency; and two homogenous control groups. The subjects are 60 Spanish high school students, who have been selected after taking the Oxford Quick Placement-Test. The study aims at investigating the possible relationship between the effect of the strategy training and the subjects' level of proficiency. It is also designed to analyze the effect of the training on the use of communication strategies in the written medium. It is meant to study the effect of the strategy training on the subjects' writing skill in English. The results show that the students' level of proficiency exerts a strong effect on the subjects' use of written communication strategies (CSs and on their strategy preference in written production. They also demonstrate how strategy training improves the subjects' written communication ability.

  11. 42 CFR 456.180 - Individual written plan of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals Plan of Care § 456.180 Individual written plan of care. (a) Before admission to a mental hospital or...

  12. A Theory of Developing Competence with Written Mathematical Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, James

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a theory of how competence with written mathematical symbols develops, tracing a succession of cognitive processes that cumulate to yield competence. Arguments supporting the theory are drawn from the history, philosophy, and psychology of mathematics. (MNS)

  13. Improving Written Language Performance of Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delano, Monica E

    2007-01-01

    The effects of a multicomponent intervention involving self-regulated strategy development delivered via video self-modeling on the written language performance of 3 students with Asperger syndrome were examined. During intervention sessions, each student watched a video of himself performing strategies for increasing the number of words written and the number of functional essay elements. He then wrote a persuasive essay. The number of words written and number of functional essay elements included in each essay were measured. Each student demonstrated gains in the number of words written and number of functional essay elements. Maintenance of treatment effects at follow-up varied across targets and participants. Implications for future research are suggested. PMID:17624076

  14. Enhancing the Benefits of Written Emotional Disclosure through Response Training

    OpenAIRE

    Konig, Andrea; Eonta, Alison; Dyal, Stephanie R.; Vrana, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    Writing about a personal stressful event has been found to have psychological and physical health benefits, especially when physiological response increases during writing. Response training was developed to amplify appropriate physiological reactivity in imagery exposure. The present study examined whether response training enhances the benefits of written emotional disclosure. Participants were assigned to either a written emotional disclosure condition (n = 113) or a neutral writing condit...

  15. 77 FR 60743 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure 2006-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... comments concerning Revenue Procedure 2006-16, Renewal Community Depreciation Provisions. DATES: Written..., at [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Renewal Community Depreciation...

  16. Swimming holonomy principles, exemplified with a Euler fluid in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannay, J H

    2012-01-01

    The idealized problem of swimming—the self-propulsion phenomenon whereby a cyclic change of shape of a ‘swimmer’ produces a net movement—is well studied for the case of a very viscous incompressible liquid. The opposite limit of zero viscosity, the ideal or ‘Euler’ fluid, has also received some attention. There remain to be articulated and explored some points of principle, set here in the context of the Euler fluid in two dimensions, though partly common to both limits and to both two and three dimensions. (i) Perhaps surprisingly, both limits are purely geometric effects, ‘holonomies’, not dependent on any timings or rates, but only on the sequence of shapes adopted by the swimmer. (ii) A principle fully determining swimming in a Euler fluid is simply stated: the fluid moves at every moment so as to minimize the sum of its and the swimmer's kinetic energy. (iii) Euler swimming would be solvable explicitly were it not for the standard impasse of potential theory: to find the boundary normal derivative of a function obeying Laplace's equation given its value around the boundary (or vice versa). As usual more analytical progress is possible in two dimensions (by complexifying) than three, but full tractability still requires the extreme of slight, rapid swimming strokes, and a simple example is given. In both limits, for a non-symmetrical swimming stroke, a rotation or orientation holonomy accompanies the translational one—the swimmer has turned somewhat as well as translated. The whole holonomy is non-Abelian (the order of the shape sequence matters), but (iv) for two dimensions the rotation part is Abelian. A benefit (albeit cosmetic) is that the one-stroke displacement and turning can be written down as a complex line integral. (v) Another benefit is that while Stokes's theorem (in shape space) is normally sacrificed in non-Abelian holonomies, a partial recovery of the theorem is possible in two-dimensional swimming. To illustrate this last

  17. Written Cultural Heritage in the Context of Adopted Legal Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kodrič-Dačić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: Libraries collect written cultural heritage which is not only the most valuable part of their collections but also a part of library materials which is, due to digitalization projects in the last decade, becoming more and more interesting to librarians and library users. The main goal of the study is a theoretical research of library materials acknowledged as Slovenian heritage. By defining the basic terms it highlights the attributes which are immanent to library materials, derived from the context of their origin or later destiny. Slovenian library legislation concerning protection of written cultural heritage is also critically analysed.Methodology/approach: Comparative analyses of European and Slovenian legislation concerning librarianship and written cultural heritage. Research limitation: Research was mainly limited to professional literature and resources dealing with written cultural heritage. Originality/practical implications: Results of the research serve as formal criteria for definition of library materials as written heritage and suggest how to improve legislation in the field of protection of written heritage in libraries. 

  18. Written cohesion in children with and without language learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoftas, Anthony D; Petersen, Victoria

    2017-09-01

    Cohesion refers to the linguistic elements of discourse that contribute to its continuity and is an important element to consider as part of written language intervention, especially in children with language learning disabilities (LLD). There is substantial evidence that children with LLD perform more poorly than typically developing (TD) peers on measures of cohesion in spoken language and on written transcription measures; however, there is far less research comparing groups on cohesion as a measure of written language across genres. The current study addresses this gap through the following two aims. First, to describe and compare cohesion in narrative and expository writing samples of children with and without language learning disabilities. Second, to relate measures of cohesion to written transcription and translation measures, oral language, and writing quality. Fifty intermediate-grade children produced one narrative and one expository writing sample from which measures of written cohesion were obtained. These included the frequency, adequacy and complexity of referential and conjunctive ties. Expository samples resulted in more complex cohesive ties and children with TD used more complex ties than peers with LLD. Different relationships among cohesion measures and writing were observed for narrative verse expository samples. Findings from this study demonstrate cohesion as a discourse-level measure of written transcription and how the use of cohesion can vary by genre and group (LLD, TD). Clinical implications for assessment, intervention, and future research are provided. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  19. Procedures as a Contributing Factor to Events in the Swedish Nuclear Power Plants. Analysis of a Database with Licensee Event Reports 1995-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bento, Jean-Pierre

    2002-12-01

    The operating experience from the twelve Swedish nuclear power units has been reviewed for the years 1995 - 1999 with respect to events - both Scrams and Licensee Event Reports, LERs - to which deficient procedure has been a contributing cause. In the present context 'Procedure' is defined as all written documentation used for the planning, performance and control of the tasks necessary for the operation and maintenance of the plants. The study has used an MTO-database (Man - Technology - Organisation) containing, for the five years studied, 42 MTO-related scrams out of 87 occurred scrams, and about 800 MTO-related LERs out of 2000 reported LERs. On an average, deficient procedures contribute to approximately 0,2 scram/unit/ year and to slightly more than three LERs/unit/year. Presented differently, procedure related scrams amount to 15% of the total number of scrams and to 31% of the MTO-related scrams. Similarly procedure related LERs amount to 10% of the total number of LERs and to 25% of the MTO-related LERs. For the most frequent work types performed at the plants, procedure related LERs are - in decreasing order - associated with tasks performed during maintenance, modification, testing and operation. However, for the latest year studied almost as many procedure related LERs are associated with modification tasks as with the three other work types together. A further analysis indicates that 'Deficient procedure content' is, by far, the dominating underlying cause contributing to procedure related scrams and LERs. The study also discusses the coupling between procedure related scrams/LERs, power operation and refuelling outages, and Common Cause Failures, CCF. An overall conclusion is that procedure related events in the Swedish nuclear power plants do not, on a national scale, represent an alarming issue. Significant and sustained efforts have been and are made at most units to improve the quality of procedures. However, a few units exhibit a noticeable

  20. Simplifications in lagrangian BV quantization exemplified by the anomalies of chiral W3 gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandoren, S.; Proeyen, A. van

    1994-01-01

    The Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) formalism is a useful framework to study gauge theories. We summarize a simple procedure to find a gauge-fixed action in this language and a way to obtain one-loop anomalies. Calculations involving the antifields can be greatly simplified by using a theorem on the antibracket cohomology. The latter is based on properties of a ''Koszul-Tate differential'', namely its acyclicity and nilpotency. We present a new proof for this acyclicity, respecting locality and covariance of the theory. This theorem then implies that consistent higher ghost terms in various expressions exist, and it avoids tedious calculations. This is illustrated in chiral W 3 gravity. We compute the one-loop anomaly without terms of negative ghost number. Then the mentioned theorem and the consistency condition imply that the full anomaly is determined up to local counterterms. Finally we show how to implement background charges into the BV language in order to cancel the anomaly with the appropriate counterterms. Again we use the theorem to simplify the calculations, which agree with previous results. (orig.)

  1. Improving the use of historical written sources in paleopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Piers D

    2017-12-01

    The texts written by the people of past societies can provide key information that enhances our understanding of disease in the past. Written sources and art can describe cultural contexts that not only help us interpret lesions in excavated human remains, but also provide evidence for past disease events themselves. However, in recent decades many biohistorical articles have been published that claim to diagnose diseases present in past celebrities or well known individuals, often using less than scholarly methodology. This article aims to help researchers use historical written sources and artwork responsibly, thus improving our understanding of health and disease in the past. It explores a broad range of historical sources, from medical texts and histories to legal documents and tax records, and it highlights how the key to interpreting any past text is to understand who wrote it, when it was written, and why it was written. Case studies of plague epidemics, crucifixion, and the spinal deformity of King Richard III are then used to highlight how we might better integrate archaeological and historical evidence. When done well, integrating evidence from both archaeological and historical sources increases the probability of a complete and well-balanced understanding of disease in past societies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Guideline for the preparation of safe operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinnett, L.; Armbrust, E.F.; Christy, V.W.; Doyle, J.R.; Kesinger, J.H.

    1977-03-01

    Sandia Laboratories Safe Operating Procedures (SOP) are written for activities which involve the use of explosives, dangerous chemicals, radioactive materials, hazardous systems, and certain types of operational facilities which present hazards. This guideline presents a suggested SOP format

  3. 40 CFR Appendix F to Part 60 - Quality Assurance Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... owner or operator must revise the current written procedures or modify or replace the CEMS to correct..., exponential, and power). If the expanded data base and revised correlation meet PS-11 statistical criteria...

  4. The determinants of spoken and written picture naming latencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Chalard, Marylène; Méot, Alain; Fayol, Michel

    2002-02-01

    The influence of nine variables on the latencies to write down or to speak aloud the names of pictures taken from Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980) was investigated in French adults. The major determinants of both written and spoken picture naming latencies were image variability, image agreement and age of acquisition. To a lesser extent, name agreement was also found to have an impact in both production modes. The implications of the findings for theoretical views of both spoken and written picture naming are discussed.

  5. Analysing and exemplifying forensic conclusion criteria in terms of Bayesian decision theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, A; Bozza, S; Taroni, F

    2018-03-01

    There is ongoing discussion in forensic science and the law about the nature of the conclusions reached based on scientific evidence, and on how such conclusions - and conclusion criteria - may be justified by rational argument. Examples, among others, are encountered in fields such as fingermarks (e.g., 'this fingermark comes from Mr. A's left thumb'), handwriting examinations (e.g., 'the questioned signature is that of Mr. A'), kinship analyses (e.g., 'Mr. A is the father of child C') or anthropology (e.g., 'these are human remains'). Considerable developments using formal methods of reasoning based on, for example (Bayesian) decision theory, are available in literature, but currently such reference principles are not explicitly used in operational forensic reporting and ensuing decision-making. Moreover, applied examples, illustrating the principles, are scarce. A potential consequence of this in practical proceedings, and hence a cause of concern, is that underlying ingredients of decision criteria (such as losses quantifying the undesirability of adverse decision consequences), are not properly dealt with. There is merit, thus, in pursuing the study and discussion of practical examples, demonstrating that formal decision-theoretic principles are not merely conceptual considerations. Actually, these principles can be shown to underpin practical decision-making procedures and existing legal decision criteria, though often not explicitly apparent as such. In this paper, we will present such examples and discuss their properties from a Bayesian decision-theoretic perspective. We will argue that these are essential concepts for an informed discourse on decision-making across forensic disciplines and the development of a coherent view on this topic. We will also emphasize that these principles are of normative nature in the sense that they provide standards against which actual judgment and decision-making may be compared. Most importantly, these standards are

  6. SOCIOLINGUISTIC FACTORS OF THE WRITTEN SPEECH NORMS APPROXIMATION IN LABOR MIGRANTS’ TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utesheva Altynay Pazylovna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the features of written Russian speech of labor migrants from different countries considering the norms of written speech. The empirical basis of the research is represented by the handwritten CVs of unemployed migrants from Vietnam and Uzbekistan, that were presented to the departments of the Federal Migration Service of the Russian Federation in the city of Volgograd. Written speech violations are classified according to the age groups which migrants belong to. The following sociolinguistic characteristics of the migrants are also taken into account: nationality, period of school education, higher education, document writing competence. Group 1 combined informants aged from 20 to 30, without higher education, who studied the Russian language at school in the new period of the collapse of the Soviet Union procedures or on their own. It is an educational institution with no experience compiling official documents and communication skills in Russian. Group 2 combined informants aged from 30 to 50, without higher education, who studied Russian at school by Soviet methods with experience of drawing up official documents and possessing basic communication skills to communicate in Russian. Group 3 combined informants aged 50 and older with secondary special education, who studied Russian at school by Soviet methods and actively developed communicative competence at the expense of everyday communication, reading books, listening to the radio and watching programs in Russian, with experience in drafting official documents. The features of migrants' written speech are manifested in specific language and speech mistakes, particularly in graphic, phonetic and genre rules violations. The general patterns of mistakes are registered. The mistakes are caused not only by language transfer and the Russian language competence, but also by sociolinguistic factors. The particular cross-language differences of migrants writing are

  7. Which Type of Risk Information to Use for Whom? Moderating Role of Outcome-Relevant Involvement in the Effects of Statistical and Exemplified Risk Information on Risk Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Jiyeon; Jeong, Se-Hoon; Hwang, Yoori

    2017-04-01

    The extant empirical research examining the effectiveness of statistical and exemplar-based health information is largely inconsistent. Under the premise that the inconsistency may be due to an unacknowledged moderator (O'Keefe, 2002), this study examined a moderating role of outcome-relevant involvement (Johnson & Eagly, 1989) in the effects of statistical and exemplified risk information on risk perception. Consistent with predictions based on elaboration likelihood model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1984), findings from an experiment (N = 237) concerning alcohol consumption risks showed that statistical risk information predicted risk perceptions of individuals with high, rather than low, involvement, while exemplified risk information predicted risk perceptions of those with low, rather than high, involvement. Moreover, statistical risk information contributed to negative attitude toward drinking via increased risk perception only for highly involved individuals, while exemplified risk information influenced the attitude through the same mechanism only for individuals with low involvement. Theoretical and practical implications for health risk communication are discussed.

  8. Prevalence and content of written ethics policies on euthanasia in Catholic healthcare institutions in Belgium (Flanders).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastmans, Chris; Lemiengre, Joke; van der Wal, Gerrit; Schotsmans, Paul; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette

    2006-04-01

    Euthanasia is performed worldwide, regardless of the existence of laws governing it. Belgium became the second country in the world to enact a law on euthanasia in 2002. Healthcare institutions bear responsibility for guaranteeing the quality of care for patients at the end of life, and for ensuring support for caregivers involved. Therefore, institutional ethics policies on end-of-life decision-making, especially on euthanasia, may be useful. A cross-sectional mail survey of general directors of Catholic hospitals and nursing homes in Belgium was used to describe the prevalence and content of written ethics policies for competent terminally ill, incompetent terminally ill, and non-terminally ill patients. Of the 298 targeted institutions, 81% of hospitals and 62% of nursing homes returned complete questionnaires. Of these, 79% of hospitals and 30% of nursing homes had a written ethics policy on euthanasia. Of hospitals 83% and of nursing homes 85% permitted euthanasia for competent terminally ill patients only in exceptional cases in accordance with legal due care criteria and provisions outlined by the palliative filter procedure. Euthanasia for incompetent terminally ill patients was prohibited by 27% of the hospitals and by 60% of the nursing homes. For non-terminally ill patients, these figures were 43 and 64%, respectively. Catholic healthcare institutions in Belgium (Flanders) made great efforts to develop written ethics policies on euthanasia. Only a small group of institutions completely prohibited euthanasia. Most of the institutions considered euthanasia to be an option if all possible alternatives (e.g., palliative filter procedure, which contains more rigorous criteria than those in the Belgian Euthanasia Act), have been thoroughly investigated.

  9. Development and Application of Assessment Standards to Advanced Written Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miihkinen, Antti; Virtanen, Tuija

    2018-01-01

    This study describes the results of a project that focused on developing an assessment rubric to be used as the assessment criteria for the written thesis of accounting majors and the quality of the coursework during the seminar. We used descriptive analysis and the survey method to collect information for the development work and to examine the…

  10. Distribution of Articles in Written Composition among Malaysian ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Mia Emily Abdul; Rahim, Emma Marini Abdul; Ning, Chia Han

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the distribution patterns of the English grammar articles (a, an, and the) as well as the distributions of their colligation patterns in written compositions of English among Malaysian ESL learners. This paper reports the results of a corpus-based study on articles used by these learners. The method used in this…

  11. Oral and Written Picture Description in Individuals with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenborre, Dorien; Visch-Brink, Evy; van Dun, Kim; Verhoeven, Jo; Mariën, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Background: Aphasia is characterized by difficulties in connected speech/writing. Aims: To explore the differences between the oral and written description of a picture in individuals with chronic aphasia (IWA) and healthy controls. Descriptions were controlled for productivity, efficiency, grammatical organization, substitution behaviour and…

  12. A Comparison between Written and Spoken Narratives in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrns, Ingrid; Wengelin, Asa; Broberg, Malin; Hartelius, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore how a personal narrative told by a group of eight persons with aphasia differed between written and spoken language, and to compare this with findings from 10 participants in a reference group. The stories were analysed through holistic assessments made by 60 participants without experience of aphasia…

  13. A History of Oral and Written Storytelling in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edosomwan, Simeon; Peterson, Claudette M.

    2016-01-01

    Storytelling is a powerful process in adult education as a useful instructional approach in facilitating adult instruction and learning, especially during preliterate eras. What began as oral tradition has evolved to include written literature. A popular Eurocentric perspective in the early 19th century was that before the arrival of Europeans…

  14. The Written Literacy Forum: Combining Research and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christopher M.; Florio, Susan

    1983-01-01

    Writing teachers and researchers collaborate in the Written Literacy Forum at Michigan State University to: (1) heighten teachers' awareness of the complexity of writing; (2) stimulate discussion across grade levels; and (3) focus research on areas concerning teachers. Discussion formats and inservice activities are described, and materials…

  15. Language Parameters in Written Compositions of Nine Year Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Rosalyn; Buium, Nissan

    The purpose of this study was to develop a foundation for reliable and effective measurement of significant parameters in the development of written language skills in school age children. The subjects for the study were 25 nine-year-old children, 12 boys and 13 girls, who were randomly selected from among 1,559 participants. The findings…

  16. Concreteness Effects and Syntactic Modification in Written Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoski, Mark; Goetz, Ernest T.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates whether concreteness was related to a key characteristic of written composition--the cumulative sentence with a final modifier--which has been consistently associated with higher quality writing. Supports the conceptual-peg hypothesis of dual coding theory, with concrete verbs providing the pegs on which cumulative sentences are…

  17. Written Composition Process, Evaluation Difficulties and Modalities: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Celestino; Garci, Jesus Nicasio; Gonzalez-Castro, Paloma; Alvarez, David; Cerezo, Rebeca; Bernardo, Ana

    2011-01-01

    The underlying processes used in written compositions are currently a very interesting subject. Participants in this study were 326 people between 10 and 16 years of age, divided into two groups and compared by means of a "writing log". One group was provided assistance in the writing task by means of a graphic organiser, whilst the other was not…

  18. Written Corrective Feedback: The Perception of Korean EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Bohyon

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the perception of Korean EFL learners toward feedback types on their written errors. The survey was administered using an adopted questionnaire from previous studies (Ishii 2011; Leki, 1991). This further allows a comparison of Korean EFL learners' attitudes with the responses to an identical questionnaire by Japanese EFL…

  19. Dynamic Written Corrective Feedback in Developmental Multilingual Writing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzer, Kendon

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the role of dynamic written corrective feedback (DWCF; Evans, Hartshorn, McCollum, & Wolfersberger, 2010; Hartshorn & Evans, 2015; Hartshorn et al., 2010), a mode of providing specific, targeted, and individualized grammar feedback in developmental English as a second language (ESL) writing classes (pre-first year…

  20. Validating a Written Instrument for Assessing Students' Fractions Schemes and

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this study,…

  1. Integrating Technology Tools for Students Struggling with Written Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedora, Pledger

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to assess the experience of preservice teachers when integrating written language technology and their likelihood of applying that technology in their future classrooms. Results suggest that after experiencing technology integration, preservice teachers are more likely to use it in their future teaching.

  2. 22 CFR 208.50 - How is this part written?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is this part written? 208.50 Section 208.50 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION... for the general public and business community to use. The section headings and text, often in the form...

  3. Short message service (SMS) language and written language skills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SMS language is English language slang, used as a means of mobile phone text messaging. This practice may impact on the written language skills of learners at school. The main aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of Grade 8 and 9 English (as Home Language) educators in Gauteng regarding the ...

  4. 19 CFR 210.4 - Written submissions; representations; sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written submissions; representations; sanctions. 210.4 Section 210.4 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Rules of General Applicability § 210.4...

  5. Cracking the code: residents' interpretations of written assessment comments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginsburg, S.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Eva, K.W.; Lingard, L.

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: Interest is growing in the use of qualitative data for assessment. Written comments on residents' in-training evaluation reports (ITERs) can be reliably rank-ordered by faculty attendings, who are adept at interpreting these narratives. However, if residents do not interpret assessment

  6. 9 CFR 202.113 - Rule 13: Written hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 13: Written hearing. 202.113 Section 202.113 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION... waiver of the right to file such evidence. (g) Extension of time for depositions. If any party timely...

  7. Argumentation Schema and the Myside Bias in Written Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Christopher R.; Britt, M. Anne; Butler, Jodie A.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a cognitive argumentation schema for written arguments and presents three empirical studies on the "myside" bias--the tendency to ignore or exclude evidence against one's position. Study 1 examined the consequences of conceding, rebutting, and denying other-side information. Rebuttal led to higher ratings of…

  8. RECOGNITION METHOD FOR CURSIVE JAPANESE WORD WRITTEN IN LATIN CHARACTERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maruyama, K.; Nakano, Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a recognition method for cursive Japanese words written in Latin characters. The method integrates multiple classifiers using duplicated can­ didates in multiple classifiers and orders of classifiers to improve the word recog­ nition rate combining their results. In experiments

  9. THE PHONOLOGICAL BASIS OF MISSPELLINGS IN THE WRITTEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Misspellings have been a common error in the written English of non-native speakers. ... The study was done with a view to investigating whether the phonology of Kikuyu as a learner's first language and pronunciation of words in English as the second language, based on the influence of the phonology of Kikuyu affects ...

  10. Optimizing the efficiency of femtosecond-laser-written holograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wædegaard, Kristian Juncher; Hansen, Henrik Dueholm; Balling, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Computer-generated binary holograms are written on a polished copper surface using single 800-nm, 120-fs pulses from a 1-kHz-repetition-rate laser system. The hologram efficiency (i.e. the power in the holographic reconstructed image relative to the incoming laser power) is investigated...

  11. Written Emotional Expression as an Intervention for Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Melissa A.; Theodore, Lea A.; Patwa, Shamim S.; Margiano, Suzanne G.; Alric, Jolie M.; Peck, Heather L.

    2003-01-01

    This investigation employed a multiple baseline design across five participants to examine written emotional expression as an intervention to improve lung function in high school-aged students, college students, and adults with asthma. The predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV[subscript 1] measure of large airway functioning) and…

  12. Students' Written Arguments in General Chemistry Laboratory Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Aeran; Hand, Brian; Greenbowe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the written arguments developed by college freshman students using the Science Writing Heuristic approach in inquiry-based general chemistry laboratory classrooms and its relationships with students' achievement in chemistry courses. Fourteen freshman students participated in the first year of the study while 19…

  13. Written Formative Assessment and Silence in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Hang, Desmond Mene; Bell, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, we build on Xinying Yin and Gayle Buck's discussion by exploring the cultural practices which are integral to formative assessment, when it is viewed as a sociocultural practice. First we discuss the role of assessment and in particular oral and written formative assessments in both western and Samoan cultures, building on the…

  14. 2 CFR 182.100 - How is this part written?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How is this part written? 182.100 Section 182.100 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Purpose and...

  15. 17 CFR 230.437a - Written consents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Are filing a registration statement containing financial statements in which Arthur Andersen LLP (or a foreign affiliate of Arthur Andersen LLP) had been acting as the independent public accountant. (b... dispense with the requirement for the registrant to file the written consent of Arthur Andersen LLP (or a...

  16. Shortcomings of the written survey questionnaire for discovering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article I describe my reflections on using a written survey questionnaire to investigate, on a large-scale, students' perceptions of studying Xhosa as a first language in high schools. I describe the aims of the project, how the questionnaire was designed, and the problems I encountered with the analysis of the data.

  17. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French…

  18. 42 CFR 456.80 - Individual written plan of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Hospitals Plan of Care § 456.80 Individual written plan of care. (a) Before admission to a hospital or before authorization for... and rehabilitative services; (iv) Activities; (v) Social services; (vi) Diet; (4) Plans for continuing...

  19. Airline Transport Pilot-Airplane (Air Carrier) Written Test Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    Presented is information useful to applicants who are preparing for the Airline Transport Pilot-Airplane (Air Carrier) Written Test. The guide describes the basic aeronautical knowledge and associated requirements for certification, as well as information on source material, instructions for taking the official test, and questions that are…

  20. 45 CFR 1326.23 - Hearing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.23 Hearing procedures. In meeting the... Administration on Aging; (3) Present written evidence prior to and at the hearing, and present oral evidence at...

  1. 48 CFR 32.006-4 - Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING 32.006-4 Procedures. (a) In any case in which an agency's remedy coordination...) of this subsection. (e) Before making a decision to reduce or suspend further payments, the agency... determination and decision. (g) The agency shall retain in its files the written justification for each— (1...

  2. Environmental procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The European Bank has pledged in its Agreement to place environmental management at the forefront of its operations to promote sustainable economic development in central and eastern Europe. The Bank's environmental policy is set out in the document titled, Environmental Management: The Bank's Policy Approach. This document, Environmental Procedures, presents the procedures which the European Bank has adopted to implement this policy approach with respect to its operations. The environmental procedures aim to: ensure that throughout the project approval process, those in positions of responsibility for approving projects are aware of the environmental implications of the project, and can take these into account when making decisions; avoid potential liabilities that could undermine the success of a project for its sponsors and the Bank; ensure that environmental costs are estimated along with other costs and liabilities; and identify opportunities for environmental enhancement associated with projects. The review of environmental aspects of projects is conducted by many Bank staff members throughout the project's life. This document defines the responsibilities of the people and groups involved in implementing the environmental procedures. Annexes contain Environmental Management: The Bank's Policy Approach, examples of environmental documentation for the project file and other ancillary information

  3. Synergistic relationships between Analytical Chemistry and written standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcárcel, Miguel; Lucena, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analytical Chemistry is influenced by international written standards. •Different relationships can be established between them. •Synergies can be generated when these standards are conveniently managed. -- Abstract: This paper describes the mutual impact of Analytical Chemistry and several international written standards (norms and guides) related to knowledge management (CEN-CWA 14924:2004), social responsibility (ISO 26000:2010), management of occupational health and safety (OHSAS 18001/2), environmental management (ISO 14001:2004), quality management systems (ISO 9001:2008) and requirements of the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (ISO 17025:2004). The intensity of this impact, based on a two-way influence, is quite different depending on the standard considered. In any case, a new and fruitful approach to Analytical Chemistry based on these relationships can be derived

  4. Synergistic relationships between Analytical Chemistry and written standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcárcel, Miguel, E-mail: qa1vacam@uco.es; Lucena, Rafael

    2013-07-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analytical Chemistry is influenced by international written standards. •Different relationships can be established between them. •Synergies can be generated when these standards are conveniently managed. -- Abstract: This paper describes the mutual impact of Analytical Chemistry and several international written standards (norms and guides) related to knowledge management (CEN-CWA 14924:2004), social responsibility (ISO 26000:2010), management of occupational health and safety (OHSAS 18001/2), environmental management (ISO 14001:2004), quality management systems (ISO 9001:2008) and requirements of the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (ISO 17025:2004). The intensity of this impact, based on a two-way influence, is quite different depending on the standard considered. In any case, a new and fruitful approach to Analytical Chemistry based on these relationships can be derived.

  5. The use of network analysis in the process of delimitation as exemplifi ed by the administrative division of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowska-Stefańska Marta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive aim of this study is to point to the optimum number of local government units and the optimum boundaries of spatial units in Poland with the assumption of minimizing the cumulated theoretical travel time to all settlement units in the country. The methodological aim, in turn, is to present the use of the ArcGIS location-allocation tool for the purposes of delimitation processes as exemplifi ed by administrative boundaries in Poland. The rationale for the implementation of this study is that number and the boundaries of units of all levels of Poland’s current territorial division are far from optimum in the light of minimization of accumulated theoretical travel time to all settlement units in the country. It may be concluded that it would be justifi able to increase the number of voivodships from the current number of 16 to 18. Besides it would be necessary to introduce modifi cations in relation to units with regional functions. In contrast, the number of districts and communes should be reduced. A continuation of this research may go in the direction of including analysis of public transport network in the research, creating in this way a multimodal set of network data. This would illustrate, apart from the potential itself resulting from the infrastructure, also the actually existing connections.

  6. The use of network analysis in the process of delimitation as exemplifi ed by the administrative division of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowska-Stefańska, Marta; Wiśniewski, Szymon

    2017-12-01

    The cognitive aim of this study is to point to the optimum number of local government units and the optimum boundaries of spatial units in Poland with the assumption of minimizing the cumulated theoretical travel time to all settlement units in the country. The methodological aim, in turn, is to present the use of the ArcGIS location-allocation tool for the purposes of delimitation processes as exemplifi ed by administrative boundaries in Poland. The rationale for the implementation of this study is that number and the boundaries of units of all levels of Poland's current territorial division are far from optimum in the light of minimization of accumulated theoretical travel time to all settlement units in the country. It may be concluded that it would be justifi able to increase the number of voivodships from the current number of 16 to 18. Besides it would be necessary to introduce modifi cations in relation to units with regional functions. In contrast, the number of districts and communes should be reduced. A continuation of this research may go in the direction of including analysis of public transport network in the research, creating in this way a multimodal set of network data. This would illustrate, apart from the potential itself resulting from the infrastructure, also the actually existing connections.

  7. A simple fish physiological model for radioecologists exemplified for 54Mn direct transfer and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Adam, Christelle; Lathuilliere, Thierry; Baudin, Jean-pierre; Clabaut, Mathieu

    2000-01-01

    A simple kinetic model for the transfer of radionuclide to freshwater fish was formulated based on physiological (blood and flow rates), anatomical (volume of tissue compartments) and thermodynamic (tissue-to-blood partition coefficients) parameters. The present study describes 54 Mn direct transfer to young rainbow trout and exemplifies this new approach for radioecology. The model was calibrated on uptake and depuration kinetics datasets obtained for 14 organs/tissues during a 12-week experiment. Organs were classified into three compartments: an input compartment (gills), a distribution/reservoir compartment (muscles, skeleton and skin) and an excretional function compartment (digestive system and liver). For the three compartments, the partition coefficients and the residence time of the pollutant were, respectively: 161 and 4 h, 87 and 1.5 days, and 1465 and 14 days. As an indirect validation technique, a steady-state concentration factor was calculated for the whole organism from the partition coefficient values and fractional volumes of the compartment. The value of 8 l kg -1 w.w. is similar to those reported in the literature

  8. Delimitation of Areas of Environmental Conflicts on the Background of Geological Conditions, Exemplified by Stary Sącz Commune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gałaś Slávka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Delimitation and characterization of areas of conflict are essential to assess suitability of land for different activities carried out in the field of rational land use. In the paper, delimitation of the conflict areas and conflicts categorization in terms of possibility of their overcoming, the scale of the range and the period of their occurrence exemplified by urban - rural commune Stary Sącz have been presented. The software ArcGIS 10.1, the method of maps superimposing and analysis of interactions between different geoenvironmental factors have been applied to obtain the goal of the investigation. Specific geological structure together with morphological and climatic conditions in Stary Sącz commune create ideal conditions for occurrence of con-flict areas on the background of the geological conditions. Accurate and early recognition of these conflicts - existing and potential ones, is a prerequisite for the environmental risk prevention and elimination of its effects through the proper preparation of planning documents and development plans and programs.

  9. STRATEGIES OF EXPRESSING WRITTEN APOLOGIES IN THE ONLINE NEWSPAPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipto Wardoyo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Expressing apology is a universal activity although people have different strategies or ways to express the apology based on the culture, situation, and context. An apology has played a vital role in verbal politeness; it is certainly impolite when someone does not express an apology when he or she has commited an offence to the others. Apologies in the Pragmatic study is classified under speech act theory. An apology based on Searle (1969 is classified as expressive speech acts because it expresses speaker’s physiological attitude. An apology expresses speaker’s sorrow and regret because he/she has offended hearers or readers.  This paper tries to discuss strategies of editors in expressing written apologies in the online newspaper. The objective of this paper is to explain what the strategies of written apologies are in the online newspaper. This study uses qualitative method; the writer chooses descriptive interpretative technique for analyzing data. There are four written apologies in the online neswpapers as data sources in this paper, the data are taken from The Jakarta Post, The Daily Express, The Sun, and Brisbane Times. The writer tries to describe and analyzes utterances in the data sources based on Olshtain & Cohen theory (1986. There are five main strategies in expressing apologies according to Olshtain & Cohen (1986; they are Illocutionary Force Indicating Device (IFID, expression responsibility, explanation/justification, offer repairs, and promise forbearance. The writer found that all of the written apologies used combination strategies, they used IFID by using performative verb: apologize and be sorry then followed by expression resposbility, explanation, offer repairs, and promise forbearance. Keywords: apologies, speech acts, politeness, pragmatics

  10. Characterization of UV written waveguides with luminescence microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael; Harpøth, Anders; Rosbirk, Tue

    2005-01-01

    Luminescence microscopy is used to measure the refractive index profile and molecular defect distribution of UV written waveguides with a spatial resolution of ~0.4 mm and high signal-to-noise ratio. The measurements reveal comlex waveguide formation dynamics with significant topological changes...... in the core profile. In addition, it is observed that thewaveguide formation process requires several milliseconds of UV exposure before starting....

  11. Sports metaphors in Polish written commentaries on politics

    OpenAIRE

    Jarosław Wiliński

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to investigate what sports metaphors are used in Polish written commentaries on politics and what special purpose they serve. In particular, the paper examines structural metaphors that come from the lexicon of popular sports, such as boxing, racing, track and field athletics, sailing, etc. The language data, derived from English Internet websites, has been grouped and discussed according to source domains. Applying George Lakoff and Mark Johnson’s approach to metaphor, the p...

  12. Polish Phoneme Statistics Obtained On Large Set Of Written Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Ziółko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The phonetical statistics were collected from several Polish corpora. The paper is a summaryof the data which are phoneme n-grams and some phenomena in the statistics. Triphonestatistics apply context-dependent speech units which have an important role in speech recognitionsystems and were never calculated for a large set of Polish written texts. The standardphonetic alphabet for Polish, SAMPA, and methods of providing phonetic transcriptions are described.

  13. Enhancing the benefits of written emotional disclosure through response training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konig, Andrea; Eonta, Alison; Dyal, Stephanie R; Vrana, Scott R

    2014-05-01

    Writing about a personal stressful event has been found to have psychological and physical health benefits, especially when physiological response increases during writing. Response training was developed to amplify appropriate physiological reactivity in imagery exposure. The present study examined whether response training enhances the benefits of written emotional disclosure. Participants were assigned to either a written emotional disclosure condition (n=113) or a neutral writing condition (n=133). Participants in each condition wrote for 20 minutes on 3 occasions and received response training (n=79), stimulus training (n=84) or no training (n=83). Heart rate and skin conductance were recorded throughout a 10-minute baseline, 20-minute writing, and a 10-minute recovery period. Self-reported emotion was assessed in each session. One month after completing the sessions, participants completed follow-up assessments of psychological and physical health outcomes. Emotional disclosure elicited greater physiological reactivity and self-reported emotion than neutral writing. Response training amplified physiological reactivity to emotional disclosure. Greater heart rate during emotional disclosure was associated with the greatest reductions in event-related distress, depression, and physical illness symptoms at follow-up, especially among response trained participants. Results support an exposure explanation of emotional disclosure effects and are the first to demonstrate that response training facilitates emotional processing and may be a beneficial adjunct to written emotional disclosure. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Prosodic Parallelism – comparing spoken and written language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Wiese

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis claims adjacent prosodic categories to prefer identical branching of internal adjacent constituents. According to Wiese and Speyer (2015, this preference implies feet contained in the same phonological phrase to display either binary or unary branching, but not different types of branching. The seemingly free schwa-zero alternations at the end of some words in German make it possible to test this hypothesis. The hypothesis was successfully tested by conducting a corpus study which used large-scale bodies of written German. As some open questions remain, and as it is unclear whether Prosodic Parallelism is valid for the spoken modality as well, the present study extends this inquiry to spoken German. As in the previous study, the results of a corpus analysis recruiting a variety of linguistic constructions are presented. The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis can be demonstrated to be valid for spoken German as well as for written German. The paper thus contributes to the question whether prosodic preferences are similar between the spoken and written modes of a language. Some consequences of the results for the production of language are discussed.

  15. Enhancing the Benefits of Written Emotional Disclosure through Response Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konig, Andrea; Eonta, Alison; Dyal, Stephanie R.; Vrana, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Writing about a personal stressful event has been found to have psychological and physical health benefits, especially when physiological response increases during writing. Response training was developed to amplify appropriate physiological reactivity in imagery exposure. The present study examined whether response training enhances the benefits of written emotional disclosure. Participants were assigned to either a written emotional disclosure condition (n = 113) or a neutral writing condition (n = 133). Participants in each condition wrote for 20 minutes on three occasions and received response training (n = 79), stimulus training (n = 84) or no training (n = 83). Heart rate and skin conductance were recorded throughout a 10-minute baseline, 20-minute writing, and a 10-minute recovery period. Self-reported emotion was assessed in each session. One month after completing the sessions, participants completed follow-up assessments of psychological and physical health outcomes. Emotional disclosure elicited greater physiological reactivity and self-reported emotion than neutral writing. Response training amplified physiological reactivity to emotional disclosure. Greater heart rate during emotional disclosure was associated with the greatest reductions in event-related distress, depression, and physical illness symptoms at follow-up, especially among response trained participants. Results support an exposure explanation of emotional disclosure effects and are the first to demonstrate that response training facilitates emotional processing and may be a beneficial adjunct to written emotional disclosure. PMID:24680230

  16. [Alcohol advertising in written mass media in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Santiago, J; Alvarez Muñiz, M L; Baz Lomba, A

    2007-03-01

    Alcohol advertising is a powerful factor of incitation to consumption. We analyzed the alcohol advertising, especially that youth-focused, in written mass media in Spain during the period 2002-2006. Annual cross-sectional study of advertisements in 41 widely difused written mass media (average readers: 10,1 millions). Media admitting alcohol publicity were 29% in the whole. (2,9 millions of readers on average, 29% of total readers). Alcohol advertising constituted the 3,8% of global publicity and the 8,6% of the publicity in media admitting alcohol publicity. In this period only 4% of the media (2,4% of total readers) inserted antidrug campaigns. In brief, three out of 10 total readers and one out of 12 people older than 15 years suffered the impact of tobacco advertising. Young people were included in 33% of alcohol advertisements and 3 out of 6 of youth-oriented magazines permitted a such publicity. Alcohol publicity remains high in written mass media in Spain. By contrast few people received informative antidrug campaigns. Advertising was preferentially directed to young people.

  17. Radiochemical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    The modern counting instrumentation has largely obviated the need for separation processes in the radiochemical analysis but problems in low-level radioactivity measurement, environmental-type analyses, and special situations caused in the last years a renaissance of the need for separation techniques. Most of the radiochemical procedures, based on the classic works of the Manhattan Project chemists of the 1940's, were published in the National Nuclear Energy Series (NNES). Improvements such as new solvent extraction and ion exchange separations have been added to these methods throughout the years. Recently the Los Alamos Group have reissued their collected Radiochemical Procedures containing a short summary and review of basic inorganic chemistry - 'Chemistry of the Elements on the Basis of Electronic Configuration'. (A.L.)

  18. 77 FR 6862 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure 99-50

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Revenue Procedure 99-50 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for... Revenue Procedure 99-50, Combined Information Reporting. DATES: Written comments should be received on or... Number: Revenue Procedure 99-50. Abstract: Revenue Procedure 99-50 permits combined information reporting...

  19. Marginalia as the beginning of written culture: The Glosas Emilianensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Šabec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Glosas emilianenses are notes in Latin and in a Romance language dating from the eleventh century, written by an anonymous monk between the lines and in the margins of a Latin manuscript known as Codex Aemilianensis 60 to explicate syntactic, morphological, and semantic difficulties in understanding the original. The document was named after its place of origin, a monastery in the village of San Millán de la Cogolla, known as “the cradle of Castilian.” The non-Latin Romance glosses are believed to be the first written accounts of the language that later evolved into present-day Castilian or Spanish; they are therefore invaluable historical, linguistic, literary, and cultural material. The place and time of the origin of the glosses are not a coincidence, but a consequence of particular historical circumstances in the Iberian Peninsula. The Moorish invasion in 711 AD destroyed the Visigothic Kingdom and constrained the development of Christian culture, confining it to two independent cores in the north. The ninth century therefore saw the establishment of the County of Castile emerging from the two cores as the predecessor of the Kingdom of Castile (1065. Due to turbulent historical events, the place was populated by people from various adjacent and rather distant countries, thus making the spoken language a mixture of several varieties of Vulgar Latin, Mozarabic, and Navarrian (Basque elements. All of these features are reflected in the glosses in the San Millán manuscript. Therefore, it is difficult for linguists to name the variant of the Romance language the glosses were written in: “the Riojan dialect,” “a vernacular Castilian-Riojan dialect of the second half of the eleventh century displaying tendencies towards learned Latin,” or “a Riojan dialect with elements more common to neighboring dialects (Aragon, Navarrian, Léon, and Mozarabic than to Castilian.” However, because the San Millán glosses also include elements

  20. 40 CFR 1065.12 - Approval of alternate procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Compliance Officer an initial written request describing the alternate procedure and why you believe it is... described in this section, we may ask you to submit to us in writing supplemental information showing that... allowed procedure, considering the following factors: (1) The cost, difficulty, and availability to switch...

  1. Student Non-Academic Discipline Procedures at Canadian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tom; Schiralli, Martin

    1993-01-01

    Surveyed nonacademic disciplinary procedures in 50 Canadian universities through interviews and examination of written policies and procedures. Compared and contrasted such aspects as (1) authority for adjudicating and resolving cases; (2) scope of review mechanisms (just students or entire university community); (3) appeal process; (4) nature of…

  2. PC based temporary shielding administrative procedure (TSAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.E.; Pederson, G.E.; Hamby, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    A completely new Administrative Procedure for temporary shielding was developed for use at Commonwealth Edison's six nuclear stations. This procedure promotes the use of shielding, and addresses industry requirements for the use and control of temporary shielding. The importance of an effective procedure has increased since more temporary shielding is being used as ALARA goals become more ambitious. To help implement the administrative procedure, a personal computer software program was written to incorporate the procedural requirements. This software incorporates the useability of a Windows graphical user interface with extensive help and database features. This combination of a comprehensive administrative procedure and user friendly software promotes the effective use and management of temporary shielding while ensuring that industry requirements are met

  3. PC based temporary shielding administrative procedure (TSAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.E.; Pederson, G.E. [Sargent & Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States); Hamby, P.N. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    A completely new Administrative Procedure for temporary shielding was developed for use at Commonwealth Edison`s six nuclear stations. This procedure promotes the use of shielding, and addresses industry requirements for the use and control of temporary shielding. The importance of an effective procedure has increased since more temporary shielding is being used as ALARA goals become more ambitious. To help implement the administrative procedure, a personal computer software program was written to incorporate the procedural requirements. This software incorporates the useability of a Windows graphical user interface with extensive help and database features. This combination of a comprehensive administrative procedure and user friendly software promotes the effective use and management of temporary shielding while ensuring that industry requirements are met.

  4. Glimpses into the transition world: New graduate nurses' written reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Jo Ann; Lindsay, Natalie; Hales, Caz; Rook, Helen

    2018-01-01

    This study was born out of our reflections as educators responsible for helping new graduate nurses transition into their first year of professional practice through a formal education programme. Finding ourselves wondering about many of the questions the students raised with us, we set about looking more closely at what could be gleaned from the students' experience, captured in their written work over the course of a year. To identify the challenges and learning experiences revealed in reflective assignments written by new graduate nurses undertaking a postgraduate course as part of their transition to registered nurse practice. Data consisted of the written work of two cohorts of students who had completed a postgraduate university course as part of their transition to new graduate practice in New Zealand. Fifty four reflective essays completed by twenty seven participating students were collected and their contents analysed thematically. Five key themes were identified. The students' reflections noted individual attributes - personal and professional strengths and weaknesses; professional behaviour - actions such as engaging help and support, advocating for patients' needs and safety and putting their own feelings aside; situational challenges such as communication difficulties, both systemic and interpersonal, and the pressure of competing demands. Students also identified rewards - results they experienced such as achieving the nursing outcomes they desired, and commented on reflection as a useful tool. The findings shed light on the experiences of new graduates, and how they fare through this critical phase of career development. Challenges relating to the emotional labour of nursing work are particularly evident. In addition the reflective essay is shown to be a powerful tool for assisting both new graduate nurses and their lecturers to reflect on the learning opportunities inherent in current clinical practice environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  5. Understanding Extraordinary Architectural Experiences through Content Analysis of Written Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Richard Ro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study a identifies how people describe, characterize, and communicate in written form Extraordinary Architectural Experiences (EAE, and b expands the traditional qualitative approach to architectural phenomenology by demonstrating a quantitative method to analyze written narratives. Specifically, this study reports on the content analysis of 718 personal accounts of EAEs. Using a deductive, ‘theory-driven’ approach, these narratives were read, coded, and statistically analyzed to identify storyline structure, convincing power, and the relationship between subjective and objective experiential qualities used in the story-telling process. Statistical intercoder agreement tests were conducted to verify the reliability of the interpretations to approach the hard problem of “extraordinary aesthetics” in architecture empirically. The results of this study confirm the aesthetic nature of EAE narratives (and of told experiences by showing their higher dependence on external objective content (e.g., a building’s features and location rather than its internal subjective counterpart (e.g., emotions and sensations, which makes them more outwardly focused. The strong interrelationships and intercoder agreement between the thematic realms provide a unique aesthetic construct revealing EAE narratives as memorable, embodied, emotional events mapped by the externally focused content of place, social setting, time, and building features. A majority of EAE narratives were found to possess plot-structure along with significant relationships to objective-subjective content that further grounded their storylines. This study concludes that content analysis provides not only a valid method to understand written narratives about extraordinary architectural experiences quantitatively, but also a view as to how to map the unique nature of aesthetic phenomenology empirically.

  6. The beginnings of the written culture in Antiquity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Isabel Panosa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of writing as a system for communication, since its origins, in terms of its uses and socio-cultural context. We shall also look to review and comment on the way in which it has evolved in time and space and its primordial domains for expression. Likewise, we shall look at the current state of affairs with respect to graphic communication, which includes the alphabet, logographic systems and symbols. From a more global point of view, the relationship between the concept of writing and the concept of civilisation is studied and two dimensions are set out: the oral culture and the written culture.

  7. THE ORTHOGRAPHIC NORM IN SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ WRITTEN ASSIGNMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Đorđev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research conducted with the primary objective to determine in which areas secondary school students usually make orthographic mistakes when writing (official written assignments. Starting from the hypothesis that the punctuation writing of whole and split words are areas in which secondary school students (regardless of age and school orientation achieved the weakest achievements an (exploratory research was conducted on a corpus of 3,135 written assignments written in the school year of 2010/11. The research sample was intentional, descriptive and analytical methods were used for the description and the analysis of the results. The results showed the following (1 secondary school students usually make mistakes in punctuation of written assignments - we recorded 4,487 errors in the use of signs to denote intonation and meaning of a text (errors of this type make 53.93% of the total number of spelling errors reported in the corpus of research; by frequency of errors the second are errors related to writing whole and split words (11.02%, the third error is in the use of the capital letter (9.34%; (2 most problems in orthography have second grade students, quantum of mistakes is almost the same with first graders and seniors, but in all grades the most frequent errors are in punctuation, writing of whole and split words and the use of capital letters; (3 Although school orientation affects the spelling skills of pupils, the weakest orthographic achievements are also recorded in punctuation, writing of whole and split words and capitalization, so those are areas that need to be thoroughly addressed in teaching and methodology literature. The results are, on the one hand, a picture of the current status of teaching orthography and grammar knowledge of secondary school students. On the other hand, the research results can be applied in all phases of methodical practical work in teaching orthography, the upgrading the

  8. DOUBLE PARTICIPLES: STANDARD LANGUAGE, EVALUATION AND WRITTEN DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Lima Jardim Miara; Izete Lehmkuhl Coelho

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the variation in the regular and irregular past participle forms, in active sentences and in passive sentences, based on a synchronic analysis of four verbs: salvar (to save), pegar (to take), abrir (to open) and chegar (to arrive). The sample is formed by a corpus, extracted from the online newspaper Diário Catarinense online. The results of this work show that irregular participles are best evaluated forms and they are the most frequent forms in written dat...

  9. DOUBLE PARTICIPLES: STANDARD LANGUAGE, EVALUATION AND WRITTEN DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Lima Jardim Miara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the variation in the regular and irregular past participle forms, in active sentences and in passive sentences, based on a synchronic analysis of four verbs: salvar (to save, pegar (to take, abrir (to open and chegar (to arrive. The sample is formed by a corpus, extracted from the online newspaper Diário Catarinense online. The results of this work show that irregular participles are best evaluated forms and they are the most frequent forms in written data in PB (cf. MIARA, 2013.

  10. Problems of culture of written expression in primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatić Marina V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the issue of the culture of written expression in primary school students. Starting from the fact that teaching practices increasingly points to the fact that knowledge of rules of writing in primary school students presents the weakest link in teaching Serbian language, we sought to describe the problem, point to the possible causes, propose measures and illustrate all this on concrete examples of students' essays. Our microinvestigation showed that primary school students display considerably poorer mastery of rules of writing than previously thought, to the extent that it presents a serious obstacle in language teaching as well as in other areas of educational process.

  11. Sports metaphors in Polish written commentaries on politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Wiliński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate what sports metaphors are used in Polish written commentaries on politics and what special purpose they serve. In particular, the paper examines structural metaphors that come from the lexicon of popular sports, such as boxing, racing, track and field athletics, sailing, etc. The language data, derived from English Internet websites, has been grouped and discussed according to source domains. Applying George Lakoff and Mark Johnson’s approach to metaphor, the paper attempts to determine both the kind of source domains from which common metaphors are drawn and to what degree structural metaphors are used. The data suggests that many structural metaphors can be found in the language of politics. They are drawn from a wide variety of sports source domains, although the domains of boxing, racing, sailing, and soccer are of particular prominence. It seems that the primary function of structural metaphors in written commentaries is to facilitate the interpretation of facts in a way that is enormously appealing to the reader.

  12. Uses of the word "macula" in written English, 1400-present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Leffler, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    We compiled uses of the word "macula" in written English by searching multiple databases, including the Early English Books Online Text Creation Partnership, America's Historical Newspapers, the Gale Cengage Collections, and others. "Macula" has been used: as a non-medical "spot" or "stain", literal or figurative, including in astronomy and in Shakespeare; as a medical skin lesion, occasionally with a following descriptive adjective, such as a color (macula alba); as a corneal lesion, including the earliest identified use in English, circa 1400; and to describe the center of the retina. Francesco Buzzi described a yellow color in the posterior pole ("retina tinta di un color giallo") in 1782, but did not use the word "macula". "Macula lutea" was published by Samuel Thomas von Sömmering by 1799, and subsequently used in 1818 by James Wardrop, which appears to be the first known use in English. The Google n-gram database shows a marked increase in the frequencies of both "macula" and "macula lutea" following the introduction of the ophthalmoscope in 1850. "Macula" has been used in multiple contexts in written English. Modern databases provide powerful tools to explore historical uses of this word, which may be underappreciated by contemporary ophthalmologists. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [A workshop to improve written communication skills of medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitran, Marcela; Zúñiga, Denisse; Flotts, Paulina; Padilla, Oslando; Moreno, Rodrigo

    2009-05-01

    Despite being among the best academically prepared of the country, many medical students have difficulties to communicate in writing. In 2005, the School of Medicine at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile introduced a writing workshop in the undergraduate curriculum, to enhance the students' writing skills. To describe the workshop and its impact on the writing skills of 3 cohorts of students. This 30-h workshop used a participative methodology with emphasis on deliberate practice and feedback. Students worked in small groups with a faculty member specially trained in writing. The qualities of the essays written before and after the workshop were compared. Essays were rated by a professional team that used an analytic rubric to measure formal aspects of text writing as well as more complex thinking processes. There was a significant improvement in the quality of the texts written after the workshop; the main changes occurred in argumentation, and in paragraph and text structure. This improvement was inversely proportional to the initial level of performance, and independent of gender. A writing workshop based on deliberate practice and personalized feedback is effective to enhance the writing proficiency of medical students. Due to its design, this workshop could be useful for students of other careers and universities.

  14. Clarity Versus Accuracy and Objectivity in Written Legal English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Janulevičienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to analyse the most important grammatical and, specifically, syntactic features and to point out some prominent lexical ones, which aim at accuracy and objectivity of a written legal document, and to discuss how these features influence clarity and transparency of the legal documents. The study covers the analysis of some EU, UK, US legislative acts alongside with some extracts from contract samples. The analysis reveals that written legal English is distinguished by long compound sentences, often with inverted word order and numerous embeddings, passive constructions and nominalisations, specific use of personal pronouns and collocations of synonyms (doublets and triplets, etc. These means allow to achieve the most possible accuracy and objectivity in legal texts but make them complicated and difficult to comprehend at once. Formality, achieved by the mentioned means, makes legal English distant from everyday language and often becomes a reason for criticism. Plain English supporters encourage simplifying legal language; however, long traditions of legal English make changes slow and difficult. Therefore, comprehension and usage of legal English still requires special knowledge of its lexical and grammatical features.

  15. Fundaments for the study of orality in written language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gaston Hilgert

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we put forth some reflections upon the production of effects of orality in written texts in light of the fundaments of enunciation. In this theoretical context, we show that the study of orality in written language should not depart from the random identification of lexical and syntactic, figurative and thematic, stylistic or rhetoric resources. What matters is the identification of the interactive scenario in which these linguistic resources are manifested. The interactive scenario is configured by the relationship between narrator/narratee revealed in the text. If this relation takes place by means of the interaction between an I (narrator and a you (narratee, either explicit or implicit, then it is instituted, in this scenario, the basic principle of dialog, of conversation, which defines the proximity condition of the interlocutors and, therefore, the interactive scenario favorable to the use of orality resources. When this relation, however, takes place in the form of a third person narrator who addresses him/herself to an implicit reader, the scenario of distancing is installed, in which orality resources may be unfit or, if they occur, they may have specific functions. This text addresses special attention to the interactive scenario set by the interaction between I/you, showing, in different examples, traits of orality determined by such interaction, and also the various degrees of proximity that this interaction may reveal in its various manifestations.

  16. A Large-Scale Analysis of Variance in Written Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Brendan T; Jamieson, Randall K

    2018-01-22

    The collection of very large text sources has revolutionized the study of natural language, leading to the development of several models of language learning and distributional semantics that extract sophisticated semantic representations of words based on the statistical redundancies contained within natural language (e.g., Griffiths, Steyvers, & Tenenbaum, ; Jones & Mewhort, ; Landauer & Dumais, ; Mikolov, Sutskever, Chen, Corrado, & Dean, ). The models treat knowledge as an interaction of processing mechanisms and the structure of language experience. But language experience is often treated agnostically. We report a distributional semantic analysis that shows written language in fiction books varies appreciably between books from the different genres, books from the same genre, and even books written by the same author. Given that current theories assume that word knowledge reflects an interaction between processing mechanisms and the language environment, the analysis shows the need for the field to engage in a more deliberate consideration and curation of the corpora used in computational studies of natural language processing. Copyright © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. ELLIPT2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletzer, A.; Mollis, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (ELLIPT2D) has been written. ELLIPT2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order elliptic problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the elliptic operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. ELLIPT2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of ELLIPT2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research

  18. Oral and Written Expression in Children With Reading Comprehension Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretti, Barbara; Motta, Eleonora; Re, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have highlighted that children with reading comprehension difficulties also have problems in tasks that involve telling a story, in writing or verbally. The main differences identified regard poor comprehenders' lower level of coherence in their productions by comparison with good comprehenders. Only one study has compared poor and good comprehenders' performance in both modalities (oral and written), however, to see whether these modalities differently influence poor comprehenders' performance. We qualitatively and quantitatively compared the performance of good and poor comprehenders in oral and written narrative tasks with the aim of shedding light on this issue. Regression analyses were also used to explore the role of working memory and vocabulary in explaining individual differences. Our results showed that the two groups produced narratives of comparable length, with similar percentages of spelling mistakes, whereas they differed in terms of the quality of their narratives, regardless of the modality. These differences were qualified by analyzing the children's use of connective devices, and poor comprehenders were found to use a higher proportion of additive devices than good comprehenders. Regression analyses showed that working memory (particularly the intrusion errors measure) explained a modest part of the qualitative differences in narrative production. Implications for our theoretical understanding of poor comprehenders' profiles and education are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  19. ENRAF Series 854 Advanced Technology Gauge (ATG) with SPU II card for Leak Detector Use Acceptance Test Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    The following Acceptance Test Procedure was written to test the ENRAF series 854 ATG with SPU II card prior to installation in the Tank Farms. The procedure sets various parameters and verifies the gauge and alarms functionality

  20. ENRAF Series 854 Advanced Technology Gauge (ATG) with SPU ll Card for Leak Detector Use Acceptance Test Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    The following Acceptance Test Procedure was written to test the Enraf Series 854 ATG with SPU-II card prior to installation in the Tank Farms. The procedure sets various parameters and verifies the gauge and the alarms functionality

  1. An Investigation of Chinese Students’ Acquisition of Oral and Written English through the Measurement of Processability Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Processability Theory (PT believes that L2 learner can not understand and produce those linguistic forms which are beyond the current stage of the language processor (Pienemann, 2007. Based on the understanding of the architecture of the language processor and how L2 is acquired under it, teachers can not only better predict the learners’ L2 developmental stages, explain the learners’ acquiring variations, but also indicate some constructive and objective guidelines for L2 teaching. So this study adopts the hierarchy of processing procedures applied to English (Pienemann, 1998 as the instrument to explore the two aspects of the English language acquisition. The final results support that Chinese college students’ written English is better than their oral English. Besides, there is indeed a positive relationship between Chinese college students’ written and oral English.

  2. Computer software review procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauck, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews the procedures which are used to review software written for computer based instrumentation and control functions in nuclear facilities. The utilization of computer based control systems is becoming much more prevalent in such installations, in addition to being retrofit into existing systems. Currently, the Nuclear Regulatory System uses Regulatory Guide 1.152, open-quotes Criteria for Programmable Digital Computer System Software in Safety-Related Systems of Nuclear Power Plantsclose quotes and ANSI/IEEE-ANS-7-4.3.2-1982, open-quotes Application Criteria for Programmable Digital Computer Systems in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Generating Stationsclose quotes for guidance when performing reviews of digital systems. There is great concern about the process of verification and validation of these codes, so when inspections are done of such systems, inspectors examine very closely the processes which were followed in developing the codes, the errors which were detected, how they were found, and the analysis which went into tracing down the causes behind the errors to insure such errors were not propagated again in the future

  3. Pretreatment procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    It is frequently in the patient's best interest that radiation treatments are initiated soon after the decision to treat is made. However, it is essential to good radiation therapy that the patient's treatment course be planned and beam-modifying devices be fabricated with utmost care prior to treatment. The objectives of the treatment, along with the treatment parameters and techniques necessary to achieve these objectives, must be discussed prior to initiating planning procedures. Determination of the target volume is made by the radiation oncologist; this is based on knowledge of the history of the tumor, the patterns of spread of the disease, and on diagnostic findings during the work-up of each patient. It is then necessary to obtain several measurements of the patient and also to identify the position of the target volume and of adjacent normal organs with respect to known external skin marks before the actual treatment planning is begun. Such localization can be done through several methods. The two most commonly used methods are radiographic and computed tomography (CT), both of which are discussed in this chapter. The measurements often include contours of the patient's external surface, usually in the axial plane of the central axis of the beam, and often in multiple levels within the region to be treated. Three dimensional localization and treatment planning requires thorough understanding of geometry as well as of patient positioning and immobilization. This chapter attempts to clarify some of these complicated but essential preparations for treatment

  4. Optical Music Recognition for Scores Written in White Mensural Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tardón LorenzoJ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An Optical Music Recognition (OMR system especially adapted for handwritten musical scores of the XVII-th and the early XVIII-th centuries written in white mensural notation is presented. The system performs a complete sequence of analysis stages: the input is the RGB image of the score to be analyzed and, after a preprocessing that returns a black and white image with corrected rotation, the staves are processed to return a score without staff lines; then, a music symbol processing stage isolates the music symbols contained in the score and, finally, the classification process starts to obtain the transcription in a suitable electronic format so that it can be stored or played. This work will help to preserve our cultural heritage keeping the musical information of the scores in a digital format that also gives the possibility to perform and distribute the original music contained in those scores.

  5. Synergistic relationships between Analytical Chemistry and written standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel; Lucena, Rafael

    2013-07-25

    This paper describes the mutual impact of Analytical Chemistry and several international written standards (norms and guides) related to knowledge management (CEN-CWA 14924:2004), social responsibility (ISO 26000:2010), management of occupational health and safety (OHSAS 18001/2), environmental management (ISO 14001:2004), quality management systems (ISO 9001:2008) and requirements of the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (ISO 17025:2004). The intensity of this impact, based on a two-way influence, is quite different depending on the standard considered. In any case, a new and fruitful approach to Analytical Chemistry based on these relationships can be derived. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. How diaries written for critically ill influence the relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Højager; Angel, Sanne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diaries written by nurses for the critically ill patient helps relatives cope and support the patient. When relatives participate in writing a diary for the critically ill, patients appreciate it. Furthermore, the diary may reduce post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression......-selected articles. Finally, 10 articles were included in this review structured by the Matrix method. INCLUSION CRITERIA: (a) Original scientific work, (b) relatives participation and experience of the diary as subject and (c) diaries studied in an intensive care unit setting. FINDINGS: Relatives were given...... instructions on how to write in the diary. They expressed strong feelings in the diary in a very different way than health care staff. The relatives used the diary themselves to gain understanding and to cope. The diary has been shown to prevent post-traumatic stress symptoms. CONCLUSION: The relatives express...

  7. Effect of written presentation on performance in introductory physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Ballard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the written work of students in the introductory calculus-based electricity and magnetism course at the University of Arkansas. The students’ solutions to hourly exams were divided into a small set of countable features organized into three major categories, mathematics, language, and graphics. Each category was further divided into subfeatures. The total number of features alone explained more than 30% of the variance in exam scores and from 9% to 15% of the variance in conceptual posttest scores. If all features and subfeatures are used, between 44% and 49% of the variance in exam scores is explained and between 22% and 28% of the variance in conceptual posttest scores. The use of language is consistently positively correlated with both exam performance and conceptual understanding.

  8. How Primary Education students organize the planning of the written

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Gallego Ortega

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with a study aimed at providing an insight into how students with Primary Education plan their written expression. The exploratory and qualitative investigation resorts to the “collective case study” and it is used the “cognitive interview” to obtain the items, applying the “content analysis” in the interpretation of them. This research has allowed us to identify the process in content organization, how students make these operations and the main difficulties founded in it. The results of the research show that, although these students normally make the operations of this textual organization process, they have important difficulties regarding the general planning of the ideas in a text. Finally, this article gives some guidelines for the teaching of writing structure in Primary Education students.

  9. Thermomagnetically written domains in TbFeCo thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reim, W.; Weller, D.

    1988-01-01

    Characteristic features of thermomagnetically written domains in amorphous Tb x (Fe 90 Co 10 ) 100-x alloy thin films having different magnetic properties are reported. In particular, the writing process in materials with low Tb content chi ≤ 21 dominated by the demagnetizing field is compared to the bias field dominated process in Tb rich samples 22 ≤ chi ≤ 25. Domain wall movement over lateral dimensions of the bit size is found for Tb poor materials while for chi ≥ 22 domain boundaries are primarily determined by the area heated up to the Curie-temperature. The importance of mechanical stress on domain formation and irreversible changes of the storage medium due to overheating in the writing process are reported

  10. Readability of Written Materials for CKD Patients: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morony, Suzanne; Flynn, Michaela; McCaffery, Kirsten J; Jansen, Jesse; Webster, Angela C

    2015-06-01

    The "average" patient has a literacy level of US grade 8 (age 13-14 years), but this may be lower for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Current guidelines suggest that patient education materials should be pitched at a literacy level of around 5th grade (age 10-11 years). This study aims to evaluate the readability of written materials targeted at patients with CKD. Systematic review. Patient information materials aimed at adults with CKD and written in English. Patient education materials designed to be printed and read, sourced from practices in Australia and online at all known websites run by relevant international CKD organizations during March 2014. Quantitative analysis of readability using Lexile Analyzer and Flesch-Kincaid tools. We analyzed 80 materials. Both Lexile Analyzer and Flesch-Kincaid analyses suggested that most materials required a minimum of grade 9 (age 14-15 years) schooling to read them. Only 5% of materials were pitched at the recommended level (grade 5). Readability formulas have inherent limitations and do not account for visual information. We did not consider other media through which patients with CKD may access information. Although the study covered materials from the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia, all non-Internet materials were sourced locally, and it is possible that some international paper-based materials were missed. Generalizability may be limited due to exclusion of non-English materials. These findings suggest that patient information materials aimed at patients with CKD are pitched above the average patient's literacy level. This issue is compounded by cognitive decline in patients with CKD, who may have lower literacy than the average patient. It suggests that information providers need to consider their audience more carefully when preparing patient information materials, including user testing with a low-literacy patient population. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by

  11. PRAGMATIC AND RHETORICAL STRATEGIES IN THE ENGLISH-WRITTEN JOKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Rochmawati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding verbal jokes in English is problematic for English as Foreign Language (EFL readers since understanding the jokes requires understanding their linguistic, cultural and social elements. Since a joke constitutes a complex and paradoxical phenomenon, it needs multiple approaches of analyses—such as pragmatic and rhetorical analyses—in order to investigate the multiple layers of meanings it carries. Recently there has been a shift in humor studies, emphasizing linguistic humors and involving the field of rhetoric. These studies, however, have mostly addressed the connection between rhetoric and spoken jokes in persuasion. The present study therefore applied Austin’s Speech Act Theory (1975 and Grice’s Cooperative Principles (1957, and Berger’s rhetorical techniques (1993 to crack the funniness of the written jokes. Specifically, the study aims at describing: how the (1 rhetorical and (2 pragmatic strategies are used in the jokes, and (3 how the pragmatic and rhetorical strategies complement to create humor. The study employed a qualitative research method. Some jokes were purposively selected from the Reader’s Digest and two online sources: http://jokes.cc.com/, and http://www.ajokeaday.com/. Document studies were the means of data collection. The collected data were then analyzed using a qualitative content analysis. The results showed that that there was a relationship between the two pragmatic theories, i.e., Speech Act Theory and Cooperative Principles, and Berger’s rhetorical techniques. The results offered an alternative reading and richer understanding of how written jokes employed pragmatic and rhetorical strategies to advance their rhetorical objectives and humor functions.

  12. Managing Written Directives: A Software Solution to Streamline Workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert H; Savir-Baruch, Bital; Gabriel, Medhat S; Halama, James R; Bova, Davide

    2017-06-01

    A written directive is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for any use of 131 I above 1.11 MBq (30 μCi) and for patients receiving radiopharmaceutical therapy. This requirement has also been adopted and must be enforced by the agreement states. As the introduction of new radiopharmaceuticals increases therapeutic options in nuclear medicine, time spent on regulatory paperwork also increases. The pressure of managing these time-consuming regulatory requirements may heighten the potential for inaccurate or incomplete directive data and subsequent regulatory violations. To improve on the paper-trail method of directive management, we created a software tool using a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant database. This software allows for secure data-sharing among physicians, technologists, and managers while saving time, reducing errors, and eliminating the possibility of loss and duplication. Methods: The software tool was developed using Visual Basic, which is part of the Visual Studio development environment for the Windows platform. Patient data are deposited in an Access database on a local HIPAA-compliant secure server or hard disk. Once a working version had been developed, it was installed at our institution and used to manage directives. Updates and modifications of the software were released regularly until no more significant problems were found with its operation. Results: The software has been used at our institution for over 2 y and has reliably kept track of all directives. All physicians and technologists use the software daily and find it superior to paper directives. They can retrieve active directives at any stage of completion, as well as completed directives. Conclusion: We have developed a software solution for the management of written directives that streamlines and structures the departmental workflow. This solution saves time, centralizes the information for all staff to share, and decreases

  13. The security analyzer: A security analyzer program written in Prolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.; Densley, P.J.

    1986-09-01

    The Security Analyzer is a software tool capable of analyzing the effectiveness of a facility's security system. It is written in the Prolog logic programming computer language, using entity-relationship data modeling techniques. The program performs the following functions: (1) provides descriptive, locational and operational status information about intrusion detectors and assessment devices (i.e., ''sensors'' and ''cameras'') upon request; (2) provides for storage and retrieval of maintenance history information for various components of the security system (including intrusion detectors), and allows for changing that information as desired; (3) provides a ''search'' mode, wherein all paths are found from any specified physical location to another specified location which satisfy user chosen ''intruder detection'' probability and elapsed time criteria (i.e., the program finds the ''weakest paths'' from a security point of view). The first two of these functions can be provided fairly easily with a conventional database program; the third function could be provided using Fortran or some similar language, though with substantial difficulty. In the Security Analyzer program, all these functions are provided in a simple and straight-forward manner. This simplicity is possible because the program is written in the symbolic (as opposed to numeric) processing language Prolog, and because the knowledge base is structured according to entity-relationship modeling principles. Also, the use of Prolog and the entity-relationship modeling technique allows the capabilities of the Security analyzer program, both for knowledge base interrogation and for searching-type operations, to be easily expanded in ways that would be very difficult for a numeric and more algorithmically deterministic language such as Fortran to duplicate. 4 refs

  14. Developmental perspectives in written language and literacy: In honor of Ludo Verhoeven

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, P.C.J.; Broek, P.W. van den

    2017-01-01

    Research on the development on written language and literacy is inherently multidisciplinary. In this book, leading researchers studying brain, cognition and behavior, come together in revealing how children develop written language and literacy, why they may experience difficulties, and which

  15. Written Expression Performance in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBono, Tony; Hosseini, Armita; Cairo, Cassandra; Ghelani, Karen; Tannock, Rosemary; Toplak, Maggie E.

    2012-01-01

    We examined written expression performance in a sample of adolescents with ADHD and subthreshold ADHD using two different strategies: examining performance on standardized measures of written expression and using other indicators of written expression developed in this study. We examined associations between standardized measures of written…

  16. How Does Dissociation between Written and Oral Forms Affect Reading: Evidence from Auxiliary Verbs in Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Raphiq

    2011-01-01

    In Arabic, auxiliary verbs are necessary in the written language, but absent from the oral language. This is contrary to languages such as English and French in which auxiliary verbs are mandatory in both written and oral languages. This fact was exploited to examine if dissociation between written and oral forms affects reading measures like…

  17. Diesel generator trailer acceptance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) will document compliance with the requirements of WHC-S-0252 Rev. 1 and ECNs 609271, and 609272. The equipment being tested is a 150KW Diesel Generator mounted on a trailer with switchgear. The unit was purchased as a Design and Fabrication procurement activity. The ATP was written by the Seller and will be performed by the Seller with representatives of the Westinghouse Hanford Company witnessing the test at the Seller's location

  18. A random sampling procedure for anisotropic distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagrajan, P.S.; Sethulakshmi, P.; Raghavendran, C.P.; Bhatia, D.P.

    1975-01-01

    A procedure is described for sampling the scattering angle of neutrons as per specified angular distribution data. The cosine of the scattering angle is written as a double Legendre expansion in the incident neutron energy and a random number. The coefficients of the expansion are given for C, N, O, Si, Ca, Fe and Pb and these elements are of interest in dosimetry and shielding. (author)

  19. 45 CFR 1620.6 - Signed written agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; (b) Has read and is familiar with the definition of an emergency situation and the procedures for dealing with an emergency that have been adopted by the recipient; and (c) Will not undertake any case or matter for the recipient that is not a priority or an emergency. ...

  20. 'What is not written does not exist': the importance of proper documentation of medication use history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Carina Carvalho; Santos, Lincoln Marques Cavalcante; de Oliveira-Filho, Alfredo Dias; de Lyra, Divaldo Pereira

    2017-10-01

    Medications are perceived as health risk factors, because they might cause damage if used improperly. In this context, an adequate assessment of medication use history should be encouraged, especially in transitions of care to avoid unintended medication discrepancies (UMDs). In a case-controlled study, we investigated potential risk factors for UMDs at hospital admission and found that 150 (42%) of the 358 patients evaluated had one or more UMDs. We were surprised to find that there was no record of a patient and/or relative interview on previous use of medication in 117 medical charts of adult patients (44.8%). Similarly, in the medical charts of 52 (53.6%) paediatric patients, there was no record of parents and/or relatives interviews about prior use of medications. One hundred thirty-seven medical charts of adult patients (52.4%) and seventy-two medical charts of paediatric patients (74.2%) had no record about medication allergies and intolerances. In other words, there was a lack of basic documentation regarding the patient's medication use history. As patients move between settings in care, there is insufficient tracking of verbal and written information related to medication changes, which results in a progressive and cumulative loss of information, as evidenced by problems associated with clinical transfers and medication orders. Proper documentation of medication information during transfer is a key step in the procedure; hence, it should be rightly performed. It remains unclear whether interviews, and other investigations about medication use history have been performed but have not been recorded as health-care data. Therefore, it is crucial to the improvement of medication use safety that documentation of all drug-related information-even if not directly related to the actual event-become routine practice in health-care organizations, since 'what is not written does not exist'.

  1. Providing written information increases patient satisfaction: a web-based questionnaire survey of Japanese cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hitomi; Katsumata, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Miyako

    2017-07-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the United States recommends that all cancer survivors be provided with a survivorship care plan (SCP), which includes a patient treatment summary and a follow-up care plan. However, SCPs have not been widely adopted in Japan. To provide basic data necessary for implementing SCPs in Japan, we aimed to investigate the forms of clinical and survivorship-related information that Japanese cancer survivors receive from their healthcare providers, and to examine whether written information increases their satisfaction. We performed a cross-sectional online survey of cancer survivors who underwent acute cancer treatment and had at least one follow-up with a physician in the past year. Cancer survivors provided the elements and forms (verbally and/or written) of information they received, as well as the degree of satisfaction with the information provided. Responses were obtained from 545 cancer survivors. Information elements such as surgical procedure (98.3%), surgical outcome (98.1%), and names of administered chemotherapy agents (97.8%) were commonly provided, whereas mental care resources and providers (29.7%), effects on marital relationship and sexual health (35.7%), and effects on fertility (43.4%) were less common. A large proportion of cancer survivors received verbal information only. For 18 of 20 elements, except for effects on fertility and duration of hormonal therapy, satisfaction was significantly higher when both forms of information were provided (P information can better meet the needs of Japanese cancer survivors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Effects of Written and Auditory Language-Processing Skills on Written Passage Comprehension in Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria; Bertram, Julia; Ostrowski, Adam; Michaud, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The authors assessed 4,865 middle and high school students for the ability to recognize and understand written and spoken morphologically simple words, morphologically complex words, and the syntactic structure of sentences and for the ability to answer questions about facts presented in a written passage and to make inferences based on those…

  3. Aptitude-treatment interactions revisited: effect of metacognitive intervention on subtypes of written expression in elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R; Wakely, Melissa B; de Kruif, Renee E L; Swartz, Carl W

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of a metacognitive intervention for written language performance, based on the Hayes model of written expression, for 73 fourth-grade (n = 38) and fifth-grade (n = 35) students. The intervention consisted of twenty 45-min writing lessons designed to improve their awareness of writing as a problem-solving process. Each of the lessons addressed some aspect of planning, translating, and reflecting on written products; their self-regulation of these processes; and actual writing practice. All instruction was conducted in intact classrooms. Prior to the intervention, all students received a battery of neurocognitive tests measuring executive functions, attention, and language. In addition, preintervention writing samples were obtained and analyzed holistically and for errors in syntax, semantics, and spelling. Following the intervention, the writing tasks were readministered and cluster analysis of the neurocognitive data was conducted. Cluster analytic procedures yielded 7 reliable clusters: 4 normal variants, 1 Problem Solving weakness, 1 Problem Solving Language weaknesses, and 1 Problem Solving strength. The response to the single treatment by these various subtypes revealed positive but modest findings. Significant group differences were noted for improvement in syntax errors and spelling, with only spelling showing differential improvement for the Problem Solving Language subtype. In addition, there was a marginally significant group effect for holistic ratings. These findings provide initial evidence that Writing Aptitude (subtype) x Single Treatment interactions exist in writing, but further research is needed with other classification schemes and interventions.

  4. High agreement between the new Mongolian electronic immunization register and written immunization records: a health centre based audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Chan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monitoring of vaccination coverage is vital for the prevention and control of vaccine-preventable diseases. Electronic immunization registers have been increasingly adopted to assist with the monitoring of vaccine coverage; however, there is limited literature about the use of electronic registers in low- and middle-income countries such as Mongolia. We aimed to determine the accuracy and completeness of the newly introduced electronic immunization register for calculating vaccination coverage and determining vaccine effectiveness within two districts in Mongolia in comparison to written health provider records. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional record review among children 2–23 months of age vaccinated at immunization clinics within the two districts. We linked data from written records with the electronic immunization register using the national identification number to determine the completeness and accuracy of the electronic register. Results: Both completeness (90.9%; 95% CI: 88.4–93.4 and accuracy (93.3%; 95% CI: 84.1–97.4 of the electronic immunization register were high when compared to written records. The increase in completeness over time indicated a delay in data entry. Conclusion: Through this audit, we have demonstrated concordance between a newly introduced electronic register and health provider records in a middle-income country setting. Based on this experience, we recommend that electronic registers be accompanied by routine quality assurance procedures for the monitoring of vaccination programmes in such settings.

  5. Oral and written language in late adulthood: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzner, Tracy L; Kemper, Susan

    2003-01-01

    As a part of the Nun Study, a longitudinal investigation of aging and Alzheimer's disease, oral and written autobiographies from 118 older women were analyzed to examine the relationship between spoken and written language. The written language samples were more complex than the oral samples, both conceptually and grammatically. The relationship between the linguistic measures and participant characteristics was also examined. The results suggest that the grammatical and conceptual characteristics of oral and written language are affected by participant differences in education, cognitive status, and physical function and that written language samples have greater power than oral language samples to differentiate between high- and low-ability older adults.

  6. Reading Level and Length of Written Research Consent Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foe, Gabriella; Lally, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In 100 Institutional Review Board approved consent forms (CFs), we assessed pages, reading levels, and whether they included essential elements. CF page numbers ranged from 3 to 28 (mean, 10.3) and readability ranged from grades 5.6 to 28.9 (mean, 11.6). The CF mean score for including essential elements was 90.8% (range: 63.5–100%). There were no significant differences by specialty in number of pages (p = 0.053), but surgical specialties had the highest readability (mean, 13.1), and pediatrics the lowest (10.5), p = 0.008. While approved CFs generally included the Office for Human Research Protections recommended essential elements, they were very long, and even pediatric forms, which had the lowest reading levels, were written on average at a tenth grade level. Researchers need guidance to resolve pressure between regulatory mandates and guidelines and “keeping it simple and clear.” PMID:25580939

  7. 34 CFR 299.10 - What complaint procedures shall an SEA adopt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What complaint procedures shall an SEA adopt? 299.10 Section 299.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY... complaint procedures shall an SEA adopt? (a) General. An SEA shall adopt written procedures, consistent with...

  8. Written accounts of living with epilepsy: A thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, Gregg H; Brown, Ian; Stone, Brendan; Reuber, Markus

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the subjective experience of living with epilepsy by thematically analyzing participants' written accounts of their condition. Writing is seen as an individual act allowing for private exploration, reflection and expression of thoughts and feelings. Participants (n=20) were recruited from a United Kingdom hospital and from membership-led organizations for individuals living with seizures. Participants were asked to produce four pieces of writing: 1) about their thoughts and feelings about their condition; 2) a letter to their condition; 3) a letter to their younger self; and 4) about a personal value. All writings were analyzed thematically using a theory- and data-driven approach. Five main-themes and 22 sub-themes emerged from the data. Theme 1: 'seizure onset' demonstrated that the development of seizures and subsequent diagnosis was an important event that could change an individuals' identity. Theme 2: 'seizure symptoms' revealed participants externalized their seizures as an intrusive agent with a constant presence in their lives. Theme 3: 'treatment and outcome' reflected medication as an essential means to controlling seizures with subsequent side effects being perceived as a compromise. Theme 4: 'living with epilepsy' explored the consequences of the condition including restrictions and stigma. Theme 5: 'displays of coping' demonstrated that, for the most part, participants were keen to present themselves as living well with epilepsy. The results add to the growing research applying qualitative methodologies to investigate the phenomenology of epilepsy. Qualitative research can improve our understanding and awareness of the condition, as well as inform clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of blogged and written reflections in two medicine clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Melissa A; Haley, Heather-Lyn; Saarinen, Carrie L; Chretien, Katherine C

    2011-02-01

    academic medical centres may adopt new learning technologies with little data on their effectiveness or on how they compare with traditional methodologies. We conducted a comparative study of student reflective writings produced using either an electronic (blog) format or a traditional written (essay) format to assess differences in content, depth of reflection and student preference. students in internal medicine clerkships at two US medical schools during the 2008-2009 academic year were quasi-randomly assigned to one of two study arms according to which they were asked to either write a traditional reflective essay and subsequently join in faculty-moderated, small-group discussion (n = 45), or post two writings to a faculty-moderated group blog and provide at least one comment on a peer's posts (n = 50). Examples from a pilot block were used to refine coding methods and determine inter-rater reliability. Writings were coded for theme and level of reflection by two blinded authors; these coding processes reached inter-rater reliabilities of 91% and 80%, respectively. Anonymous pre- and post-clerkship surveys assessed student perceptions and preferences. student writing addressed seven main themes: (i) being humanistic; (ii) professional behaviour; (iii) understanding caregiving relationships; (iv) being a student; (v) clinical learning; (vi) dealing with death and dying, and (vii) the health care system, quality, safety and public health. The distribution of themes was similar across institutions and study arms. The level of reflection did not differ between study arms. Post-clerkship surveys showed that student preferences for blogging or essay writing were predicted by experience, with the majority favouring the method they had used. our study suggests there is no significant difference in themes addressed or levels of reflection achieved when students complete a similar assignment via online blogging or traditional essay writing. Given this, faculty staff

  10. Assessing student written problem solutions: A problem-solving rubric with application to introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Dornfeld, Jay; Frodermann, Evan; Heller, Kenneth; Hsu, Leonardo; Jackson, Koblar Alan; Mason, Andrew; Ryan, Qing X.; Yang, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Problem solving is a complex process valuable in everyday life and crucial for learning in the STEM fields. To support the development of problem-solving skills it is important for researchers and curriculum developers to have practical tools that can measure the difference between novice and expert problem-solving performance in authentic classroom work. It is also useful if such tools can be employed by instructors to guide their pedagogy. We describe the design, development, and testing of a simple rubric to assess written solutions to problems given in undergraduate introductory physics courses. In particular, we present evidence for the validity, reliability, and utility of the instrument. The rubric identifies five general problem-solving processes and defines the criteria to attain a score in each: organizing problem information into a Useful Description, selecting appropriate principles (Physics Approach), applying those principles to the specific conditions in the problem (Specific Application of Physics), using Mathematical Procedures appropriately, and displaying evidence of an organized reasoning pattern (Logical Progression).

  11. Assessing student written problem solutions: A problem-solving rubric with application to introductory physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Docktor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem solving is a complex process valuable in everyday life and crucial for learning in the STEM fields. To support the development of problem-solving skills it is important for researchers and curriculum developers to have practical tools that can measure the difference between novice and expert problem-solving performance in authentic classroom work. It is also useful if such tools can be employed by instructors to guide their pedagogy. We describe the design, development, and testing of a simple rubric to assess written solutions to problems given in undergraduate introductory physics courses. In particular, we present evidence for the validity, reliability, and utility of the instrument. The rubric identifies five general problem-solving processes and defines the criteria to attain a score in each: organizing problem information into a Useful Description, selecting appropriate principles (Physics Approach, applying those principles to the specific conditions in the problem (Specific Application of Physics, using Mathematical Procedures appropriately, and displaying evidence of an organized reasoning pattern (Logical Progression.

  12. Speech language therapy bilingual clinic, a written language therapeutical proposal to deaf people: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarinello, Ana Cristina; Massi, Giselle; Berberian, Ana Paula; Tonocchi, Rita; Lustosa, Sandra Silva

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the written production of a deaf person who is in the process of written language acquisition. One person with hearing disability, called R., participated in this study together with his Speech Language Pathologist. The therapist, proficient in sign language, acted as an interlocutor and interpreter, prioritizing the interactive nature of language and interfering in the written production only when it was requested. During the 3 years of work with R., a change in stance toward written language was observed. In addition, he began to reflect on his texts and utilize written Portuguese in a way that allowed his texts to be more coherent. Writing became an opportunity to show his singularity and to begin reconstructing his relationship with language. Speech language pathology and audiology therapy, at a bilingual clinic, can allow people with hearing disability early access to sign language and, consequently, enable the development of the written form of Portuguese.

  13. L2 writing and L2 written feedback in upper secondary schools as experienced by teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Manousou, Angeliki

    2015-01-01

    L2 written feedback is a multi-faceted issue and this is the reason behind the big number of studies that have been conducted on it. However, the majority of studies deal with learners’ opinions of teachers’ feedback or several types of feedback and their advantages and disadvantages. There are no studies that could have addressed teachers’ opinions of their L2 written feedback. This study attempts to describe how L2 teachers view their written feedback on learners’ essays. ...

  14. Fabrication of self-written waveguide in photosensitive polyimide resin by controlling photochemical reaction of photosensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, K.; Kuro, T.; Oe, K.; Mune, K.; Tagawa, K.; Naitou, R.; Mochizuki, A.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated optical properties of photosensitive polyimide appropriating for long self-written waveguide fabrication. From systematic measurements of absorption properties, it was found that photochemical reaction of photosensitizer dissolved in the photosensitive polyimide resins relates to transparency after the exposure, which limits the length of the fabricated self-written waveguide. By controlling the photochemical reaction, in which the photosensitive polyimide resin has sufficient transparency during exposure, four times longer self-written waveguide core was fabricated

  15. Word frequencies in written and spoken English based on the British National Corpus

    CERN Document Server

    Leech, Geoffrey; Wilson, Andrew (All Of Lancaster University)

    2014-01-01

    Word Frequencies in Written and Spoken English is a landmark volume in the development of vocabulary frequency studies. Whereas previous books have in general given frequency information about the written language only, this book provides information on both speech and writing. It not only gives information about the language as a whole, but also about the differences between spoken and written English, and between different spoken and written varieties of the language. The frequencies are derived from a wide ranging and up-to-date corpus of English: the British Na

  16. MODEL WRITTEN TEXTS IN THE RECOMMENDED SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL ENGLISH TEXTBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Rukmini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article is based on the study on the model written texts provided in the Senior High School English textbooks. It is aimed at finding out whether those models are written by considering the English two contexts, cultural and situational, which encircle them. The data are all written texts provided in the six recommended English textbooks published by six different publishers. The results reveal that only eleven out of 115 model written texts tend to be incompatible with the two contexts encircling them, this implies that 104 of them (93.43% are likely to be compatible and can be used as model texts.

  17. 13 CFR 130.630 - Dispute resolution procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... organization has supplied the Committee with all requested documentation. (b) Programmatic (non-financial... DEVELOPMENT CENTERS § 130.630 Dispute resolution procedures. (a) Financial Disputes. (1) A recipient organization wishing to resolve a financial Dispute formally must submit a written statement describing the...

  18. 32 CFR 644.418 - Procedure for exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procedure for exchange. 644.418 Section 644.418... for exchange. (a) Each agreement for the exchange of real property should be formalized by written contract specifying the terms and conditions of the exchange, including, by reference to exhibits...

  19. Analysis of correlated count data using generalised linear mixed models exemplified by field data on aggressive behaviour of boars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mielenz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Population-averaged and subject-specific models are available to evaluate count data when repeated observations per subject are present. The latter are also known in the literature as generalised linear mixed models (GLMM. In GLMM repeated measures are taken into account explicitly through random animal effects in the linear predictor. In this paper the relevant GLMMs are presented based on conditional Poisson or negative binomial distribution of the response variable for given random animal effects. Equations for the repeatability of count data are derived assuming normal distribution and logarithmic gamma distribution for the random animal effects. Using count data on aggressive behaviour events of pigs (barrows, sows and boars in mixed-sex housing, we demonstrate the use of the Poisson »log-gamma intercept«, the Poisson »normal intercept« and the »normal intercept« model with negative binomial distribution. Since not all count data can definitely be seen as Poisson or negative-binomially distributed, questions of model selection and model checking are examined. Emanating from the example, we also interpret the least squares means, estimated on the link as well as the response scale. Options provided by the SAS procedure NLMIXED for estimating model parameters and for estimating marginal expected values are presented.

  20. [Fusion of MRI, fMRI and intraoperative MRI data. Methods and clinical significance exemplified by neurosurgical interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moche, M; Busse, H; Dannenberg, C; Schulz, T; Schmitgen, A; Trantakis, C; Winkler, D; Schmidt, F; Kahn, T

    2001-11-01

    The aim of this work was to realize and clinically evaluate an image fusion platform for the integration of preoperative MRI and fMRI data into the intraoperative images of an interventional MRI system with a focus on neurosurgical procedures. A vertically open 0.5 T MRI scanner was equipped with a dedicated navigation system enabling the registration of additional imaging modalities (MRI, fMRI, CT) with the intraoperatively acquired data sets. These merged image data served as the basis for interventional planning and multimodal navigation. So far, the system has been used in 70 neurosurgical interventions (13 of which involved image data fusion--requiring 15 minutes extra time). The augmented navigation system is characterized by a higher frame rate and a higher image quality as compared to the system-integrated navigation based on continuously acquired (near) real time images. Patient movement and tissue shifts can be immediately detected by monitoring the morphological differences between both navigation scenes. The multimodal image fusion allowed a refined navigation planning especially for the resection of deeply seated brain lesions or pathologies close to eloquent areas. Augmented intraoperative orientation and instrument guidance improve the safety and accuracy of neurosurgical interventions.

  1. Automated statistical matching of multiple tephra records exemplified using five long maar sequences younger than 75 ka, Auckland, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rebecca M.; Bebbington, Mark S.; Cronin, Shane J.; Jones, Geoff

    2014-09-01

    Detailed tephrochronologies are built to underpin probabilistic volcanic hazard forecasting, and to understand the dynamics and history of diverse geomorphic, climatic, soil-forming and environmental processes. Complicating factors include highly variable tephra distribution over time; difficulty in correlating tephras from site to site based on physical and chemical properties; and uncertain age determinations. Multiple sites permit construction of more accurate composite tephra records, but correctly merging individual site records by recognizing common events and site-specific gaps is complex. We present an automated procedure for matching tephra sequences between multiple deposition sites using stochastic local optimization techniques. If individual tephra age determinations are not significantly different between sites, they are matched and a more precise age is assigned. Known stratigraphy and mineralogical or geochemical compositions are used to constrain tephra matches. We apply this method to match tephra records from five long sediment cores (≤ 75 cal ka BP) in Auckland, New Zealand. Sediments at these sites preserve basaltic tephras from local eruptions of the Auckland Volcanic Field as well as distal rhyolitic and andesitic tephras from Okataina, Taupo, Egmont, Tongariro, and Tuhua (Mayor Island) volcanic centers. The new correlated record compiled is statistically more likely than previously published arrangements from this area.

  2. A Novel Approach to Semantic Similarity Measurement Based on a Weighted Concept Lattice: Exemplifying Geo-Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Xiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of semantic similarity has been widely recognized as having a fundamental and key role in information science and information systems. Although various models have been proposed to measure semantic similarity, these models are not able effectively to quantify the weights of relevant factors that impact on the judgement of semantic similarity, such as the attributes of concepts, application context, and concept hierarchy. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that comprehensively considers the effects of various factors on semantic similarity judgment, which we name semantic similarity measurement based on a weighted concept lattice (SSMWCL. A feature model and network model are integrated together in SSMWCL. Based on the feature model, the combined weight of each attribute of the concepts is calculated by merging its information entropy and inclusion-degree importance in a specific application context. By establishing the weighted concept lattice, the relative hierarchical depths of concepts for comparison are computed according to the principle of the network model. The integration of feature model and network model enables SSMWCL to take account of differences in concepts more comprehensively in semantic similarity measurement. Additionally, a workflow of SSMWCL is designed to demonstrate these procedures and a case study of geo-information is conducted to assess the approach.

  3. Procedure and apparatus for back projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    (1) The procedure is for back projection in the form of a tomographic picture of a member, characterised in that the strip pictures are written onto the signal plate by a conversion pick-up unit; and that to the address inputs of the pick-up unit voltages are applied that represent a rotating coordinate system. (2) Procedure following claim 1 characterised by the fact that the voltages are respectively applied as sawtooth waveform horizontal and vertical television deflections. (3) Procedure following claims 1 and 2, characterised that in order to correct the television deflection voltages for the effect of a fan shaped radiation beam, first one and then the other of the amplitudes is modulated. (G.C.)

  4. The influence of the pregroove on the shape of thermomagnetically written domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihara, K.

    1990-01-01

    In order to clarify the influence of pregrooved substrates on the shape of thermomagnetically written domains, the difference between the shape of the domains written on a pregrooved area and that written on a mirror area have been examined. Trilayered magneto-optical media, which had rare-earth- (RE-) rich TbFeCo films, transition-metal-rich TbFeCo films, and RE-rich GdTbFeCo films as a recording layer, were sputtered on disk substrates. The substrates had both a pregrooved area and a mirror area in a recording track. The domains were written in each medium by varying the recording power and the external field, and were observed by an Ar + -laser scanning polarized microscope. In the case of TbFeCo media which were written with lower recording power condition, the shape of the domains on a pregrooved area were almost the same as those written on a mirror area. On the other hand, the widths of the domains written on a mirror area became larger than those of domains written on a pregrooved area when the recording power was increased. In the case of a GdTbFeCo medium, the widths of the domains written on a mirror area were much larger than those of domains written on a pregrooved area independent of the recording conditions. The lengths of the domains written on both areas were almost the same for all cases. It is believed that the reason for the experimental results is that thermal diffusion in the film plane is suppressed at the step of a pregroove. The different result between TbFeCo and GdTbFeCo films is believed to come from the differences in the contracting forces on the domain walls during the writing process

  5. HASL procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.H.

    1977-08-01

    Additions and corrections to the following sections of the HASL Procedures Manual are provided: General, Sampling, Field Measurements; General Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Procedures, Data Section, and Specifications

  6. The Attainment of High Sensitivity and Precision in Radioimmunoassay Techniques as Exemplified in a Simple Assay of Serum Insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albano, Janet; Ekins, R. P. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Middlesex Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom)

    1970-02-15

    Recent controversy has underlined the fundamental confusion surrounding the concepts of assay ''sensitivity'' and ''precision'' and, in particular, their optimization in radioimmunoassay and other saturation assay procedures. Many formal definitions of sensitivity (e.g. that laid down by the American Chemical Society) express this concept in terms of the slope of the ''dose'' response curve; nevertheless, in common usage, the term is normally regarded as a synonym for the detection limit of the measurement technique. However, a technique which is ''sensitive'' in the formal sense may not display a low limit of detection, and it is readily demonstrable that, in radioimmunoassay systems in particular, there are circumstances in which increase in the slope of the response curve may lead to an increase in the detection limit of the assay. The authors have based their insulin assay protocols on mathematical principles specifically designed to lead to the minimization of the detection limit. The method depends on the use of (uncoated) charcoal for the separation of free and bound labelled insulin in incubation mixtures in which insulin-free human serum is used as diluent. The detection limit of the method is approximately 1 pg/ml of incubation mixture, corresponding to roughly 0.25 {mu}U/ml of serum at the serum dilutions used. In a formal comparative study, the method has been shown to be more sensitive, precise and accurate than other methods relying on double antibody or chromato-electrophoietic separation. The relevance of such factors as high specific activity labelled hormone to the attainment of high sensitivity is discussed. (author)

  7. Directing Focus and Enabling Inquiry with Representations of Practice: Written Cases, Storyboards, and Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Patricio; Boileau, Nicolas; Clark, Lawrence; Milewski, Amanda; Chieu, Vu Minh; Gürsel, Umut; Chazan, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We discuss affordances and liabilities of using a storyboard to depict a written case of a teacher's dilemma that involves race, opportunity to learn, and student community. We rely on reflections by the teacher educator who authored the written case and later depicted it as a storyboard to use it with his preservice teachers (PSTs). The analysis…

  8. Evidence for a Limited-Cascading Account of Written Word Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Roux, Sebastien; Barry, Christopher; Canell, Laura

    2012-01-01

    We address the issue of how information flows within the written word production system by examining written object-naming latencies. We report 4 experiments in which we manipulate variables assumed to have their primary impact at the level of object recognition (e.g., quality of visual presentation of pictured objects), at the level of semantic…

  9. 14 CFR 302.207 - Cases to be decided on written submissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... administrative law judge is otherwise required by the public interest. (b) The standards employed in deciding... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cases to be decided on written submissions....207 Cases to be decided on written submissions. (a) Applications under this subpart will be decided on...

  10. Discourse Features of Written Mexican Spanish: Current Research in Contrastive Rhetoric and Its Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano-Harmon, Maria Rosario

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes discourse features of compositions written in Spanish by secondary school students in Mexico, draws comparisons with those written in English by Anglo-American students in the United States, and discusses the implications of the results for teaching and evaluating composition skills in Spanish language programs. (29 references) (GLR)

  11. Primary Teachers' Written Unit Plans in Mathematics and Their Perceptions of Essential Elements of These

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Anne; Clarke, Doug M.; Clarke, David J.; Sullivan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The content and purpose of written unit plans in mathematics is an under-researched area. In this article, we provide a brief overview of research on teachers' planning processes and the place of mental and written plans. We report on data from a questionnaire completed by 357 teachers from Victorian Catholic primary schools, where we focused on…

  12. 7 CFR 900.40 - Written testimony and USDA data request requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Nut Marketing Agreements and Marketing Orders § 900.40 Written testimony and USDA data request... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Written testimony and USDA data request requirements...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. English tsotsitaals? − an analysis of two written texts in Surfspeak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... medium of English; (b) give an appreciation of the humour, wit and style associated with English tsotsitaals, via the analysis of two written texts; and (c) show the limitations of tsotsitaals in extended written usage, for which they have to co-exist with more mainstream forms of the dialect of English they utilise for their base.

  14. The Written-Pole{sup TM} motor: high efficiency - low start current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, B. [C.Eng. Precise Power Corp., Bradenton, FL (United States); Friesen, D. [P.E. Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Written-Pole{sup TM} technology is a patented machine technology, which changes the magnetic polarity of the rotor field in a rotating machine, while the machine is operating. The number of poles is thereby changed, resulting in a constant frequency - variable speed machine. When operating as a motor, a Written-Pole machine has inherently low starting current and high operating efficiency. (orig.)

  15. A Structure Analysis of English Argumentative Writings Written by Chinese and Korean EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cui

    2013-01-01

    This study employed Kamimura and Oi (1996)'s classification of the organizational patterns of the argumentative essay structure: Thesis Statement (TS), Background Information (BI), Reservation (R), Hesitation (H), Rational Appeals (RA), Affective Appeals (AA) and Conclusion (C). 178 essays, 84 written by Chinese EFL learners, 84 written by Korean…

  16. Relations between scripted online peer feedback processes and quality of written argumentative essay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noroozi, Omid; Biemans, Harm; Mulder, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Teachers often complain about the quality of students' written essays in higher education. This study explores the relations between scripted online peer feedback processes and quality of written argumentative essay as they occur in an authentic learning situation with direct practical relevance.

  17. Language and Ageing--Exploring Propositional Density in Written Language--Stability over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Elizabeth; Craig, Hugh; Ferguson, Alison; Colyvas, Kim

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the stability of propositional density (PD) in written texts, as this aspect of language shows promise as an indicator and as a predictor of language decline with ageing. This descriptive longitudinal study analysed written texts obtained from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health in which participants were…

  18. Papa Pig Just Left for Pigtown: Children's Oral and Written Picture Descriptions under Varying Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Temple, Jeanne M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigates the extent of variation in children's language performance in a picture description task arising from mode (oral or written) versus degree of demand for decontextualization. Finds that children manipulated the wide range of the oral form of the contextualized/decontextualized continuum more skillfully than the written form. Finds no…

  19. The Relevance of Second Language Acquisition Theory to the Written Error Correction Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polio, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    The controversies surrounding written error correction can be traced to Truscott (1996) in his polemic against written error correction. He claimed that empirical studies showed that error correction was ineffective and that this was to be expected "given the nature of the correction process and "the nature of language learning" (p. 328, emphasis…

  20. Morphosyntactic correctness of written language production in adults with moderate to severe congenital hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, Elke; de Jong, Jan; Festen, Joost M.; Coene, Martine M.R.; Goverts, S. Theo

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine whether moderate to severe congenital hearing loss (MSCHL) leads to persistent morphosyntactic problems in the written language production of adults, as it does in their spoken language production. Design Samples of written language in Dutch were analysed for morphosyntactic

  1. Responding Effectively to Composition Students: Comparing Student Perceptions of Written and Audio Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbro, J.; Iluzada, C.; Clark, D. E.

    2013-01-01

    The authors compared student perceptions of audio and written feedback in order to assess what types of students may benefit from receiving audio feedback on their essays rather than written feedback. Many instructors previously have reported the advantages they see in audio feedback, but little quantitative research has been done on how the…

  2. Transforming Biology Assessment with Machine Learning: Automated Scoring of Written Evolutionary Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Ha, Minsu; Mayfield, Elijah

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the use of machine learning to automatically evaluate the accuracy of students' written explanations of evolutionary change. Performance of the Summarization Integrated Development Environment (SIDE) program was compared to human expert scoring using a corpus of 2,260 evolutionary explanations written by 565 undergraduate…

  3. Relationship between Legible Handwriting and Level of Success of Third Grade Students in Written Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Seher; Küçükayar, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify third-grade students' performance levels for written expression and handwriting and to find the relationship between these performances. The study is based on relational screening model. It is carried out with 110 third grade students. Students' levels of success in handwriting and in written expression are evaluated…

  4. 75 FR 57826 - Notice of Public Meeting and Opportunity To Submit Written Comments Concerning the Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... soliciting written comments and will hold a public meeting concerning the Administration's review of the U.S... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7175] Notice of Public Meeting and Opportunity To Submit Written Comments Concerning the Administration's Review of the U.S. National Contact Point for the OECD...

  5. Effect of the Level of Inquiry of Lab Experiments on General Chemistry Students' Written Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haozhi; Talanquer, Vincente

    2013-01-01

    The central goal of this exploratory study was to characterize the effects of experiments involving different levels of inquiry on the nature of college students' written reflections about laboratory work. Data were collected in the form of individual lab reports written using a science writing heuristic template by a subset of the students…

  6. Advance Planning of Form Properties in the Written Production of Single and Multiple Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Markus F.; Stadthagen-Gonzalez, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the scope of advance planning in written production. Experiment 1 manipulated phonological factors in single word written production, and Experiments 2 and 3 did the same in the production of adjective-noun utterances. In all three experiments, effects on latencies were found which mirrored those previously…

  7. Individual Differences in Strategy Use on Division Problems: Mental versus Written Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickendorff, Marian; van Putten, Cornelis M.; Verhelst, Norman D.; Heiser, Willem J.

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in strategy use (choice and accuracy) were analyzed. A sample of 362 Grade 6 students solved complex division problems under 2 different conditions. In the choice condition students were allowed to use either a mental or a written strategy. In the subsequent no-choice condition, they were required to use a written strategy.…

  8. Exploring Management Strategies to Reduce Cheating in Written Examinations: Case Study of Midlands State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taderera, Ever; Nyikahadzoi, Loveness; Matamande, Wilson; Mandimika, Elinah

    2014-01-01

    This study was concerned about cheating in written examinations at Midlands State University (MSU). The study revealed that both male and female students cheat in written examination; business studies students cheat more than other faculties, and younger (lower class) students cheat more than (upper class) older students. Factors influencing…

  9. 21 CFR 14.35 - Written submissions to an advisory committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written submissions to an advisory committee. 14.35 Section 14.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... of the written summary along with a proposed agenda outlining the topics to be covered and...

  10. Designing student peer assessment in higher education: Analysis of written and oral peer feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, I.; Admiraal, W.; Pilot, A.

    2006-01-01

    Designing student peer assessment in higher education: analysis of written and oral peer feedback Relating it to design features, the present article describes the nature of written and oral peer feedback as it occurred in seven writing courses, each with a different PA design. Results indicate that

  11. A Comparison of Written, Vocal, and Video Feedback When Training Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Kally M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Wu, Wai-Ling; Dupuis, Danielle L.; Hussein, Louisa A.

    2018-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of and preference for different feedback strategies when training six special education teachers during a 5-day summer training program. In Experiment 1, teachers received written or vocal feedback while learning to implement two different types of preference assessments. In Experiment 2, we compared either written or…

  12. Interplay among Technical, Socio-Emotional and Personal Factors in Written Feedback Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    The centrality of written feedback is clearly seen from the proliferation of research in the context of higher education. As an increasingly expanding field in research, the majority of written feedback studies have been interested in investigating the technical aspect of how feedback should be given in order to promote student learning. More…

  13. A Case Study in Business Writing: An Examination of Documents Written by Executives and Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallion, Leona M.; Kavan, C. Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Examines the types of documents written by 23 executives/managers in 2 different companies, finding that the most frequently written documents are memorandums and letters. Notes implications for business writing courses. Suggests that students be required to prepare a wide variety of documents in business writing courses. (SR)

  14. Data-Driven Learning and Awareness-Raising: An Effective Tandem to Improve Grammar in Written Composition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Pérez Cañado

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper, framed within the ECTS scheme currently being piloted at the University of Jaén, reports on a study carried out in the second semester of the academic year 2004-5 with English Philology freshmen at this University. One of its aims, described in an initial section of the paper, was to determine whether the use of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL, and Data-Driven Learning (DDL, could help raise awareness of and thus remediate the grammar weaknesses of such pupils under four categories (articles, verb tenses, verbal complementation, and prepositions. The procedure, outlined subsequently, involved using DDL to raise awareness of the main grammar mistakes in these headings, which had been previously identified in first year students’ production through the use of an UCLEE-error-tagged written learner corpus. Two one-hour seminars were employed weekly, each one with a group of 40 students, to raise awareness of these mistakes with the help of web-based resources. Four were the steps undertaken: initial attempts on the part of the students to identify the mistakes in the seven headings; a session provided by the authors on CALL as a means to raise awareness of, identify, and solve written mistakes; use of these electronic resources to contrast their initial error identification; and explicit correction of the mistakes in each category. The results and implications, discussed in a final section, highlight that DDL and awareness-raising – albeit in some categories more than in others – indeed constitute an effective tandem when it comes to improving grammatical aspects in written composition at University level.

  15. Solid waste: terminological and long-term environmental risk assessment problems exemplified in a power plant fly ash study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardowska, Irena; Szczepanska, Jadwiga

    2002-02-21

    leaching behaviour of waste. The presented case study on FA shows that waste, even those considered non-hazardous and fit for use in a commercially proven applications, should not be treated the same way as a natural raw material. To facilitate waste utilisation and disposal in environmentally safe way and to prioritise its use, reliable environmental risk assessment prediction models and testing procedures, as well as special enforcement strategy and regulations, should be developed with respect to waste and not 'materials.'

  16. The computerised procedure system COPMA and its user interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krogsaeter, M.; Larsen, J.; Nilsen, S.; Oewre, F.

    1990-01-01

    At the OECD Halden Reactor Project, the COPMA system has been developed in order to investigate whether procedures can be executed more safety and efficiently if they are computerised, i.e. if the operator uses a CRT-based system instead of written manuals. Procedures are entered in a procedure data base using PED, a procedure editor. Each procedure is given a textual as well as a graphical representation. For the textual representation, the language PROLA is used, a language which has been designed for simple procedure specification. The COPMA online system lets the operator execute procedures that are stored in the procedure data base. The operator interface is a screen divided into non-overlapping windows each serving a different purpose. All commands to the system are given by moving a mouse device around and clicking buttons on top of the mouse. A procedure consists of steps, each step containing a number of instructions. The operator works on one activity at a time, an activity to be seen as a procedure instance. A graph shows the overall procedure (or activity) structure in a window and activity execution is traced in the graph. Another windows shows the instructions of the step currently being executed. The operator steps through the activity by selecting whether and how to execute the listed instructions. COPMA can maintain the status of several activities in parallel, so that the operator can easily switch between different activities. COPMA is linked to a PWR nuclear simulator over Ethernet using the TCP/IP protocol. This gives a number of advantages as compared to conventional written procedures, especially the fact that COPMA can help collect data from the procedure data base automatically

  17. Computer assisted procedure maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisio, R.; Hulsund, J. E.; Nilsen, S.

    2004-04-01

    The maintenance of operating procedures in a NPP is a tedious and complicated task. Through the whole life cycle of the procedures they will be dynamic, 'living' documents. Several aspects of the procedure must be considered in a revision process. Pertinent details and attributes of the procedure must be checked. An organizational structure must be created and responsibilities allotted for drafting, revising, reviewing and publishing procedures. Available powerful computer technology provides solutions within document management and computerisation of procedures. These solutions can also support the maintenance of procedures. Not all parts of the procedure life cycle are equally amenable to computerized support. This report looks at the procedure life cycle in todays NPPs and discusses the possibilities associated with introduction of computer technology to assist the maintenance of procedures. (Author)

  18. Harnessing Reddit to Understand the Written-Communication Challenges Experienced by Individuals With Mental Health Disorders: Analysis of Texts From Mental Health Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Albert; Conway, Mike

    2018-04-10

    Mental disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia are common, incapacitating, and have the potential to be fatal. Despite the prevalence and gravity of mental disorders, our knowledge concerning everyday challenges associated with them is relatively limited. One of the most studied deficits related to everyday challenges is language impairment, yet we do not know how mental disorders can impact common forms of written communication, for example, social media. The aims of this study were to investigate written communication challenges manifest in online mental health communities focusing on depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, as well as the impact of participating in these online mental health communities on written communication. As the control, we selected three online health communities focusing on positive emotion, exercising, and weight management. We examined lexical diversity and readability, both important features for measuring the quality of writing. We used four well-established readability metrics that consider word frequencies and syntactic complexity to measure writers' written communication ability. We then measured the lexical diversity by calculating the percentage of unique words in posts. To compare lexical diversity and readability among communities, we first applied pairwise independent sample t tests, followed by P value adjustments using the prespecified Hommel procedure to adjust for multiple comparison. To measure the changes, we applied linear least squares regression to the readability and lexical diversity scores against the interaction sequence for each member, followed by pairwise independent sample t tests and P value adjustments. Given the large sample of members, we also report effect sizes and 95% CIs for the pairwise comparisons. On average, members of depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia communities showed indications of difficulty expressing their ideas compared with three other

  19. A production system for computerized emergency procedures tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrick, W.; Ng, K.; Stuart, C.; Cain, D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology used to implement a computerized Emergency Operating Procedures (EOP) tracking system based on artificial intelligence (AI) technologies. In AI parlance, the system is a production system in which the knowledge representation is a set of productions (IF-THEN rules) which are interpreted by an inference engine or rule interpreter. The inference engine looks for pattern matches in the rule premises which lead to a conclusion. This inferred conclusion is subsequently used in further pattern matches. By separating the knowledge representation from the inference engine, the system can readily accommodate changes to the written procedures. The system is written in the C language and is co-resident on the same computer as the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS). The plant EOPs have been written in about 250 rules which are evaluated in less than one second using about 10-20% of the CPU. The conclusions are available to multiple users within seconds after a parameter value changes. The benefits achieved with this production rule system include compatibility with the written procedures used as the knowledge source, compatibility with control room instrumentation, compatibility with the SPDS, realtime performance, and efficient computer usage

  20. Method Validation Procedure in Gamma Spectroscopy Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Samad, O.; Baydoun, R.

    2008-01-01

    The present work describes the methodology followed for the application of ISO 17025 standards in gamma spectroscopy laboratory at the Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission including the management and technical requirements. A set of documents, written procedures and records were prepared to achieve the management part. The technical requirements, internal method validation was applied through the estimation of trueness, repeatability , minimum detectable activity and combined uncertainty, participation in IAEA proficiency tests assure the external method validation, specially that the gamma spectroscopy lab is a member of ALMERA network (Analytical Laboratories for the Measurements of Environmental Radioactivity). Some of these results are presented in this paper. (author)

  1. 78 FR 15406 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure 2013-XX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... Revenue Procedure 2013- XX AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request... comments concerning Revenue Procedure 2013-XX, Disaster Relief. DATES: Written comments should be received... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Disaster Relief. OMB Number: 1545-2237. Form Number: Rev. Proc. 2013-XX...

  2. Critical Emergency Medicine Procedural Skills: A Comparative Study of Methods for Teaching and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Dane M.; And Others

    Three critical procedural skills in emergency medicine were evaluated using three assessment modalities--written, computer, and animal model. The effects of computer practice and previous procedure experience on skill competence were also examined in an experimental sequential assessment design. Subjects were six medical students, six residents,…

  3. Groundwater technical procedures of the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William L.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    A series of groundwater technical procedures documents (GWPDs) has been released by the U.S. Geological Survey, Water-Resources Discipline, for general use by the public. These technical procedures were written in response to the need for standardized technical procedures of many aspects of groundwater science, including site and measuring-point establishment, measurement of water levels, and measurement of well discharge. The techniques are described in the GWPDs in concise language and are accompanied by necessary figures and tables derived from cited manuals, reports, and other documents. Because a goal of this series of procedures is to remain current with the state of the science, and because procedures change over time, this report is released in an online format only. As new procedures are developed and released, they will be linked to this document.

  4. Written pain neuroscience education in fibromyalgia: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ittersum, Miriam W; van Wilgen, C Paul; van der Schans, Cees P; Lambrecht, Luc; Groothoff, Johan W; Nijs, Jo

    2014-11-01

    Mounting evidence supports the use of face-to-face pain neuroscience education for the treatment of chronic pain patients. This study aimed at examining whether written education about pain neuroscience improves illness perceptions, catastrophizing, and health status in patients with fibromyalgia. A double-blind, multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial with 6-month follow-up was conducted. Patients with FM (n = 114) that consented to participate were randomly allocated to receive either written pain neuroscience education or written relaxation training. Written pain neuroscience education comprised of a booklet with pain neuroscience education plus a telephone call to clarify any difficulties; the relaxation group received a booklet with relaxation education and a telephone call. The revised illness perception questionnaire, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and fibromyalgia impact questionnaire were used as outcome measures. Both patients and assessors were blinded. Repeated-measures analyses with last observation carried forward principle were performed. Cohen's d effect sizes (ES) were calculated for all within-group changes and between-group differences. The results reveal that written pain neuroscience education does not change the impact of FM on daily life, catastrophizing, or perceived symptoms of patients with FM. Compared with written relaxation training, written pain neuroscience education improved beliefs in a chronic timeline of FM (P = 0.03; ES = 0.50), but it does not impact upon other domains of illness perceptions. Compared with written relaxation training, written pain neuroscience education slightly improved illness perceptions of patients with FM, but it did not impart clinically meaningful effects on pain, catastrophizing, or the impact of FM on daily life. Face-to-face sessions of pain neuroscience education are required to change inappropriate cognitions and perceived health in patients with FM. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  5. How Do Surgery Students Use Written Language to Say What They See? A Framework to Understand Medical Students' Written Evaluations of Their Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, David W; White, Jonathan S

    2015-11-01

    There remains debate regarding the value of the written comments that medical students are traditionally asked to provide to evaluate the teaching they receive. The purpose of this study was to examine written teaching evaluations to understand how medical students conceptualize teachers' behaviors and performance. All written comments collected from medical students about teachers in the two surgery clerkships at the University of Alberta in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 were collated and anonymized. A grounded theory approach was used for analysis, with iterative reading and open coding to identify recurring themes. A framework capturing variations observed in the data was generated until data saturation was achieved. Domains and subdomains were named using an in situ coding approach. The conceptual framework contained three main domains: "Physician as Teacher," "Physician as Person," and "Physician as Physician." Under "Physician as Teacher," students commented on specific acts of teaching and subjective perceptions of an educator's teaching values. Under the "Physician as Physician" domain, students commented on elements of their educator's physicianship, including communication and collaborative skills, medical expertise, professionalism, and role modeling. Under "Physician as Person," students commented on how both positive and negative personality traits impacted their learning. This framework describes how medical students perceive their teachers and how they use written language to attach meaning to the behaviors they observe. Such a framework can be used to help students provide more constructive feedback to teachers and to assist in faculty development efforts aimed at improving teaching performance.

  6. Computerized procedures system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipner, Melvin H.; Mundy, Roger A.; Franusich, Michael D.

    2010-10-12

    An online data driven computerized procedures system that guides an operator through a complex process facility's operating procedures. The system monitors plant data, processes the data and then, based upon this processing, presents the status of the current procedure step and/or substep to the operator. The system supports multiple users and a single procedure definition supports several interface formats that can be tailored to the individual user. Layered security controls access privileges and revisions are version controlled. The procedures run on a server that is platform independent of the user workstations that the server interfaces with and the user interface supports diverse procedural views.

  7. Human factoring administrative procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grider, D.A.; Sturdivant, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    In nonnuclear business, administrative procedures bring to mind such mundane topics as filing correspondence and scheduling vacation time. In the nuclear industry, on the other hand, administrative procedures play a vital role in assuring the safe operation of a facility. For some time now, industry focus has been on improving technical procedures. Significant efforts are under way to produce technical procedure requires that a validated technical, regulatory, and administrative basis be developed and that the technical process be established for each procedure. Producing usable technical procedures requires that procedure presentation be engineered to the same human factors principles used in control room design. The vital safety role of administrative procedures requires that they be just as sound, just a rigorously formulated, and documented as technical procedures. Procedure programs at the Tennessee Valley Authority and at Boston Edison's Pilgrim Station demonstrate that human factors engineering techniques can be applied effectively to technical procedures. With a few modifications, those same techniques can be used to produce more effective administrative procedures. Efforts are under way at the US Department of Energy Nuclear Weapons Complex and at some utilities (Boston Edison, for instance) to apply human factors engineering to administrative procedures: The techniques being adapted include the following

  8. Written object naming, spelling to dictation, and immediate copying: Different tasks, different pathways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Méot, Alain; Lagarrigue, Aurélie; Roux, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    We report an investigation of cross-task comparisons of handwritten latencies in written object naming, spelling to dictation, and immediate copying. In three separate sessions, adults had to write down a list of concrete nouns from their corresponding pictures (written naming), from their spoken (spelling to dictation) and from their visual presentation (immediate copying). Linear mixed models without random slopes were performed on the latencies in order to study and compare within-task fixed effects. By-participants random slopes were then included to investigate individual differences within and across tasks. Overall, the findings suggest that written naming, spelling to dictation, and copying all involve a lexical pathway, but that written naming relies on this pathway more than the other two tasks do. Only spelling to dictation strongly involves a nonlexical pathway. Finally, the analyses performed at the level of participants indicate that, depending on the type of task, the slower participants are more or less influenced by certain psycholinguistic variables.

  9. Problems of an Emergent Written Language of the Global System for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    written language of the GSM' via the lexemes, morphemes, syntax, and mechanics of ... Most important, is the overall chaotic effect of this language on formal teaching and learning in English in an ESL (English as a Second Language) situation.

  10. To improve the teaching of construction of written texts and regulations from all curriculum areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Abello Cruz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In th is article it is offered theoretical references for the construction of texts written according to the rules and suggestions for the daily performance in the universities of pedagogical sciences, since all curricular areas.

  11. The emotional importance of key: do Beatles songs written in different keys convey different emotional tones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissel, R; Whissel, C

    2000-12-01

    Lyrics from 155 songs written by the Lennon-McCartney team were scored using the Dictionary of Affect in Language. Resultant scores (pleasantness, activation, and imagery of words) were compared across key signatures using one way analyses of variance. Words from songs written in minor keys were less pleasant and less active than those from songs written in major keys. Words from songs written in the key of F scored extremely low on all three measures. Lyrics from the keys of C, D, and G were relatively active in tone. Results from Dictionary scoring were compared with assignments of character to keys made more than one century ago and with current musicians' opinions.

  12. Which characteristics of written feedback are perceived as stimulating students' reflective competence : an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Hanke; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Snoek, Jos W.; van der Molen, Thys; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Background: Teacher feedback on student reflective writing is recommended to improve learners' reflective competence. To be able to improve teacher feedback on reflective writing, it is essential to gain insight into which characteristics of written feedback stimulate students' reflection processes.

  13. Procedures in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, T.; Hare, W.S.C.; Thomson, K.; Tess, B.

    1989-01-01

    This book outlines the various procedures necessary for the successful practice of diagnostic radiology. Topics covered are: general principles, imaging of the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts, vascular radiology, arthrography, and miscellaneous diagnostic radiologic procedures

  14. A precompiler written in SPITBOL applied to programs to analyze nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelmann, K.; Croome, D.

    1985-01-01

    For an interactive data acquisition and analysis system for nuclear physics experiments a precompiler is provided to expand system specific macros in user written analysis programs. It is written with help of the string processing language SPITBOL and generates PL/I or PL-11 code. It is shown that SPITBOL is a suitable precompiler language for this kind of medium size precompile problems. (orig.)

  15. Mushu, a free- and open source BCI signal acquisition, written in Python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venthur, Bastian; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The following paper describes Mushu, a signal acquisition software for retrieval and online streaming of Electroencephalography (EEG) data. It is written, but not limited, to the needs of Brain Computer Interfacing (BCI). It's main goal is to provide a unified interface to EEG data regardless of the amplifiers used. It runs under all major operating systems, like Windows, Mac OS and Linux, is written in Python and is free- and open source software licensed under the terms of the GNU General Public License.

  16. Pathways to the Oral and Written Language Competence Among Young Vietnamese English Language Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Duong, Thao Michelle

    2011-01-01

    This case study, drawing upon the ecological perspectives (Kramsch, 2002; van Lier, 2004) as a theoretical framework, described the learning experiences of two second generation and first grade Vietnamese English Language Learners navigating between home and school to develop oral and written L1 Vietnamese and L2 English competence for one school year. In the second school year, the focal students' oral and written language samples were collected without classroom observations or interviews....

  17. About the psycholinguistic models of the writing process for a didactics of written production1

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Debanc, Claudine; Fayol, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This article problematises the possible areas of cooperation between psycholinguists and specialists in didactics by underlining both the interests of an interaction between them and the specific and complementary mission of both fields.After a historic overview of how references to psycholinguistic works emerged in the research on the didactics of written production, the main models of verbal production, especially of written verbal production, published during the 1980s and1990s are present...

  18. On Verification of PLC-Programs Written in the LD-Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kuzmin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss some questions connected with the construction of a technology of analysing correctness of Programmable Logic Controller programs. We consider an example of modeling and automated verification of PLC-programs written in the Ladder Diagram language (including timed function blocks of the IEC 61131-3 standard. We use the Cadence SMV for symbolic model checking. Program properties are written in the linear-time temporal logic LTL.

  19. Procedural Media Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Henrysson, Anders

    2002-01-01

    We present a concept for using procedural techniques to represent media. Procedural methods allow us to represent digital media (2D images, 3D environments etc.) with very little information and to render it photo realistically. Since not all kind of content can be created procedurally, traditional media representations (bitmaps, polygons etc.) must be used as well. We have adopted an object-based media representation where an object can be represented either with a procedure or with its trad...

  20. DISCOURSE AND PARTICIPATION IN ESL FACE-TO-FACE AND WRITTEN ELECTRONIC CONFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fitze

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was a comparative investigation of face-to-face and written electronic conferences. The participants were advanced English as a second language (hereafter: ESL students. The two types of conferences were compared in terms of textual features and participation. There was no statistically significant difference in the total number of words that students produced in an equivalent amount of time in the two types of conferences. The discourse in written electronic conferences displayed greater lexical range, and students in these conferences produced more discourse demonstrating interactive competence. The statistically significant finding of increased lexical range in written electronic conferences persisted even when the interactive discourse was eliminated from the conference transcripts and the transcripts were reanalyzed. This finding suggests that, during written electronic conferences, students were better able to use and practice a wider range of vocabulary related to the topics. For one of the groups, participation in written electronic conferences was more balanced among students, while for the other group participation was about equally balanced regardless of the conference setting. This last finding came as a surprise and points to a need for further research into variables that might mediate balanced participation in face-to-face and written electronic conferences.

  1. Classification of radiological procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A classification for departments in Danish hospitals which use radiological procedures. The classification codes consist of 4 digits, where the first 2 are the codes for the main groups. The first digit represents the procedure's topographical object and the second the techniques. The last 2 digits describe individual procedures. (CLS)

  2. Ethnic Religion in nowadays Europe: renaissance of the historical pagan beliefs or Political Paganism? Exemplified by the Asatru in Denmark and the Mari Native Religion in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Carsten Sander

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the history and the problems of ethnic religions in nowadays Europe. Based on a definition and discussion of Paganism and Neopaganism, and a thereby following definition and discussion of differences between ethnic religion and monotheistic religion, the article tries to get the answer as to whether ethnic religion, nowadays, is a Political Paganism, a renaissance of historical pagan beliefs or a mixture. To answer the question, the problem of the article will be exemplified by an analysis of two types of paganism in contemporary Europe: the Asatru in Denmark and the Mari Native Religion in Russia. Revived in the 1970s, the Asatru is a rather new phenomenon as well in Denmark as in other countries of the world. On 15 November 1997 the Forn Siðr association, the Asatru and Vanatru Association in Denmark, was established, in 2003 recognized, and registered as an official religion in Denmark. Whereas the Mari Native Religion, a religion practiced by the Mari people in a Russian region of Mari El Republic, 800 kilometres east of Moscow, can lead its roots several thousand years back.

  3. Giant lobelias exemplify convergent evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givnish Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups of Asteraceae and other families. A recent phylogenetic analysis by Antonelli, based on sequencing the widest selection of lobeliads to date, raises doubts about this paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here I address the kinds of evidence needed to test for convergent evolution and argue that the analysis by Antonelli fails on four points. Antonelli's analysis makes several important contributions to our understanding of lobeliad evolution and geographic spread, but his claim regarding convergence appears to be invalid. Giant lobeliads in Hawaii and Africa represent paradigmatic examples of convergent evolution.

  4. Procedure generation and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheely, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy has used Artificial Intelligence of ''AI'' concepts to develop two powerful new computer-based techniques to enhance safety in nuclear applications. The Procedure Generation System, and the Procedure Verification System, can be adapted to other commercial applications, such as a manufacturing plant. The Procedure Generation System can create a procedure to deal with the off-normal condition. The operator can then take correct actions on the system in minimal time. The Verification System evaluates the logic of the Procedure Generator's conclusions. This evaluation uses logic techniques totally independent of the Procedure Generator. The rapid, accurate generation and verification of corrective procedures can greatly reduce the human error, possible in a complex (stressful/high stress) situation

  5. Δt tuneup procedure for the LAMPF 805-MHz linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, K.R.

    1976-05-01

    An important part of tuning the LAMPF accelerator is the adjustment of the phases and amplitudes in the 805-MHz linac. The technique used is called the Δt procedure because of the time-of-flight measurements that are required. The theory behind the Δt procedure, a brief description of the hardware, and a description of the many computer programs that have been written to implement the procedure are presented

  6. The Quality of Written Feedback by Attendings of Internal Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jeffrey L; Kay, Cynthia; Jackson, Wilkins C; Frank, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Attending evaluations are commonly used to evaluate residents. Evaluate the quality of written feedback of internal medicine residents. Retrospective. Internal medicine residents and faculty at the Medical College of Wisconsin from 2004 to 2012. From monthly evaluations of residents by attendings, a randomly selected sample of 500 written comments by attendings were qualitatively coded and rated as high-, moderate-, or low-quality feedback by two independent coders with good inter-rater reliability (kappa: 0.94). Small group exercises with residents and attendings also coded the utterances as high, moderate, or low quality and developed criteria for this categorization. In-service examination scores were correlated with written feedback. There were 228 internal medicine residents who had 6,603 evaluations by 334 attendings. Among 500 randomly selected written comments, there were 2,056 unique utterances: 29% were coded as nonspecific statements, 20% were comments about resident personality, 16% about patient care, 14% interpersonal communication, 7% medical knowledge, 6% professionalism, and 4% each on practice-based learning and systems-based practice. Based on criteria developed by group exercises, the majority of written comments were rated as moderate quality (65%); 22% were rated as high quality and 13% as low quality. Attendings who provided high-quality feedback rated residents significantly lower in all six of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies (p service examination scores. Most attending written evaluation was of moderate or low quality. Attendings who provided high-quality feedback appeared to be more discriminating, providing significantly lower ratings of residents in all six ACGME core competencies, and across a greater range. Attendings' negative written comments on medical knowledge correlated with lower in-service training scores.

  7. Issues involved in a knowledge-based approach to procedure synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, B.K.; Khartabil, L.F.; Miller, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    Many knowledge-based systems (KBSs) have been built to assist human operators in managing nuclear power plant operating functions, such as monitoring, fault diagnosis, alarm filtering, and procedure management. For procedure management, KBSs have been built to display and track existing written procedures or to dynamically follow procedure execution by monitoring plant data and action execution and suggesting recovery steps. More recent works build KBSs able to synthesize procedures. This paper addresses and examines the main issues related to the implementation of on-line procedure synthesis using KBSs. A KBS for procedure synthesis can provide a more robust and effective procedural plan during accidents. Currently existing procedures for abnormal plant conditions, written as precompiled step sets based on the event and symptom approaches, are inherently not robust because anticipation of all potential plant states and associated plant responses is not possible. Thus, their failure recovery capability is limited to the precompiled set. Procedure synthesis has the potential to overcome these two problems because it does not require such precompilation of large sets of plant states and associated recovery procedures. Other benefits obtained from a complete procedure synthesis system are providing (a) a methodology for off-line procedure verification and (b) a methodology for the eventual automation of plant operations

  8. Teachers' Accounts of Their Perceptions and Practices of Providing Written Feedback to Nursing Students on Their Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Sajid; Gul, Raisa; Lakhani, Arusa; Rizvi, Nusrat Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Written feedback can facilitate students' learning in several ways. However, the teachers' practices of written feedback may be affected by various factors. This study aimed to explore the nurse teachers' accounts of their perceptions and practices of providing written feedback. A descriptive exploratory design was employed in the study. A…

  9. The Contribution of Verbal Working Memory to Deaf Children’s Oral and Written Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfé, Barbara; Rossi, Cristina; Sicoli, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of verbal working memory to the oral and written story production of deaf children. Participants were 29 severely to profoundly deaf children aged 8–13 years and 29 hearing controls, matched for grade level. The children narrated a picture story orally and in writing and performed a reading comprehension test, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition forward digit span task, and a reading span task. Oral and written stories were analyzed at the microstructural (i.e., clause) and macrostructural (discourse) levels. Hearing children’s stories scored higher than deaf children’s at both levels. Verbal working memory skills contributed to deaf children’s oral and written production over and above age and reading comprehension skills. Verbal rehearsal skills (forward digit span) contributed significantly to deaf children’s ability to organize oral and written stories at the microstructural level; they also accounted for unique variance at the macrostructural level in writing. Written story production appeared to involve greater verbal working memory resources than oral story production. PMID:25802319

  10. Providing written language services in the schools: the time is now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Karen A; Katz, Lauren A

    2011-01-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the provision of written language services by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Specifically, the study examined SLPs' knowledge, attitudes, and collaborative practices in the area of written language services as well as the variables that impact provision of these services. Public school-based SLPs from across the country were solicited for participation in an online, Web-based survey. Data from 645 full-time SLPs from 49 states were evaluated using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Many school-based SLPs reported not providing any services in the area of written language to students with written language weaknesses. Knowledge, attitudes, and collaborative practices were mixed. A logistic regression revealed three variables likely to predict high levels of service provision in the area of written language. Data from the current study revealed that many struggling readers and writers on school-based SLPs' caseloads are not receiving services from their SLPs. Implications for SLPs' preservice preparation, continuing education, and doctoral preparation are discussed.

  11. Readability of Invasive Procedure Consent Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Naqvi, Syed S; Ghanian, Soha; Eberson, Craig P; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C; Born, Christopher T; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-12-01

    Informed consent is a pillar of ethical medicine which requires patients to fully comprehend relevant issues including the risks, benefits, and alternatives of an intervention. Given the average reading skill of US adults is at the 8th grade level, the American Medical Association (AMA) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommend patient information materials should not exceed a 6th grade reading level. We hypothesized that text provided in invasive procedure consent forms would exceed recommended readability guidelines for medical information. To test this hypothesis, we gathered procedure consent forms from all surgical inpatient hospitals in the state of Rhode Island. For each consent form, readability analysis was measured with the following measures: Flesch Reading Ease Formula, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Fog Scale, SMOG Index, Coleman-Liau Index, Automated Readability Index, and Linsear Write Formula. These readability scores were used to calculate a composite Text Readability Consensus Grade Level. Invasive procedure consent forms were found to be written at an average of 15th grade level (i.e., third year of college), which is significantly higher than the average US adult reading level of 8th grade (p readability guidelines for patient materials of 6th grade (p readability levels which makes comprehension difficult or impossible for many patients. Efforts to improve the readability of procedural consent forms should improve patient understanding regarding their healthcare decisions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Defect assessment procedures at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment procedure for the high-temperature response of structures is being produced. The procedure is referred to as R5 and is written as a series of step-by-step instructions in a number of volumes. This paper considers in detail those parts of R5 which address the behaviour of defects. The defect assessment procedures may be applied to defects found in service, postulated defects, or defects formed during operation as a result of creep-fatigue loading. In the last case, a method is described for deducing from endurance data the number of cycles to initiate a crack of a specified size. Under steady loading, the creep crack tip parameter C * is used to assess crack growth. Under cyclic loading, the creep crack growth during dwell periods is stiell governed by C * but crack growth due to cyclic excursions must also be included. This cyclic crack growth is described by an effective stress intensity factor range. A feature of the R5 defect assessment procedures in that they are based on simplified methods and approximate reference stress methods are described which enable C * in a component to be evaluated. It is shown by comparison with theoretical calculations and experimental data that reliable estimates of C * and the associated crack growth are obtained provided realistic creep strain rate date are used in the reference stress approximation. (orig./HP)

  13. Civil Procedure In Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    scientific activities conducted by the author, partly based on the author's experience as a member, through a number of years, of the Danish Standing Committee on Procedural Law (Retsplejeraadet), which on a continuous basis evaluates the need for civil procedural reforms in Denmark, and finally also based......The book contains an up-to-date survey of Danish civil procedure after the profound Danish procedural reforms in 2007. It deals with questions concerning competence and function of Danish courts, commencement and preparation of civil cases, questions of evidence and burden of proof, international...... procedural questions, including relations to the Brussels I Regulation and Denmark's participation in this Regulation via a parallel convention with the EU countries, impact on Danish civil procedure of the convention on human rights, preparation and pronouncement of judgment and verdict, questions of appeal...

  14. Quality control procedures on graphite, pyrocarbon and silconcarbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizlik, K. [comp.

    1974-09-01

    The presented report includes those papers presented at the 8th meeting of the DP-QCWP in Winfrith which have been written by collaborators of the Institut fuer Reaktorwerkstoffe der Kernforschungsanlage Juelich, together with other co-authors. The papers deal with problems of standardizing characterization methods for the routine quality control of graphites and pyrolytic carbons as well as with more basic procedures (transmission electron microscopy, microporosity) for the analysis of pyrocarbon structure.

  15. Spline-procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.

    1976-12-01

    This report contains a short introduction to spline functions as well as a complete description of the spline procedures presently available in the HMI-library. These include polynomial splines (using either B-splines or one-sided basis representations) and natural splines, as well as their application to interpolation, quasiinterpolation, L 2 -, and Tchebycheff approximation. Special procedures are included for the case of cubic splines. Complete test examples with input and output are provided for each of the procedures. (orig.) [de

  16. Procedural sedation analgesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sheta, Saad A

    2010-01-01

    The number of noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures performed outside of the operating room has grown exponentially over the last several decades. Sedation, analgesia, or both may be needed for many of these interventional or diagnostic procedures. Individualized care is important when determining if a patient requires procedural sedation analgesia (PSA). The patient might need an anti-anxiety drug, pain medicine, immobilization, simple reassurance, or a combination of these interve...

  17. Diverse assemblies of the (4,4) grid layers exemplified in Zn(II)/Co(II) coordination polymers with dual linear ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guang-Zhen; Li, Xiao-Dong; Xin, Ling-Yun; Li, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Li-Ya

    2013-01-01

    Diverse (4,4) grid layers are exemplified in five two-dimensional coordination polymers with dual µ 2 -bridged ligands, namely, ([Zn(cbaa)(bpp)]·H 2 O) n (1), [Zn 2 (cbaa) 2 (bpy)] n (2), [Co 2 (cbaa) 2 (bpp) 2 ] n (3), [Co(cbaa)(bpp)] n (4), and [Co(bdaa)(bpp)(H 2 O) 2 ] n (5) (H 2 cbaa=4-carboxybenzeneacetic acid, bpp=1,3-di(4-pyridyl)propane, bpy=4,4′-bipyridyl, and H 2 bdaa=1,4-benzenediacrylic acid). For 1, two (4,4) grid layers with [ZnN 2 O 2 ] tetrahedron as the node are held together by lattice water forming a H-bonding bilayer. Individual (4,4) grid layer in 2 is based on (Zn 2 (OCO) 4 ) paddlewheel unit as the node. Two (4,4) grid layers with (Co 2 O(OCO) 2 ) dimer as the node are covalently interconnected by organic ligands affording a thick bilayer of 3 with new framework topology. The different entanglements between two coincident (4,4) grid layers with [CoN 2 O 4 ] octahedron as the node leads to two 2D→2D interpenetrated structures for 4 and 5. Furthermore, fluorescent properties of 1 and 2 as well as magnetic properties of 3 are investigated. - Graphical abstract: Diverse assemblies of the (4,4) grid layers with different network nodes forms five coordination polymers that are well characterized by IR, TGA, element analysis, fluorescent and magnetic measurement. - Highlights: • Diverse assemblies of the (4,4) grid layers with different structural units as the nodes. • A new topology type with the uninodal 6-connected net of (4 12 .5 2 .6) is found. • Intense fluorescence emissions with a rare blue-shift of 55 nm compared to free carboxylate ligand

  18. Recurrent polymorphic mating type variation in Madagascan Bulbophyllum species (Orchidaceae) exemplifies a high incidence of auto-pollination in tropical orchids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamisch, Alexander; Fischer, Gunter A; Comes, Hans Peter

    2014-01-01

    The transition from outcrossing to self-fertilization is one of the most common evolutionary changes in angiosperms. The orchid family exemplifies this evolutionary trend but, because of a general lack of large-scale surveys on auto-pollination in orchid taxa, the incidence and modes of auto-pollination among (sub)tropical orchids remain poorly known. In the present study, we assessed the frequency and mode of auto-pollination within and among species of a largely monophyletic group of Madagascan Bulbophyllum. The capacity for autonomous fruit set was investigated by bagging experiments in the greenhouse and the field, complemented with detailed floral micromorphological studies of the gynostemium. Our survey comprises 393 accessions, representing at least 78 species, and thus approximately 37% of the species diversity of the genus in the Madagascan region. Our studies revealed that mating type is directly related to gynostemium structure, most often involving the presence or absence of a physical barrier termed ‘rostellum’. As a novel and unexpected finding, we identified eight species of a single lineage of Madagascan Bulbophyllum (termed ‘clade C’), in which auto-pollinating morphs (selfers), either lacking a rostellum or (rarely) possessing a stigmatic rostellum, co-exist with their pollinator-dependent conspecifics (outcrossers). We hypothesize that auto-pollination via rostellum abortion has a simple genetic basis, and probably evolved rapidly and recurrently by subtle changes in the timing of rostellum development (heterochrony). Thus, species of clade C may have an intrinsic genetic and developmental lability toward auto-pollination, allowing rapid evolutionary response under environmental, perhaps human-disturbed conditions favouring reproductive assurance. Overall, these findings should stimulate further research on the incidence, evolution, and maintenance of mating type variation in tropical orchids, as well as how they adapt(ed) to changing

  19. A Descriptive Study of Registers Found in Spoken and Written Communication (A Semantic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hidayah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is descriptive study of registers found in spoken and written communication. The type of this research is Descriptive Qualitative Research. In this research, the data of the study is register in spoken and written communication that are found in a book entitled "Communicating! Theory and Practice" and from internet. The data can be in the forms of words, phrases and abbreviation. In relation with method of collection data, the writer uses the library method as her instrument. The writer relates it to the study of register in spoken and written communication. The technique of analyzing the data using descriptive method. The types of register in this term will be separated into formal register and informal register, and identify the meaning of register.

  20. One-Dimensional Signal Extraction Of Paper-Written ECG Image And Its Archiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-ni; Zhang, Hong; Zhuang, Tian-ge

    1987-10-01

    A method for converting paper-written electrocardiograms to one dimensional (1-D) signals for archival storage on floppy disk is presented here. Appropriate image processing techniques were employed to remove the back-ground noise inherent to ECG recorder charts and to reconstruct the ECG waveform. The entire process consists of (1) digitization of paper-written ECGs with an image processing system via a TV camera; (2) image preprocessing, including histogram filtering and binary image generation; (3) ECG feature extraction and ECG wave tracing, and (4) transmission of the processed ECG data to IBM-PC compatible floppy disks for storage and retrieval. The algorithms employed here may also be used in the recognition of paper-written EEG or EMG and may be useful in robotic vision.

  1. Consumer Preferences for Written and Oral Information about Allergens When Eating Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begen, Fiona M; Barnett, Julie; Payne, Ros; Roy, Debbie; Gowland, M Hazel; Lucas, Jane S

    2016-01-01

    Avoiding food allergens when eating outside the home presents particular difficulties for food allergic (FA) and intolerant (FI) consumers and a lack of allergen information in restaurants and takeaways causes unnecessary restrictions. Across Europe, legislation effective from December 2014, aims to improve allergen information by requiring providers of non-prepacked foods to supply information related to allergen content within their foods. Using in-depth interviews with 60 FA/FI adults and 15 parents/carers of FA/FI children, we aimed to identify FA/FI consumers' preferences for written and/or verbal allergen information when eating out or ordering takeaway food. A complex and dynamic set of preferences and practices for written and verbal allergen information was identified. Overwhelmingly, written information was favoured in the first instance, but credible personal/verbal communication was highly valued and essential to a good eating out experience. Adequate written information facilitated implicit trust in subsequent verbal information. Where written information was limited, FA/FIs depended on social cues to assess the reliability of verbal information resources, and defaulted to tried and tested allergen avoidance strategies when these were deemed unreliable. Understanding the subtle negotiations and difficulties encountered by FA/FIs when eating out can serve as a guide for legislators and food providers; by encouraging provision of clear written and verbal allergen information, and training of proactive, allergen-aware staff. This, in tandem with legal requirements for allergen information provision, paves the way for FA/FIs to feel more confident in eating out choices; and to experience improved eating out experiences.

  2. The Effect of a Written and Pictorial Home Exercise Prescription on Adherence for People with Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Kara

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The addition of a written and pictorial home exercise prescription does not lead to better adherence to a home exercise programme compared to having no written and pictorial instructions. Possible reasons may be that patients had caregivers as a support system, and the exercise logbook served as a reminder and motivational track record for patients. There also does not appear to be a relationship between functional ability and level of adherence, which may be due to most of the study participants being within the optimal time frame for spontaneous functional recovery. Further study at different time frames in stroke rehabilitation in different contexts is recommended.

  3. Education, Sociability and Written Culture : the case of the Society of Jesus in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Van Damme

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In a special Issue of the journal Annales, the historian Roger Chartier could draw up a review of the written culture history and underlined the role played by certain social groups in the diffusion of written culture in the cities. He distinguished two major elements in this evolution  : one hand “ The use of writing as an instrument of self-government and administration ” and on the other hand “ the link between religious experience and use of writting ”. In this tension, it has been intere...

  4. The "SignOn"-Model for Teaching Written Language to Deaf People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Hilzensauer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a method of teaching written language to deaf people using sign language as the language of instruction. Written texts in the target language are combined with sign language videos which provide the users with various modes of translation (words/phrases/sentences. As examples, two EU projects for English for the Deaf are presented which feature English texts and translations into the national sign languages of all the partner countries plus signed grammar explanations and interactive exercises. Both courses are web-based; the programs may be accessed free of charge via the respective homepages (without any download or log-in.

  5. Handbook of radiologic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedgcock, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book is organized around radiologic procedures with each discussed from the points of view of: indications, contraindications, materials, method of procedures and complications. Covered in this book are: emergency radiology chest radiology, bone radiology, gastrointestinal radiology, GU radiology, pediatric radiology, computerized tomography, neuroradiology, visceral and peripheral angiography, cardiovascular radiology, nuclear medicine, lymphangiography, and mammography

  6. Decision-making Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldashev, Gani; Kirchsteiger, Georg; Sebald, Alexander Christopher

    2009-01-01

    define procedures as mechanisms that influence the probabilities of reaching different endnodes. We show that for such procedural games a sequential psychological equilibrium always exists. Applying this approach within a principal-agent context we show that the way less attractive jobs are allocated...

  7. Maintenance procedure upgrade programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.J.; Zimmerman, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a systematic approach to upgrading nuclear power plant maintenance procedures. The approach consists of four phases: diagnosis, program planning, program implementation, and program evaluation. Each phase is explained as a series of steps to ensure that all factors in a procedure upgrade program are considered

  8. Actor-Network Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovic, Dusko; Meadows, Catherine; Ramanujam, R.; Ramaswamy, Srini

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose actor-networks as a formal model of computation in heterogenous networks of computers, humans and their devices, where these new procedures run; and we introduce Procedure Derivation Logic (PDL) as a framework for reasoning about security in actor-networks, as an extension

  9. Analytical procedures. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, G.

    1985-01-01

    In analytical procedures (Boole procedures) there is certain to be a close relationship between the safety assessment and reliability assessment of technical facilities. The paper gives an overview of the organization of models, fault trees, the probabilistic evaluation of systems, evaluation with minimum steps or minimum paths regarding statistically dependent components and of systems liable to suffer different kinds of outages. (orig.) [de

  10. Play vs. Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    Through the theories of play by Gadamer (2004) and Henricks (2006), I will show how the relationship between play and game can be understood as dialectic and disruptive, thus challenging understandings of how the procedures of games determine player activity and vice versa. As such, I posit some...... analytical consequences for understandings of digital games as procedurally fixed (Boghost, 2006; Flannagan, 2009; Bathwaite & Sharp, 2010). That is, if digital games are argued to be procedurally fixed and if play is an appropriative and dialectic activity, then it could be argued that the latter affects...... and alters the former, and vice versa. Consequently, if the appointed procedures of a game are no longer fixed and rigid in their conveyance of meaning, qua the appropriative and dissolving nature of play, then understandings of games as conveying a fixed meaning through their procedures are inadequate...

  11. Grammatical Deviations in the Spoken and Written Language of Hebrew-Speaking Children With Hearing Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur-Kaspa, Hana; Dromi, Esther

    2001-04-01

    The present study reports a detailed analysis of written and spoken language samples of Hebrew-speaking children aged 11-13 years who are deaf. It focuses on the description of various grammatical deviations in the two modalities. Participants were 13 students with hearing impairments (HI) attending special classrooms integrated into two elementary schools in Tel Aviv, Israel, and 9 students with normal hearing (NH) in regular classes in these same schools. Spoken and written language samples were collected from all participants using the same five preplanned elicitation probes. Students with HI were found to display significantly more grammatical deviations than their NH peers in both their spoken and written language samples. Most importantly, between-modality differences were noted. The participants with HI exhibited significantly more grammatical deviations in their written language samples than in their spoken samples. However, the distribution of grammatical deviations across categories was similar in the two modalities. The most common grammatical deviations in order of their frequency were failure to supply obligatory morphological markers, failure to mark grammatical agreement, and the omission of a major syntactic constituent in a sentence. Word order violations were rarely recorded in the Hebrew samples. Performance differences in the two modalities encourage clinicians and teachers to facilitate target linguistic forms in diverse communication contexts. Furthermore, the identification of linguistic targets for intervention must be based on the unique grammatical structure of the target language.

  12. Electronic Mail, a New Written-Language Register: A Study with French-Speaking Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volckaert-Legrier, Olga; Bernicot, Josie; Bert-Erboul, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the linguistic forms used by adolescents in electronic mail (e-mail) differ from those used in standard written language. The study was conducted in French, a language with a deep orthography that has strict, addressee-dependent rules for using second person personal pronouns (unfamiliar…

  13. Device of Definition of Hand-Written Documents Belonging to One Executor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Kulik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Results of working out of the device of definition of hand-written documents belonging to the executor of the text in Russian are presented. The device is intended for automation of work of experts and allows to solve problems of information security and search of criminals.

  14. Mass Communications in Israel: A Bibliography of Articles, Pamphlets, and Books Written in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotliffe, Harvey

    This bibliography on mass communications in Israel contains articles, pamphlets, and books written in English covering the areas of advertising, Arab mass communications, broadcast authority, censorship, culture and communication, film, press and propaganda, publishing writers, radio, commercial and educational television, and the theatre arts.…

  15. 47 CFR 76.939 - Truthful written statements and responses to requests of franchising authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requests of franchising authority. 76.939 Section 76.939 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Regulation § 76.939 Truthful written statements and responses to requests of franchising authority. Cable operators shall comply with franchising authorities' and the Commission's requests for information, orders...

  16. Written and Computer-Mediated Accounting Communication Skills: An Employer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    Communication skills are a fundamental personal competency for a successful career in accounting. What is not so obvious is the specific written communication skill set employers look for and the extent those skills are computer mediated. Using survey research, this article explores the particular skills employers desire and their satisfaction…

  17. Hedging to save face: a linguistic analysis of written comments on in-training evaluation reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Shiphra; van der Vleuten, Cees; Eva, Kevin W; Lingard, Lorelei

    2016-03-01

    Written comments on residents' evaluations can be useful, yet the literature suggests that the language used by assessors is often vague and indirect. The branch of linguistics called pragmatics argues that much of our day to day language is not meant to be interpreted literally. Within pragmatics, the theory of 'politeness' suggests that non-literal language and other strategies are employed in order to 'save face'. We conducted a rigorous, in-depth analysis of a set of written in-training evaluation report (ITER) comments using Brown and Levinson's influential theory of 'politeness' to shed light on the phenomenon of vague language use in assessment. We coded text from 637 comment boxes from first year residents in internal medicine at one institution according to politeness theory. Non-literal language use was common and 'hedging', a key politeness strategy, was pervasive in comments about both high and low rated residents, suggesting that faculty may be working to 'save face' for themselves and their residents. Hedging and other politeness strategies are considered essential to smooth social functioning; their prevalence in our ITERs may reflect the difficult social context in which written assessments occur. This research raises questions regarding the 'optimal' construction of written comments by faculty.

  18. Difference between Written and Spoken Czech: The Case of Verbal Nouns Denoting an Action

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolářová, V.; Kolář, Jan; Mikulová, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 1 (2017), s. 19-38 ISSN 0032-6585 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : written Czech * spoken Czech * verbal nouns Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/pralin.2017.107.issue-1/pralin-2017-0002/pralin-2017-0002.xml

  19. The Written Corrective Feedback Debate: Next Steps for Classroom Teachers and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Language teachers spend much of their time providing corrective feedback on students' writing in hope of helping them improve grammatical accuracy. Turning to research for guidance, however, can leave practitioners with few concrete answers as to the effectiveness of written corrective feedback (CF). Debate in the literature continues, reflecting…

  20. Graduate Students' Needs and Preferences for Written Feedback on Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine graduate students' needs and preferences for written feedback on academic writing from their lecturers and thesis supervisors. Quantitative method via survey questionnaire was used to collect data from 21 respondents. The data collection involved Master and Doctorate students at a tertiary level institution…

  1. 38 CFR 1.990 - Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... repay debt as alternative to salary offset. 1.990 Section 1.990 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Salary Offset Provisions § 1.990 Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset. (a) Notification by employee. The employee may propose, in...

  2. 7 CFR 3.80 - Written agreement to repay debts as alternative to salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... salary offset. 3.80 Section 3.80 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.80 Written agreement to repay debts as alternative to salary offset. (a) Notification by employee. The employee may propose, in response to a Notice of Intent to Offset Salary, a...

  3. 24 CFR 17.133 - Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alternative to salary offset. 17.133 Section 17.133 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... the Government Salary Offset Provisions § 17.133 Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset. (a) Notification by employee. The employee may propose, in response to a Notice of Intent...

  4. 20 CFR 361.10 - Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alternative to salary offset. 361.10 Section 361.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL... EMPLOYEES § 361.10 Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset. (a) Notification by... debt as an alternative to salary offset. Any employee who wishes to do this must submit a proposed...

  5. Effects of the design of written music on the readability for children with dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, Nanke; Timmermans, Anneke; Korpershoek, Hanke

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between the design of written music and the amount of mistakes children with and without dyslexia make in reading music is investigated. Previous research shows that children with dyslexia can have difficulty in reading music, especially regarding reading pitch.

  6. The Written Literacy Forum: An Analysis of Teacher/Researcher Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio-Ruane, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Written Literacy Forum, a collaborative research effort between Michigan State University's Institute for Research on Teaching and the East Lansing, Michigan Public Schools, which attempted to identify ways that research on writing could be applied to instructional problems. Depicts the first year's experience and offers sample…

  7. Cascaded Processing in Written Naming: Evidence from the Picture-Picture Interference Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Sebastien; Bonin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The issue of how information flows within the lexical system in written naming was investigated in five experiments. In Experiment 1, participants named target pictures that were accompanied by context pictures having phonologically and orthographically related or unrelated names (e.g., a picture of a "ball" superimposed on a picture of…

  8. Written Spelling to Dictation: Sound-To-Spelling Regularity Affects Both Writing Latencies and Durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delattre, Marie; Bonin, Patrick; Barry, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of sound-to-spelling regularity on written spelling latencies and writing durations in a dictation task in which participants had to write each target word 3 times in succession. The authors found that irregular words (i.e., those containing low-probability phoneme-to-grapheme mappings) were slower both to…

  9. Applying Computerized-Scoring Models of Written Biological Explanations across Courses and Colleges: Prospects and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Minsu; Nehm, Ross H.; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Our study explored the prospects and limitations of using machine-learning software to score introductory biology students' written explanations of evolutionary change. We investigated three research questions: 1) Do scoring models built using student responses at one university function effectively at another university? 2) How many human-scored…

  10. 28 CFR 68.3 - Service of complaint, notice of hearing, written orders, and decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service of complaint, notice of hearing, written orders, and decisions. 68.3 Section 68.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED..., registered agent for service of process of a corporate party, or attorney or representative of record of a...

  11. Clay Modeling versus Written Modules as Effective Interventions in Understanding Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareither, Mary Lou; Arbel, Vered; Growe, Meghan; Muszczynski, Emily; Rudd, Adam; Marone, Jane R.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of clay modeling to written modules is examined to determine the degree of improvement in learning and retention of anatomical 3D relationships among students with different learning preferences. Thirty-nine undergraduate students enrolled in a cadaver dissection course completed a pre-assessment examination and the VARK…

  12. The Analysis of the Articles Written About Accounting in Academic Journals ofTurkey

    OpenAIRE

    Önce, Saime; Başar, Banu

    2010-01-01

    (The Analysis of the Articles Written About Accounting in Academic Journals of Turkey) This study aims at analyzing and determining the trends of accounting related articles printed in academic research journals in Turkey. The articles are classified as Financial Accounting, Cost and Managerial Accounting, Auditing, Accounting Standards, Accounting Information System, Accounting Education, Accounting Profession, Social Accounting and Reporting, Specialized Accounting and Other categories. As...

  13. Students' Engagement with a Collaborative Wiki Tool Predicts Enhanced Written Exam Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Tom; Elgueta, Herman; Cameron, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    We introduced voluntary wiki-based exercises to a long-running cognitive psychology course, part of the core curriculum for an undergraduate degree in psychology. Over 2 yearly cohorts, students who used the wiki more also scored higher on the final written exam. Using regression analysis, it is possible to account for students' tendency to score…

  14. Talking to Texts and Sketches: The Function of Written and Graphic Mediation in Engineering Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    Describes the author's research that explores the role of language, particularly texts, in the engineering design process. Notes that results of this case study support a new "mediated" model of engineering design as an inventional activity in which designers use talk, written language, and other symbolic representations as tools to think about…

  15. Written Expression in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Elizabeth; Accardo, Amy L.

    2018-01-01

    Although studies exist measuring the effectiveness of writing interventions for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research assessing the writing skills for this group is sparse. The present study identified differences in the written expression of individuals with ASD compared to typically developing (TD) peers, using variables…

  16. A Compilation of Postgraduate Theses Written in Turkey on Computer Assisted Instruction in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre; Demirbas, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study conducted is to present in-depth information about the postgraduate theses written within the context of Computer Assisted Instruction in Chemistry Education in Turkey. The theses collected in National Thesis Centre of Turkish Council of Higher Education were examined. As a result of an examination, it was found that about…

  17. 21 CFR 316.10 - Content and format of a request for written recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... there is no reasonable expectation that the costs of drug development and marketing will be recovered in... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Content and format of a request for written recommendations. 316.10 Section 316.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  18. A Discussion on an Expression Written about Dimensional Analysis in a Physics Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss a wrong statement written about dimensional analysis in a physics text book prepared for the students who are studying in science, engineering and teaching undergraduate programs at universities and who have to take compulsory physics courses, to analyse the use of the text book including the wrong…

  19. Using Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Written Expression with Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robert; Hagaman, Jessica L.; Graham, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This review assessed the use of self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) for teaching written composition strategies to students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. We examined the participants and the settings in which SRSD has been used, the writing strategies tested, genres addressed, and the effects of SRSD on outcome measures.…

  20. Student Beliefs towards Written Corrective Feedback: The Case of Filipino High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanga, Roselle A.; Fidel, Irish Van B.; Gumapac, Mone Virma Ginry P.; Ho, Howell T.; Tullo, Riza Mae C.; Villaraza, Patricia Monette L.; Vizconde, Camilla J.

    2016-01-01

    The study identified the beliefs of high school students toward Written Corrective Feedback (WCF), based on the framework of Anderson (2010). It also investigated the most common errors that students commit in writing stories and the type of WCF students receive from teachers. Data in the form of stories which were checked by teachers were…

  1. Computer-Assisted Learning for the Hearing Impaired: An Interactive Written Language Enviroment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R. D.; Rostron, A. B.

    1983-01-01

    To help hearing-impaired children develop their linguistic competence, a computer system that can process sentences and give feedback about their acceptability was developed. Suggestions are made of ways to use the system as an environment for interactive written communication. (Author/CL)

  2. The Written Text and Human Dialogue: Pedagogical Responses to the Age of Hypertext Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Donna J.; Boyd, Charley

    In June 1995, New York's Genesee Community College hosted "The Written Text and Human Dialogue," a 4-week faculty development seminar for 30 professors in the humanities and technical disciplines across the United States. The seminar sought to explore the history of human communication and writing, to expand participants' knowledge of writing…

  3. Past Examination Questions in Senior Secondary Chemistry: From Written Practice to Hands-On Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Cheuk-Fai; So, Wing-Mui Winnie; Cheung, Tsz-Yan

    2016-01-01

    This study applied an unconventional use of past examination papers by converting questions into hands-on experiments for students. Students in an experimental group were engaged in use of those experiments while the remainder attended conventional lectures with written practice. The results reflect that the experimental group positively improved…

  4. You and Me and Human Sexuality: A Student Booklet Written for Deaf Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas School for the Deaf, Austin.

    This student booklet, designed to teach deaf adolescents about human sexuality, is written for students with a second- to fourth-grade reading level. Topics include: (1) relationships; (2) adolescent growth and development; (3) female and male anatomy; (4) conception, fetal development, and birth; (5) contraception; and (6) sexual intercourse and…

  5. Are Written Instructions Enough? Efficacy of Male Condom Packaging Leaflets among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Dana F.; Harbke, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether or not written condom use instructions successfully inform correct condom use skills. Design: Between-subjects, two-group design. Setting: Public university located in rural Midwestern region of the United States. Method: Participants were randomly assigned to either a control condition (read physical exercise…

  6. Factors affecting written distance-learning feedback: the tutor’s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Calfoglou

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Launching the distance-learning student-tutor interaction process, tutors of the first module of the M.Ed in English course at the HOU lay the foundations of academic student autonomy by means of providing – inter alia -- the appropriate written feedback on written assignments. In doing so, they need to gauge the content and form of their written comments systematically with regard to both output- and student-, that is human factor-related issues (cf. Goldstein, 2004, the latter being particularly relevant to the distance-learning context. In this article we discuss tutor policy as well as tutor perceptions (cf. Lee, 2004, 2009 among others regarding written feedback on students’ academic assignments in terms of aspects of deviance treated and the relative gravity of ‘global’ and ‘local’ errors (e.g. Ferris, 2002, the directness of the correction, the punitive or facilitative nature of the comments provided as well as the relative balance of student strengths and weaknesses on the tutor’s comment agenda (cf. Hyland & Hyland, 2006. The role of the tutor as an assessor and/or counsellor is explored and the importance of striking a delicate balance between the two, especially in a context where face-to-face feedback opportunities are severely restricted, is underscored. We suggest that distance-learning feedback practices may need to be at least partially individualized to maximize student response and meet the goal of ‘informed autonomy’.

  7. The Contribution of Verbal Working Memory to Deaf Children's Oral and Written Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfé, Barbara; Rossi, Cristina; Sicoli, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of verbal working memory to the oral and written story production of deaf children. Participants were 29 severely to profoundly deaf children aged 8-13 years and 29 hearing controls, matched for grade level. The children narrated a picture story orally and in writing and performed a reading comprehension…

  8. Second Language Writing Research and Written Corrective Feedback in SLA: Intersections and Practical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Dana R.

    2010-01-01

    For more than a decade now, a great deal of research has been done on the topic of written corrective feedback (CF) in SLA and second language (L2) writing. Nonetheless, what those research efforts really have shown as well as the possible implications for practice remain in dispute. Although L2 writing and SLA researchers often examine similar…

  9. Prose Checklist: Strategies for Improving School-to-Home Written Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagro, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Effective communication enhances school-family partnerships. Written communication is a common, efficient way of communicating with families, but potential barriers to effective communication include readability level, clarity of presentation, complexity of format, and structural components. The PROSE Checklist presented in this article can…

  10. Comparing definitions in guidelines and written standards - a case study: 'Trueness'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavese, F

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the structure of a repository initiated by IMEKO TC21 to allow the comparison of different definitions and use of the same term or concept in written standards and guidelines available internationally. The method used is illustrated for a case study: the critical concept of 'trueness' and its definitions.

  11. From Oral Ceremony to Written Document: The Transitional Language of Anglo-Saxon Wills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danet, Brenda; Bogoch, Bryna

    1992-01-01

    Presents theoretical discussion of the emergence of linguistic features of documents that indicate society is moving toward a view of writing as a form of constitutive social action and of written documents as autonomous material objects having a life of their own. Linguistic features of Anglo-Saxon wills are shown to differ from those of modern…

  12. 9 CFR 202.111 - Rule 11: Hearing, oral or written.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 11: Hearing, oral or written. 202.111 Section 202.111 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS... for oral hearing, timely filed. Declining to make such withdrawal shall not affect the rights or...

  13. An Analysis of Written Feedback on a PhD Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Stracke, Elke

    2007-01-01

    This paper offers an interim analysis of written feedback on a first draft of a PhD thesis. It first looks at two sources of data: in-text feedback and overall feedback. Looking at how language is used in its situational context, we then coded the feedback and developed a model for analysis based on three fundamental functions of speech:…

  14. Reflecting on Scientists' Activity Based on Science Fiction Stories Written by Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Pedro; Galvao, Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    In this article the authors resort to a qualitative analysis of the plot of science fiction stories about a group of scientists, written by two 11th-grade Earth and Life Science students (aged 17), and to semi-structured interviews, with the double purpose of diagnosing their conceptions of the nature of science (namely, as regards scientists'…

  15. Individual Differences in the "Myside Bias" in Reasoning and Written Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Three studies examined the "myside bias" in reasoning, evaluating written arguments, and writing argumentative essays. Previous research suggests that some people possess a fact-based argumentation schema and some people have a balanced argumentation schema. I developed reliable Likert scale instruments (1-7 rating) for these constructs…

  16. The Linguistic Development of Students of English as a Second Language in Two Written Genres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyung-Jo; Polio, Charlene

    2017-01-01

    This study examined narrative and argumentative essays written over the course of a 4-month semester by 37 students of English as a second language (ESL). The essays were analyzed for development over time and for genre differences. The goal of the study was to conceptually replicate previous studies on genre differences (e.g., Lu, 2011) and on…

  17. Short message service (SMS language and written language skills: educators' perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomé Geertsema

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available SMS language is English language slang, used as a means of mobile phone text messaging. This practice may impact on the written language skills of learners at school. The main aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of Grade 8 and 9 English (as Home Language educators in Gauteng regarding the possible influence of SMS language on certain aspects of learners' written language skills. If an influence was perceived by the educators, their perceptions regarding the degree and nature of the influence were also explored. A quantitative research design, utilising a questionnaire, was employed. The sample of participants comprised 22 educators employed at independent secondaryschools within Gauteng, South Africa. The results indicated that the majority of educators viewed SMS language as having a negative influence on the written language skills of Grade 8 and 9 learners. The influence was perceived as occurring in the learners' spelling, punctuation, and sentence length. A further finding was that the majority of educators address the negative influences of SMS language when encountered in written tasks.

  18. 5 CFR 2638.706 - Agency's written plan for annual ethics training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency's written plan for annual ethics training. 2638.706 Section 2638.706 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS AND EXECUTIVE AGENCY ETHICS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES Executive Agency Ethics...

  19. Generalizability Theory Reliability of Written Expression Curriculum-Based Measurement in Universal Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Margulis, Milena A.; Mercer, Sterett H.; Thomas, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of written expression curriculum-based measurement (WE-CBM) in the context of universal screening from a generalizability theory framework. Students in second through fifth grade (n = 145) participated in the study. The sample included 54% female students, 49% White students, 23% African…

  20. Spelling in Written Stories by School-Age Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straley, Sara G.; Werfel, Krystal L.; Hendricks, Alison Eisel

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the spelling of 3rd to 6th grade children with cochlear implants in written stories. Spelling was analysed using traditional correct/incorrect scoring as well as the Spelling Sensitivity Score, which provides linguistic information about spelling attempts. Children with cochlear implants spelled 86 per cent of words in stories…

  1. Home Literacy Environment and Its Influence on Singaporean Children's Chinese Oral and Written Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Tan, Chee Lay

    2016-01-01

    In a bilingual environment such as Singaporean Chinese community, the challenge of maintaining Chinese language and sustaining Chinese culture lies in promoting the daily use of Chinese language in oral and written forms among children. Ample evidence showed the effect of the home language and literacy environment (HLE), on children's language and…

  2. Evaluation of written patient educational materials in the field of diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryhaenen, A.M.; Johansson, K.; Virtanen, H.; Salo, S.; Salanterae, S.; Leino-Kilpi, H.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the quality of written educational materials for diagnostic imaging (radiological and nuclear medicine) patients. Materials and methods: Written educational materials (n = 70) for diagnostic imaging patients were analysed. The materials were evaluated based on their external appearance (9 criteria), instructiveness (7), content (7), language and structure (8) and readability (1). Deductive content analysis was used. Quantified parts of the analyses were analysed by SAS for Windows. Dependence between criteria (32) was tested by Pearson correlation coefficients. Results: The external appearance fulfilled almost completely the criteria of good written education materials. The instructiveness was addressed clearly, except for the purpose of the material. The contents of materials dealt with bio-physiological, functional and cognitive dimensions of knowledge, while financial dimensions of knowledge were hardly dealt with at all. The language and the structure were reasonably good, but the language was partly in passive voice and the text contained strange words. Most of the education material was moderately easy to read. Conclusions: The results show that the quality of material was quite good in all dimensions. Only a small number of criteria were unsatisfactory. The results can be used to further improve written patient education materials and patient education in the imaging unit.

  3. Text Comprehension Mediates Morphological Awareness, Syntactic Processing, and Working Memory in Predicting Chinese Written Composition Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Wagner, Richard K.; Meng, Wanjin; Leong, Che Kan

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to test opposing views about four issues concerning predictors of individual differences in Chinese written composition: (a) Whether morphological awareness, syntactic processing, and working memory represent distinct and measureable constructs in Chinese or are just manifestations of general language ability; (b) whether they are important predictors of Chinese written composition, and if so, the relative magnitudes and independence of their predictive relations; (c) whether observed predictive relations are mediated by text comprehension; and (d) whether these relations vary or are developmentally invariant across three years of writing development. Based on analyses of the performance of students in grades 4 (n = 246), 5 (n = 242) and 6 (n = 261), the results supported morphological awareness, syntactic processing, and working memory as distinct yet correlated abilities that made independent contributions to predicting Chinese written composition, with working memory as the strongest predictor. However, predictive relations were mediated by text comprehension. The final model accounted for approximately 75 percent of the variance in Chinese written composition. The results were largely developmentally invariant across the three grades from which participants were drawn. PMID:25530630

  4. 20 CFR 404.630 - Use of date of written statement as filing date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... data on the Internet Social Security Benefit Application to us, we will use the date of the... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of date of written statement as filing date. 404.630 Section 404.630 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE...

  5. Corporate Culture and the Use of Written English Within British Subsidiaries in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated communication patterns in written English and the prevalent corporate culture, the relationship between a British corporate office and its subsidiary in the Netherlands. Survey respondents were senior-level employees at 107 companies. Results indicate corporate culture plays an important role in the level of English skills…

  6. South Asian Students' Needs for Cantonese and Written Chinese in Hong Kong: A Linguistic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, David C. S.; Chuk, Joanne Y. P.

    2015-01-01

    Based on qualitative data obtained from 15 South Asian (SA) B.Ed. (EL) (Bachelor of Education in English Language) students, this study reports on SA students' difficulty in mastering Mandarin-based written Chinese and the vernacular Cantonese in Hong Kong. For convenience, SA here also refers to students whose homeland is the Philippines. Since…

  7. Long period gratings written in large-mode area photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nodop, D.; Linke, S.; Jansen, F.

    2008-01-01

    We report for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, on the fabrication and characterization of CO2-laser written long-period gratings in a large-mode area photonic crystal fiber with a core diameter of 25 mu m. The gratings have low insertion losses ( 10 d...

  8. Written Composition Performance of Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Ana Miranda; Ferrer, Manuel Soriano; Fortea, Inmaculada Baixauli

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with learning disabilities. The present study examined the written composition of children with ADHD, which depends to a large degree on continuous self-regulation and attentional control skills for organizing information and maintaining the level of effort. Fifty children…

  9. Attentive Reading With Constrained Summarization Adapted to Address Written Discourse in People With Mild Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeyer, Jessica A; Edmonds, Lisa A

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the preliminary efficacy of Attentive Reading and Constrained Summarization-Written (ARCS-W) in people with mild aphasia. ARCS-W adapts an existing treatment, ARCS (Rogalski & Edmonds, 2008), to address discourse level writing in mild aphasia. ARCS-W focuses on the cognitive and linguistic skills required for discourse production. This study was a within-subject pre-postdesign. Three people with mild aphasia participated. ARCS-W integrates attentive reading or listening with constrained summarization of discourse level material in spoken and written modalities. Outcomes included macro- (main concepts) and microlinguistic (correct information units, complete utterances) discourse measures, confrontation naming, aphasia severity, and functional communication. All 3 participants demonstrated some generalization to untrained spoken and written discourse at the word, sentence, and text levels. Reduced aphasia severity and/or increased functional communication and confrontation naming were also observed in some participants. The findings of this study provide preliminary evidence of the efficacy of ARCS-W to improve spoken and written discourse in mild aphasia. Different generalization patterns suggest different mechanisms of improvement. Further research and replication are required to better understand how ARCS-W can impact discourse abilities.

  10. Webster's word power better English grammar improve your written and spoken English

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, Betty

    2014-01-01

    With questions and answer sections throughout, this book helps you to improve your written and spoken English through understanding the structure of the English language. This is a thorough and useful book with all parts of speech and grammar explained. Used by ELT self-study students.

  11. How to Verify Plagiarism of the Paper Written in Macedonian and Translated in Foreign Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiroski, Mirko

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this study was to show how to verify plagiarism of the paper written in Macedonian and translated in foreign language. Original article "Ethics in Medical Research Involving Human Subjects", written in Macedonian, was submitted as an assay-2 for the subject Ethics and published by Ilina Stefanovska, PhD candidate from the Iustinianus Primus Faculty of Law, Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje (UKIM), Skopje, Republic of Macedonia in Fabruary, 2013. Suspected article for plagiarism was published by Prof. Dr. Gordana Panova from the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University Goce Delchev, Shtip, Republic of Macedonia in English with the identical title and identical content in International scientific on-line journal "SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES", Publisher "Union of Scientists - Stara Zagora". Original document (written in Macedonian) was translated with Google Translator; suspected article (published in English pdf file) was converted into Word document, and compared both documents with several programs for plagiarism detection. It was found that both documents are identical in 71%, 78% and 82%, respectively, depending on the computer program used for plagiarism detection. It was obvious that original paper was entirely plagiarised by Prof. Dr. Gordana Panova, including six references from the original paper. Plagiarism of the original papers written in Macedonian and translated in other languages can be verified after computerised translation in other languages. Later on, original and translated documents can be compared with available software for plagiarism detection.

  12. Difference between Written and Spoken Czech: The Case of Verbal Nouns Denoting an Action

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolářová, V.; Kolář, Jan; Mikulová, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 1 (2017), s. 19-38 ISSN 0032-6585 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : written Czech * spoken Czech * verbal nouns Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/pralin.2017.107.issue-1/pralin-2017-0002/pralin-2017-0002. xml

  13. Meeting the Demands of the Workplace: Science Students and Written Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, F. Elizabeth; Emerson, Lisa; MacKay, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, surveys in a range of English-speaking countries, from North America and the United Kingdom, to New Zealand and Australia, have consistently shown that employers rank oral and written communication skills as highly as or more highly than any technical or quantitative skills. However, in New Zealand there has been very…

  14. Developing Oral and Written Communication Skills in Undergraduate Computer Science and Information Systems Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortsarts, Yana; Fischbach, Adam; Rufinus, Jeff; Utell, Janine M.; Yoon, Suk-Chung

    2010-01-01

    Developing and applying oral and written communication skills in the undergraduate computer science and computer information systems curriculum--one of the ABET accreditation requirements - is a very challenging and, at the same time, a rewarding task that provides various opportunities to enrich the undergraduate computer science and computer…

  15. Triangulation of written assessments from patients, teachers and students: useful for students and teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, Sarah Frandsen; Braend, Anja Maria; Lindbaek, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Many medical students in general practice clerkships experience lack of observation-based feedback. The StudentPEP project combined written feedback from patients, observing teachers and students. This study analyzes the perceived usefulness of triangulated written feedback. A total of 71 general practitioners and 79 medical students at the University of Oslo completed project evaluation forms after a 6-week clerkship. A principal component analysis was performed to find structures within the questionnaire. Regression analysis was performed regarding students' answers to whether StudentPEP was worthwhile. Free-text answers were analyzed qualitatively. Student and teacher responses were mixed within six subscales, with highest agreement on 'Teachers oral and written feedback' and 'Attitude to patient evaluation'. Fifty-four per cent of the students agreed that the triangulation gave concrete feedback on their weaknesses, and 59% valued the teachers' feedback provided. Two statements regarding the teacher's attitudes towards StudentPEP were significantly associated with the student's perception of worthwhileness. Qualitative analysis showed that patient evaluations were encouraging or distrusted. Some students thought that StudentPEP ensured observation and feedback. The patient evaluations increased the students' awareness of the patient perspective. A majority of the students considered the triangulated written feedback beneficial, although time-consuming. The teacher's attitudes strongly influenced how the students perceived the usefulness of StudentPEP.

  16. Determining Appropriate Accommodations for Postsecondary Students with Reading and Written Expression Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Jennifer H.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most significant barriers facing postsecondary students with reading and written expression disorders who are eligible to receive specific accommodations is the lack of professional knowledge pertaining to issues surrounding accommodations. Though guided by Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with…

  17. 26 CFR 301.6110-1 - Public inspection of written determinations and background file documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section, relating to technical advice memoranda involving civil fraud and criminal investigations, and... determinations relating to accounting or funding periods and methods, the text of any written determination (as... section 6110(d)(3) and (f)(4). (2) Technical advice memoranda involving civil fraud and criminal...

  18. Speech Language Group Therapy in the Context of Written Language for Deaf Subjects in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarinello, Ana Cristina; Massi, Giselle; Berberian, Ana Paula; Tonocchi, Rita; Valentin, Silvana Mendonça Lopes

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to investigate deaf people's reasons to participate in a therapeutic group and to analyze some of their reflections on the use of written Portuguese language produced inside this group within a sociocultural perspective. It was carried out at a School for the deaf located in Curitiba, Paraná State/Brazil in a partnership with…

  19. Special Education in Saudi Arabia: A Synthesis of Literature Written in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamimi, Ahmed A.; Lee, Lay Wah; Sayed-Ahmed, Al-sayed A.; Kassem, Mostafa M.

    2015-01-01

    Special education in Saudi Arabia was formally established in 1962. The earliest cited literature on special education written in English was a 1970 government report. This article presents results from the first synthesis of internationally published Saudi special education literature over a 44-year period. This synthesis yielded information…

  20. 49 CFR 1114.28 - Depositions, requests for admission, written interrogatories, and responses thereto: inclusion in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Depositions, requests for admission, written interrogatories, and responses thereto: inclusion in record. 1114.28 Section 1114.28 Transportation Other... interrogatories, and responses thereto: inclusion in record. At the oral hearing, or upon the submission of...

  1. Cognitive Levels and Approaches Taken by Students Failing Written Examinations in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roegner, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted at the Technical University Berlin involving students who twice failed the written examination in the first semester course Linear Algebra for Engineers in order to better understand the reasons behind their failure. The study considered student understanding in terms of Bloom's taxonomy and the ways in which students…

  2. Vocabulary Acquisition through Written Input: Effects of Form-Focused, Message-Oriented, and Comprehension Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddin, Zia; Daraee, Dina

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of form-focused and non-form-focused tasks on EFL learners' vocabulary learning through written input. The form-focused task aimed to draw students' attention to the word itself through word recognition activities. Non-form-focused tasks were divided into (a) the comprehension question task, which required…

  3. Examining the Native Speakers' Understanding of Communicative Purposes of a Written Genre in Modern Standard Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunxia, Zhu

    1997-01-01

    Examines the different attitudes of native speakers in understanding a written genre of Modern Standard Chinese--sales letters. The study focuses on the use of formulaic components appearing in real Chinese sales letters and compares these components with the advice given in textbooks. Findings reveal a gap between business teaching and business…

  4. A Quantitative Analysis of Uncertainty in the Grading of Written Exams in Mathematics and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Hugo Lewi; Habib, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The most common way to grade students in courses at university and university college level is to use final written exams. The aim of final exams is generally to provide a reliable and a valid measurement of the extent to which a student has achieved the learning outcomes for the course. A source of uncertainty in grading students based on an exam…

  5. A Corpus-Based View of Lexical Gender in Written Business English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A.

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates lexical gender in specialized communication. The key method of analysis is that of forms of address, professional titles, and "generic man" in a 10 million word corpus of written Business English. After a brief introduction and literature review on both gender in specialized communication and similar corpus-based views of…

  6. How Do Finnish Children Express Care and Justice in Comic Strips and Written Narratives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Juha; Hannula, Markku S.

    2014-01-01

    This case study explored how children's moral expressions like love and violence differ according to the mode of narrative, comic strips or written narratives. Sixteen third-grade children from a primary school in Finland took part in the study. Children's moral expressions were divided into justice and care. Reading frequency of fairy tales and…

  7. Feedback on Feedback: Eliciting Learners' Responses to Written Feedback through Student-Generated Screencasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Toro, María; Furnborough, Concha

    2014-01-01

    Despite the potential benefits of assignment feedback, learners often fail to use it effectively. This study examines the ways in which adult distance learners engage with written feedback on one of their assignments. Participants were 10 undergraduates studying Spanish at the Open University, UK. Their responses to feedback were elicited by means…

  8. What about Metaphors in "The Snows of Kilimanjaro and Other Stories" Written by Ernest Hemingway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na'imah

    2015-01-01

    It is discovered plenty of various interesting metaphors in the book of "The Snows of Kilimanjaro and Other Stories" which were written by Ernest Hemingway. By the metaphorical expressions, one can describe everything much more expressively, imaginatively, effectively, and poetically. Each of the metaphors has always a specific style and…

  9. Introduction to the Atari Computer. A Program Written in the Pilot Programming Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Designed to be an introduction to the Atari microcomputers for beginners, the interactive computer program listed in this document is written in the Pilot programing language. Instructions are given for entering and storing the program in the computer memory for use by students. (MES)

  10. Writing about Music: The Selection and Arrangement of Notation in Jazz Students' Written Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jodie L.

    2018-01-01

    Music notation is intrinsic in the composition and performance of Western art music and also in its analysis and research. The process of writing about music remains underexplored, in particular how excerpts of music notation are selected and arranged in a written text, and how that text describes and contextualises the excerpts. This article…

  11. Short Message Service (SMS) Language and Written Language Skills: Educators' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertsema, Salomé; Hyman, Charene; van Deventer, Chantelle

    2011-01-01

    SMS language is English language slang, used as a means of mobile phone text messaging. This practice may impact on the written language skills of learners at school. The main aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of Grade 8 and 9 English (as Home Language) educators in Gauteng regarding the possible influence of SMS language on…

  12. The loci recommended as universal barcodes for plants on the basis of floristic studies may not work with congeneric species as exemplified by DNA barcoding of Dendrobium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Hemant

    2012-01-01

    far, is not likely to provide 100% species identification across the plant kingdom and thus is not likely to act as a universal barcode. It appears that barcodes, if based on single or limited locus(i, would be taxa specific as is exemplified by the success of ITS among Dendrobium species, though it may not be suitable for other plants because of the problems that are discussed.

  13. Diverse assemblies of the (4,4) grid layers exemplified in Zn(II)/Co(II) coordination polymers with dual linear ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guang-Zhen; Li, Xiao-Dong; Xin, Ling-Yun; Li, Xiao-Ling [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang, Henan 471022 (China); Wang, Li-Ya, E-mail: wlya@lynu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang, Henan 471022 (China); College of Chemistry and Pharmacy Engineering, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang, Henan 473061 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Diverse (4,4) grid layers are exemplified in five two-dimensional coordination polymers with dual µ{sub 2}-bridged ligands, namely, ([Zn(cbaa)(bpp)]·H{sub 2}O){sub n} (1), [Zn{sub 2}(cbaa){sub 2}(bpy)]{sub n} (2), [Co{sub 2}(cbaa){sub 2}(bpp){sub 2}]{sub n} (3), [Co(cbaa)(bpp)]{sub n} (4), and [Co(bdaa)(bpp)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (5) (H{sub 2}cbaa=4-carboxybenzeneacetic acid, bpp=1,3-di(4-pyridyl)propane, bpy=4,4′-bipyridyl, and H{sub 2}bdaa=1,4-benzenediacrylic acid). For 1, two (4,4) grid layers with [ZnN{sub 2}O{sub 2}] tetrahedron as the node are held together by lattice water forming a H-bonding bilayer. Individual (4,4) grid layer in 2 is based on (Zn{sub 2}(OCO){sub 4}) paddlewheel unit as the node. Two (4,4) grid layers with (Co{sub 2}O(OCO){sub 2}) dimer as the node are covalently interconnected by organic ligands affording a thick bilayer of 3 with new framework topology. The different entanglements between two coincident (4,4) grid layers with [CoN{sub 2}O{sub 4}] octahedron as the node leads to two 2D→2D interpenetrated structures for 4 and 5. Furthermore, fluorescent properties of 1 and 2 as well as magnetic properties of 3 are investigated. - Graphical abstract: Diverse assemblies of the (4,4) grid layers with different network nodes forms five coordination polymers that are well characterized by IR, TGA, element analysis, fluorescent and magnetic measurement. - Highlights: • Diverse assemblies of the (4,4) grid layers with different structural units as the nodes. • A new topology type with the uninodal 6-connected net of (4{sup 12}.5{sup 2}.6) is found. • Intense fluorescence emissions with a rare blue-shift of 55 nm compared to free carboxylate ligand.

  14. The loci recommended as universal barcodes for plants on the basis of floristic studies may not work with congeneric species as exemplified by DNA barcoding of Dendrobium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hemant Kumar; Parveen, Iffat; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh; Babbar, Shashi B

    2012-01-19

    across the plant kingdom and thus is not likely to act as a universal barcode. It appears that barcodes, if based on single or limited locus(i), would be taxa specific as is exemplified by the success of ITS among Dendrobium species, though it may not be suitable for other plants because of the problems that are discussed.

  15. Modality differences between written and spoken story retelling in healthy older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ann Obermeyer

    2015-04-01

    Methods: Ten native English speaking healthy elderly participants between the ages of 50 and 80 were recruited. Exclusionary criteria included neurological disease/injury, history of learning disability, uncorrected hearing or vision impairment, history of drug/alcohol abuse and presence of cognitive decline (based on Cognitive Linguistic Quick Test. Spoken and written discourse was analyzed for micro linguistic measures including total words, percent correct information units (CIUs; Nicholas & Brookshire, 1993 and percent complete utterances (CUs; Edmonds, et al. 2009. CIUs measure relevant and informative words while CUs focus at the sentence level and measure whether a relevant subject and verb and object (if appropriate are present. Results: Analysis was completed using Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test due to small sample size. Preliminary results revealed that healthy elderly people produced significantly more words in spoken retellings than written retellings (p=.000; however, this measure contrasted with %CIUs and %CUs with participants producing significantly higher %CIUs (p=.000 and %CUs (p=.000 in written story retellings than in spoken story retellings. Conclusion: These findings indicate that written retellings, while shorter, contained higher accuracy at both a word (CIU and sentence (CU level. This observation could be related to the ability to revise written text and therefore make it more concise, whereas the nature of speech results in more embellishment and “thinking out loud,” such as comments about the task, associated observations about the story, etc. We plan to run more participants and conduct a main concepts analysis (before conference time to gain more insight into modality differences and implications.

  16. Examining the central and peripheral processes of written word production through meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy ePurcell

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Producing written words requires central cognitive processes (such as orthographic long-term and working memory as well as more peripheral processes responsible for generating the motor actions needed for producing written words in a variety of formats (handwriting, typing, etc.. In recent years, various functional neuroimaging studies have examined the neural substrates underlying the central and peripheral processes of written word production. This study provides the first quantitative meta-analysis of these studies by applying Activation Likelihood Estimation methods (Turkeltaub et al., 2002. For alphabet languages, we identified 11 studies (with a total of 17 experimental contrasts that had been designed to isolate central and/or peripheral processes of word spelling (total number of participants = 146. Three ALE meta-analyses were carried out. One involved the complete set of 17 contrasts; two others were applied to subsets of contrasts to distinguish the neural substrates of central from peripheral processes. These analyses identified a network of brain regions reliably associated with the central and peripheral processes of word spelling. Among the many significant results, is the finding that the regions with the greatest correspondence across studies were in the left inferior temporal/fusiform gyri and left inferior frontal gyrus. Furthermore, although the angular gyrus has traditionally been identified as a key site within the written word production network, none of the meta-analyses found it to be a consistent site of activation, identifying instead a region just superior/medial to the left angular gyrus in the left posterior intraparietal sulcus. In general these meta-analyses and the discussion of results provide a valuable foundation upon which future studies that examine the neural basis of written word production can build.

  17. Examining Elementary Students' Development of Oral and Written Argumentation Practices Through Argument-Based Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chih; Hand, Brian; Park, Soonhye

    2016-05-01

    Argumentation, and the production of scientific arguments are critical elements of inquiry that are necessary for helping students become scientifically literate through engaging them in constructing and critiquing ideas. This case study employed a mixed methods research design to examine the development in 5th grade students' practices of oral and written argumentation from one unit to another over 16 weeks utilizing the science writing heuristic approach. Data sources included five rounds of whole-class discussion focused on group presentations of arguments that occurred over eleven class periods; students' group writings; interviews with six target students and the teacher; and the researcher's field notes. The results revealed five salient trends in students' development of oral and written argumentative practices over time: (1) Students came to use more critique components as they participated in more rounds of whole-class discussion focused on group presentations of arguments; (2) by challenging each other's arguments, students came to focus on the coherence of the argument and the quality of evidence; (3) students came to use evidence to defend, support, and reject arguments; (4) the quality of students' writing continuously improved over time; and (5) students connected oral argument skills to written argument skills as they had opportunities to revise their writing after debating and developed awareness of the usefulness of critique from peers. Given the development in oral argumentative practices and the quality of written arguments over time, this study indicates that students' development of oral and written argumentative practices is positively related to each other. This study suggests that argumentative practices should be framed through both a social and epistemic understanding of argument-utilizing talk and writing as vehicles to create norms of these complex practices.

  18. Improving medical students' written communication skills: design and evaluation of an educational curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, L; Connolly, K; Pitre, L; Dore, K L; Wasi, P

    2015-06-01

    Written and verbal communication skills are important skills for all physicians. While verbal skills are taught and assessed in medical school, medical students report limited instruction in written communication skills. This study examined the impact of a curriculum delivered during a 6-week clinical rotation in Internal Medicine on the objective assessment of medical students' written communication skills. The curriculum consisted of two educational programmes: a medical student communication tutorial and a resident feedback workshop. The study was conducted from March 2012 to January 2013 at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The study featured three arms: (1) control, (2) medical student communication tutorial alone and (3) student tutorial and resident feedback workshop. Data were collected on 126 students during 6-week Internal Medicine clerkship rotations. Students' written consultation notes were collected prior to the educational programmes and at 6 weeks. Blinded faculty assessors used an independently validated Assessment Checklist to evaluate consultation notes. Consultation note scores improved from week 1 to week 6 across all study arms. However, the change was statistically significant only in arm 3, featuring both the medical student tutorial and the resident feedback workshop, with mean scores improving from 4.75 (SD=1.496) to 5.56 (SD=0.984) out of 7. The mean difference between week 1 and week 6 was significantly different (0.806, p=0.002, 95% CI 0.306 to 1.058). The combination of a resident feedback workshop with medical student written communication tutorial improves objective evaluations of consultation note scores over student tutorial alone. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Operator use of procedures during simulated emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, E.M.; Mumaw, R.J.; Lewis, P.M.

    1995-04-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an empirical study of nuclear power plant operator performance in cognitively demanding simulated emergencies. During emergencies operators follow highly prescriptive written procedures. The objectives of the study were to understand and document what role higher-level cognitive activities such as diagnosis, or more generally {open_quotes}situation assessment,{close_quotes} play in guiding operator performance, given that operators utilize procedures in responding to the events. The study examined crew performance in variants of two simulated emergencies: (1) an Interfacing System Loss of Coolant Accident and (2) a Loss of Heat Sink scenario. Data on operator performance were collected using training simulators at two plant sites. Up to 11 crews from each plant participated in each of two simulated emergencies for a total of 38 cases analyzed. Crew performance was videotaped and partial transcripts were produced and analyzed. The results revealed a number of instances where higher-level cognitive activities such as situation assessment and response planning enabled operators to handle aspects of the situation that were not fully addressed by the procedures. The paper summarizes these cases and their implications for the development and evaluation of training and control room aids, as well as for human reliability analyses. The full report of the study is published as NUREG/CR-6208.

  20. Operator use of procedures during simulated emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.M.; Mumaw, R.J.; Lewis, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an empirical study of nuclear power plant operator performance in cognitively demanding simulated emergencies. During emergencies operators follow highly prescriptive written procedures. The objectives of the study were to understand and document what role higher-level cognitive activities such as diagnosis, or more generally ' situation assessment,' play in guiding operator performance, given that operators utilize procedures in responding to the events. The study examined crew performance in variants of two simulated emergencies: (1) an Interfacing System Loss of Coolant Accident and (2) a Loss of Heat Sink scenario. Data on operator performance were collected using training simulators at two plant sites. Up to 11 crews from each plant participated in each of two simulated emergencies for a total of 38 cases analyzed. Crew performance was videotaped and partial transcripts were produced and analyzed. The results revealed a number of instances where higher-level cognitive activities such as situation assessment and response planning enabled operators to handle aspects of the situation that were not fully addressed by the procedures. The paper summarizes these cases and their implications for the development and evaluation of training and control room aids, as well as for human reliability analyses. The full report of the study is published as NUREG/CR-6208

  1. HASL procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    Addition and corrections to the following sections of the HASL Procedures Manual are provided: Table of Contents; Bibliography; Fallout Collection Methods; Wet/Dry Fallout Collection; Fluoride in Soil and Sediment; Strontium-90; Natural Series; Alpha Emitters; and Gamma Emitters

  2. EML procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchok, H.L.; de Planque, G.

    1982-01-01

    This manual contains the procedures that are used currently by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory of the US Department of Energy. In addition a number of analytical methods from other laboratories have been included. These were tested for reliability at the Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory under contract with the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research of the AEC. These methods are clearly distinguished. The manual is prepared in loose leaf form to facilitate revision of the procedures and inclusion of additional procedures or data sheets. Anyone receiving the manual through EML should receive this additional material automatically. The contents are as follows: (1) general; (2) sampling; (3) field measurements; (4) general analytical chemistry; (5) chemical procedures; (6) data section; (7) specifications

  3. Cosmetic Procedure Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Cosmetic Procedure Questions Want to look younger? Start ...

  4. Modified arthroscopic Brostrom procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-09-01

    The open modified Brostrom anatomic repair technique is widely accepted as the reference standard for lateral ankle stabilization. However, there is high incidence of intra-articular pathologies associated with chronic lateral ankle instability which may not be addressed by an isolated open Brostrom procedure. Arthroscopic Brostrom procedure with suture anchor has been described for anatomic repair of chronic lateral ankle instability and management of intra-articular lesions. However, the complication rates seemed to be higher than open Brostrom procedure. Modification of the arthroscopic Brostrom procedure with the use of bone tunnel may reduce the risk of certain complications. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assisted Medical Procedures (AMP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DOCUMENTATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PROGRESS The AMP was initially being developed as part the Advanced Integrated Clinical System (AICS)-Guided Medical Procedure System...

  6. Cosmetic Procedure Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back Injectable Deoxycholic Acid Injectable Hyaluronic Acid Injectable Poly-l-lactic Acid Injectable Polymethylmethacrylate + Bovine Collagen Filler ... time of their procedure. 6. What are my pain management and anesthesia options? To help avoid the ...

  7. Special Blood Donation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures Precautions and Adverse Reactions During Blood Transfusion (See Overview of Blood Transfusion .) Plateletpheresis (platelet donation) In plateletpheresis, a donor gives only platelets rather than whole blood. Whole ...

  8. Dynamic alarm response procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K.

    2006-01-01

    The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache R , IIS R , TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape R , Microsoft Internet Explorer R , Mozilla Firefox R , Opera R , and others. (authors)

  9. Radiochemical procedures and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, K.

    1975-04-01

    A summary is presented of the radiochemical procedures and techniques currently in use by the Chemistry Division Nuclear Chemistry Group at Argonne National Laboratory for the analysis of radioactive samples. (U.S.)

  10. Soil Sampling Operating Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) document that describes general and specific procedures, methods, and considerations when collecting soil samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  11. Bariatric Surgery Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meetings of Interest Online Education Job Board CME Policies CBN Fellowship Certificate Research Grant Program Resources All Resources Approved Procedures Patient Safety Vignettes Dr. Mason Historical Library Governing Documents Guidelines Access and Insurance Position and ...

  12. Nuclear materials management procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veevers, K.; Silver, J.M.; Quealy, K.J.; Steege, E. van der.

    1987-10-01

    This manual describes the procedures for the management of nuclear materials and associated materials at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. The procedures are designed to comply with Australia's nuclear non-proliferation obligations to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), bilateral agreements with other countries and ANSTO's responsibilities under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation (Safeguards) Act, 1987. The manual replaces those issued by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission in 1959, 1960 and 1969

  13. Smoking Habit in Severe Obese after bariatric procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, Mauro; Carratù, Pierluigi; Faraone, Stanislao; Cerbone, Maria Rosaria; Cristiano, Stefano; Zedda, Anna; Resta, Onofrio

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric procedures provide an effective means of short term weight loss and sustained weight control for the morbidly obese. The effect of bariatric procedures on smoking habit in obese subjects is not well known. Therefore, we examined the short term effect of bariatric surgery on smoking habit of severe obese patients up to 12 months from the intervention. Smoking habit was assessed in a cohort of 78 morbid smoking obese patients followed at our clinic for bariatric procedures. They underwent non surgical intra-gastric balloon (IB) or surgical procedures such as lap-band laparoscopic surgery (LAGB) or sleeve gastrectomy/gastric by-pass (SPG). Subjects were administered a written questionnaire about their smoking habit before and 3, 6 and 12 months after the procedures. No differences were found among the three groups at 6 and 12 months after the procedures (IB 21 %, LAGB 6 %, SPG 5 %; and IB 14 %, LAGB 3 %, SPG 5 %). Only after 3 months, the rate of quitting of the IB group was higher than LAGB and SPG groups (36 %, 6 % and 5 %, respectively; p = 0.02). Bariatric procedures have no effects on smoking habit of moderate-to-heavy smoker severe obese patients. The use of other traditional smoking cessation methods in patients undergone to bariatric procedures should be implemented.

  14. Justify Your Answer: The Role of Written Think Aloud in Script Concordance Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Alyssa; Lemay, Jean-Francois; Cooke, Suzette

    2017-01-01

    Construct: Clinical reasoning assessment is a growing area of interest in the medical education literature. Script concordance testing (SCT) evaluates clinical reasoning in conditions of uncertainty and has emerged as an innovative tool in the domain of clinical reasoning assessment. SCT quantifies the degree of concordance between a learner and an experienced clinician and attempts to capture the breadth of responses of expert clinicians, acknowledging the significant yet acceptable variation in practice under situations of uncertainty. SCT has been shown to be a valid and reliable clinical reasoning assessment tool. However, as SCT provides only quantitative information, it may not provide a complete assessment of clinical reasoning. Think aloud (TA) is a qualitative research tool used in clinical reasoning assessment in which learners verbalize their thought process around an assigned task. This study explores the use of TA, in the form of written reflection, in SCT to assess resident clinical reasoning, hypothesizing that the information obtained from the written TA would enrich the quantitative data obtained through SCT. Ninety-one pediatric postgraduate trainees and 21 pediatricians from 4 Canadian training centers completed an online test consisting of 24 SCT cases immediately followed by retrospective written TA. Six of 24 cases were selected to gather TA data. These cases were chosen to allow all phases of clinical decision making (diagnosis, investigation, and treatment) to be represented in the TA data. Inductive thematic analysis was employed when systematically reviewing TA responses. Three main benefits of adding written TA to SCT were identified: (a) uncovering instances of incorrect clinical reasoning despite a correct SCT response, (b) revealing sound clinical reasoning in the context of a suboptimal SCT response, and (c) detecting question misinterpretation. Written TA can optimize SCT by demonstrating when correct examinee responses are based on

  15. The Process Of Transforming The Mahabharata Literary Work Written In The Old Javanese Into Geguritan Sarpayajnya And Geguritan Kicaka Written In The Balinese Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Suastika

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The story of the Pandawas and their wife in Wirata was used as the plot of the geguritan Kicakawhich was initially transformed from Wirataparwa in the form of Parwa. The only episode which was transformed into geguritan written in the Balinese language is the one narrating when the Pandawas were in disguise for one year. In this episode the love story of their wife, Drupadi, who was disguised as Sairindriis also narrated. In this episode it is also narrated that the Chief Minister, Kicaka, would like to have her as his wife. However, the Chief Minister, Kicaka, was killed by Bima, who was disguised as Ballawa, meaning that the love story came to an end. From the language point of view, the episode telling that the Pandawas were in Wirata was transformed into Geguritan Kicaka written in the Balinese language. In addition, although the text was dynamically translated, many Old Javanese words are still used in the Balinese version.Similarly, geguritan Sarpayajaya adopted the episode of Sarpayajnya of Adiparwa; however, the plot was modified again using thestrophes pangkur, dangdanggula, sinom and durma and was introduced using the Balinese language. It is narrated that King Parikesit was bitten and killed by a snake named Taksaka. Consequently, his son, Janamejaya, performed a ritual known as Sarpayajaya, causing all the snakes to die. From the cultural point of view, the text is recited as part of the performing art and the art of music ‘magegitan’ in Bali. The text Sarpayajayaisrecited as part of the cremation ceremony ‘ngaben’ known as mamutru.

  16. Practical procedure for method validation in INAA- A tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroni, Robson; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: robsonpetroni@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the procedure employed by the Neutron Activation Laboratory at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (LAN, IPEN - CNEN/SP) for validation of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods. According to recommendations of ISO/IEC 17025 the method performance characteristics (limit of detection, limit of quantification, trueness, repeatability, intermediate precision, reproducibility, selectivity, linearity and uncertainties budget) were outline in an easy, fast and convenient way. The paper presents step by step how to calculate the required method performance characteristics in a process of method validation, what are the procedures, adopted strategies and acceptance criteria for the results, that is, how to make a method validation in INAA. In order to exemplify the methodology applied, obtained results for the method validation of mass fraction determination of Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, Se and Zn in biological matrix samples, using an internal reference material of mussel tissue were presented. It was concluded that the methodology applied for validation of INAA methods is suitable, meeting all the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025, and thereby, generating satisfactory results for the studies carried at LAN, IPEN - CNEN/SP. (author)

  17. Practical procedure for method validation in INAA- A tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroni, Robson; Moreira, Edson G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the procedure employed by the Neutron Activation Laboratory at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (LAN, IPEN - CNEN/SP) for validation of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods. According to recommendations of ISO/IEC 17025 the method performance characteristics (limit of detection, limit of quantification, trueness, repeatability, intermediate precision, reproducibility, selectivity, linearity and uncertainties budget) were outline in an easy, fast and convenient way. The paper presents step by step how to calculate the required method performance characteristics in a process of method validation, what are the procedures, adopted strategies and acceptance criteria for the results, that is, how to make a method validation in INAA. In order to exemplify the methodology applied, obtained results for the method validation of mass fraction determination of Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, Se and Zn in biological matrix samples, using an internal reference material of mussel tissue were presented. It was concluded that the methodology applied for validation of INAA methods is suitable, meeting all the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025, and thereby, generating satisfactory results for the studies carried at LAN, IPEN - CNEN/SP. (author)

  18. A Rapid Selection Procedure for Simple Commercial Implementation of omega-Transaminase Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen Deslauriers, Maria; Tufvesson, Pär; Rackham, Emma J.

    2016-01-01

    A stepwise selection procedure is presented to quickly evaluate whether a given omega-transaminase reaction is suitable for a so-called "simple" scale-up for fast industrial implementation. Here "simple" is defined as a system without the need for extensive process development or specialized......, and (3) determination of product inhibition. The method is exemplified with experimental work focused on two products: 1-(4-bromophenyl)ethylamine and (S)-(+)3-amino-1-Boc-piperidine, synthesized from their corresponding pro-chiral ketones each with two alternative amine donors, propan-2-amine, and 1......-phenylethylamine. Each step of the method has a threshold value, which must be surpassed to allow "simple" implementation, helping select suitable combinations of substrates, enzymes, and donors. One reaction pair, 1-Boc-3-piperidone with propan-2-amine, met the criteria of the three-step selection procedure...

  19. Procedural learning and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolson, R I; Fawcett, A J; Brookes, R L; Needle, J

    2010-08-01

    Three major 'neural systems', specialized for different types of information processing, are the sensory, declarative, and procedural systems. It has been proposed (Trends Neurosci., 30(4), 135-141) that dyslexia may be attributable to impaired function in the procedural system together with intact declarative function. We provide a brief overview of the increasing evidence relating to the hypothesis, noting that the framework involves two main claims: first that 'neural systems' provides a productive level of description avoiding the underspecificity of cognitive descriptions and the overspecificity of brain structural accounts; and second that a distinctive feature of procedural learning is its extended time course, covering from minutes to months. In this article, we focus on the second claim. Three studies-speeded single word reading, long-term response learning, and overnight skill consolidation-are reviewed which together provide clear evidence of difficulties in procedural learning for individuals with dyslexia, even when the tasks are outside the literacy domain. The educational implications of the results are then discussed, and in particular the potential difficulties that impaired overnight procedural consolidation would entail. It is proposed that response to intervention could be better predicted if diagnostic tests on the different forms of learning were first undertaken. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Procedural sedation analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheta Saad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures performed outside of the operating room has grown exponentially over the last several decades. Sedation, analgesia, or both may be needed for many of these interventional or diagnostic procedures. Individualized care is important when determining if a patient requires procedural sedation analgesia (PSA. The patient might need an anti-anxiety drug, pain medicine, immobilization, simple reassurance, or a combination of these interventions. The goals of PSA in four different multidisciplinary practices namely; emergency, dentistry, radiology and gastrointestinal endoscopy are discussed in this review article. Some procedures are painful, others painless. Therefore, goals of PSA vary widely. Sedation management can range from minimal sedation, to the extent of minimal anesthesia. Procedural sedation in emergency department (ED usually requires combinations of multiple agents to reach desired effects of analgesia plus anxiolysis. However, in dental practice, moderate sedation analgesia (known to the dentists as conscious sedation is usually what is required. It is usually most effective with the combined use of local anesthesia. The mainstay of success for painless imaging is absolute immobility. Immobility can be achieved by deep sedation or minimal anesthesia. On the other hand, moderate sedation, deep sedation, minimal anesthesia and conventional general anesthesia can be all utilized for management of gastrointestinal endoscopy.

  1. Environmental consequence analyses of fish farm emissions related to different scales and exemplified by data from the Baltic--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenhammar, Andreas; Håkanson, Lars

    2005-08-01

    feed for the cultivated fish, and (4) at the international scale (>10,000 km2) related to the Baltic Proper, the contribution from fish farms to the overall nutrient fluxes are very small. We have also given two case-studies at the local scale where the impact of the fish farm emissions are greatest and the idea is to identify coastal areas unsuitable and suitable for fish cage farms and the reasons why. It should also be stressed that the results presented here are exemplified using emissions from fish farms, but that the underlying principles to evaluate the ecosystem effects of nutrient discharges from point source emissions are valid in a wider and more general perspective.

  2. Overcoming trends in irregularly spaced locations by regional polish - exemplified by estimation of the range of influence between Salmonella Dublin-seropositive cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a procedure to remove spatial trends in irregularly spaced data, with trends partly due to regional differences. Median polish is often used on regularly spaced (lattice) data where column and row medians are removed. For irregularly spaced data a low-resolutio...

  3. [The evaluation of nursing graduates' scientific reasoning and oral and written communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demandes, Ingrid; Latrach, Cecilia A; Febre, Naldy Pamela; Muñoz, Claudia; Torres, Pamela; Retamal, Jessica

    2012-08-01

    This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in Santiago de Chile, with the objective to evaluate the scientific reasoning and the oral and written communication of nursing graduates. The sample consisted of 37 nursing graduates who participated in the three stages of the study: I) creation and validation of the instrument; II) training the faculty participating in the study to apply the instrument uniformly; and III) application of the instrument and data analysis. The data show different percentages regarding this competency, with the predominance of scientific reasoning (83.16%), followed by oral and written communication (78.37%). In conclusion, this study demonstrates the value for nursing schools to implement a formal evaluation that allows for determining the profile of nursing graduates, guaranteeing the quality of their training and education.

  4. Meeting the Demands of the Workplace: Science Students and Written Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, F. Elizabeth; Emerson, Lisa; Mackay, Bruce

    2005-12-01

    Over the last 15 years, surveys in a range of English-speaking countries, from North America and the United Kingdom, to New Zealand and Australia, have consistently shown that employers rank oral and written communication skills as highly as or more highly than any technical or quantitative skills. However, in New Zealand there has been very little research into determining exactly what is meant by the "written communication skills" employers state they desire. A further issue in this research to date has been a lack of differentiation between employers—no study has specifically targeted the requirements of employers of science graduates. This article reports the findings of ongoing research into the expectations of science students and of employers of science graduates, and centers around several key questions: What do New Zealand employers of science graduates specifically want in terms of their new hires' writing skills?

  5. The effect of written text on comprehension of spoken English as a foreign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Yali; Chandler, Paul; Sweller, John

    2007-01-01

    Based on cognitive load theory, this study investigated the effect of simultaneous written presentations on comprehension of spoken English as a foreign language. Learners' language comprehension was compared while they used 3 instructional formats: listening with auditory materials only, listening with a full, written script, and listening with simultaneous subtitled text. Listening with the presence of a script and subtitles led to better understanding of the scripted and subtitled passage but poorer performance on a subsequent auditory passage than listening with the auditory materials only. These findings indicated that where the intention was learning to listen, the use of a full script or subtitles had detrimental effects on the construction and automation of listening comprehension schemas.

  6. Technology supporting written productivity in children with learning disabilities: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batorowicz, Beata; Missiuna, Cheryl A; Pollock, Nancy A

    2012-10-01

    Occupational therapists working with school-aged children are often in the position of recommending technology to enhance written productivity. The outcome of using technology on the writing of children with learning disabilities has not been reviewed critically, and this knowledge is necessary for evidence-based practice. To review evidence regarding the use of technology to support written productivity in children with learning disabilities. A systematic search of seven databases, plus a manual search, retrieved 864 papers published between 1985 and March 2012. Twenty-seven papers (28 studies) met inclusion criteria. The evidence is of a moderately low level and results are inconclusive; however, trends suggest a positive influence of some technology on children's performance and behaviour. Methodological limitations exist in most studies and the description of specific technology intervention is often combined with teaching instructions. The available research is encouraging, but high-quality investigations with newer technologies are needed.

  7. Femtosecond laser-written double line waveguides in germanate and tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. da Silva, Diego; Wetter, Niklaus U.; de Rossi, Wagner; Samad, Ricardo E.; Kassab, Luciana R. P.

    2018-02-01

    The authors report the fabrication and characterization of passive waveguides in GeO2-PbO and TeO2-ZnO glasses written with a femtosecond laser delivering pulses with 3μJ, 30μJ and 80fs at 4kHz repetition rate. Permanent refractive index change at the focus of the laser beam was obtained and waveguides were formed by two closely spaced laser written lines, where the light guiding occurs between them. The refractive index change at 632 nm is around 10-4 . The value of the propagation losses was around 2.0 dB/cm. The output mode profiles indicate multimodal guiding behavior. Raman measurements show structural modification of the glassy network. The results show that these materials are potential candidates for passive waveguides applications as low-loss optical components.

  8. Written but not oral verbal production is preserved in young schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomé, Franck; Boyer, Patrice; Fayol, Michel

    2002-08-30

    The aim of this study is to discover whether the language capabilities of young schizophrenic patients are more affected in speaking than in writing or whether the disorders are equivalent in the two modes. To do this, we compared spoken and written descriptions of pictures obtained from 10 schizophrenic patients with those produced by 10 control subjects. These productions were analysed on the basis of objective indices. The syntax and coherence of the productions were evaluated by judges. The comparison of the performances of the controls and schizophrenic patients supports the hypothesis that the latter suffer from a language disorder affecting the oral mode but impacting less frequently and less severely on the written mode. These results are discussed in the light of the cognitive mechanisms which may provide an explanation of these language disorders.

  9. Testing knowledge of whole English collocations available for use in written production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revier, Robert Lee

    2014-01-01

    Testing knowledge of whole English collocations available for use in written production: Developing tests for use with intermediate and advanced Danish learners (dansk resume nedenfor) The present foreign language acquisition research derives its impetus from four assumptions regarding knowledge...... of English collocations. These are: (a) collocation knowledge can be conceptualized as an independent knowledge construct, (b) collocations are lexical items in their own right, (c) testing of collocation knowledge should also target knowledge of whole collocations, and (d) the learning burden of a whole...... the development of Danish EFL learners’ productive knowledge of whole English collocations. Five empirical studies were designed to generate information that would shed light on the reliability and validity of the CONTRIX as a measure of collocation knowledge available for use in written production. Study 1...

  10. A Positivity Bias in Written and Spoken English and Its Moderation by Personality and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Adam A; Mehl, Matthias R; Larsen, Randy J

    2011-09-01

    The human tendency to use positive words ("adorable") more often than negative words ("dreadful") is called the linguistic positivity bias. We find evidence for this bias in two studies of word use, one based on written corpora and another based on naturalistic speech samples. In addition, we demonstrate that the positivity bias applies to nouns and verbs as well as adjectives. We also show that it is found to the same degree in written as well as spoken English. Moreover, personality traits and gender moderate the effect, such that persons high on extraversion and agreeableness and women display a larger positivity bias in naturalistic speech. Results are discussed in terms of how the linguistic positivity bias may serve as a mechanism for social facilitation. People, in general, and some people more than others, tend to talk about the brighter side of life.

  11. Font size matters--emotion and attention in cortical responses to written words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Mareike; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2012-01-01

    For emotional pictures with fear-, disgust-, or sex-related contents, stimulus size has been shown to increase emotion effects in attention-related event-related potentials (ERPs), presumably reflecting the enhanced biological impact of larger emotion-inducing pictures. If this is true, size should not enhance emotion effects for written words with symbolic and acquired meaning. Here, we investigated ERP effects of font size for emotional and neutral words. While P1 and N1 amplitudes were not affected by emotion, the early posterior negativity started earlier and lasted longer for large relative to small words. These results suggest that emotion-driven facilitation of attention is not necessarily based on biological relevance, but might generalize to stimuli with arbitrary perceptual features. This finding points to the high relevance of written language in today's society as an important source of emotional meaning.

  12. Controlling the volatility of the written optical state in electrochromic DNA liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Varghese, Justin; Gerasimov, Jennifer Y.; Polyakov, Alexey O.; Shuai, Min; Su, Juanjuan; Chen, Dong; Zajaczkowski, Wojciech; Marcozzi, Alessio; Pisula, Wojciech; Noheda, Beatriz; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Clark, Noel A.; Herrmann, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Liquid crystals are widely used in displays for portable electronic information display. To broaden their scope for other applications like smart windows and tags, new material properties such as polarizer-free operation and tunable memory of a written state become important. Here, we describe an anhydrous nanoDNA-surfactant thermotropic liquid crystal system, which exhibits distinctive electrically controlled optical absorption, and temperature-dependent memory. In the liquid crystal isotropic phase, electric field-induced colouration and bleaching have a switching time of seconds. Upon transition to the smectic liquid crystal phase, optical memory of the written state is observed for many hours without applied voltage. The reorientation of the DNA-surfactant lamellar layers plays an important role in preventing colour decay. Thereby, the volatility of optoelectronic state can be controlled simply by changing the phase of the material. This research may pave the way for developing a new generation of DNA-based, phase-modulated, photoelectronic devices.

  13. Caring Decisions: The Development of a Written Resource for Parents Facing End-of-Life Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Xafis, Vicki; Gillam, Lynn; Hynson, Jenny; Sullivan, Jane; Cossich, Mary; Wilkinson, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Background: Written resources in adult intensive care have been shown to benefit families facing end of life (EoL) decisions. There are few resources for parents making EoL decisions for their child and no existing resources addressing ethical issues. TheCaring Decisionshandbook and website were developed to fill these gaps. Aim: We discuss the development of the resources, modification after reviewer feedback and findings from initial pilot implementation. Design: A targeted...

  14. The incidence and severity of errors in pharmacist-written discharge medication orders

    OpenAIRE

    Onatade, Raliat; Sawieres, Sara; Veck, Alexandra; Smith, Lindsay; Gore, Shivani; Al-Azeib, Sumiah

    2017-01-01

    Background Errors in discharge prescriptions are problematic. When hospital pharmacists write discharge prescriptions improvements are seen in the quality and efficiency of discharge. There is limited information on the incidence of errors in pharmacists’ medication orders. Objective To investigate the extent and clinical significance of errors in pharmacist-written discharge medication orders. Setting 1000-bed teaching hospital in London, UK. Method Pharmacists in this London hospital routin...

  15. Written-in conductive patterns on robust graphene oxide biopaper by electrochemical microstamping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kesong; Tolentino, Lorenzo S; Kulkarni, Dhaval D; Ye, Chunhong; Kumar, Satish; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2013-12-16

    The silk road: By employing silk fibroin as a binder between graphene oxide films and aluminum foil for a facile, highly localized reduction process, conductive paper is reinvented. The flexible, robust biographene papers have high toughness and electrical conductivity. This electrochemical written-in approach is readily applicable for the fabrication of conductive patterned papers with complex circuitries. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Moves Analysis on Abstracts Written by the Students in Academic Writing Class

    OpenAIRE

    Ajeng Setyorini

    2017-01-01

    This paper contains analysis results on abstracts written by students in Academic Writing course. The analysis includes analyses on moves and linguistic features. The analysis aims at finding out how the abstract writing structures of the English Education students are in the Academic Writing course. The abstract analysis also includes the analysis on the use of the linguistic features in the abstracts. The analysis uses a qualitative research approach. There are totally 10 abstracts that are...

  17. Pylinguistics: an open source library for readability assessment of texts written in Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castilhos, S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Readability assessment is an important task in automatic text simplification that aims identify the text complexity by computing a set of metrics. In this paper, we present the development and assessment of an open source library called Pylinguistics to readability assessment of texts written in Portuguese. Additionally, to illustrate the possibilities of our tool, this work also presents an empirical analysis of readability of Brazilian scientific news dissemination.

  18. Assessing written communication during interhospital transfers of emergency general surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harl, Felicity N R; Saucke, Megan C; Greenberg, Caprice C; Ingraham, Angela M

    2017-06-15

    Poor communication causes fragmented care. Studies of transitions of care within a hospital and on discharge suggest significant communication deficits. Communication during transfers between hospitals has not been well studied. We assessed the written communication provided during interhospital transfers of emergency general surgery patients. We hypothesized that patients are transferred with incomplete documentation from referring facilities. We performed a retrospective review of written communication provided during interhospital transfers to our emergency department (ED) from referring EDs for emergency general surgical evaluation between January 1, 2014 and January 1, 2016. Elements of written communication were abstracted from referring facility documents scanned into the medical record using a standardized abstraction protocol. Descriptive statistics summarized the information communicated. A total of 129 patients met inclusion criteria. 87.6% (n = 113) of charts contained referring hospital documents. 42.5% (n = 48) were missing history and physicals. Diagnoses were missing in 9.7% (n = 11). Ninety-one computed tomography scans were performed; among 70 with reads, final reads were absent for 70.0% (n = 49). 45 ultrasounds and x-rays were performed; among 27 with reads, final reads were missing for 80.0% (n = 36). Reasons for transfer were missing in 18.6% (n = 21). Referring hospital physicians outside the ED were consulted in 32.7% (n = 37); consultants' notes were absent in 89.2% (n = 33). In 12.4% (n = 14), referring documents arrived after the patient's ED arrival and were not part of the original documentation provided. This study documents that information important to patient care is often missing in the written communication provided during interhospital transfers. This gap affords a foundation for standardizing provider communication during interhospital transfers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia: an empirical-based organizational-ethical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemiengre, Joke; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Schotsmans, Paul; Gastmans, Chris

    2014-05-01

    As euthanasia has become a widely debated issue in many Western countries, hospitals and nursing homes especially are increasingly being confronted with this ethically sensitive societal issue. The focus of this paper is how healthcare institutions can deal with euthanasia requests on an organizational level by means of a written institutional ethics policy. The general aim is to make a critical analysis whether these policies can be considered as organizational-ethical instruments that support healthcare institutions to take their institutional responsibility for dealing with euthanasia requests. By means of an interpretative analysis, we conducted a process of reinterpretation of results of former Belgian empirical studies on written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia in dialogue with the existing international literature. The study findings revealed that legal regulations, ethical and care-oriented aspects strongly affected the development, the content, and the impact of written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia. Hence, these three cornerstones-law, care and ethics-constituted the basis for the empirical-based organizational-ethical framework for written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia that is presented in this paper. However, having a euthanasia policy does not automatically lead to more legal transparency, or to a more professional and ethical care practice. The study findings suggest that the development and implementation of an ethics policy on euthanasia as an organizational-ethical instrument should be considered as a dynamic process. Administrators and ethics committees must take responsibility to actively create an ethical climate supporting care providers who have to deal with ethical dilemmas in their practice.

  20. Teaching And Learning Writing Using Teacher’s Written Feedback And Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iisrohli Irawati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to find out whether there is a significant difference in terms of writing skills improvements between the 8th grade students of SMP N 1 Prambanan Sleman who are given teacher’s written feedback and conference and those who are not in the academic year of 2011/2012. This study involved 71 students from two groups, Class VIII B (35 students as the experimental group and Class VIII A (36 students as the control group. The experimental group was given teacher’s written feedback and conference in the writing learning process, whereas the control group was given peer’s feedback. The data were obtained by using two essay writing tests. They were administered to the two groups as the pre-test and post-test. The pre-test was given to both groups before the treatment was given and the post-test was given after the treatment finished. The data of the pre-test and post-test of both groups were analyzed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics. After the data were tested and found to be homogeneous and normal, the hypothesis was tested using the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA. The results show that there is a significant difference in the writing ability between the students who are given teacher’s written feedback and conference and those who were not. It can be seen in the result of the hypothesis testing using ANCOVA. The significant value of 0.001 is less than the significance level of 0.05 (0.001 < 0.05, which means that the data of this study are considered to have a significant difference. Therefore, the hypothesis of this study is accepted. It means that the technique of giving teacher’s written feedback and conference significantly improves the students’ writing ability in the English teaching and learning process in SMP N 1 Prambanan Sleman.

  1. Piloting a Structured Practice Audit to Assess ACGME Milestones in Written Handoff Communication in Internal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shannon K; Farnan, Jeanne M; McConville, John F; Arora, Vineet M

    2015-06-01

    Written communication skills are integral to patient care handoffs. Residency programs require feasible assessment tools that provide timely formative and summative feedback, ideally linked to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Milestones. We describe the use of 1 such tool-UPDATED-to assess written handoff communication skills in internal medicine interns. During 2012-2013, the authors piloted a structured practice audit at 1 academic institution to audit written sign-outs completed by 45 interns, using the UPDATED tool, which scores 7 aspects of sign-out communication linked to milestones. Intern sign-outs were audited by trained faculty members throughout the year. Results were incorporated into intern performance reviews and Clinical Competency Committees. A total of 136 sign-outs were audited (averaging 3.1 audits per intern). In the first trimester, 14 interns (31%) had satisfactory audit results. Five interns (11%) had critical deficiencies and received immediate feedback, and the remaining 26 (58%) were assigned future audits due to missing audits or unsatisfactory scores. In the second trimester, 21 interns (68%) had satisfactory results, 1 had critical deficiencies, and 9 (29%) required future audits. Nine of the 10 remaining interns in the final trimester had satisfactory audits. Faculty time was estimated at 10 to 15 minutes per sign-out audited. The UPDATED audit is a milestone-based tool that can be used to assess written sign-out communication skills in internal medicine residency programs. Future work is planned to adapt the tool for use by senior supervisory residents to appraise sign-outs in real time.

  2. Stepping into others’ shoes: a cognitive perspective on target audience orientation in written translation

    OpenAIRE

    Apfelthaler, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    This paper suggests what might allow translators to orient themselves towards their target audience in the translation process. To shed light on translators’ ability to put themselves into their target audience’s shoes, I adopt a cognitive perspective by drawing on current findings from psychology, cognitive science and neuroscience. I depart from the notion of target audience as applied to written translation. Aspects to this concept and the terminology of audience in translation studies are...

  3. Cultural-historical and cognitive approaches to understanding the origins of development of written speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Obukhova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of the emergence and development of written speech, its relationship to the oral speech, connections to the symbolic and modeling activities of preschool children – playing and drawing. While a child's drawing is traditionally interpreted in psychology either as a measure of intellectual development, or as a projective technique, or as a criterion for creative giftedness of the child, in this article, the artistic activity is analyzed as a prerequisite for development of written speech. The article substantiates the hypothesis that the mastery of “picture writing” – the ability to display the verbal content in a schematic picturesque plan – is connected to the success of writing speech at school age. Along with the classical works of L.S. Vygotsky, D.B. Elkonin, A.R. Luria, dedicated to finding the origins of writing, the article presents the current Russian and foreign frameworks of forming the preconditions of writing, based on the concepts of cultural-historical theory (“higher mental functions”, “zone of proximal development”, etc.. In Western psychology, a number of pilot studies used the developmental function of drawing for teaching the written skills to children of 5-7 years old. However, in cognitive psychology, relationship between drawing and writing is most often reduced mainly to the analysis of general motor circuits. Despite the recovery in research on writing and its origins in the last decade, either in domestic or in foreign psychology, the written speech is not a sufficiently studied problem.

  4. What makes a place special? Interpretation of written survey responses in natural resource planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert W. Schroeder

    2000-01-01

    In an open-ended, written survey, I asked residents and visitors of the Black River area in northern Michigan to identify and describe places that were special to them. I conducted a thematic interpretation of the responses, using a set of indexing and cross-referencing marcos that I wrote in Word Perfect 5.1. The themes that emerged included the natural beauty ofthe...

  5. Book Review: The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism written by Naomi Klein

    OpenAIRE

    Looney, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Book review by Dr. Robert Looney of the book The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism written by Naomi Klein. By pure chance, two significant books on capitalism were published within weeks of one another in the early fall of 2007. The first (The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World), by the consummate insider, Alan Greenspan, examiines the inner workings of the capitalist system from the perspective of one who was perhaps as responsible as anyone for its spectacular su...

  6. Font Size Matters—Emotion and Attention in Cortical Responses to Written Words

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Mareike; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2012-01-01

    For emotional pictures with fear-, disgust-, or sex-related contents, stimulus size has been shown to increase emotion effects in attention-related event-related potentials (ERPs), presumably reflecting the enhanced biological impact of larger emotion-inducing pictures. If this is true, size should not enhance emotion effects for written words with symbolic and acquired meaning. Here, we investigated ERP effects of font size for emotional and neutral words. While P1 and N1 amplitu...

  7. AGOA: A Hydration Procedure and Its Application to the 1-Phenyl-beta-Carboline Molecule

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandes, Marcelo Z.; Silva, João B. P. da; Longo, Ricardo L.

    2002-01-01

    A new procedure, named AGOA, has been developed and implemented in a computer program written in FORTRAN 77 to explore the hydration structures of polar solutes using its molecular electrostatic potential (MEP). This procedure can be generalized to polar solvents other than water. It has been tested for several small molecules, and applied to complex molecules of pharmacological interest, such as the beta-carbolinic systems derived from indole. This is a stringent, but not general, test of th...

  8. Test procedures for polyester immobilized salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyani, R.K.; Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    These test procedures are written to meet the procedural needs of the Test Plan for immobilization of salt containing surrogate mixed waste using polymer resins, HNF-SD-RE-TP-026 and to ensure adequacy of conduct and collection of samples and data. This testing will demonstrate the use of four different polyester vinyl ester resins in the solidification of surrogate liquid and dry wastes, similar to some mixed wastes generated by DOE operations

  9. Anesthesia for radiologic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forestner, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Anesthetic techniques for neurodiagnostic studies and radiation therapy have been recently reviewed, but anesthetic involvement in thoracic and abdominal radiology has received little attention. Patient reactions to radiologic contrast media may be of concern to the anesthesiologist, who is often responsible for injecting these agents during diagnostic procedures, and thus is included in this discussion. Finally, the difficulties of administering anesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans are outlined, in an effort to help anesthesiologist to anticipate problems with this new technologic development. Although there are very few indications for the use of general anesthesia for diagnostic radiologic studies in adults, most procedures performed with children, the mentally retarded, or the combative adult require either heavy sedation or general anesthesia. In selecting an anesthetic technique for a specific procedure, both the patient's disease process and the requirements of the radiologist must be carefully balanced

  10. 28 CFR 16.32 - Procedure to obtain an identification record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedure to obtain an identification record. 16.32 Section 16.32 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Production of FBI Identification Records in Response to Written Requests by...

  11. 12 CFR 616.6300 - Leasing policies, procedures, and underwriting standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... property and associated risks; (e) Property tax and sales tax reporting; (f) Title and ownership of leased... engaged in lease underwriting must adopt a written policy (or policies). Management, at the direction of the board, must develop procedures that reflect lease practices that control risk and comply with all...

  12. 78 FR 39437 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure 98-32

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Revenue Procedure 98-32, Electronic Federal Tax Payment System (EFTPS) Programs for Reporting Agents.... ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Yvette Lawrence, Internal Revenue Service, Room 6129, 1111... Internet at [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Electronic Federal Tax Payment...

  13. Is handwriting constrained by phonology? Evidence from Stroop tasks with written responses and Chinese characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eDamian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To what extent is handwritten word production based on phonological codes? A few studies conducted in Western languages have recently provided evidence showing that phonology contributes to the retrieval of graphemic properties in written output tasks. Less is known about how orthographic production works in languages with non-alphabetic scripts such as written Chinese. We report a Stroop study in which Chinese participants wrote the colour of characters on a digital graphic tablet; characters were either neutral, or homophonic to the target (congruent, or homophonic to an alternative (incongruent. Facilitation was found from congruent homophonic distractors, but only when the homophone shared the same tone with the target. This finding suggests a contribution of phonology to written word production. A second experiment served as a control experiment to exclude the possibility that the effect in Experiment 1 had an exclusively semantic locus. Overall, the findings offer new insight into the relative contribution of phonology to handwriting, particularly in non-Western languages.

  14. Moves Analysis on Abstracts Written by the Students in Academic Writing Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeng Setyorini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains analysis results on abstracts written by students in Academic Writing course. The analysis includes analyses on moves and linguistic features. The analysis aims at finding out how the abstract writing structures of the English Education students are in the Academic Writing course. The abstract analysis also includes the analysis on the use of the linguistic features in the abstracts. The analysis uses a qualitative research approach. There are totally 10 abstracts that are analyzed. These are then called as the data. Data obtained is analyzed using genre analysis approach. Results of analysis on the 10 abstracts showed that some of the abstracts are written using 5 kinds of moves. All of the abstracts are found using Purpose Move and Method Move. Meanwhile, Situation Move is found in 5 abstracts. 8 abstracts are identified using Result Move. Conclusion Move is found in 5 abstracts. The results also show that all of the abstract writers use pronouns ‘the writer’ and ‘the researcher’. The use of personal pronoun ‘she’ is also found in 1 abstract. Hedges used in abstracts written by students in Academic Writing course vary from modal auxiliary verbs, adjectival, adverbial, nominal to Approximates of degree.

  15. Speech-language therapy for adolescents with written-language difficulties: The South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danel Erasmus

    2013-11-01

    Method: A survey study was conducted, using a self-administered questionnaire. Twenty-two currently practising speech-language therapists who are registered members of the South African Speech-Language-Hearing Association (SASLHA participated in the study. Results: The respondents indicated that they are aware of their role regarding adolescents with written-language difficulties. However, they feel that South-African speech-language therapists are not fulfilling this role. Existing assessment tools and interventions for written-language difficulties are described as inadequate, and culturally and age inappropriate. Yet, the majority of the respondents feel that they are adequately equipped to work with adolescents with written-language difficulties, based on their own experience, self-study and secondary training. The respondents feel that training regarding effective collaboration with teachers is necessary to establish specific roles, and to promote speech-language therapy for adolescents among teachers. Conclusion: Further research is needed in developing appropriate assessment and intervention tools as well as improvement of training at an undergraduate level.

  16. Attitudes towards chiropractic: an analysis of written comments from a survey of north american orthopaedic surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busse Jason W

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest by chiropractors in North America regarding integration into mainstream healthcare; however, there is limited information about attitudes towards the profession among conventional healthcare providers, including orthopaedic surgeons. Methods We administered a 43-item cross-sectional survey to 1000 Canadian and American orthopaedic surgeons that inquired about demographic variables and their attitudes towards chiropractic. Our survey included an option for respondants to include written comments, and our present analysis is restricted to these comments. Two reviewers, independantly and in duplicate, coded all written comments using thematic analysis. Results 487 surgeons completed the survey (response rate 49%, and 174 provided written comments. Our analysis revealed 8 themes and 24 sub-themes represented in surgeons' comments. Reported themes were: variability amongst chiropractors (n = 55; concerns with chiropractic treatment (n = 54; areas where chiropractic is perceived as effective (n = 43; unethical behavior (n = 43; patient interaction (n = 36; the scientific basis of chiropractic (n = 26; personal experiences with chiropractic (n = 21; and chiropractic training (n = 18. Common sub-themes endorsed by surgeon's were diversity within the chiropractic profession as a barrier to increased interprofessional collaboration, endorsement for chiropractic treatment of musculoskeletal complaints, criticism for treatment of non-musculoskeletal complaints, and concern over whether chiropractic care was evidence-based. Conclusions Our analysis identified a number of issues that will have to be considered by the chiropractic profession as part of its efforts to further integrate chiropractic into mainstream healthcare.

  17. Top-down influences of written text on perceived clarity of degraded speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohoglu, Ediz; Peelle, Jonathan E; Carlyon, Robert P; Davis, Matthew H

    2014-02-01

    An unresolved question is how the reported clarity of degraded speech is enhanced when listeners have prior knowledge of speech content. One account of this phenomenon proposes top-down modulation of early acoustic processing by higher-level linguistic knowledge. Alternative, strictly bottom-up accounts argue that acoustic information and higher-level knowledge are combined at a late decision stage without modulating early acoustic processing. Here we tested top-down and bottom-up accounts using written text to manipulate listeners' knowledge of speech content. The effect of written text on the reported clarity of noise-vocoded speech was most pronounced when text was presented before (rather than after) speech (Experiment 1). Fine-grained manipulation of the onset asynchrony between text and speech revealed that this effect declined when text was presented more than 120 ms after speech onset (Experiment 2). Finally, the influence of written text was found to arise from phonological (rather than lexical) correspondence between text and speech (Experiment 3). These results suggest that prior knowledge effects are time-limited by the duration of auditory echoic memory for degraded speech, consistent with top-down modulation of early acoustic processing by linguistic knowledge. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Language Learners' Writing Task Representation and Its Effect on Written Performance in an EFL Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Gholam Reza; Pourghasemian, Hossein; Jalali, Hassan

    2017-06-01

    The present study attempts to give an account of how students represent writing task in an EAP course. Further, the study is intended to discover if learners' mental representation of writing would contribute to their written performance. During a 16-week term, students were instructed to practice writing as a problem solving activity. At almost the end of the term, they were prompted to write on what they thought writing task was like and also an essay on an argumentative topic. The results revealed that students could conceptualize the instructed recursive model of writing as a process-based, multi-dimensional and integrated activity inducing self-direction and organization while holding in low regard the product view of writing. The findings also demonstrated that task representation was related to the students' writing performance, with process oriented students significantly outperforming the product-oriented ones. Also, it was found that task representation components (ideational, linguistic, textual, interpersonal) had a significant relationship with the written performance ([Formula: see text]; Sig.: 0.006). The study can have both theoretical and practical implications with regard to the factors involving the students' writing internal processes and their effects on written performance.

  19. What Comes First, What Comes Next: Information Packaging in Written and Spoken Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Smolka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores similarities and differences in the strategies of structuring information at sentence level in spoken and written language, respectively. In particular, it is concerned with the position of the rheme in the sentence in the two different modalities of language, and with the application and correlation of the end-focus and the end-weight principles. The assumption is that while there is a general tendency in both written and spoken language to place the focus in or close to the final position, owing to the limitations imposed by short-term memory capacity (and possibly by other factors, for the sake of easy processibility, it may occasionally be more felicitous in spoken language to place the rhematic element in the initial position or at least close to the beginning of the sentence. The paper aims to identify differences in the function of selected grammatical structures in written and spoken language, respectively, and to point out circumstances under which initial focus is a convenient alternative to the usual end-focus principle.

  20. The students’ use of written and internet sources and electronic media for assessment in slovene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Hromin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the frequency of using written and online sources as well as of electronic media during preparation of secondary school students for in-class examinations in Slovene language and literature. Within the scope of the above mentioned aspects we have controlled the of age and type of secondary school programmes. In the first part of the article the concept of information and communication technology/multimedia, the concept of e-learning and the concept of student activity are defined. In the second half of the article I present the results of the research, which show the frequency of use of written and web sources as well as of electronic media. These results have shown that with the oral examination of knowledge of grammar and literature the use of the notebook is prevalent, while with the written examination of knowledge of grammar and literature the use of the course book is predominant. The frequency of use of World Wide Web sources and electronic media increases with age and according to the level of difficultness of education programme. Thus the use of the notebook is the most prevalent in vocational schools whereas the use of the course book is predominant at the level of technical gimnazija and general gimnazija programmes.

  1. Attentional strategic control over nonlexical and lexical processing in written spelling to dictation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Collay, Sandra; Fayol, Michel; Méot, Alain

    2005-01-01

    We conducted four experiments to investigate whether adults can exert attentional strategic control over nonlexical and lexical processing in written spelling to dictation. In Experiment 1, regular and irregular words were produced either in a nonword context (regular and irregular nonwords) or in a word context (high-frequency regular and irregular words), whereas in Experiment 2, the same set of words was produced either in a regular nonword or in an irregular low-frequency word context. Experiment 3 was a replication of Experiment 2 but with increased manipulation of the context. In Experiment 4, participants had to produce either under time pressure or in response to standard written spelling instructions. Regularity effects were found in all the experiments, but their size was not reliably affected by manipulations intended to increase or decrease reliance on nonlexical processing. More particularly, the results from Experiment 4 show that adults can speed up the initialization of their writing responses to a substantial degree without altering regularity effects on either latencies or spelling errors. Our findings suggest that, although adults are able to generate an internal deadline criterion of when to initialize the writing responses, nonlexical processing is a mandatory process that is not subject to attentional strategic control in written spelling to dictation.

  2. Politeness strategies in written communications: the issue of Iranian EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimkhanlooei Giti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The approximation of the pragmatic knowledge of English language learners to native speakers has been a realm of concern for the scholars and researchers in applied linguistics. Thus, this research was an endeavor to figure out the association between the proficiency level and politeness strategies and external/internal modifications in written communication skills in the speech act of requests in Iranian English language learners. To this end, a written Discourse Completion Test (DCT, adapted from Rose (1994, including 8 situations was administered to elicit data from Iran Language Institute120 female and male EFL learners, 60 upper-intermediate and 60 intermediate. The data were sorted out using Brown and Levinson’s politeness strategies taxonomy (Brown and Levinson 1987 and external/internal modifications developed by Faerch and Kasper (1989. The written request utterances provided by each participant were analyzed in terms of frequency and types of politeness strategies, namely, positive, negative, bald on record, and off-record as well as external/internal modifications utilized in requests. The Pearson Chi-Square test results revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between upper-intermediate and intermediate learners’ type of politeness strategies and external/internal modifications.

  3. [Written and pictorial content in magazines and their possible relationship to eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Kornélia; Túry, Ferenc

    2012-02-01

    In the current study we reviewed the literature on studies exploring the magazine reading frequency, written and pictorial contents appearing in magazines and their connection to eating disorders. Reading different fashion and fitness magazines has effect on readers through several indirect and direct factors and through trustable and false information. They affect readers' body satisfaction, self-esteem, eating habits and more generally their health behavior. Different theories have been explained to account for these associations and several other studies examined empirically the connection between the frequency of magazine reading and eating disorders, as well as the symptoms leading to eating disorders. We analyzed and summarized articles between 1975 and 2009 from online databases. We used the following sources: Science Direct (http://www.sciencedirect.com/), Springer-Verlag GmbH (http://www.springerlink.com/) and SAGE Publications Ltd (http://online.sagepub. com/). The pictorial and written magazine contents were associated with the development and maintenance of eating disorders or with symptoms that might lead to eating disorders. The publications compared to previous years featured an increased number of advertisements for unhealthy foods, for unhealthy radical diet plans and exercise programs. Furthermore the magazines contained conflicting messages about nutrition, body functions and eating disorders. Written and pictorial magazine contents, messages might increase the risk for development of eating disorders, especially in vulnerable individuals.

  4. Attitudes of second language students towards self-editing their own written texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kasule

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing students’ deliberate e!orts to minimize errors in their written texts is valuable in seeing them as responsible active agents in text creation. This paper reports on a brief survey of the attitudes towards self-editing of seventy university students using a questionnaire and class discussion. The context of the study is characterized by its emphasis on evaluating the finished written product. Findings show that students appreciate the role of self-editing in minimizing errors in their texts and that it helps in eventually producing well-written texts. Conceptualizing writing as discourse and therefore as social practice leads to an understanding of writers as socially-situated actors; repositions the student writer as an active agent in text creation; and is central to student-centred pedagogy. We recommend the recognition of self-editing as a vital element in the writing process and that additional error detection mechanisms namely peers, the lecturer, and the computer, increase student autonomy.

  5. The European Procedure on Reduced Value Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Zaharia

    2009-06-01

    Regulation expressly provides that the court order in this matter can not be, in any form, the subject ofreexamination, in the State member in which its execution is requested. As regards the linguistic regime,the application will be written in the language or in one of the procedure languages of the court; the costsare incurred by the losing party in the application. But the court will not grant the party that won thelawsuit the expenses that were not necessary or the ones that have a disproportionate value in relation tothe application.

  6. Motive Criminal Procedure Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Вапнярчук

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the need for such a level of mental regulation of behavior of proving motivation. The latter refers to internal motivation conscious entity Criminal Procedure proof, due to specific needs, interests and goals that cause a person to act rishymist. Detailed attention is given to the first two determinants, namely the nature of needs and interests. In particular, analyzes highlighted in the literature variety of needs (physiological, ekzistentsionalni, social, prestige, cognitive, aesthetic and spiritual and the manifestation of some of them in the criminal procedural proof.

  7. Assessing readability formula differences with written health information materials: application, results, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lih-Wern; Miller, Michael J; Schmitt, Michael R; Wen, Frances K

    2013-01-01

    Readability formulas are often used to guide the development and evaluation of literacy-sensitive written health information. However, readability formula results may vary considerably as a result of differences in software processing algorithms and how each formula is applied. These variations complicate interpretations of reading grade level estimates, particularly without a uniform guideline for applying and interpreting readability formulas. This research sought to (1) identify commonly used readability formulas reported in the health care literature, (2) demonstrate the use of the most commonly used readability formulas on written health information, (3) compare and contrast the differences when applying common readability formulas to identical selections of written health information, and (4) provide recommendations for choosing an appropriate readability formula for written health-related materials to optimize their use. A literature search was conducted to identify the most commonly used readability formulas in health care literature. Each of the identified formulas was subsequently applied to word samples from 15 unique examples of written health information about the topic of depression and its treatment. Readability estimates from common readability formulas were compared based on text sample size, selection, formatting, software type, and/or hand calculations. Recommendations for their use were provided. The Flesch-Kincaid formula was most commonly used (57.42%). Readability formulas demonstrated variability up to 5 reading grade levels on the same text. The Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) readability formula performed most consistently. Depending on the text sample size, selection, formatting, software, and/or hand calculations, the individual readability formula estimated up to 6 reading grade levels of variability. The SMOG formula appears best suited for health care applications because of its consistency of results, higher level of expected

  8. 76 FR 62092 - Filing Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Filing Procedures AGENCY: International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of issuance of Handbook on Filing Procedures. SUMMARY: The United States International Trade Commission (``Commission'') is issuing a Handbook on Filing Procedures to replace its Handbook on Electronic...

  9. What Is Normal, True, and Right: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Students' Written Resistance Strategies on LGBTQ Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how students perform resistance to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer topics in their written reflections in a higher education diversity course. Using a three-tiered critical discourse analysis , this article maps students' resistant textual devices in their written reflections, analyzes the institutional setting…

  10. 16 CFR 303.40 - Use of terms in written advertisements that imply presence of a fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of terms in written advertisements that imply presence of a fiber. 303.40 Section 303.40 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.40 Use of terms in written...

  11. A Psycholinguistic Description of the Oral and Written Language of a Selected Group of Middle School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martellock, Helen Anna

    Six highly skilled middle school readers read aloud a story from a basal reader, then orally retold the story in their own words, wrote a version of the story, and finally read their own version aloud. Typescripts made from audio tape were compared with typescripts of the written compositions. The oral and written retellings were analyzed for…

  12. 38 CFR 21.8072 - Authorizing training, services, and assistance beyond the initial individualized written plan of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Authorizing training, services, and assistance beyond the initial individualized written plan of vocational... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorizing training, services, and assistance beyond the initial individualized written plan of vocational rehabilitation. 21...

  13. Oral and Written Discourse Skills in Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children: The Role of Reading and Verbal Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfé, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the discourse skills of deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children by comparing their oral and written narratives produced for the wordless picture book, "Frog, Where Are You?" (Mayer, 1969), with those of school-age-matched hearing peers. The written stories produced by 42 Italian 7- to 15-year-old children with…

  14. The Effects of Social Relationships, Writing Media, and Microgenetic Development on First-Grade Students' Written Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ithel; Pellegrini, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    Studied effects of social relationships, writing media, and microgenetic development on written narratives with 20 first graders in a within-subjects design. Results show that narratives composed with a word processor are lexically denser and more cohesive than those written in pencil. The facilitative effects of computer-supported writing are…

  15. Electronic procedure distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slone, B.J. III; Richardson, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    Printed procedures can offer a mix of text and graphic information that improves readability and increases understanding. A typical procedure uses illustrations and graphics to clarify concepts, a variety of type styles and weights to make it easier to find different topics and sections, white space to improve readability, and familiar navigational clues such as page numbers and topic headers. Initially, electronic procedure systems had limited typeface options, often only a single typeface, with no capability for enhancing readability by varying type size bolding, italicizing, or underlining, and no ability to include graphics. Even recently, many text-only electronic procedures were originally created in a modern What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get (WYSI-WYG) document authoring system, only to be converted to pages and pages of plain type for electronic distribution. Given the choice of paper or on-line producers, most users have chosen paper for its readability. But current-generation electronic document systems that use formatted text and embedded graphics offer users vastly improved readability. Further, they are offering ever-better search tools to enable rapid location of material of interest

  16. The nuclear licensing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.

    1976-01-01

    To begin with, the present nuclear licensing procedure is illustrated by a diagram. The relationship between the state and the Laender, the various experts (GRS - IRS + LRA -, TUEV, DWD, university institutes, firms of consulting engineers, etc), participation of the public, e.g. publication of the relevant documents, questions, objections (made by individuals or by groups such as citizens' initiatives), public discussion, official notice, appeals against the decision, the right of immediate execution of the decision are shortly dealt with. Finally, ways to improve the licensing procedure are discussed, from the evaluation of the documents to be submitted, published, and examined by the authorities (and their experts) up to an improvement of the administrative procedure. An improved licensing procedure should satisfy the well-founded claims of the public for more transparency as well as the equally justifiable claims of industry and utilities in order to ensure that the citizens' legal right to have safe and adequate electric power is guaranteed. The updated energy programme established by the Federal Government is mentioned along with the effectiveness of dealing with nuclear problems on the various levels of a Land government. (orig.) [de

  17. OCRWM international procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    These international procedures provide guidance and assistance for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and for OCRWM Project Offices, contractors and subcontractors in conducting international activities. They supplement the relevant Department of Energy (DOE) orders (which are referenced), not supplant them

  18. Pneumomediastinum after odontologic procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivella C, Fabio Alejandro; Bermudez G, Mary; Hidalgo M, Patricia; Sanchez M, Jully Mariana; Solarte R, Ivan; Uriza C, Felipe

    2005-01-01

    The sudden increase in alveolar pressure is a frequent cause of pneumomediastinum, but there are other reasons that could lead to it such as airway or esophagus trauma. The pneumomediastinum, which has been produced after dental procedures, is very rare and product deserves special attention by dentists and medical personnel in order to get its soon recognition and handling

  19. Educational Accounting Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Sam B.

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" reviews the functions, procedures, and reports with which school business officials must be familiar in order to interpret and make decisions regarding the school district's financial position. Among the accounting functions discussed are financial management, internal auditing,…

  20. Robust procedures in chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotwa, Ewelina

    properties of the analysed data. The broad theoretical background of robust procedures was given as a very useful supplement to the classical methods, and a new tool, based on robust PCA, aiming at identifying Rayleigh and Raman scatters in excitation-mission (EEM) data was developed. The results show...