WorldWideScience

Sample records for written procedures exemplified

  1. Cloze Procedure and Written Language in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manschreck, Theo C.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examines the relationship between relevant clinical symptoms and the predictability of language utterances in schizophrenia. Specifically, investigates the sensitivity of the Cloze procedure to various modes of language response, attempting to detect differences between language samples written by schizophrenics and controls. Analyzes experimental…

  2. Recommendations for reducing ambiguity in written procedures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Laura E.

    2009-11-01

    Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous work instructions (WIs) and operating procedures (OPs) can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. This report outlines some of the sources of ambiguity in written English and describes three recommendations for reducing ambiguity in WIs and OPs. The recommendations are based on commonly used research techniques in the fields of linguistics and cognitive psychology. The first recommendation is to gather empirical data that can be used to improve the recommended word lists that are provided to technical writers. The second recommendation is to have a review in which new WIs and OPs and checked for ambiguities and clarity. The third recommendation is to use self-paced reading time studies to identify any remaining ambiguities before the new WIs and OPs are put into use. If these three steps are followed for new WIs and OPs, the likelihood of human errors related to ambiguity could be greatly reduced.

  3. Paperwork at the service of safety? Workers' reluctance against written procedures exemplified by the concept of ‘seamanship'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    concept of phronesis brings us further by adding a reflexive, social and ethical dimension to the expert's knowledge. Phronesis is, like expertise, contextual, experience-based knowledge; but it is also value- and action-oriented. While phronesis rests on value rationality, ‘techne' (know how'), another...... epitomized in the concept of seamanship. Their objections suits well in Dreyfus and Dreyfus' model of skill acquisition: while novices steadily follow context-independent rules, the expert's behaviour goes beyond analytical rationality, and is situational, experience-based, and intuitive. The Aristotelian...... Aristotelian concept, is based on instrumental rationality and is production-oriented. Phronesis is, inter alia, choosing the proper techne for the circumstances. However, the seamen fear a development where techne predominates at the expanse of phronesis. The case raises issues on which conditions...

  4. 21 CFR 803.17 - What are the requirements for developing, maintaining, and implementing written MDR procedures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., maintaining, and implementing written MDR procedures that apply to me? 803.17 Section 803.17 Food and Drugs..., and implementing written MDR procedures that apply to me? If you are a user facility, importer, or manufacturer, you must develop, maintain, and implement written MDR procedures for the following: (a) Internal...

  5. 21 CFR 111.103 - What are the requirements under this subpart F for written procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... System: Requirements for Quality Control § 111.103 What are the requirements under this subpart F for... quality control operations, including written procedures for conducting a material review and making a... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements under this subpart F for...

  6. The Students' Procedural Fluency and Written-Mathematical Explanation on Constructed Response Tasks in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Romiro G.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the procedural fluency and written-mathematical explanation to select constructed response tasks of students in Thermodynamics problems. The study made use of 2 sections, composed of 26 students, in University Physics 1 to conclude on the research problem. It made use of the assumption that mathematical and…

  7. Sylvicultural procedures in catchment areas of the mountain streams as exemplified by the Skrzyczne massif in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małek Stanisław

    2014-03-01

    , major roads, climate and plant floors and forest habitat types. The total length of streams was ascertained. The catchment areas and areas along their beds were determined by adopting variable distances from the beds, depending on climate and plant zones and the slope gradient. The adopted distances were: 5 m in the upper forest zone, 10 m in the middle forest zone, 20 m in the lower forest zone on both sides of the bed and in the headwater area within the radius of 10 m from a source. Specific sylvicultural procedures in headwater areas and in the neighbourhood of watercourses were described in each climatic and vegetation zones.

  8. Supporting Written Expression in Secondary Students with a Series of Procedural Facilitators: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sara M.; Bouck, Emily C.

    2015-01-01

    Written expression is a critical component of the academic curriculum that is needed across content areas and grade levels. Despite the importance of writing, secondary students are struggling to write effectively across the phases of written expression, beginning with prewriting. This research sought to support students' written expression and…

  9. Sustaining Written Expression Quality through Leveled Procedural Facilitators in Secondary Students with and without Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sara M.

    2012-01-01

    Students with and without learning disabilities (LD) struggle with the written expression process, from planning and organization (e.g., prewriting) to actually writing an essay. For students with LD, challenges in written expression are more intensive than their typical peers. Without effective written expression supports and instruction, such as…

  10. A prospective comparison between written examination and either simulation-based or oral viva examination of intensive care trainees' procedural skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnink, L; Venkatesh, B; Krishnan, A; Vidhani, K; Udy, A

    2010-09-01

    We compared results of written assessment of intensive care trainees' procedural skills with results obtained from one of two live assessment formats for the purposes of assessing the concurrent validity of the different test methods. Forty-five Australasian senior trainees in intensive care medicine completed a written test relating to a procedural skill, as well as either a simulation format or oral viva assessment on the same procedural skill. We analysed correlation between written exam results and results obtained from simulation format or oral viva assessment. For those who completed the simulation format examination, we also maintained a narrative of actions and identified critical errors. There was limited correlation between written exam results and live (simulation or viva) procedure station results (r = 0.31). Correlation with written exam results was very low for simulation format assessments (r = 0.08) but moderate for oral viva format assessment (r = 0.58). Participants who passed a written exam based on management of a blocked tracheostomy scenario performed a number of dangerous errors when managing a simulated patient in that scenario. The lack of correlation between exam formats supports multi-modal assessment, as currently it is not known which format best represents workplace performance. Correlation between written and oral viva results may indicate redundancy between those test formats, whereas limited correlation between simulation and written exams may support the use of both formats as part of an integrated assessment strategy. We hypothesise that identification of critical candidate errors in a simulation format exam that were not exposed in a written exam may indicate better predictive validity for simulation format examination of procedural skills.

  11. Meeting the International Conference on Harmonisation's Guidelines on Validation of Analytical Procedures: quantification as exemplified by a near-infrared reflectance assay of paracetamol in intact tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, A C; Trafford, A D; Jee, R D; Graham, P

    2000-07-01

    This Perspective explains how the International Conference on Harmonisation's Guidelines on Validation of Analytical Procedures for quantitative methods can be met by near-infrared (NIR) assays of intact pharmaceutical products. Each of the validation characteristics (accuracy, precision, specificity, detection limit, quantification limit, linearity, range, robustness and system suitability testing) is defined, examined for their relevance to quantitative methods and examples given on how they may be used to demonstrate that near-infrared assays are fit for purpose. Methods for preparing samples for calibration are given in detail. The intention is to provide information so that a pharmaceutical manufacturer could validate a method suitable for an application for a variation of a marketing authorisation for an existing product and use a NIR assay instead of the previous method. The perspective is illustrated in detail using a NIR reflectance assay of paracetamol in intact tablets. This proven assay gives results comparable to the British Pharmacopeia ultraviolet assay for paracetamol, the standard errors of calibration and prediction for the NIR method being 0.48% w/w and 0.71% w/w respectively. The method is also precise, the standard deviation and coefficient of variation for six NIR assays on the same day being 0.14% w/w and 0.16% w/w respectively, while measurements over six consecutive days gave 0.31% w/w and 0.36% w/w respectively.

  12. Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) – Opinion by written procedure – Review of scientific advice for 2013- part I – Advice on stocks in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The scientific advice on the stocks and fisheries in the Baltic Sea in 2013 evaluated and endorsed by the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) by written procedure in June 2012 on a request by the European Commission......The scientific advice on the stocks and fisheries in the Baltic Sea in 2013 evaluated and endorsed by the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) by written procedure in June 2012 on a request by the European Commission...

  13. Discharge communication from inpatient care: an audit of written medical discharge summary procedure against the new National Health Service Standard for clinical handover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Daniel Brooks; Parsons, Shaun R; Gill, Stephen D; Hughes, Andrew J

    2015-04-01

    To audit written medical discharge summary procedure and practice against Standard Six (clinical handover) of the Australian National Safety and Quality Health Service Standards at a major regional Victorian health service. Department heads were invited to complete a questionnaire about departmental discharge summary practices. Twenty-seven (82%) department heads completed the questionnaire. Seven (26%) departments had a documented discharge summary procedure. Fourteen (52%) departments monitored discharge summary completion and 13 (48%) departments monitored the timeliness of completion. Seven (26%) departments informed the patient of the content of the discharge summary and six (22%) departments provided the patient with a copy. Seven (26%) departments provided training for staff members on how to complete discharge summaries. Completing discharge summaries was usually delegated to the medical intern. The introduction of the National Service Standards prompted an organisation-wide audit of discharge summary practices against the external criterion. There was substantial variation in the organisation's practices. The Standards and the current audit results highlight an opportunity for the organisation to enhance and standardise discharge summary practices and improve communication with general practice.

  14. 46 CFR 201.17 - Written appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written appearance. 201.17 Section 201.17 Shipping... PROCEDURE Appearance and Practice Before the Administration (Rule 2) § 201.17 Written appearance. Persons who appear at any hearing shall deliver a written notation of appearance to the reporter, stating for...

  15. Safety training and safe operating procedures written for PBFA (Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator) II and applicable to other pulsed power facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, G.L.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1986-12-01

    To ensure that work in advancing pulsed power technology is performed with an acceptably low risk, pulsed power research facilities at Sandia National Laboratories must satisfy general safety guidelines established by the Department of Energy, policies and formats of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Department, and detailed procedures formulated by the Pulsed Power Sciences Directorate. The approach to safety training and to writing safe operating procedures, and the procedures presented here are specific to the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) Facility but are applicable as guidelines to other research and development facilities which have similar hazards.

  16. A Discourse on Tragedy in Traditional Yoruba Drama as Exemplified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many theatre scholars have come to accept the norm that only the Western form of tragedy as exemplified by Aristotle as the only tragedy but this has proven to be wrong owing to the fact that Arthur Miller theorized the tragedy of the common man. However, Soyinka the first African to theorize on tragedy has provided us with ...

  17. 18 CFR 385.507 - Prepared written testimony (Rule 507).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Hearings § 385... time for the preparation of such written testimony. (b) Time for filing. Any prepared written testimony... warranted by any other showing of good cause; and (ii) Would not be unduly prejudicial to any participant...

  18. Reconsidering written language

    CERN Document Server

    Sarma, Gopal

    2013-01-01

    In a previous essay, I argued that European schools of thought on memory and memorization were critical in enabling widespread adoption of the scientific method. Here, as a way of understanding the peculiar relationship the memory arts had to 17th century philosophy and intellectual culture, I propose a historical thought experiment, and examine whether these developments might have occurred several thousand years earlier when the adoption of written language accelerated. I suggest that strong cultural norms discouraging the use of written language may have precipitated a scientific revolution at a much earlier stage in human history. I close by arguing for the value of counter-factual scientific histories in attempting to separate scientific principles from the particular historical circumstances in which they arose.

  19. 42 CFR 8.33 - Written decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CERTIFICATION OF OPIOID TREATMENT PROGRAMS Procedures for Review of Suspension or Proposed Revocation of OTP Certification, and of Adverse Action Regarding Withdrawal of Approval of an Accreditation Body § 8.33 Written decision. (a...

  20. Error Patterns in Written Russian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengrant, Sandra F.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of the Russian oral and written proficiency of third-year university students (N=9) suggested a clear relationship between the students' initial oral proficiency ratings and the grammatical accuracy of their written compositions; the lower a student's oral proficiency rating, the greater the average number of written mistakes, and vice…

  1. Technical analysis of the Slosson Written Expression Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erford, Bradley T; Hofler, Donald B

    2004-06-01

    The Slosson Written Expression Test was designed to assess students ages 8-17 years at risk for difficulties in written expression. Scores from three independent samples were used to evaluate the test's reliability and validity for measuring students' written expression. Test-retest reliability of the SWET subscales ranged from .80 to .94 (n = 151), and .95 for the Written Expression Total Standard Scores. The median alternate-form reliability for students' Written Expression Total Standard Scores was .81 across the three forms. Scores on the Slosson test yielded concurrent validity coefficients (n = 143) of .60 with scores from the Woodcock-Johnson: Tests of Achievement-Third Edition Broad Written Language Domain and .49 with scores on the Test of Written Language-Third Edition Spontaneous Writing Quotient. Exploratory factor analytic procedures suggested the Slosson test is comprised of two dimensions, Writing Mechanics and Writing Maturity (47.1% and 20.1% variance accounted for, respectively). In general, the Slosson Written Expression Test presents with sufficient technical characteristics to be considered a useful written expression screening test.

  2. Modern Written Arabic, Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naja, A. Nashat; Snow, James A.

    This second volume of Modern Written Arabic builds on the previous volume and is the second step designed to teach members of the Foreign Service to read the modern Arabic press. The student will gain recognitional mastery of an extensive set of vocabulary items and will be more intensively exposed to wider and more complex morphological and…

  3. Minimal Poems Written in 1979 Minimal Poems Written in 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sirangelo Maggio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The reading of M. van der Slice's Minimal Poems Written in 1979 (the work, actually, has no title reminded me of a book I have seen a long time ago. called Truth, which had not even a single word printed inside. In either case we have a sample of how often excentricities can prove efficient means of artistic creativity, in this new literary trend known as Minimalism. The reading of M. van der Slice's Minimal Poems Written in 1979 (the work, actually, has no title reminded me of a book I have seen a long time ago. called Truth, which had not even a single word printed inside. In either case we have a sample of how often excentricities can prove efficient means of artistic creativity, in this new literary trend known as Minimalism.

  4. 10 CFR 26.27 - Written policy and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The misuse of prescription and over-the-counter drugs; (2) Describe the requirement that individuals... stress, fatigue, or illness, and the use of prescription and over-the-counter medications that could... individual's responsibility to report legal actions, as defined in § 26.5; (10) Describe the responsibilities...

  5. [Written language and intellectual disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando-Lucas, M T; Banús-Gómez, P; Hoz-Rosales, A G

    2005-01-15

    Following the diagnosis of intellectual disability, a prognosis can be offered concerning the degree of autonomy the child will be able to achieve based on prior experience, but which depends on the aetiology of the disability. It is still difficult to give a prospective answer regarding the capacity to reach an operative level of written language. The goal of being able to offer an experience-based prognosis involves prior analysis of how learning dysfunctions are approached in the disabled population. Although we have an increasingly deeper understanding of the neurocognitive foundations of specific learning difficulties and the careful neuropsychological management of children with disorders affecting the acquisition of written language with a typical intellectual level, those with intellectual disability continue to be treated using a simplistic approach in which their intelligence quotient is still taken as the most relevant feature. Little attention is paid to neuropsychological aspects, the pedagogical and social environment or comorbid aspects that may affect the acquisition of the function. Yet, these are aspects that are submitted to thorough evaluation in children who are not disabled. The current concept of intellectual disability has gone beyond the definition based on the intelligence quotient. The wide variability in the reading function in children with intellectual disability cannot be explained only according to a psychometric assessment. A more complete neuropsychological approach, as carried out in the population with no disability, will enable us to detect cognitive, pedagogical, social and pathological dysfunctions that interfere with the acquisition of written language.

  6. Written Materials for the IYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro Gossman, Julieta

    2008-05-01

    In the poster presentation I shall describe the written materials we have edited for the IYA. The first is a book written for general public about Galileo's life and research. The rest are a series of articles for teachers so that they include hands-on astronomy activities in their classroom including a star party. All these materials are written in Spanish, that is a language spoken is large areas of the world. I believe science is better understood in the mother tong so that many of these materials will be also useful for countries where Spanish is a second language. References Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro Galileo y el telescopio, 400 anios de ciencia Uribe y Ferrari Editores, 2007 ISBN 970 756 238-2 Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro Newton, la luz y el movimiento de los cuerpos Uribe y Ferrari Editores, 2007 ISBN 970 756 238 2 Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro, Galileo para Maestros I Correo del Maestro, Núm. 133, p. 15-26, Anio 12, Junio 2007. Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro, Galileo para Maestros II Correo del Maestro, Num. 134, p. 17-26, Anio 12, 2007. Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro, Galileo para Maestros III Correo del Maestro, Num. 135, p. 10-18, Anio 12, 2007. Hector Dominguez y Julieta Fierro Experimentos sobre la caida de los cuerpos El Correo del Maestro, anio 12 Numero 142, p. 5-18, 2008.

  7. Proctoring Oral and Written Performance in a Motivation Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, K. Anthony; Gottula, Penelope

    A comparison of oral interviewing and written proctoring procedures is described. Students were required to present units orally or in writing from unit study guides. Final exam scores were positively correlated with the number of oral interviews one student interviewer gave to another student, and negatively correlated with the number of…

  8. 37 CFR 2.124 - Depositions upon written questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Depositions upon written questions. 2.124 Section 2.124 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Procedure in Inter Partes Proceedings § 2.124...

  9. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  10. 22 CFR 1002.4 - Written requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Written requests. 1002.4 Section 1002.4 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 1002.4 Written requests. In order to facilitate the processing of written requests, every petitioner should: (a) Address his request to: General...

  11. 20 CFR 369.2 - Authority to grant written permission for use of the seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the seal. 369.2 Section 369.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES USE OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.2 Authority to grant written permission for use of the seal. The Board hereby delegates authority to grant written permission...

  12. 34 CFR 86.405 - What are the requirements for filing written submissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for filing written submissions? 86.405 Section 86.405 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION Appeal Procedures § 86.405 What are the requirements for filing written submissions? (a...

  13. Character Journaling through Social Networks: Exemplifying Tenets of the New Literacy Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John Wesley; Hungerford-Kresser, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Countering reactionary attempts to ban social media from schools is a strong research based rationale for bringing social media into the literacy classroom. When used as a medium to explore literature--or more specifically for interactive character journaling--this medium exemplifies how meaning is created by individuals' interactions with…

  14. Segmentation of Written Words in French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetail, Fabienne; Content, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Syllabification of spoken words has been largely used to define syllabic properties of written words, such as the number of syllables or syllabic boundaries. By contrast, some authors proposed that the functional structure of written words stems from visuo-orthographic features rather than from the transposition of phonological structure into the…

  15. 28 CFR 55.19 - Written materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Written materials. 55.19 Section 55.19... RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Minority Language Materials and Assistance § 55.19 Written materials. (a) Types of materials. It is the obligation of the jurisdiction to decide what materials must be...

  16. 45 CFR 1179.6 - Written decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES SALARY OFFSET § 1179.6 Written decision. (a) The hearing... will include: a statement of the facts presented to demonstrate the nature and origin of the alleged...

  17. Accurate modelling of UV written waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure.......BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure....

  18. Accurate modeling of UV written waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure.......BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure....

  19. Evaluating the dimensionality of first grade written composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Folsom, Jessica S.; Greulich, Luana; Puranik, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We examined dimensions of written composition using multiple evaluative approaches such as an adapted 6+1 trait scoring, syntactic complexity measures, and productivity measures. We further examined unique relations of oral language and literacy skills to the identified dimensions of written composition. Method A large sample of first grade students (N = 527) was assessed on their language, reading, spelling, letter writing automaticity, and writing in the spring. Data were analyzed using a latent variable approach including confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Results The seven traits in the 6+1 trait system were best described as two constructs: substantive quality, and spelling and writing conventions. When the other evaluation procedures such as productivity and syntactic complexity indicators were included, four dimensions emerged: substantive quality, productivity, syntactic complexity, and spelling and writing conventions. Language and literacy predictors were differentially related to each dimension in written composition. Conclusions These four dimensions may be a useful guideline for evaluating developing beginning writer’s compositions. PMID:24687472

  20. Written Language Shift among Norwegian Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil ÖZERK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In Norway there are two written Norwegian languages, Bokmål and Nynorsk. Of these two written languages Bokmål is being used by the majority of the people, and Bokmål has the highest prestige in the society. This article is about the shift of written language from Nynorsk to Bokmål among young people in a traditional Nynorsk district in the country. Drawing on empirical data we conclude that many adolescents are experiencing written language shift. We discuss various reasons for this phenomenon in the linguistic landscape of Norway. In our discussions we emphasize the importance of the school with regard to language maintenance and language revitalization. We call for a new language policy in the educational system that can prevent language shift. Having several dialects and two officially written forms of Norwegian in the country, creates a special linguistic landscape in Norway. Despite the fact that the Norwegian language situation is in several ways unique, it’s done very little research on how the existing policy works in practice. Our research reveals that the existing language policy and practice in the school system is not powerful enough to prevent language shift and language decay among the youngsters. The school system functions like a fabric for language shift.

  1. SAFE-P: System for Assurance of Flight Executable Procedures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA operates manned spacecraft according to rigorously-defined standard operating procedures. Unfortunately, operating procedures are often written in different...

  2. On written expression of primary school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Normative rules of standard Serbian language are acquired during primary and secondary education through curriculum demands of Serbian language instruction, which takes place in three fields: grammar, orthography and culture of expression. Topic of interest in this paper is the quality of written expression of 6th and 7th grade pupils, in the context of all three fields specified to be mastered by the curriculum of Serbian language. Research comprised 148 primary school pupils from Belgrade. Linguistic analysis of spontaneously created written text was performed, in the conditions where it was not explicitly demanded form the pupil to write correctly. The results indicate that the majority of pupils make spelling and grammatical errors, meeting the condition for the basic level of mastering the knowledge in Serbian language according to the standards specified for the end of compulsory education. In addition to this, a considerable majority of pupils has a satisfactory level of culture of written expression. Pupils more often make spelling than grammatical errors. Seventh grade pupils are better than sixth grade pupils with respect to adhering to grammar rules and according to culture of written expression, while the mark in Serbian language and general school achievement of pupils correlate only with the degree of adhering to the orthographic rules. It was concluded that not only individual programs of support for pupils who make more errors are necessary, but also launching national projects for the development of linguistic competence of the young in Serbia.

  3. Word Frequencies in Written and Spoken English

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    Word Frequencies in. Written and Spoken English. 2001, xv + 304 pp. ISBN: 0 582 32007 0. Har- low: Pearson Education. Price: £45.99. Geoffrey Leech ... ther discusses problems of data collection, transcription and spelling conven- tions. Each frequency list appears with a frequency score of tokens per million words.

  4. Test Anxiety in Written and Oral Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Rost, Detlef H.; Baumeister, Ulrike M.; Christ, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The distinction of different test anxiety reactions (e.g., worry, emotionality) is well established. Recently, additional relevance has been given to school-subject-specific test anxiety factors. The present study explored a further aspect concerning the structure of test anxiety experiences, specifically oral versus written examination modes. A…

  5. Written mathematical traditions in Ancient Mesopotamia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Writing, as well as various mathematical techniques, were created in proto-literate Uruk in order to serve accounting, and Mesopotamian mathematics as we know it was always expressed in writing. In so far, mathematics generically regarded was always part of the generic written tradition....

  6. Written Assignments in the Introductory Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, R. J.; And Others

    In an attempt to contribute to the development of students' writing skills while helping them master basic psychology, a writing component was designed for a medium sized introductory psychology course. Its purpose was to aid in the mastery of course material and to contribute to the development of students' skill in written expression. In the…

  7. 22 CFR 1502.4 - Written requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: Director, Administration and Finance Division, African Development Foundation, 1724 Massachusetts Avenue... Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 1502.4 Written requests. In order to... of the Foundation. Blanket requests or requests for “the entire file of” or “all matters relating to...

  8. Classifying Written Texts Through Rhythmic Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balint, Mihaela; Dascalu, Mihai; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Rhythm analysis of written texts focuses on literary analysis and it mainly considers poetry. In this paper we investigate the relevance of rhythmic features for categorizing texts in prosaic form pertaining to different genres. Our contribution is threefold. First, we define a set of rhythmic

  9. Written Comments as a Form of Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Ines; Santos, Leonor

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of written comments on assignments as well as the process of writing them were studied. Interviews to three case-study middle school students, observation of lessons and content analysis of their assignments show that features that promote learning are: comments located next to what needs revision must be reviewed; use of…

  10. Cue Reliance in L2 Written Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechmann, Daniel; Kerz, Elma

    2014-01-01

    Second language learners reach expert levels in relative cue weighting only gradually. On the basis of ensemble machine learning models fit to naturalistic written productions of German advanced learners of English and expert writers, we set out to reverse engineer differences in the weighting of multiple cues in a clause linearization problem. We…

  11. Increasing advertising power via written scent references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Breulmann, Svenja; Bialkova, Svetlana; Bialkova, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory cues in advertisements can evoke positive consumer emotions and product attitudes, yet including real scent in advertising is not always feasible. This study aimed at investigating whether written scent references could produce effects similar to real scents. Participants in online

  12. Approaches to Treating Student Written Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thu H.

    2013-01-01

    Second language writing teachers face numerous challenges when providing feedback on student writing. There may be so many problems in the writing that is almost impossible for them to focus on or they may constantly seek a better method of giving feedback on student written errors. This paper attempts to provide second language writing teachers…

  13. Mobilising the "F" in CFSP: written evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.

    2015-01-01

    Written evidence for the House of Lords, EU External Affairs Sub-Committee, 11 Nov 2015. The June 2015 European Council tasked the High Representative Federica Mogherini with preparing, in close cooperation with Member States, an EU global strategy on foreign and security policy, to be submitted to

  14. Word Frequencies in Written and Spoken English

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    The words are ranked without any distinction between speech and writing. Chapter 2 looks at word frequency across speech and writing. In chapter 3, the focus is on the spoken part of the BNC corpus with comparison between the conversa- tional and task-oriented subcorpora. The written data of the corpus is the sub-.

  15. Do Written Asthma Action Plans Improve Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, John M

    2016-03-01

    With appropriate management, children with asthma should expect few symptoms, no limits on activity, rare exacerbations, and normal lung function. Appropriate education of parents and other caregivers of children with asthma has clearly been shown to help achieve these goals. Although recommended in asthma guidelines, providing written asthma action plans does not improve outcomes beyond asthma education alone.

  16. 40 CFR 57.403 - Written consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS Supplementary Control System Requirements § 57.403 Written consent. (a) The consent... violation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for sulfur dioxide in the smelter's designated... of, and obtain data from ambient air quality monitors operated by the company under the requirements...

  17. Exploring Oral Traditions through the Written Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metting, Fred

    1995-01-01

    Argues that, by reading literature that incorporates folklore and oral traditions, students learn to recognize and appreciate how oral traditions have influenced all cultures. Argues that a study of contemporary American written literature which incorporates elements of the oral tradition introduces students to old and deep wisdom and to a diverse…

  18. The influence of cultural background in intercultural dementia care: exemplified by Sami patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Ingird

    2013-06-01

    To gain knowledge about how the original culture may influence communication and interaction with institutionalised patients with dementia and of what particular cultural aspects may come to the fore, exemplified by Sami patients. Qualitative narrative interviews with 15 interviewees, family members of Sami patients with dementia and nursing staff experienced with dementia care were conducted. Hermeneutic, thematic analysis was used. Although the way dementia influence mental functions, language, etc. is universal, behaviours, reactions and responses may be coloured by the patient's background culture. Knowledge of language, cultural codes and the patient's former life are primary keys to understanding. Rhythm of life, spirituality, singing and tangible aspects of traditional culture like clothes and food constitute important aspects of culture-appropriate care. © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  19. Anatexis and metamorphism in tectonically thickened continental crust exemplified by the Sevier hinterland, western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino Douce, Alberto E.; Humphreys, Eugene D.; Johnston, A. Dana

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a thermal and petrologic model of anatexis and metamorphism in regions of crustal thickening exemplified by the Sevier hinterland in western North America, and uses the model to examine the geological and physical processes leading to crustally derived magmatism. The results of numerical experiments show that anatexis was an inevitable end-product of Barrovian metamorphism in the thickened crust of the late Mesozoic Sevier orogenic belt and that the advection of heat across the lithosphere, in the form of mantle-derived mafic magmas, was not required for melting of metasedimentary rocks. It is suggested that, in the Sevier belt, as in other intracontinental orogenic belts, anatexis occurred in the midcrust and not at the base of the crust.

  20. Evaluative expression in deaf children's written narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beijsterveldt, Liesbeth Maria; van Hell, Janet G

    2009-01-01

    Deaf children vary in the use of and proficiency in signed language. The majority of studies on writing skills of children who are deaf did not assess deaf children's proficiency in signed language and/or grouped together deaf children with varying sign language skills. Adopting a bimodal bilingual perspective, we examined evaluative expression, an important narrative tool in both oral/written languages and signed languages, in narratives written in Dutch by deaf children who are proficient in Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN) and deaf children who are low-proficient in SLN, and hearing monolingual and bilingual children. We hypothesized that deaf children who are proficient in signed language use their knowledge of evaluative expression in signed language to enrich their narratives in written Dutch, and more so than deaf children who are low-proficient in signed language and hearing monolingual and bilingual children. We examined the use of eight different evaluative devices in narratives written by deaf proficiently and low-proficiently signing children, and hearing monolingual and bilingual children. Narratives were also examined for morpho-syntactic errors and use of complex sentences. The results show that proficiently signing deaf children's narratives contain more evaluative devices that enrich the referential structure of the narrative than narratives of low-proficiently signing deaf children, and hearing bilingual and monolingual children. We propose that proficiently signing deaf children use their knowledge of SLN to convey evaluation in their written narratives, and thus have an advantage in enriching their narratives. This study also shows that in order to gain insight into deaf people's writing, it is important to take variations in sign language proficiency into account.

  1. Written Communication Skills for Scientists and Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Lord Chancellor, Francis Bacon of England said: Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. Even after his death, Francis Bacon remained extremely influential through his works, especially as philosophical advocate and practitioner of the scientific method during the scientific revolution. Written communication skills are extremely important for scientists and engineers because it helps them to achieve their goals effectively and meet stipulated deadlines according to a pre-established schedule. Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa claim that American students are learning very little during their first two years of college (Arum and Roksa, 2011). Written communication involves expressing yourself clearly, using language with precision; constructing a logical argument; taking notes; editing and summarizing; and writing reports. There are three main elements to written communication. First and foremost is the structure because this in principle outlines clearly the way the entire content is laid out. Second, the style which primarily indicates the way it is written and how communication is made effective and vibrant. Third, the content which should document in complete detail, what you are writing about. Some researchers indicate that colleges and universities are failing to prepare the students to meet the demanding challenges of the present day workforce and are struggling to maintain an international status (Johnson, K. 2013). In this presentation, the author provides some guidelines to help students improve their written communication skills. References: Johnson, Kristine (2013) "Why Students Don't Write: Educating in the Era of Credentialing: Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses," Conversations on Jesuit Higher Education: Vol. 43, Article 9. Available at: http://epublications.marquette.edu/conversations/vol43/iss1/9 Arum, Richard and Roksa, Josipa (2011) Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses

  2. On written expression of primary school pupils

    OpenAIRE

    Stevanović Jelena; Maksić Slavica; Tenjović Lazar

    2009-01-01

    Normative rules of standard Serbian language are acquired during primary and secondary education through curriculum demands of Serbian language instruction, which takes place in three fields: grammar, orthography and culture of expression. Topic of interest in this paper is the quality of written expression of 6th and 7th grade pupils, in the context of all three fields specified to be mastered by the curriculum of Serbian language. Research comprised 148 primary school pupils from Belgrade. ...

  3. Written narrative practices in elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano-Soares, Soraia; Soares, Aparecido José Couto; Cárnio, Maria Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Promotion of a written narratives production program in the third grade of an Elementary School. To analyze two written narrative practice proposals in order to verify which resources are more efficient in benefitting the textual productions of third grade Elementary School students. Sixty students were selected from two third grade groups of a public Elementary School in São Paulo (Brazil). For the analysis, students were divided into two groups (Group A and Group B). Fourteen children's storybooks were used. In Group A, the story was orally told by the researchers in a colloquial manner, keeping the narrator role and the original structure proposed by the author. In Group B, the story was fully read. The book was projected onto a screen and read aloud so the students could follow the reading and observe the corresponding illustrations. Voice changing resources in the characters' dialogues were used. In the overall comparison, statistically significant results were found for moment (initial and final assessments) and for interaction between groups. It was observed that both groups presented substantial development from initial to final assessment. The Written Narratives Promotion Program based on the shared reading of children's storybooks constituted a more effective strategy than telling the stories using a single reader.

  4. 21 CFR 211.142 - Warehousing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehousing procedures. 211.142 Section 211.142 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS....142 Warehousing procedures. Written procedures describing the warehousing of drug products shall be...

  5. Further Examination of the Exposure Model Underlying the Efficacy of Written Emotional Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Denise M.; Marx, Brian P.; Epstein, Eva M.

    2005-01-01

    In the current study, the authors examined the effects of systematically varying the writing instructions for the written emotional disclosure procedure. College undergraduates with a trauma history and at least moderate posttraumatic stress symptoms were asked to write about (a) the same traumatic experience, (b) different traumatic experiences,…

  6. Bilingual Children's Writing: Self-Correction and Revision of Written Narratives in Spanish and Nahuatl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Norbert

    2005-01-01

    The article reports on findings from a replication of a study of bilingual children's editing and correction strategies. The earlier study analyzed revisions that 2nd, 4th, and 6th graders made to their own compositions, written in Spanish. The present study applied the same procedure and assessment rubric to the first draft of compositions…

  7. 42 CFR 8.30 - Transmission of written communications by reviewing official and calculation of deadlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CERTIFICATION OF OPIOID TREATMENT PROGRAMS Procedures for Review of Suspension or Proposed Revocation of OTP Certification, and of Adverse Action Regarding Withdrawal of Approval of an Accreditation Body § 8.30 Transmission of written communications by reviewing...

  8. The influence of channel deepening on estuarine turbidity levels and dynamics, as exemplified by the Ems estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, V.N.; Schuttelaars, H.M.; van Beusekom, J.E.E.; Talke, S.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823554; de Swart, H.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073449725

    2014-01-01

    Active deepening of tidal channels usually results in the alteration of the vertical and the horizontal tide. This may lead to concurrent significant increases in mean suspended matter concentrations (SPM) in coastal plain estuaries, the turbidity maximum (ETM) included. This is exemplified by an

  9. 34 CFR 303.420 - Due process procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures for resolving individual child complaints (i.e., complaints that generally affect only a single child or the child's family). These procedures require the appointment of a decision-maker who is... Children § 303.420 Due process procedures. Each system must include written procedures including procedures...

  10. Bringing Javanesse Traditional Dance into Basic Physics Class: Exemplifying Projectile Motion through Video Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Langlang; Prasetya Aji, Mahardika; Susilo; Marwoto, Putut

    2016-08-01

    An alternative approach of an arts-based instruction for Basic Physics class has been developed through the implementation of video analysis of a Javanesse traditional dance: Bambangan Cakil. A particular movement of the dance -weapon throwing- was analyzed by employing the LoggerPro software package to exemplify projectile motion. The results of analysis indicated that the movement of the thrown weapon in Bambangan Cakil dance provides some helping explanations of several physics concepts of projectile motion: object's path, velocity, and acceleration, in a form of picture, graph and also table. Such kind of weapon path and velocity can be shown via a picture or graph, while such concepts of decreasing velocity in y direction (weapon moving downward and upward) due to acceleration g can be represented through the use of a table. It was concluded that in a Javanesse traditional dance there are many physics concepts which can be explored. The study recommends to bring the traditional dance into a science class which will enable students to get more understanding of both physics concepts and Indonesia cultural heritage.

  11. Exemplifying whole-plant ozone uptake in adult forest trees of contrasting species and site conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunn, Angela J. [Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology, Technical University of Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising, Bavaria (Germany)]. E-mail: nunn@wzw.tum.de; Wieser, Gerhard [Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape, Unit Alpine Timberline Ecophysiology, Rennweg 1, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Metzger, Ursula [Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology, Technical University of Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising, Bavaria (Germany); Loew, Markus [Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology, Technical University of Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising, Bavaria (Germany); Wipfler, Philip [Forest Yield Science, Technical University of Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Haeberle, Karl-Heinz [Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology, Technical University of Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising, Bavaria (Germany); Matyssek, Rainer [Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology, Technical University of Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising, Bavaria (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    Whole-tree O{sub 3} uptake was exemplified for Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Larix decidua in stands at high and low altitude and contrasting water availability through sap flow measurement in tree trunks, intrinsically accounting for drought and boundary layer effects on O{sub 3} flux. O{sub 3} uptake of evergreen spruce per unit foliage area was enhanced by 100% at high relative to low elevation, whereas deciduous beech and larch showed similar uptake regardless of altitude. The responsiveness of the canopy conductance to water vapor and, as a consequence, O{sub 3} uptake to soil moisture and air humidity did not differ between species. Unifying findings at the whole-tree level will promote cause-effect based O{sub 3} risk assessment and modeling. - Sap flow-based assessment of whole-tree O{sub 3} uptake reflects similar responsiveness of canopy conductance and O{sub 3} uptake across contrasting tree species and site conditions.

  12. The bureaucratization of war: moral challenges exemplified by the covert lethal drone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Adams

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article interrogates the bureaucratization of war, incarnate in the covert lethal drone. Bureaucracies are criticized typically for their complexity, inefficiency, and inflexibility. This article is concerned with their moral indifference. It explores killing, which is so highly administered, so morally remote, and of such scale, that we acknowledge a covert lethal program. This is a bureaucratized program of assassination in contravention of critical human rights. In this article, this program is seen to compromise the advance of global justice. Moreover, the bureaucratization of lethal force is seen to dissolve democratic ideals from within. The bureaucracy isolates the citizens from lethal force applied in their name. People are killed, in the name of the State, but without conspicuous justification, or judicial review, and without informed public debate. This article gives an account of the risk associated with the bureaucratization of the State's lethal power. Exemplified by the covert drone, this is power with formidable reach. It is power as well, which requires great moral sensitivity. Considering the drone program, this article identifies challenges, which will become more prominent and pressing, as technology advances.

  13. Erich Fromm's productivity: creativity as exemplified by Joyce's blooming of Leopold and Molly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Valentina

    2005-01-01

    According to Erich Fromm, the productive character expresses what he called the life force in ways that are, by nature, artistic in quality. His valuing of the vital and the artistic, fueled by this life force in our potential to be human, serves as the cornerstone of his model of psychoanalysis. Gilbert Rose, author of Necessary Illusion: Art as "Witness", also has identified the parallel between analytic and artistic processes, building on the assumption that the therapeutic alliance and the aesthetic alliance are one and the same. In elaborating this assumption and extending the parallel between Rose and Fromm, I draw the conclusion that the qualities of relationships have an impact on one's ability to express oneself creatively, to live an artistic life--that is, to live productively. Psychoanalysis is, in practice, a process that is artistic, creative, and re-creative in nature. To the degree that authentic expression of emotionally charged implicit knowledge of the ineffable (the emotional life that resides deep in the bodymind) results in transformation and healing, the process is artistic in nature. This process is exemplified by examining the life and literary creations of James Joyce, especially Joyce's characters of Molly and Leopold Bloom in Ulysses.

  14. [Social psychiatry and neurobiology : A long overdue convergence exemplified by schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawohl, W; Wyss, C; Roser, P; Brüne, M; Rössler, W; Juckel, G

    2017-05-01

    The proliferation of biological psychiatry has greatly increased over the last two decades. With the possibility to carry out brain research using modern technical methods, it seemed that social influencing factors would lose importance in the development of mental diseases; however, in actual fact this does not seem to be justified. It is necessary to overcome this separation, in that social factors are incorporated into a conceptual framework in the development of mental diseases, which simultaneously also takes the results of current neurobiological research into consideration. The aims of this review article are to summarize the current state of sociopsychiatric research and to emphasize the perspectives of the biological principles and their validity with respect to the social dimensions of psychiatry, as exemplified by schizophrenic disorders. The article presents the options for a biosocial approach in social psychiatry and gives an overview of the currently available literature. There is an abundance of neurobiological research approaches, which are closely associated with sociopsychiatric topics, such as social cognition. Social psychiatry and biological psychiatry should no longer be considered as diametrically opposed subdisciplines. On the contrary, the options which could emerge from a synthesis must be used in research and clinical practice.

  15. Varied reasoning schema in students' written solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Weliweriya, Nandana; Sayre, Eleanor C; Zollman, Dean

    2016-01-01

    The Mathematization project investigates students' use of mathematical tools across the undergraduate physics curriculum. As a part of this project, we look at intermediate mechanics students' written homework solutions to understand how they use those tools in approaching traditional mechanics problems. We use a modified version of the ACER framework to analyze students' solutions and to identify patterns of mathematical skills used on traditional problems. We apply techniques borrowed from network analysis and the Resources Framework to build a "fingerprint" of students' mathematical tool use. In this paper, we present preliminary findings on patterns that we identified in students' problem solving.

  16. Transitions of Care: The Presence of Written Interfacility Transfer Guidelines and Agreements for Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovesi, Andrea Lynn; Olson, Lenora M; Telford, Russell; Fendya, Diana; Schenk, Ellen; Morrison-Quinata, Theresa; Edgerton, Elizabeth A

    2017-07-11

    Every year, emergency medical services agencies transport approximately 150,000 pediatric patients between hospitals. During these transitions of care, patient safety may be affected and contribute to adverse events when important clinical information is missing, incomplete, or inaccurate. Written interfacility transfer policies are one way to standardize procedures and facilitate communication between the hospitals leading to improved patient safety and satisfaction for children and families. We assessed the presence and components of written interfacility transfer guidelines and agreements for pediatric patients via a survey sent to US hospital emergency department (ED) nurse managers during 2010 and 2013. Although there was an increase in the presence of written interfacility transfer guidelines and agreements, a third of hospitals did not have either by 2013, and only 50% had guidelines with all recommended pediatric components. Hospitals with medium and low ED pediatric patient volumes were less likely to have written guidelines or agreements compared with hospitals with high volume. Hospitals with advanced pediatric resources, such as a pediatric emergency care coordinator or EDs designated approved for pediatrics, were more likely to have guidelines or agreements than less resourced hospitals. Although there was improvement over time, opportunities exist for increasing the presence of written interfacility transfer guidelines as well as agreements for pediatric patients. Further studies are needed to demonstrate whether improved delivery of patient care is associated with the presence of written interfacility transfer guidelines and agreements and to identify other elements in the process to ensure optimal pediatric patient care.

  17. Modeling statistical properties of written text.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Angeles Serrano

    Full Text Available Written text is one of the fundamental manifestations of human language, and the study of its universal regularities can give clues about how our brains process information and how we, as a society, organize and share it. Among these regularities, only Zipf's law has been explored in depth. Other basic properties, such as the existence of bursts of rare words in specific documents, have only been studied independently of each other and mainly by descriptive models. As a consequence, there is a lack of understanding of linguistic processes as complex emergent phenomena. Beyond Zipf's law for word frequencies, here we focus on burstiness, Heaps' law describing the sublinear growth of vocabulary size with the length of a document, and the topicality of document collections, which encode correlations within and across documents absent in random null models. We introduce and validate a generative model that explains the simultaneous emergence of all these patterns from simple rules. As a result, we find a connection between the bursty nature of rare words and the topical organization of texts and identify dynamic word ranking and memory across documents as key mechanisms explaining the non trivial organization of written text. Our research can have broad implications and practical applications in computer science, cognitive science and linguistics.

  18. Instrumental resolution as a function of scattering angle and wavelength as exemplified for the POWGEN instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Philipp; Houben, Andreas; Schweika, Werner; Tchougréeff, Andrei L; Dronskowski, Richard

    2017-06-01

    The method of angular- and wavelength-dispersive (e.g. two-dimensional) Rietveld refinement is a new and emerging tool for the analysis of neutron diffraction data measured at time-of-flight instruments with large area detectors. Following the approach for one-dimensional refinements (using either scattering angle or time of flight), the first step at each beam time cycle is the calibration of the instrument including the determination of instrumental contributions to the peak shape variation to be expected for diffraction patterns measured by the users. The aim of this work is to provide the users with calibration files and - for the later Rietveld refinement of the measured data - with an instrumental resolution file (IRF). This article will elaborate on the necessary steps to generate such an IRF for the angular- and wavelength-dispersive case, exemplified for the POWGEN instrument. A dataset measured on a standard diamond sample is used to extract the profile function in the two-dimensional case. It is found that the variation of reflection width with 2θ and λ can be expressed by the standard equation used for evaluating the instrumental resolution, which yields a substantially more fundamental approach to the parameterization of the instrumental contribution to the peak shape. Geometrical considerations of the POWGEN instrument and sample effects lead to values for Δθ, Δt and ΔL that yield a very good match to the extracted FWHM values. In a final step the refinement results are compared with the one-dimensional, i.e. diffraction-focused, case.

  19. The first and second ‘laws’ of chemical morphology, exemplified in mammalian extracellular matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE Scott

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissues are supramolecular organisations. The permanent and semi-permanent biopolymers therein function collaboratively in specifically bonded frameworks of macromolecules according to the physico-chemical laws that govern the behaviour of all molecules. In this paper two ‘laws’ or principles are discussed which give insights into the development and function of tissues, particularly the extracellular matrices (ECMs of connective tissues. The first ‘law’ is qualitative;- The shape of a tissue is implicit in the shapes of the biopolymers from which it is constructed. The tissue biopolymers are jigsaw pieces, if they don’t fit precisely, there is no picture. The second ‘law’ is quantitative;-The composition of a tissue is determined by the stable, specific interactions between the macromolecules of which it is constructed. These basic ideas underlie the discipline of chemical morphology. The term chemical morphology implies both the chemistry of shape and the shape of chemicals. The first meaning is well exemplified in the ECMs of connective tissues, in which the shape of an organism is defined and maintained. Specific relationships between the fibrillar (collagenous components and the soluble polymers (proteoglycans are set in the context of the first law. Tissue electron histochemistry (the morphology of the tissue and knowledge of secondary and tertiary structures of the participating biopolymers (the shapes of the chemicals together provide a model susceptible to quantitative testing. Simple calculation shows that the amount of any ligand (e.g. a proteoglycan specifically bound at a single binding site per unit of collagen fibril length (the D period increases linearly with the fibril diameter. Given the amount of collagen (measured as hydroxyproline and its density, the constant of proportionality is ~42. Comparisons of the quantitative relationship between collagen and proteoglycans predicted from the model agree well with

  20. Norbert Elias. A sociology of written culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Borges Leão

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Norbert Elias’ historical sociology. In the first place, it asserts the civilizing process theory is pretty much based on objects from the written culture produced by European Courts in the 17th and 18th centuries: the articles of the Encyclopédie, the memoirs of writers and manuals of civility. In this approach I consider that separating the construction of sociological models from the corpus of specific documents from the Ancien Regime results in a dichotomic appropriation of the knowledge process, which is far away from Elias’ perspective. Finally, this paper analyzes Norbert Elias’ contributions to contemporary historiographic thinking, as well as the concepts of mentality, private life and the notion of childhood in Philippe Ariès.

  1. 43 CFR 4.1139 - Written interrogatories to parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written interrogatories to parties. 4.1139... Written interrogatories to parties. (a) Any party may serve upon any other party written interrogatories to be answered in writing by the party served, or if the party served is a public or private...

  2. 28 CFR 55.12 - Language used for written material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... written form. Some languages, for example, Japanese, have more than one written form. A jurisdiction... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Language used for written material. 55.12... OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Determining the Exact Language § 55.12...

  3. Using Morphological Awareness Instruction to Improve Written Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Werfel, Krystal

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Written English is a morphophonemic language. Researchers have documented that a conscious awareness of the morphological structure of English morphology is predictive of students' written language skills and that morphological awareness instruction leads to improvements in morphological awareness and in other written language…

  4. Written Expression: Assessment and Remediation for Learning Disabled Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Ann M.

    1982-01-01

    The educational evaluation and remediation of written language disorders in learning disabled students are considered. It is suggested that a written language assessment should involve a thorough educational history and a complete psychoeducational evaluation. Attention is directed to written language assessment and remediation for handwriting,…

  5. Written for Children: An Outline of English Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, John Rowe

    Children's prose literature in Britain is surveyed from the 17th century to the present. The main stream of this development is exemplified by an examination of the lives and works of such authors as (1) John Newbery, whose books for children include "Goody Two-Shoes" (1766), (2) Mrs. Sherwood, whose didactic books contain a moral lesson in every…

  6. Written Educational Material Relieves Anxiety after Endoscopic Biopsy: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae Won; Jung, Da Hyun; Youn, Young Hoon; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Kim, Jae Jin; Park, Hyo Jin

    2016-02-01

    Patients who undergo endoscopic biopsy suffer anxiety until results are confirmed. This study assesses the effects of written educational material on the anxiety level of patients following endoscopic biopsy. This study was a randomized controlled study trial with 83 patients divided into the following three groups: a biopsy group given written educational material prepared by our institution following the biopsy (intervention group, n=28), a biopsy group without written material (biopsy only group, n=25), and a control group without biopsy (control group, n=30). The anxiety level of each patient was evaluated three times using Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI): for baseline at the first visit to our institution, at the day of endoscopy, one day later, and one week after the procedure. We compared baseline characteristics, STAI scores at each visit, and differences in STAI scores among the three groups. No difference was found in STAI score among groups at baseline and before and after the endoscopic procedure. However, the STAI-state score of the intervention group was slightly lower than biopsy only group one day post-procedure (40.3 ± 7.7 vs. 43.9 ± 7.1, p=0.135). The STAI-state score significantly decreased from pre- to post-procedure only in the intervention group (-2.75 ± 6.1 vs. 0.92 ± 4.0, pmaterial for patients having biopsy might lessen their anxiety level.

  7. A multi-stage 3-D stress field modelling approach exemplified in the Bavarian Molasse Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Moritz O.; Heidbach, Oliver; Reinecker, John; Przybycin, Anna M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    The knowledge of the contemporary in situ stress state is a key issue for safe and sustainable subsurface engineering. However, information on the orientation and magnitudes of the stress state is limited and often not available for the areas of interest. Therefore 3-D geomechanical-numerical modelling is used to estimate the in situ stress state and the distance of faults from failure for application in subsurface engineering. The main challenge in this approach is to bridge the gap in scale between the widely scattered data used for calibration of the model and the high resolution in the target area required for the application. We present a multi-stage 3-D geomechanical-numerical approach which provides a state-of-the-art model of the stress field for a reservoir-scale area from widely scattered data records. Therefore, we first use a large-scale regional model which is calibrated by available stress data and provides the full 3-D stress tensor at discrete points in the entire model volume. The modelled stress state is used subsequently for the calibration of a smaller-scale model located within the large-scale model in an area without any observed stress data records. We exemplify this approach with two-stages for the area around Munich in the German Molasse Basin. As an example of application, we estimate the scalar values for slip tendency and fracture potential from the model results as measures for the criticality of fault reactivation in the reservoir-scale model. The modelling results show that variations due to uncertainties in the input data are mainly introduced by the uncertain material properties and missing SHmax magnitude estimates needed for a more reliable model calibration. This leads to the conclusion that at this stage the model's reliability depends only on the amount and quality of available stress information rather than on the modelling technique itself or on local details of the model geometry. Any improvements in modelling and increases

  8. 49 CFR 1105.10 - Board procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS § 1105.10 Board procedures. (a) Environmental Impact Statements—(1) Prefiling Notice. Where an environmental... Environmental Analysis with written notice of its forthcoming proposal at least 6 months prior to filing its...

  9. Written debriefing: Evaluating the impact of the addition of a written component when debriefing simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Shelly J

    2015-11-01

    Debriefing, the reflective period following a simulation, is said to be where the bulk of simulation learning takes place. Many expert opinions regarding debriefing exist, but evidence-based best practices have yet to be identified. Written debriefing is one of these practices; experts state learning can be extended through the addition of a written component to the debriefing process, but no evidence exists to support this. This study compares three debriefing types: discussion alone, and discussion followed by journaling or blogging. Undergraduate nursing students participating in a simulation were randomized as a simulation group to one of these three debriefing types. Following completion of debriefing activities, students completed a Debriefing Experience Scale, a tool designed to evaluate the student experience during debriefing. Data obtained from completed scales were analyzed with ANOVA followed by Fisher LSD post hoc testing. The results showed the students preferred their experience with discussion debriefing over discussion debriefing with a written component added. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An approach to identifying the effect of technique asymmetries on body alignment in swimming exemplified by a case study of a breaststroke swimmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Ross H; Fairweather, Malcolm M; Alcock, Alison; McCabe, Carla B

    2015-06-01

    Despite the importance of maintaining good alignment to minimize resistive drag in swimming there is a paucity of literature relating to the effect of technique asymmetries on rotations of the body about a vertical axis (yaw). The purpose of this paper was to present an approach to analyzing the effect of technique asymmetries on rotations in swimming, exemplifying the process with a case study of a breaststroke swimmer. The kinematics and angular kinetics of an elite female international breaststroke swimmer performing a 'fatigue set' of four 100m swims were derived from digitized three-dimensional video data using a 13 segment body model. Personalised anthropometric data required to quantify accurately segment and whole body centres of mass and segmental angular momentum were obtained by the elliptical zone method. Five episodes of torques producing yaw occurred in the stroke cycle sampled for each 100m swim of this swimmer. These torques were linked to bilateral differences in upper limb kinematics during 1) out-sweep; 2) in-sweep; 3) upper limb recovery; and lower limb kinematics during 4) Lower limb recovery and 5) the kick. It has been shown that by quantifying whole body torques, in conjunction with the kinematic movement patterns, the effect of technique asymmetries on body alignment can be assessed. Assessment of individual swimmers in this manner provides a solid foundation for planning interventions in strength, flexibility, and technique to improve alignment and performance. Key pointsA unique (not been attempted previously) study of yaw in breaststroke swimming that yields new knowledge of how technique and strength asymmetries affects body alignment.Establishes an approach to investigation of yaw in swimming using 3D videography and inverse dynamics.Exemplifies the approach with a case study. The case study illustrated the potential of the approach to enable detailed assessment of yaw and to explain how the yaw is produced in terms of the asymmetries

  11. Cascaded processing in written compound word production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond eBertram

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the intricate interplay between central linguistic processing and peripheral motor processes during typewriting. Participants had to typewrite two-constituent (noun-noun Finnish compounds in response to picture presentation while their typing behavior was registered. As dependent measures we used writing onset time to assess what processes were completed before writing and inter-key intervals to assess what processes were going on during writing. It was found that writing onset time was determined by whole word frequency rather than constituent frequencies, indicating that compound words are retrieved as whole orthographic units before writing is initiated. In addition, we found that the length of the first syllable also affects writing onset time, indicating that the first syllable is fully prepared before writing commences. The inter-key interval results showed that linguistic planning is not fully ready before writing, but cascades into the motor execution phase. More specifically, inter-key intervals were largest at syllable and morpheme boundaries, supporting the view that additional linguistic planning takes place at these boundaries. Bigram and trigram frequency also affected inter-key intervals with shorter intervals corresponding to higher frequencies. This can be explained by stronger memory traces for frequently co-occurring letter sequences in the motor memory for typewriting. These frequency effects were even larger in the second than in the first constituent, indicating that low-level motor memory starts to become more important during the course of writing compound words. We discuss our results in the light of current models of morphological processing and written word production.

  12. Informed consent and the readability of the written consent form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanadarajah, N; El-Daly, I; Mamarelis, G; Sohail, M Z; Bates, P

    2017-11-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to objectively ascertain the level of readability of standardised consent forms for orthopaedic procedures. Methods Standardised consent forms (both in summary and detailed formats) endorsed by the British Orthopaedic Association (BOA) were retrieved from orthoconsent.com and assessed for readability. This involved using an online tool to calculate the validated Flesch reading ease score (FRES). This was compared with the FRES for the National Health Service (NHS) Consent Form 1. Data were analysed and interpreted according to the FRES grading table. Results The FRES for Consent Form 1 was 55.6, relating to the literacy expected of an A level student. The mean FRES for the BOA summary consent forms (n=27) was 63.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 61.2-66.0) while for the detailed consent forms (n=32), it was 68.9 (95% CI: 67.7-70.0). All BOA detailed forms scored >60, correlating to the literacy expected of a 13-15-year-old. The detailed forms had a higher FRES than the summary forms (pconsent forms are much easier to read and understand than the NHS Consent Form 1, with the detailed BOA forms being the easiest to read. Despite this, owing to varying literacy levels, a significant proportion of patients may struggle to give informed consent based on the written information provided to them.

  13. Creative potential of primary school students in written expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševkušić Slavica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The essays of primary school students were studied as a potential source of data about their creative capacities in the field of writing and, more extensively, in the domain of linguistic expression. Sixth and seventh grade students (N=142 wrote an essay the creativity of which was evaluated by three teachers. Based on teachers' evaluations, two extreme groups were formed, which were then mutually compared: the students who wrote creative stories (N=17 and those who did not (N=19. A mixed method approach was applied in analyzing the data about students and their essays. The quantitative research results indicate that the authors of creative stories are characterized by a considerably higher creative potential as measured by the Word Production Test and Urban-Jellen Drawing Test (TCT-DP, a better school achievement and greater knowledge in Serbian language, a wider range of interests and a more pronounced interest in language and humanities. Analysis of narratives of the two groups of stories reveals important differences between the creative and noncreative group in the format, themes and components of creative written expression. The following are perceived in the papers assessed as creative: good composition, existence of a title, a guiding idea, originality, emotional expressiveness and ethical dimension. In the concluding part the authors discuss the advantages of combining the quantitative and qualitative procedures in studying the creative potential in school context.

  14. Characterizing High School Students' Written Explanations in Biology Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Deniz; Wallace, Carolyn S.

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive research study was to examine high school students' written scientific explanations during biology laboratory investigations. Specifically, we characterized the types of epistemologies and forms of reasoning involved in students' scientific explanations and students' perceptions of scientific explanations. Sixteen students from a rural high school in the Southeastern United States were the participants of this research study. The data consisted of students' laboratory reports and individual interviews. The results indicated that students' explanations were primarily based on first-hand knowledge gained in the science laboratories and mostly representing procedural recounts. Most students did not give explanations based on a theory or a principle and did not use deductive reasoning in their explanations. The students had difficulties explaining phenomena that involved intricate cause-effect relationships. Students perceived scientific explanation as the final step of a scientific inquiry and as an account of what happened in the inquiry process, and held a constructivist-empiricist view of scientific explanations. Our results imply the need for more explicit guidance to help students construct better scientific explanations and explicit teaching of the explanatory genre with particular focus on theoretical and causal explanations.

  15. The challenge of giving written thesis feedback to nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvesson, Hanna; Borglin, Gunilla

    2014-11-01

    Providing effective written feedback on nursing student's assignments can be a challenging task for any assessor. Additionally, as the student groups tend to become larger, written feedback is likely to gain an overall more prominent position than verbal feedback. Lack of formal training or regular discussion in the teaching faculty about the skill set needed to provide written feedback could negatively affect the students' learning abilities. In this brief paper, we discuss written feedback practices, whilst using the Bachelor of Science in Nursing thesis as an example. Our aim is to highlight the importance of an informed understanding of the impact written feedback can have on students. Creating awareness about this can facilitate the development of more strategic and successful written feedback strategies. We end by offering examples of some relatively simple strategies for improving this practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Improving Written Language Performance of Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Delano, Monica E

    2007-01-01

    The effects of a multicomponent intervention involving self-regulated strategy development delivered via video self-modeling on the written language performance of 3 students with Asperger syndrome were examined. During intervention sessions, each student watched a video of himself performing strategies for increasing the number of words written and the number of functional essay elements. He then wrote a persuasive essay. The number of words written and number of functional essay elements in...

  17. [Guide for the publication of written materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Campos, M G

    1987-01-01

    Tips for writing and editing population education or other materials and descriptions of the process of printing a text and of available types of print media are provided. Written materials should be brief and concise, and should avoid bombarding the reader with too many figures or references. Ideas of others must always be acknowledged. Adjectives and metaphors should be used in moderation. The first person and obscure words should both be avoided. Acronyms and abbreviations should be defined at their 1st use. Ideas should be presented in a logical sequence. Illustrations and tables may facilitate comprehension, but only if they are clearly presented and printed. Materials should be adapted to their audiences. In a country with the cultural, racial, and social diversity of Peru, it is impossible to refer to a general audience. Population communication which wishes to influence people must be based on a clear knowledge of the level of information, habits, linguistic practices, and other traits of the intended audience. Once the audience has been characterized, the objectives of the publication should be clearly defined. The technical characteristics of the publication are then selected. The format should be a standard size so that all the available paper can be used. The number of pages is often determined by the funds available although ideally it should be decided in accordance with the information to be presented. The color, type of lettering and spacing, paper, number of copies to be printed, and frequency of appearance are influenced by budgetary considerations, but the letter size and spacing should be generous enough to allow easy reading. The layout, style, and sections of the work must then be determined. A bulletin for example could have an editorial, a central article, reportage, an in-depth interview, correspondence, book reviews, and other regular features. The contents should be carefully checked for accuracy and grammaticality, and each step of

  18. Wave-induced bottom shear stress estimation in shallow water exemplified by using deep water wind statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Myrhaug

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a simple and analytical method which can be used to give estimates of the wave-induced bottom shear stress for very rough beds and mud beds in shallow water based on wind statistics in deep water. This is exemplified by using long-term wind statistics from the northern North Sea, and by providing examples representing realistic field conditions. Based on, for example, global wind statistics, the present results can be used to make estimates of the bottom shear stress in shallow water.

  19. [Standards for safe data exchange in teleradiology exemplified by image and report distribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberg, M; Riesmeier, J; Thiel, A; Jensch, P; Emmel, D; Haderer, A; Ricke, J; Stohlmann, L; Bernarding, J

    2002-02-01

    The use of telemedicine is becoming indispensable for a continuous and economical delivery of a high quality of care. However, data protection requirements have to be considered. For the selection of solutions, vendor-independent components based on standards are a prerequisite for a seamless integration into the existing, often heterogeneous, IT infrastructure. The "Internet protocol" TCP/IP and the DICOM standard with it's new security extensions form the basis for an internationally standardized and accepted procedure for a secure interchange of radiological images beyond platform boundaries.

  20. Written Corrective Feedback in Second Language Acquisition and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John; Ferris, Dana R.

    2011-01-01

    What should language and writing teachers do about giving students written corrective feedback? This book surveys theory, research, and practice on the important and sometimes controversial issue of written corrective feedback, also known as "error/grammar correction," and its impact on second language acquisition and second language writing…

  1. Neuropsychological Correlates of Written Expression in College Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Harder, Lana

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine written expression and the executive function skills (working memory, verbal fluency, and planning and organization) involved in written expression in college-aged students with ADHD. Method: Two groups of undergraduate students, aged 19 to 28 years, (ADHD, n = 31; control, n = 27) are evaluated on selected measures of…

  2. Written Corrective Feedback in Second Language Acquisition and Writing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Dana R.

    2012-01-01

    Written corrective feedback, referred to hereafter as "written CF" and also known as "grammar correction" or "error correction", has been a controversial topic in second language studies over the past fifteen years. Inspired by John Truscott's thought-provoking 1996 essay in "Language Learning", many different researchers have undertaken new…

  3. 38 CFR 21.84 - Individualized written rehabilitation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rehabilitation plan. 21.84 Section 21.84 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Individualized Written Rehabilitation Plan § 21.84 Individualized written rehabilitation plan...

  4. 29 CFR 1401.32 - Logging of written requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Logging of written requests. 1401.32 Section 1401.32 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE PUBLIC INFORMATION Production or Disclosure of Information § 1401.32 Logging of written requests. (a) All requests for records...

  5. Are Poor Chinese Text Comprehenders Also Poor in Written Composition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Meng, Wanjin; Leong, Che Kan

    2013-01-01

    We studied the performance in three genres of Chinese written composition (narration, exposition, and argumentation) of 158 grade 4, 5, and 6 poor Chinese text comprehenders compared with 156 good Chinese text comprehenders. We examined text comprehension and written composition relationship. Verbal working memory (verbal span working memory and…

  6. The Written Communication Skills That Matter Most for Accountants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Tracey J.; Simons, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of effective written communication skills to the discipline of accounting, faculty must emphasize these skills in their classroom in order to adequately prepare students for successful careers in the field. Since 2000, only two studies in the accounting literature have examined which written communication skills are needed by…

  7. 19 CFR 148.111 - Written declaration for unaccompanied articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written declaration for unaccompanied articles... of the United States § 148.111 Written declaration for unaccompanied articles. The baggage... covers articles which do not accompany him and: (a) The articles are entitled to free entry under the $1...

  8. Quantity and quality of written feedback, action plans, and student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Mini-clinical-evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) assessment forms that have been modified with the addition of specific spaces on separate sheets are expected to improve the quantity and quality of written feedback and the action plan for further learning which is agreed upon, and to encourage written reflection.

  9. 33 CFR 146.35 - Written report of casualty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Written report of casualty. 146.35 Section 146.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... postmarked within 5 days of the casualty, the written report required by paragraph (a) of this section serves...

  10. 5 CFR 179.306 - Written agreement for repayment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Written agreement for repayment. 179.306 Section 179.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 179.306 Written agreement for repayment. A debtor who admits...

  11. Executive functions in elementary school children with and without problems in written expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R; Swartz, Carl W; Wakely, Melissa B; de Kruif, Renée E L; Montgomery, James W

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the executive functioning of 55 elementary school children with and without problems in written expression. Two groups reflecting children with and without significant writing problems were defined by an average primary trait rating across two separate narratives. The groups did not differ in terms of chronological age, ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, special education status, or presence of attention problems or receptive vocabulary capabilities; however, they did differ in reading decoding ability, and this variable was controlled for in all analyses. Dependent measures included tasks tapping an array of executive functions grouped conceptually in accordance with a model of executive functioning reflecting the following domains: initiate, sustain, set shifting, and inhibition/stopping. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) procedures revealed statistically significant group differences on the initiation and set shift domains, with the sustaining domain approaching significance. Children with writing problems performed more poorly in each of these domains, although the effect sizes were small. A multiple regression that employed these four factors and the reading decoding variable to predict the primary trait score from the written narratives revealed a statistically significant regression function; however, reading decoding contributed most of the unique variance to the writing outcome. These findings point out the importance of executive functions in the written language process for elementary school students, but highlight the need to examine other variables when studying elementary school-age children with written expression problems.

  12. Structuring a written examination to assess ASBH health care ethics consultation core knowledge competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Bruce D; Jankowski, Jane B; Shelton, Wayne N

    2014-01-01

    As clinical ethics consultants move toward professionalization, the process of certifying individual consultants or accrediting programs will be discussed and debated. With certification, some entity must be established or ordained to oversee the standards and procedures. If the process evolves like other professions, it seems plausible that it will eventually include a written examination to evaluate the core knowledge competencies that individual practitioners should possess to meet peer practice standards. The American Society for Bioethics and Humanities (ASBH) has published core knowledge competencies for many years that are accepted by experts as the prevailing standard. Probably any written examination will be based upon the ASBH core knowledge competencies. However, much remains to be done before any examination may be offered. In particular, it seems likely that a recognized examining board must create and validate examination questions and structure the examination so as to establish meaningful, defensible parameters after dealing with such challenging questions as: Should the certifying examination be multiple choice or short-answer essay? How should the test be graded? What should the pass rate be? How may the examination be best administered? To advance the field of health care ethics consultation, thought leaders should start to focus on the written examination possibilities, to date unaddressed carefully in the literature. Examination models-both objective and written-must be explored as a viable strategy about how the field of health care ethics consultations can grow toward professionalization.

  13. Efficiency of Oral Incremental Rehearsal versus Written Incremental Rehearsal on Students' Rate, Retention, and Generalization of Spelling Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Dru; Joseph, Laurice M.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila; Konrad, Moira

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficiency of an incremental rehearsal oral versus an incremental rehearsal written procedure on a sample of primary grade children's weekly spelling performance. Participants included five second and one first grader who were in need of help with their spelling according to their teachers. An…

  14. University Undergraduate Science Students' Validation and Comprehension of Written Proof in the Context of Infinite Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moru, Eunice Kolitsoe; Nchejane, John; Ramollo, Motlatsi; Rammea, Lisema

    2017-01-01

    The reported study explored undergraduate science students' validation and comprehension of written proofs, reasons given either to accept or reject mathematical procedures employed in the proofs, and the difficulties students encountered in reading the proofs. The proofs were constructed using both the Comparison and the Integral tests in the…

  15. Testing a procedural variant of written imaginal exposure for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracalanza, Katie; Koerner, Naomi; Antony, Martin M

    2014-08-01

    This experiment examined the degree to which it is more beneficial for individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) to engage in repeated exposure to mental imagery of the same feared scenario versus varying the exposure content. On three consecutive days, individuals with GAD (N=57) spent 20min writing about: (1) the same worst case scenario (consistent exposure; CE), (2) variations of their worst case scenario (varied exposure; VE), or (3) a neutral topic (neutral control; NC). Participants in the CE condition displayed significant decreases in worry, acute cognitive avoidance, and intolerance of uncertainty from baseline to 1-week follow-up; participants in the VE and NC conditions did not. Initial activation of self-reported anxiety (observed in the CE and VE conditions) and between-session reduction in anxiety (observed in the CE condition only) were associated with improvement in worry. Including more references to negative emotion and writing in the present tense were also associated with greater improvement in worry in the CE condition. These findings suggest that writing repeatedly about the same worst case scenario may benefit people with GAD. The study also provides information on potential mechanisms of change. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. A textual production from teaching procedures: a design as written appearance guiding teaching job

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia Gonçalves

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to reflect on the application of didactic instruments for teaching Portuguese Language, mainly focused on writing. For this purpose, we used the Sociodiscursivo Interactionism perspective (ISD, based on the writings of Bronckart (1999, 2006. The assumptions of Vygotsky (1988 were also extremely important for our research. As for the methodological instrument analysis, we use a Didactic Sequence (DOLZ, NOVERRAZ e SCHNEUWLY, 2004, whose purpose is the internalization of various genres of text. From the results of the application, was marked the relationship between the conception of the institutions of writing and the way as this object is developed.

  17. Photodigitizing procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, P. D.; Gottbrath, J. H.

    1984-02-01

    This report documents procedures and programs for efficiently running the Photo Digitizing System at the Naval Biodynamics Laboratory. Procedures have been tested and have been found to be effective. Any future acquisitions of programs or changes to current programs should be incorporated in these procedures. On-going research programs use high speed instrumentation cameras to record the motion of test subjects during biodynamic experiments. The films are digitized and the 3-dimensional motion is reconstructed and analyzed. Experimental research is performed to determine the effects of aircraft crashes, ship motion, vibration, aircraft ejection and parachute opening forces on the health and performance of Navy personnel.

  18. Influence of Written Informed Consent for Methylphenidate on Medicine Persistence Rates in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naenen-Hernani, Kristian; Palazón-Bru, Antonio; Colomina-Climent, Francisco; Gil-Guillén, Vicente F

    2017-10-01

    To assess the influence of written informed consent on nonpersistence with methylphenidate treatment in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We undertook a cohort study including 141 children with ADHD who started treatment with methylphenidate, with a follow-up of 6 months. The main outcome variable was nonpersistence, defined as discontinuation of treatment by the patient. Two groups were analyzed with and without written informed consent. Use of this consent was the decision of the prescribing physician because the law allows its use on a voluntary basis. The homogeneity of both groups was verified by evaluating sex, type of ADHD, methylphenidate dosage, age, severity, and other psychiatric disorders. To assess the influence of consent on nonpersistence, bootstrapping was used to determine relative risk reduction (RRR) and number needed to treat (NNT). Among the participants who completed follow-up, 67 provided written informed consent and 63 did not. We found the following nonpersistence frequencies in each group: (1) with written informed consent: 5 (7.5%) and (2) without written informed consent: 15 (23.8%). The clinically significant results were RRR, 0.67 ± 0.17; NNT, 7 (5-9). The use of written informed consent yielded higher persistence rates. Further studies are needed to determine whether we can use this procedure routinely in clinical practice.

  19. [Ambivalence--a key concept in gerontology? Elements of heuristics exemplified by identity formation in old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüscher, Kurt; Haller, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Ambivalence is a widely used concept in gerontology, mostly used in the common sense meaning. We propose that an elaborated notion based on the historical and systematic analysis, reveals important theoretical, methodological and practical potentials of the idea of ambivalence for the study of aging. We exemplify this view by proposing a heuristic perspective for the analysis of processes to constitute and reconstitute identities in old age using a model based on a multidimensional understanding of ambivalence. Ambivalence is defined as referring to the experiences of vacillating between polar contradictions of feeling, thinking, wanting and social structures in the search for the sense and meaning of social relationships, facts and texts, which are important for unfolding and altering facets of the self and agency.

  20. 34 CFR 86.408 - What are the procedures for conducting a pre-hearing conference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ABUSE PREVENTION Appeal Procedures § 86.408 What are the procedures for conducting a pre-hearing... meeting; or (3) The submission and exchange of written material. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1145g) [55 FR 33581...

  1. Improving written language performance of adolescents with Asperger syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delano, Monica E

    2007-01-01

    The effects of a multicomponent intervention involving self-regulated strategy development delivered via video self-modeling on the written language performance of 3 students with Asperger syndrome were examined...

  2. 7 CFR 46.49 - Written notifications and complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under Section 6(c); (2) Any written notice of intent to preserve the benefits of the trust established... with notice of the status of the investigation, including whether the Secretary intends to issue a...

  3. CURRICULUM LEADERSIHP: STRATEGIES FOR LINKING THE WRITTEN AND DELIVERED CURRICULIM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lena Damovska

    2014-01-01

    ...) without neglecting the written curriculum(the theory), and vice versa, all the while analyzing strategies that will link both curricula and implement these conclusions in their further teaching...

  4. Written Teacher Feedback: Aspects of Quality, Benefits and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmeier, Monika; Grob, Regula; Nielsen, Jan Alexis

    2018-01-01

    Written feedback provided by the teacher to his or her students is an important aspect of formative assessment. After a theoretical introduction to teacher prerequisites for giving feedback and to the quality of written feedback in general, results from an implementation of feedback methods......, it will be discussed which means of support for teachers seem necessary in order to foster the implementation of written teacher feedback as part of formative assessment in inquiry-based science education....... in classrooms will be described for the cases of Germany, Switzerland and Denmark. The focus will be on the inquiry method ‘investigation in science’ that requires from students such competences as planning and/or conducting experiments. This study examines the quality of written teacher feedback which...

  5. Nonlinear light propagation in fs laser-written waveguide arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szameit A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on recent achievements in the field of nonlinear light propagation in fs laser-written waveguide lattices. Particular emphasis is thereby given on discrete solitons in such systems.

  6. Investigating Difficulties in Elementary School Students' Written Expression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teresa Benítez Velasquez

    2011-01-01

      This article presents the results of a qualitative action research study about the possible causes of the difculties in the written expression offth grade students of a bilingual school in Barranquilla...

  7. UV-written Integrated Optical 1xN Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivero, Massimo; Svalgaard, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    The first demonstration of UV-written, silica-on-silicon integrated optical 1×N power splitters with up to 32 outputs ports is presented. The fabricated components exhibit 450 nm bandwidth, low excess loss and good channel uniformity.......The first demonstration of UV-written, silica-on-silicon integrated optical 1×N power splitters with up to 32 outputs ports is presented. The fabricated components exhibit 450 nm bandwidth, low excess loss and good channel uniformity....

  8. High index ring resonator coupled to UV-written waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Philipp, Hugh Taylor; Svalgaard, Mikael

    2002-01-01

    High index silicon rich nitride (SHN) ring resonators were coupled to straight UV-written waveguides. Resonance peaks with a free spectral range of 2 nm and a spectral width (fwhm) of 0.2 nm were observed......High index silicon rich nitride (SHN) ring resonators were coupled to straight UV-written waveguides. Resonance peaks with a free spectral range of 2 nm and a spectral width (fwhm) of 0.2 nm were observed...

  9. Which Type of Risk Information to Use for Whom? Moderating Role of Outcome-Relevant Involvement in the Effects of Statistical and Exemplified Risk Information on Risk Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Jiyeon; Jeong, Se-Hoon; Hwang, Yoori

    2017-04-01

    The extant empirical research examining the effectiveness of statistical and exemplar-based health information is largely inconsistent. Under the premise that the inconsistency may be due to an unacknowledged moderator (O'Keefe, 2002), this study examined a moderating role of outcome-relevant involvement (Johnson & Eagly, 1989) in the effects of statistical and exemplified risk information on risk perception. Consistent with predictions based on elaboration likelihood model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1984), findings from an experiment (N = 237) concerning alcohol consumption risks showed that statistical risk information predicted risk perceptions of individuals with high, rather than low, involvement, while exemplified risk information predicted risk perceptions of those with low, rather than high, involvement. Moreover, statistical risk information contributed to negative attitude toward drinking via increased risk perception only for highly involved individuals, while exemplified risk information influenced the attitude through the same mechanism only for individuals with low involvement. Theoretical and practical implications for health risk communication are discussed.

  10. Written Cultural Heritage in the Context of Adopted Legal Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kodrič-Dačić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: Libraries collect written cultural heritage which is not only the most valuable part of their collections but also a part of library materials which is, due to digitalization projects in the last decade, becoming more and more interesting to librarians and library users. The main goal of the study is a theoretical research of library materials acknowledged as Slovenian heritage. By defining the basic terms it highlights the attributes which are immanent to library materials, derived from the context of their origin or later destiny. Slovenian library legislation concerning protection of written cultural heritage is also critically analysed.Methodology/approach: Comparative analyses of European and Slovenian legislation concerning librarianship and written cultural heritage. Research limitation: Research was mainly limited to professional literature and resources dealing with written cultural heritage. Originality/practical implications: Results of the research serve as formal criteria for definition of library materials as written heritage and suggest how to improve legislation in the field of protection of written heritage in libraries. 

  11. 32 CFR 552.214 - Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on the Installation of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland § 552.214 Procedures. (a) Any person or... Ground must submit a written request to the Commander, U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, ATTN: STEAP-CO, 2201 Aberdeen Boulevard, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005-5001. The request must be...

  12. 48 CFR 1503.500-71 - Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Responsibility To Avoid Improper Business Practices 1503.500-71 Procedures. (a) A contractor's system of management controls should provide for: (1) A written code of business ethics and conduct and an ethics training program for all...

  13. Ross procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Sievers, H.H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In 1967 Donald Ross introduced the subcoronary Ross procedure consisting of transplantation of the autologous pulmonary valve into aortic position. We describe our 15-year experience in Ross procedures. Methods 576 subcoronary operations have been performed (436 male and 140 female patients); the mean age was 45?11.9 years. (range, 13 to 70 years). The mean follow-up was 7?4.2 years (range, 0 to 16 years). There were 4597 patient years at follow-up with a clinical completeness of...

  14. Static Correctness of Hierarchical Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    1990-01-01

    basis for a general type hierarchy with static type checking, which enables first-order polymorphism combined with multiple inheritance and specialization in a language with assignments. We extend the results to include opaque types. An opaque version of a type is different from the original but has......A system of hierarchical, fully recursive types in a truly imperative language allows program fragments written for small types to be reused for all larger types. To exploit this property to enable type-safe hierarchical procedures, it is necessary to impose a static requirement on procedure calls....... We introduce an example language and prove the existence of a sound requirement which preserves static correctness while allowing hierarchical procedures. This requirement is further shown to be optimal, in the sense that it imposes as few restrictions as possible. This establishes the theoretical...

  15. Fair Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaneman, Paulette S.; And Others

    These materials are part of the Project Benchmark series designed to teach secondary students about our legal concepts and systems. This unit focuses on individual rights and fair procedures under the law. The materials outline the Bill of Rights, due process guarantees, the right to a fair hearing, fair and unfair trials, search and seizure laws,…

  16. (TIPSS) procedure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    mental animals.7. In 1982, Colapinto and co-workers described the creation of percutaneous intrahepatic shunts in 6 human subjects.8 A tract was dilated through the ... REVIEW ARTICLE. 4. SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • October 2004. The transjugular intrahepatic porto- systemic shunt. (TIPSS) procedure — a review.

  17. Written language skills in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth J; Larkin, Rebecca F; Blaggan, Samarita

    2013-01-01

    Young children are often required to carry out writing tasks in an educational context. However, little is known about the patterns of writing skills that children with specific language impairment (CwSLI) have relative to their typically developing peers. To assess the written language skills of CwSLI and compare these with typically developing peers. It also aimed to assess the relative contributions of reading and spelling skills to written language skills. Forty-five children took part in the study: 15 were CwSLI, 15 were a chronological age match and 15 were a spelling age match. The children took part in a range of tasks that assessed writing, reading and spelling abilities. In their written language and compared with typical age-matched peers, CwSLI used a significantly less diverse range of words, had lower quality written compositions overall, and lower levels of organization, unity and coherence. They also had a higher proportion of spelling errors. Overall, writing skills were strongly associated with reading skills. The findings demonstrate the challenges CwSLI have in producing good-quality written text and that these challenges are likely to be related to the linguistic skills profile shown by these children. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  18. Analyzing graduate student trends in written paper evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddens, Jean Foret; Lobo, Marie

    2008-10-01

    Writing is valued as an essential skill in nursing education. However, the evaluation of written scholarly work is challenging. Limited nursing literature addressing issues or strategies associated with evaluation exists. The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate differences that exist in the evaluation of a standardized written paper. The study included a sample of 47 graduate nursing students enrolled in a nursing education course. Participants were asked to grade a mock paper as part of a course assignment; their work was retained for data analysis. Wide variability in scoring and comments on the paper were noted; significantly lower scores were assigned by participants who had experience teaching in academic settings. The majority of written comments made by participants were related to grammar and American Psychological Association formatting or citation problems. Further research is needed to better understand paper evaluation practices of nursing faculty.

  19. Peritonectomy procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbaker, P H

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: New surgical procedures designed to assist in the treatment of peritoneal surface malignancy were sought. BACKGROUND: Decisions regarding the treatment of cancer depend on the anatomic location of the malignancy and the biologic aggressiveness of the disease. Some patients may have isolated intra-abdominal seeding of malignancy of limited extent or of low biologic grade. In the past, these clinical situations have been regarded as lethal. METHODS: The cytoreductive approach may require six peritonectomy procedures to resect or strip cancer from all intra-abdominal surfaces. RESULTS: These are greater omentectomy-splenectomy; left upper quadrant peritonectomy; right upper quadrant peritonectomy; lesser omentectomy-cholecystectomy with stripping of the omental bursa; pelvic peritonectomy with sleeve resection of the sigmoid colon; and antrectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Peritonectomy procedures and preparation of the abdomen for early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy were described. The author has used the cytoreductive approach to achieve long-term, disease-free survival in selected patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis, peritoneal sarcomatosis or mesothelioma. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 11. Figure 12. Figure 13. PMID:7826158

  20. Adaptation Technique in the Translation of Literary Texts (as Exemplified in the Translation of French and English Literary Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Полина Сергеевна Тасенко

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes some particularities of translation of literary texts from French and English into Russian as exemplified in the novel “The Lady of the Camellias” by A. Dumas and the novel “Wuthering Heights” by E. Brontë. The article examines in particular the use of the adaptation technique in order to confirm the hypothesis of the connection of this translation transformation with conveyance of the original's stylistic features. This transformation is applied in the translation of some phenomena and phrases in the original text that can barely be translated because of their national singularity, a significant time gap, or peculiarity for other culture bearers. The theoretical foundation for the article are literary style researches [Barkhudarov, 1975; Komissarov, 1990; Chaikovskij, 1997; Chukovskij, 2014; Baker, 2011], as well as researches in the field of the use of adaptation in the translation of literary texts [Alekseeva, 2004; Vlakhov, Florin, 1980; Shchetinkin, 1987; Clifford, Landers, 2001; Newmark, 1988]. The research methods used in the study are the following: relevant scientific literature analysis, statistical approach, comparative study of literary texts and their translations. A thorough analysis of the nature of adaptation enabled us to specify a range of translation transformations which allow adaptation to be applied in the reanslation of literary texts. According to the results of the research, the informative as well as the aesthetic function plays a very important role in the translation of literary texts.

  1. Delimitation of Areas of Environmental Conflicts on the Background of Geological Conditions, Exemplified by Stary Sącz Commune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gałaś Slávka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Delimitation and characterization of areas of conflict are essential to assess suitability of land for different activities carried out in the field of rational land use. In the paper, delimitation of the conflict areas and conflicts categorization in terms of possibility of their overcoming, the scale of the range and the period of their occurrence exemplified by urban - rural commune Stary Sącz have been presented. The software ArcGIS 10.1, the method of maps superimposing and analysis of interactions between different geoenvironmental factors have been applied to obtain the goal of the investigation. Specific geological structure together with morphological and climatic conditions in Stary Sącz commune create ideal conditions for occurrence of con-flict areas on the background of the geological conditions. Accurate and early recognition of these conflicts - existing and potential ones, is a prerequisite for the environmental risk prevention and elimination of its effects through the proper preparation of planning documents and development plans and programs.

  2. The use of network analysis in the process of delimitation as exemplifi ed by the administrative division of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowska-Stefańska, Marta; Wiśniewski, Szymon

    2017-12-01

    The cognitive aim of this study is to point to the optimum number of local government units and the optimum boundaries of spatial units in Poland with the assumption of minimizing the cumulated theoretical travel time to all settlement units in the country. The methodological aim, in turn, is to present the use of the ArcGIS location-allocation tool for the purposes of delimitation processes as exemplifi ed by administrative boundaries in Poland. The rationale for the implementation of this study is that number and the boundaries of units of all levels of Poland's current territorial division are far from optimum in the light of minimization of accumulated theoretical travel time to all settlement units in the country. It may be concluded that it would be justifi able to increase the number of voivodships from the current number of 16 to 18. Besides it would be necessary to introduce modifi cations in relation to units with regional functions. In contrast, the number of districts and communes should be reduced. A continuation of this research may go in the direction of including analysis of public transport network in the research, creating in this way a multimodal set of network data. This would illustrate, apart from the potential itself resulting from the infrastructure, also the actually existing connections.

  3. The use of network analysis in the process of delimitation as exemplifi ed by the administrative division of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowska-Stefańska Marta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive aim of this study is to point to the optimum number of local government units and the optimum boundaries of spatial units in Poland with the assumption of minimizing the cumulated theoretical travel time to all settlement units in the country. The methodological aim, in turn, is to present the use of the ArcGIS location-allocation tool for the purposes of delimitation processes as exemplifi ed by administrative boundaries in Poland. The rationale for the implementation of this study is that number and the boundaries of units of all levels of Poland’s current territorial division are far from optimum in the light of minimization of accumulated theoretical travel time to all settlement units in the country. It may be concluded that it would be justifi able to increase the number of voivodships from the current number of 16 to 18. Besides it would be necessary to introduce modifi cations in relation to units with regional functions. In contrast, the number of districts and communes should be reduced. A continuation of this research may go in the direction of including analysis of public transport network in the research, creating in this way a multimodal set of network data. This would illustrate, apart from the potential itself resulting from the infrastructure, also the actually existing connections.

  4. Written emotional expression: effect sizes, outcome types, and moderating variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, J M

    1998-02-01

    A research synthesis was conducted to examine the relationship between a written emotional expression task and subsequent health. This writing task was found to lead to significantly improved health outcomes in healthy participants. Health was enhanced in 4 outcome types--reported physical health, psychological well-being, physiological functioning, and general functioning--but health behaviors were not influenced. Writing also increased immediate (pre- to postwriting) distress, which was unrelated to health outcomes. The relation between written emotional expression and health was moderated by a number of variables, including the use of college students as participants, gender, duration of the manipulation, publication status of the study, and specific writing content instructions.

  5. Thermal stability of directly UV-written waveguides and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulstad, K.; Svalgaard, Mikael

    1998-01-01

    Accelerated aging experiments of directly UV-written straight waveguides, s-bends and directional couplers have been made. The results show that these structures are nearly unaffected by thousands of thermal cycles between +22°C and +80°C......Accelerated aging experiments of directly UV-written straight waveguides, s-bends and directional couplers have been made. The results show that these structures are nearly unaffected by thousands of thermal cycles between +22°C and +80°C...

  6. Champion lineman scores unprecedented 100 on written test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2011-01-15

    The 27th annual international lineman's rodeo saw a lineman from Duke Energy Distribution named World Champion Apprentice. He was also the first competitor to score 100 % in the written test and finished first in the apprentice category in the investor owned utility (IOU) division. The apprentice division is made up of linemen within their first four years of trade. Events include a hurt man rescue, pole climb, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), mystery event and a written test. The rodeo began in 1984, and this year more than 650 men competed.

  7. PC based temporary shielding administrative procedure (TSAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.E.; Pederson, G.E. [Sargent & Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States); Hamby, P.N. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    A completely new Administrative Procedure for temporary shielding was developed for use at Commonwealth Edison`s six nuclear stations. This procedure promotes the use of shielding, and addresses industry requirements for the use and control of temporary shielding. The importance of an effective procedure has increased since more temporary shielding is being used as ALARA goals become more ambitious. To help implement the administrative procedure, a personal computer software program was written to incorporate the procedural requirements. This software incorporates the useability of a Windows graphical user interface with extensive help and database features. This combination of a comprehensive administrative procedure and user friendly software promotes the effective use and management of temporary shielding while ensuring that industry requirements are met.

  8. 45 CFR 1639.6 - Recipient policies and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recipient policies and procedures. 1639.6 Section 1639.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION WELFARE REFORM § 1639.6 Recipient policies and procedures. Each recipient shall adopt written policies and...

  9. A Comparison of Biology Majors' Written Arguments across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schen, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Argumentation in science is the process of coordinating theory and evidence to justify conclusions. This practice is at the heart of scientific journal writing and communication, but little is known regarding the argument quality of college science majors, the future scientists. Studies on written arguments at the college level have focused…

  10. THE PHONOLOGICAL BASIS OF MISSPELLINGS IN THE WRITTEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Misspellings have been a common error in the written English of non-native speakers. Though even native speakers of English mis-spell words in English, this study focused only on ... has phonological segments that are influenced by the phonological structure of Kikuyu. Key words: Error Analysis, Phonology, Orthography ...

  11. Early History of Written Oromo Language up to 1900 | Tolessa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to make known historical development of written Afaan Oromo to 1900. The study draws upon primary and secondary sources. The primary data are drawn from oral and archival sources. Books and articles in Afaan Oromo and in other languages about Afaan Oromo were consulted. Many of ...

  12. Airline Transport Pilot-Airplane (Air Carrier) Written Test Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    Presented is information useful to applicants who are preparing for the Airline Transport Pilot-Airplane (Air Carrier) Written Test. The guide describes the basic aeronautical knowledge and associated requirements for certification, as well as information on source material, instructions for taking the official test, and questions that are…

  13. Commercial Pilot Airplane Written Test Guide. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    This guide is intended to help applicants prepare for the Commercial Airplane Pilot Written Test. The guide outlines the aeronautical knowledge requirements for a commercial pilot, informs the applicant of source material that can be used to acquire their knowledge, and includes test items and illustrations representative of those used in the…

  14. Integrating Technology Tools for Students Struggling with Written Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedora, Pledger

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to assess the experience of preservice teachers when integrating written language technology and their likelihood of applying that technology in their future classrooms. Results suggest that after experiencing technology integration, preservice teachers are more likely to use it in their future teaching.

  15. 19 CFR 123.72 - Written agreement requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written agreement requirement. 123.72 Section 123.72 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Land Border Carrier Initiative Program § 123.72...

  16. Processing of Written Irony: An Eye Movement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakinen, Johanna K.; Olkoniemi, Henri; Kinnari, Taina; Hyönä, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    We examined processing of written irony by recording readers' eye movements while they read target phrases embedded either in ironic or non-ironic story context. After reading each story, participants responded to a text memory question and an inference question tapping into the understanding of the meaning of the target phrase. The results of…

  17. The On-Line Processing of Written Irony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filik, Ruth; Moxey, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    We report an eye-tracking study in which we investigate the on-line processing of written irony. Specifically, participants' eye movements were recorded while they read sentences which were either intended ironically, or non-ironically, and subsequent text which contained pronominal reference to the ironic (or non-ironic) phrase. Results showed…

  18. Characterization of UV written waveguides with luminescence microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael; Harpøth, Anders; Rosbirk, Tue

    2005-01-01

    Luminescence microscopy is used to measure the refractive index profile and molecular defect distribution of UV written waveguides with a spatial resolution of ~0.4 mm and high signal-to-noise ratio. The measurements reveal comlex waveguide formation dynamics with significant topological changes...

  19. Effects of Jigsaw III Technique on Achievement in Written Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the Jigsaw III technique (of cooperative learning) with the instructional teacher-centered teaching method in six graders in terms of the effect of written expression on their academic success. The universe of the study consists of 71 sixth-grade students studying during 2009-2010 academic term in a…

  20. Learners' right to freedom of written expression | Van Vollenhoven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An important aspect of education about the rights and duties that underpin citizenship is to learn both the use of, and the appropriate limits upon, freedom of expression essential to a functioning democracy. In this article we look at problems that may arise in connection with written expression by learners in schools, ...

  1. 36 CFR 1120.24 - Misdirected written requests; oral requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Misdirected written requests; oral requests. 1120.24 Section 1120.24 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Information Available Upon Request...

  2. Written Rhetorical Syntheses: Processes and Products. Technical Report No. 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantz, Margaret J.

    When students write syntheses in response to a rhetorical task, does the rhetorical nature of the task exert some special influence on the students' composing processes? How do these processes differ? Three case studies, quantitative analyses of papers written by seventeen undergraduates, and a tentative model of a synthesizing process address…

  3. A Reflection on "The Language Learning Potential" of Written CF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John

    2012-01-01

    For more than 30 years, different opinions about whether written corrective feedback (CF) is a worthwhile pedagogical practice for L2 learning and acquisition have been voiced. Despite the arguments for and against its potential to help L2 learners acquire the target language and the inconclusive findings across studies that have sought answers to…

  4. A Comparison between Written and Spoken Narratives in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrns, Ingrid; Wengelin, Asa; Broberg, Malin; Hartelius, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore how a personal narrative told by a group of eight persons with aphasia differed between written and spoken language, and to compare this with findings from 10 participants in a reference group. The stories were analysed through holistic assessments made by 60 participants without experience of aphasia…

  5. Dynamic Written Corrective Feedback in Developmental Multilingual Writing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzer, Kendon

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the role of dynamic written corrective feedback (DWCF; Evans, Hartshorn, McCollum, & Wolfersberger, 2010; Hartshorn & Evans, 2015; Hartshorn et al., 2010), a mode of providing specific, targeted, and individualized grammar feedback in developmental English as a second language (ESL) writing classes (pre-first year…

  6. Shortcomings of the written survey questionnaire for discovering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article I describe my reflections on using a written survey questionnaire to investigate, on a large-scale, students' perceptions of studying Xhosa as a first language in high schools. I describe the aims of the project, how the questionnaire was designed, and the problems I encountered with the analysis of the data.

  7. Cracking the code: residents' interpretations of written assessment comments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginsburg, S.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Eva, K.W.; Lingard, L.

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: Interest is growing in the use of qualitative data for assessment. Written comments on residents' in-training evaluation reports (ITERs) can be reliably rank-ordered by faculty attendings, who are adept at interpreting these narratives. However, if residents do not interpret assessment

  8. Timed written picture naming in 14 European languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Mark; Nottbusch, Guido; Alves, Rui A; Arfé, Barbara; Chanquoy, Lucile; Chukharev-Hudilainen, Evgeny; Dimakos, Ioannis; Fidalgo, Raquel; Hyönä, Jukka; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Madjarov, George; Pauly, Dennis N; Uppstad, Per Henning; van Waes, Luuk; Vernon, Michael; Wengelin, Åsa

    2017-05-24

    We describe the Multilanguage Written Picture Naming Dataset. This gives trial-level data and time and agreement norms for written naming of the 260 pictures of everyday objects that compose the colorized Snodgrass and Vanderwart picture set (Rossion & Pourtois in Perception, 33, 217-236, 2004). Adult participants gave keyboarded responses in their first language under controlled experimental conditions (N = 1,274, with subsamples responding in Bulgarian, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Icelandic, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, and Swedish). We measured the time to initiate a response (RT) and interkeypress intervals, and calculated measures of name and spelling agreement. There was a tendency across all languages for quicker RTs to pictures with higher familiarity, image agreement, and name frequency, and with higher name agreement. Effects of spelling agreement and effects on output rates after writing onset were present in some, but not all, languages. Written naming therefore shows name retrieval effects that are similar to those found in speech, but our findings suggest the need for cross-language comparisons as we seek to understand the orthographic retrieval and/or assembly processes that are specific to written output.

  9. Written Formative Assessment and Silence in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Hang, Desmond Mene; Bell, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, we build on Xinying Yin and Gayle Buck's discussion by exploring the cultural practices which are integral to formative assessment, when it is viewed as a sociocultural practice. First we discuss the role of assessment and in particular oral and written formative assessments in both western and Samoan cultures, building on the…

  10. Written Language Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth J.; Larkin, Rebecca F.; Blaggan, Samarita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Young children are often required to carry out writing tasks in an educational context. However, little is known about the patterns of writing skills that children with specific language impairment (CwSLI) have relative to their typically developing peers. Aims: To assess the written language skills of CwSLI and compare these with…

  11. Connecting Oral and Written Language Through Applied Writing Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Roanne G.

    2004-01-01

    Written language requires prior knowledge of many foundation language skills. Students with language learning disabilities find it difficult to integrate language skills into academic writing assignments. Exceptional educators can teach foundation writing skills through certain underlying components of language, that is, phonology, morphology,…

  12. Written Narrative Characteristics in Adults with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suddarth, Rachael; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Adults with language-based disabilities are known to have deficits in oral language; however, less is known about their written language skills. Two studies were designed to characterize the writing of adults with language-based disabilities. Method: In Study 1, 60 adults, 30 with language impairment and 30 with typical language,…

  13. Learner Creativity and Performance in Written Narrative Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishghadam, Reza; Mehr, Fatemh Javdan

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at examining the relationship between learner creativity and performance in written narrative tasks in the context of Iranian EFL students. To this end, a sample of 222 EFL students from four universities in Mashhad (Iran) participated in this study. Our study involved measuring the participants' creativity using creativity test…

  14. Verbal irony: Differences in usage across written genres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, C.F.; van Mulken, M.J.P.; Schellens, P.J.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    According to Gibbs and Colston, one of the biggest challenges for irony research is the uncovering of the various ways in which irony is used in discourse. This article takes up a genre-based approach to deal with this research challenge. In a content analysis of ironic utterances from six written

  15. 16 CFR 701.3 - Written warranty terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumer product actually costing the consumer more than $15.00 shall clearly and conspicuously disclose in... MAGNUSON-MOSS WARRANTY ACT DISCLOSURE OF WRITTEN CONSUMER PRODUCT WARRANTY TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 701.3... identification of products, or parts, or characteristics, or components or properties covered by and where...

  16. Error treatment in students' written assignments in Discourse Analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is generally no consensus on how lecturers should treat students' errors in written assignments, observations in this study enabled the researcher to provide certain strategies that lecturers can adopt. Key words: Error treatment; error handling; corrective feedback, positive cognitive feedback; negative cognitive feedback; ...

  17. Written Language Comprehension in Younger and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Joyce L.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Qualls, Constance D.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined effects of text genre and repeated reading on written language comprehension in younger (mean age 21) and older (mean age 72) healthy adults. Although reading time was significantly faster for younger adults, there were appreciable influences of text genre and repeated reading on measures of text processing and comprehension in…

  18. Written Cohesion in Children with and without Language Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoftas, Anthony D.; Petersen, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cohesion refers to the linguistic elements of discourse that contribute to its continuity and is an important element to consider as part of written language intervention, especially in children with language learning disabilities (LLD). There is substantial evidence that children with LLD perform more poorly than typically developing…

  19. Fidelity of Implementation: Bringing Written Curriculum Materials into the Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Superfine, Alison Castro; Marshall, Anne Marie; Kelso, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Fidelity of curriculum implementation (FOI) is an important area of research because of the critical role it plays in understanding how and why curriculum materials work and how they can be improved. This analysis explores written features within the Math Trailblazers curriculum that may influence the ways teachers implement mathematics curriculum…

  20. Distribution of Articles in Written Composition among Malaysian ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Mia Emily Abdul; Rahim, Emma Marini Abdul; Ning, Chia Han

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the distribution patterns of the English grammar articles (a, an, and the) as well as the distributions of their colligation patterns in written compositions of English among Malaysian ESL learners. This paper reports the results of a corpus-based study on articles used by these learners. The method used in this…

  1. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French…

  2. Short message service (SMS) language and written language skills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SMS language is English language slang, used as a means of mobile phone text messaging. This practice may impact on the written language skills of learners at school. The main aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of Grade 8 and 9 English (as Home Language) educators in Gauteng regarding the ...

  3. 31 CFR 10.37 - Requirements for other written advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... give written advice (including electronic communications) concerning one or more Federal tax issues if... or should know, or, in evaluating a Federal tax issue, takes into account the possibility that a tax return will not be audited, that an issue will not be raised on audit, or that an issue will be resolved...

  4. 42 CFR 456.180 - Individual written plan of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual written plan of care. 456.180 Section 456.180 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals...

  5. Ross procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, H H

    2012-01-01

    In 1967 Donald Ross introduced the subcoronary Ross procedure consisting of transplantation of the autologous pulmonary valve into aortic position. We describe our 15-year experience in Ross procedures. 576 subcoronary operations have been performed (436 male and 140 female patients); the mean age was 45±11.9 years. (range, 13 to 70 years). The mean follow-up was 7±4.2 years (range, 0 to 16 years). There were 4597 patient years at follow-up with a clinical completeness of 95% and echo completeness of 91%. There were two operative deaths (0.3%) and 31 patients with reoperation. The survival is similar to that of the normal population and the freedom from allo- and autograft reoperation is 87% at 15 years. Autograft regurgitation at last examination was grade 0 in 40%, trace in 54%, grade I in 19%, grade II in 4% and grade III in 0.4%; the pressure gradient was smaller than 5 mmHg in 57% and between 5 and 10 mmHg in 24%. Only 6% had a transvalvular pressure gradient of more than 10 mmHg. After 15 years of experience it can be concluded that the subcoronary technique provides near normal survival in adult patients, with excellent hemodynamics and acceptable rate of reoperations.

  6. Procedural knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgeff, Michael P.; Lansky, Amy L.

    1986-01-01

    Much of commonsense knowledge about the real world is in the form of procedures or sequences of actions for achieving particular goals. In this paper, a formalism is presented for representing such knowledge using the notion of process. A declarative semantics for the representation is given, which allows a user to state facts about the effects of doing things in the problem domain of interest. An operational semantics is also provided, which shows how this knowledge can be used to achieve particular goals or to form intentions regarding their achievement. Given both semantics, the formalism additionally serves as an executable specification language suitable for constructing complex systems. A system based on this formalism is described, and examples involving control of an autonomous robot and fault diagnosis for NASA's Space Shuttle are provided.

  7. Procedural knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgeff, M.P.; Lansky, A.L.

    1986-10-01

    Much of commonsense knowledge about the real world is in the form of procedures or sequences of actions for achieving particular goals. In this paper, a formalism is presented for representing such knowledge using the notion of process. A declarative semantics for the representation is given, which allows a user to state facts about the effects of doing things in the problem domain of interest. An operational semantics is also provided, which shows how this knowledge can be used to achieve particular goals or to form intentions regarding their achievement. Given both semantics, our formalism additionally serves as an executable specification language suitable for constructing complex systems. A system based on this formalism is described, and examples involving control of an autonomous robot and fault diagnosis for NASA's space shuttle are provided.

  8. Using Fairy Tales, Written in Spanish, Which Are Parallels to Fairy Tales Written in English, for Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Mary D.

    The study shows that there are Spanish fairy tales which are parallels to some well-known fairy tales written in English. These fairy tales are not merely translations of the English, but have certain character and plot similarities that allow them to be compared. This study compares eight fairy tales--the English tale is discussed first, then the…

  9. Orthographic revision: a developmental study of how revisers check verbal agreements in written texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largy, Pierre; Dédéyan, Alexandra; Hupet, Michel

    2004-12-01

    Writing is a complex activity involving various cognitive processes in the planning, the transcription and the revision of written texts. The present study focused on the revision of written texts within a developmental approach. The study aimed to examine whether children and adults use different procedures to detect and revise erroneous grammatical agreements. It was predicted that children would use a slow algorithmic procedure while adults would use a fast automatized procedure. One hundred and twenty participants from 5th grade to undergraduate levels (24 per level) participated in the study. The participants were asked to decide as quickly as possible whether a visually presented sentence had any agreement error. The French experimental sentences were of the type 'The N1 of the N2 + Verb', in which N2 was either a plausible subject of the following verb (e. g., The guard of the prisoners watches) or an implausible subject (e. g., The guard of the safes watches). Correctness and latency of the responses were recorded. The main results showed that only the younger participants were affected by the subject-role plausibility of N2, and that there was no difference in response latency between their correct and incorrect responses. These observations support the hypothesis that the younger participants systematically apply a time-consuming algorithmic procedure to verify the agreement; since one step of this procedure consists in searching for the subject of the verb, these participants were frequently misled by the subject-role plausibility of N2. On the contrary, the older participants were not affected by the plausibility of N2, but were frequently misled by erroneous agreements between N2 and the verb. These observations support the view that these older participants use a fast decision strategy based on the co-occurrence of formal indices. Their correct answers, however, were slower than their incorrect ones; this suggests that they also sometimes use a time

  10. Vascular Access Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Vascular Access Procedures A vascular access procedure inserts a flexible, ... the limitations of Vascular Access Procedures? What are Vascular Access Procedures? A vascular access procedure involves the insertion ...

  11. Synergistic relationships between Analytical Chemistry and written standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcárcel, Miguel, E-mail: qa1vacam@uco.es; Lucena, Rafael

    2013-07-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analytical Chemistry is influenced by international written standards. •Different relationships can be established between them. •Synergies can be generated when these standards are conveniently managed. -- Abstract: This paper describes the mutual impact of Analytical Chemistry and several international written standards (norms and guides) related to knowledge management (CEN-CWA 14924:2004), social responsibility (ISO 26000:2010), management of occupational health and safety (OHSAS 18001/2), environmental management (ISO 14001:2004), quality management systems (ISO 9001:2008) and requirements of the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (ISO 17025:2004). The intensity of this impact, based on a two-way influence, is quite different depending on the standard considered. In any case, a new and fruitful approach to Analytical Chemistry based on these relationships can be derived.

  12. Student Views of Technology-Mediated Written Corrective Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher

    2017-01-01

    Danish schools are generally technology-rich, but one area where technology use seems to have been taken over sparingly is the area of written corrective feedback (WCF). The present article reports on one part of an intervention study investigating 1) the potential changes in teacher beliefs...... and practices concerning the specific – and time-consuming – language-teacher activity of providing WCF and 2) potential changes in student attitudes when technology is used to mediate the feedback. At the core of the study is an eight-month intervention which was carried out with three teachers of English...... as a foreign language and their lower-secondary classes, requiring the teachers to make use of a specific program supportive of effective written corrective feedback in their provision of feedback to their students. The article will report on results pertaining to student attitudes to the changes brought about...

  13. The Effect of Overt Prepositional Input on Students’ Written Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Morgan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available I believe that there should be a focus on problematic language issues such as prepositions in the language classroom in order to provide continuous exposure to such features. Consequently I provided my students with supplementary activities on prepositions, and also promoted learner autonomy by highlighting urls which deal with collocation. Analysis of the students written output shows the input to have been successful in focussing students’ attention on this problematic language aspect. While a pre-input writing task generated 83 prepositional errors, at the rate of 1 in every 48 words, longer post-input tasks only generated 76 prepositional errors at the rate of 1 in every 215 words. Consequently, I plan to continue providing students with input on this often neglected language feature, in order to increase students’ written accuracy.

  14. Oral and written instruction of oral hygiene: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnacke, Daniela; Beldoch, Magdalena; Bohn, Gertrude-Heidi; Seghaoui, Ouarda; Hegel, Nicole; Deinzer, Renate

    2012-10-01

    This randomized, evaluator-masked, controlled study evaluates the effectiveness of oral in contrast to written instruction of oral hygiene. Eighty-three students without clinical signs of periodontitis were randomly assigned to either a control group or one of three experimental conditions: 1) written instruction, 2) standardized oral instruction, or 3) individualized oral instruction. Plaque and bleeding indices were assessed to analyze intervention effects on oral health and oral hygiene skills. Measurements took place at baseline and 4 weeks after intervention. Groups differed significantly with respect to gingival bleeding and were tentatively significant with respect to oral hygiene skills. Participants who had received oral individualized instructions showed the best results. A gradient of effectiveness of the instruction methods was observed with most favorable results for the individualized instruction.

  15. Written communication and teaching of the czech language for foreigners

    OpenAIRE

    Toufarová, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    In her thesis the author looks at written communication in teaching Czech for foreigners. The theoretical part gives an account of theoretical foundations, such as synchronic and diachronic approaches to the language situation (worldwide, in Europe and especially in the Czech Republic) and language education, including introduction to communicative methods. Furthermore, the author describes individual component parts of the language education (means of expression and communication skills), wi...

  16. STRATEGIES OF EXPRESSING WRITTEN APOLOGIES IN THE ONLINE NEWSPAPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipto Wardoyo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Expressing apology is a universal activity although people have different strategies or ways to express the apology based on the culture, situation, and context. An apology has played a vital role in verbal politeness; it is certainly impolite when someone does not express an apology when he or she has commited an offence to the others. Apologies in the Pragmatic study is classified under speech act theory. An apology based on Searle (1969 is classified as expressive speech acts because it expresses speaker’s physiological attitude. An apology expresses speaker’s sorrow and regret because he/she has offended hearers or readers.  This paper tries to discuss strategies of editors in expressing written apologies in the online newspaper. The objective of this paper is to explain what the strategies of written apologies are in the online newspaper. This study uses qualitative method; the writer chooses descriptive interpretative technique for analyzing data. There are four written apologies in the online neswpapers as data sources in this paper, the data are taken from The Jakarta Post, The Daily Express, The Sun, and Brisbane Times. The writer tries to describe and analyzes utterances in the data sources based on Olshtain & Cohen theory (1986. There are five main strategies in expressing apologies according to Olshtain & Cohen (1986; they are Illocutionary Force Indicating Device (IFID, expression responsibility, explanation/justification, offer repairs, and promise forbearance. The writer found that all of the written apologies used combination strategies, they used IFID by using performative verb: apologize and be sorry then followed by expression resposbility, explanation, offer repairs, and promise forbearance. Keywords: apologies, speech acts, politeness, pragmatics

  17. The robot programming language interpreter written in the Logo language

    OpenAIRE

    K. Foit

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is to elaborate a simple system used to visualize the trajectory of the robot manipulator, using the interpreter written in the Logo programming language. The interpreter should be able to run on the older PC class hardware with limited RAM and CPU computing power.Design/methodology/approach: Compared to the other programming languages, the Logo is a convenient tool for use in the field of robotics, due to simple syntax, derived from LISP, direct support for mapping the...

  18. Polish Phoneme Statistics Obtained On Large Set Of Written Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Ziółko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The phonetical statistics were collected from several Polish corpora. The paper is a summaryof the data which are phoneme n-grams and some phenomena in the statistics. Triphonestatistics apply context-dependent speech units which have an important role in speech recognitionsystems and were never calculated for a large set of Polish written texts. The standardphonetic alphabet for Polish, SAMPA, and methods of providing phonetic transcriptions are described.

  19. Processes involved in the recognition of written words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia DEFIOR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Written word recognition is a sine qua non of reading. The acquisition and development of word recognition requires the synergistic working of multiple factors and processes. In this study, developmental and expert models of reading that explain the mechanisms underlying the acquisition and expert performance on this important skill are examined. Likewise, reading brain development and the implied cognitive processes are also addressed, as a mean for a better understanding of reading typical development as well as reading disabilities.

  20. Processes involved in the recognition of written words

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia DEFIOR

    2015-01-01

    Written word recognition is a sine qua non of reading. The acquisition and development of word recognition requires the synergistic working of multiple factors and processes. In this study, developmental and expert models of reading that explain the mechanisms underlying the acquisition and expert performance on this important skill are examined. Likewise, reading brain development and the implied cognitive processes are also addressed, as a mean for a better understanding of reading typical ...

  1. Written educational materials for families of chronically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, Ganga; Scoloveno, Mary Ann; Donnelly, Cassandra Barnette

    2007-09-01

    To provide information on evaluation of written educational materials and to illustrate the evaluation of Sickle Cell Disease: A Family Guide (SCDFG) used for children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and their families. A large Valerie Fund Children's Center developed the SCDFG in collaboration with the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, Special Child Health and Early Intervention Services. Two university faculty members and one pediatric nurse practitioner (NP) working in the clinic conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness and usefulness of the SCDFG. Forty-eight caregivers of children with SCD who were using the SCDFG were asked to complete a survey developed by the investigators. The survey was completed during a clinic visit. The SCDFG met the standards for content, organization, layout, linguistics, visuals, readability, and comprehension. Overall, the caregivers were knowledgeable about the cause, signs and symptoms, and what to do during a sickle crisis. More than half the participants reported that they felt confident in managing their child's problems related to SCD. Confidence of the caregivers was positively correlated with their perception that the information in the SCDFG was helpful and easy to understand. NPs need to evaluate written educational materials that are used as part of a multifaceted approach to the care of children with chronic illnesses. A planned systematic evaluation provides the NP with information about the efficacy and usefulness of the written educational materials. These materials may help empower children and caregivers to manage their long-term illnesses.

  2. Effects of written emotional expression: the role of positive expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langens, Thomas A; Schüler, Julia

    2007-03-01

    Writing in an emotional way about stressful or traumatic experiences has beneficial effects on emotional well-being and physical health. Yet the mechanisms that underlie these effects still need to be explored. Integrating research on the effects of positive expectancies, the authors suggest that positive effects of written emotional expression may, in part, depend on expectancies induced by writing about emotional experiences. Two studies were conducted to test this hypothesis. In both studies, participants wrote about either an upsetting event or trivial issues. After the writing period, participants rated their expectancies that the writing intervention would improve (or impair) their emotional well-being over time. Study 1 assessed the emotional impact of an upsetting event, whereas Study 2 assessed subjective reports of physical symptoms. In both studies, outcome variables were collected both before and 6 weeks after the writing intervention. The results showed that (a) writing about upsetting experiences induced higher positive expectancies than writing about trivial issues and (b) expectancies associated with written emotional expression were related to a reduction in the emotional impact of an upsetting event (Study 1) and to a reduction in physical symptoms (Study 2). There may be 2 alternative ways to render written emotional expression effective in reducing negative emotions: (a) by rendering an emotional experience more meaningful and (b) by inducing positive affect regulation expectancies. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  3. Prosodic Parallelism—Comparing Spoken and Written Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis claims adjacent prosodic categories to prefer identical branching of internal adjacent constituents. According to Wiese and Speyer (2015), this preference implies feet contained in the same phonological phrase to display either binary or unary branching, but not different types of branching. The seemingly free schwa-zero alternations at the end of some words in German make it possible to test this hypothesis. The hypothesis was successfully tested by conducting a corpus study which used large-scale bodies of written German. As some open questions remain, and as it is unclear whether Prosodic Parallelism is valid for the spoken modality as well, the present study extends this inquiry to spoken German. As in the previous study, the results of a corpus analysis recruiting a variety of linguistic constructions are presented. The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis can be demonstrated to be valid for spoken German as well as for written German. The paper thus contributes to the question whether prosodic preferences are similar between the spoken and written modes of a language. Some consequences of the results for the production of language are discussed. PMID:27807425

  4. Prosodic Parallelism-Comparing Spoken and Written Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis claims adjacent prosodic categories to prefer identical branching of internal adjacent constituents. According to Wiese and Speyer (2015), this preference implies feet contained in the same phonological phrase to display either binary or unary branching, but not different types of branching. The seemingly free schwa-zero alternations at the end of some words in German make it possible to test this hypothesis. The hypothesis was successfully tested by conducting a corpus study which used large-scale bodies of written German. As some open questions remain, and as it is unclear whether Prosodic Parallelism is valid for the spoken modality as well, the present study extends this inquiry to spoken German. As in the previous study, the results of a corpus analysis recruiting a variety of linguistic constructions are presented. The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis can be demonstrated to be valid for spoken German as well as for written German. The paper thus contributes to the question whether prosodic preferences are similar between the spoken and written modes of a language. Some consequences of the results for the production of language are discussed.

  5. Prosodic Parallelism – comparing spoken and written language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Wiese

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis claims adjacent prosodic categories to prefer identical branching of internal adjacent constituents. According to Wiese and Speyer (2015, this preference implies feet contained in the same phonological phrase to display either binary or unary branching, but not different types of branching. The seemingly free schwa-zero alternations at the end of some words in German make it possible to test this hypothesis. The hypothesis was successfully tested by conducting a corpus study which used large-scale bodies of written German. As some open questions remain, and as it is unclear whether Prosodic Parallelism is valid for the spoken modality as well, the present study extends this inquiry to spoken German. As in the previous study, the results of a corpus analysis recruiting a variety of linguistic constructions are presented. The Prosodic Parallelism hypothesis can be demonstrated to be valid for spoken German as well as for written German. The paper thus contributes to the question whether prosodic preferences are similar between the spoken and written modes of a language. Some consequences of the results for the production of language are discussed.

  6. Enhancing the Benefits of Written Emotional Disclosure through Response Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konig, Andrea; Eonta, Alison; Dyal, Stephanie R.; Vrana, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Writing about a personal stressful event has been found to have psychological and physical health benefits, especially when physiological response increases during writing. Response training was developed to amplify appropriate physiological reactivity in imagery exposure. The present study examined whether response training enhances the benefits of written emotional disclosure. Participants were assigned to either a written emotional disclosure condition (n = 113) or a neutral writing condition (n = 133). Participants in each condition wrote for 20 minutes on three occasions and received response training (n = 79), stimulus training (n = 84) or no training (n = 83). Heart rate and skin conductance were recorded throughout a 10-minute baseline, 20-minute writing, and a 10-minute recovery period. Self-reported emotion was assessed in each session. One month after completing the sessions, participants completed follow-up assessments of psychological and physical health outcomes. Emotional disclosure elicited greater physiological reactivity and self-reported emotion than neutral writing. Response training amplified physiological reactivity to emotional disclosure. Greater heart rate during emotional disclosure was associated with the greatest reductions in event-related distress, depression, and physical illness symptoms at follow-up, especially among response trained participants. Results support an exposure explanation of emotional disclosure effects and are the first to demonstrate that response training facilitates emotional processing and may be a beneficial adjunct to written emotional disclosure. PMID:24680230

  7. Enhancing the benefits of written emotional disclosure through response training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konig, Andrea; Eonta, Alison; Dyal, Stephanie R; Vrana, Scott R

    2014-05-01

    Writing about a personal stressful event has been found to have psychological and physical health benefits, especially when physiological response increases during writing. Response training was developed to amplify appropriate physiological reactivity in imagery exposure. The present study examined whether response training enhances the benefits of written emotional disclosure. Participants were assigned to either a written emotional disclosure condition (n=113) or a neutral writing condition (n=133). Participants in each condition wrote for 20 minutes on 3 occasions and received response training (n=79), stimulus training (n=84) or no training (n=83). Heart rate and skin conductance were recorded throughout a 10-minute baseline, 20-minute writing, and a 10-minute recovery period. Self-reported emotion was assessed in each session. One month after completing the sessions, participants completed follow-up assessments of psychological and physical health outcomes. Emotional disclosure elicited greater physiological reactivity and self-reported emotion than neutral writing. Response training amplified physiological reactivity to emotional disclosure. Greater heart rate during emotional disclosure was associated with the greatest reductions in event-related distress, depression, and physical illness symptoms at follow-up, especially among response trained participants. Results support an exposure explanation of emotional disclosure effects and are the first to demonstrate that response training facilitates emotional processing and may be a beneficial adjunct to written emotional disclosure. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Comparison of Written and Oral Examinations in a Baccalaureate Medical-Surgical Nursing Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Patricia; Eggett, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    Of four groups of medical-surgical nurses, 55 took one final and three midterm written exams, 150 took one each (written), 45 took an oral final, 92 took both written and oral, and 47 took a written test with licensure questions and an oral final. Oral exams resulted in higher scores, more effective study habits, and increased application. (SK)

  9. Providing written information increases patient satisfaction: a web-based questionnaire survey of Japanese cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hitomi; Katsumata, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Miyako

    2017-07-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the United States recommends that all cancer survivors be provided with a survivorship care plan (SCP), which includes a patient treatment summary and a follow-up care plan. However, SCPs have not been widely adopted in Japan. To provide basic data necessary for implementing SCPs in Japan, we aimed to investigate the forms of clinical and survivorship-related information that Japanese cancer survivors receive from their healthcare providers, and to examine whether written information increases their satisfaction. We performed a cross-sectional online survey of cancer survivors who underwent acute cancer treatment and had at least one follow-up with a physician in the past year. Cancer survivors provided the elements and forms (verbally and/or written) of information they received, as well as the degree of satisfaction with the information provided. Responses were obtained from 545 cancer survivors. Information elements such as surgical procedure (98.3%), surgical outcome (98.1%), and names of administered chemotherapy agents (97.8%) were commonly provided, whereas mental care resources and providers (29.7%), effects on marital relationship and sexual health (35.7%), and effects on fertility (43.4%) were less common. A large proportion of cancer survivors received verbal information only. For 18 of 20 elements, except for effects on fertility and duration of hormonal therapy, satisfaction was significantly higher when both forms of information were provided (P information can better meet the needs of Japanese cancer survivors.

  10. THE EFFECT OF INDIRECT WRITTEN CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK ON STUDENTS’ WRITING ACCURACY

    OpenAIRE

    Fastha Bagus Shirotha

    2016-01-01

    Written corrective feedback has proven to be a key tool to improve students writing. Many previous researchers have proven so. Teacher gets to decide their very own written corrective feedback. There are many types of written corrective feedback that can be used in the classroom. They are direct written corrective feedback, indirect, and metalinguistic. The paper presents the effect of using indirect written corrective feedback to improve students’ writing accuracy. The paper is intended to f...

  11. Pracital examination in biochemistry: topics and procedures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vocke, Nils-Daniel

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Under the new revision of the German licensing regulations for physicians ("Approbationsordnung" the rules for the first national examinations (i.e. "Physikum", equivalent to medical school entrance exams have been changed. In addition to the written exam a novel "oral-practical" part is required. Here we describe the implications of this oral-practical exam on the examination procedures in the field of biochemistry/molecular biology. A strategy for its realization is proposed.

  12. Marginalia as the beginning of written culture: The Glosas Emilianensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Šabec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Glosas emilianenses are notes in Latin and in a Romance language dating from the eleventh century, written by an anonymous monk between the lines and in the margins of a Latin manuscript known as Codex Aemilianensis 60 to explicate syntactic, morphological, and semantic difficulties in understanding the original. The document was named after its place of origin, a monastery in the village of San Millán de la Cogolla, known as “the cradle of Castilian.” The non-Latin Romance glosses are believed to be the first written accounts of the language that later evolved into present-day Castilian or Spanish; they are therefore invaluable historical, linguistic, literary, and cultural material. The place and time of the origin of the glosses are not a coincidence, but a consequence of particular historical circumstances in the Iberian Peninsula. The Moorish invasion in 711 AD destroyed the Visigothic Kingdom and constrained the development of Christian culture, confining it to two independent cores in the north. The ninth century therefore saw the establishment of the County of Castile emerging from the two cores as the predecessor of the Kingdom of Castile (1065. Due to turbulent historical events, the place was populated by people from various adjacent and rather distant countries, thus making the spoken language a mixture of several varieties of Vulgar Latin, Mozarabic, and Navarrian (Basque elements. All of these features are reflected in the glosses in the San Millán manuscript. Therefore, it is difficult for linguists to name the variant of the Romance language the glosses were written in: “the Riojan dialect,” “a vernacular Castilian-Riojan dialect of the second half of the eleventh century displaying tendencies towards learned Latin,” or “a Riojan dialect with elements more common to neighboring dialects (Aragon, Navarrian, Léon, and Mozarabic than to Castilian.” However, because the San Millán glosses also include elements

  13. Glimpses into the transition world: New graduate nurses' written reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Jo Ann; Lindsay, Natalie; Hales, Caz; Rook, Helen

    2017-10-06

    This study was born out of our reflections as educators responsible for helping new graduate nurses transition into their first year of professional practice through a formal education programme. Finding ourselves wondering about many of the questions the students raised with us, we set about looking more closely at what could be gleaned from the students' experience, captured in their written work over the course of a year. To identify the challenges and learning experiences revealed in reflective assignments written by new graduate nurses undertaking a postgraduate course as part of their transition to registered nurse practice. Data consisted of the written work of two cohorts of students who had completed a postgraduate university course as part of their transition to new graduate practice in New Zealand. Fifty four reflective essays completed by twenty seven participating students were collected and their contents analysed thematically. Five key themes were identified. The students' reflections noted individual attributes - personal and professional strengths and weaknesses; professional behaviour - actions such as engaging help and support, advocating for patients' needs and safety and putting their own feelings aside; situational challenges such as communication difficulties, both systemic and interpersonal, and the pressure of competing demands. Students also identified rewards - results they experienced such as achieving the nursing outcomes they desired, and commented on reflection as a useful tool. The findings shed light on the experiences of new graduates, and how they fare through this critical phase of career development. Challenges relating to the emotional labour of nursing work are particularly evident. In addition the reflective essay is shown to be a powerful tool for assisting both new graduate nurses and their lecturers to reflect on the learning opportunities inherent in current clinical practice environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  14. Responding to Student Threats: Legal and Procedural Guidelines for High School Principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stader, David L.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews some legal and procedural guidelines pertaining to freedom of expression and due process in how teachers and administrators handle student verbal or symbolic threats. Reviews school cases related to freedom of expression, written expression, verbal or written expression off school property, and Internet expression. Offers recommendations…

  15. 78 FR 78963 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... subcommittee: Time and Date: 11:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m. Eastern Time, February 13, 2014. Place: Audio Conference Call... submit written comments in advance of the meeting, to the contact person below. Written comments received... Review is responsible for overseeing, tracking, and participating in the reviews of all procedures used...

  16. 78 FR 78965 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... subcommittee: Time and Date: 11:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m. Eastern Time, February 13, 2014. Place: Audio Conference Call... submit written comments in advance of the meeting, to the contact person below. Written comments received... Review is responsible for overseeing, tracking, and participating in the reviews of all procedures used...

  17. Problems of culture of written expression in primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatić Marina V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the issue of the culture of written expression in primary school students. Starting from the fact that teaching practices increasingly points to the fact that knowledge of rules of writing in primary school students presents the weakest link in teaching Serbian language, we sought to describe the problem, point to the possible causes, propose measures and illustrate all this on concrete examples of students' essays. Our microinvestigation showed that primary school students display considerably poorer mastery of rules of writing than previously thought, to the extent that it presents a serious obstacle in language teaching as well as in other areas of educational process.

  18. THE ORTHOGRAPHIC NORM IN SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ WRITTEN ASSIGNMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Đorđev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research conducted with the primary objective to determine in which areas secondary school students usually make orthographic mistakes when writing (official written assignments. Starting from the hypothesis that the punctuation writing of whole and split words are areas in which secondary school students (regardless of age and school orientation achieved the weakest achievements an (exploratory research was conducted on a corpus of 3,135 written assignments written in the school year of 2010/11. The research sample was intentional, descriptive and analytical methods were used for the description and the analysis of the results. The results showed the following (1 secondary school students usually make mistakes in punctuation of written assignments - we recorded 4,487 errors in the use of signs to denote intonation and meaning of a text (errors of this type make 53.93% of the total number of spelling errors reported in the corpus of research; by frequency of errors the second are errors related to writing whole and split words (11.02%, the third error is in the use of the capital letter (9.34%; (2 most problems in orthography have second grade students, quantum of mistakes is almost the same with first graders and seniors, but in all grades the most frequent errors are in punctuation, writing of whole and split words and the use of capital letters; (3 Although school orientation affects the spelling skills of pupils, the weakest orthographic achievements are also recorded in punctuation, writing of whole and split words and capitalization, so those are areas that need to be thoroughly addressed in teaching and methodology literature. The results are, on the one hand, a picture of the current status of teaching orthography and grammar knowledge of secondary school students. On the other hand, the research results can be applied in all phases of methodical practical work in teaching orthography, the upgrading the

  19. The written summary as a group psychotherapy technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalom, I; Brown, S; Bloch, S

    1975-05-01

    During the past 18 months, we have been preparing detailed written summaries of the events of group therapy meetings, which have then been mailed to the group members. This technique was introduced initially as a device to provide structure in a very anxious group. We soon realized that the summary had a great potential for enhancing therapist effectiveness and it came to assume a number of other functions. In this report, we describe our experience with this technique, emphasizing its importance as a tool to improve the cognitive integration of the group therapy experience for both patient and therapist.

  20. The beginnings of the written culture in Antiquity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Isabel Panosa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of writing as a system for communication, since its origins, in terms of its uses and socio-cultural context. We shall also look to review and comment on the way in which it has evolved in time and space and its primordial domains for expression. Likewise, we shall look at the current state of affairs with respect to graphic communication, which includes the alphabet, logographic systems and symbols. From a more global point of view, the relationship between the concept of writing and the concept of civilisation is studied and two dimensions are set out: the oral culture and the written culture.

  1. American Board of Radiology diagnostic radiology initial qualifying (written) examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, June C; Gerdeman, Anthony M; Becker, Gary J; Bosma, Jennifer L

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to inform radiology residents, program directors, and other interested parties of the processes involved in developing, administering, and scoring the American Board of Radiology (ABR) diagnostic radiology qualifying (written) examinations. The residents, once certified, will have a lifelong professional relationship with the ABR. It is important for the ABR to be transparent about the processes it uses to ensure that its examinations are fair, valid, and reliable so that residents and their program directors have accurate information about these high-stakes examinations.

  2. Three-dimensional imaging of direct-written photonic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Graham D; Thayil, Anisha; Withford, Michael J; Booth, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Third harmonic generation microscopy has been used to analyze the morphology of photonic structures created using the femtosecond laser direct-write technique. Three dimensional waveguide arrays and waveguide-Bragg gratings written in fused-silica and doped phosphate glass were investigated. A sensorless adaptive optical system was used to correct the optical aberrations occurring in the sample and microscope system, which had a lateral resolution of less than 500 nm. This non-destructive testing method creates volume reconstructions of photonic devices and reveals details invisible to other linear microscopy and index profilometry techniques.

  3. Does recognizing orally spelled words depend on reading? An investigation into a case of better written than oral spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolotti, L; Warrington, E K

    1996-05-01

    In this study we describe an investigation into the residual spelling skills of a patient (BRK) with a deep dysgraphia. His written spelling was significantly superior to his oral spelling and he had grave difficulties in recognizing orally spelled words. In addition, his impairment in recognizing orally spelled words was qualitatively very similar to his difficulties in oral spelling. In contrast, he could read and repeat the stimuli he could no longer spell. It seems therefore that, recognizing orally spelled words is dependent on the same procedures used in spelling rather than in reading. It is argued that BRK's discrepancy between oral and written spelling reflects a deficit in accessing a letter name code which translates abstract graphemic representations into letter names. In addition, it is suggested that the letter name code has an additional synthesizing function that is involved both in checking self-generated oral spellings and in recognizing orally spelled words.

  4. 75 FR 21149 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure 2006-54

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure 2006- 54 AGENCY...-54, Procedures for Requesting Competent Authority Assistance Under Tax Treaties. DATES: Written... Authority Assistance Under Tax Treaties. OMB Number: 1545-2044. Revenue Procedure Number: Rev. Proc. 2006-54...

  5. 78 FR 40826 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure 2006-54

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure 2006- 54 AGENCY...-54, Procedures for Requesting Competent Authority Assistance Under Tax Treaties. DATES: Written... Authority Assistance Under Tax Treaties. OMB Number: 1545-2044. Revenue Procedure Number: Rev. Proc. 2006-54...

  6. [A workshop to improve written communication skills of medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitran, Marcela; Zúñiga, Denisse; Flotts, Paulina; Padilla, Oslando; Moreno, Rodrigo

    2009-05-01

    Despite being among the best academically prepared of the country, many medical students have difficulties to communicate in writing. In 2005, the School of Medicine at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile introduced a writing workshop in the undergraduate curriculum, to enhance the students' writing skills. To describe the workshop and its impact on the writing skills of 3 cohorts of students. This 30-h workshop used a participative methodology with emphasis on deliberate practice and feedback. Students worked in small groups with a faculty member specially trained in writing. The qualities of the essays written before and after the workshop were compared. Essays were rated by a professional team that used an analytic rubric to measure formal aspects of text writing as well as more complex thinking processes. There was a significant improvement in the quality of the texts written after the workshop; the main changes occurred in argumentation, and in paragraph and text structure. This improvement was inversely proportional to the initial level of performance, and independent of gender. A writing workshop based on deliberate practice and personalized feedback is effective to enhance the writing proficiency of medical students. Due to its design, this workshop could be useful for students of other careers and universities.

  7. Uses of the word "macula" in written English, 1400-present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Leffler, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    We compiled uses of the word "macula" in written English by searching multiple databases, including the Early English Books Online Text Creation Partnership, America's Historical Newspapers, the Gale Cengage Collections, and others. "Macula" has been used: as a non-medical "spot" or "stain", literal or figurative, including in astronomy and in Shakespeare; as a medical skin lesion, occasionally with a following descriptive adjective, such as a color (macula alba); as a corneal lesion, including the earliest identified use in English, circa 1400; and to describe the center of the retina. Francesco Buzzi described a yellow color in the posterior pole ("retina tinta di un color giallo") in 1782, but did not use the word "macula". "Macula lutea" was published by Samuel Thomas von Sömmering by 1799, and subsequently used in 1818 by James Wardrop, which appears to be the first known use in English. The Google n-gram database shows a marked increase in the frequencies of both "macula" and "macula lutea" following the introduction of the ophthalmoscope in 1850. "Macula" has been used in multiple contexts in written English. Modern databases provide powerful tools to explore historical uses of this word, which may be underappreciated by contemporary ophthalmologists. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Research on cognitive, social and cultural processes of written communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo González, Rosario; Salvador Mata, Francisco

    2009-08-01

    This article compiles the investigations carried out by a Research Group of the University of Granada, Spain. Its different projects on writing's cognitive social and cultural processes have been supported by the Spanish Government. This line of research joined together linguistic, psychological, social and cultural contributions to the development of writing from the 1970s. Currently, this line of research develops in collaboration with other European Universities: (a) Interuniversity Centre for Research On Cognitive Processing in Natural and Artificial Systems (ECONA), "La Sapienza" University of Rome (Italy); (b) Anadolu University, (Eskisehir, Turkey); (c) Coimbra University (Portugal); (d) University of Zaragoza (Spain); (e) the Institute of Education of the University of London (United Kingdom). The aforementioned collaboration is materializing into projects like the International Master on Multilingual Writing: Cognitive, Intercultural and Technological Processes of Written Communication ( http://www.multilingualwriting.com ) and the International Congress: Writing in the twenty-first Century: Cognition, Multilinguisim and Technologies, held in Granada ( http://www.asprogrades.org ). This research line is focussed on the development of strategies in writing development, basic to train twenty-first century societies' citizens. In these societies, participation in production media, social exchange and the development of multilingual written communication skills through new computer technologies spread multicultural values. In order to fulfil the social exigencies, it is needed to have the collaboration of research groups for designing and applying international research projects.

  9. A Large-Scale Analysis of Variance in Written Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Brendan T; Jamieson, Randall K

    2018-01-22

    The collection of very large text sources has revolutionized the study of natural language, leading to the development of several models of language learning and distributional semantics that extract sophisticated semantic representations of words based on the statistical redundancies contained within natural language (e.g., Griffiths, Steyvers, & Tenenbaum, ; Jones & Mewhort, ; Landauer & Dumais, ; Mikolov, Sutskever, Chen, Corrado, & Dean, ). The models treat knowledge as an interaction of processing mechanisms and the structure of language experience. But language experience is often treated agnostically. We report a distributional semantic analysis that shows written language in fiction books varies appreciably between books from the different genres, books from the same genre, and even books written by the same author. Given that current theories assume that word knowledge reflects an interaction between processing mechanisms and the language environment, the analysis shows the need for the field to engage in a more deliberate consideration and curation of the corpora used in computational studies of natural language processing. Copyright © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Sports metaphors in Polish written commentaries on politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Wiliński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate what sports metaphors are used in Polish written commentaries on politics and what special purpose they serve. In particular, the paper examines structural metaphors that come from the lexicon of popular sports, such as boxing, racing, track and field athletics, sailing, etc. The language data, derived from English Internet websites, has been grouped and discussed according to source domains. Applying George Lakoff and Mark Johnson’s approach to metaphor, the paper attempts to determine both the kind of source domains from which common metaphors are drawn and to what degree structural metaphors are used. The data suggests that many structural metaphors can be found in the language of politics. They are drawn from a wide variety of sports source domains, although the domains of boxing, racing, sailing, and soccer are of particular prominence. It seems that the primary function of structural metaphors in written commentaries is to facilitate the interpretation of facts in a way that is enormously appealing to the reader.

  11. Optimizing the efficiency of femtosecond-laser-written holograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wædegaard, Kristian Juncher; Hansen, Henrik Dueholm; Balling, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Computer-generated binary holograms are written on a polished copper surface using single 800-nm, 120-fs pulses from a 1-kHz-repetition-rate laser system. The hologram efficiency (i.e. the power in the holographic reconstructed image relative to the incoming laser power) is investigated for diffe......Computer-generated binary holograms are written on a polished copper surface using single 800-nm, 120-fs pulses from a 1-kHz-repetition-rate laser system. The hologram efficiency (i.e. the power in the holographic reconstructed image relative to the incoming laser power) is investigated...... for different laser-structuring parameters. Theoretical diffraction grating efficiencies for a binary amplitude grating show good agreement with the experimental measurements for diameters of the laser-formed holes below the pitch. Modelling based on straightforward geometrical arguments is used to find...... the optimal hole size. For a coverage (i.e. relative laser-structured area) of ∼43 %, the efficiency reaches ∼10 %, which corresponds to a relative power transferred to one reconstructed image of ∼20 %. The efficiency as a function of pitch (for fixed coverage) is fairly constant from 2 to 6 μm....

  12. Clarity Versus Accuracy and Objectivity in Written Legal English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Janulevičienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to analyse the most important grammatical and, specifically, syntactic features and to point out some prominent lexical ones, which aim at accuracy and objectivity of a written legal document, and to discuss how these features influence clarity and transparency of the legal documents. The study covers the analysis of some EU, UK, US legislative acts alongside with some extracts from contract samples. The analysis reveals that written legal English is distinguished by long compound sentences, often with inverted word order and numerous embeddings, passive constructions and nominalisations, specific use of personal pronouns and collocations of synonyms (doublets and triplets, etc. These means allow to achieve the most possible accuracy and objectivity in legal texts but make them complicated and difficult to comprehend at once. Formality, achieved by the mentioned means, makes legal English distant from everyday language and often becomes a reason for criticism. Plain English supporters encourage simplifying legal language; however, long traditions of legal English make changes slow and difficult. Therefore, comprehension and usage of legal English still requires special knowledge of its lexical and grammatical features.

  13. ["I dreamed that I dreamed": some notes on the clinical evaluation of therapist interventions, exemplified by Deserno's case study (session 290)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, U; Hemprich, L

    2001-01-01

    In No. 8, 48th year, August 1998, of the journal "Psychotherapie--Psychosomatik--Medizinische Psychologie" the tape recorder transcription of the 290th session of a long-term analysis was studied by three methods (BIP, Frames, ZBKT). The paper presented here was stimulated by this publication. From the author's viewpoint substantial clinical aspects of evaluation could be added by applying a clinical evaluation method developed by R. Langs and his corresponding concept of interpretation. Clinical vignettes exemplify the possibility to resolve pathological countertransference by using this evaluation method. With the help of this method the presented transcription of the 290th session is evaluated partially.

  14. Uncovering students' misconceptions by assessment of their written questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olde Bekkink, Marleen; Donders, A R T Rogier; Kooloos, Jan G; de Waal, Rob M W; Ruiter, Dirk J

    2016-08-24

    Misconceptions are ideas that are inconsistent with current scientific views. They are difficult to detect and refractory to change. Misconceptions can negatively influence how new concepts in science are learned, but are rarely measured in biomedical courses. Early identification of misconceptions is of critical relevance for effective teaching, but presents a difficult task for teachers as they tend to either over- or underestimate students' prior knowledge. A systematic appreciation of the existing misconceptions is desirable. This explorative study was performed to determine whether written questions generated by students can be used to uncover their misconceptions. During a small-group work (SGW) session on Tumour Pathology in a (bio)medical bachelor course on General Pathology, students were asked to write down a question about the topic. This concerned a deepening question on disease mechanisms and not mere factual knowledge. Three independent expert pathologists determined whether the content of the questions was compatible with a misconception. Consensus was reached in all cases. Study outcomes were to determine whether misconceptions can be identified in students' written questions, and if so, to measure the frequency of misconceptions that can be encountered, and finally, to determine if the presence of such misconceptions is negatively associated with the students' course formal examination score. A subgroup analysis was performed according to gender and discipline. A total of 242 students participated in the SGW sessions, of whom 221 (91 %) formulated a question. Thirty-six questions did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the 185 questions rated, 11 % (n = 20) was compatible with a misconception. Misconceptions were only found in medical students' questions, not in biomedical science students' questions. Formal examination score on Tumour Pathology was 5.0 (SD 2.0) in the group with misconceptions and 6.7 (SD 2.4) in the group without

  15. Developmental perspectives in written language and literacy: In honor of Ludo Verhoeven

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, P.C.J.; Broek, P.W. van den

    2017-01-01

    Research on the development on written language and literacy is inherently multidisciplinary. In this book, leading researchers studying brain, cognition and behavior, come together in revealing how children develop written language and literacy, why they may experience difficulties, and which

  16. Preposition use in oral and written learner language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Nacey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns preposition use in oral language produced by advanced Norwegian learners of English, using primary data from an oral learner corpus (LINDSEI-NO. We investigate the frequency of inappropriate preposition use in approximately 13 hours of transcribed informal interviews, as well as the possible extent to which L1 transfer may play a role in production. The contextually inappropriate prepositions were categorized in terms of factors that may influence preposition use, with particular focus on the congruence between L1 and L2 with respect to syntactic structure and basic meaning. These results about spoken preposition use are then contrasted with results from a corresponding investigation into preposition use in a written learner corpus (NICLE, allowing for comparison of preposition usage across modes.

  17. How Primary Education students organize the planning of the written

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Gallego Ortega

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with a study aimed at providing an insight into how students with Primary Education plan their written expression. The exploratory and qualitative investigation resorts to the “collective case study” and it is used the “cognitive interview” to obtain the items, applying the “content analysis” in the interpretation of them. This research has allowed us to identify the process in content organization, how students make these operations and the main difficulties founded in it. The results of the research show that, although these students normally make the operations of this textual organization process, they have important difficulties regarding the general planning of the ideas in a text. Finally, this article gives some guidelines for the teaching of writing structure in Primary Education students.

  18. Synergistic relationships between Analytical Chemistry and written standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel; Lucena, Rafael

    2013-07-25

    This paper describes the mutual impact of Analytical Chemistry and several international written standards (norms and guides) related to knowledge management (CEN-CWA 14924:2004), social responsibility (ISO 26000:2010), management of occupational health and safety (OHSAS 18001/2), environmental management (ISO 14001:2004), quality management systems (ISO 9001:2008) and requirements of the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (ISO 17025:2004). The intensity of this impact, based on a two-way influence, is quite different depending on the standard considered. In any case, a new and fruitful approach to Analytical Chemistry based on these relationships can be derived. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Equitable Written Assessments for English Language Learners: How Scaffolding Helps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Marcelle A.; Menon, Deepika; Sinha, Somnath; Promyod, Nattida; Wissehr, Cathy; Halverson, Kristy L.

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of the use of scaffolds in written classroom assessments through the voices of both native English speakers and English language learners from two middle schools. Students responded to assessment tasks in writing, by speaking aloud using think aloud protocols, and by reflecting in a post-assessment interview. The classroom assessment tasks were designed to engage students in scientific sense making and multifaceted language use, as recommended by the Next Generation Science Standards. Data analyses showed that both groups benefitted from the use of scaffolds. The findings revealed specific ways that modifications were supportive in helping students to comprehend, visualize and organize thinking, and elicit responses. This study offers a model for both sensitizing teachers and strengthening their strategies for scaffolding assessments equitably.

  20. Written culture: learning how to read and write in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Pires Vargas Bolzan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the formal aspects of writing and reading within the classroom context, emphasizing the importance of the students’ role, favoring their authorship as writers and readers from written culture. We understand that it is indispensable that the school beholds a prospective view in relation to the students’ learning, taking their ideas and constructions into consideration; that is, bearing in mind the culture of which they are carriers. We highlight the literacy teacher’s role in the process of organizing the pedagogical work that is aimed at teaching and learning reading and writing for the students that are in the early years of elementary school. In this way, we point out that the organization of the teaching requires teaching investment towards the improvement of activities and knowledge that focus on the organization of the pedagogical work, marking a long path to go to allow the assumption of pedagogical protagonism.

  1. Effect of written presentation on performance in introductory physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Ballard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the written work of students in the introductory calculus-based electricity and magnetism course at the University of Arkansas. The students’ solutions to hourly exams were divided into a small set of countable features organized into three major categories, mathematics, language, and graphics. Each category was further divided into subfeatures. The total number of features alone explained more than 30% of the variance in exam scores and from 9% to 15% of the variance in conceptual posttest scores. If all features and subfeatures are used, between 44% and 49% of the variance in exam scores is explained and between 22% and 28% of the variance in conceptual posttest scores. The use of language is consistently positively correlated with both exam performance and conceptual understanding.

  2. Visual stimuli and written production of deaf signers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacinto, Laís Alves; Ribeiro, Karen Barros; Soares, Aparecido José Couto; Cárnio, Maria Silvia

    2012-01-01

    To verify the interference of visual stimuli in written production of deaf signers with no complaints regarding reading and writing. The research group consisted of 12 students with education between the 4th and 5th grade of elementary school, with severe or profound sensorineural hearing loss, users of LIBRAS and with alphabetical writing level. The evaluation was performed with pictures in a logical sequence and an action picture. The analysis used the communicative competence criteria. There were no differences in the writing production of the subjects for both stimuli. In all texts there was no title and punctuation, verbs were in the infinitive mode, there was lack of cohesive links and inclusion of created words. The different visual stimuli did not affect the production of texts.

  3. Optical Music Recognition for Scores Written in White Mensural Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An Optical Music Recognition (OMR system especially adapted for handwritten musical scores of the XVII-th and the early XVIII-th centuries written in white mensural notation is presented. The system performs a complete sequence of analysis stages: the input is the RGB image of the score to be analyzed and, after a preprocessing that returns a black and white image with corrected rotation, the staves are processed to return a score without staff lines; then, a music symbol processing stage isolates the music symbols contained in the score and, finally, the classification process starts to obtain the transcription in a suitable electronic format so that it can be stored or played. This work will help to preserve our cultural heritage keeping the musical information of the scores in a digital format that also gives the possibility to perform and distribute the original music contained in those scores.

  4. Managing Written Directives: A Software Solution to Streamline Workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert H; Savir-Baruch, Bital; Gabriel, Medhat S; Halama, James R; Bova, Davide

    2017-06-01

    A written directive is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for any use of 131 I above 1.11 MBq (30 μCi) and for patients receiving radiopharmaceutical therapy. This requirement has also been adopted and must be enforced by the agreement states. As the introduction of new radiopharmaceuticals increases therapeutic options in nuclear medicine, time spent on regulatory paperwork also increases. The pressure of managing these time-consuming regulatory requirements may heighten the potential for inaccurate or incomplete directive data and subsequent regulatory violations. To improve on the paper-trail method of directive management, we created a software tool using a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant database. This software allows for secure data-sharing among physicians, technologists, and managers while saving time, reducing errors, and eliminating the possibility of loss and duplication. Methods: The software tool was developed using Visual Basic, which is part of the Visual Studio development environment for the Windows platform. Patient data are deposited in an Access database on a local HIPAA-compliant secure server or hard disk. Once a working version had been developed, it was installed at our institution and used to manage directives. Updates and modifications of the software were released regularly until no more significant problems were found with its operation. Results: The software has been used at our institution for over 2 y and has reliably kept track of all directives. All physicians and technologists use the software daily and find it superior to paper directives. They can retrieve active directives at any stage of completion, as well as completed directives. Conclusion: We have developed a software solution for the management of written directives that streamlines and structures the departmental workflow. This solution saves time, centralizes the information for all staff to share, and decreases

  5. PRAGMATIC AND RHETORICAL STRATEGIES IN THE ENGLISH-WRITTEN JOKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Rochmawati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding verbal jokes in English is problematic for English as Foreign Language (EFL readers since understanding the jokes requires understanding their linguistic, cultural and social elements. Since a joke constitutes a complex and paradoxical phenomenon, it needs multiple approaches of analyses—such as pragmatic and rhetorical analyses—in order to investigate the multiple layers of meanings it carries. Recently there has been a shift in humor studies, emphasizing linguistic humors and involving the field of rhetoric. These studies, however, have mostly addressed the connection between rhetoric and spoken jokes in persuasion. The present study therefore applied Austin’s Speech Act Theory (1975 and Grice’s Cooperative Principles (1957, and Berger’s rhetorical techniques (1993 to crack the funniness of the written jokes. Specifically, the study aims at describing: how the (1 rhetorical and (2 pragmatic strategies are used in the jokes, and (3 how the pragmatic and rhetorical strategies complement to create humor. The study employed a qualitative research method. Some jokes were purposively selected from the Reader’s Digest and two online sources: http://jokes.cc.com/, and http://www.ajokeaday.com/. Document studies were the means of data collection. The collected data were then analyzed using a qualitative content analysis. The results showed that that there was a relationship between the two pragmatic theories, i.e., Speech Act Theory and Cooperative Principles, and Berger’s rhetorical techniques. The results offered an alternative reading and richer understanding of how written jokes employed pragmatic and rhetorical strategies to advance their rhetorical objectives and humor functions.

  6. Written Expression Performance in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBono, Tony; Hosseini, Armita; Cairo, Cassandra; Ghelani, Karen; Tannock, Rosemary; Toplak, Maggie E.

    2012-01-01

    We examined written expression performance in a sample of adolescents with ADHD and subthreshold ADHD using two different strategies: examining performance on standardized measures of written expression and using other indicators of written expression developed in this study. We examined associations between standardized measures of written…

  7. The Reliability of the OWLS Written Expression Scale with ESL Kindergarten Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gina L.; Ogle, Keira C.; Keilty, Megan

    2011-01-01

    A reliability analysis was conducted on the Written Expression Scale from the Oral and Written Language Scales, (OWLS, Carrow-Woolfolk, 1996), with 68 ESL and 56 non-ESL kindergarten students. Interrater and internal consistency estimates for the Written Expression Scale were examined separately for each language group. Despite lower oral English…

  8. Mapping out the Details: Supporting Struggling Writers' Written Expression with Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sara M.; Bouck, Emily C.

    2015-01-01

    Written expression is a key component of the secondary curriculum, but many students struggle to produce effective written expression passages. However, written expression can be supported through prewriting strategies such as concept mapping. Using a counterbalanced group design, 19 secondary students alternated between using paper- or…

  9. 47 CFR 73.1015 - Truthful written statements and responses to Commission inquiries and correspondence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Allotments, require from any person filing an expression of interest, written statements of fact relevant to... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truthful written statements and responses to... Stations § 73.1015 Truthful written statements and responses to Commission inquiries and correspondence...

  10. Correcting Students' Written Grammatical Errors: The Effects of Negotiated versus Nonnegotiated Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassaji, Hossein

    2011-01-01

    A substantial number of studies have examined the effects of grammar correction on second language (L2) written errors. However, most of the existing research has involved unidirectional written feedback. This classroom-based study examined the effects of oral negotiation in addressing L2 written errors. Data were collected in two intermediate…

  11. The Influence of Pictures with Written Text and Achievement on Reading Comprehension of Elementary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James L.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison was made of different treatment approaches to science material for fourth grade students (color realistic photographs with written text, photographs integrated within written text, and written text without pictures) with previous student achievement (high, medium, and low placement). Also interactive effect between treatments and…

  12. The Ionian Muses learn to write: written law and prose treatise in the milesinad and Heraclitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Caballero

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout s. VI B. C., the first Ionic investigators of the nature chose as way of expression a procedure practically unexplored at that time: the writing in prose. This technology had been only proved previously in the field of the cities written legislation, which liked to use enormous stone inscriptions to show or advertise the laws and community regulations. This publicity was also good to reinforce with the strenght of the lasting thing the civic authority, from which emanated a compulsory law to be carried out. In this work, we try to show that the production and publication ways of the laws were good in certain extent to the first philosophers as reference models for the publication of their own treatises in prose (συγγραφή. That publication existed without a doubt, but it was not claimed by a demand reader mainly, but rather it pursued to reinforce the message locked in the papyrus roll with the authority associated to the written promulgation of the laws. It was, threrefore, a question of symbolic mediation between the philosopher and the city: comparing their work to the law of the city, he claimed the normative and universal force from the cosmos described in the treatise in prose, that enunciated valid laws for all the men and everywhere. In this work, we will explore this hypothesis studying the sociopolitical background that is outlined after the publication of the treatises of Anaximander, Anaximenes and, mainly, Heraclitus. The offering of Heraclitus book to the temple of Artemis in Ephesus can be interpreted from this new perspective.

  13. 'What is not written does not exist': the importance of proper documentation of medication use history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Carina Carvalho; Santos, Lincoln Marques Cavalcante; de Oliveira-Filho, Alfredo Dias; de Lyra, Divaldo Pereira

    2017-10-01

    Medications are perceived as health risk factors, because they might cause damage if used improperly. In this context, an adequate assessment of medication use history should be encouraged, especially in transitions of care to avoid unintended medication discrepancies (UMDs). In a case-controlled study, we investigated potential risk factors for UMDs at hospital admission and found that 150 (42%) of the 358 patients evaluated had one or more UMDs. We were surprised to find that there was no record of a patient and/or relative interview on previous use of medication in 117 medical charts of adult patients (44.8%). Similarly, in the medical charts of 52 (53.6%) paediatric patients, there was no record of parents and/or relatives interviews about prior use of medications. One hundred thirty-seven medical charts of adult patients (52.4%) and seventy-two medical charts of paediatric patients (74.2%) had no record about medication allergies and intolerances. In other words, there was a lack of basic documentation regarding the patient's medication use history. As patients move between settings in care, there is insufficient tracking of verbal and written information related to medication changes, which results in a progressive and cumulative loss of information, as evidenced by problems associated with clinical transfers and medication orders. Proper documentation of medication information during transfer is a key step in the procedure; hence, it should be rightly performed. It remains unclear whether interviews, and other investigations about medication use history have been performed but have not been recorded as health-care data. Therefore, it is crucial to the improvement of medication use safety that documentation of all drug-related information-even if not directly related to the actual event-become routine practice in health-care organizations, since 'what is not written does not exist'.

  14. High agreement between the new Mongolian electronic immunization register and written immunization records: a health centre based audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Chan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monitoring of vaccination coverage is vital for the prevention and control of vaccine-preventable diseases. Electronic immunization registers have been increasingly adopted to assist with the monitoring of vaccine coverage; however, there is limited literature about the use of electronic registers in low- and middle-income countries such as Mongolia. We aimed to determine the accuracy and completeness of the newly introduced electronic immunization register for calculating vaccination coverage and determining vaccine effectiveness within two districts in Mongolia in comparison to written health provider records. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional record review among children 2–23 months of age vaccinated at immunization clinics within the two districts. We linked data from written records with the electronic immunization register using the national identification number to determine the completeness and accuracy of the electronic register. Results: Both completeness (90.9%; 95% CI: 88.4–93.4 and accuracy (93.3%; 95% CI: 84.1–97.4 of the electronic immunization register were high when compared to written records. The increase in completeness over time indicated a delay in data entry. Conclusion: Through this audit, we have demonstrated concordance between a newly introduced electronic register and health provider records in a middle-income country setting. Based on this experience, we recommend that electronic registers be accompanied by routine quality assurance procedures for the monitoring of vaccination programmes in such settings.

  15. 77 FR 23208 - Assessment of Mediation and Arbitration Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Parts 1108 and 1109 Assessment of Mediation and Arbitration Procedures... carriers to participate in the Board's arbitration program, unless they file a prior written notice with... to participate in the Board's arbitration program could file a request for arbitration with the Board...

  16. 10 CFR 55.43 - Written examination: Senior operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... identified, in part, from learning objectives derived from a systematic analysis of licensed senior operator... procedures required to obtain authority for design and operating changes in the facility. (4) Radiation hazards that may arise during normal and abnormal situations, including maintenance activities and various...

  17. Participation in Written Government Consultations in Denmark and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    5,000 responses to consultations in Denmark and the UK in the first half of 2008. It shows that participation is highly conditional upon system-and actor-level characteristics in practice. Our findings indicate that, even if liberal democracies have adopted similar procedures for actor consultation...

  18. Effects of Written and Auditory Language-Processing Skills on Written Passage Comprehension in Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria; Bertram, Julia; Ostrowski, Adam; Michaud, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The authors assessed 4,865 middle and high school students for the ability to recognize and understand written and spoken morphologically simple words, morphologically complex words, and the syntactic structure of sentences and for the ability to answer questions about facts presented in a written passage and to make inferences based on those…

  19. Does the Advanced Proficiency Evaluated in Oral-Like Written Text Support Syntactic Parsing in a Written Academic Text among L2 Japanese Learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Ryu

    2016-01-01

    Corpus linguistics identifies the qualitative difference in the characteristics of spoken discourse vs. written academic discourse. Whereas spoken discourse makes greater use of finite dependent clauses functioning as constituents in other clauses, written academic discourse incorporates noun phrase constituents and complex phrases. This claim can…

  20. Bariatric Surgery Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center Access to Care Toolkit EHB Access Toolkit Bariatric Surgery Procedures Bariatric surgical procedures cause weight loss by ... minimally invasive techniques (laparoscopic surgery). The most common bariatric surgery procedures are gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, adjustable gastric ...

  1. Platform for the analysis of written texts in terms of conceptual graphs: study case, Cybernetics of Cybernetics course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Contreras

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to observe and analyze the conceptual-relation structures in texts written in Spanish, from the perspective of second-order cybernetics. Texts are shaped by the syntactic structure of the sentences they contain. Conceptual-relationships emerge by transforming the text, using a text analysis platform named PAST. The transformation is guided by a set of established rules, permitting to observe a system. PAST can be defined as a powerful operator to transform texts written by the students in a Master's Program class. The platform is introduced as a tool enabling a graph representation of relationships among the concepts in the text. The internal procedure of the platform and the graph construction concerns the linguistic analysis. Although the resulting graphic representation does not follow a formal definition, it reflects an iterative construction to define a topology to create a semantic network. This network only makes sense to the author of the text. In other words, the author (observer, based on the cybernetics of the observing systems, uses a tool that enables him to make a second-order observation of a document that he/she has linearly written. The main epistemological concepts mentioned throughout the development of the proposal are discourse and distinction. The contribution of this work is the application of a methodology that conducts a recursive observation of both the direct and indirect relationships established by the words the author puts together in his/her written discourse. In the discussion of results the next phases of this work are presented.

  2. TCT-82 Evaluation of Current Practices in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: The WRITTEN (WoRldwIde TAVR ExperieNce) Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nombela-Franco, Luis; Cerrato, Enrico; Nazif, Tamim

    2016-01-01

    the main areas of consensus and divergence between centers. Methods An online questionnaire was distributed in centers performing TAVR irrespective of the number of procedures and valve type. The questionnaire was divided in 3 main blocks: pre-procedural evaluation, procedural practices and post......-procedural management. Regional experts were recruited to distribute the survey in each country or region. Results The survey was completed by 250 TAVR centers (with a cumulative experience of nearly 70,000 procedures) from 38 different countries. Heart team meetings were regularly scheduled in most (>95%) centers...... in patients with atrial fibrillation requiring anticoagulation therapy (anticoagulation alone, anticoagulation+aspirin, anticoagulation+clopidogrel, and triple therapy in 28%, 37%, 26% and 4% of centers, respectively). Conclusion The WRITTEN survey provided extensive data on current TAVR-related practice...

  3. The Multifaceted Use of a Written Artifact in Student Supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunilla Jansson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the use of a written artifact, an assessment form encompassing a checklist with health care terms, in supervised nurse student-patient interactions during assessment interviews in a Swedish hospital ward. The students were doing their clinical practice and were in their first year of a three-year nursing degree. Even though the students are not in charge of the situation, they are expected to perform a professional task for which they lack adequate skills. As demonstrated, the use of the assessment form provided a useful way for the participants to manage specific tasks in an apprenticeship context, such as regulating affect display, demonstrating uptake of the patient's concerns and staging the interview as an exercise. For this article, three excerpts have been selected from history-taking sequences, when the patient's previous illness history is created. The analysis illustrates the affordances provided by the assessment form to handle perspective shifts, when the patient departs from a general pattern of unelaborated answers and offers a window into his/her concerns. Importantly, however, the students' feedback talk with the nurse preceptor offers evidence that the artifact also constrains their forms of action in the practice of gathering assessment data. The article argues for ward-level practices that socialize students into reflective ways of using the artifact.

  4. Evaluation of the prescriptions written for upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Serdar; Ozturk, Tuba Cimilli; Metiner, Yasin; Ak, Rohat; Ocal, Oktay

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to determine frequency of antibiotic use and retrospectively evaluate prescriptions written for the patients with diagnosis of acute pharyngitis, acute nasopharyngitis and acute tonsillitis by our hospital emergency department physicians in January 2014. Records of the patients who were admitted to the education and research hospital between January 1st, 2014 to January 31st 2014 were analyzed in this study. Records of all the patients with the diagnosis of acute nasopharyngitis (J.00), acute pharyngitis (J.02) and acute tonsillitis (J.03) were analyzed, and patients with a second diagnosis or haven't any prescription were excluded from the study. Frequency of antibiotic and other symptomatic medications use were analyzed in prescriptions of 5261 patients. Antibiotics were prescribed for 63.5% of the patients included in the study, and the most preferred antibiotics were penicilin and beta-lactamase combination (38.8%) and cephalosporins (26.2%). Combined preparations were the most preferred medications in symptomatic treatment (65.9%). Dexketoprofen was the most preferred among nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (63%). In each prescription, average number of 3.26 drugs were prescribed. Excessive and improrer use of antibiotics in the treatment of respiratuary tract infection is a global problem. The use of excess agents in symptomatic medication leads to polypharmacy. Training of physicians and patients on principles of rational drug use will contribute to the solution of this problem.

  5. Dorothea and the Written Word: Feminism and Heroism in Middlemarch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla Lee Weitzman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In her novel Middlemarch, George Eliot challenges assumptions about gender and genre by associating Dorothea Brooke with both masculine authority and feminine emotion. Eliot does so by connecting Dorothea both to the act of writing and to the artistic production itself. Unlike Rosamond Vincy, who is associated with the romance and with popular poetry in order to devalue her, Dorothea is connected to a number of more elevated genres, which are also associated with male authority. By driving the plot, Dorothea assumes the role of the writer in several ways: she ensures Celia’s marriage with Sir James by choosing Casaubon, she reunites Lydgate and Rosamond, and helps restore Lydgate’s good name. The letter she writes to accept Casaubon’s offer of marriage is written “three times, not because she wished to change the wording, but because her hand was unusually uncertain” (Eliot, 1968, p. 33. Her ardor gets in the way of her handwriting, but not of her “wording.” Eliot endows Dorothea’s writing with characteristics that are stereotypically feminine (motivated by love and intimacy and stereotypically masculine (growing out of ardor, and expressing vigor, force and energy. By infusing the intimate with the powerful, and associating both with the act of writing, Eliot conflates the typical province of woman with the typical province of men thus disrupting conventions of both gender and genre.

  6. Psychotic patients' impressions of a person from written descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchins, A S; Luchins, E H

    1984-02-01

    The present study examined the impressions of personality formed from written descriptions of behavior by over 200 hospitalized male schizophrenics, tested individually when they seemed in contact with reality. One description was of extrovert (E) behavior by a youth named Jim; another was of his introvert (I) behavior in similar settings. Combined communications gave one description immediately after the other. After 150 patients read one of the communications, they were generally willing and able to respond to a 36-item questionnaire about Jim. This also occurred when 96 patients were asked to answer it before any communication, on the basis of their expectations about Jim; 56 subsequently received a communication, followed by readministration of the questionnaire. Patients' responses, before or after the communications, revealed few pathological signs and, like those of normal Ss, could usually be classified as E or I. Patients had less differential effects, and far fewer I responses than normal Ss. Patients and normals showed preconceptions of Jim as extrovertive. Results were discussed in light of the projective hypothesis and other theories.

  7. A new metabolomics-based strategy for identification of endogenous markers of urine adulteration attempts exemplified for potassium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Andrea E; Arnold, Kim; Schneider, Tom D; Poetzsch, Michael; Kraemer, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Urine adulteration to circumvent positive drug testing represents a problem for toxicological laboratories. While creatinine is a suitable marker for dilution, detection of chemicals is often performed by dipstick tests associated with high rates of false positives. Several methods would be necessary to check for all possible adulterants. Untargeted mass spectrometry (MS) methods used in metabolomics should theoretically allow detecting concentration changes of any endogenous urinary metabolite or presence of new biomarkers produced by chemical adulteration. As a proof of concept study, urine samples from 10 volunteers were treated with KNO 2 and analyzed by high-resolution MS. For statistical data evaluation, XCMS plus and MetaboAnalyst were used. Compound identification was performed by database searches using an in-house database, Chemspider, METLIN, HMDB, and NIST. Principle component analysis revealed clear separation between treated and untreated urine samples. In detail, 307 features showed significant concentration changes with fold changes greater than 2 (79 decreased; 228 increased). Mainly amino acids (e.g., histidine, methylhistidine, di- and trimethyllysine) and purines (uric acid) were detected in lower amounts. 5-HO-isourate was found to be formed as a new compound from uric acid and, e.g., imidazole lactate concentrations increased due to the breakdown of histidine. This metabolomics-based strategy allowed for a broad identification range of markers of urinary adulteration. More studies will be needed to investigate routine applicability of identified potential markers exploring urinary conditions of their formation and stability. Selected markers might then be integrated into routine MS screening procedures allowing for detection of adulteration within routine MS analysis. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  8. Written distractor words influence brain activity during overt picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Michele T; Hogstrom, Larson J; Zhuang, Jie; Voyvodic, James T; Johnson, Micah A; Camblin, C Christine

    2014-01-01

    Language production requires multiple stages of processing (e.g., semantic retrieval, lexical selection), each of which may involve distinct brain regions. Distractor words can be combined with picture naming to examine factors that influence language production. Phonologically-related distractors have been found to speed picture naming (facilitation), while slower response times and decreased accuracy (interference) generally occur when a distractor is categorically related to the target image. However, other types of semantically-related distractors have been reported to produce a facilitative effect (e.g., associative, part-whole). The different pattern of results for different types of semantically-related distractors raises the question about how the nature of the semantic relation influences the effect of the distractor. To explore the nature of these semantic effects further, we used functional MRI to examine the influence of four types of written distractors on brain activation during overt picture naming. Distractors began with the same sound, were categorically-related, part of the object to be named, or were unrelated to the picture. Phonologically-related trials elicited greater activation than both semantic conditions (categorically-related and part-whole) in left insula and bilateral parietal cortex, regions that have been attributed to phonological aspects of production and encoding, respectively. Semantic conditions elicited greater activation than phonological trials in left posterior MTG, a region that has been linked to concept retrieval and semantic integration. Overall, the two semantic conditions did not differ substantially in their functional activation which suggests a similarity in the semantic demands and lexical competition across these two conditions.

  9. Written accounts of living with epilepsy: A thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, Gregg H; Brown, Ian; Stone, Brendan; Reuber, Markus

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the subjective experience of living with epilepsy by thematically analyzing participants' written accounts of their condition. Writing is seen as an individual act allowing for private exploration, reflection and expression of thoughts and feelings. Participants (n=20) were recruited from a United Kingdom hospital and from membership-led organizations for individuals living with seizures. Participants were asked to produce four pieces of writing: 1) about their thoughts and feelings about their condition; 2) a letter to their condition; 3) a letter to their younger self; and 4) about a personal value. All writings were analyzed thematically using a theory- and data-driven approach. Five main-themes and 22 sub-themes emerged from the data. Theme 1: 'seizure onset' demonstrated that the development of seizures and subsequent diagnosis was an important event that could change an individuals' identity. Theme 2: 'seizure symptoms' revealed participants externalized their seizures as an intrusive agent with a constant presence in their lives. Theme 3: 'treatment and outcome' reflected medication as an essential means to controlling seizures with subsequent side effects being perceived as a compromise. Theme 4: 'living with epilepsy' explored the consequences of the condition including restrictions and stigma. Theme 5: 'displays of coping' demonstrated that, for the most part, participants were keen to present themselves as living well with epilepsy. The results add to the growing research applying qualitative methodologies to investigate the phenomenology of epilepsy. Qualitative research can improve our understanding and awareness of the condition, as well as inform clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Generalizability theory reliability of written expression curriculum-based measurement in universal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Margulis, Milena A; Mercer, Sterett H; Thomas, Erin L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of written expression curriculum-based measurement (WE-CBM) in the context of universal screening from a generalizability theory framework. Students in second through fifth grade (n = 145) participated in the study. The sample included 54% female students, 49% White students, 23% African American students, 17% Hispanic students, 8% Asian students, and 3% of students identified as 2 or more races. Of the sample, 8% were English Language Learners and 6% were students receiving special education. Three WE-CBM probes were administered for 7 min each at 3 time points across 1 year. Writing samples were scored for commonly used WE-CBM metrics (e.g., correct minus incorrect word sequences; CIWS). Results suggest that nearly half the variance in WE-CBM is related to unsystematic error and that conventional screening procedures (i.e., the use of one 3-min sample) do not yield scores with adequate reliability for relative or absolute decisions about student performance. In most grades, three 3-min writing samples (or 2 longer duration samples) were required for adequate reliability for relative decisions, and three 7-min writing samples would not yield adequate reliability for relative decisions about within-year student growth. Implications and recommendations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Assessing student written problem solutions: A problem-solving rubric with application to introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Dornfeld, Jay; Frodermann, Evan; Heller, Kenneth; Hsu, Leonardo; Jackson, Koblar Alan; Mason, Andrew; Ryan, Qing X.; Yang, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Problem solving is a complex process valuable in everyday life and crucial for learning in the STEM fields. To support the development of problem-solving skills it is important for researchers and curriculum developers to have practical tools that can measure the difference between novice and expert problem-solving performance in authentic classroom work. It is also useful if such tools can be employed by instructors to guide their pedagogy. We describe the design, development, and testing of a simple rubric to assess written solutions to problems given in undergraduate introductory physics courses. In particular, we present evidence for the validity, reliability, and utility of the instrument. The rubric identifies five general problem-solving processes and defines the criteria to attain a score in each: organizing problem information into a Useful Description, selecting appropriate principles (Physics Approach), applying those principles to the specific conditions in the problem (Specific Application of Physics), using Mathematical Procedures appropriately, and displaying evidence of an organized reasoning pattern (Logical Progression).

  12. Assessing student written problem solutions: A problem-solving rubric with application to introductory physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Docktor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem solving is a complex process valuable in everyday life and crucial for learning in the STEM fields. To support the development of problem-solving skills it is important for researchers and curriculum developers to have practical tools that can measure the difference between novice and expert problem-solving performance in authentic classroom work. It is also useful if such tools can be employed by instructors to guide their pedagogy. We describe the design, development, and testing of a simple rubric to assess written solutions to problems given in undergraduate introductory physics courses. In particular, we present evidence for the validity, reliability, and utility of the instrument. The rubric identifies five general problem-solving processes and defines the criteria to attain a score in each: organizing problem information into a Useful Description, selecting appropriate principles (Physics Approach, applying those principles to the specific conditions in the problem (Specific Application of Physics, using Mathematical Procedures appropriately, and displaying evidence of an organized reasoning pattern (Logical Progression.

  13. Speech language therapy bilingual clinic, a written language therapeutical proposal to deaf people: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarinello, Ana Cristina; Massi, Giselle; Berberian, Ana Paula; Tonocchi, Rita; Lustosa, Sandra Silva

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the written production of a deaf person who is in the process of written language acquisition. One person with hearing disability, called R., participated in this study together with his Speech Language Pathologist. The therapist, proficient in sign language, acted as an interlocutor and interpreter, prioritizing the interactive nature of language and interfering in the written production only when it was requested. During the 3 years of work with R., a change in stance toward written language was observed. In addition, he began to reflect on his texts and utilize written Portuguese in a way that allowed his texts to be more coherent. Writing became an opportunity to show his singularity and to begin reconstructing his relationship with language. Speech language pathology and audiology therapy, at a bilingual clinic, can allow people with hearing disability early access to sign language and, consequently, enable the development of the written form of Portuguese.

  14. Analysis of the Case Management Process at Walter Reed Army Medical Center: Procedures for Improving Case Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Kevin S

    2006-01-01

    ...; and observed the users in the day-to-day operations of the case management process. The study's results revealed that there is a lack of written procedures for case managers to follow and that communication failures are present...

  15. 20 CFR 369.3 - Procedures for obtaining permission to use the seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the seal. 369.3 Section 369.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES USE OF THE SEAL OF THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD § 369.3 Procedures for obtaining permission to use the seal. Requests for written permission to use the seal of the Railroad Retirement Board...

  16. Common Written Errors Of English Departement Student in IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro.

    OpenAIRE

    Chyntia Heru Woro Prastiwi

    2014-01-01

    Common Written Errrors of English Department Students in IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro. Writing is still considered to be the most difficult skill to master as it combines ideas getting, grammatical structures, vocabulary, and mechanics. Producing good written English is an essential and required skill for English Department Students. This study examines the common errors in written English produced by the students of English Department in IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro. The error analysis on writing aims at gi...

  17. Scaffolding elementary students' authentic inquiry through a written science curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Sun

    This study investigated scaffolding elementary school students' formulation of explanations through an 8-week biodiversity curriculum. Authentic inquiry situations in the curriculum provided opportunities for students to conduct elements of scientists' practices in hands-on investigations driven by the students' interests. Three support features-modeled explanations, direct content prompts, and sentence starters-were designed to help students focus on salient features of the inquiry situations. These three support features were placed differently in two treatments. In the consistent support treatment, three support features were present throughout eleven authentic inquiry situations. In the fading support treatment, three support features were gradually withdrawn over the same inquiry situations. The manipulation of the fading dimension of the scaffolding concept was based on the idea that students can learn more effectively when they take more responsibility to complete the learning task as they gain knowledge and experience. Forty-eight students in two 5th/6th combined classes participated. This study was quasi-experimental with two treatment variations. Based on students' prior knowledge and explanation ability, block strategies were used to assign students into the two treatments. Data sources included a multiple-choice test and an open-ended test administered before and after the treatments. Students' written explanations in the eleven inquiry situations were collected. Eighteen students were interviewed after the treatments. Results demonstrate that both groups improved on the multiple-choice and open-ended tests. While these two tests were not sensitive to the treatment differences, students' explanations were a much better indicator of the treatment effects. The consistent support group included fewer valid warrants in explanations before the treatments but gradually outperformed the fading support group as certain support features were withdrawn in the

  18. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Lappin-Fortin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French and French immersion graduates was compared based on total output and several measures of grammatical and syntactical accuracy. Few statistically significant differences emerge. However, a subgroup of core French learners who had benefitted from an authentic immersion experience appears to outperform both regular core French and French immersion groups. The purpose of this quantitative study is primarily diagnostic; the results should help universities better serve the needs of first-year students. Résumé Les études comparant la compétence écrite des étudiants de programmes d’immersion française et de français cadre sont peu nombreuses—particulièrement au niveau postsecondaire. Mon corpus consiste en des échantillons du français écrit de 255 étudiants issus de ces deux formations qui commencent un cours de français à l’université. J’ai comparé leur production globale et leur précision sur le plan morphosyntaxique. Peu de différences statistiquement significatives en émergent. Toutefois, un sous-groupe d’étudiants cadre ayant bénéficié d’une expérience d’immersion authentique se révèle comme le plus compétent selon plusieurs des mesures utilisées. Les résultats de cette étude quantitative devraient aider les universités à mieux répondre aux besoins des étudiants de première année.

  19. Word frequencies in written and spoken English based on the British National Corpus

    CERN Document Server

    Leech, Geoffrey; Wilson, Andrew (All Of Lancaster University)

    2014-01-01

    Word Frequencies in Written and Spoken English is a landmark volume in the development of vocabulary frequency studies. Whereas previous books have in general given frequency information about the written language only, this book provides information on both speech and writing. It not only gives information about the language as a whole, but also about the differences between spoken and written English, and between different spoken and written varieties of the language. The frequencies are derived from a wide ranging and up-to-date corpus of English: the British Na

  20. MODEL WRITTEN TEXTS IN THE RECOMMENDED SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL ENGLISH TEXTBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Rukmini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article is based on the study on the model written texts provided in the Senior High School English textbooks. It is aimed at finding out whether those models are written by considering the English two contexts, cultural and situational, which encircle them. The data are all written texts provided in the six recommended English textbooks published by six different publishers. The results reveal that only eleven out of 115 model written texts tend to be incompatible with the two contexts encircling them, this implies that 104 of them (93.43% are likely to be compatible and can be used as model texts.

  1. Analysis of metadiscourse markers in academic written discourse produced by Turkish researchers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duruk, Eda

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at examining the frequency of interpersonal metadiscourse markers inacademic written discourse and investigating the way Turkish writers use interpersonal metadiscourse, namely in MA...

  2. Cardiac Procedures and Surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a heart is irreversibly damaged. Uses hearts from organ donation. Reason for the Procedure Recognized as a proven ... Reason for the Procedure Preferred treatment for many types of rapid heartbeats (arrhythmias) especially supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. Learn ...

  3. IC Treatment: Surgical Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Profile Home Diagnosis & Treatment IC Treatments Surgical Procedures Surgical Procedures For people with interstitial cystitis (IC), the ... latest stories, news and events. Please leave this field empty Interstitial Cystitis Association 7918 Jones Branch Drive, ...

  4. Readability of Invasive Procedure Consent Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Naqvi, Syed S; Ghanian, Soha; Eberson, Craig P; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C; Born, Christopher T; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-12-01

    Informed consent is a pillar of ethical medicine which requires patients to fully comprehend relevant issues including the risks, benefits, and alternatives of an intervention. Given the average reading skill of US adults is at the 8th grade level, the American Medical Association (AMA) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommend patient information materials should not exceed a 6th grade reading level. We hypothesized that text provided in invasive procedure consent forms would exceed recommended readability guidelines for medical information. To test this hypothesis, we gathered procedure consent forms from all surgical inpatient hospitals in the state of Rhode Island. For each consent form, readability analysis was measured with the following measures: Flesch Reading Ease Formula, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Fog Scale, SMOG Index, Coleman-Liau Index, Automated Readability Index, and Linsear Write Formula. These readability scores were used to calculate a composite Text Readability Consensus Grade Level. Invasive procedure consent forms were found to be written at an average of 15th grade level (i.e., third year of college), which is significantly higher than the average US adult reading level of 8th grade (p < 0.0001) and the AMA/NIH recommended readability guidelines for patient materials of 6th grade (p < 0.0001). Invasive procedure consent forms have readability levels which makes comprehension difficult or impossible for many patients. Efforts to improve the readability of procedural consent forms should improve patient understanding regarding their healthcare decisions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The procedural egalitarian solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Bas; Borm, Peter; Hendrickx, Ruud

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and analyze the procedural egalitarian solution for transferable utility games. This new concept is based on the result of a coalitional bargaining procedure in which egalitarian considerations play a central role. The procedural egalitarian solution is the first

  6. The Procedural Egalitarian Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Bas; Borm, Peter; Hendrickx, Ruud

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and analyze the procedural egalitarian solution for transferable utility games. This new concept is based on the result of a coalitional bargaining procedure in which egalitarian considerations play a central role. The procedural egalitarian solution is the first

  7. Data-Driven Learning and Awareness-Raising: An Effective Tandem to Improve Grammar in Written Composition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Pérez Cañado

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper, framed within the ECTS scheme currently being piloted at the University of Jaén, reports on a study carried out in the second semester of the academic year 2004-5 with English Philology freshmen at this University. One of its aims, described in an initial section of the paper, was to determine whether the use of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL, and Data-Driven Learning (DDL, could help raise awareness of and thus remediate the grammar weaknesses of such pupils under four categories (articles, verb tenses, verbal complementation, and prepositions. The procedure, outlined subsequently, involved using DDL to raise awareness of the main grammar mistakes in these headings, which had been previously identified in first year students’ production through the use of an UCLEE-error-tagged written learner corpus. Two one-hour seminars were employed weekly, each one with a group of 40 students, to raise awareness of these mistakes with the help of web-based resources. Four were the steps undertaken: initial attempts on the part of the students to identify the mistakes in the seven headings; a session provided by the authors on CALL as a means to raise awareness of, identify, and solve written mistakes; use of these electronic resources to contrast their initial error identification; and explicit correction of the mistakes in each category. The results and implications, discussed in a final section, highlight that DDL and awareness-raising – albeit in some categories more than in others – indeed constitute an effective tandem when it comes to improving grammatical aspects in written composition at University level.

  8. Acquisition of Reading and Written Spelling in a Transparent Orthography: Two Non-Parallel Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Giuseppe; And Others

    1995-01-01

    States that reading and written spelling skills for words and nonwords of varying length and orthographic complexity were investigated in normal Italian first and second graders. Finds that reading and written spelling are nonparallel processes and that developmental asynchrony reflects a partial structural independence of the two systems. (PA)

  9. Concurrent Validity and Classification Accuracy of Curriculum-Based Measurement for Written Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, William M.; Marcotte, Amanda M.; Hintze, John M.; Shackett, Caroline M.

    2016-01-01

    The study presents a critical analysis of written expression curriculum-based measurement (WE-CBM) metrics derived from 3- and 10-min test lengths. Criterion validity and classification accuracy were examined for Total Words Written (TWW), Correct Writing Sequences (CWS), Percent Correct Writing Sequences (%CWS), and Correct Minus Incorrect…

  10. Concurrent and Longitudinal Neuropsychological Contributors to Written Language Expression in First and Second Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Costa, Lara-Jeane; McBee, Matthew; Anderson, Kathleen L.; Yerby, Donna C.; Knuth, Sean B.; Childress, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine several key questions related to the neuropsychological contributors to early written language. First, can we develop an empirical measurement model that encompasses many of the neuropsychological components that have been deemed as important to the development of written language? Second, once…

  11. The written expression abilities of adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Stephen J; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W

    2016-01-01

    Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often experience deficits in academic achievement. Written expression abilities in this population have not been extensively studied but existing prevalence estimates suggest that rates of comorbid writing underachievement may be substantially higher than rates of comorbid reading and mathematics underachievement. The current study examined written expression abilities in a school-based sample of 326 middle school age students with ADHD. The prevalence of written expression impairment, the associations between written expression and academic outcomes, and specific patterns of written expression were investigated. Students with ADHD in this sample experienced written expression impairment (17.2-22.4%) at a similar rate to reading impairment (17.0-24.3%) and at a slightly lower rate than mathematics impairment (24.7-36.3%). Students' written expression abilities were significantly associated with school grades and parent ratings of academic functioning, above and beyond the influence of intelligence. Analyses of patterns suggest that students with ADHD exhibit greater deficits in written expression tasks requiring organization and attention to detail, especially in the context of a complex task. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Direct Instruction in Written Expression: The Effects on English Speakers and English Language Learners with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel-Ruma, Kim; Houchins, David E.; Jolivette, Kristine; Fredrick, Laura D.; Gama, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Students with disabilities often struggle with writing tasks. In order to improve the written expression performance of high school students with deficits in written expression, a Direct Instruction writing program was implemented. The participants were six high school students in programs for individuals with learning disabilities. Three of the…

  13. Relationship between Legible Handwriting and Level of Success of Third Grade Students in Written Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Seher; Küçükayar, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify third-grade students' performance levels for written expression and handwriting and to find the relationship between these performances. The study is based on relational screening model. It is carried out with 110 third grade students. Students' levels of success in handwriting and in written expression are evaluated…

  14. Interdisciplinary Care Planning and the Written Care Plan in Nursing Homes: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellefield, Mary Ellen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article is a critical review of the history, research evidence, and state-of-the-art technology in interdisciplinary care planning and the written plan of care in American nursing homes. Design and Methods: We reviewed educational and empirical literature. Results: Interdisciplinary care planning and the written care plan are…

  15. The Computer and the Pre-School Child; The Written Language and Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naymark, J.; Plaisant, C.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a Centre Mondial Informatique et Resources Humaines (CIMRH) investigation of kindergarten children's written language learning and links between play and learning. Computer software was used by students for language learning, and observations centered on student computer use, learning of written language and play, and computer…

  16. Transforming Biology Assessment with Machine Learning: Automated Scoring of Written Evolutionary Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Ha, Minsu; Mayfield, Elijah

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the use of machine learning to automatically evaluate the accuracy of students' written explanations of evolutionary change. Performance of the Summarization Integrated Development Environment (SIDE) program was compared to human expert scoring using a corpus of 2,260 evolutionary explanations written by 565 undergraduate…

  17. 75 FR 57826 - Notice of Public Meeting and Opportunity To Submit Written Comments Concerning the Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... of Public Meeting and Opportunity To Submit Written Comments Concerning the Administration's Review... Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises (MNE), is soliciting written comments and will hold a public meeting concerning the Administration's review of the U.S. NCP. The key question is whether the current structure and...

  18. Exploring Management Strategies to Reduce Cheating in Written Examinations: Case Study of Midlands State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taderera, Ever; Nyikahadzoi, Loveness; Matamande, Wilson; Mandimika, Elinah

    2014-01-01

    This study was concerned about cheating in written examinations at Midlands State University (MSU). The study revealed that both male and female students cheat in written examination; business studies students cheat more than other faculties, and younger (lower class) students cheat more than (upper class) older students. Factors influencing…

  19. A Spoken Genre Gets Written: Online Football Commentaries in English, French, and Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Sabater, Carmen; Pena-Martinez, Gemma; Turney, Ed; Montero-Fleta, Begona

    2008-01-01

    Many recent studies on computer-mediated communication (CMC) have addressed the question of orality and literacy. This article examines a relatively recent subgenre of CMC, that of written online sports commentary, that provides us with written CMC that is clearly based on firmly established oral genres, those of radio and television sports…

  20. 16 CFR 702.3 - Pre-sale availability of written warranty terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pre-sale availability of written warranty terms. 702.3 Section 702.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS... written warranty with every warranted consumer product; and/or (B) Providing a tag, sign, sticker, label...

  1. The Relevance of Second Language Acquisition Theory to the Written Error Correction Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polio, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    The controversies surrounding written error correction can be traced to Truscott (1996) in his polemic against written error correction. He claimed that empirical studies showed that error correction was ineffective and that this was to be expected "given the nature of the correction process and "the nature of language learning" (p. 328, emphasis…

  2. Relations between scripted online peer feedback processes and quality of written argumentative essay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noroozi, Omid; Biemans, Harm; Mulder, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Teachers often complain about the quality of students' written essays in higher education. This study explores the relations between scripted online peer feedback processes and quality of written argumentative essay as they occur in an authentic learning situation with direct practical relevance.

  3. Designing student peer assessment in higher education: Analysis of written and oral peer feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/288125797; Admiraal, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/120226340; Pilot, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068350880

    2006-01-01

    Designing student peer assessment in higher education: analysis of written and oral peer feedback Relating it to design features, the present article describes the nature of written and oral peer feedback as it occurred in seven writing courses, each with a different PA design. Results indicate that

  4. Individual Differences in Strategy Use on Division Problems: Mental versus Written Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickendorff, Marian; van Putten, Cornelis M.; Verhelst, Norman D.; Heiser, Willem J.

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in strategy use (choice and accuracy) were analyzed. A sample of 362 Grade 6 students solved complex division problems under 2 different conditions. In the choice condition students were allowed to use either a mental or a written strategy. In the subsequent no-choice condition, they were required to use a written strategy.…

  5. How to develop well-written case studies: the essential elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The case study method is a teaching strategy that enables students to apply fundamental nursing concepts in a variety of situations. It relies on well-written cases. The author discusses the literary skill set needed to develop well-written case studies.

  6. Written Language Disorders: Speech-Language Pathologists' Training, Knowledge, and Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Gordon W.; Mamett, Callie; Gordon, Rebecca; Blood, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') perceptions of their (a) educational and clinical training in evaluating and treating written language disorders, (b) knowledge bases in this area, (c) sources of knowledge about written language disorders, (d) confidence levels, and (e) predictors of confidence in working with…

  7. Exploring Prospective Teachers' Assessment Practices: Noticing and Interpreting Student Understanding in the Assessment of Written Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanquer, Vicente; Bolger, Molly; Tomanek, Debra

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this exploratory study was to analyze how beginning prospective secondary school teachers approached the analysis of student written responses to formative assessment probes. We sought to identify what elements of students' written work were noticed, what types of inferences of student understanding were built, and what these noticed…

  8. A Structure Analysis of English Argumentative Writings Written by Chinese and Korean EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cui

    2013-01-01

    This study employed Kamimura and Oi (1996)'s classification of the organizational patterns of the argumentative essay structure: Thesis Statement (TS), Background Information (BI), Reservation (R), Hesitation (H), Rational Appeals (RA), Affective Appeals (AA) and Conclusion (C). 178 essays, 84 written by Chinese EFL learners, 84 written by Korean…

  9. Is Text Written for Children Useful for L2 Extensive Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart; Macalister, John

    2013-01-01

    The researchers completed a corpus-driven analysis of 688 texts written for children, language learners, and older readers to determine the vocabulary size necessary for comprehension and the potential to incidentally learn vocabulary through reading each text type. The comparison between texts written for different audiences may indicate their…

  10. Self-Efficacy in Written Composition among Deaf and Hearing Students in Primary and Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Caceres, Rafaela

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This article presents some of the more important results from a study focused on the analysis of self-efficacy in written composition among deaf and hearing students. This type of self-efficacy is essential to adequate development of the complex process of writing and the quality of written texts. Method: A total of 116 students…

  11. From Scribbles to Scrabble: Preschool Children's Developing Knowledge of Written Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to concurrently examine the development of written language across different writing tasks and to investigate how writing features develop in preschool children. Emergent written language knowledge of 372 preschoolers was assessed using numerous writing tasks. The findings from this study indicate that children…

  12. Responding Effectively to Composition Students: Comparing Student Perceptions of Written and Audio Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbro, J.; Iluzada, C.; Clark, D. E.

    2013-01-01

    The authors compared student perceptions of audio and written feedback in order to assess what types of students may benefit from receiving audio feedback on their essays rather than written feedback. Many instructors previously have reported the advantages they see in audio feedback, but little quantitative research has been done on how the…

  13. Interplay among Technical, Socio-Emotional and Personal Factors in Written Feedback Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    The centrality of written feedback is clearly seen from the proliferation of research in the context of higher education. As an increasingly expanding field in research, the majority of written feedback studies have been interested in investigating the technical aspect of how feedback should be given in order to promote student learning. More…

  14. Papa Pig Just Left for Pigtown: Children's Oral and Written Picture Descriptions under Varying Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Temple, Jeanne M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigates the extent of variation in children's language performance in a picture description task arising from mode (oral or written) versus degree of demand for decontextualization. Finds that children manipulated the wide range of the oral form of the contextualized/decontextualized continuum more skillfully than the written form. Finds no…

  15. Informed consent in rhinoplasty: prospective randomized study of risk recall in patients who are given written disclosure of risks versus traditional oral discussion groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Paul; Makdessian, Ara Samuel; Ellis, David A F; Taylor, S Mark

    2009-06-01

    To determine the effectiveness of providing written information in enhancing patient understanding and retention. A multicentre prospective randomized study was conducted in university-affiliated ambulatory surgical centres. One hundred consecutive patients seen for rhinoplasty consultation were included. Patients were randomly assigned to (1) those receiving traditional oral dialogue of the surgical risks or (2) those receiving an oral discussion and a written pamphlet outlining the risks of the procedure. Fourteen to 18 days after the consultation, each patient was contacted for an assessment of risk recall. Overall risk recall was higher in the group that received written information (2.3 vs 1.3 of 5 risks; p group that received a pamphlet, patients with university and postgraduate levels of education had a better rate of recall (p groups reported higher risk recall (p < .01). Patient risk recall of rhinoplasty is improved with the addition of written information during the informed consent process. As the process of informed consent plays a very decisive role in facial plastic surgery, enhanced postoperative satisfaction may result from the use of supplemental educational materials.

  16. Dynamic Generation and Editing System for Wrongly Written Chinese Characters Font

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsheng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The uniqueness of Chinese makes Chinese language a hotspot in language learning. In view of the problem of wrongly written character teaching in Chinese language teaching, it provides a simple, convenient, and efficient input method of wrongly written characters and realizes a dynamic generation and editing system for wrongly written Chinese character font, which solves the problems of real-time edit, coding, and input of wrongly written character in editing process using dynamic editing technology, and provides a convenient input method of wrongly written character in editing, printing, typesetting, and the research of digital Chinese language teaching. This method can also be used in dynamic editing, generation and processing of ancient variants, Oracle bone inscriptions, Bronze inscription, folk combined characters, and other fonts.

  17. Written words supersede pictures in priming semantic access: a P300 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorjee, Dusana; Devenney, Lydia; Thierry, Guillaume

    2010-09-15

    The dynamic interplay of semantic access during information integration across the verbal and nonverbal domains and sensory modalities is poorly understood. Here, we compared the priming effects of four types of meaningful stimuli (pictures, written words, spoken words, and environmental sounds) on picture and written word targets referring to the same concept in all cases. P3b event-related brain potentials indexed automatic access to semantic memory in the different modalities. As expected, P3b amplitudes were large in the repetition priming condition, but also for word-picture and picture-word visual stimulus pairs. Critically, written word primes resulted in the largest P3b amplitudes whether elicited by written word or picture targets, suggesting a semantic priming supremacy of written words.

  18. Rhetorical Strategies Used in Indonesian Persuasive Essays Written by Students Majoring in Indonesian and in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Budi Cahyono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at comparing rhetorical strategies used in the Indonesian persuasive essays written by students majoring in Indonesian and those majoring in English. Two groups were involved: the third-year students of the Department of Indonesian Language and Literature and the fourth-year students of the English Department of the State University of Malang. They were asked to write persuasive essays on whether violence on TV programs should be restricted. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the rhetorical strategies in Indonesian persuasive essays written by students majoring in Indonesian and those written by students majoring in English. In general, the essays written by the students majoring in English were more successful than those written by the students majoring in Indonesian in terms of the superstructure of argument, the Toulmin model of informal reasoning, and the persuasive appeals

  19. An Approach to Identifying the Effect of Technique Asymmetries on Body Alignment in Swimming Exemplified by a Case Study of a Breaststroke Swimmer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross H. Sanders, Malcolm M. Fairweather, Alison Alcock, Carla B. McCabe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of maintaining good alignment to minimize resistive drag in swimming there is a paucity of literature relating to the effect of technique asymmetries on rotations of the body about a vertical axis (yaw. The purpose of this paper was to present an approach to analyzing the effect of technique asymmetries on rotations in swimming, exemplifying the process with a case study of a breaststroke swimmer. The kinematics and angular kinetics of an elite female international breaststroke swimmer performing a ‘fatigue set’ of four 100m swims were derived from digitized three-dimensional video data using a 13 segment body model. Personalised anthropometric data required to quantify accurately segment and whole body centres of mass and segmental angular momentum were obtained by the elliptical zone method. Five episodes of torques producing yaw occurred in the stroke cycle sampled for each 100m swim of this swimmer. These torques were linked to bilateral differences in upper limb kinematics during 1 out-sweep; 2 in-sweep; 3 upper limb recovery; and lower limb kinematics during 4 Lower limb recovery and 5 the kick. It has been shown that by quantifying whole body torques, in conjunction with the kinematic movement patterns, the effect of technique asymmetries on body alignment can be assessed. Assessment of individual swimmers in this manner provides a solid foundation for planning interventions in strength, flexibility, and technique to improve alignment and performance.

  20. Grammatical Errors in English Essays Written by Thai EFL Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirilak Khumphee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted according to three research objectives: 1 to investigate common types of grammatical errors based on their frequency of occurrence in English essay writing of Thai EFL undergraduate students, 2 to examine the effects of L1 interference on discovered grammatical errors, in particular, to find out whether there were any of the errors influenced by the students’ mother tongue (Thai language, and 3 to provide some essential pedagogical implications for second language learning and teaching. The subjects of this study were 83 second-year students majoring in English at Nakhon Ratchasima Rajabhat University, and they were drawn by using purposive sampling method. The study procedures consisted of 2 steps: 1 the students were asked to write an English essay, and 2 the researcher of this study analyzed the students’ essays by employing the study analysis framework which was adapted from Na-ngam’s (2005 error taxonomy and Richards’ (1971 error categories. The findings indicated that ; 1 there were 26 types of grammatical errors, with the total number of 4,909 errors, occurred in the students’ written work, and the five most common types of all were punctuation, nouns, prepositions, verbs, and articles respectively ; and 2 there were 1,560 out of 4,909 errors, which were categorized into 14 types, caused by the students’ L1 interference, Thai language. The five most frequent numbers of these types of errors fell into the use of plural form of nouns, omission of punctuation, wrong structures of complex sentences, omission of some parts of a sentence, and fragments respectively.

  1. A practical procedure for the determination of association constants of the analyte-chiral selector equilibria by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanali, S; Bocek, P

    1996-12-01

    A practical procedure is proposed for the determination of association constants and mobility of the associate of a solute with a chiral selector in chiral separations by capillary zone electrophoresis. The procedure is based on the measurement of the effective mobility of a solute at zero and two different nonzero concentrations of the chiral selector. Simple explicit formulas have been derived in order to calculate the required data. The essence of the procedure is that all mobility data are adjusted to the background electrolyte (BGE) without chiral selector, serving as the viscosity reference. A simple procedure is described for measuring the viscosity of the operational electrolytes directly with the commercial capillary electrophoresis instrumentation, and Walden's rule has been utilized for adjusting the experimental mobility data to constant reference viscosity. The use of the procedure is exemplified by a separation of D,L-tryptophan in BGE containing alpha-cyclodextrin as chiral selector.

  2. Qualities that Exemplify Student Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Effective leadership begins with the individual. Until a person is self-actualized, external relationships and communications are often unpredictable and potentially flawed. The paradox is that young people need exposure to situations that require them to lead, in order to develop individual skills that will enable them to be successful group and…

  3. Giant lobelias exemplify convergent evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givnish Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups of Asteraceae and other families. A recent phylogenetic analysis by Antonelli, based on sequencing the widest selection of lobeliads to date, raises doubts about this paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here I address the kinds of evidence needed to test for convergent evolution and argue that the analysis by Antonelli fails on four points. Antonelli's analysis makes several important contributions to our understanding of lobeliad evolution and geographic spread, but his claim regarding convergence appears to be invalid. Giant lobeliads in Hawaii and Africa represent paradigmatic examples of convergent evolution.

  4. Written pain neuroscience education in fibromyalgia: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ittersum, Miriam W; van Wilgen, C Paul; van der Schans, Cees P; Lambrecht, Luc; Groothoff, Johan W; Nijs, Jo

    2014-11-01

    Mounting evidence supports the use of face-to-face pain neuroscience education for the treatment of chronic pain patients. This study aimed at examining whether written education about pain neuroscience improves illness perceptions, catastrophizing, and health status in patients with fibromyalgia. A double-blind, multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial with 6-month follow-up was conducted. Patients with FM (n = 114) that consented to participate were randomly allocated to receive either written pain neuroscience education or written relaxation training. Written pain neuroscience education comprised of a booklet with pain neuroscience education plus a telephone call to clarify any difficulties; the relaxation group received a booklet with relaxation education and a telephone call. The revised illness perception questionnaire, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and fibromyalgia impact questionnaire were used as outcome measures. Both patients and assessors were blinded. Repeated-measures analyses with last observation carried forward principle were performed. Cohen's d effect sizes (ES) were calculated for all within-group changes and between-group differences. The results reveal that written pain neuroscience education does not change the impact of FM on daily life, catastrophizing, or perceived symptoms of patients with FM. Compared with written relaxation training, written pain neuroscience education improved beliefs in a chronic timeline of FM (P = 0.03; ES = 0.50), but it does not impact upon other domains of illness perceptions. Compared with written relaxation training, written pain neuroscience education slightly improved illness perceptions of patients with FM, but it did not impart clinically meaningful effects on pain, catastrophizing, or the impact of FM on daily life. Face-to-face sessions of pain neuroscience education are required to change inappropriate cognitions and perceived health in patients with FM. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  5. Finite element procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Bathe, Klaus-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Finite element procedures are now an important and frequently indispensable part of engineering analyses and scientific investigations. This book focuses on finite element procedures that are very useful and are widely employed. Formulations for the linear and nonlinear analyses of solids and structures, fluids, and multiphysics problems are presented, appropriate finite elements are discussed, and solution techniques for the governing finite element equations are given. The book presents general, reliable, and effective procedures that are fundamental and can be expected to be in use for a long time. The given procedures form also the foundations of recent developments in the field.

  6. Quality control procedures on graphite, pyrocarbon and silconcarbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizlik, K. [comp.

    1974-09-01

    The presented report includes those papers presented at the 8th meeting of the DP-QCWP in Winfrith which have been written by collaborators of the Institut fuer Reaktorwerkstoffe der Kernforschungsanlage Juelich, together with other co-authors. The papers deal with problems of standardizing characterization methods for the routine quality control of graphites and pyrolytic carbons as well as with more basic procedures (transmission electron microscopy, microporosity) for the analysis of pyrocarbon structure.

  7. Written emotional expression during recovery from cocaine dependence: group and individual differences in craving intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasing, Kenneth; Mathur, Deepan; Desouza, Cherilyn

    2010-06-01

    We conducted a prospective, single-blind, parallel group, controlled trial to evaluate effects of written emotional expression in patients receiving intensive treatment for cocaine dependence in a residential-unit setting. Randomization to the emotional expression treatment produced changes in blood pressure and mood during writing sessions, possibly because of its ability to stimulate active coping behavior. At an initial follow-up visit, patients that had received written emotional expression reported lower values for craving intensity and were less likely to self-report use of cocaine. These results may indicate a therapeutic effect of written emotional expression during recovery from cocaine dependence.

  8. Civil Procedure In Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    The book contains an up-to-date survey of Danish civil procedure after the profound Danish procedural reforms in 2007. It deals with questions concerning competence and function of Danish courts, commencement and preparation of civil cases, questions of evidence and burden of proof, international...

  9. Decision-making Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldashev, Gani; Kirchsteiger, Georg; Sebald, Alexander Christopher

    2009-01-01

    It is a persistent finding in psychology and experimental economics that people's behavior is not only shaped by outcomes but also by decision-making procedures. In this paper we develop a general framework capable of modelling these procedural concerns. Within the context of psychological games we...

  10. Material support of churches in the 19th – early 20th centuries as exemplified by churches in Volokolamsk deanery of Moscow diocese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyliia Belonogova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with material support of churches and with problems of church land ownership exemplifi ed by Volokolamsk uyezd in the 19th — early 20th centuries. Material support of the clergy was one of the most discussed issues in the last fi fty years of the Synodal period; all contemporary researchers of parish clergy have to deal with this subject. Land was a secure means of support for parish churches and the clergy. But in practice, the implementation of rights to land property encountered the long-established tradition of land ownership, and the problem was not solved. Having considered Orthodox parishes in one of the districts of Moscow diocese, one can attempt to reconstruct the picture of church land ownership and of the position of the clergy in more details. Volokolamsk district is rather typical of Moscow diocese; therefore it is highly appropriate for analysis. In absolute fi gures, parish clergy were provided with land better than the average peasant. However, landowners in the diocese did not seek to transfer the land to churches preferring to pay the allowance. This land was distributed unevenly between the clerk and the priest. The clergy themselves could not cultivate land as actively as peasants because children of priests, as a rule, studied at theological seminaries and could not help in agricultural work. In addition, the necessity to give children education did not require less money than to keep them at home, even when the cost of education and/or the accompanying expenses were covered by the state.

  11. Recurrent polymorphic mating type variation in MadagascanBulbophyllumspecies (Orchidaceae) exemplifies a high incidence of auto-pollination in tropical orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamisch, Alexander; Fischer, Gunter A; Comes, Hans Peter

    2014-06-01

    The transition from outcrossing to self-fertilization is one of the most common evolutionary changes in angiosperms. The orchid family exemplifies this evolutionary trend but, because of a general lack of large-scale surveys on auto-pollination in orchid taxa, the incidence and modes of auto-pollination among (sub)tropical orchids remain poorly known. In the present study, we assessed the frequency and mode of auto-pollination within and among species of a largely monophyletic group of Madagascan Bulbophyllum . The capacity for autonomous fruit set was investigated by bagging experiments in the greenhouse and the field, complemented with detailed floral micromorphological studies of the gynostemium. Our survey comprises 393 accessions, representing at least 78 species, and thus approximately 37% of the species diversity of the genus in the Madagascan region. Our studies revealed that mating type is directly related to gynostemium structure, most often involving the presence or absence of a physical barrier termed 'rostellum'. As a novel and unexpected finding, we identified eight species of a single lineage of Madagascan Bulbophyllum (termed 'clade C'), in which auto-pollinating morphs (selfers), either lacking a rostellum or (rarely) possessing a stigmatic rostellum, co-exist with their pollinator-dependent conspecifics (outcrossers). We hypothesize that auto-pollination via rostellum abortion has a simple genetic basis, and probably evolved rapidly and recurrently by subtle changes in the timing of rostellum development (heterochrony). Thus, species of clade C may have an intrinsic genetic and developmental lability toward auto-pollination, allowing rapid evolutionary response under environmental, perhaps human-disturbed conditions favouring reproductive assurance. Overall, these findings should stimulate further research on the incidence, evolution, and maintenance of mating type variation in tropical orchids, as well as how they adapt(ed) to changing

  12. Play vs. Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    Through the theories of play by Gadamer (2004) and Henricks (2006), I will show how the relationship between play and game can be understood as dialectic and disruptive, thus challenging understandings of how the procedures of games determine player activity and vice versa. As such, I posit some...... analytical consequences for understandings of digital games as procedurally fixed (Boghost, 2006; Flannagan, 2009; Bathwaite & Sharp, 2010). That is, if digital games are argued to be procedurally fixed and if play is an appropriative and dialectic activity, then it could be argued that the latter affects...... and alters the former, and vice versa. Consequently, if the appointed procedures of a game are no longer fixed and rigid in their conveyance of meaning, qua the appropriative and dissolving nature of play, then understandings of games as conveying a fixed meaning through their procedures are inadequate...

  13. Written object naming, spelling to dictation, and immediate copying: Different tasks, different pathways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Méot, Alain; Lagarrigue, Aurélie; Roux, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    We report an investigation of cross-task comparisons of handwritten latencies in written object naming, spelling to dictation, and immediate copying. In three separate sessions, adults had to write down a list of concrete nouns from their corresponding pictures (written naming), from their spoken (spelling to dictation) and from their visual presentation (immediate copying). Linear mixed models without random slopes were performed on the latencies in order to study and compare within-task fixed effects. By-participants random slopes were then included to investigate individual differences within and across tasks. Overall, the findings suggest that written naming, spelling to dictation, and copying all involve a lexical pathway, but that written naming relies on this pathway more than the other two tasks do. Only spelling to dictation strongly involves a nonlexical pathway. Finally, the analyses performed at the level of participants indicate that, depending on the type of task, the slower participants are more or less influenced by certain psycholinguistic variables.

  14. Comparison of audio vs. written feedback on clinical assignments of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgault, Annette M; Mundy, Cynthia; Joshua, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study explored using audio recordings as method of feedback for weekly clinical assignments of nursing students. Feedback that provides students with insight into their performance is an essential component of nursing education. Audio methods have been used to communicate feedback on written assignments in other disciplines, but this method has not been reported in the nursing literature. A survey and VARK questionnaire were completed by eight nursing students. Each student had randomly received written and audio feedback during an eight-week period. There were no differences between written and audio methods. Students perceived audio as the most personal, easy to understand, and positive method. Only one student expressed a preference for written feedback.There was no difference in instructor time. Audio feedback is an innovative method of feedback for clinical assignments of 'Net Generation' nursing students.

  15. Imagery and rehearsal as study strategies for written or orally presented passages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Beni, Rossana; Moè, Angelica

    2003-01-01

    .... It was hypothesized that imagery is a more effective recall strategy for an oral presentation and rehearsal for a written presentation, and that imagery and rehearsal are effective study strategies...

  16. Which characteristics of written feedback are perceived as stimulating students' reflective competence : an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Hanke; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Snoek, Jos W.; van der Molen, Thys; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Background: Teacher feedback on student reflective writing is recommended to improve learners' reflective competence. To be able to improve teacher feedback on reflective writing, it is essential to gain insight into which characteristics of written feedback stimulate students' reflection processes.

  17. How to Verify Plagiarism of the Paper Written in Macedonian and Translated in Foreign Language?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Spiroski

    2016-02-01

    CONCLUSION: Plagiarism of the original papers written in Macedonian and translated in other languages can be verified after computerised translation in other languages. Later on, original and translated documents can be compared with available software for plagiarism detection.

  18. Facebook as a Modern Tool for Teaching English Written Communication to Students-Philologists

    OpenAIRE

    Hlazunov, M.

    2016-01-01

    The article analyses Facebook social network as a means of teaching English written communication to students. The basic features of the network have been analyzed, its basic advantages and possible drawbacks have been pointed out.

  19. On Verification of PLC-Programs Written in the LD-Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kuzmin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss some questions connected with the construction of a technology of analysing correctness of Programmable Logic Controller programs. We consider an example of modeling and automated verification of PLC-programs written in the Ladder Diagram language (including timed function blocks of the IEC 61131-3 standard. We use the Cadence SMV for symbolic model checking. Program properties are written in the linear-time temporal logic LTL.

  20. Content analysis of ethical codes written by medical students compared with other codes of medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenbaum, Shaun E; Jotkowitz, Alan B

    2009-09-01

    Swearing to a medical oath is a common practice in medical schools today. Students at the Medical School for International Health (MSIH) participate in an elaborate physician's oath ceremony held in the first year of studies. At this ceremony, students read a code of ethics written by their class, the content of which includes the ethical principles the class as a whole deems significant. 9 codes of ethics, written by students at the MSIH between 1998 and 2006, as well as the oaths of Hippocrates and Maimonides, were collected and the principles contained within them were analyzed and compared. The oaths were broken up into preamble, covenant, code, and peroration sections, each encompassing various content domains. Principles discussed in both the oaths of Hippocrates and Maimonides, as well in two-thirds or more of the student-written codes, included loyalty to one's colleagues, the profession, and one's teachers, as well as acting with beneficence. Attributes including compassion, integrity, and honesty, were mentioned in two-thirds or more of the student-written codes but neither the oath of Hippocrates nor Maimonides. Controversial issues, such as abortion and discussing God were not included in codes written by students. Ethical codes written by students at the MSIH contained some similar principles to those contained within the traditional oaths; however, there was more emphasis on attributes that establish a good physician-patient relationship in the codes written by students. Future studies need to examine the content of other student-written codes. 2008 European Federation of Internal Medicine.

  1. The Written Expression Abilities of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Molitor, Stephen J.; Langberg, Joshua M.; Evans, Steve W.

    2016-01-01

    Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often experience deficits in academic achievement. Written expression abilities in this population have not been extensively studied but existing prevalence estimates suggest that rates of comorbid writing underachievement may be substantially higher than rates of comorbid reading and mathematics underachievement. The current study examined written expression abilities in a school-based sample of 326 middle school age students with...

  2. [Written advance euthanasia directives in mentally incompetent patients with dementia: a systematic review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nooijer, K; van de Wetering, V E; Geijteman, E C T; Postma, L; Rietjens, J A C; van der Heide, A

    2017-01-01

    To present the knowledge, experiences and attitudes of the general population, patients, relatives and health care professionals concerning written advance euthanasia directives in patients who have become mentally incompetent. Systematic review of the literature. We systematically searched Medline, Cochrane Library and Embase for articles published in the period 2002-2016. The search yielded 775 articles, of which 11 met the inclusion criteria. Six studies had a quantitative design, four studies had a qualitative design and one a combination of both. Nine articles included patients with advanced dementia, two included patients with Huntington's disease. Patients, their relatives and the general population appear to have limited knowledge about written advance euthanasia directives. However, most of them were open to the practice of euthanasia based on a written advance directive. Few persons and patients had written a euthanasia directive and if they had, it was not always discussed with health care professionals. The majority of health care professionals thought - incorrectly - that euthanasia based on a written advance euthanasia directive is not permitted. Some of them had a positive attitude towards written advance euthanasia directives, and a very small number would be prepared to carry out euthanasia on the basis of a written directive. In practice, there are very few who have actually done so. There is fairly wide support from the general population and empathy from health care professionals for the idea that euthanasia based on a written advance euthanasia directive of a mentally incompetent patient should be possible. Even so, there is a discrepancy between the expectations of the general population and what health care professionals think they can actually do in this situation.

  3. The "SignOn"-Model for Teaching Written Language to Deaf People

    OpenAIRE

    Marlene Hilzensauer; Franz Dotter

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows a method of teaching written language to deaf people using sign language as the language of instruction. Written texts in the target language are combined with sign language videos which provide the users with various modes of translation (words/phrases/sentences). As examples, two EU projects for English for the Deaf are presented which feature English texts and translations into the national sign languages of all the partner countries plus signed grammar explanations and in...

  4. Common Written Errors Of English Departement Student in IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyntia Heru Woro Prastiwi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Common Written Errrors of English Department Students in IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro. Writing is still considered to be the most difficult skill to master as it combines ideas getting, grammatical structures, vocabulary, and mechanics. Producing good written English is an essential and required skill for English Department Students. This study examines the common errors in written English produced by the students of English Department in IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro. The error analysis on writing aims at giving the English teacher or lecturer data about common written errors and arousing the students to be more confident and enthusiastic in producing good writing by giving them correction symbols. Data were collected from narrative and descriptive texts written by the students of class 2C of English Department in IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro. The errors are analyzed in ten categories which use ten correction symbols, they are: 1 S (spelling, WO (word order, G (grammar, T (tense, C (concord, ! (missing things, WW (wrong word, [ ] (unnecessary things, ?M (unclear meaning, and P (punctuation. The overall results indicate that the most errors the students made were grammar mistakes and unnecessary things. On the contrary, the students made the least errors in word order. It was also found that the students made errors in the rest categories including spelling, tenses, concord, missing things, wrong words, unclear meaning, and punctuation. Key words: common errors, written English, correction symbols, descriptive qualitative.

  5. Developing written discourse knowledge in whole language and code emphasis classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z

    2000-09-01

    Although there have been a plethora of studies comparing the effects of whole language vs. code emphasis instruction on children's literacy development, few have examined what children actually learn about features of written discourse in the two instructional settings. The purpose of this study was to compare the development of written discourse knowledge among young children in whole language and code emphasis classrooms. Participants were 64 first grade children, 29 boys and 35 girls, in four intact classrooms from a mid-western school district of the United States. About half of them (N = 34) received whole language instruction and the other half (N = 30) code emphasis instruction. Each child was individually asked to compose a book-like story about a personally relevant experience for others to read at the beginning and end of the school year. The texts were analysed linguistically and statistically in terms of three fundamental features of written discourse--autonomy, conventionality, and specialised grammar. The children developed more knowledge about the autonomy and conventionality features of written discourse, but their understanding of its specialised grammar remained inchoate. Further, the whole language and code emphasis groups did not demonstrate statistically significant differences in their working knowledge of written discourse. The nature of instructional programme (whole language vs. code emphasis) appears to have little impact on children's developing understanding of written discourse.

  6. DISCOURSE AND PARTICIPATION IN ESL FACE-TO-FACE AND WRITTEN ELECTRONIC CONFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fitze

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was a comparative investigation of face-to-face and written electronic conferences. The participants were advanced English as a second language (hereafter: ESL students. The two types of conferences were compared in terms of textual features and participation. There was no statistically significant difference in the total number of words that students produced in an equivalent amount of time in the two types of conferences. The discourse in written electronic conferences displayed greater lexical range, and students in these conferences produced more discourse demonstrating interactive competence. The statistically significant finding of increased lexical range in written electronic conferences persisted even when the interactive discourse was eliminated from the conference transcripts and the transcripts were reanalyzed. This finding suggests that, during written electronic conferences, students were better able to use and practice a wider range of vocabulary related to the topics. For one of the groups, participation in written electronic conferences was more balanced among students, while for the other group participation was about equally balanced regardless of the conference setting. This last finding came as a surprise and points to a need for further research into variables that might mediate balanced participation in face-to-face and written electronic conferences.

  7. Monitoring energy intake: a hand-held personal digital assistant provides accuracy comparable to written records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, Holly L; Sigrist, Lori D; Smith, Tracey J; Karl, J Philip; Rood, Jennifer C; Young, Andrew J; Bathalon, Gaston P

    2009-07-01

    New approaches to assess energy intake (EI) may have advantages over traditional written methods, but validity of these emerging methodologies must be demonstrated. This exploratory study compared EI obtained using a hand-held personal digital assistant (PDA) and traditional written records with total energy expenditure measured by doubly labeled water (TEE(DLW)). Twenty-six volunteers (aged 23+/-4 years, body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 24+/-2) participated in a randomized (either PDA or written record group) and matched (for sex, age, and body mass index) study for 7 consecutive days between June 2005 and April 2006 to record EI. Group comparisons were made with t and Mann-Whitney U tests. Bland-Altman plots were used to compare limits of agreement between methods. Volunteers remained weight stable during the study period (0.2+/-0.8 kg; P>0.05). Reported EI by written record and PDA were similar to TEE(DLW); 105% vs 92% of TEE(DLW), respectively (P>0.05). There was a significant relationship between reported EI by PDA and TEE(DLW) (r=0.60, Precord (r=0.45, P>0.05). Limits of agreement indicated both written record and PDA had large variability (range 1,394 to -1,472 kcal/day). Findings suggest the bias in using a PDA is similar to that observed when using a written record for estimation of EI in weight-stable volunteers.

  8. Phonology is not accessed earlier than orthography in Chinese written production: Evidence for orthography autonomy hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfang eZhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of orthographic and phonological codes to written production remains controversial. We report results using a picture-word interference task in which participants were asked to write (Experiments 1 and 2 or to speak (Experiment 3 the names of pictures while trying to ignore visual distractors, and the interval between the target and distractor onset was varied. Distractors were orthographically plus phonologically related, orthographically related, phonologically related or unrelated to picture names. For written production, we found an exclusive orthographic effect at an early stage, reflecting a fast and direct link between meaning and graphemic lexicon, and we demonstrated that orthographic codes can be accessed directly from meaning in healthy adults. We also found orthographic and phonological effects at a later stage, reflecting a slow and indirect link between meaning and graphemic lexicon via phonology. Furthermore, the absence of an interaction effect of orthographic and phonological facilitation on written latencies suggests that the two effects are additive in general and that they might occur independently in written production in Chinese. For spoken production, we found that orthographic and phonological effects occur simultaneously in spoken production and that the two effects are additive at an early stage but interactive at a later stage. The temporal courses and their interplay of orthographic and phonological effects are dissociative in written and spoken production. Our findings thus support the orthography autonomy hypothesis, rather than the obligatory phonological mediation hypothesis, in written production in Chinese (as a non-alphabetic script.

  9. Validated Test Method 1315: Mass Transfer Rates of Constituents in Monolithic or Compacted Granular Materials Using a Semi-Dynamic Tank Leaching Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes procedures written based on the assumption that they will be performed by analysts who are formally trained in at least the basic principles of chemical analysis and in the use of the subject technology.

  10. USE OF STATISTICAL METHODS IN DETECTING ACCOUNTING ENGINEERING ACTIVITIES (AS EXEMPLIFIED BY THE ACCOUNTING SYSTEM IN POLAND) – FIRST PART: THEOTHEORETICAL

    OpenAIRE

    Leszek Michalczyk

    2013-01-01

    This article is one in a series of two publications concerning companies’ detection of accounting engineering operations in use. Its conclusions and methods may be applied to external auditing procedures. The aim of the present duo-article is to define a method of statistical analysis that could identify procedures falling within the scope of a framework herein defined as accounting engineering. This model for analysis is meant to be employed in these aspects of initial financial and accounti...

  11. Use of statistical methods in detecting accounting engineering activities (as exemplified by the accounting system in Poland) - First part: Theoretical aspects of analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Michalczyk, Leszek

    2013-01-01

    This article is one in a series of two publications concerning companies' detection of accounting engineering operations in use. Its conclusions and methods may be applied to external auditing procedures. The aim of the present duo-article is to define a method of statistical analysis that could identify procedures falling within the scope of a framework herein defined as accounting engineering. This model for analysis is meant to be employed in these aspects of initial financial and accounti...

  12. Use of statistical methods in detecting accounting engineering activities (as exemplified by the accounting system in Poland) - Second part: Empirical aspects of analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Leszek Michalczyk

    2013-01-01

    This article is one in a series of two publications concerning detection of accounting engineering operations in use. Its conclusions and methods may be applied to external auditing procedures. The aim of the present duo-article is to define a method of statistical analysis that could identify procedures falling within the scope of a framework herein defined as accounting engineering. This model for analysis is meant to be employed in these aspects of initial financial and accounting audit in...

  13. Mastectomy -- The Surgical Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Factors That Affect Prognosis And Treatment Breast Reconstruction Mastectomy - The Procedure A mastectomy is performed under general ... prognosis. Learn more about assessing axillary lymph nodes . Mastectomy with and without breast reconstruction Breast reconstruction Some ...

  14. Special Blood Donation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures Precautions and Adverse Reactions During Blood Transfusion (See Overview of Blood Transfusion .) Plateletpheresis (platelet donation) In plateletpheresis, a donor gives only platelets rather than whole blood. Whole ...

  15. Effects of Self-Graphing on Written Expression of Fourth Grade Students with High-Incidence Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, Kate E.; Itoi, Madoka; Konrad, Moira; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of self-graphing on the writing of 3 fourth grade students with high-incidence disabilities. Measures of written expression included total number of words written and number of correct word sequences. During intervention, students self-graphed their total number of words written in response to…

  16. Teachers' Accounts of Their Perceptions and Practices of Providing Written Feedback to Nursing Students on Their Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Sajid; Gul, Raisa; Lakhani, Arusa; Rizvi, Nusrat Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Written feedback can facilitate students' learning in several ways. However, the teachers' practices of written feedback may be affected by various factors. This study aimed to explore the nurse teachers' accounts of their perceptions and practices of providing written feedback. A descriptive exploratory design was employed in the study. A…

  17. 16 CFR 303.40 - Use of terms in written advertisements that imply presence of a fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of terms in written advertisements that... IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.40 Use of terms in written advertisements that imply presence of a fiber. The use of terms in written advertisements, including advertisements disseminated through the Internet and similar...

  18. The loci recommended as universal barcodes for plants on the basis of floristic studies may not work with congeneric species as exemplified by DNA barcoding of Dendrobium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Hemant

    2012-01-01

    far, is not likely to provide 100% species identification across the plant kingdom and thus is not likely to act as a universal barcode. It appears that barcodes, if based on single or limited locus(i, would be taxa specific as is exemplified by the success of ITS among Dendrobium species, though it may not be suitable for other plants because of the problems that are discussed.

  19. The loci recommended as universal barcodes for plants on the basis of floristic studies may not work with congeneric species as exemplified by DNA barcoding of Dendrobium species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    provide 100% species identification across the plant kingdom and thus is not likely to act as a universal barcode. It appears that barcodes, if based on single or limited locus(i), would be taxa specific as is exemplified by the success of ITS among Dendrobium species, though it may not be suitable for other plants because of the problems that are discussed. PMID:22260646

  20. Applying the Verona coding definitions of emotional sequences (VR-CoDES) to code medical students' written responses to written case scenarios: Some methodological and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortwein, Heiderose; Benz, Alexander; Carl, Petra; Huwendiek, Sören; Pander, Tanja; Kiessling, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    To investigate whether the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences to code health providers' responses (VR-CoDES-P) can be used for assessment of medical students' responses to patients' cues and concerns provided in written case vignettes. Student responses in direct speech to patient cues and concerns were analysed in 21 different case scenarios using VR-CoDES-P. A total of 977 student responses were available for coding, and 857 responses were codable with the VR-CoDES-P. In 74.6% of responses, the students used either a "reducing space" statement only or a "providing space" statement immediately followed by a "reducing space" statement. Overall, the most frequent response was explicit information advice (ERIa) followed by content exploring (EPCEx) and content acknowledgement (EPCAc). VR-CoDES-P were applicable to written responses of medical students when they were phrased in direct speech. The application of VR-CoDES-P is reliable and feasible when using the differentiation of "providing" and "reducing space" responses. Communication strategies described by students in non-direct speech were difficult to code and produced many missings. VR-CoDES-P are useful for analysis of medical students' written responses when focusing on emotional issues. Students need precise instructions for their response in the given test format. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Public preferences on written informed consent for low-risk pragmatic clinical trials in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal-Ré, Rafael; Carcas, Antonio J; Carné, Xavier; Wendler, David

    2017-09-01

    Pragmatic randomized clinical trials (pRCTs) collect data that have the potential to improve medical care significantly. However, these trials may be undermined by the requirement to obtain written informed consent, which can decrease accrual and increase selection bias. Recent data suggest that the majority of the US public endorses written consent for low-risk pRCTs. The present study was designed to assess whether this view is specific to the US. The study took the form of a cross-sectional, probability-based survey, with a 2 × 2 factorial design, assessing support for written informed consent vs. verbal consent or general notification for two low-risk pRCTs in hypertension, one comparing two drugs with similar risk/benefit profiles and the other comparing the same drug being taken in the morning or at night. The primary outcome measures were respondents' personal preference and hypothetical recommendation to a research ethics committee regarding the use of written informed consent vs. the alternatives. A total of 2008 adults sampled from a probability-based online panel responded to the web-based survey conducted in May 2016 (response rate: 61%). Overall, 77% of respondents endorsed written consent. In both scenarios, the alternative of general notification received significantly more support (28.7-37.1%) than the alternative of verbal consent (12.7-14.0%) (P = 0.001). Forty per cent of respondents preferred and/or recommended general notification rather than written consent. The results suggested that, rather than attempting to waive written consent, current pRCTs should focus on developing ways to implement written consent that provide sufficient information without undermining recruitment or increasing selection bias. The finding that around 40% of respondents endorsed general notification over written consent raises the possibility that, with educational efforts, the majority of Spaniards might accept general notification for low-risk pRCTs. © 2017 The

  2. Framing written emotional expression from a religious perspective: effects on depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung Y; Contrada, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has found an inverse association between exposure to emotional trauma and well-being. More recently, studies on written emotional expression found that repeated expression of a traumatic experience is beneficial to physical health. However, possible mechanisms through which written emotional expression may work to influence health are still under investigation. Recent research on psychological stress has also found associations among religion, meaning, and health. This study evaluated the effects of taking a religious perspective while engaged in written emotional expression. Participants included 215 college students, who were assigned randomly to one of three experimental groups. One was given conventional written emotional expression instructions for writing about a traumatic experience; another was instructed to write about the trauma from a religious/spiritual perspective; a control group wrote about a trivial topic. Compared with control participants, those in the trauma-religion condition experienced significantly greater reductions in depressive symptoms at 1-month follow-up. Conventional trauma writing had no effect on dependent measures. These findings encourage further investigation of religion as a factor that may augment the health-promoting effects of written emotional expression.

  3. The Contribution of Verbal Working Memory to Deaf Children’s Oral and Written Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfé, Barbara; Rossi, Cristina; Sicoli, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of verbal working memory to the oral and written story production of deaf children. Participants were 29 severely to profoundly deaf children aged 8–13 years and 29 hearing controls, matched for grade level. The children narrated a picture story orally and in writing and performed a reading comprehension test, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition forward digit span task, and a reading span task. Oral and written stories were analyzed at the microstructural (i.e., clause) and macrostructural (discourse) levels. Hearing children’s stories scored higher than deaf children’s at both levels. Verbal working memory skills contributed to deaf children’s oral and written production over and above age and reading comprehension skills. Verbal rehearsal skills (forward digit span) contributed significantly to deaf children’s ability to organize oral and written stories at the microstructural level; they also accounted for unique variance at the macrostructural level in writing. Written story production appeared to involve greater verbal working memory resources than oral story production. PMID:25802319

  4. Midwifery competence: Content in midwifery students' daily written reflections on clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekelin, Maria; Kvist, Linda J; Persson, Eva K

    2016-01-01

    to examine the content in midwifery students' written daily reflections and in their supervisors' written feedback during clinical practice at birth units. a total of 388 reflections written by a cohort of 18 midwifery students and written feedback provided by their supervisors have been analysed using content analysis. one main category, transition to midwifery competence emerged and was interpreted as a process of development in midwifery skills over time. This main category encompasses five categories: evaluations, own actions, communication, own emotions and insights comprising fourteen subcategories. As the education programme progressed there was evidence of development from fragmented reflections about care and learning to holistic reflections on learning. Comments from the clinical supervisors contained acknowledgement of the students' reflections or comments with a didactic content. daily written reflections on practice may be a useful pedagogical tool as reflective writing helps students to be active in transition to midwifery competence. Professional development may be facilitated by insights generated by reflection. Amount and content of feedback varied between supervisors which can result in a discrepancy in pedagogical value for individual students. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Practical procedure for method validation in INAA- A tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroni, Robson; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: robsonpetroni@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the procedure employed by the Neutron Activation Laboratory at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (LAN, IPEN - CNEN/SP) for validation of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods. According to recommendations of ISO/IEC 17025 the method performance characteristics (limit of detection, limit of quantification, trueness, repeatability, intermediate precision, reproducibility, selectivity, linearity and uncertainties budget) were outline in an easy, fast and convenient way. The paper presents step by step how to calculate the required method performance characteristics in a process of method validation, what are the procedures, adopted strategies and acceptance criteria for the results, that is, how to make a method validation in INAA. In order to exemplify the methodology applied, obtained results for the method validation of mass fraction determination of Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, Se and Zn in biological matrix samples, using an internal reference material of mussel tissue were presented. It was concluded that the methodology applied for validation of INAA methods is suitable, meeting all the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025, and thereby, generating satisfactory results for the studies carried at LAN, IPEN - CNEN/SP. (author)

  6. Procedural sedation analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheta Saad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures performed outside of the operating room has grown exponentially over the last several decades. Sedation, analgesia, or both may be needed for many of these interventional or diagnostic procedures. Individualized care is important when determining if a patient requires procedural sedation analgesia (PSA. The patient might need an anti-anxiety drug, pain medicine, immobilization, simple reassurance, or a combination of these interventions. The goals of PSA in four different multidisciplinary practices namely; emergency, dentistry, radiology and gastrointestinal endoscopy are discussed in this review article. Some procedures are painful, others painless. Therefore, goals of PSA vary widely. Sedation management can range from minimal sedation, to the extent of minimal anesthesia. Procedural sedation in emergency department (ED usually requires combinations of multiple agents to reach desired effects of analgesia plus anxiolysis. However, in dental practice, moderate sedation analgesia (known to the dentists as conscious sedation is usually what is required. It is usually most effective with the combined use of local anesthesia. The mainstay of success for painless imaging is absolute immobility. Immobility can be achieved by deep sedation or minimal anesthesia. On the other hand, moderate sedation, deep sedation, minimal anesthesia and conventional general anesthesia can be all utilized for management of gastrointestinal endoscopy.

  7. Mobile Energy Laboratory Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Batishko, C.R.; Dittmer, A.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Stoops, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been tasked to plan and implement a framework for measuring and analyzing the efficiency of on-site energy conversion, distribution, and end-use application on federal facilities as part of its overall technical support to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) Procedures establish guidelines for specific activities performed by PNL staff. PNL provided sophisticated energy monitoring, auditing, and analysis equipment for on-site evaluation of energy use efficiency. Specially trained engineers and technicians were provided to conduct tests in a safe and efficient manner with the assistance of host facility staff and contractors. Reports were produced to describe test procedures, results, and suggested courses of action. These reports may be used to justify changes in operating procedures, maintenance efforts, system designs, or energy-using equipment. The MEL capabilities can subsequently be used to assess the results of energy conservation projects. These procedures recognize the need for centralized NM administration, test procedure development, operator training, and technical oversight. This need is evidenced by increasing requests fbr MEL use and the economies available by having trained, full-time MEL operators and near continuous MEL operation. DOE will assign new equipment and upgrade existing equipment as new capabilities are developed. The equipment and trained technicians will be made available to federal agencies that provide funding for the direct costs associated with MEL use.

  8. Written Expression in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Elizabeth; Accardo, Amy L

    2017-11-21

    Although studies exist measuring the effectiveness of writing interventions for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research assessing the writing skills for this group is sparse. The present study identified differences in the written expression of individuals with ASD compared to typically developing (TD) peers, using variables selected from 13 different studies. Using Pearson Product Moment-correlation the relationship between the quality of research studies and the magnitude of the effect sizes was examined. Findings indicate significant differences in the following components of written expression; length, legibility, handwriting size, speed, spelling, and overall structure, highlighting the need for future research to determine if the characteristics of written expression in individuals with ASD are similar to other struggling writers.

  9. Intercultural Communication Online: Conversation Analysis and the Investigation of Asynchronous Written Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Gibson

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper works through the methodological issues involved in treating "culture" and "interculturality" as interactionally demonstrable and observable phenomena in written online asynchronous discourse. In particular, the paper explores the ways that conversation analysis (CA and its focus on sequentiality and membership categorization analysis might aid the analysis of culture as a textural interactional achievement. The paper argues that, while there are some clear differences between sequential talk and written asynchronous discourse, there are still interesting ways in which CA's analytic foci may be worked through in relation to online discourse. Both the concern with sequentiality and with membership categories may well help us to see how the construction of visible and recognizable intercultural discourse practices are accomplished through written modes in online forums. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901493

  10. Students' and teachers' views of written feedback at undergraduate level: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Natalie M; Wilkinson, Ann

    2014-04-01

    To explore undergraduate students' expectations and teachers' views of written feedback. Narrative literature review. Seven electronic databases were searched for primary research published in English with additional manual searches and reference tracking. Systematic approach to search strategy, selection and appraisal of papers, data extraction and synthesis following Hawker et al.'s (2002) guidelines. 21 studies met the inclusion criteria. Four student themes were identified concerning written feedback: quality, quantity and location of feedback, feed-forward and timeliness. Teachers reported that time pressures, institutional policies, and administrative issues affect feedback provision. Rigorous research is needed to gain a better understanding of students' expectations of written feedback. Strategies need to be adopted to meet students' expectations and educate students to take an active role and reflect on the feedback received. © 2013.

  11. A Descriptive Study of Registers Found in Spoken and Written Communication (A Semantic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hidayah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is descriptive study of registers found in spoken and written communication. The type of this research is Descriptive Qualitative Research. In this research, the data of the study is register in spoken and written communication that are found in a book entitled "Communicating! Theory and Practice" and from internet. The data can be in the forms of words, phrases and abbreviation. In relation with method of collection data, the writer uses the library method as her instrument. The writer relates it to the study of register in spoken and written communication. The technique of analyzing the data using descriptive method. The types of register in this term will be separated into formal register and informal register, and identify the meaning of register.

  12. IAA and the Popularization of Astronomy in Written-Press Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vílchez, J. M.; Alberdi, A.; Alfaro, E.; Del Toro, J. C.; López de Lacalle, S.; Rendón, F.

    One of the main objectives of the IAA since the last decade has been the necessity of communicating its scientific activity to the public, together all the relevant information of general astrophysical interest that may reach to the public. A continuous collaboration with daily written press, in magazines of general scientific spreading and specific to astronomical information, together with the publication of especial editions and supplements, and the edition of our own magazine “Information y Actualidad Astronomica”, conform a conspicuous presence in the written media. In this contribution we review the main activities that the IAA has carried out in the recent years within the field of scientific communication in the written press media, and present several of the new challenges that we have ahead.

  13. Written accounts of an Amazonian landscape over the last 450 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Nigel C A; Azáldegui, María Del Carmen Loyola; Salas, Karina; Vigo, Gabriela T; Lutz, David A

    2007-02-01

    Books, articles, government documents, and other written accounts of tropical biology and conservation reach a tiny fraction of their potential audience. Some texts are inaccessible because of the language in which they are written. Others are only available to subscribers of developed-world journals, or distributed narrowly within tropical countries. To examine this dysfunction in the tropical literature--and what it means for conservation--we tried to compile everything ever written on the biology and conservation of the department of Madre de Dios, Peru, in southwestern Amazonia. Our search of libraries, databases, and existing bibliographies uncovered 2,202 texts totaling roughly 80,000 pages. Texts date from 1553 to 2004, but 93% were written after 1970. Since that year the publication rate has increased steadily from fewer than 10 texts/year to nearly 3 texts/week in 2004. Roughly half of the Madre de Dios bibliography is in Spanish-language texts written by Peruvian authors and mostly inaccessible outside Peru. Most of the remaining material is English-language texts written by foreign authors and largely inaccessible in Peru. Foreign authors tended to write about ecological studies with limited relevance to on-the-ground conservation challenges, whereas Peruvian authors were more likely to make specific management recommendations. The establishment of a Web-based digital library for Neotropical nature would help make the tropical literature a more efficient resource for science and conservation. Additional recommendations include investing in syntheses, translations, popular summaries, and peer-reviewed journals in tropical countries, providing incentives for management-relevant research in tropical protected areas, and reinforcing training of scientific reading and writing in tropical universities.

  14. The European Procedure on Reduced Value Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Zaharia

    2009-06-01

    Regulation expressly provides that the court order in this matter can not be, in any form, the subject ofreexamination, in the State member in which its execution is requested. As regards the linguistic regime,the application will be written in the language or in one of the procedure languages of the court; the costsare incurred by the losing party in the application. But the court will not grant the party that won thelawsuit the expenses that were not necessary or the ones that have a disproportionate value in relation tothe application.

  15. A Comparative Analysis of British and Taiwanese Students' Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Fraction Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    This study examines students' procedural and conceptual achievement in fraction addition in England and Taiwan. A total of 1209 participants (561 British students and 648 Taiwanese students) at ages 12 and 13 were recruited from England and Taiwan to take part in the study. A quantitative design by means of a self-designed written test is adopted…

  16. 34 CFR 602.23 - Operating procedures all agencies must have.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating procedures all agencies must have. 602.23 Section 602.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF... agencies must have. (a) The agency must maintain and make available to the public written materials...

  17. 76 FR 13974 - Information Collection; Small Business Timber Sale Set-Aside Program; Appeal Procedures on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... to reallocate shares, including the data used in making the proposed recomputation decision. Within... decision on the shares to be set aside for small businesses and gives written notice of the decision to all... Forest Service Information Collection; Small Business Timber Sale Set-Aside Program; Appeal Procedures on...

  18. Evaluation of a procedure to assess the adverse effects of illicit drugs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam, J G C van; Best, W; Opperhuizen, A; Wolff, F A de

    2004-01-01

    The assessment procedure of new synthetic illicit drugs that are not documented in the UN treaty on psychotropic drugs was evaluated using a modified Electre model. Drugs were evaluated by an expert panel via the open Delphi approach, where the written score was discussed on 16 items, covering

  19. 33 CFR 157.415 - Bridge resource management policy and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bridge resource management policy... Petroleum Oils § 157.415 Bridge resource management policy and procedures. (a) Not later than February 1... resources are being allocated and used, based on bridge resource management principles. This written policy...

  20. Procedure and Program Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britz, Dieter

    Here some modules, procedures and whole programs are described, that may be useful to the reader, as they have been, to the author. They are all in Fortran 90/95 and start with a generally useful module, that will be used in most procedures and programs in the examples, and another module useful for programs using a Rosenbrock variant. The source texts (except for the two modules) are not reproduced here, but can be downloaded from the web site www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=issue &issn=1616-6361&volume=666 (the two lines form one contiguous URL!).

  1. Education, Sociability and Written Culture : the case of the Society of Jesus in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Van Damme

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In a special Issue of the journal Annales, the historian Roger Chartier could draw up a review of the written culture history and underlined the role played by certain social groups in the diffusion of written culture in the cities. He distinguished two major elements in this evolution  : one hand “ The use of writing as an instrument of self-government and administration ” and on the other hand “ the link between religious experience and use of writting ”. In this tension, it has been intere...

  2. The Effect of a Written and Pictorial Home Exercise Prescription on Adherence for People with Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Kara

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The addition of a written and pictorial home exercise prescription does not lead to better adherence to a home exercise programme compared to having no written and pictorial instructions. Possible reasons may be that patients had caregivers as a support system, and the exercise logbook served as a reminder and motivational track record for patients. There also does not appear to be a relationship between functional ability and level of adherence, which may be due to most of the study participants being within the optimal time frame for spontaneous functional recovery. Further study at different time frames in stroke rehabilitation in different contexts is recommended.

  3. PDSparc: A Drop-In Replacement for LEON3 Written Using Synopsys Processor Designer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-24

    SNUG  2015   1   PDSparc:  A  Drop-­‐In  Replacement  for  LEON3   Written  Using  Synopsys   Processor  Designer PDSparc...A  Drop-­‐In  Replacement  for  LEON3  Written  Using   Synopsys   Processor  Designer12   David  Whelihan,  Ph.D.  and...fabricate a range of stand-alone processors . However the proliferation of small computing devices such as cell phones, laptop computers, and internet

  4. The "SignOn"-Model for Teaching Written Language to Deaf People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Hilzensauer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a method of teaching written language to deaf people using sign language as the language of instruction. Written texts in the target language are combined with sign language videos which provide the users with various modes of translation (words/phrases/sentences. As examples, two EU projects for English for the Deaf are presented which feature English texts and translations into the national sign languages of all the partner countries plus signed grammar explanations and interactive exercises. Both courses are web-based; the programs may be accessed free of charge via the respective homepages (without any download or log-in.

  5. Written emotional disclosure: a controlled study of the benefits of expressive writing homework in outpatient psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Maria C; Gaudiano, Brandon A; Geller, Pamela A

    2008-07-01

    The current study investigated the extent to which outpatient psychotherapy clients benefited from Pennebaker's expressive writing protocol (Pennebaker & Beall, 1986) adapted for use as a homework intervention. Participants were randomly assigned to written emotional disclosure or writing control conditions. Pre- and postintervention outcome measures were collected for three consecutive therapy sessions. Clients in the written emotional disclosure group showed significantly greater reductions in anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as greater overall progress in psychotherapy in comparison to the writing control group. Results suggest that emotional disclosure writing homework, in conjunction with outpatient psychotherapy, facilitates therapeutic process and outcome.

  6. Speech-recognizing computers: a written-communication tool for students with learning disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, K

    1996-07-01

    Students with specific learning disabilities (LD) in written composition may experience difficulties that restrict their ability to demonstrate in writing what they know and can communicate orally. Voice-input technology now allows users to speak into a microphone and have their words appear on a computer screen in a word processing format, ready for revision and editing. This exploratory study reports the efforts of one sixth-grade student to learn to use this technology to assist written communication. The findings suggest that the technology holds promise for students with LD when it is refined to allow less difficulty in using it.

  7. Preschooler test or procedure preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preparing preschoolers for test/procedure; Test/procedure preparation - preschooler ... Preparing children for medical tests can reduce their anxiety. It can also make them less likely to cry and resist the procedure. Research shows that ...

  8. Toddler test or procedure preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preparing toddler for test/procedure; Test/procedure preparation - toddler; Preparing for a medical test or procedure - toddler ... Before the test, know that your child will probably cry. Even if you prepare, your child may feel some discomfort or ...

  9. The TOMAX-procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overgoor, M.L.E.

    2015-01-01

    Most patients with a low spinal lesion (LSL) have intact erectile function but no penile sensation, which can lead to frustration. To tackle this problem, we designed TOMAX, TOMAXimize sensation, sexuality and quality of life, a surgical procedure in which a functional "groin” nerve is connected to

  10. Formalizing physical security procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meadows, C.; Pavlovic, Dusko

    Although the problems of physical security emerged more than 10,000 years before the problems of computer security, no formal methods have been developed for them, and the solutions have been evolving slowly, mostly through social procedures. But as the traffic on physical and social networks is now

  11. 3. Procedures and Recursion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 6. Algorithms Procedures and Recursion. R K Shyamasundar. Series Article Volume 1 ... Author Affiliations. R K Shyamasundar1. Computer Science Group, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400 005, India.

  12. Juveniles in criminal procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the importance and role of children in modern society, as well as their position, this article has as its focus juveniles in criminal procedure. The existence of a separate juvenile justice system independent of the criminal law applicable to the adult offenders and general criminal procedure, as well as the periodic changes of the dominant approach in theory and practice reflects the ascendancy of different theoretical perspectives in the juvenile justice. In this paper, the authors scrutinize the models of responding to juvenile crime - justice and welfare model - as two models of the greatest importance in the present reaction of the society to the crimes conducted by the youngest delinquents at the beginning of the new century and millennium. Furthermore, the paper deals with a matter of international legal standards which, to a large extent, give shape to the legal framework for juvenile offenders and provide their rights and position in the criminal procedure. The authors refer to the internationally accepted documents on several levels. From the (almost universally accepted multilateral conventions on human rights, through the field of recommendations, rules and guidelines which are obeyed and enforced in practice of the juvenile justice although they are of non-binding nature, via the regional European legislative to the national provisions in a particular number of countries. On all the levels mentioned above the rights of the juveniles are regulated having in mind their possible role in the criminal procedure as a perpetrator of a criminal act, as a victim or as a witness. This paper also analyzes the criminal procedure with respect to juvenile perpetrators of the criminal acts in the Republic of Serbia and compliance of the provisions currently in vigor with the international legal standards contained in the international conventions and other internationally accepted and recognized instruments.

  13. Dermatology procedures: microdermabrasion and chemical peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tam

    2014-11-01

    Microdermabrasion and chemical peels are exfoliation procedures used to treat various cosmetic and medical skin conditions. Microdermabrasion involves mechanical abrasion of the skin with a handheld motorized device. Chemical peels involve applying acids directly to the skin. After partial destruction of the skin, these modalities rejuvenate the skin by stimulating production of new skin as well as inducing changes such as increasing production of collagen. Patients planning to undergo one of these procedures should be screened for absolute or relative contraindications, including recent use of retinoids, active skin infection, and immunosuppression. In addition, patients with histories of herpes simplex virus infection in or near the area to be treated should receive antiviral prophylaxis. Microdermabrasion is performed by passing a handheld abrasion device over the skin. Chemical peels are performed by applying liquid acid to the skin. After a chemical peel, patients treated with strong acids may require acid neutralization to protect the skin from sun exposure and reduce pain. Patients should receive aftercare instructions about application of topical agents to reduce pain, erythema, and itching. Patients undergoing chemical peels should be instructed specifically not to remove peeling skin but to let it shed spontaneously. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  14. Individual Differences in the "Myside Bias" in Reasoning and Written Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Three studies examined the "myside bias" in reasoning, evaluating written arguments, and writing argumentative essays. Previous research suggests that some people possess a fact-based argumentation schema and some people have a balanced argumentation schema. I developed reliable Likert scale instruments (1-7 rating) for these constructs…

  15. Written pain neuroscience education in fibromyalgia: a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luc Lambrecht; Dr. C.P. van der Schans; Jo Nijs; Dr. M.W. van Ittersum; Paul van Wilgen; Johan W. Groothoff

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Mounting evidence supports the use of face-to-face pain neuroscience education for the treatment of chronic pain patients. This study aimed at examining whether written education about pain neuroscience improves illness perceptions, catastrophizing, and health status in patients with

  16. Written Pain Neuroscience Education in Fibromyalgia : A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ittersum, Miriam W.; van Wilgen, C. Paul; van der Schans, Cees P.; Lambrecht, Luc; Groothoff, Johan W.; Nijs, Jo

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports the use of face-to-face pain neuroscience education for the treatment of chronic pain patients. This study aimed at examining whether written education about pain neuroscience improves illness perceptions, catastrophizing, and health status in patients with fibromyalgia. A

  17. An Investigation of Spelling in the Written Compositions of Students Who Read Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Bischke, Christine; Stoner, Julia B.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the spelling skills in the written compositions of 20 students who read braille and offers further evidence that the skills of these students are similar to those of sighted students. The assessment of writing samples focused on the number of words spelled correctly and used an error analysis to describe patterns of spelling…

  18. 9 CFR 202.111 - Rule 11: Hearing, oral or written.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 11: Hearing, oral or written. 202.111 Section 202.111 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS... for oral hearing, timely filed. Declining to make such withdrawal shall not affect the rights or...

  19. Error Analysis of Support Verb Constructions in Written Spanish Learner Corpora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salido, Marcos Garcia

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the use of support verb constructions (SVCs) in the written production of learners of Spanish. SVCs are lexical combinations whose content is similar to verbal predicates but is distributed between a verb and a noun, the noun being the carrier of the core lexical meaning of the predicate. Although there is considerable…

  20. Problems of an Emergent Written Language of the Global System for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines a looming warfare on effective writing by the GSM technology in Nigeria. In what seems like a 'method in madness', the paper identifies an emerging 'written language of the GSM' via the lexemes, morphemes, syntax, and mechanics of punctuation, capitalization and spacing and use of symbols in ...

  1. Difference between Written and Spoken Czech: The Case of Verbal Nouns Denoting an Action

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolářová, V.; Kolář, Jan; Mikulová, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 1 (2017), s. 19-38 ISSN 0032-6585 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : written Czech * spoken Czech * verbal nouns Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/pralin.2017.107.issue-1/pralin-2017-0002/pralin-2017-0002.xml

  2. La Lengua Escrita como Norma Fonetica (The Written Language as Phonetic Norm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Plaja, Guillermo

    1977-01-01

    A collectivity can be defined by the verbal instrument which binds it together. By extension of this thought of Marshall MacLuhan, the importance of the written language as normative for the uniformity, universality and preservation of the phonetic system of the language is discussed. (Text is in Spanish.) (AMH)

  3. Arabic Interference in the Written English of Sudanese Students--Relativisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, A. A.

    1979-01-01

    The following error made by Sudanese students in their written English is discussed: giving the direct translation of relative pronoun plus personal pronoun from the Arabic pattern instead of the relative pronoun. The structure of the relative clause in English and Arabic is also compared. (SW)

  4. How Do Finnish Children Express Care and Justice in Comic Strips and Written Narratives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Juha; Hannula, Markku S.

    2014-01-01

    This case study explored how children's moral expressions like love and violence differ according to the mode of narrative, comic strips or written narratives. Sixteen third-grade children from a primary school in Finland took part in the study. Children's moral expressions were divided into justice and care. Reading frequency of fairy tales and…

  5. Copyright Law Concerning Works of Art, Photographs and the Written Word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs-Smith, Charles H.

    Written in an informal style, this brief guide to the complexities of copyright law in England is intended for the world of museums and galleries. Particular attention is paid to the day-to-day problems encountered in photographic copyright. (MM)

  6. Language, literacy, attentional behaviors, and instructional quality predictors of written composition for first graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Otaiba, Stephanie Al; Sidler, Jessica Folsom; Gruelich, Luana

    2013-07-01

    We had two primary purposes in the present study: (1) to examine unique child-level predictors of written composition which included language skills, literacy skills (e.g., reading and spelling), and attentiveness and (2) to examine whether instructional quality (quality in responsiveness and individualization, and quality in spelling and writing instruction) is uniquely related to written composition for first-grade children (N = 527). Children's written composition was evaluated on substantive quality (ideas, organization, word choice, and sentence flow) and writing conventions (spelling, mechanics, and handwriting). Results revealed that for the substantive quality of writing, children's grammatical knowledge, reading comprehension, letter writing automaticity, and attentiveness were uniquely related. Teachers' responsiveness was also uniquely related to the substantive quality of written composition after accounting for child predictors and other instructional quality variables. For the writing conventions outcome, children's spelling and attentiveness were uniquely related, but instructional quality was not. These results suggest the importance of paying attention to multiple component skills such as language, literacy, and behavioral factors as well as teachers' responsiveness for writing development.

  7. How to Verify Plagiarism of the Paper Written in Macedonian and Translated in Foreign Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiroski, Mirko

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this study was to show how to verify plagiarism of the paper written in Macedonian and translated in foreign language. Original article "Ethics in Medical Research Involving Human Subjects", written in Macedonian, was submitted as an assay-2 for the subject Ethics and published by Ilina Stefanovska, PhD candidate from the Iustinianus Primus Faculty of Law, Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje (UKIM), Skopje, Republic of Macedonia in Fabruary, 2013. Suspected article for plagiarism was published by Prof. Dr. Gordana Panova from the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University Goce Delchev, Shtip, Republic of Macedonia in English with the identical title and identical content in International scientific on-line journal "SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES", Publisher "Union of Scientists - Stara Zagora". Original document (written in Macedonian) was translated with Google Translator; suspected article (published in English pdf file) was converted into Word document, and compared both documents with several programs for plagiarism detection. It was found that both documents are identical in 71%, 78% and 82%, respectively, depending on the computer program used for plagiarism detection. It was obvious that original paper was entirely plagiarised by Prof. Dr. Gordana Panova, including six references from the original paper. Plagiarism of the original papers written in Macedonian and translated in other languages can be verified after computerised translation in other languages. Later on, original and translated documents can be compared with available software for plagiarism detection.

  8. Clay Modeling versus Written Modules as Effective Interventions in Understanding Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareither, Mary Lou; Arbel, Vered; Growe, Meghan; Muszczynski, Emily; Rudd, Adam; Marone, Jane R.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of clay modeling to written modules is examined to determine the degree of improvement in learning and retention of anatomical 3D relationships among students with different learning preferences. Thirty-nine undergraduate students enrolled in a cadaver dissection course completed a pre-assessment examination and the VARK…

  9. 78 FR 68073 - Announcement of Solicitation of Written Comments on Modifications of Healthy People 2020 Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    .... 3. Objectives should drive actions that will work toward the achievement of the proposed targets... Objectives AGENCY: Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of the Assistant Secretary for....S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) solicits written comments regarding new objectives...

  10. Engineering - A World of Possibilities. A List of Audio Visual Aids and Written Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Minorities in Engineering

    Presented is a list of audiovisual aids and written materials related to careers in science and engineering, with special emphasis on the involvement of minority students in technical careers. Each item is briefly described (if the material is a film, its length and whether color or black and white is included), the cost (if any) of the material…

  11. The Relationship between Teacher's Written Feedback and Student's' Writing Performance: Sociocultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijami, Maryam; Pandian, Ambigapathy; Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar

    2016-01-01

    Feedback plays a fundamental role in writing development. The present study seeks to investigate the impact of teacher's written feedback on the writing performance of Iranian undergraduates. The subjects were 400 students majoring in the fields of English language translation and English language literature in four universities, namely Shahaid…

  12. The Role of Task Type in Foreign Language Written Production: Focusing on Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezazadeh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mansoor; Rasekh, Abbas Eslami

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two task types on foreign language written production. Particularly it addressed the issue of how three aspects of language production (i.e. fluency, complexity, and accuracy) vary among two different task types (i.e. argumentative writing task and instruction writing task). One hundred sixty…

  13. An Analysis of Tense Errors in the Written English of Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates tense errors in the written English of selected science students of Gombe State University, Nigeria. The work identifies the level of students' competence in the use of the different tense forms in expression as well as the extent to which the problem of wrong use of tense affects the overall ability of the ...

  14. Gender Differences in Written Expression Curriculum-Based Measurement in Third- through Eighth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearrington, Jamie Y.; Parker, Patricia D.; Kidder-Ashley, Pamela; Gagnon, Sandra G.; McCane-Bowling, Sara; Sorrell, Christy A.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have found gender differences in certain areas of academic achievement, such as reading and math. Fewer studies have examined gender disparities in writing skills. The current study explored gender differences in written expression performance. Participants were 1,240 male and female students in third through eighth grade,…

  15. Effect of Jigsaw I Technique on Achievement in Written Expression Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maden, Sedat

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to compare the effects of Jigsaw I technique from the cooperative learning methods and traditional teaching method on academic achievement and retrieval of Turkish teacher candidates in the matter of written expression. The sample of the study consists of 70 students studying at the Department of Turkish teaching in the academic…

  16. Written Forms of Self-Expression: Changes from 1985 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Jacqueline; Linstrum, Karen S.

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to compare the results of a 1985 study by Roscoe, Krug, and Schmidt, who surveyed high school students and their use of written forms of self-expression, with university undergraduates and graduate students in 2016. This study also sought to develop an updated survey instrument for use in obtaining information concerning a…

  17. Generalizability Theory Reliability of Written Expression Curriculum-Based Measurement in Universal Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Margulis, Milena A.; Mercer, Sterett H.; Thomas, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of written expression curriculum-based measurement (WE-CBM) in the context of universal screening from a generalizability theory framework. Students in second through fifth grade (n = 145) participated in the study. The sample included 54% female students, 49% White students, 23% African…

  18. Using Curriculum-Based Measurement to Drive IEPs and Instruction in Written Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessler, Terri; Konrad, Moira

    2008-01-01

    Setting meaningful individualized education program (IEP) goals and objectives is one of the challenges that special education teachers face. In written expression, this task is even more difficult. Not only is assessing writing a subjective and difficult endeavor, but writing itself is a complicated task. Because many students with disabilities…

  19. Effects of Jigsaw II Technique on Academic Achievement and Attitudes to Written Expression Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of a cooperative technique Jigsaw II (experimental group, n=42) and instructional teacher-centered teaching method (control group, n=38) on Turkish language teacher education department students' attitudes to written expression course (a course in which writing skills were taught), their academic achievement,…

  20. Written Mathematical Traditions in Ancient Mesopotamia: Knowledge, ignorance, and reasonable guesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    Writing, as well as various mathematical techniques, were created in proto-literate Uruk in order to serve accounting, and Mesopotamian mathematics as we know it was always expressed in writing. In so far, mathematics generically regarded was always part of the generic written tradition. However...

  1. Analysis of Written Expression Revision Skills of the Students in Faculty of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Remzi

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to analyze written expression revision skills of students in Turkish Education Department, Education Faculty. This study was done using qualitative research method. The study group of the research consisted of 3rd grade students. The research data were collected by means of document review, a qualitative research technique. The…

  2. 76 FR 42762 - Final Written Re-Evaluation for Environmental Impact Statement: Sikorsky Memorial Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ..., Burlington, MA, 781-238-7613. Stratford Public Library, 2203 Main St., Stratford, CT, 203-385-4161. Bridgeport Public Library, Borroughs Bldg., 925 Broad St., Bridegport, CT, 203-576-7777. Igor Sikorsky... and other airfield improvements. This Written Re-Evaluation documents the FAA's assessment of the...

  3. 14 CFR 65.18 - Written tests: Cheating or other unauthorized conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Written tests: Cheating or other unauthorized conduct. 65.18 Section 65.18 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... tests: Cheating or other unauthorized conduct. (a) Except as authorized by the Administrator, no person...

  4. 14 CFR 63.18 - Written tests: Cheating or other unauthorized conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Written tests: Cheating or other unauthorized conduct. 63.18 Section 63.18 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... tests: Cheating or other unauthorized conduct. (a) Except as authorized by the Administrator, no person...

  5. Factors affecting written distance-learning feedback: the tutor’s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Calfoglou

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Launching the distance-learning student-tutor interaction process, tutors of the first module of the M.Ed in English course at the HOU lay the foundations of academic student autonomy by means of providing – inter alia -- the appropriate written feedback on written assignments. In doing so, they need to gauge the content and form of their written comments systematically with regard to both output- and student-, that is human factor-related issues (cf. Goldstein, 2004, the latter being particularly relevant to the distance-learning context. In this article we discuss tutor policy as well as tutor perceptions (cf. Lee, 2004, 2009 among others regarding written feedback on students’ academic assignments in terms of aspects of deviance treated and the relative gravity of ‘global’ and ‘local’ errors (e.g. Ferris, 2002, the directness of the correction, the punitive or facilitative nature of the comments provided as well as the relative balance of student strengths and weaknesses on the tutor’s comment agenda (cf. Hyland & Hyland, 2006. The role of the tutor as an assessor and/or counsellor is explored and the importance of striking a delicate balance between the two, especially in a context where face-to-face feedback opportunities are severely restricted, is underscored. We suggest that distance-learning feedback practices may need to be at least partially individualized to maximize student response and meet the goal of ‘informed autonomy’.

  6. Two Commentaries on Ann Raimes's "The TOEFL Test of Written English: Causes for Concern."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Ulla; Raimes, Ann

    1992-01-01

    Connor comments on Raimes' research on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) essay component, the Test of Written English (TWE), and the practices of the Educational Testing Service. Raimes' response is directed toward the TWE research agenda. (five references) (Author/LB)

  7. 34 CFR 668.5 - Written arrangements to provide educational programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the requirements of § 668.8. (b) Written arrangements for study-abroad. Under a study abroad program...) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS General... consortium provides all or part of the educational program of students enrolled in the former institution...

  8. 30 CFR 250.190 - Reporting requirements for incidents requiring written notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting requirements for incidents requiring... Information and Reporting Requirements § 250.190 Reporting requirements for incidents requiring written... pipeline segment number; (6) Type of incident or injury; (7) Operation or activity at time of incident (i.e...

  9. Students' Engagement with a Collaborative Wiki Tool Predicts Enhanced Written Exam Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Tom; Elgueta, Herman; Cameron, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    We introduced voluntary wiki-based exercises to a long-running cognitive psychology course, part of the core curriculum for an undergraduate degree in psychology. Over 2 yearly cohorts, students who used the wiki more also scored higher on the final written exam. Using regression analysis, it is possible to account for students' tendency to score…

  10. Computer-Assisted Learning for the Hearing Impaired: An Interactive Written Language Enviroment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R. D.; Rostron, A. B.

    1983-01-01

    To help hearing-impaired children develop their linguistic competence, a computer system that can process sentences and give feedback about their acceptability was developed. Suggestions are made of ways to use the system as an environment for interactive written communication. (Author/CL)

  11. The Productive Vocabulary Development in the Written Chinese of the Hong Kong Cantonese-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Emily Yee Man

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a longitudinal investigation into the productive vocabulary development in the written Chinese of the Cantonese-speaking elementary children in Hong Kong. Data gathering took place using two vocabulary tests which selected prescriptive vocabulary from the textbooks and the 2007 Vocabulary List. The two assessment tests also…

  12. Batch processing images in Adobe Photoshop using a script written in JavaScript

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Сергеевна Дидык

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to consider the possibility of automating the processing of a series of photographs. Particular attention is paid to the use of scripts written in the programming language Java Script for Adobe Photoshop. Java Script scenarios are dynamic and have significant advantages over a simple-to-use Action.

  13. Short message service (SMS language and written language skills: educators' perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomé Geertsema

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available SMS language is English language slang, used as a means of mobile phone text messaging. This practice may impact on the written language skills of learners at school. The main aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of Grade 8 and 9 English (as Home Language educators in Gauteng regarding the possible influence of SMS language on certain aspects of learners' written language skills. If an influence was perceived by the educators, their perceptions regarding the degree and nature of the influence were also explored. A quantitative research design, utilising a questionnaire, was employed. The sample of participants comprised 22 educators employed at independent secondaryschools within Gauteng, South Africa. The results indicated that the majority of educators viewed SMS language as having a negative influence on the written language skills of Grade 8 and 9 learners. The influence was perceived as occurring in the learners' spelling, punctuation, and sentence length. A further finding was that the majority of educators address the negative influences of SMS language when encountered in written tasks.

  14. Written Teacher Feedback: Student Perceptions, Teacher Perceptions, and Actual Teacher Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Li

    2016-01-01

    This study sets out to investigate a teacher's and her students' perceptions of written teacher feedback in a college English as a foreign language (EFL) writing class in China. Essays, questionnaires, and interviews were employed to identify the types of feedback given by the teacher, the perceptions and preferences of students and the…

  15. The Present in Flemish Secondary History Education through the Lens of Written History Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nieuwenhuyse, Karel; Wils, Kaat; Clarebout, Geraldine; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    The present plays an important part in history education, in particular in efforts to make the study of the past relevant for today. This contribution examines how the relationship between past and present is dealt with in current Flemish secondary history education by analyzing 190 written history exams for the 11th and 12th grade. Ten percent of…

  16. Vocabulary Acquisition through Written Input: Effects of Form-Focused, Message-Oriented, and Comprehension Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddin, Zia; Daraee, Dina

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of form-focused and non-form-focused tasks on EFL learners' vocabulary learning through written input. The form-focused task aimed to draw students' attention to the word itself through word recognition activities. Non-form-focused tasks were divided into (a) the comprehension question task, which required…

  17. 78 FR 79510 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request Upon Written Request Copies Available From: Securities and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Proposed Collection; Comment Request Upon Written Request Copies Available From: Securities and Exchange Commission, Office of Investor Education and Advocacy, Washington, DC 20549-0213. Extension: Rule...

  18. 22 CFR 11.2 - Written examination for appointment to class 7 or 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... written examination is designed to permit the Board to test the candidate's intelligence, breadth and quality of knowledge, and understanding. It will consist of three parts: (1) A general ability test, (2) an English expression test, and (3) a general background test. (d) Grading. The several parts of the...

  19. A Corpus-Based View of Lexical Gender in Written Business English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A.

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates lexical gender in specialized communication. The key method of analysis is that of forms of address, professional titles, and "generic man" in a 10 million word corpus of written Business English. After a brief introduction and literature review on both gender in specialized communication and similar corpus-based views of…

  20. Using Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Written Expression with Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robert; Hagaman, Jessica L.; Graham, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This review assessed the use of self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) for teaching written composition strategies to students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. We examined the participants and the settings in which SRSD has been used, the writing strategies tested, genres addressed, and the effects of SRSD on outcome measures.…

  1. Prose Checklist: Strategies for Improving School-to-Home Written Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagro, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Effective communication enhances school-family partnerships. Written communication is a common, efficient way of communicating with families, but potential barriers to effective communication include readability level, clarity of presentation, complexity of format, and structural components. The PROSE Checklist presented in this article can…

  2. Multimedia Resources Designed to Support Learning from Written Proofs: An Eye-Movement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Somali; Inglis, Matthew; Alcock, Lara

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents two studies of an intervention designed to help undergraduates comprehend mathematical proofs. The intervention used multimedia resources that presented proofs with audio commentary and visual animations designed to focus attention on logical relationships. In study 1, students studied an e-Proof or a standard written proof and…

  3. The Value of Archives/Written Sources to a Researcher, and How to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "Written documents are a crucial source, but they too must be interrogated by minds that do not take things for granted" (Tosh, 1984). This article attempts to assess the validity of the above assertion made by a prominent historian, Professor John Tosh. In a way, the article takes a historical perspective to assess the value ...

  4. Written and Computer-Mediated Accounting Communication Skills: An Employer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    Communication skills are a fundamental personal competency for a successful career in accounting. What is not so obvious is the specific written communication skill set employers look for and the extent those skills are computer mediated. Using survey research, this article explores the particular skills employers desire and their satisfaction…

  5. The Effect of Teachers' Written Corrective Feedback (WCF) Types on Intermediate EFL Learners' Writing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanloo, Khadijeh; Mobini, Fariba; Khosravi, Robab

    2016-01-01

    Written Corrective Feedback (WCF) is a controversial topic among theorists and researchers in L2 studies. Ellis, Sheen, Murakami, and Takashima (2008) identify two dominant dichotomies in this regard, that is focused vs. unfocused WCF and direct vs. indirect WCF. This study considered both dichotomies in a matrix format, resulted in the…

  6. A Bibliography Attempt Of Turkish Articles Written On The TurkishHungarian Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alev DURAN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study covers articles in Turkish written about the Turkish- Hungarian relationship, but the master and doctorate theses were excluded from the scope of there search. The bibliography where author sare listed alphabetically by surname are formed by surveyig periodicals, various report boks and other databases.

  7. Reflecting on Scientists' Activity Based on Science Fiction Stories Written by Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Pedro; Galvao, Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    In this article the authors resort to a qualitative analysis of the plot of science fiction stories about a group of scientists, written by two 11th-grade Earth and Life Science students (aged 17), and to semi-structured interviews, with the double purpose of diagnosing their conceptions of the nature of science (namely, as regards scientists'…

  8. Applying Dynamic Assessment Principles to Online Peer Revisions in Written English for Specific Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouësny, Sylvie; Bradley, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the extent of the applicability of dynamic assessment with respect to peer written student online revisions. More specifically, it observes how groups of Swedish computer engineering students learning English for Specific Purposes engage in cooperative interactions and negotiations with their peers as they work…

  9. Oral but not written test anxiety is related to social anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin-Barantke, Lisa; Hoyer, Jürgen; Fehm, Lydia; Knappe, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the associations of test anxiety (TA) in written vs oral exam situations with social anxiety (SA). METHODS A convenience sample of 204 students was recruited at the Technische Universität Dresden (TU Dresden, Germany) and contacted via e-mail asking to complete a cross-sectional online survey based on established questionnaires. The study protocol was approved by the ethics committee of the TU Dresden. Full data of n = 96 students were available for dependent t-tests and correlation analyses on the associations of SA and TA respectively with trigger events, cognitions, safety behaviors, physical symptoms and depersonalization. Analyses were run using SPSS. RESULTS Levels of TA were higher for fear in oral exams than for fear in written exams (M = 48.1, SD = 11.5 vs M = 43.7, SD = 10.1 P 0.05; Pearson’s r = 0.223, P > 0.05). Compared to written TA, trigger events were more often reported for oral TA (18.2% vs 30.3%, P = 0.007); which was also accompanied more often by test-anxious cognitions (7.9% vs 8.5%, P = 0.001), safety behavior (8.9% vs 10.3%, P < 0.001) and physical symptoms (for all, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION Written, but not oral TA emerged being unrelated to SA and may rather not be considered as a typical facet of SA disorder. PMID:27679775

  10. Language Learners' Writing Task Representation and Its Effect on Written Performance in an EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Gholam Reza; Pourghasemian, Hossein; Jalali, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    The present study attempts to give an account of how students represent writing task in an EAP course. Further, the study is intended to discover if learners' mental representation of writing would contribute to their written performance. During a 16-week term, students were instructed to practice writing as a problem solving activity. At almost…

  11. Correcting students’ written grammatical errors: The effects of negotiated versus nonnegotiated feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Nassaji

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A substantial number of studies have examined the effects of grammar correction on second language (L2 written errors. However, most of the existing research has involved unidirectional written feedback. This classroom-based study examined the effects of oral negotiation in addressing L2 written errors. Data were collected in two intermediate adult English as a second language classes. Three types of feedback were compared: nonnegotiated direct reformulation, feedback with limited negotiation (i.e., prompt + reformulation and feedback with negotiation. The linguistic targets chosen were the two most common grammatical errors in English: articles and prepositions. The effects of feedback were measured by means of learner-specific error identification/correction tasks administered three days, and again ten days, after the treatment. The results showed an overall advantage for feedback that involved negotiation. However, a comparison of data per error types showed that the differential effects of feedback types were mainly apparent for article errors rather than preposition errors. These results suggest that while negotiated feedback may play an important role in addressing L2 written errors, the degree of its effects may differ for different linguistic targets.

  12. Audio and Written Comments in an Online Undergraduate Composition Class: Student and Instructor Approaches and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Andrew; Song, Liyan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated students' and instructors' approaches and preferences to audio and written comments in an online undergraduate composition class. A mixed-method design was employed utilizing both a survey instrument and interviews for data collection. Forty-nine students and five instructors participated. Students gave more positive…

  13. 38 CFR 21.8080 - Requirement for an individualized written plan of vocational rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... individualized written plan of vocational rehabilitation. 21.8080 Section 21.8080 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects...

  14. An Analysis of Lexical Errors in Written English | Abaya | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The national reports on K.C.P.E results indicate that most pupils make errors in composition writing, thus contributing to the poor performance in English language. Thus, our objective was to examine the lexical errors in the pupils' written English. We found that pupils make three categories of lexical errors due to first ...

  15. Spoken and Written Narratives in Swedish Children and Adolescents with Hearing Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asker-Arnason, Lena; Akerlund, Viktoria; Skoglund, Cecilia; Ek-Lagergren, Ingela; Wengelin, Asa; Sahlen, Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    Twenty 10- to 18-year-old children and adolescents with varying degrees of hearing impairment (HI) and hearing aids (HA), ranging from mild-moderate to severe, produced picture-elicited narratives in a spoken and written version. Their performance was compared to that of 63 normally hearing (NH) peers within the same age span. The participants…

  16. Reflective Written Pieces: Inquiry into the Practices of Pre-Service Literacy Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Janet

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this action research project was to explore whether a reflective writing strategy, developed and used with pre-service teachers in a literacy methods course, assisted them with integrating theory and practice. The teacher educator analyzed the written reflective pieces and determined common categories. Study findings revealed some…

  17. A Written, Reflective and Dialogic Strategy for Assessment Feedback That Can Enhance Student/Teacher Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Gail; Nash, Gregory; Oprescu, Florin; Liebergreen, Marama; Turley, Janet; Bond, Richard; Dayton, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    In response to the shortcomings of current assessment feedback practice, this paper presents the results of a study designed to examine students' and teachers' experience of engaging in a written, reflective and dialogic feedback (WRDF) strategy. The strategy was designed to enhance the learning experience of students undertaking a large…

  18. Hedging to save face: a linguistic analysis of written comments on in-training evaluation reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginsburg, S.; Vleuten, C. van der; Eva, K.W.; Lingard, L.

    2016-01-01

    Written comments on residents' evaluations can be useful, yet the literature suggests that the language used by assessors is often vague and indirect. The branch of linguistics called pragmatics argues that much of our day to day language is not meant to be interpreted literally. Within pragmatics,

  19. Effects of a Summarizing Strategy on Written Summaries of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddler, Bruce; Asaro-Saddler, Kristie; Moeyaert, Mariola; Ellis-Robinson, Tammy

    2017-01-01

    In this single-subject study, we examined the effects of a summarizing strategy on the written summaries of children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBDs). Six students with EBDs in fifth and sixth grades learned a mnemonic-based strategy for summarizing taught through the self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) approach. Visual…

  20. Imagery and rehearsal as study strategies for written or orally presented passages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beni, Rossana; Moè, Angelica

    2003-12-01

    In the present research, we studied the influence of text presentation modality on recall under imagery, rehearsal, and no strategy instructions. It was hypothesized that imagery is a more effective recall strategy for an oral presentation and rehearsal for a written presentation, and that imagery and rehearsal are effective study strategies. One hundred twenty participants participated, 80 of whom were trained in the use of imagery or rehearsal in the study of passages and 40 of whom made up the control group. A text was presented orally or in writing; the trained participants were to memorize it using the strategy taught, and the participants in the control group were to memorize it using a freely chosen strategy. They were then asked for free written recall. The results confirmed that the participants using imagery recalled the oral presentation better than the written one, and those using rehearsal recalled the written presentation better than the oral one. The discussion focuses on a selective-interference explanation of the presentation modality effects. Practical suggestions are given, and implications for future research are discussed.

  1. Sub-10 nm structures written in ultra-thin HSQ resist layers, using Electron Beam Lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, A.E.; Van der Krogt, M.; Hagen, C.W.

    2007-01-01

    Isolated dots and lines with 6 nm width were written in 20 nm thick Hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) layers on silicon substrates, using 100 keV electron beam lithography. The main factors that might limit the resolution, i.e. beam size, writing strategy, resist material, electron dose, development

  2. Investigating Expectations and Experiences of Audio and Written Assignment Feedback in First-Year Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Hannah; Oldfield, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that audio feedback may be an important mechanism for facilitating effective and timely assignment feedback. The present study examined expectations and experiences of audio and written feedback provided through "turnitin for iPad®" from students within the same cohort and assignment. The results showed that…

  3. Written Extended-Response Questions as Classroom Assessment Tools for Meaningful Understanding of Evolutionary Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieswandt, Martina; Bellomo, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study analyzed grade 12 biology students' answers to written extended-response questions that describe hypothetical scenarios of animals' evolution. We investigated whether these type of questions are suitable for students (n = 24) to express a meaningful understanding of evolutionary theory. Meaningful understanding is comprised…

  4. Cross-modal representation of spoken and written word meaning in left pars triangularis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liuzzi, Antonietta Gabriella; Bruffaerts, Rose; Peeters, Ronald; Adamczuk, Katarzyna; Keuleers, Emmanuel; De Deyne, Simon; Storms, Gerrit; Dupont, Patrick; Vandenberghe, Rik

    2017-01-01

    The correspondence in meaning extracted from written versus spoken input remains to be fully understood neurobiologically. Here, in a total of 38 subjects, the functional anatomy of cross-modal semantic similarity for concrete words was determined based on a dual criterion: First, a voxelwise

  5. A Critical Analysis of Research on Written Problems in Elementary School Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Charles J.

    The purpose of this doctoral thesis was to collect, analyze, and evaluate research of written problems in elementary school mathematics conducted between 1925 and 1965, and to determine generalizations resulting from the studies fulfilling certain criteria. The analytical-documentary method of research was employed in the study. A total of 239…

  6. Effects of the design of written music on the readability for children with dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, Nanke; Timmermans, Anneke; Korpershoek, Hanke

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between the design of written music and the amount of mistakes children with and without dyslexia make in reading music is investigated. Previous research shows that children with dyslexia can have difficulty in reading music, especially regarding reading pitch.

  7. Controlling the volatility of the written optical state in electrochromic DNA liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Kai; Varghese, Justin; Gerasimov, Jennifer Y.; Polyakov, Alexey O.; Shuai, Min; Su, Juanjuan; Chen, Dong; Zajaczkowski, Wojciech; Marcozzi, Alessio; Pisula, Wojciech; Noheda, Beatriz; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Clark, Noel A.; Herrmann, Andreas

    Liquid crystals are widely used in displays for portable electronic information display. To broaden their scope for other applications like smart windows and tags, new material properties such as polarizer-free operation and tunable memory of a written state become important. Here, we describe an

  8. Spelling in Written Stories by School-Age Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straley, Sara G.; Werfel, Krystal L.; Hendricks, Alison Eisel

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the spelling of 3rd to 6th grade children with cochlear implants in written stories. Spelling was analysed using traditional correct/incorrect scoring as well as the Spelling Sensitivity Score, which provides linguistic information about spelling attempts. Children with cochlear implants spelled 86 per cent of words in stories…

  9. 5 CFR 2638.706 - Agency's written plan for annual ethics training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency's written plan for annual ethics training. 2638.706 Section 2638.706 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS AND EXECUTIVE AGENCY ETHICS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES Executive Agency Ethics...

  10. Written Textual Production and Consumption (WTPC) in Vernacular and English-Medium Settings in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Vaidehi

    2003-01-01

    Sketches key facets in the larger socioeducational machinery that shapes the written textual production and consumption (WTPC) of English-medium (EM) and "vernacular-medium" (VM) students in Gujarat, India. Lays out ways in which articulator macro-structures align together to produce and shape conditions that privilege the WTPC of EM…

  11. The Focus of Supervisor Written Feedback to Thesis/Dissertation Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John; Basturkmen, Helen; East, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Written feedback on drafts of a thesis or dissertation is arguably the most important source of input on what is required or expected of thesis-writing students by the academic community. Despite its importance, relatively little is known about what type of information supervisors focus on when giving feedback. This article presents the findings…

  12. A Model for Doctoral Students' Perceptions and Attitudes toward Written Feedback for Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Gulfidan; Walker, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate social science doctoral students' perceptions and attitudes toward written feedback about their academic writing and towards those who provide it. The study culminates in an explanatory model to describe the relationships between students' perceptions and attitudes, their revision decisions, and other…

  13. Differences between oral and written calculation: evidence from cognitive neuropsychology from six brain-damaged patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María P. Salguero-Alcañiz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study of patients with acquired brain injury shows the existence of several double dissociations in the calculation system. In this paper, we focus on the double dissociation observed between oral and written calculation. Method: Instrument: Battery of Evaluation and Numerical Processing and Calculation. Participants: Six patients with acquired brain injury who have different alterations in the processing of numbers and calculations. Data analysis: Difference of proportions. Results: MC and BET have impaired the written calculation but they preserve oral calculation (addition, subtraction and multiplication. The same is observed in MNL for addition and multiplication and in PP for subtraction. The reverse pattern is observed in IRS and ACH who have alterations in written calculation but preserve oral calculation (in multiplication and subtraction, respectively. Conclusions: The results demonstrate the functional independence of oral and written calculation. This could indicate that the calculation system is not unitary and responsible for any calculation task, but a multicomponential system involving different processes and of a different nature.

  14. Webster's word power better English grammar improve your written and spoken English

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, Betty

    2014-01-01

    With questions and answer sections throughout, this book helps you to improve your written and spoken English through understanding the structure of the English language. This is a thorough and useful book with all parts of speech and grammar explained. Used by ELT self-study students.

  15. 75 FR 28023 - Solicitation of Written Comments on Draft HHS Strategic Framework on Multiple Chronic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... health conditions, and chronic respiratory infections. As the number of chronic conditions in an...-care system providers --State and local public health agencies --Public health organizations.... Responders may submit other forms of electronic materials to demonstrate or exhibit concepts of their written...

  16. Effects of the Design of Written Music on the Readability for Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Nanke; Timmermans, Anneke; Korpershoek, Hanke

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the design of written music and the number of mistakes dyslexic and non-dyslexic children make in reading music is investigated in this study. Previous research shows that children with dyslexia experience difficulties with reading music, especially discerning pitch. Common mistakes of dyslexic…

  17. The Contribution of Verbal Working Memory to Deaf Children's Oral and Written Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfé, Barbara; Rossi, Cristina; Sicoli, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of verbal working memory to the oral and written story production of deaf children. Participants were 29 severely to profoundly deaf children aged 8-13 years and 29 hearing controls, matched for grade level. The children narrated a picture story orally and in writing and performed a reading comprehension…

  18. The use of co-textual irony markers in written discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, C.F.; van Mulken, M.J.P.; Schellens, P.J.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Authors of written texts may mark the use of verbal irony in a variety of ways. One possibility for doing so is the use of so-called co-textual markers of irony (i.e., support strategies that open up a non-serious frame). This study aims to classify and categorize these co-textual irony markers. A

  19. Using a Written Journal Technique to Enhance Inquiry-Based Reflection about Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jane; Carol, Klages; Venneman, Sandy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy of two written journal techniques used to encourage teacher candidates' inquiry-based reflection regarding course textbook content. Ninety-six participants were randomly assigned to one of the two experimental conditions, journaling with Questions, Quotes and Reflections (Double Q R) or…

  20. How EFL Students Can Use Google to Correct Their "Untreatable" Written Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiller, Luc

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of an experiment in which a group of 17 French post-secondary EFL learners used Google to self-correct several "untreatable" written errors. Whether or not error correction leads to improved writing has been much debated, some researchers dismissing it is as useless and others arguing that error feedback…

  1. A Discussion on an Expression Written about Dimensional Analysis in a Physics Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss a wrong statement written about dimensional analysis in a physics text book prepared for the students who are studying in science, engineering and teaching undergraduate programs at universities and who have to take compulsory physics courses, to analyse the use of the text book including the wrong…

  2. Special Education in Saudi Arabia: A Synthesis of Literature Written in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamimi, Ahmed A.; Lee, Lay Wah; Sayed-Ahmed, Al-sayed A.; Kassem, Mostafa M.

    2015-01-01

    Special education in Saudi Arabia was formally established in 1962. The earliest cited literature on special education written in English was a 1970 government report. This article presents results from the first synthesis of internationally published Saudi special education literature over a 44-year period. This synthesis yielded information…

  3. 21 CFR 316.10 - Content and format of a request for written recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and history of the drug product, including: (i) Whether the product is the subject of an IND or a... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Content and format of a request for written recommendations. 316.10 Section 316.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  4. The Measurement of the Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency of Written Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raish, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the multicomponential nature of L2 Arabic writing by adapting a number of direct measures of linguistic "complexity," "accuracy," and "fluency" (CAF) to the measurement of written Arabic texts produced by L2 Arabic learners and Arabic Native Speakers (NSs). Previous studies of L2 writing have…

  5. Teaching Children with Autism Conversational Speech Using a Cue Card/Written Script Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlop-Christy, Marjorie H.; Kelso, Susan E.

    2003-01-01

    A study assessed the efficacy of a written script/cue card program to teach conversational speech skills to three verbal, literate boys (ages 8-10) with autism. Initially boys demonstrated low frequencies of conversational speech. Following intervention, all three quickly met the training criteria and maintained correct responding without cue…

  6. Graduate Students' Needs and Preferences for Written Feedback on Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine graduate students' needs and preferences for written feedback on academic writing from their lecturers and thesis supervisors. Quantitative method via survey questionnaire was used to collect data from 21 respondents. The data collection involved Master and Doctorate students at a tertiary level institution…

  7. Developing Oral and Written Communication Skills in Undergraduate Computer Science and Information Systems Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortsarts, Yana; Fischbach, Adam; Rufinus, Jeff; Utell, Janine M.; Yoon, Suk-Chung

    2010-01-01

    Developing and applying oral and written communication skills in the undergraduate computer science and computer information systems curriculum--one of the ABET accreditation requirements - is a very challenging and, at the same time, a rewarding task that provides various opportunities to enrich the undergraduate computer science and computer…

  8. Bibliotherapy for Children with Anxiety Disorders Using Written Materials for Parents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapee, Ronald M.; Abbott, Maree J.; Lyneham, Heidi J.

    2006-01-01

    The current trial examined the value of modifying empirically validated treatment for childhood anxiety for application via written materials for parents of anxious children. Two hundred sixty-seven clinically anxious children ages 6-12 years and their parents were randomly allocated to standard group treatment, wait list, or a bibliotherapy…

  9. Short Message Service (SMS) Language and Written Language Skills: Educators' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertsema, Salomé; Hyman, Charene; van Deventer, Chantelle

    2011-01-01

    SMS language is English language slang, used as a means of mobile phone text messaging. This practice may impact on the written language skills of learners at school. The main aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of Grade 8 and 9 English (as Home Language) educators in Gauteng regarding the possible influence of SMS language on…

  10. Written nutrition communication in midwifery practice: What purpose does it serve?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szwajcer, E.M.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective to obtain an in-depth understanding of verbal and written nutrition communication in Dutch midwifery practice. Design, setting and participants data were collected by recording 12 initial antenatal consultations (12 weeks into the pregnancy) with primiparous women from four Dutch midwifery

  11. Home Literacy Environment and Its Influence on Singaporean Children's Chinese Oral and Written Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Tan, Chee Lay

    2016-01-01

    In a bilingual environment such as Singaporean Chinese community, the challenge of maintaining Chinese language and sustaining Chinese culture lies in promoting the daily use of Chinese language in oral and written forms among children. Ample evidence showed the effect of the home language and literacy environment (HLE), on children's language and…

  12. Feedback on Feedback: Eliciting Learners' Responses to Written Feedback through Student-Generated Screencasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Toro, María; Furnborough, Concha

    2014-01-01

    Despite the potential benefits of assignment feedback, learners often fail to use it effectively. This study examines the ways in which adult distance learners engage with written feedback on one of their assignments. Participants were 10 undergraduates studying Spanish at the Open University, UK. Their responses to feedback were elicited by means…

  13. 49 CFR 1114.28 - Depositions, requests for admission, written interrogatories, and responses thereto: inclusion in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Depositions, requests for admission, written interrogatories, and responses thereto: inclusion in record. 1114.28 Section 1114.28 Transportation Other... interrogatories, and responses thereto: inclusion in record. At the oral hearing, or upon the submission of...

  14. Empirical model for the waveguiding properties of directly UV written waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Lasse; Harpøth, Anders; Svalgaard, Mikael

    2002-01-01

    We present an empirical model for the waveguiding properties of directly UV-written planar waveguides in silica-on-silicon. The waveguides are described by a rectangular core step-index profile, in which model parameters are found by comparison of the measured waveguide width and effective index...

  15. A Compilation of Postgraduate Theses Written in Turkey on Computer Assisted Instruction in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre; Demirbas, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study conducted is to present in-depth information about the postgraduate theses written within the context of Computer Assisted Instruction in Chemistry Education in Turkey. The theses collected in National Thesis Centre of Turkish Council of Higher Education were examined. As a result of an examination, it was found that about…

  16. Effect of Explicit and Implicit Instruction on Free Written Response Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andringa, Sible; de Glopper, Kees; Hacquebord, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    A classroom study was designed to test the hypothesis that explicit knowledge is used by second-language (L2) learners in a free written response task if that knowledge is present. Eighty-one 12-18-year-old learners of Dutch as an L2 took part in a computer-assisted language learning experiment receiving either explicit or implicit instruction…

  17. Speech-language therapy for adolescents with written-language difficulties: The South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danel Erasmus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether privately practising speech-language therapists in South Africa are fulfilling their role of identification, assessment and intervention for adolescents with written-language and reading difficulties. Further needs concerning training with regard to this population group were also determined.Method: A survey study was conducted, using a self-administered questionnaire. Twenty-two currently practising speech-language therapists who are registered members of the South African Speech-Language-Hearing Association (SASLHA participated in the study.Results: The respondents indicated that they are aware of their role regarding adolescents with written-language difficulties. However, they feel that South-African speech-language therapists are not fulfilling this role. Existing assessment tools and interventions for written-language difficulties are described as inadequate, and culturally and age inappropriate. Yet, the majority of the respondents feel that they are adequately equipped to work with adolescents with written-language difficulties, based on their own experience, self-study and secondary training. The respondents feel that training regarding effective collaboration with teachers is necessary to establish specific roles, and to promote speech-language therapy for adolescents among teachers.Conclusion: Further research is needed in developing appropriate assessment and intervention tools as well as improvement of training at an undergraduate level.

  18. What about Metaphors in "The Snows of Kilimanjaro and Other Stories" Written by Ernest Hemingway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na'imah

    2015-01-01

    It is discovered plenty of various interesting metaphors in the book of "The Snows of Kilimanjaro and Other Stories" which were written by Ernest Hemingway. By the metaphorical expressions, one can describe everything much more expressively, imaginatively, effectively, and poetically. Each of the metaphors has always a specific style and…

  19. Pragmatic Features in Original Narratives Written by African American Students at Three Grade Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Jessica M.; Anderson, Michele A.; Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Nelson, Nickola W.

    2015-01-01

    African American English has a rich oral tradition, with identifiable features across all 5 systems of language--phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. This is an investigation of the extent to which pragmatic features of African American oral storytelling traditions are apparent in the written stories of African American…

  20. 50 CFR 300.22 - Eastern Pacific fisheries recordkeeping and written reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eastern Pacific fisheries recordkeeping and written reports. 300.22 Section 300.22 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.22 Eastern Pacific fisheries...