Sample records for written optical waveguides

  1. Direct laser written polymer waveguides with out of plane couplers for optical chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Landowski


    Full Text Available Optical technologies call for waveguide networks featuring high integration densities, low losses, and simple operation. Here, we present polymer waveguides fabricated from a negative tone photoresist via two-photon-lithography in direct laser writing, and show a detailed parameter study of their performance. Specifically, we produce waveguides featuring bend radii down to 40 μm, insertion losses of the order of 10  dB, and loss coefficients smaller than 0.81 dB mm−1, facilitating high integration densities in writing fields of 300 μm×300 μm. A novel three-dimensional coupler design allows for coupling control as well as direct observation of outputs in a single field of view through a microscope objective. Finally, we present beam-splitting devices to construct larger optical networks, and we show that the waveguide material is compatible with the integration of quantum emitters.

  2. Optical sensing in microchip capillary electrophoresis by femtosecond laser written waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Vázquez, R.; Osellame, R.; Cretich, M.; Dongre, C.; Hoekstra, Hugo; van den Vlekkert, H.; Ramponi, R.; Pollnau, Markus; Chiari, M.; Cerullo, G.

    Capillary electrophoresis separation in an on-chip integrated microfluidic channel is typically monitored with bulky, bench-top optical excitation/detection instrumentation. Optical waveguides allow confinement and transport of light in the chip directing it to a small volume of the microfluidic

  3. Femtosecond laser written optical waveguide amplifier in phospho-tellurite glass. (United States)

    Fernandez, T Toney; Eaton, S M; Della Valle, G; Vazquez, R Martinez; Irannejad, M; Jose, G; Jha, A; Cerullo, G; Osellame, R; Laporta, P


    We report on the first demonstration of an optical waveguide amplifier in phospho-tellurite glass providing net gain at 1.5 μm. The device was fabricated using a high repetition rate femtosecond laser and exhibited internal gain across 100-nm bandwidth covering the entire C + L telecom bands.

  4. The role of local heating in the formation process of UV written optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael; Harpøth, Anders; Andersen, Marc


    A behavior is reported where the index change process used for UV writing of integrated optical waveguides in deuterium loaded Ge:SiO2 glass can become unstable and suddenly switch off or on. It is shown that such discontinuities are associated with abrupt changes in the amount of absorbed UV pow...

  5. Expanded-core waveguides written by femtosecond laser irradiation in bulk optical glasses. (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Wenfu; Zhao, Wei; Stoian, Razvan; Cheng, Guanghua


    Expanded-core structures based on layered increased index (type I) waveguiding traces are fabricated by ultrafast laser photoinscription in bulk optical glasses, with examples for fused silica and chalcogenide glasses. The expanded-core waveguides can serve for large-mode-area guiding concepts and their feasibility is experimentally investigated. A parametric study of the geometry, number of traces and index contrast indicates the possibility to design guided modes characteristics as exemplified in fused silica. A specific arrangement consisting of 8 traces of guiding layers with 6µm separation exhibit single-mode transport properties with mode field area of ~805µm². The condition of single mode operation is also discussed in the frame of the dispersion relation of light guiding in periodical dielectric structures. The supported supermode of expanded-core structures can be controlled by careful design of the refractive index change, the number of guiding layers and the thickness of the interlayers. Inspection of the propagation characteristics shows equally low loss features. A Y-branching splitter based on expanded-core concept conserving single mode characteristics is fabricated. The optical design is equally successfully tested in chalcogenide Gallium Lanthanum Sulfide glass. Ultrafast laser inscribed expanded-core waveguiding provides therefore an interesting path of fabricating large mode area waveguides usable in near infrared and mid-infrared region beneficial for applications requiring high power or large mode dimensions.

  6. Wave-guided optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Vizsnyiczai, George


    in the sample at any orientation using optical traps. One of the key aspects to the work is the change in direction of the incident plane wave, and the marked increase in the numerical aperture demonstrated. Hence, the optically steered waveguide can tap from a relatively broader beam and then generate a more...... tightly confined light at its tip. The paper contains both simulation, related to the propagation of light through the waveguide, and experimental demonstrations using our BioPhotonics Workstation. In a broader context, this work shows that optically trapped microfabricated structures can potentially help...

  7. Accurate modelling of UV written waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure.......BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure....

  8. Accurate modeling of UV written waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure.......BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure....

  9. Competition of Faraday rotation and birefringence in femtosecond laser direct written waveguides in magneto-optical glass. (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Gross, S; Dekker, P; Withford, M J; Steel, M J


    We consider the process of Faraday rotation in femtosecond laser direct-write waveguides. The birefringence commonly associated with such waveguides may be expected to impact the observable Faraday rotation. Here, we theoretically calculate and experimentally verify the competition between Faraday rotation and birefringence in two waveguides created by laser writing in a commercial magneto-optic glass. The magnetic field applied to induce Faraday rotation is nonuniform, and as a result, we find that the two effects can be clearly separated and used to accurately determine even weak birefringence. The birefringence in the waveguides was determined to be on the scale of Δn = 10(-6) to 10(-5). The reduction in Faraday rotation caused by birefringence of order Δn = 10(-6) was moderate and we obtained approximately 9° rotation in an 11 mm waveguide. In contrast, for birefringence of order 10(-5), a significant reduction in the polarization azimuth change was found and only 6° rotation was observed.

  10. Peptide Optical waveguides. (United States)

    Handelman, Amir; Apter, Boris; Shostak, Tamar; Rosenman, Gil


    Small-scale optical devices, designed and fabricated onto one dielectric substrate, create integrated optical chip like their microelectronic analogues. These photonic circuits, based on diverse physical phenomena such as light-matter interaction, propagation of electromagnetic waves in a thin dielectric material, nonlinear and electro-optical effects, allow transmission, distribution, modulation, and processing of optical signals in optical communication systems, chemical and biological sensors, and more. The key component of these optical circuits providing both optical processing and photonic interconnections is light waveguides. Optical confinement and transmitting of the optical waves inside the waveguide material are possible due to the higher refractive index of the waveguides in comparison with their surroundings. In this work, we propose a novel field of bionanophotonics based on a new concept of optical waveguiding in synthetic elongated peptide nanostructures composed of ordered peptide dipole biomolecules. New technology of controllable deposition of peptide optical waveguiding structures by nanofountain pen technique is developed. Experimental studies of refractive index, optical transparency, and linear and nonlinear waveguiding in out-of-plane and in-plane diphenylalanine peptide nanotubes have been conducted. Optical waveguiding phenomena in peptide structures are simulated by the finite difference time domain method. The advantages of this new class of bio-optical waveguides are high refractive index contrast, wide spectral range of optical transparency, large optical nonlinearity, and electro-optical effect, making them promising for new applications in integrated multifunctional photonic circuits. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits. (United States)

    Marshall, Graham D; Politi, Alberto; Matthews, Jonathan C F; Dekker, Peter; Ams, Martin; Withford, Michael J; O'Brien, Jeremy L


    We report photonic quantum circuits created using an ultrafast laser processing technique that is rapid, requires no lithographic mask and can be used to create three-dimensional networks of waveguide devices. We have characterized directional couplers--the key functional elements of photonic quantum circuits--and found that they perform as well as lithographically produced waveguide devices. We further demonstrate high-performance interferometers and an important multi-photon quantum interference phenomenon for the first time in integrated optics. This direct-write approach will enable the rapid development of sophisticated quantum optical circuits and their scaling into three-dimensions.

  12. Empirical model for the waveguiding properties of directly UV written waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Lasse; Harpøth, Anders; Svalgaard, Mikael


    We present an empirical model for the waveguiding properties of directly UV-written planar waveguides in silica-on-silicon. The waveguides are described by a rectangular core step-index profile, in which model parameters are found by comparison of the measured waveguide width and effective index...

  13. Fundamentals of optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Okamoto, Katsunari


    Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides is an essential resource for any researcher, professional or student involved in optics and communications engineering. Any reader interested in designing or actively working with optical devices must have a firm grasp of the principles of lightwave propagation. Katsunari Okamoto has presented this difficult technology clearly and concisely with several illustrations and equations. Optical theory encompassed in this reference includes coupled mode theory, nonlinear optical effects, finite element method, beam propagation method, staircase concatenation method, along with several central theorems and formulas. Since the publication of the well-received first edition of this book, planar lightwave circuits and photonic crystal fibers have fully matured. With this second edition the advances of these fibers along with other improvements on existing optical technologies are completely detailed. This comprehensive volume enables readers to fully analyze, design and simulate opti...

  14. Characterization of UV written waveguides with luminescence microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael; Harpøth, Anders; Rosbirk, Tue


    Luminescence microscopy is used to measure the refractive index profile and molecular defect distribution of UV written waveguides with a spatial resolution of ~0.4 mm and high signal-to-noise ratio. The measurements reveal comlex waveguide formation dynamics with significant topological changes...

  15. Nonlinear light propagation in fs laser-written waveguide arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szameit A.


    Full Text Available We report on recent achievements in the field of nonlinear light propagation in fs laser-written waveguide lattices. Particular emphasis is thereby given on discrete solitons in such systems.

  16. Progress in planar optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xianping; Cao, Zhuangqi


    This book provides a comprehensive description of various slab waveguide structures ranged from graded-index waveguide to symmetrical metal-cladding waveguide. In this book, the transfer Matrix method is developed and applied to analyze the simplest case and the complex generalizations. A novel symmetrical metal-cladding waveguide structure is proposed and systematically investigated for several issues of interest, such as biochemical sensing, Goos-Hänchen shift and the slow light effect, etc. Besides, this book summarizes the authors’ research works on waveguides over the last decade. The readers who are familiar with basic optics theory may find this book easy to read and rather inspiring.

  17. High index ring resonator coupled to UV-written waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Philipp, Hugh Taylor; Svalgaard, Mikael


    High index silicon rich nitride (SHN) ring resonators were coupled to straight UV-written waveguides. Resonance peaks with a free spectral range of 2 nm and a spectral width (fwhm) of 0.2 nm were observed......High index silicon rich nitride (SHN) ring resonators were coupled to straight UV-written waveguides. Resonance peaks with a free spectral range of 2 nm and a spectral width (fwhm) of 0.2 nm were observed...

  18. Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graham D. Marshall; Alberto Politi; Jonathan C. F. Matthews; Peter Dekker; Martin Ams; Michael J. Withford; Jeremy L. O'Brien


    We report photonic quantum circuits created using an ultrafast laser processing technique that is rapid, requires no lithographic mask and can be used to create three-dimensional networks of waveguide devices...

  19. High index contrast UV-written waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael; Færch, Kjartan Ullitz

    By increasing the concentration of molecular hydrogen in germanosilica samples, we show that buried channel waveguides with an index step of up to 0.02 can be fabricated using the directUV writing technique....

  20. Optical waveguide theory

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Allan W


    This text is intended to provide an in-depth, self-contained, treatment of optical waveguide theory. We have attempted to emphasize the underlying physical processes, stressing conceptual aspects, and have developed the mathematical analysis to parallel the physical intuition. We also provide comprehensive supplementary sections both to augment any deficiencies in mathematical background and to provide a self-consistent and rigorous mathematical approach. To assist in. understanding, each chapter con­ centrates principally on a single idea and is therefore comparatively short. Furthermore, over 150 problems with complete solutions are given to demonstrate applications of the theory. Accordingly, through simplicity of approach and numerous examples, this book is accessible to undergraduates. Many fundamental topics are presented here for the first time, but, more importantly, the material is brought together to give a unified treatment of basic ideas using the simplest approach possible. To achieve such a goa...

  1. Analysis of integrated optical waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uranus, H.P.; Hoekstra, Hugo; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.


    An overview of the analysis of integrated optical waveguides is presented. Starting from the Maxwell’s equations, a formulation of the problem for general 3-D structures will be introduced. Then, for longitudinally invariant structures, problem for waveguides with 2-D cross section is presented for

  2. Anisotropic and nonlinear optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Someda, CG


    Dielectric optical waveguides have been investigated for more than two decades. In the last ten years they have had the unique position of being simultaneously the backbone of a very practical and fully developed technology, as well as an extremely exciting area of basic, forefront research. Existing waveguides can be divided into two sets: one consisting of waveguides which are already in practical use, and the second of those which are still at the laboratory stage of their evolution. This book is divided into two separate parts: the first dealing with anisotropic waveguides, an

  3. Thermal stability of directly UV-written waveguides and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulstad, K.; Svalgaard, Mikael


    Accelerated aging experiments of directly UV-written straight waveguides, s-bends and directional couplers have been made. The results show that these structures are nearly unaffected by thousands of thermal cycles between +22°C and +80°C......Accelerated aging experiments of directly UV-written straight waveguides, s-bends and directional couplers have been made. The results show that these structures are nearly unaffected by thousands of thermal cycles between +22°C and +80°C...

  4. Analysis of integrated optical waveguides


    Uranus, H.P.; Hoekstra, Hugo; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.


    An overview of the analysis of integrated optical waveguides is presented. Starting from the Maxwell’s equations, a formulation of the problem for general 3-D structures will be introduced. Then, for longitudinally invariant structures, problem for waveguides with 2-D cross section is presented for vectorial, semivectorial, and scalar formulations. Simpler 1-D case for planar structure will then be discussed in more detail. A novel scheme developed for the analysis of planar structures is giv...

  5. Integrated waveguide amplifiers for optical backplanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, J.; Lamprecht, T.; Worhoff, Kerstin; Driessen, A.; Horst, F.; Horst, F.; Offrein, B.J.; Offrein, B.J.; Ay, F.; Pollnau, Markus

    Amplifier performance of Nd3+-doped polymer and Al2O3 channel waveguides at 880 nm is investigated. Tapered amplifiers are embedded between optical backplane waveguides, and a maximum 0.21 dB net gain is demonstrated.

  6. Production and characterization of femtosecond laser-written double line waveguides in heavy metal oxide glasses (United States)

    da Silva, Diego Silvério; Wetter, Niklaus Ursus; de Rossi, Wagner; Kassab, Luciana Reyes Pires; Samad, Ricardo Elgul


    We report the fabrication and characterization of double line waveguides directly written in tellurite and germanate glasses using a femtosecond laser delivering 30 μJ, 80 fs pulses at 4 kHz repetition rate. The double line waveguides produced presented internal losses inferior to 2.0 dB/cm. The output mode profile and the M2 measurements indicate multimodal guiding behavior. A better beam quality for the GeO2 - PbO waveguide was observed when compared with TeO2 - ZnO glass. Raman spectroscopy of the waveguides showed structural modification of the glassy network and indicates that a negative refractive index modification occurs at the focus of the laser beam, therefore allowing for light guiding in between two closely spaced laser written lines. The refractive index change at 632 nm is around 10-4, and the structural changes in the laser focal region of the writing, evaluated by Raman spectroscopy, corroborated our findings that these materials are potential candidates for optical waveguides and passive components. To the best of our knowledge, the two double line configuration demonstrated in the present work was not reported before for germanate or tellurite glasses.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Planar optical waveguide comprising a core region and a cladding region comprising a photonic crystal material, said photonic crystal material having a lattice of column elements, wherein at least a number of said column elements are elongated substantially in an axial direction for said core...... region. The invention also relates to optical devices comprising planar optical waveguides and methods of making waveguides and optical devices....

  8. Fluorescence imaging of lattice re-distribution on step-index direct laser written Nd:YAG waveguide lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez de Mendívil, Jon; Pérez Delgado, Alberto; Lifante, Ginés; Jaque, Daniel [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Ródenas, Airán [Departament de Química Física i Inorgànica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona 43007 (Spain); Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Benayas, Antonio, E-mail: [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre – Énergie Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650, Boul. Lionel Boulet Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Aguiló, Magdalena; Diaz, Francesc [Departament de Química Física i Inorgànica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona 43007 (Spain); Kar, Ajoy K. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)


    The laser performance and crystalline micro-structural properties of near-infrared step-index channel waveguides fabricated inside Neodymium doped YAG laser ceramics by means of three-dimensional sub-picosecond pulse laser direct writing are reported. Fluorescence micro-mapping of the waveguide cross-sections reveals that an essential crystal lattice re-distribution has been induced after short pulse irradiation. Such lattice re-distribution is evidenced at the waveguide core corresponding to the laser written refractive index increased volume. The waveguides core surroundings also present diverse changes including slight lattice disorder and bi-axial strain fields. The step-index waveguide laser performance is compared with previous laser fabricated waveguides with a stress-optic guiding mechanism in absence of laser induced lattice re-distribution.

  9. Thermal poling of femtosecond laser-written waveguides in fused silica. (United States)

    Ng, Jason C; Qian, Li; Herman, Peter R


    Thermal poling of femtosecond laser written waveguides was investigated using second-harmonic microscopy under three approaches: (1) pre-poling and (2) post-poling in which fused silica substrates were poled before or after waveguide formation, respectively, and (3) double poling in which poling was applied both before and after laser writing. Effective nonlinear waveguide interaction strength was assessed relative to the mode profile and the assessments demonstrated an erasure effect of 81% in pre-poling and an ion migration blocking effect of 26% in post-poling. Double poling was found to recover the nonlinearity over the modal zone, overcoming prior difficulties with combining laser processing and thermal poling, opening up a future avenue for creating active devices through femtosecond laser writing of nonlinear optical circuits in fused silica.

  10. Scattering loss of antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides


    Baba, Toshihiko; Kokubun, Yasuo


    Scattering loss of two-dimensional ARROW-type waveguides, i.e., antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW) and ARROW-B, is analyzed by the first-order perturbation theory. Calculated results are compared with those of conventional three-layer waveguides. Optimum design for the reduction of scattering loss of these ARROW-type waveguides is discussed. It was found that the scattering loss of ARROW-type waveguides is no larger than that of a conventional waveguide having a relative refrac...

  11. Photopolymer-based three-dimensional optical waveguide devices (United States)

    Kagami, M.; Yamashita, T.; Yonemura, M.; Kawasaki, A.; Watanabe, O.; Tomiki, M.


    Photopolymer based three-dimensional (3D) waveguide devices are very attractive in low-cost optical system integration. Especially, Light-Induced Self-Written (LISW) technology is suitable for this application, and the technology enables low-loss 3D optical circuitry formation from an optical fiber tip which soaked in photopolymer solution by employing its photo-polymerization due to own irradiation from the fiber tip. This technology is expected drastic mounting cost reduction in fields of micro-optic and hybrid integration devices assembly. The principle of the LISW optical waveguides is self-trapping effect of the irradiation flux into the self-organized waveguide, where, used wavelength can be chosen to fit photopolymer's reactivity from visible to infrared. Furthermore, this effect also makes possible grating formation and "optical solder" interconnection. Actually fabricated self-written grating shows well defined deep periodic index contrast and excellent optical property for the wavelength selectivity. And the "optical solder" interconnection realizes a passive optical interconnection between two faceted fibers or devices by the LISW waveguide even if there is a certain amount of gap and a small degree of misalignment exist. The LISW waveguides grow towards each other from both sides to a central point where the opposing beams overlap and are then combined into one waveguide. This distinctive effect is confirmed in all kind optical fibers, such as from a singlemode to 1-mm-corediameter multimode optical fiber. For example of complicated WDM optical transceiver module, mounted a branchedwaveguide and filter elements, effectiveness of LISW technology is outstanding. In assembling and packaging process, neither dicing nor polishing is needed. In this paper, we introduce LISW technology principles and potential application to integrated WDM optical transceiver devices for both of singlemode and multimode system developed in our research group.

  12. Fabrication Of Fiber-Optic Waveguide Coupler (United States)

    Goss, Willis; Nelson, Mark D.; Mclauchlan, John M.


    Technique for making four-port, single-mode fiber-optic waveguide couplers requires no critically-precise fabrication operations or open-loop processes. Waveguide couplers analogous to beam-splitter prisms. Essential in many applications that require coherent separation or combination of two waves; for example, for interferometric purposes. Components of optical waveguide coupler held by paraffin on microscope slide while remaining cladding of two optical fibers fused together by arc welding.

  13. UV writing of advanced Bragg gratings in optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bo Damm


    The subject of this ph.d. thesis is the fabrication of Bragg gratings in optical waveguides. During the study Bragg gratings were written in both planar waveguides and optical fibers using pulsed or continuous-wave lasers operating in the ultraviolet (UV) range. The main result is the development...... of the novel polarization control method for UV writing of Bragg gratings with advanced apodization profiles including phase shifts. The principle of the polarization control method relies on a spatial separation of the s- and p-polarized components of a linearly polarized UV beam corresponding to half...... were then translated into a polarizer angle profile and the Bragg grating were written using a pulsed excimer laser. Only optical fibers were used in this part of the thesis. The high quality planar waveguides used during the study were produced in the cleanroom facility at the Microelectronic Center...

  14. Investigation of semiconductor clad optical waveguides (United States)

    Batchman, T. E.; Carson, R. F.


    A variety of techniques have been proposed for fabricating integrated optical devices using semiconductors, lithium niobate, and glasses as waveguides and substrates. The use of glass waveguides and their interaction with thin semiconductor cladding layers was studied. Though the interactions of these multilayer waveguide structures have been analyzed here using glass, they may be applicable to other types of materials as well. The primary reason for using glass is that it provides a simple, inexpensive way to construct waveguides and devices.

  15. Coupled nanopillar waveguides: optical properties and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Lavrinenko, Andrei


    , while guided modes dispersion is strongly affected by the waveguide structure. We present a systematic analysis of the optical properties of coupled nanopillar waveguides and discuss their possible applications for integrated optics. (C) 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim......In this paper we review basic properties of coupled periodic and aperiodic nanopillar waveguides. A coupled nanopillar waveguide consists of several rows of periodically or aperiodically placed dielectric rods (pillars). In such a waveguide, light confinement is due to the total internal reflection...

  16. Waveguide couplers for ferroelectric optical resonators


    Grudinin, Ivan S.; Kozhanov, A.; Yu, N.


    We report a study of using the same material to fabricate a whispering gallery mode resonator and a coupler. Coupling to high Q whispering gallery modes of the lithium niobate resonator is demonstrated by means of the titanium-doped waveguide. The waveguide coupling approach opens possibilities for simpler and wider practical usage of whispering gallery mode resonators and their integration into optical devices.

  17. Metamaterial Waveguide Devices for Integrated Optics (United States)

    Kanazawa, Toru; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Arai, Shigehisa


    We show the feasibility of controlling the magnetic permeability of optical semiconductor devices on InP-based photonic integration platforms. We have achieved the permeability control of GaInAsP/InP semiconductor waveguides by combining the waveguide with a metamaterial consisting of gate-controlled split ring resonators. The split-ring resonators interact magnetically with light travelling in the waveguide and move the effective relative permeability of the waveguide away from 1 at optical frequencies. The variation in permeability can be controlled with the gate voltage. Using this variable-permeability waveguide, we have built an optical modulator consisting of a GaInAsP/InP Mach–Zehnder interferometer for use at an optical communication wavelength of 1.55 μm. The device changes the permeability of its waveguide arm with controlling gate voltage, thereby varying the refractive index of the arm to modulate the intensity of light. For the study of variable-permeability waveguide devices, we also propose a method of extracting separately the permittivity and permeability values of devices from the experimental data of light transmission. Adjusting the permeability of optical semiconductors to the needs of device designers will open the promising field of ‘permeability engineering’. Permeability engineering will facilitate the manipulation of light and the management of photons, thereby contributing to the development of novel devices with sophisticated functions for photonic integration. PMID:28872621

  18. Optical waveguides in hard crystalline materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus


    The recent results of our research group and collaborators in the field of fabrication, characterization, and applications of optical waveguides in hard crystalline materials, specifically in sapphire and Ti:sapphire, are reviewed.

  19. Leaky mode suppression in planar optical waveguides written in Er:TeO{sub 2}–WO{sub 3} glass and CaF{sub 2} crystal via double energy implantation with MeV N{sup +} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bányász, I., E-mail: [Department of Crystal Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Zolnai, Z.; Fried, M. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 49, Budapest H-1525 (Hungary); Berneschi, S. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); “Enrico Fermi” Center for Study and Research, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy); Pelli, S.; Nunzi-Conti, G. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)


    Ion implantation proved to be an universal technique for producing waveguides in most optical materials. Tellurite glasses are good hosts of rare-earth elements for the development of fibre and integrated optical amplifiers and lasers covering all the main telecommunication bands. Er{sup 3+}-doped tellurite glasses are good candidates for the fabrication of broadband amplifiers in wavelength division multiplexing around 1.55 μm, as they exhibit large stimulated cross sections and broad emission bandwidth. Calcium fluoride is an excellent optical material, due to its perfect optical characteristics from UV wavelengths up to near IR. It has become a promising laser host material (doped with rare earth elements). Ion implantation was also applied to optical waveguide fabrication in CaF{sub 2} and other halide crystals. In the present work first single-energy implantations at 3.5 MeV at various fluences were applied. Waveguide operation up to 1.5 μm was observed in Er:Te glass, and up to 980 nm in CaF{sub 2}. Then double-energy implantations at a fixed upper energy of 3.5 MeV and lower energies between 2.5 and 3.2 MeV were performed to suppress leaky modes by increasing barrier width.

  20. Extraction film for optical waveguide and method of producing same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarsa, Eric J.; Durkee, John W.


    An optical waveguide includes a waveguide body and a film disposed on a surface of the waveguide body. The film includes a base and a plurality of undercut light extraction elements disposed between the base and the surface.

  1. Optical micromanipulation of freestanding microstructures with embedded waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Vizsnyiczai, Gaszton


    Optically micromanipulated waveguides can be arbitrarily positioned and oriented for targeted light delivery. At the same time, controlled light deflection in designed waveguides can be exploited to exert optical forces for new optical micromanipulation modalities.......Optically micromanipulated waveguides can be arbitrarily positioned and oriented for targeted light delivery. At the same time, controlled light deflection in designed waveguides can be exploited to exert optical forces for new optical micromanipulation modalities....

  2. Optical waveguide device with an adiabatically-varying width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts,; Michael R. (Albuquerque, NM), Nielson; Gregory, N [Albuquerque, NM


    Optical waveguide devices are disclosed which utilize an optical waveguide having a waveguide bend therein with a width that varies adiabatically between a minimum value and a maximum value of the width. One or more connecting members can be attached to the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width thereof to support the waveguide bend or to supply electrical power to an impurity-doped region located within the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width. The impurity-doped region can form an electrical heater or a semiconductor junction which can be activated with a voltage to provide a variable optical path length in the optical waveguide. The optical waveguide devices can be used to form a tunable interferometer (e.g. a Mach-Zehnder interferometer) which can be used for optical modulation or switching. The optical waveguide devices can also be used to form an optical delay line.

  3. Directly UV written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low insertion loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zauner, Dan; Svalgaard, Mikael; Kristensen, Martin


    The photosensitive properties of germanosilica may be utilized to directly induce waveguide patterns into thin-film structures using ultraviolet (UV) light. The advantages of fabricating planar waveguides with UV light include the absence of photolithography and reactive ion etching, flexibility...... in waveguide geometry, and excellent control of the refractive index step. Direct UV writing of waveguides became a realistic alternative to other fabrication methods when propagation losses below 0.2 dB/cm were reported in single-mode waveguides. However, the coupling loss to optical fibers remained high...

  4. Optical polyimides for single-mode waveguides (United States)

    Beuhler, Allyson J.; Wargowski, David A.; Kowalczyk, Tony C.; Singer, Kenneth D.


    The synthesis and optical characterization of fluorinated polyimide systems with potential use in passive waveguides and electro-optic devices is reported. The effect of fluorination on optical properties such as refractive index, birefringence, and near-infrared absorbance is reviewed in terms of optical performance requirements. Synthetic methods of tuning the refractive index in order to achieve appropriate core/cladding differentials is discussed. The relation between processing parameters and refractive index for several polyimide structures also is reported. We describe the microlithographic fabrication of a multilayer polyimide rib- type waveguide that is suitable for single mode guiding. The waveguide is fabricated using photosensitive polyimide systems via negative resist imaging. A comparison of wall profiles and resolution limits afforded by the wet-chemical patterning techniques is presented. Results on channel guide coupling, propagation, and loss are described, as well as progress in producing active guides.

  5. Nonlinear optical interactions in silicon waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuyken B.


    Full Text Available The strong nonlinear response of silicon photonic nanowire waveguides allows for the integration of nonlinear optical functions on a chip. However, the detrimental nonlinear optical absorption in silicon at telecom wavelengths limits the efficiency of many such experiments. In this review, several approaches are proposed and demonstrated to overcome this fundamental issue. By using the proposed methods, we demonstrate amongst others supercontinuum generation, frequency comb generation, a parametric optical amplifier, and a parametric optical oscillator.

  6. Optical touch screen based on waveguide sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Chresten; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    We disclose a simple, optical touch screen technique based on a planar injection molded polymer waveguide, a single laser, and a small linear detector array. The solution significantly reduces the complexity and cost as compared to existing optical touch technologies. Force detection of a touching...

  7. "Unmanned” optical micromanipulation using waveguide microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark Jayson


    that could be microfabricated, the study of how optical forces behave in such structures become useful in the emerging field of optofludics. Recently, we have shown how optically maneuverable tapered waveguide microstructures can augment beam shaping experiments by delivering strongly focused light...... be shaped more arbitrarily, engineered light deflection could lead to more control in the resulting motion. We demonstrated this principle with the autonomous translation of bent waveguides though pre-defined light tracks. In our experiment, incoming light makes a near 90 degree turn, hence the resulting...

  8. Nonlinear optical model for strip plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei


    This paper presents a theoretical model of nonlinear optical properties for strip plasmonic waveguides. The particular waveguides geometry that we investigate contains a gold core, adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. It is shown that the third-order susceptibility of the gold core...... significantly depends on the layer thickness and has the dominant contribution to the effective third-order susceptibility of the long-range plasmon polariton mode. This results in two nonlinear optical effects in plasmonic waveguides, which we experimentally observed and reported in [Opt. Lett. 41, 317 (2016......)]. The first effect is the nonlinear power saturation of the plasmonic mode, and the second effect is the spectral broadening of the plasmonic mode. Both nonlinear plasmonic effects can be used for practical applications and their appropriate model will be important for further developments in communication...

  9. Nonlinear waveguide optics and photonic crystal fibers. (United States)

    Knight, J C; Skryabin, D V


    Focus Serial: Frontiers of Nonlinear Optics Optical fibers and waveguides provide unique and distinct environments for nonlinear optics, because of the combination of high intensities, long interaction lengths, and control of the propagation constants. They are also becoming of technological importance. The topic has a long history but continues to generate rapid development, most recently through the invention of the new forms of optical fiber collectively known as photonic crystal fibers. Some of the discoveries and ideas from the new fibers look set to have lasting influence in the broader field of guided-wave nonlinear optics. In this paper we introduce some of these ideas.

  10. Plasmonic waveguides based optical AND gate (United States)

    Tomer, Sonia; Shankhwar, Nishant; Kalra, Yogita; Sinha, Ravindra Kumar


    In this paper, a design of Plasmonic waveguides based optical AND gate has been proposed. Various designs of Photonic crystal based optical logic gates have already been envisioned and proposed during the past decade, in which, wavelength of operation is comparable to the geometrical parameters. On the contrary, the proposed structure consists of Plasmonic waveguides whose thickness is much smaller than the wavelength of operation. Plasmonics can pave way for the development of optical interconnects that are small enough to operate in nanoscale devices. Nowadays, Plasmonics is being implemented in a large number of areas, one of which is confinement of optical power in subwavelength devices. This may pave the way for large scale on-chip integration for the development of all optical circuits for optical computing systems. Moreover, the proposed design is simple and easy to fabricate using techniques like thin-film technology and lithography. This AND gate has been designed and analysed using the Finite Element Method (FEM) software. The proposed structure has been made by using silver material as a waveguide and silicon as the surrounding dielectric..

  11. Wave-guided Optical Waveguides tracked and coupled using dynamic diffractive optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael

    With light’s miniscule momentum, shrinking robotics down to the micro- and nano-scale regime creates opportunities for exploiting optical forces and near-field light delivery in advanced actuation and control atthe smallest physical dimensions. Advancing light-driven nano- or micro......-actuation requires the optimization of optical forces and optical torques that, in turn, requires the optimization of the underlying light-matter interaction [1]. We have previously proposed and demonstrated micro-targeted light-delivery and the opto-mechanical capabilities of so-called wave-guided optical...... waveguides (WOWs) [2]. As the WOWs are optically trapped and maneuvered in 3D-space, it is important to maintain efficient light-coupling through these free-standing waveguides within their operating volume [3]. We propose the use ofdynamic diffractive techniques to create focal spots that will track...

  12. Optimization of optical losses in waveguide component manufacturing (United States)

    Swatowski, Brandon W.; Hyer, Maynard G.; Shepherd, Debra A.; Weidner, W. Ken; Degroot, Jon V.


    We report on the development and optimization of key performance properties of multimode silicone polymer waveguides, manufactured for 850 nm optical propagation. These developments are based on photopatternable, mechanically flexible, low-loss, gradient index waveguides. Cross sectional waveguide core sizes ranging from 40 μm x 50 μm to greater than 60 μm x 60 μm are assessed with optical analysis of component losses such as crossings and coupling between OM4 fiber and waveguide. Assessments of these values, led to optimization of waveguide size and lower total optical system losses. Methods of manufacture, preparation, and analysis are discussed in detail along with performance results.

  13. Electro-optics laboratory evaluation: Deutsch optical waveguide connectors (United States)


    A description of a test program evaluating the performance of an optical waveguide connector system is presented. Both quality and effectiveness of connections made in an optical fiber, performance of the equipment used and applicability of equipment and components to field conditions are reviewed.

  14. Hybrid optical waveguide devices based on polymers and silica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diemeer, Mart; Driessen, A; Baets, R.G.; Mclerney, J.G.; Suhir, E


    The hybrid integration of polymer and silica in optical waveguides can yield devices that combine the excellent thermo-optic properties of polymers and the superior passive waveguiding properties of silica. The large difference and opposite sign of the thermo-optic coefficients of both classes of

  15. Femtosecond laser writing of optical edge filters in fused silica optical waveguides. (United States)

    Grenier, Jason R; Fernandes, Luís A; Herman, Peter R


    The positional alignment of femtosecond laser written Bragg grating waveguides within standard and coreless optical fiber has been exploited to vary symmetry and open strong optical coupling to a high density of asymmetric cladding modes. This coupling was further intensified with tight focusing of the laser pulses through an oil-immersion lens to control mode size against an asymmetric refractive index profile. By extending this Bragg grating waveguide writing into bulk fused silica glass, strong coupling to a continuum of radiation-like modes facilitated a significant broadening to over hundreds of nanometers bandwidth that blended into the narrow Bragg resonance to form into a strongly isolating (43 dB) optical edge filter. This Bragg resonance defined exceptionally steep edge slopes of 136 dB/nm and 185 dB/nm for unpolarized and linearly polarized light, respectively, that were tunable through the 1450 nm to 1550 nm telecommunication band.

  16. Advanced materials for integrated optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Tong Ph D, Xingcun Colin


    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to integrated optical waveguides for information technology and data communications. Integrated coverage ranges from advanced materials, fabrication, and characterization techniques to guidelines for design and simulation. A concluding chapter offers perspectives on likely future trends and challenges. The dramatic scaling down of feature sizes has driven exponential improvements in semiconductor productivity and performance in the past several decades. However, with the potential of gigascale integration, size reduction is approaching a physical limitation due to the negative impact on resistance and inductance of metal interconnects with current copper-trace based technology. Integrated optics provides a potentially lower-cost, higher performance alternative to electronics in optical communication systems. Optical interconnects, in which light can be generated, guided, modulated, amplified, and detected, can provide greater bandwidth, lower power consumption, ...

  17. Optical properties of silicon germanium waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths. (United States)

    Hammani, Kamal; Ettabib, Mohamed A; Bogris, Adonis; Kapsalis, Alexandros; Syvridis, Dimitris; Brun, Mickael; Labeye, Pierre; Nicoletti, Sergio; Richardson, David J; Petropoulos, Periklis


    We present a systematic experimental study of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of silicon-germanium (SiGe) waveguides, conducted on samples of varying cross-sectional dimensions and Ge concentrations. The evolution of the various optical properties for waveguide widths in the range 0.3 to 2 µm and Ge concentrations varying between 10 and 30% is considered. Finally, we comment on the comparative performance of the waveguides, when they are considered for nonlinear applications at telecommunications wavelengths.

  18. Fabrication of optical channel waveguides in crystals and glasses using macro- and micro ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bányász, I., E-mail: [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Rajta, I.; Nagy, G.U.L. [MTA Atomki, Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 51, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Zolnai, Z. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Havranek, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute AV CR, Řež near Prague 250 68 (Czech Republic); Pelli, S. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); “Enrico Fermi” Center for Study and Research, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy); Veres, M. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Berneschi, S.; Nunzi-Conti, G. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Righini, G.C. [“Enrico Fermi” Center for Study and Research, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy)


    Active and passive optical waveguides are fundamental elements in modern telecommunications systems. A great number of optical crystals and glasses were identified and are used as good optoelectronic materials. However, fabrication of waveguides in some of those materials remains still a challenging task due to their susceptibility to mechanical or chemical damages during processing. Researches were initiated on ion beam fabrication of optical waveguides in tellurite glasses. Channel waveguides were written in Er:TeO{sub 2}–WO{sub 3} glass through a special silicon mask using 1.5 MeV N{sup +} irradiation. This method was improved by increasing N{sup +} energy to 3.5 MeV to achieve confinement at the 1550 nm wavelength, too. An alternative method, direct writing of the channel waveguides in the tellurite glass using focussed beams of 6–11 MeV C{sup 3+} and C{sup 5+} and 5 MeV N{sup 3+}, has also been developed. Channel waveguides were fabricated in undoped eulytine-(Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}) and sillenite type (Bi{sub 12}GeO{sub 20}) bismuth germanate crystals using both a special silicon mask and a thick SU8 photoresist mask and 3.5 MeV N{sup +} irradiation. The waveguides were studied by phase contrast and interference microscopy and micro Raman spectroscopy. Guiding properties were checked by the end fire method.

  19. Underwater Wireless Acousto-Optic Waveguide (UWAOW) (United States)

    Giuliano, Giovanni; Kent, Lionel W. J.; Laycock, Leslie C.


    The present study originated in the lack of research into achieving underwater total internal reflection (TIR) via the acousto-optic effect. The uniqueness of this technique exists in the fact that it is based on a high sound pressure level which induces a localised change in refractive index of seawater sufficient to achieve total internal reflection within the communication channel. Different transducer systems for generating the pressure wave have been investigated and take the form of a wave which may be either a standing wave, or a novel beamforming technique. The former is based on an array of transducers and with an acoustic mirror at the receiver in order to establish the standing wave. The alternative approach relies on the high intrinsic directionality of a novel beamformer where an annular transducer array is examined as an acoustic source. In this paper, the main characteristics of the acoustic optic waveguide will be presented. This will include both sound and light propagation in the ocean, TIR, novel beam propagation, the refractive index of water as a function of the externally applied acoustic pressure, and the acoustic technology. The modelled results, the limitations imposed by the challenging medium, and the system requirements required to obtain an Underwater Wireless Acousto-Optic Waveguide (UWAOW) will be also addressed.

  20. Isolated Hexaphenyl Nanofibers as Optical Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Bordo, Vladimir; Simonsen, Adam Cohen


    Laser-supported, dipole-assisted self-assembly results in blue-light guiding nanostructures, namely single-crystalline nanofibers of hexaphenyl molecules. The nanofibers are up to 1 mm long, extremely well-aligned to each other and their cross sections can be tuned to span the range from nonguiding...... to guiding single optical modes at = 425.5 nm. An analytical theory for such organic waveguides can reproduce quantitatively the experimentally observed behavior. From the measured damping of propagating, vibrationally dressed excitons the imaginary part of the dielectric function of isolated nanoscaled...... organic aggregates is determined....

  1. Planar Silicon Optical Waveguide Light Modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leistiko, Otto; Bak, H.


    The results of an experimental investigation of a new type of optical waveguide based on planar technology in which the liglht guiding and modulation are achieved by exploiting free carrier effects in silicon are presented. Light is guided between the n+ substrate and two p+ regions, which also...... that values in the nanosecond region should be possible, however, the measured values are high, 20 microseconds, due to the large area of the injector junctions, 1× 10¿2 cm2, and the limitations imposed by the detection circuit. The modulating properties of these devices are impressive, measurements...

  2. Direct Wafer Bonding and Its Application to Waveguide Optical Isolators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Takei


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the direct bonding technique focusing on the waveguide optical isolator application. A surface activated direct bonding technique is a powerful tool to realize a tight contact between dissimilar materials. This technique has the potential advantage that dissimilar materials are bonded at low temperature, which enables one to avoid the issue associated with the difference in thermal expansion. Using this technique, a magneto-optic garnet is successfully bonded on silicon, III-V compound semiconductors and LiNbO3. As an application of this technique, waveguide optical isolators are investigated including an interferometric waveguide optical isolator and a semileaky waveguide optical isolator. The interferometric waveguide optical isolator that uses nonreciprocal phase shift is applicable to a variety of waveguide platforms. The low refractive index of buried oxide layer in a silicon-on-insulator (SOI waveguide enhances the magneto-optic phase shift, which contributes to the size reduction of the isolator. A semileaky waveguide optical isolator has the advantage of large fabrication-tolerance as well as a wide operation wavelength range.

  3. Optical waveguide mode control by nanoslit-enhanced terahertz field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Malureanu, Radu


    In this Letter we propose a scheme providing control over an optical waveguide mode by a terahertz (THz) wave. The scheme is based on an optimization of the overlap between the optical waveguide mode and the THz field, with the THz field strength enhanced by the presence of a metallic nanoslit...

  4. High-Index Contrast Silicon Rich Silicon Nitride Optical Waveguides and Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipp, Hugh Taylor


    This research focused on the realization of high-density integrated optical devices made with high-index contrast waveguides. The material platform used for to develop these devices was modeled after standard silicon on silicon technology. The high-index waveguide core material was silicon rich...... silicon nitride. This provided a sharp contrast with silica and made low-loss waveguide bending radii less than 25mm possible. An immediate consequence of such small bending radii is the ability to make practical ring resonator based devices with a large free spectral range. Several ring resonator based...... devices have been demonstrated. Directly UV-written waveguides have also been used with high-index contrast ring resonators to make hybrid devices. These hybrid devices are interesting because of the possibility of making practical low insertion-loss devices that utilize the benefits of a high...

  5. Femtosecond-laser-written Tm:KLu(WO4)2 waveguide lasers. (United States)

    Kifle, Esrom; Mateos, Xavier; de Aldana, Javier Rodríguez Vázquez; Ródenas, Airan; Loiko, Pavel; Choi, Sun Yung; Rotermund, Fabian; Griebner, Uwe; Petrov, Valentin; Aguiló, Magdalena; Díaz, Francesc


    Depressed-index channel waveguides with a circular and photonic crystal cladding structures are prepared in a bulk monoclinic Tm:KLu(WO4)2 crystal by 3D direct femtosecond laser writing. The channel waveguide structures are characterized and laser operation is achieved using external mirrors. In the continuous-wave mode, the maximum output power of 46 mW is achieved at 1912 nm corresponding to a slope efficiency of 15.2% and a laser threshold of only 21 mW. Passive Q-switching of a waveguide with a circular cladding is realized using single-walled carbon nanotubes. Stable 7 nJ/50 ns pulses are achieved at a repetition rate of 1.48 MHz. This first demonstration of ∼2  μm fs-laser-written waveguide lasers based on monoclinic double tungstates is promising for further lasers of this type doped with Tm3+ and Ho3+  ions.

  6. Reconfigurable optical manipulation by phase change material waveguides. (United States)

    Zhang, Tianhang; Mei, Shengtao; Wang, Qian; Liu, Hong; Lim, Chwee Teck; Teng, Jinghua


    Optical manipulation by dielectric waveguides enables the transportation of particles and biomolecules beyond diffraction limits. However, traditional dielectric waveguides could only transport objects in the forward direction which does not fulfill the requirements of the next generation lab-on-chip system where the integrated manipulation system should be much more flexible and multifunctional. In this work, bidirectional transportation of objects on the nanoscale is demonstrated on a rectangular waveguide made of the phase change material Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) by numerical simulations. Either continuous pushing forces or pulling forces are generated on the trapped particles when the GST is in the amorphous or crystalline phase. With the technique of a femtosecond laser induced phase transition on the GST, we further proposed a reconfigurable optical trap array on the same waveguide. This work demonstrates GST waveguide's potential of achieving multifunctional manipulation of multiple objects on the nanoscale with plausible optical setups.

  7. An optical waveguide acid vapor sensor. (United States)

    Ballantine, D S; Callahan, D; Maclay, G J; Stetter, J R


    An optical waveguide sensor for the detection of acid vapors is described. The chemically sensitive reagent coating consists of bromothymol blue indicator suspended in a Nafion polymer film. The sensor uses a 562 nm LED source and a phototransistor detector. Response to hydrochloric acid and hydrogen sulphide vapours is both rapid and reversible, with an estimated detection limit for hydrogen sulphide of less than 15 ppm. The sensors exhibits generalized response to protonic acid vapours, but does not produce an indicator response to carbon dioxide, even at large concentrations (1100 mg/l.) in the presence of water vapor. The sensor exhibits a systematic interference from water vapor which may be corrected by a different approach, either using a reference sensor (Nafion/no indicator) or by monitoring sensor response at two wavelengths.

  8. Optical vortex propagation in few-mode rectangular polymer waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir S.; Chipouline, Arkadi; Zywietz, Urs


    We demonstrate that rectangular few-mode dielectric waveguides, fabricated with standard lithographic technique, can support on-chip propagation of optical vortices. We show that specific superpositions of waveguide eigenmodes form quasi-degenerate modes carrying light with high purity states...

  9. Polymer waveguide backplanes for optical sensor interfaces in microfluidics. (United States)

    Lee, Kevin S; Lee, Harry L T; Ram, Rajeev J


    A polymer optical backplane capable of generic luminescence detection within microfluidic chips is demonstrated using large core polymer waveguides and vertical couplers. The waveguides are fabricated through a new process combining mechanical machining and vapor polishing with elastomer microtransfer molding. A backplane approach enables general optical integration with planar array microfluidics since optical backplanes can be independently designed but still integrated with planar fluidic circuits. Fabricated large core waveguides exhibit a loss of 0.1 dB cm(-1) at 626 nm, a measured numerical aperture of 0.50, and a collection efficiency of 2.86% in an n = 1.459 medium, comparable to a 0.50 NA microscope objective. In addition to vertical couplers for out-of-plane collection and excitation, polymer waveguides are doped with organic dyes to provide wavelength selective filtering within waveguides, further improving optical device integration. With large core low loss waveguides, luminescence collection is improved and measurements can be performed with simple LEDs and photodetectors. Fluorescein detection via fluorescence intensity with a limit of detection (3sigma) of 200 nM in a 1 microL volume is demonstrated. Phosphorescence lifetime based oxygen detection in water in an oxygen controllable microbial cell culture chip with a limit of detection (3sigma) of 0.08% or 35 ppb is also demonstrated utilizing the waveguide backplane. Single waveguide luminescence collection performance is equivalent to a back collection geometry fiber bundle consisting of nine 500 microm diameter collection fibers.

  10. Nonlinear optical polymeric waveguide electro-optic phase modulator (United States)

    Swalen, Jerome D.; Bjorklund, Gary C.; Fleming, William W.; Hung, R. Y.; Jurich, Mark C.; Lee, Victor Y.; Miller, Robert D.; Moerner, William E.; Morichere, D. Y.; Skumanich, Andrew; Smith, Barton A.


    Three nonlinear optical polymeric systems based on nonlinear optical chromophores attached as side chains to poly(methyl methacrylate) were synthesized and their nonlinear optical properties measured in thin film form by second harmonic generation and by the electro-optic effect. Also, attenuation of light propagation in optical waveguides and photothermal deflection infrared spectra were measured on these films to aid in selecting the best system for device development. Based on these results, a phase modulator was constructed and with sub- carrier multiplexing the signals from five TV channels were placed on an infrared laser beam as sidebands. After a short transmission through space, these signals were then heterodyne detected and displayed on a TV monitor with good signal to noise and with no crosstalk.

  11. Slow Light in Coupled Resonator Optical Waveguides (United States)

    Chang, Hongrok; Gates, Amanda L.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Gregory, Don A.; Witherow, William K.; Paley, Mark S.; Frazier, Donald O.; Smith, David D.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)


    Recently, we discovered that a splitting of the whispering gallery modes (WGMs) occurs in coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROWs), and that these split modes are of a higher Q than the single-resonator modes, leading to enormous circulating intensity magnification factors that dramatically reduce thresholds for nonlinear optical (NLO) processes. As a result of the enhancements in Q, pulses propagating at a split resonance can propagate much slower (faster) for over (under)-coupled structures, due to the modified dispersion near the split resonance. Moreover, when loss is considered, the mode-splitting may be thought of as analogous to the Autler-Townes splitting that occurs in atomic three-level lambda systems, i.e., it gives rise to induced transparency as a result of destructive interference. In under- or over-coupled CROWs, this coupled resonator induced transparency (CRIT) allows slow light to be achieved at the single-ring resonance with no absorption, while maintaining intensities such that NLO effects are maximized. The intensity magnification of the circulating fields and phase transfer characteristics are examined in detail.

  12. Optical image processing by using a photorefractive spatial soliton waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Bao-Lai, E-mail: [College of Physics Science & Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Wang, Ying; Zhang, Su-Heng; Guo, Qing-Lin; Wang, Shu-Fang; Fu, Guang-Sheng [College of Physics Science & Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Simmonds, Paul J. [Department of Physics and Micron School of Materials Science & Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Wang, Zhao-Qi [Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)


    By combining the photorefractive spatial soliton waveguide of a Ce:SBN crystal with a coherent 4-f system we are able to manipulate the spatial frequencies of an input optical image to perform edge-enhancement and direct component enhancement operations. Theoretical analysis of this optical image processor is presented to interpret the experimental observations. This work provides an approach for optical image processing by using photorefractive spatial solitons. - Highlights: • A coherent 4-f system with the spatial soliton waveguide as spatial frequency filter. • Manipulate the spatial frequencies of an input optical image. • Achieve edge-enhancement and direct component enhancement operations of an optical image.

  13. Improved optical planar waveguides for lasers Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Demonstrate efficacy of a novel growth technique for planar waveguides (PWG) Enable PWG laser technology with improved performance, efficiency and manufacturability....

  14. Optical Waveguide Structures for CO(2) Lasers. (United States)

    Cheo, P K; Berak, J M; Oshinsky, W; Swindal, J L


    Thin-film waveguide structures consisting of epitaxially grown low-carrier-concentration GaAs and having two distinct index profiles have been investigated with a 10.6-microm C0(2) laser. Results of Schottky barrier and Hall measurements show that the carrier concentration of some of these films is less than 10(12) cm(-3), and the resistivity can be as high as 1.4 x 10(5) ?-cm. Guided-wave modes were excited by means of a germanium prism or phase grating coupler. When the index difference Deltan between the undoped film and the substrate is approximately 0.3 (strong guide), a number of modes can be obtained with a typical angular full width at half maximum intensity Delta(theta) (1/2) of coupler with a typical Deltatheta((1/2)) of approximately degrees . Measurements were also made of the transmission and cutoff characteristics of the TE and TM modes in weak guides as a function of the guide thickness that varied between 20 micro and 50 micro Results indicate that optical transmission decreases rapidly as the thickness of the weak guide decreases toward the cutoff value.

  15. Optical planar waveguide for cell counting (United States)

    LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.


    Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids.

  16. Fluorescence based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito-Peña, Elena [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Valdés, Mayra Granda [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of La Habana, 10400 La Habana (Cuba); Glahn-Martínez, Bettina [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Moreno-Bondi, Maria C., E-mail: [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    The application of optical biosensors, specifically those that use optical fibers and planar waveguides, has escalated throughout the years in many fields, including environmental analysis, food safety and clinical diagnosis. Fluorescence is, without doubt, the most popular transducer signal used in these devices because of its higher selectivity and sensitivity, but most of all due to its wide versatility. This paper focuses on the working principles and configurations of fluorescence-based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors and will review biological recognition elements, sensing schemes, as well as some major and recent applications, published in the last ten years. The main goal is to provide the reader a general overview of a field that requires the joint collaboration of researchers of many different areas, including chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, and material science. - Highlights: • Principles, configurations and fluorescence techniques using fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors are discussed. • The biorecognition elements and sensing schemes used in fiber optic and planar waveguide platforms are reviewed. • Some major and recent applications of fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors are introduced.

  17. Flexible Optical Waveguides for Uniform Periscleral Cross-Linking


    Kwok, Sheldon J. J.; Kim, Moonseok; Lin, Harvey H.; Seiler, Theo G.; Beck, Eric; Shao, Peng; Kochevar, Irene E.; Seiler, Theo; Yun, Seok-Hyun


    Purpose Scleral cross-linking (SXL) with a photosensitizer and light is a potential strategy to mechanically reinforce the sclera and prevent progressive axial elongation responsible for severe myopia. Current approaches for light delivery to the sclera are cumbersome, do not provide uniform illumination, and only treat a limited area of sclera. To overcome these challenges, we developed flexible optical waveguides optimized for efficient, homogeneous light delivery. Methods: Waveguides were ...

  18. Mode conversion enables optical pulling force in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Tongtong; Novitsky, Andrey; Cao, Yongyin


    We propose a robust scheme to achieve optical pulling force using the guiding modes supported in a hollow core double-mode photonic crystal waveguide instead of the structured optical beams in free space investigated earlier. The waveguide under consideration supports both the 0th order mode...... to the conservation of linear momentum. We present the quantitative agreement between the results derived from the mode conversion analysis and those from rigorous simulation using the finite-difference in the time-domain numerical method. Importantly, the optical pulling scheme presented here is robust and broadband...

  19. Energy transfer in erbium doped optical waveguides based on silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kik, Pieter Geert


    Energy transfer in erbium doped optical waveguides based on silicon This thesis describes the energy transfer processes occurring in materials that can be used for the fabrication of silicon compatible optical integrated circuits, operating at 1.54 mm.The thesis consists of three parts: Part I

  20. Optically amplifying planar glass waveguides: Laser on a chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas

    The objective of this work was to devlop optically amplifying planar wavguides, using erbium-doped germano-silicate glass films deposited by PECVD (Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition). The waveguides should exhibit enough gain to be useful as optical amplifiers in integrated planar lightw...

  1. Nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation. (United States)

    Wang, Guanghui; Ying, Zhoufeng; Ho, Ho-pui; Huang, Ying; Zou, Ningmu; Zhang, Xuping


    We propose a plasmonic nano-optical conveyor belt for peristaltic transport of nano-particles. Instead of illumination from the top, waveguide-coupled excitation is used for trapping particles with a higher degree of precision and flexibility. Graded nano-rods with individual dimensions coded to have resonance at specific wavelengths are incorporated along the waveguide in order to produce spatially addressable hot spots. Consequently, by switching the excitation wavelength sequentially, particles can be transported to adjacent optical traps along the waveguide. The feasibility of this design is analyzed using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain and Maxwell stress tensor methods. Simulation results show that this system is capable of exciting addressable traps and moving particles in a peristaltic fashion with tens of nanometers resolution. It is the first, to the best of our knowledge, report about a nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation, which is very important for scalability and on-chip integration. The proposed approach offers a new design direction for integrated waveguide-based optical manipulation devices and its application in large scale lab-on-a-chip integration.

  2. Bulk diamond optical waveguides fabricated by focused femtosecond laser pulses (United States)

    Hadden, J. P.; Sotillo, Belén.; Bharadwaj, Vibhav; Rampini, Stefano; Bosia, Federico; Picollo, Federico; Sakakura, Masaaki; Chiappini, Andrea; Fernandez, Toney T.; Osellame, Roberto; Miura, Kiyotaka; Ferrari, Maurizio; Ramponi, Roberta; Olivero, Paolo; Barclay, Paul E.; Eaton, Shane M.


    Diamond's nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers show great promise in sensing applications and quantum computing due to their long electron spin coherence time and their ability to be located, manipulated and read out using light. The electrons of the NV center, largely localized at the vacancy site, combine to form a spin triplet, which can be polarized with 532- nm laser light, even at room temperature. The NV's states are isolated from environmental perturbations making their spin coherence comparable to trapped ions. An important breakthrough would be in connecting, using waveguides, multiple diamond NVs together optically. However, the inertness of diamond is a significant hurdle for the fabrication of integrated optics similar to those that revolutionized silicon photonics. In this work we show the possibility of buried waveguide fabrication in diamond, enabled by focused femtosecond high repetition rate laser pulses. We use μRaman spectroscopy to gain better insight into the structure and refractive index profile of the optical waveguides.

  3. Optical waveguides in lithium niobate: Recent developments and applications (United States)

    Bazzan, Marco; Sada, Cinzia


    The state of the art of optical waveguide fabrication in lithium niobate is reviewed, with particular emphasis on new technologies and recent applications. The attention is mainly devoted to recently developed fabrication methods, such as femtosecond laser writing, ion implantation, and smart cut waveguides as well as to the realization of waveguides with tailored functionalities, such as photorefractive or domain engineered structures. More exotic systems, such as reconfigurable and photorefractive soliton waveguides, are also considered. Classical techniques, such as Ti in-diffusion and proton exchange, are cited and briefly reviewed as a reference standpoint to highlight the recent developments. In all cases, the application-oriented point of view is preferred, in order to provide the reader with an up-to date panorama of the vast possibilities offered by lithium niobate to integrated photonics.

  4. Direct write fabrication of waveguides and interconnects for optical printed wiring boards (United States)

    Dingeldein, Joseph C.

    produced using standard lithographic practices (0.047 dB/cm loss for laser written waveguides compared to 0.043 dB/cm for lithographic waveguides). Straight waveguides, and waveguide turns were patterned at multimode and single mode sizes, and the process was characterized and documented. Support structures such as angled reflectors and vertical posts were produced, showing the versatility of the laser direct write tool. Commercially available components were implanted into the optical layer for out-of-plane routing of the optical signals. These devices featured spherical lenses on the input and output sides of a total internal reflection (TIR) mirror, as well as alignment pins compatible with standard MT design. Fully functional OEPWBs were fabricated featuring input and output out-of-plane optical signal routing with total optical losses not exceeding 10 dB. These prototypes survived thermal cycling (-40°C to 85°C) and humidity exposure (95±4% humidity), showing minimal degradation in optical performance. Operational failure occurred after environmental aging life testing at 110°C for 216 hours.

  5. Phase-sensitive optical processing in silicon waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petermann, Klaus; Gajda, A.; Dziallas, Claudia


    Parametric optical signal processing is reviewed for silicon nano-rib-waveguides with a reverse-biased pin-junction. Phase-sensitive parametric amplification with a phase-sensitive extinction of more than 20 dB has been utilized for the regeneration of DPSK signals......Parametric optical signal processing is reviewed for silicon nano-rib-waveguides with a reverse-biased pin-junction. Phase-sensitive parametric amplification with a phase-sensitive extinction of more than 20 dB has been utilized for the regeneration of DPSK signals...

  6. Silicon waveguide based 320 Gbit/s optical sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Hua; Galili, Michael; Pu, Minhao


    A silicon waveguide-based ultra-fast optical sampling system is successfully demonstrated using a free-running fiber laser with a carbon nanotube-based mode-locker as the sampling source. A clear eye-diagram of a 320 Gbit/s data signal is obtained.......A silicon waveguide-based ultra-fast optical sampling system is successfully demonstrated using a free-running fiber laser with a carbon nanotube-based mode-locker as the sampling source. A clear eye-diagram of a 320 Gbit/s data signal is obtained....

  7. Waveguide Photodegradation of Nonlinear Optical Organic Chromophores in Polymeric Films (United States)

    Ren, Yitao; Szablewski, Marek; Cross, Graham H.


    Waveguide photodegradation studies have been carried out to investigate the photostabilities of a series of nonlinear optical chromophores doped into poly(methyl methacrylate) waveguide films. The films were exposed to optical wavelengths lying either within these materials main absorption bands or in the near-infrared region. Degradation studies were carried out in air, vacuum, and nitrogen environments at room temperature. Experimental results indicate that the principal photodegradation mechanism in operation is photo-oxidation. A simple analytical model indicated the relative sensitivity to photo-oxidation of the materials studied.

  8. Optical manipulation of silicon nanowires on silicon nitride waveguides (United States)

    Néel, D.; Gétin, S.; Fedeli, J.-M.; Baron, T.; Gentile, P.; Ferret, P.


    Semiconductor nanowires are drawing more and more interest due to their numerous potential applications in nanoelectronics devices [1,2], including interconnects, transistor channels, nanoelectrodes, or in the emerging application areas of photonics [3], chemistry [4] and photovoltaics [5]. In this context, optical tweezers appear like a pertinent tool for the manipulation and assembly of nanowires into complex structures. It was previously shown that the near-field existing at the surface of a waveguide allows the micromanipulation of nanoparticles and biological objects [6,7]. In this article, we investigate for the first time to our knowledge the motion of silicon nanowires above silicon nitride waveguides. The nanowires in aqueous solution are attracted toward the waveguide by optical gradient forces. The nanowires align themselves according to the axis of the waveguide and get propelled along the waveguide due to radiation pressure. Velocities are up to 40 μm/s. For a better understanding of the experimental results, the distribution of the electromagnetic field in the nanowire is calculated using the finite element method. Then, the resulting optical forces exerted on the nanowires are calculated, thanks to the Maxwell stress tensor formalism.

  9. Modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Lysenko, Oleg


    , 30 and 45 nm. The fabrication process of such plasmonic waveguides with width in the range of 1-100 μm and their quality inspection are described. The results of optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides using a high power laser with the peak power wavelength 1064 nm show significant deviation......This paper describes modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of thin gold films embedded in silicon dioxide. The propagation vector of surface plasmon polaritons has been calculated by the effective index method for the wavelength range of 750-1700 nm and film thickness of 15...... from the linear propagation regime of surface plasmon polaritons at the average input power of 100 mW and above. Possible reasons for this deviation are heating of the waveguides and subsequent changes in the coupling and propagation losses....

  10. Three-dimensional optical sensing network written in fused silica glass with femtosecond laser. (United States)

    Zhang, Haibin; Ho, Stephen; Eaton, Shane M; Li, Jianzhao; Herman, Peter R


    A single-step fast-writing method of burst ultrafast laser modification was applied to form a mesh network of multi-wavelength Bragg grating waveguides in bulk fused silica glass. Strain-optic and thermo-optic responses of the laser-written internal sensors are reported for the first time. A dual planar layout provided independent temperature- and strain-compensated characterization of temperature and strain distribution with coarse spatial resolution. The grating responses were thermally stable to 500 masculineC. To our best knowledge, the grating network represents the first demonstration of 3D distributed optical sensing network in a bulk transparent medium. Such 3D grating networks open new directions for strain and temperature sensing in optical circuits, optofluidic, MEMS or lab-on-a-chip microsystems, actuators, and windows and other large display or civil structures.

  11. Analytical analysis of sensitivity of optical waveguide sensor | Verma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, we carried out analytical analysis of sensitivity and mode field of optical waveguide structure by use of effective index method. This structures as predicted have extended mode which could interact with the surrounding analyses in a much better way than the commonly used EWS.

  12. Analytical approach to dielectric optical bent slab waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiremath, K.R.; Hammer, Manfred; Stoffer, Remco; Prkna, L.; Ctyroky, J.

    A rigorous classical analytic frequency domain model of con?ned optical wave propagation along 2D bent slab waveguides and curved dielectric interfaces is investigated, based on a piecewise ansatz for bend mode profiles in terms of Bessel and Hankel functions. This approach provides a clear picture

  13. Optical transitions and Rabi oscillations in waveguide arrays. (United States)

    Makris, K G; Christodoulides, D N; Peleg, O; Segev, M; Kip, D


    It is theoretically demonstrated that Rabi interband oscillations are possible in waveguide arrays. Such transitions can take place in optical lattices when the unit-cell is periodically modulated along the propagation direction. Under phase-matching conditions, direct power transfer between two Floquet-Bloch modes can occur. In the nonlinear domain, periodic oscillations between two different lattice solitons are also possible.

  14. Air- and water-core integrated optical waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uranus, H.P.; Hoekstra, Hugo; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.


    Hollow-core integrated optical waveguides enable quasi-confinement of light into the hollow-core, hence offer intense interaction between light and gas or liquid filled into the core on one hand and prospective for integration of various components (not only photonic components, but also

  15. Optical Waveguiding in Individual Nanometer-Scale Organic Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Bordo, Vladimir G.; Simonsen, Adam Cohen


    We show by a combination of spectrally resolved fluorescence and atomic force microscopy that individual, single crystalline, needlelike aggregates of hexaphenyl molecules with submicron cross-sectional dimensions act as optical waveguides (“nanofibers”) in the blue spectral range. The nanofibers...

  16. Silicon-on-Insulator Nanowire Based Optical Waveguide Biosensors (United States)

    Li, Mingyu; Liu, Yong; Chen, Yangqing; He, Jian-Jun


    Optical waveguide biosensors based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanowire have been developed for label free molecular detection. This paper reviews our work on the design, fabrication and measurement of SOI nanowire based high-sensitivity biosensors employing Vernier effect. Biosensing experiments using cascaded double-ring sensor and Mach-Zehnder- ring sensor integrated with microfluidic channels are demonstrated

  17. Waveguidance by the photonic bandgap effect in optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Søndergaard, Thomas; Barkou, Stig Eigil


    Photonic crystals form a new class of intriguing building blocks to be utilized in future optoelectronics and electromagnetics. One of the most exciting possiblilties offered by phtonic crystals is the realization of new types of electromagnetic waveguides. In the optical domain, the most mature...

  18. UV-written Integrated Optical 1xN Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivero, Massimo; Svalgaard, Mikael


    The first demonstration of UV-written, silica-on-silicon integrated optical 1×N power splitters with up to 32 outputs ports is presented. The fabricated components exhibit 450 nm bandwidth, low excess loss and good channel uniformity.......The first demonstration of UV-written, silica-on-silicon integrated optical 1×N power splitters with up to 32 outputs ports is presented. The fabricated components exhibit 450 nm bandwidth, low excess loss and good channel uniformity....

  19. Silicon waveguide optical switch with embedded phase change material. (United States)

    Miller, Kevin J; Hallman, Kent A; Haglund, Richard F; Weiss, Sharon M


    Phase-change materials (PCMs) have emerged as promising active elements in silicon (Si) photonic systems. In this work, we design, fabricate, and characterize a hybrid Si-PCM optical switch. By integrating vanadium dioxide (a PCM) within a Si photonic waveguide, in a non-resonant geometry, we achieve ~10 dB broadband optical contrast with a PCM length of 500 nm using thermal actuation.

  20. Gaussian-Beam/Physical-Optics Design Of Beam Waveguide (United States)

    Veruttipong, Watt; Chen, Jacqueline C.; Bathker, Dan A.


    In iterative method of designing wideband beam-waveguide feed for paraboloidal-reflector antenna, Gaussian-beam approximation alternated with more nearly exact physical-optics analysis of diffraction. Includes curved and straight reflectors guiding radiation from feed horn to subreflector. For iterative design calculations, curved mirrors mathematically modeled as thin lenses. Each distance Li is combined length of two straight-line segments intersecting at one of flat mirrors. Method useful for designing beam-waveguide reflectors or mirrors required to have diameters approximately less than 30 wavelengths at one or more intended operating frequencies.

  1. Mode conversion enables optical pulling force in photonic crystal waveguides (United States)

    Zhu, Tongtong; Novitsky, Andrey; Cao, Yongyin; Mahdy, M. R. C.; Wang, Lin; Sun, Fangkui; Jiang, Zehui; Ding, Weiqiang


    We propose a robust scheme to achieve optical pulling force using the guiding modes supported in a hollow core double-mode photonic crystal waveguide instead of the structured optical beams in free space investigated earlier. The waveguide under consideration supports both the 0th order mode with a larger forward momentum and the 1st order mode with a smaller forward momentum. When the 1st order mode is launched, the scattering by the object inside the waveguide results in the conversion from the 1st order mode to the 0th order mode, thus creating the optical pulling force according to the conservation of linear momentum. We present the quantitative agreement between the results derived from the mode conversion analysis and those from rigorous simulation using the finite-difference in the time-domain numerical method. Importantly, the optical pulling scheme presented here is robust and broadband with naturally occurred lateral equilibriums and has a long manipulation range. Flexibilities of the current configuration make it valuable for the optical force tailoring and optical manipulation operation, especially in microfluidic channel systems.

  2. Optical Sensors based on single arm thin film Waveguide Interferometer (United States)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S.


    The second achievement meets the second objective for the second year. We choose adjustable prism couplers for connecting the sensor to optical fiber lines in our design of a breadboard prototype of the sensor. These couplers have good coupling efficiency at relatively low cost comparing to any other alternatives such as grating couplers. The third accomplishment meets the third objective for the second year. We performed testing the breadboard prototype of the sensor using heating as a technique of changing its refractive index. The only difference is that we ruled out the channel waveguides as irrelevant to the final goals of the project. The feasibility of the sensor can be shown for the slab waveguide configuration without usage of relatively expensive technologies of channel waveguide delineation.

  3. Fluorescence based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors. A review. (United States)

    Benito-Peña, Elena; Valdés, Mayra Granda; Glahn-Martínez, Bettina; Moreno-Bondi, Maria C


    The application of optical biosensors, specifically those that use optical fibers and planar waveguides, has escalated throughout the years in many fields, including environmental analysis, food safety and clinical diagnosis. Fluorescence is, without doubt, the most popular transducer signal used in these devices because of its higher selectivity and sensitivity, but most of all due to its wide versatility. This paper focuses on the working principles and configurations of fluorescence-based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors and will review biological recognition elements, sensing schemes, as well as some major and recent applications, published in the last ten years. The main goal is to provide the reader a general overview of a field that requires the joint collaboration of researchers of many different areas, including chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, and material science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Optical waveguide components using fluorinated polyimides (United States)

    Ishibashi, Shigeki; Takahara, Hideyuki


    Polyimides are widely used in electronics as heat-resistant organic materials and are now being studied for possible use in optical components. The fluorinated polyimides developed by NTT have high transparency at telecommunication wavelengths, a controllable index of refraction, and high thermal stability, making them suitable for use in optical communication systems. Here, optical components developed using fluorinated polyimides are reviewed, and the relationships between the material characteristics and the device parameters are discussed.

  5. Collection of remote optical signals by air waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenthal, E W; Wahlstrand, J K; Milchberg, H M


    Collection of weak signals from remote locations is the primary goal and the primary hurdle of optical stand-off detection schemes. Typically, the measured signal is enhanced using large numerical aperture collection optics and high gain detectors. We show that the signal in remote detection techniques can be enhanced by using a long-lived air waveguide generated by an array of femtosecond filaments. We present a proof of principle experiment using an air plasma spark source and a ~1 m air waveguide showing an increase in collected signal of ~50%. For standoff distances of 100 m, this implies that the signal-to-noise ratio can be increased by a factor ~10$^4$.

  6. A new fiber-optic microphone based on waveguide modulator (United States)

    Zhang, Chengmei; Zhen, Shenglai; Zhang, Bo; Ai, Fei; Zhang, Shuangxi; Jiang, Chao; Yu, Benli


    A new fiber-optic microphone was demonstrated theoretically and experimentally in this paper. The microphone is based on Mach-Zehnder and Sagnac interferometers, which comprise an amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) light source, a conventional single-mode fiber, a fiber reflector and two 3dB couplers. As two light paths have the same optical length but travel different sequence paths in this hybrid interferometer, the beams in different paths pass through the sensing fiber at different times and the phase signals differ from each other. Utilizing the two light paths interfered and fiber waveguide modulator replaced by piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) modulation, to implement the direct acquiring of weak voice signals. Adoption of the ASE light source and the single-mode fiber as sensing fiber decreases the system cost. The application of the fiber waveguide modulator overcomes the limitation in high frequency and nonlinear effect of PZT modulation, improves the flexibility of the system and the frequency response range. Phase shifts of the two interfered beams, which is caused by the slowly varying environmental parameter, is equal to eliminate the influence from outside effectively. In this system, the signal demodulation circuit based on weak voice signal is simpler than the PGC demodulation circuit. The experimental results of the fiber-optic microphone based on waveguide modulator have been demonstrated that the simple circuit demodulation for the weak voice signal is feasible.

  7. FDTD modeling of anisotropic nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides. (United States)

    Dissanayake, Chethiya M; Premaratne, Malin; Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Agrawal, Govind P


    A deep insight into the inherent anisotropic optical properties of silicon is required to improve the performance of silicon-waveguide-based photonic devices. It may also lead to novel device concepts and substantially extend the capabilities of silicon photonics in the future. In this paper, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, we present a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for modeling optical phenomena in silicon waveguides, which takes into account fully the anisotropy of the third-order electronic and Raman susceptibilities. We show that, under certain realistic conditions that prevent generation of the longitudinal optical field inside the waveguide, this model is considerably simplified and can be represented by a computationally efficient algorithm, suitable for numerical analysis of complex polarization effects. To demonstrate the versatility of our model, we study polarization dependence for several nonlinear effects, including self-phase modulation, cross-phase modulation, and stimulated Raman scattering. Our FDTD model provides a basis for a full-blown numerical simulator that is restricted neither by the single-mode assumption nor by the slowly varying envelope approximation.

  8. Color waveguide transparent screen using lens array holographic optical element (United States)

    Liu, Siqi; Sun, Peng; Wang, Chang; Zheng, Zhenrong


    A color transparent screen was designed in this paper, a planar glass was used as a waveguide structure and the lens array holographic optical element (HOE) was used as a display unit. The lens array HOE was exposed by two coherent beams. One was the reference wave which directly illuminated on the holographic material and the other was modulated by the micro lens array. The lens array HOE can display the images with see-through abilities. Unlike the conventional lens array HOE, a planar glass was adopted as the waveguide in the experiment. The projecting light was totally internal-reflected in the planar glass to eliminate the undesired zero-order diffracted light. By using waveguide, it also brings advantage of compact structure. Colorful display can be realized in our system as the holographic materials were capable for multi-wavelength display. In this paper, a color transparent screen utilizing the lens array HOE and waveguide were designed. Experiment results showed a circular display area on the transparent screen. The diameter of the area is 20 mm and it achieved the pixel resolution of 100 μm. This simple and effective method could be an alternative in the augment reality (AR) applications, such as transparent phone and television.

  9. Optical properties of microcavities and patterned waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Culshaw, I S


    electromagnetic fields. The theoretical and measured spectra are shown to be in excellent agreement. The fitting process enabled the full set of structural parameters to be determined. The photonic dispersions of the modes of the PWGs are shown to be closely related to the calculated band structure of an idealised photonic crystal waveguide (PCW) model, namely a PC of finite thickness clad on either side by perfectly reflecting walls. The photonic bands of the ideal 2-D PCW are of mixed polarisation character owing to TE-TM/TM-TE scattering processes. Strong evidence is found to support this in the reflectivity of the 2-D PWG. Polarisation mixing leads to an anti-crossing of photonic bands of the ideal 2-D PCW, and hence the appearance of heavy photon states, away from the boundaries of the 2-D Brillouin zone. Theoretically, the coupling of external radiation to such heavy photon states is shown to occur for the 2-D PWG. A series of new PWG structures employing thin metallic films are proposed in order to all...

  10. Integrated planar optical waveguide interferometer biosensors: a comparative review. (United States)

    Kozma, Peter; Kehl, Florian; Ehrentreich-Förster, Eva; Stamm, Christoph; Bier, Frank F


    Integrated planar optical waveguide interferometer biosensors are advantageous combinations of evanescent field sensing and optical phase difference measurement methods. By probing the near surface region of a sensor area with the evanescent field, any change of the refractive index of the probed volume induces a phase shift of the guided mode compared to a reference field typically of a mode propagating through the reference arm of the same waveguide structure. The interfering fields of these modes produce an interference signal detected at the sensor׳s output, whose alteration is proportional to the refractive index change. This signal can be recorded, processed and related to e.g. the concentration of an analyte in the solution of interest. Although this sensing principle is relatively simple, studies about integrated planar optical waveguide interferometer biosensors can mostly be found in the literature covering the past twenty years. During these two decades, several members of this sensor family have been introduced, which have remarkably advantageous properties. These entail label-free and non-destructive detection, outstandingly good sensitivity and detection limit, cost-effective and simple production, ability of multiplexing and miniaturization. Furthermore, these properties lead to low reagent consumption, short analysis time and open prospects for point-of-care applications. The present review collects the most relevant developments of the past twenty years categorizing them into two main groups, such as common- and double path waveguide interferometers. In addition, it tries to maintain the historical order as it is possible and it compares the diverse sensor designs in order to reveal not only the development of this field in time, but to contrast the advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches and sensor families, as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Extreme optical confinement in a slotted photonic crystal waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caër, Charles; Le Roux, Xavier; Cassan, Eric, E-mail: [Institut d' Électronique Fondamentale, Université Paris-Sud CNRS UMR 8622 Bat. 220, Centre scientifique d' Orsay, 91405 Orsay (France); Combrié, Sylvain, E-mail:; De Rossi, Alfredo [Thales Research and Technology, 1 Av. Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France)


    Using Optical Coherence Tomography, we measure the attenuation of slow light modes in slotted photonic crystal waveguides. When the group index is close to 20, the attenuation is below 300 dB cm{sup −1}. Here, the optical confinement in the empty slot is very strong, corresponding to an ultra-small effective cross section of 0.02 μm{sup 2}. This is nearly 10 times below the diffraction limit at λ = 1.5 μm, and it enables an effective interaction with a very small volume of functionalized matter.

  12. Reflectively coupled waveguide photodetector for high speed optical interconnection. (United States)

    Hsu, Shih-Hsiang


    To fully utilize GaAs high drift mobility, techniques to monolithically integrate In0.53Ga0.47As p-i-n photodetectors with GaAs based optical waveguides using total internal reflection coupling are reviewed. Metal coplanar waveguides, deposited on top of the polyimide layer for the photodetector's planarization and passivation, were then uniquely connected as a bridge between the photonics and electronics to illustrate the high-speed monitoring function. The photodetectors were efficiently implemented and imposed on the echelle grating circle for wavelength division multiplexing monitoring. In optical filtering performance, the monolithically integrated photodetector channel spacing was 2 nm over the 1,520-1,550 nm wavelength range and the pass band was 1 nm at the -1 dB level. For high-speed applications the full-width half-maximum of the temporal response and 3-dB bandwidth for the reflectively coupled waveguide photodetectors were demonstrated to be 30 ps and 11 GHz, respectively. The bit error rate performance of this integrated photodetector at 10 Gbit/s with 2(7)-1 long pseudo-random bit sequence non-return to zero input data also showed error-free operation.

  13. Enhancing Optical Forces in InP-Based Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee; Semenova, Elizaveta; Lavrinenko, Andrei


    Cantilever sensors are among the most important microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which are usually actuated by electrostatic forces or piezoelectric elements. Although well-developed microfabrication technology has made silicon the prevailing material for MEMS, unique properties of other...... materials are overlooked in this context. Here we investigate optically induced forces exerted upon a semi-insulating InP waveguide suspended above a highly doped InP: Si substrate, in three different regimes: the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ), with excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and phonons...... excitation. An order of magnitude amplification of the force is observed when light is coupled to SPPs, and three orders of magnitude amplification is achieved in the phonon excitation regime. In the ENZ regime, the force is found to be repulsive and higher than that in a waveguide suspended above...

  14. Bioabsorbable polymer optical waveguides for deep-tissue photomedicine (United States)

    Nizamoglu, Sedat; Gather, Malte C.; Humar, Matjaž; Choi, Myunghwan; Kim, Seonghoon; Kim, Ki Su; Hahn, Sei Kwang; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Randolph, Mark; Redmond, Robert W.; Yun, Seok Hyun


    Advances in photonics have stimulated significant progress in medicine, with many techniques now in routine clinical use. However, the finite depth of light penetration in tissue is a serious constraint to clinical utility. Here we show implantable light-delivery devices made of bio-derived or biocompatible, and biodegradable polymers. In contrast to conventional optical fibres, which must be removed from the body soon after use, the biodegradable and biocompatible waveguides may be used for long-term light delivery and need not be removed as they are gradually resorbed by the tissue. As proof of concept, we demonstrate this paradigm-shifting approach for photochemical tissue bonding (PTB). Using comb-shaped planar waveguides, we achieve a full thickness (>10 mm) wound closure of porcine skin, which represents ~10-fold extension of the tissue area achieved with conventional PTB. The results point to a new direction in photomedicine for using light in deep tissues.

  15. Low-loss channel optical waveguide fabrication in Nd(3+)-doped silicate glasses by femtosecond laser direct writing. (United States)

    Li, Shi-Ling; Han, Peigao; Shi, Meng; Yao, Yicun; Hu, Bing; Wang, Mingwei; Zhu, Xiaonong


    Optical waveguides were fabricated in neodymium-doped silicate glass by using a low-repetition-rate (1 kHz) femtosecond laser inscription. Two different types of waveguide structure are fabricated. In the first, guiding occurs in the focal spot. In the second, guiding occurs in the region between the two filaments. The near-field intensity distribution, propagation loss, index profile reconstruction, and calculation of the modal intensity distribution by the beam propagation method of these waveguides are presented. On the basis of near-field intensity distribution of the light guided through the waveguides and the propagation loss measurement, the optimum writing conditions such as the pulse energy and scan velocity were determined. The waveguide written with 2.2 µJ pulse energy and 50 µm/s scan velocity shows strong guidance at 632.8 nm, with an index contrast of 7 × 10(-4) and a propagation loss of ~0.8 dB/cm. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  16. Effect of patterns and inhomogeneities on the surface of waveguides used for optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, R.; Voros, J.; Graf, R.


    It has been found that patterns acid inhomogeneities on the surface of the waveguide used fur optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy applications can produce broadening and fine structure in the incoupled light peak spectra. During cell spreading on the waveguide, a broadening of the incoupling...... peaks is observed, while regular microstructures on the incoupling grating produce shifts and splitting of the peaks. A theoretical model, based on the zigzag wave representation of light propagation in a planar optical waveguide has been developed in order to understand the physical background...... of the observed effects. Numerical results are given for the different cases observed, and they are compared with the experimental data. Several possible applications of these effects are considered....

  17. Amorphous silicon rich silicon nitride optical waveguides for high density integrated optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipp, Hugh T.; Andersen, Karin Nordström; Svendsen, Winnie Edith


    Amorphous silicon rich silicon nitride optical waveguides clad in silica are presented as a high-index contrast platform for high density integrated optics. Performance of different cross-sectional geometries have been measured and are presented with regards to bending loss and insertion loss...

  18. Integrated optical gyroscope using active long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide resonator. (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Qian, Guang; Wang, Yang-Yang; Xue, Xiao-Jun; Shan, Feng; Li, Ruo-Zhou; Wu, Jing-Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-Yang


    Optical gyroscopes with high sensitivity are important rotation sensors for inertial navigation systems. Here, we present the concept of integrated resonant optical gyroscope constructed by active long-range surface plasmon-polariton (LRSPP) waveguide resonator. In this gyroscope, LRSPP waveguide doped gain medium is pumped to compensate the propagation loss, which has lower pump noise than that of conventional optical waveguide. Peculiar properties of single-polarization of LRSPP waveguide have been found to significantly reduce the polarization error. The metal layer of LRSPP waveguide is electro-optical multiplexed for suppression of reciprocal noises. It shows a limited sensitivity of ~10(-4) deg/h, and a maximum zero drift which is 4 orders of magnitude lower than that constructed by conventional single-mode waveguide.

  19. Development of photon pair sources using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide technology and fiber optic components (United States)

    Oesterling, Lee; Monteiro, Fernando; Krupa, Sean; Nippa, David; Wolterman, Richard; Hayford, Donald; Stinaff, Eric; Sanguinetti, Bruno; Zbinden, Hugo; Thew, Rob


    To support quantum technologies that require entangled photon pairs and/or heralded photons for operation, a photon pair source was developed that uses periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguides that are coupled to optical fibers. Both Ti-indiffused and annealed proton-exchanged (APE) waveguide technologies were studied, and waveguide/fiber interfaces were designed to increase the coupling efficiency of the photon pairs into optical fiber. PPLN waveguide devices were fabricated and the optical loss, wavelength conversion efficiency, and heralding efficiency were measured. The maximum heralding efficiencies achieved were 75 and 68% for Ti-indiffused and APE waveguides, respectively. A compact photon pair source based on a packaged PPLN waveguide device and commercially available fiber optic components is presented.

  20. Photo-induced reduction of graphene oxide coating on optical waveguide and consequent optical intermodulation (United States)

    Chong, W. Y.; Lim, W. H.; Yap, Y. K.; Lai, C. K.; de La Rue, R. M.; Ahmad, H.


    Increased absorption of transverse-magnetic (TM) - polarised light by a graphene-oxide (GO) coated polymer waveguide has been observed in the presence of transverse-electric (TE) - polarised light. The GO-coated waveguide exhibits very strong photo-absorption of TE-polarised light - and acts as a TM-pass waveguide polariser. The absorbed TE-polarised light causes a significant temperature increase in the GO film and induces thermal reduction of the GO, resulting in an increase in optical-frequency conductivity and consequently increased optical propagation loss. This behaviour in a GO-coated waveguide gives the action of an inverted optical switch/modulator. By varying the incident TE-polarised light power, a maximum modulation efficiency of 72% was measured, with application of an incident optical power level of 57 mW. The GO-coated waveguide was able to respond clearly to modulated TE-polarised light with a pulse duration of as little as 100 μs. In addition, no wavelength dependence was observed in the response of either the modulation (TE-polarised light) or the signal (TM-polarised light).

  1. Optical loss reduction in high-index-contrast chalcogenide glass waveguides via thermal reflow. (United States)

    Hu, Juejun; Feng, Ning-Ning; Carlie, Nathan; Petit, Laeticia; Agarwal, Anu; Richardson, Kathleen; Kimerling, Lionel


    A thermal reflow technique is applied to high-index-contrast, sub-micron waveguides in As(2)S(3) chalcogenide glass to reduce the sidewall roughness and associated optical scattering loss. We show that the reflow process effectively decreases sidewall roughness of chalcogenide glass waveguides. A kinetic model is presented to quantitatively explain the sidewall roughness evolution during thermal reflow. Further, we develop a technique to calculate waveguide optical loss using the roughness evolution model, and predict the ultimate low loss limit in reflowed high-index-contrast glass waveguides. Up to 50% optical loss reduction after reflow treatment is experimentally observed, and the practical loss limiting factors are discussed.

  2. Design of optical metamaterial waveguide structures (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Ortega-Moñux, Alejandro; Halir, Robert; Sánchez-Postigo, Alejandro; Soler-Penadés, Jordi; Ctyroký, Jirí; Luque-González, José Manuel; Sarmiento-Merenguel, José Darío.; Wangüemert-Pérez, Juan Gonzalo; Schmid, Jens H.; Xu, Dan-Xia; Janz, Sigfried; Lapointe, Jean; Molina-Fernández, Iñigo; Nedeljkovic, Milos; Mashanovich, Goran Z.; Cheben, Pavel


    Subwavelength gratings (SWGs) are periodic structures with a pitch (Λ) smaller than the wavelength of the propagating wave (λ), so that diffraction effects are suppressed. These structures thus behave as artificial metamaterials where the refractive index and the dispersion profile can be controlled with a proper design of the geometry of the structure. SWG waveguides have found extensive applications in the field of integrated optics, such as efficient fiber-chip couplers, broadband multimode interference (MMI) couplers, polarization beam splitters or evanescent field sensors, among others. From the point of view of nano-fabrication, the subwavelength condition (Λ electromagnetic simulation of Floquet modes, the relevance of substrate leakage losses and the effects of the random jitter, inherent to any fabrication process, on the performance of SWG structures. Finally, we will show the possibilities of the design of SWG structures with two different state-of-the-art applications: i) ultra-broadband MMI beam splitters with an operation bandwidth greater than 300nm for telecom wavelengths and ii) a set of suspended waveguides with SWG lateral cladding for mid-infrared applications, including low loss waveguides, MMI couplers and Mach-Zehnder interferometers.

  3. Optical pulling force and conveyor belt effect in resonator-waveguide system. (United States)

    Intaraprasonk, Varat; Fan, Shanhui


    We present the theoretical condition and actual numerical design that achieves an optical pulling force in resonator-waveguide systems, where the direction of the force on the resonator is in the opposite direction to the input light in the waveguide. We also show that this pulling force can occur in conjunction with the lateral optical equilibrium effect, such that the resonator is maintained at the fixed distance from the waveguide while experiencing the pulling force.

  4. Improve power conversion efficiency of slab coupled optical waveguide lasers. (United States)

    Fan, Jiahua; Zhu, Lin; Dogan, Mehmet; Jacob, Jonah


    The slab coupled optical waveguide laser (SCOWL) is a promising candidate for high power, single mode emitter for a number of reasons, including its near diffraction limited optical quality, large modal size and near circular output pattern. Current SCOWL designs have limited electrical-optical power conversion efficiency (PCE) around 40%, which is lower than conventional RWG laser and broad area laser that are known to have much higher PCEs. To improve the SCOWL PCE, we theoretically optimize its structure by reducing Al content, increasing doping concentration and introducing a GRIN layer to prevent carrier leakage. Numerical simulations predict that an optimized SCOWL design has a maximum PCE of about 57% at room temperature.

  5. Enhancing optical isolator performance in nonreciprocal waveguide arrays. (United States)

    Levy, Miguel; Carroll, Turhan K; El-Ganainy, Ramy


    We investigate the operation of optical isolators based on magneto-optics waveguide arrays beyond the coupled mode analysis. Semi-vectorial beam propagation simulations demonstrate that evanescent tail coupling and the effects of radiation are responsible for degrading the device's performance. Our analysis suggests that these effects can be mitigated when the array size is scaled up. In addition, we propose the use of radiation blockers in order to offset some of these effects, and we show that they provide a dramatic improvement in performance. Finally, we also study the robustness of the system with respect to fabrication tolerances using the coupled mode theory. We show that small, random variations in the system's parameters tend to average out as the number of optical guiding channels increases.

  6. Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balistreri, M.L.M.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Kuipers, L.; van Hulst, N.F.


    The phase evolution of light in an optical waveguide structure has for the first time been visualized with subwavelength resolution using a novel heterodyne interferometric photon scanning tunneling microscope. Phase singularities in the optical field of the waveguide have been observed. The phase

  7. Photonic Bloch-dipole-Zener Oscillations in Binary Parabolic Optical Waveguide Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Ming Jie; Yu, Kin Wah


    We have studied the propagation and Zener tunneling of light in the binary parabolic optical waveguide array (BPOWA), which consists of two evanescently coupled dissimilar optical waveguides. Due to Bragg reflections, BPOWA attains two minibands separated by a minigap at the zone boundary. Various coherent superpositions of optical oscillations and Zener tunneling occur for different parameters on the phase diagram. In particular, Bloch-Zener oscillation and a different type of Bloch-dipole-Zener oscillation are obtained by the field-evolution analysis. The results may have potential applications in optical splitting and waveguiding devices and shed light on the coherent phenomena in optical lattices.

  8. Light propagation studies on laser modified waveguides using scanning near-field optical microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrise, X.; Berini, Abadal Gabriel; Jimenez, D.


    microscope (SNOM) has been used. The laser modifications locally changes the optical properties of the waveguide. The change in the effective refractive index is attributed to a TE to TM mode conversion, Thus, the laser modification might be a new way to fabricate optical mode converters.......By means of direct laser writing on Al, a new method to locally modify optical waveguides is proposed. This technique has been applied to silicon nitride waveguides, allowing modifications of the optical propagation along the guide. To study the formed structures, a scanning near-held optical...

  9. Grated waveguide cavity for label-free protein and mechano-optical gas sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Van So, P.V.S.; Dijkstra, Mindert; Hollink, Anton; de Ridder, R.M.; van Wolferen, Hendricus A.G.M.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Pollnau, Markus; Hoekstra, Hugo

    We demonstrate the versatility of a silicon nitride grated waveguide optical cavity as compact integrated optical sensors for (bulk) concentration detection, label-free protein sensing, and – with an integrated cantilever suspended above it – gas sensing.

  10. Giant Transverse Optical Forces in Nanoscale Slot Waveguides of Hyperbolic Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yingran; Gao, Jie; Yang, Xiaodong


    Here we demonstrate that giant transverse optical forces can be generated in nanoscale slot waveguides of hyperbolic metamaterials, with more than two orders of magnitude stronger compared to the force created in conventional silicon slot waveguides, due to the nanoscale optical field enhancement and the extreme optical energy compression within the air slot region. Both numerical simulation and analytical treatment are carried out to study the dependence of the optical forces on the waveguide geometries and the metamaterial permittivity tensors, including the attractive optical forces for the symmetric modes and the repulsive optical forces for the anti-symmetric modes. The significantly enhanced transverse optical forces result from the strong optical mode coupling strength between two metamaterial waveguides, which can be explained with an explicit relation derived from the coupled mode theory. Moreover, the calculation on realistic metal-dielectric multilayer structures indicates that the predicted giant ...

  11. Semiconductor-core optical fibers for terahertz waveguides (United States)

    Bas, Derek; Cushing, Scott; Rowley, Joseph; Ballato, John; Rice, Robert; Bristow, Alan


    Waveguiding of terahertz (THz) radiation is important for imaging and communications applications. Simulations have been performed based on a fiber optic geometric waveguide with a poly-crystalline silicon core and silica cladding. High-resistivity silicon has a flat dispersion over a 0.1 - 3 THz range, making it viable for propagation of broadband picosecond pulses of THz radiation such as that produced by optical rectification. Frequency-dependent mode indices are determined for 0.1 - 0.3 mm diameter cores. The normalized frequency parameter V is also determined and a 140 micron core is selected as the low edge of diameters that can support a THz pulse. Finite-difference time-domain simulations are performed in two-dimensions to extract the propagation dynamics and the integrated intensity, from which transverse mode profiles and absorption lengths are extracted. It is found that for this core diameter the mode partially propagates in the cladding, such that the overall absorbance is only slightly less than in bulk polycrystalline silicon.

  12. Plasma synthesis of rare earth doped integrated optical waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raoux, S.; Anders, S.; Yu, K.M.; Brown, I.G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Ivanov, I.C. [Charles Evans & Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States)


    We describe a novel means for the production of optically active planar waveguides. The makes use of a low energy plasma deposition. Cathodic-arc-produced metal plasmas the metallic components of the films and gases are added to form compound films. Here we discuss the synthesis of Al{sub 2{minus}x}ER{sub x}O{sub 3} thin films. The erbium concentration (x) can vary from 0 to 100% and the thickness of the film can be from Angstroms to microns. In such material, at high active center concentration (x=l% to 20%), erbium ions give rise to room temperature 1.53{mu}m emission which has minimum loss in silica-based optical fibers. With this technique, multilayer integrated planar waveguide structures can be grown, such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2{minus}x}Er{sub x}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si, for example.

  13. Mesoscale cavities in hollow-core waveguides for quantum optics with atomic ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haapamaki C.M.


    Full Text Available Single-mode hollow-core waveguides loaded with atomic ensembles offer an excellent platform for light–matter interactions and nonlinear optics at low photon levels. We review and discuss possible approaches for incorporating mirrors, cavities, and Bragg gratings into these waveguides without obstructing their hollow cores. With these additional features controlling the light propagation in the hollow-core waveguides, one could potentially achieve optical nonlinearities controllable by single photons in systems with small footprints that can be integrated on a chip. We propose possible applications such as single-photon transistors and superradiant lasers that could be implemented in these enhanced hollow-core waveguides.

  14. Generation of a sequence of frequency-modulated pulses in longitudinally inhomogeneous optical waveguides (United States)

    Zolotovskii, I. O.; Lapin, V. A.; Sementsov, D. I.; Stolyarov, D. A.


    The conditions for the generation and efficient amplification of frequency-modulated soliton-like wave packets in longitudinally inhomogeneous active optical waveguides have been studied. The possibility of forming a sequence of pico- and subpicosecond pulses from quasi-continuous radiation in active and passive optical waveguides with the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) changing over the waveguide length is considered. The behavior of a wave packet in the well-developed phase of modulation instability with a change in the waveguide inhomogeneity parameters has been investigated based on the numerical analysis.

  15. Bio-functional subwavelength optical waveguides for biodetection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirbuly, D J; Fischer, N; Huang, S; Artyukhin, A


    We report a versatile biofunctional subwavelength photonic device platform for real-time detection of biological molecules. Our devices contain lipid bilayer membranes fused onto metal oxide nanowire waveguides stretched across polymeric flow channels. The lipid bilayers incorporating target receptors are submersed in the propagating evanescent field of the optical cavity. We show that the lipid bilayers in our devices are continuous, have very high mobile fraction, and are resistant to fouling. We also demonstrate that our platform allows rapid membrane exchange. Finally we use this device for detection of specific DNA sequences in solution by anchoring complementary DNA target strands in the lipid bilayer. This evanescent wave sensing architecture holds great potential for portable, all-optical detection systems.

  16. Wavelength-tunable laser based on nonlinear dispersive-wave generation in a tapered optical waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a method and a wavelength tunable laser comprising a first laser source configured to emit a first optical pulse having a pump wavelength, the first optical pulse being emitted in a first longitudinal direction. Furthermore, the wavelength tunable laser comprises...... a waveguide extending in the first longitudinal direction, the waveguide having longitudinally varying phase matching conditions, the waveguide being configured to generate a second optical pulse with a centre wavelength upon receiving the first optical pulse, wherein the wavelength tunable laser...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Optical packet switching is considered as the future of data transfer technologyin combination with middle-aged electronics. The biggest challenge encountered in optical packet switching is the lack of optical buffers for storing the contending packets. Therefore, for the contention resolution of packets, a temporary storage in terms of fiber delay lines is used. This task is accomplished by an optical packet switch. In this paper, a design modification in the AWGR (Arrayed Waveguide Grating Router is presented for improving the switch performance. The power budget analysis of the switch is also presented to estimate the sufficient power level of the switch. The obtained results clearly reveal that the architecture presented in this paper can be operated in micro-watts in comparison to the earlier optical switch which operates in milli watts regime. Finally, simulation results are presented to obtain packet loss probability and average delay. Even at the higher load of 0.6, the switch presented in this paper provides a very low loss probability (10^6 and delay remain within 2 slots.

  18. Birefringent prism couplers for thin-film optical waveguides. (United States)

    Kurland, I J; Bertoni, H L


    The coupling from a laser to a thin-film optical waveguide by a prism coupler composed of a birefringent material can be strongly dependent on the orientation of the optic axis. It is shown that when the effective index of the wave guided by the film lies between the ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of the prism, the coupling depends strongly on the orientation of the optic axis. Differences in orientation of only a few degrees separate ranges of orientation in which strong coupling occurs from ranges in which there is no coupling. The orientation dependence of the coupling is considered both for the pure mode case wherein the optic axis lies in the plane of incidence and for the case when the optic axis is rotated out of the plane of incidence, so that mode coupling occurs. When the effective refractive index of the guided wave is less than both the ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of the prism, the coupling properties are found to be similar to those obtained with an isotropic prism.

  19. Slow light enhanced optical nonlinearity in a silicon photonic crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguide. (United States)

    Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Kato, Takumi; Harada, Ken-Ichi; Takesue, Hiroki; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Taniyama, Hideaki; Notomi, Masaya


    We demonstrate highly enhanced optical nonlinearity in a coupled-resonator optical waveguide (CROW) in a four-wave mixing experiment. Using a CROW consisting of 200 coupled resonators based on width-modulated photonic crystal nanocavities in a line defect, we obtained an effective nonlinear constant exceeding 10,000 /W/m, thanks to slow light propagation combined with a strong spatial confinement of light achieved by the wavelength-sized cavities.

  20. Acoustic confinement and Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in integrated optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Poulton, Christopher G; Eggleton, Benjamin J


    We examine the effect of acoustic mode confinement on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in optical waveguides that consist of a guiding core embedded in a solid substrate. We find that SBS can arise due to coupling to acoustic modes in three different regimes. First, the acoustic modes may be guided by total internal reflection; in this case the SBS gain depends directly on the degree of confinement of the acoustic mode in the core, which is in turn determined by the acoustic V-parameter. Second, the acoustic modes may be leaky, but may nevertheless have a sufficiently long lifetime to have a large effect on the SBS gain; the lifetime of acoustic modes in this regime depends not only on the contrast in acoustic properties between the core and the cladding, but is also highly dependent on the waveguide dimensions. Finally SBS may occur due to coupling to free modes, which exist even in the absence of acoustic confinement; we find that the cumulative effect of coupling to these non-confined modes results in signi...

  1. Slab Waveguide and Optical Fibers for Novel Plasmonic Sensor Configurations. (United States)

    Cennamo, Nunzio; Mattiello, Francesco; Zeni, Luigi


    The use of plasmonic sensor devices often requires replaceable parts and disposable chips for easy, fast and on-site detection analysis. In light of these requests, we propose a novel low-cost surface plasmon resonance sensor platform for possible selective detection of analytes in aqueous solutions. It is based on a Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slab waveguide with a thin gold film on the top surface inserted in a special holder, designed to produce the plasmonic resonance at the gold-dielectric interface. A wide-band light is launched in the PMMA slab waveguide through a trench realized in the holder directly, and illuminated with a PMMA plastic optical fiber (POF) to excite surface Plasmon waves. The output light is then collected by another PMMA POF kept at the end of the slab at an angle of 90° to the trench, and carried to a spectrometer. In this configuration, the trench has been used because a large incident angle is required for surface plasmon resonance excitation. The preliminary results showed that the sensor's performances make it suitable for bio-chemical applications. The easy replacement of the chip allows for the production of an engineered platform by simplifying the measurement procedures.

  2. Slab Waveguide and Optical Fibers for Novel Plasmonic Sensor Configurations (United States)

    Cennamo, Nunzio; Mattiello, Francesco; Zeni, Luigi


    The use of plasmonic sensor devices often requires replaceable parts and disposable chips for easy, fast and on-site detection analysis. In light of these requests, we propose a novel low-cost surface plasmon resonance sensor platform for possible selective detection of analytes in aqueous solutions. It is based on a Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slab waveguide with a thin gold film on the top surface inserted in a special holder, designed to produce the plasmonic resonance at the gold-dielectric interface. A wide-band light is launched in the PMMA slab waveguide through a trench realized in the holder directly, and illuminated with a PMMA plastic optical fiber (POF) to excite surface Plasmon waves. The output light is then collected by another PMMA POF kept at the end of the slab at an angle of 90° to the trench, and carried to a spectrometer. In this configuration, the trench has been used because a large incident angle is required for surface plasmon resonance excitation. The preliminary results showed that the sensor’s performances make it suitable for bio-chemical applications. The easy replacement of the chip allows for the production of an engineered platform by simplifying the measurement procedures. PMID:28672796

  3. Direct-Dispense Polymeric Waveguides Platform for Optical Chemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hajj-Hassan


    Full Text Available We describe an automated robotic technique called direct-dispense to fabricate a polymeric platform that supports optical sensor arrays. Direct-dispense, which is a type of the emerging direct-write microfabrication techniques, uses fugitive organic inks in combination with cross-linkable polymers to create microfluidic channels and other microstructures. Specifically, we describe an application of direct-dispensing to develop optical biochemical sensors by fabricating planar ridge waveguides that support sol-gelderived xerogel-based thin films. The xerogel-based sensor materials act as host media to house luminophore biochemical recognition elements. As a prototype implementation, we demonstrate gaseous oxygen (O2 responsive optical sensors that operate on the basis of monitoring luminescence intensity signals. The optical sensor employs a Light Emitting Diode (LED excitation source and a standard silicon photodiode as the detector. The sensor operates over the full scale (0%-100% of O2 concentrations with a response time of less than 1 second. This work has implications for the development of miniaturized multisensor platforms that can be cost-effectively and reliably mass-produced.

  4. Single-mode glass waveguide technology for optical interchip communication on board level (United States)

    Brusberg, Lars; Neitz, Marcel; Schröder, Henning


    The large bandwidth demand in long-distance telecom networks lead to single-mode fiber interconnects as result of low dispersion, low loss and dense wavelength multiplexing possibilities. In contrast, multi-mode interconnects are suitable for much shorter lengths up to 300 meters and are promising for optical links between racks and on board level. Active optical cables based on multi-mode fiber links are at the market and research in multi-mode waveguide integration on board level is still going on. Compared to multi-mode, a single-mode waveguide has much more integration potential because of core diameters of around 20% of a multi-mode waveguide by a much larger bandwidth. But light coupling in single-mode waveguides is much more challenging because of lower coupling tolerances. Together with the silicon photonics technology, a single-mode waveguide technology on board-level will be the straight forward development goal for chip-to-chip optical interconnects integration. Such a hybrid packaging platform providing 3D optical single-mode links bridges the gap between novel photonic integrated circuits and the glass fiber based long-distance telecom networks. Following we introduce our 3D photonic packaging approach based on thin glass substrates with planar integrated optical single-mode waveguides for fiber-to-chip and chip-to-chip interconnects. This novel packaging approach merges micro-system packaging and glass integrated optics. It consists of a thin glass substrate with planar integrated singlemode waveguide circuits, optical mirrors and lenses providing an integration platform for photonic IC assembly and optical fiber interconnect. Thin glass is commercially available in panel and wafer formats and characterizes excellent optical and high-frequency properties. That makes it perfect for microsystem packaging. The paper presents recent results in single-mode waveguide technology on wafer level and waveguide characterization. Furthermore the integration in a

  5. Slot-waveguide-assisted temperature-independent Mach-Zehnder interferometer based optical filter (United States)

    Huang, Huamao; Ho, Seng-Tiong; Huang, Dexiu; Tu, Yongming; Hu, Haiying; Wang, Jiafu; Liu, Wen


    A new design of temperature-independent Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based optical filter involving a combined use of silicon (Si) wire waveguides and slot waveguides is presented. The ratio of the path-length difference for the two types of waveguides is introduced to tune the thermal performance of the filtering wavelength. This ratio and its derived parameters render a high-level of flexibility for optimizing the design of interferometers based on optical path-length difference. By adjusting the path-length difference ratio for Si-wire waveguides and slot waveguides in the asymmetric arms of the MZI, an ideal temperature-independent optical filter can be obtained, while the modified interference order is enhanced. The proposed method is verified via a two-dimensional finite difference time domain simulation.

  6. Photostability Studies on High Dipole Nonlinear Optical Adducts of TCNQ in Polymer Optical Waveguides (United States)

    Ren, Yitao; Cross, Graham H.

    The photostabilities of nonlinear optical organic dyes doped as guests into Poly(methyl mathacrylate), (PMMA), waveguide films have been investigated using measurements of planner waveguide transmission over time. Direct photodecomposition of the dyes is observed when the doped films are exposed to wavelengths lying within the main absorption bands. The dyes exhibit a rapid photochemical degradation that is enhanced when the experiments are repeated in an air environment at the irradiation between 450 nm and 515 nm. Excitation of the zeroth-order transverse magnetic mode (TM0) by prism couplers produced complete degradation within 30 minutes. The dye photostabilities are compared to that of a commonly studied laser dye, 4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-p-dimethylaminostyryl-4H-pyran, DCM, which exhibits a photo-oxidation mechanism. The experiments in air lead to comparable degradation after 3 to 4 hours but the dye proves to be exceptionally photostable in vacuum. Further interesting results are reported on the formation of crystallites in the films when irradiated at 632.8 nm where linear absorption in the films is low. Microscopic examination of the waveguide films at the input coupling position confirms the formation of crystallites for all the films studied. Cross coupling to higher order modes from the light scattering of crystallites is revealed by scanning m-line images of the waveguides. This is associated with a marked refractive index decrease in the films. An air and humidity environment is found to favor the crystallite formation in the dye-doped waveguides.

  7. Microminiature optical waveguide structure and method for fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, O.T.; Deri, R.J.; Pocha, M.D.


    A method for manufacturing low-cost, nearly circular cross section waveguides comprises starting with a substrate material that a molten waveguide material can not wet or coat. A thin layer is deposited of an opposite material that the molten waveguide material will wet and is patterned to describe the desired surface-contact path pedestals for a waveguide. A waveguide material, e.g., polymer or doped silica, is deposited. A resist material is deposited and unwanted excess is removed to form pattern masks. The waveguide material is etched away to form waveguide precursors and the masks are removed. Heat is applied to reflow the waveguide precursors into near-circular cross-section waveguides that sit atop the pedestals. The waveguide material naturally forms nearly circular cross sections due to the surface tension effects. After cooling, the waveguides will maintain the round shape. If the width and length are the same, then spherical ball lenses are formed. Alternatively, the pedestals can be patterned to taper along their lengths on the surface of the substrate. This will cause the waveguides to assume a conical taper after reflowing by heat. 32 figs.

  8. Microminiature optical waveguide structure and method for fabrication (United States)

    Strand, Oliver T.; Deri, Robert J.; Pocha, Michael D.


    A method for manufacturing low-cost, nearly circular cross section waveguides comprises starting with a substrate material that a molten waveguide material can not wet or coat. A thin layer is deposited of an opposite material that the molten waveguide material will wet and is patterned to describe the desired surface-contact path pedestals for a waveguide. A waveguide material, e.g., polymer or doped silica, is deposited. A resist material is deposited and unwanted excess is removed to form pattern masks. The waveguide material is etched away to form waveguide precursors and the masks are removed. Heat is applied to reflow the waveguide precursors into near-circular cross-section waveguides that sit atop the pedestals. The waveguide material naturally forms nearly circular cross sections due to the surface tension effects. After cooling, the waveguides will maintain the round shape. If the width and length are the same, then spherical ball lenses are formed. Alternatively, the pedestals can be patterned to taper along their lengths on the surface of the substrate. This will cause the waveguides to assume a conical taper after reflowing by heat.

  9. Coupled Mode Theory and FDTD Simulations of the Coupling Between Bent and Straight Optical Waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiremath, K.R.; Stoffer, Remco; Hammer, Manfred; de Ridder, R.M; de Ridder, R.M.; Altena, G.; Altena, G; Geuzebroek, D.H.; Dekker, R.; Dekker, R


    Analysis of integrated optical cylindrical microresonators involves the coupling between a straight waveguide and a bent waveguide. Our (2D) variant of coupled mode theory is based on analytically represented mode profiles. With the bend modes expressed in Cartesian coordinates, coupled mode

  10. Comparison of coupled mode theory and FDTD simulations of coupling between bent and straight optical waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertolotti, M.; Symes, W.W.; Stoffer, Remco; Hiremath, K.R.; Driessen, A.; Michelotti, F; Hammer, Manfred

    Analysis of integrated optical cylindrical microresonators involves the coupling between a straight waveguide and a bent waveguide. Our (2D) variant of coupled mode theory is based on analytically represented mode profiles. With the bend modes expressed in Cartesian coordinates, coupled mode

  11. Monolithic integration of DUV-induced waveguides into plastic microfluidic chip for optical manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury Arvelo, Maria; Vannahme, Christoph; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl


    A monolithic polymer optofluidic chip for manipulation of microbeads in flow is demonstrated. On this chip, polymer waveguides induced by Deep UV lithography are integrated with microfluidic channels. The optical propagation losses of the waveguides are measured to be 0.66±0.13 dB/mm at a wavelen...

  12. Performance of a highly sensitive optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer immunosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, Rene; Kooyman, R.P.H.; Greve, Jan


    We describe a highly sensitive sensor which uses the evanescent field of a reusable planar optical waveguide as the sensing element. The waveguide used is optimized to obtain a steep dependence of the propagation velocity on the refractive-index profile near the surface. The adsorption of a layer of

  13. Theory and modelling of optical waveguide sensors utilising surface plasmon resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ctyroky, J.; Homola, J.; Lambeck, Paul; Musa, S.; Musa, A.M.S.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Harris, R.D.; Wilkinson, J.S.; Usievich, B.; Lyndin, N.M.


    A theoretical analysis of the phenomenon of excitation of surface plasma waves in integrated-optical waveguide structures is carried out. Rigorous approach to analysis of light propagation through a waveguide structure with a thin metal overlayer supporting surface plasma waves is formulated using a


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention relates to control of THz radiation in parallel plate waveguides (PPWG) by forming components in the waveguide by use of optical radiation pulses. Patterns of excited regions induced in the PPWG by an optical excitation pulses changes the electromagnetic properties of the waveguide...... medium in the THz regime, thereby forming transient passive and active components for controlling THz radiation signals. The excitation can be generation of free charge carriers in a semiconductor material in the PPWG, to create metallic regions that form mirrors, lenses or photonic crystal structures......-on-a-chip applications. The optical and THz radiation can be ultrashort pulses with picosecond or femtosecond pulse durations. L...

  15. ZnO nanotube waveguide arrays on graphene films for local optical excitation on biological cells (United States)

    Baek, Hyeonjun; Kwak, Hankyul; Song, Minho S.; Ha, Go Eun; Park, Jongwoo; Tchoe, Youngbin; Hyun, Jerome K.; Park, Hye Yoon; Cheong, Eunji; Yi, Gyu-Chul


    We report on scalable and position-controlled optical nanoprobe arrays using ZnO nanotube waveguides on graphene films for use in local optical excitation. For the waveguide fabrication, position-controlled and well-ordered ZnO nanotube arrays were grown on chemical vapor deposited graphene films with a submicron patterned mask layer and Au prepared between the interspace of nanotubes. Mammalian cells were cultured on the nanotube waveguide arrays and were locally excited by light illuminated through the nanotubes. Fluorescence and optogenetic signals could be excited through the optical nanoprobes. This method offers the ability to investigate cellular behavior with a high spatial resolution that surpasses the current limitation.

  16. Monolithic integration of microfluidic channels and optical waveguides in silica on silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Peter; Hoppe, Karsten; Leistiko, Otto


    Sealing of the flow channel is an important aspect during integration of microfluidic channels and optical waveguides. The uneven topography of many waveguide-fabrication techniques will lead to leakage of the fluid channels. Planarization methods such as chemical mechanical polishing or the etch......-back technique are possible, but troublesome. We present a simple but efficient alternative: By means of changing the waveguide layout, bonding pads are formed along the microfluidic channels. With the same height as the waveguide, they effectively prevent leakage and hermetically seal the channels during...

  17. Optical Intensity Modulation in an LiNbO3 Slab-Coupled Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalin Lu


    Full Text Available Optical intensity modulation has been demonstrated through switching the optical beam between the main core waveguide and a closely attached leaky slab waveguide by applying a low-voltage electrical field. Theory for simulating such an LiNbO3 slab-coupled waveguide structure was suggested, and the result indicates the possibility of making the spatial guiding mode large, circular and symmetric, which further allows the potential to significantly reduce the coupling losses with adjacent lasers and optical networks. Optical intensity modulation using electro-optic effect was experimentally demonstrated in a 5 cm long waveguide fabricated by using a procedure of soft proton exchange and then an overgrowth of thin LN film on top of a c-cut LiNbO3 wafer.

  18. Linearity and effective optical pathlength of liquid waveguide capillary cells (United States)

    Belz, Mathias; Dress, Peter; Sukhitskiy, Aleksandr; Liu, Suyi


    The validity of using Beer's Law to describe liquid waveguide capillary cells (LWCC) as absorption cells with increased optical pathlength was investigated. Experimental and theoretical results for two types of LWCC are presented. 'Type I' LWCCs are constructed with solid TEFLON AF tubing. 'Type II' LWCCs consist of quartz tubing with an outer coating of TEFLON AF. UV/Vis absorbance spectra versus chromophore concentration were found to be linear for both LWCC types within the wavelength range and absorbance accuracy of the spectrophotometer used. The ratio between 'effective' and 'physical' pathlength, EPLR was determined experimentally for both LWCC types. Type I cells had an effective optical pathlength that was statistically indistinguishable from the physical pathlength on a 95 percent probability basis. Type II cells had an effective optical pathlength that was slightly shorter than the physical pathlength, dependent on the cell's inner diameter and wall thickness. A theoretical model explaining Type I LWCC result is presented. Our results indicate that Beer- Lambert's Law can be applied to both types of LWCCs for UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy.

  19. Optimizing SOI Slot Waveguide Fabrication Tolerances and Strip-Slot Coupling for Very Efficient Optical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio M. N. Passaro


    Full Text Available Slot waveguides are becoming more and more attractive optical components, especially for chemical and bio-chemical sensing. In this paper an accurate analysis of slot waveguide fabrication tolerances is carried out, in order to find optimum design criteria for either homogeneous or absorption sensing mechanisms, in cases of low and high aspect ratio slot waveguides. In particular, we have focused on Silicon On Insulator (SOI technology, representing the most popular technology for this kind of devices, simultaneously achieving high integration capabilities, small dimensions and low cost. An accurate analysis of single mode behavior for high aspect ratio slot waveguide has been also performed, in order to provide geometric limits for waveguide design purposes. Finally, the problem of coupling into a slot waveguide is addressed and a very compact and efficient slot coupler is proposed, whose geometry has been optimized to give a strip-slot-strip coupling efficiency close to 100%.

  20. Optical waveguides in TiO₂ formed by He ion implantation. (United States)

    Bi, Zhuan-Fang; Wang, Lei; Liu, Xiu-Hong; Zhang, Shao-Mei; Dong, Ming-Ming; Zhao, Quan-Zhong; Wu, Xiang-Long; Wang, Ke-Ming


    We report on the formation and the optical properties of the planar and ridge optical waveguides in rutile TiO₂ crystal by He+ ion implantation combined with micro-fabrication technologies. Planar optical waveguides in TiO₂ are fabricated by high-energy (2.8 MeV) He+-ion implantation with a dose of 3 × 10¹⁶ ions/cm² and triple low energies (450, 500, 550) keV He+-ion implantation with all fluences of 2 × 10¹⁶ ions/cm² at room temperature. The guided modes were measured by a modal 2010 prism coupler at wavelength of 1539 nm. There are damage profiles in ion-implanted waveguides by Rutherford backscattering (RBS)/channeling measurements. The refractive-index profile of the 2.8 MeV He+-implanted waveguide was analyzed based on RCM (Reflected Calculation Method). Also ridge waveguides were fabricated by femtosecond laser ablation on 2.8 MeV ion implanted planar waveguide and Ar ion beam etching on the basis of triple keV ion implanted planar waveguide, separately. The loss of the ridge waveguide was estimated. The measured near-field intensity distributions of the planar and ridge modes are all shown.

  1. Efficient Second Harmonic Generation in 3D Nonlinear Optical-Lattice-Like Cladding Waveguide Splitters by Femtosecond Laser Inscription. (United States)

    Nie, Weijie; Jia, Yuechen; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Chen, Feng


    Integrated photonic devices with beam splitting function are intriguing for a broad range of photonic applications. Through optical-lattice-like cladding waveguide structures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing, the light propagation can be engineered via the track-confined refractive index profiles, achieving tailored output beam distributions. In this work, we report on the fabrication of 3D laser-written optical-lattice-like structures in a nonlinear KTP crystal to implement 1 × 4 beam splitting. Second harmonic generation (SHG) of green light through these nonlinear waveguide beam splitter structures provides the capability for the compact visible laser emitting devices. With Type II phase matching of the fundamental wavelength (@ 1064 nm) to second harmonic waves (@ 532 nm), the frequency doubling has been achieved through this three-dimensional beam splitter. Under 1064-nm continuous-wave fundamental-wavelength pump beam, guided-wave SHG at 532 nm are measured with the maximum power of 0.65 mW and 0.48 mW for waveguide splitters (0.67 mW and 0.51 mW for corresponding straight channel waveguides), corresponding to a SH conversion efficiency of approximately ~14.3%/W and 13.9%/W (11.2%/W, 11.3%/W for corresponding straight channel waveguides), respectively. This work paves a way to fabricate compact integrated nonlinear photonic devices in a single chip with beam dividing functions.

  2. Third-order optical nonlinearities in bulk and fs-laser inscribed waveguides in strengthened alkali aluminosilcate glass (United States)

    Almeida, Gustavo F. B.; Almeida, Juliana M. P.; Martins, Renato J.; De Boni, Leonardo; Arnold, Craig B.; Mendonca, Cleber R.


    The development of advanced photonics devices requires materials with large optical nonlinearities, fast response times and high optical transparency, while at the same time allowing for the micro/nano-processing needed for integrated photonics. In this context, glasses have been receiving considerable attention given their relevant optical properties which can be specifically tailored by compositional control. Corning Gorilla® Glass (strengthened alkali aluminosilicate glass) is well-known for its use as a protective screen in mobile devices, and has attracted interest as a potential candidate for optical devices. Therefore, it is crucial not only to expand the knowledge on the fabrication of waveguides in Gorilla Glass under different regimes, but also to determine its nonlinear optical response, both using fs-laser pulses. Thus, this paper reports, for the first time, characterization of the third-order optical nonlinearities of Gorilla Glass, as well as linear and nonlinear characterization of waveguide written with femtosecond pulses under the low repetition rate regime (1 kHz).

  3. Systematic control of optical features in aluminosilicate glass waveguides using direct femtosecond laser writing (United States)

    Babu, B. Hari; Niu, Mengsi; Yang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yanbo; Feng, Lin; Qin, Wei; Hao, Xiao-Tao


    Low loss optical waveguides inside aluminosilicate glasses have been successfully fabricated using direct femtosecond laser writing. To establish the influence of pulse energy and host variations on the optical waveguides have been tentatively explored and systematically studied with the help of different spectroscopic techniques. Isochronal annealing treatment effectively reduces the insertion losses to 1.01 ± 0.28 dB at 632.8 nm. A red shift of the Raman band has been observed with increasing Al2O3 content due to the bond angle variations. The point defects such as non-bridging oxygen hole centers have been corroborated by the photoluminescence studies and significant red-shift has also been documented with increasing Al2O3 content. In addition, there is no NBOHC defects perceived after isochronal annealing treatment inside the glass waveguides. Our results envisage that the present glass waveguides should be promising and potential for applications in passive waveguides and integrated photonic devices.

  4. Integration of electro-optic polymer modulators with low-loss fluorinated polymer waveguides. (United States)

    Ahn, Seh-Won; Steier, William H; Kuo, Yin-Hao; Oh, Min-Cheol; Lee, Hyung-Jong; Zhang, Cheng; Fetterman, Harold R


    We have demonstrated a hybrid Mach-Zehnder optical modulator consisting of a large-core, low-loss fluorinated passive polymer waveguide and an electro-optic (EO) polymer waveguide. The combination exhibits low fiber coupling loss to the passive waveguide and reduced transmission loss because the EO polymer waveguide is used only in the active region. The two waveguides are connected by vertical tapers that permit low-loss adiabatic coupling between the two modes. The half-wave voltage and the insertion loss of the fabricated modulator are 3.6 V and 6 dB, respectively, at a wavelength of 1.55 microm . The estimated coupling loss with the standard single-mode fiber is ~0.5 dB.

  5. Optical Music Recognition for Scores Written in White Mensural Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Oliver


    Full Text Available An Optical Music Recognition (OMR system especially adapted for handwritten musical scores of the XVII-th and the early XVIII-th centuries written in white mensural notation is presented. The system performs a complete sequence of analysis stages: the input is the RGB image of the score to be analyzed and, after a preprocessing that returns a black and white image with corrected rotation, the staves are processed to return a score without staff lines; then, a music symbol processing stage isolates the music symbols contained in the score and, finally, the classification process starts to obtain the transcription in a suitable electronic format so that it can be stored or played. This work will help to preserve our cultural heritage keeping the musical information of the scores in a digital format that also gives the possibility to perform and distribute the original music contained in those scores.

  6. Improving partial wetting resolution on flexible substrates for application of polymer optical waveguides (United States)

    Hoffmann, Gerd-Albert; Wolfer, Tim; Reitberger, Thomas; Franke, Joerg; Suttmann, Oliver; Overmeyer, Ludger


    Considering the increasing amount of data for communication and infotainment applications, fabrication of optical networks and bus systems is a challenging task for production engineering. A two-step manufacturing process for polymer optical waveguides is presented. By improving the highly efficient flexographic printing technology by laser functionalization of the printing tool in combination with a subsequent spray application, high-quality waveguides are accomplished. By adjusting the resulting surface energy of the foil substrate in the first fabrication process, the spray application achieved high-aspect ratio waveguides with a low attenuation of 0.2 dB/cm at 850 nm.

  7. Assembly of optical fibers for the connection of polymer-based waveguide (United States)

    Ansel, Yannick; Grau, Daniel; Holzki, Markus; Kraus, Silvio; Neumann, Frank; Reinhard, Carsten; Schmitz, Felix


    This paper describes the realization of polymer-based optical structures and the assembly and packaging strategy to connect optical fiber ribbons to the waveguides. For that a low cost fabrication process using the SU-8TM thick photo-resist is presented. This process consists in the deposition of two photo-structurized resist layers filled up with epoxy glue realising the core waveguide. For the assembly, a new modular vacuum gripper was realised and installed on an automatic pick and place assembly robot to mount precisely and efficiently the optical fibers in the optical structures. First results have shown acceptable optical propagation loss for the complete test structure.

  8. Femtosecond laser written waveguides for fluorescence-sensing during microchip capillary electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongre, C.; Dekker, R.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Nolli, D.; Martinez-Vazquez, R.; Osellame, R.; Laporta, P.; Cerullo, G.; Besselink, G.A.J.; van Weeghel, R.; Pollnau, Markus; McCraith, B.; McDonagh, C.

    The substitution of conventional bench-top instrumentation by fully integrated lab-on-chip systems continues to be a challenge. The integration of microfluidics and integrated optics in glass is an important step towards this goal, forming the focus of this work [1]. In particular, excitation and

  9. Optical waveguides in Er:LiNbO3 fabricated by different techniques - A comparison (United States)

    Cajzl, Jakub; Nekvindová, Pavla; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Oswald, Jiří; Staněk, Stanislav; Vytykáčová, Soňa; Špirková, Jarmila


    We report on the comparison of three techniques used for the fabrication of optical waveguides in erbium doped lithium niobate crystal substrates (Er:LiNbO3). The techniques include ion in-diffusion from a titanium metal layer, annealed proton exchange (APE), and He+ ion implantation. The main focus of the work was placed on the investigation of the influence of the used optical waveguides fabrication techniques on the structural and luminescence properties of Er:LiNbO3 substrates. The results have shown that none of the used optical-waveguide-fabrication techniques significantly affect the position of erbium in the host crystal structure. It turned out, however, that the fabrication process affected luminescence intensities of the characteristic luminescence bands of erbium ions - the most significant decrease in the luminescence intensity was observed in the Ti-indiffused waveguides.

  10. Fluorophore-doped xerogel antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides. (United States)

    Llobera, A; Cadarso, V J; Carregal-Romero, E; Brugger, J; Domínguez, C; Fernández-Sánchez, C


    Rhodamine B and Alexa Fluor 430 fluorophores have been used as doping agents for xerogel waveguides defined over an antiresonant (ARROW) filter. This configuration has a significant level of integration, since it merges the waveguide, the light emitter and the filter in a single photonic element. Different technologies have been combined for their implementation, namely soft lithography, standard silicon-based technology and silicon bulk micromachining. The spectral response of 15-mm long waveguides without fluorophore is first analyzed as a function of the waveguide width. Here, it has been observed how the xerogel used has a high transparency in the visible spectra, having only significant absorption at the wavelength where the ARROW filter is in resonance. In a second step, identical waveguides but doped with two different concentrations of Rhodamine B and Alexa Fluor 430 are studied. In addition to the effect of the filter, fluorophore-doped xerogel waveguides show losses close to -2 dB (equivalent to 2 dB of light emission). In addition, it has been observed how an increase of the fluorophore concentration within the xerogel matrix does not provide with a emission increase, but saturation or even a decrease of this magnitude due to self-absorption. Finally, the total losses of the proposed waveguides are analyzed as a function of their width, obtaining losses close to 5 dB for waveguide widths higher than 50 µm.

  11. Quantum Nonlinear Optics with a Germanium-Vacancy Color Center in a Nanoscale Diamond Waveguide (United States)

    Bhaskar, M. K.; Sukachev, D. D.; Sipahigil, A.; Evans, R. E.; Burek, M. J.; Nguyen, C. T.; Rogers, L. J.; Siyushev, P.; Metsch, M. H.; Park, H.; Jelezko, F.; Lončar, M.; Lukin, M. D.


    We demonstrate a quantum nanophotonics platform based on germanium-vacancy (GeV) color centers in fiber-coupled diamond nanophotonic waveguides. We show that GeV optical transitions have a high quantum efficiency and are nearly lifetime broadened in such nanophotonic structures. These properties yield an efficient interface between waveguide photons and a single GeV center without the use of a cavity or slow-light waveguide. As a result, a single GeV center reduces waveguide transmission by 18 ±1 % on resonance in a single pass. We use a nanophotonic interferometer to perform homodyne detection of GeV resonance fluorescence. By probing the photon statistics of the output field, we demonstrate that the GeV-waveguide system is nonlinear at the single-photon level.

  12. Quantum Nonlinear Optics with a Germanium-Vacancy Color Center in a Nanoscale Diamond Waveguide. (United States)

    Bhaskar, M K; Sukachev, D D; Sipahigil, A; Evans, R E; Burek, M J; Nguyen, C T; Rogers, L J; Siyushev, P; Metsch, M H; Park, H; Jelezko, F; Lončar, M; Lukin, M D


    We demonstrate a quantum nanophotonics platform based on germanium-vacancy (GeV) color centers in fiber-coupled diamond nanophotonic waveguides. We show that GeV optical transitions have a high quantum efficiency and are nearly lifetime broadened in such nanophotonic structures. These properties yield an efficient interface between waveguide photons and a single GeV center without the use of a cavity or slow-light waveguide. As a result, a single GeV center reduces waveguide transmission by 18±1% on resonance in a single pass. We use a nanophotonic interferometer to perform homodyne detection of GeV resonance fluorescence. By probing the photon statistics of the output field, we demonstrate that the GeV-waveguide system is nonlinear at the single-photon level.

  13. Thermo-electro-optical analysis of an integrated waveguide-vanishing-based optical modulator (United States)

    Zaccuri, R. C.; Coppola, G.; Iodice, M.


    Silicon is the most widely used material in the microelectronics industry and it is becoming more widespread in integrated optic and opto-electronic fields. We present the thermo-electro-optical analysis of an integrated waveguide-vanishing-based optical modulator based on the free carrier dispersion effect. This particular structure allows one to obtain a planar device, with an easier CMOS compatible microelectronic integration. The implantation processes have been carefully tuned in order to get higher doping uniformity and a sharp profile. The process-flow is defined using the 2D process simulation software ATHENA (SILVACO International). The 2D semiconductor device simulation package ATLAS (SILVACO International) has been employed to analyse the coupled electro-thermal behaviour of our modulator in static and dynamic conditions. The electrical section of the modulation acts as a lateral p-i-n diode. The resulting channel waveguide shows single mode operation and propagation losses of about 10 dB cm-1. The modulator optical behaviour is based on the vanishing of the lateral confinement in the rib region. Results show that an optical modulation depth close to 100% can be reached with a power expense of about 650 mW and an operation -3 dB bandwidth of about 25 MHz.

  14. Electro-optic Ti:PPLN waveguide as efficient optical wavelength filter and polarization mode converter. (United States)

    Huang, C Y; Lin, C H; Chen, Y H; Huang, Y C


    We report the first experimental demonstration of electrically controlled Solc-type optical wavelength filters and TE-TM mode converters based on Ti-diffused periodically poled lithium niobate (Ti:PPLN) waveguides. A maximum mode conversion efficiency or a peak spectral transmittance of ~99% in the telecom C-L bands was obtained from a 9-mm long, 21.5-21.8-mum multiple-grating Ti:PPLN waveguide device with a switching voltage of as low as 22 V or 0.99 Vxd(mum)/L(cm), where d is the electrode separation and L is the electrode length. The spectral range of this device can be tuned by temperature at a rate of ~0.758 nm/ degrees C.

  15. InP-Based Waveguide Triple Transit Region Photodiodes for Hybrid Integration with Passive Optical Silica Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Rymanov


    Full Text Available We report on a novel InP-based 1.55 μm waveguide triple transit region photodiode (TTR-PD structure for hybrid integration with passive optical silica waveguides. Using the beam propagation method, numerical analyses reveal that, for evanescent optical coupling between a passive silica waveguide and the InP-based waveguide TTR-PD, a coupling efficiency of about 90% can be obtained. In addition to that, an absorption of about 50% is simulated within a TTR-PD length of 30 µm. For fabricated TTR-PD chips, a polarization dependent loss (PDL of less than 0.9 dB is achieved within the complete optical C-band. At the operational wavelength of 1.55 µm, a reasonable PDL of 0.73 dB is measured. The DC responsivity and the RF responsivity are achieved on the order of 0.52 A/W and 0.24 A/W, respectively. Further, a 3 dB bandwidth of 132 GHz is experimentally demonstrated and high output-power levels exceeding 0 dBm are obtained. Even at the 3 dB cut-off frequency, no saturation effects occur at a photocurrent of 15.5 mA and an RF output power of −4.6 dBm is achieved. In addition to the numerical and experimental achievements, we propose a scheme for a hybrid-integrated InP/silicon-based photonic millimeter wave transmitter.

  16. Integrating cell on chip—Novel waveguide platform employing ultra-long optical paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Simone Fohrmann


    Full Text Available Optical waveguides are the most fundamental building blocks of integrated optical circuits. They are extremely well understood, yet there is still room for surprises. Here, we introduce a novel 2D waveguide platform which affords a strong interaction of the evanescent tail of a guided optical wave with an external medium while only employing a very small geometrical footprint. The key feature of the platform is its ability to integrate the ultra-long path lengths by combining low propagation losses in a silicon slab with multiple reflections of the guided wave from photonic crystal (PhC mirrors. With a reflectivity of 99.1% of our tailored PhC-mirrors, we achieve interaction paths of 25 cm within an area of less than 10 mm2. This corresponds to 0.17 dB/cm effective propagation which is much lower than the state-of-the-art loss of approximately 1 dB/cm of single mode silicon channel waveguides. In contrast to conventional waveguides, our 2D-approach leads to a decay of the guided wave power only inversely proportional to the optical path length. This entirely different characteristic is the major advantage of the 2D integrating cell waveguide platform over the conventional channel waveguide concepts that obey the Beer-Lambert law.

  17. Integrating cell on chip—Novel waveguide platform employing ultra-long optical paths (United States)

    Fohrmann, Lena Simone; Sommer, Gerrit; Pitruzzello, Giampaolo; Krauss, Thomas F.; Petrov, Alexander Yu.; Eich, Manfred


    Optical waveguides are the most fundamental building blocks of integrated optical circuits. They are extremely well understood, yet there is still room for surprises. Here, we introduce a novel 2D waveguide platform which affords a strong interaction of the evanescent tail of a guided optical wave with an external medium while only employing a very small geometrical footprint. The key feature of the platform is its ability to integrate the ultra-long path lengths by combining low propagation losses in a silicon slab with multiple reflections of the guided wave from photonic crystal (PhC) mirrors. With a reflectivity of 99.1% of our tailored PhC-mirrors, we achieve interaction paths of 25 cm within an area of less than 10 mm2. This corresponds to 0.17 dB/cm effective propagation which is much lower than the state-of-the-art loss of approximately 1 dB/cm of single mode silicon channel waveguides. In contrast to conventional waveguides, our 2D-approach leads to a decay of the guided wave power only inversely proportional to the optical path length. This entirely different characteristic is the major advantage of the 2D integrating cell waveguide platform over the conventional channel waveguide concepts that obey the Beer-Lambert law.

  18. Waveguide-type optical circuits for recognition of optical 8QAM-coded label (United States)

    Surenkhorol, Tumendemberel; Kishikawa, Hiroki; Goto, Nobuo; Gonchigsumlaa, Khishigjargal


    Optical signal processing is expected to be applied in network nodes. In photonic routers, label recognition is one of the important functions. We have studied different kinds of label recognition methods so far for on-off keying, binary phase-shift keying, quadrature phase-shift keying, and 16 quadrature amplitude modulation-coded labels. We propose a method based on waveguide circuits to recognize an optical eight quadrature amplitude modulation (8QAM)-coded label by simple passive optical signal processing. The recognition of the proposed method is theoretically analyzed and numerically simulated by the finite difference beam propagation method. The noise tolerance is discussed, and bit-error rate against optical signal-to-noise ratio is evaluated. The scalability of the proposed method is also discussed theoretically for two-symbol length 8QAM-coded labels.

  19. Effect of D2 outdiffusion on direct writing of optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael


    It is shown that the performance of UV written waveguides can be influenced strongly by the outdiffusion of molecular deuterium during fabrication. By cooling the sample to -33 °C, the time available for UV writing may be increased to > 10 h, compared to ~15 min at room temperature....

  20. The production of optical waveguides by ion implantation: the case of rutile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickards, J.; Trejo L, R.; Flores R, E.; Golzarri, J. I.; Espinosa, G., E-mail: rickards@fisica.unam.m [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)


    With the purpose of developing optoelectronic devices, optical waveguides have been produced by ion implantation in many solids. The implantation process creates a damaged layer near the end of the ion trajectories, with a consequent reduction of density and index of refraction. This produces an optical barrier at a depth of a few microns, depending on the type of ion and its energy. The barrier and the surface constitute a planar waveguide. Rutile (TiO{sub 2} tetragonal structure) single crystals were implanted with 7 MeV carbon ions using the Physics Institute 3 MV Pelletron Accelerator, in the (100) and (001) directions, and Poly Allyl Diglycol Carbonate (P ADC) as detection material. The waveguides were observed using the coupled prism technique, which indicated differences in the waveguides produced for different directions due to crystal anisotropy. (Author)

  1. Electro-optic guided-to-radiation mode conversion in annealed proton-exchanged PPLN waveguides. (United States)

    Chang, J W; Chen, Y H; Tseng, Q H; Chang, W K; Deng, S L; Hsieh, C S


    We report the design and experimental demonstration of electro-optically active TM-guided to TE-radiation mode converters in annealed proton-exchanged (APE) periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) channel waveguides in telecom S-C-L bands (1495-1640 nm). A maximum mode conversion efficiency of >95%/cm was obtained at 1520 nm from a 24-μm-period APE PPLN waveguide under an electro-optic (EO) field of ~6.3 V/μm at 35°C. This efficiency has been enhanced by a factor of >4.6 over a waveguide built in the single-domain (unpoled) LiNbO3; it is also to the best of our knowledge the most efficient guided-to-radiation (GTR) mode converter ever reported based on LiNbO3 on-axis waveguides. A conversion bandwidth of ~250 nm was also observed from this EO GTR mode converter.

  2. Polarisation-insensitive strip-loaded waveguide for electro-optic modulators and switches (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Chen, Changming; Gao, Lei; Sun, Xiaoqiang; Gao, Weinan; Ma, Chunsheng; Zhang, Daming


    A polarisation-insensitive electro-optic (EO) waveguide consisting of a dye-doped TiO2/SiO2 slab and a SU-8 strip-loaded rib is designed and fabricated. By optimizing the refractive index and size of waveguide, a trade-off between polarisation-insensitive condition and large EO efficiency (optical field interaction with the EO material) is obtained. The average transmission loss of the waveguide is less than 2.0 dB/cm. A Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) interferometer intensity modulator based on this waveguide with excellent poling stability is fabricated and measured, exhibiting 7 V half-wave voltage with 1.8 cm EO interaction length and 2.7 cm total length. This strip-loaded structure is proved to be a valuable application in EO modulators and switches.

  3. New approach for loss measurements in optical planar waveguides (United States)

    Boudrioua, A.; Loulergue, J. C.


    A new nondestructive method for measuring waveguide losses is presented. It uses a prism-in coupling method to feed the light into the waveguide and the end-fire coupling to measure the transmitted light. It is simple both in construction and during the measurements. Such a configuration enables us to determine the attenuation coefficient which is independent of coupling efficiencies into and out of the guide and of the laser fluctuation. The results obtained, with this method, on H + and He + implanted LiNbO 3 waveguides are presented and discussed. Therefore, the measurements lead to the calculation of the attenuation with an absolute incertitude of 0.4 dB cm -1 for a waveguide length of 0.4 cm.

  4. Fabrication and Characterisation of Silicon Waveguides for High-Speed Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Asger Sellerup

    silicon waveguides. As an alternative to crystalline silicon waveguides for nonlinear optical applications, amorphous silicon was explored using RF sputtering potentially allowing for low density of detrimental hydrogen content in the final material. Unfortunately, the linear optical loss in the material...... was too high for any practical applications. It is speculated that the attempt at creating a material with low density of dangling bonds was unsuccessful. Nevertheless, linear losses of 2.4dB/cm at 1550nm wavelength in the silicon waveguides remained sufficiently low that high speed nonlinear optical...... signal processing could be demonstrated. This includes four wave mixing based wavelength conversion of a 320Gb/s Nyquist OTDM signal and cross phase modulation based signal regeneration of a 40Gb/s OTDM signal. Finally, a new type of low loss electrically driven optical modulator in silicon and silicon...

  5. Properties of Siloxane Based Optical Waveguides Deposited on Transparent Paper and Foil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Prajzler


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the properties of flexible planar optical waveguides made of siloxane-based polymer deposited on Xerox transparent paper and PLEXIGLAS foil substrate. Measurement of optical properties such as the waveguiding properties and refractive index is carried out by the prism coupling technique for five wavelengths (473, 632.8, 964, 1311 and 1552 nm and propagation optical loss were measured by the fibre probe technique at a wavelength of 632.8 nm (He-Ne laser. The measurement proved waveguiding properties for all measured wavelengths and the losses generally did not exceed 0.40 dB/cm; the best samples had optical losses around 0.24 dB/cm.

  6. Realization of optical multimode TSV waveguides for Si-Interposer in 3D-chip-stacks (United States)

    Killge, S.; Charania, S.; Richter, K.; Neumann, N.; Al-Husseini, Z.; Plettemeier, D.; Bartha, J. W.


    Optical connectivity has the potential to outperform copper-based TSVs in terms of bandwidth at the cost of more complexity due to the required electro-optical and opto-electrical conversion. The continuously increasing demand for higher bandwidth pushes the breakeven point for a profitable operation to shorter distances. To integrate an optical communication network in a 3D-chip-stack optical through-silicon vertical VIAs (TSV) are required. While the necessary effort for the electrical/optical and vice versa conversion makes it hard to envision an on-chip optical interconnect, a chip-to-chip optical link appears practicable. In general, the interposer offers the potential advantage to realize electro-optical transceivers on affordable expense by specific, but not necessarily CMOS technology. We investigated the realization and characterization of optical interconnects as a polymer based waveguide in high aspect ratio (HAR) TSVs proved on waferlevel. To guide the optical field inside a TSV as optical-waveguide or fiber, its core has to have a higher refractive index than the surrounding material. Comparing different material / technology options it turned out that thermal grown silicon dioxide (SiO2) is a perfect candidate for the cladding (nSiO2 = 1.4525 at 850 nm). In combination with SiO2 as the adjacent polymer layer, the negative resist SU-8 is very well suited as waveguide material (nSU-8 = 1.56) for the core. Here, we present the fabrication of an optical polymer based multimode waveguide in TSVs proved on waferlevel using SU-8 as core and SiO2 as cladding. The process resulted in a defect-free filling of waveguide TSVs with SU-8 core and SiO2 cladding up to aspect ratio (AR) 20:1 and losses less than 3 dB.

  7. Interfacing Superconducting Qubits and Single Optical Photons Using Molecules in Waveguides (United States)

    Das, Sumanta; Elfving, Vincent E.; Faez, Sanli; Sørensen, Anders S.


    We propose an efficient light-matter interface at optical frequencies between a single photon and a superconducting qubit. The desired interface is based on a hybrid architecture composed of an organic molecule embedded inside an optical waveguide and electrically coupled to a superconducting qubit placed near the outside surface of the waveguide. We show that high fidelity, photon-mediated, entanglement between distant superconducting qubits can be achieved with incident pulses at the single photon level. Such a low light level is highly desirable for achieving a coherent optical interface with superconducting qubit, since it minimizes decoherence arising from the absorption of light.

  8. Silicon nitride waveguide-integrated Ge/SiGe quantum wells optical modulator (United States)

    Chaisakul, Papichaya; Vakarin, Vladyslav; Frigerio, Jacopo; Isella, Giovanni; Vivien, Laurent; Marris-Morini, Delphine


    Silicon-based photonics has generated a strong interest in recent years, mainly for optical interconnects and sensing on photonic integrated circuits. The main rationales of silicon photonics are the reduction of energy consumption and photonic system costs via integration on a standard Si chip. Waveguide-integrated silicon based-optoelectronic modulators have been particularly studied as a key building block. Ge-rich Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguides are promising for compact and low energy consumption modulators thanks to the demonstration of direct gap related optical transitions in these structures, while silicon nitride (SiN) waveguide could be a promising alternative to Si waveguide. This paper studies an integration approach between passive SiN waveguide and active Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells (MQWs) optoelectronic modulators. Photocurrent measurements at different bias voltages demonstrated strong optical modulation within the O-band wavelength (1.26 – 1.36 µm) from Ge/SiGe MQWs, while 3D-FDTD calculations confirm a compact and efficient integration with SiN waveguide on Si wafer.

  9. The passive optical properties of a silicon nanoparticle-embedded benzocyclobutene polymer waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, J.-J.; Perng, Tsong P [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)], E-mail:


    The passive optical properties of a silicon nanoparticle-embedded benzocyclobutene (BCB) waveguide were investigated. The silicon nanoparticles, of a size varying from 6 to 25 nm, were prepared by vapor condensation. The transmission modes and losses were examined by the prism coupler and cut-back methods. A He-Ne laser beam with a wavelength of 6328 A was used to measure the effective index and thickness of the waveguide. Laser light could be efficiently coupled into the BCB waveguide when the embedded Si nanoparticles were smaller than 6 nm. The film thickness and effective index of the Si-embedded BCB waveguide were measured to be 1.825 {mu}m and 1.565, respectively. The optical transmission losses of the pure BCB and Si-embedded ridge waveguides measured by the cut-back method were 0.85 and 1.63 dB cm{sup -1}, respectively. Although the optical loss was increased by the embedded Si, the disturbance of the output contour was quite small. This result demonstrates that the nanoparticle-embedded polymer waveguide may be used for optoelectronic integrated circuits.

  10. The passive optical properties of a silicon nanoparticle-embedded benzocyclobutene polymer waveguide. (United States)

    Chiu, Jiann-Jong; Perng, Tsong P


    The passive optical properties of a silicon nanoparticle-embedded benzocyclobutene (BCB) waveguide were investigated. The silicon nanoparticles, of a size varying from 6 to 25 nm, were prepared by vapor condensation. The transmission modes and losses were examined by the prism coupler and cut-back methods. A He-Ne laser beam with a wavelength of 6328 Å was used to measure the effective index and thickness of the waveguide. Laser light could be efficiently coupled into the BCB waveguide when the embedded Si nanoparticles were smaller than 6 nm. The film thickness and effective index of the Si-embedded BCB waveguide were measured to be 1.825 µm and 1.565, respectively. The optical transmission losses of the pure BCB and Si-embedded ridge waveguides measured by the cut-back method were 0.85 and 1.63 dB cm(-1), respectively. Although the optical loss was increased by the embedded Si, the disturbance of the output contour was quite small. This result demonstrates that the nanoparticle-embedded polymer waveguide may be used for optoelectronic integrated circuits.

  11. Fluorescence monitoring of capillary electrophoresis separation of biomolecules with monolithically integrated optical waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongre, C.; Dekker, R.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Martinez-Vazquez, R.; Osellame, R.; Ramponi, R.; Cerullo, G.; van Weeghel, R.; Besselink, G.A.J.; van den Vlekkert, H.H.; Pollnau, Markus


    Monolithic integration of optical waveguides in a commercial lab-on-a-chip by femtosecond-laser material processing enables arbitrary 3D geometries of optical sensing structures in combination with fluidic microchannels. Integrated fluorescence monitoring of molecular separation, as applicable in

  12. On the Theory of Coupled Modes in Optical Cavity-Waveguide Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Heuck, Mikkel


    Light propagation in systems of optical cavities coupled to waveguides can be conveniently described by a general rate equation model known as (temporal) coupled mode theory (CMT). We present an alternative derivation of the CMT for optical cavitywaveguide structures, which explicitly relies...... in the coupled systems. Practical application of the theory is illustrated using example calculations in one and two dimensions....

  13. Nanowires and nanoribbons as subwavelength optical waveguides and their use as components in photonic circuits and devices (United States)

    Yang, Peidong; Law, Matt; Sirbuly, Donald J.; Johnson, Justin C.; Saykally, Richard; Fan, Rong; Tao, Andrea


    Nanoribbons and nanowires having diameters less than the wavelength of light are used in the formation and operation of optical circuits and devices. Such nanostructures function as subwavelength optical waveguides which form a fundamental building block for optical integration. The extraordinary length, flexibility and strength of these structures enable their manipulation on surfaces, including the precise positioning and optical linking of nanoribbon/wire waveguides and other nanoribbon/wire elements to form optical networks and devices. In addition, such structures provide for waveguiding in liquids, enabling them to further be used in other applications such as optical probes and sensors.

  14. Optical waveguides fabricated in Cr:LiSAF by femtosecond laser micromachining (United States)

    Biasetti, Demian A.; Di Liscia, Emiliano J.; Torchia, Gustavo A.


    In this work we present the fabrication of double-track type II waveguides written in 1% doped Cr:LiSrAlF6 (Cr:LiSAF) crystal by femtosecond laser micromachining. We studied waveguides fabricated at energies from 1 to 7 μJ per pulse at writing speeds of 15-45 μm/s. We found good wave-guiding performance for both, Transversal Magnetic (TM) and Transversal Electric (TE) polarization modes as well as acceptable losses according to the expected values addressed to technological applications. Also, we performed a high-resolution μ-luminescence waveguide cross-section mapping between the tracks, in order to identify possible spectral changes caused for active ions Cr3+ corresponding to the 4T2 →4A2 vibronic transition in the focal volume zone, due to induced anisotropic graded stress. Finally, their lifetimes were measured for bulk as well as for waveguide trapped ions. We found that for the range of parameters of ultra-short micromachining used, the Cr3+ ions embedded in the waveguides remained spectroscopically unchanged compared with those observed in bulk material.

  15. ZnO - Wide Bandgap Semiconductor and Possibilities of Its Application in Optical Waveguide Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struk Przemysław


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations concerning the application of zinc oxide - a wideband gap semiconductor in optical planar waveguide structures. ZnO is a promising semiconducting material thanks to its attractive optical properties. The investigations were focused on the determination of the technology of depositions and the annealing of ZnO layers concerning their optical properties. Special attention was paid to the determination of characteristics of the refractive index of ZnO layers and their coefficients of spectral transmission within the UV-VIS-NIR range. Besides that, also the mode characteristics and the attenuation coefficients of light in the obtained waveguide structures have been investigated. In the case of planar waveguides, in which the ZnO layers have not been annealed after their deposition, the values of the attenuation coefficient of light modes amount to a~ 30 dB/cm. The ZnO layers deposited on the heated substrate and annealed by rapid thermal annealing in an N2 and O2 atmosphere, are characterized by much lower values of the attenuation coefficients: a~ 3 dB/cm (TE0 and TM0 modes. The ZnO optical waveguides obtained according to our technology are characterized by the lowest values of the attenuation coefficients a encountered in world literature concerning the problem of optical waveguides based on ZnO. Studies have shown that ZnO layers elaborated by us can be used in integrated optic systems, waveguides, optical modulators and light sources.

  16. The fabrication of polymer-based evanescent optical waveguide for biosensing (United States)

    Kwon, S. W.; Yang, W. S.; Lee, H. M.; Kim, W. K.; Son, G. S.; Yoon, D. H.; Lee, S.-D.; Lee, H.-Y.


    A polymer waveguide was fabricated to amplify the evanescent optical field for biosensing. The structure of waveguide was designed to propagate a normal single mode at the input and output regions for low loss beam coupling and propagation. A sensing region was formed in the middle of the waveguide to activate the evanescent mode and to induce high birefringence by depositing a thin dielectric film with a high refractive index on a single mode waveguide. A polymer waveguide with the dimensions of 7 μm-width and 2.5 μm-thickness was fabricated by photolithography and dry-etching. The active region of the TiO 2 thin film was fabricated with the dimensions of 20 mm-length, 20 nm-thickness and 2 mm-tapered tail. A polarimetric interference technique was used to evaluate the evanescent waveguide biosensor, and biomaterial such as glycerol was tested. The sensitivity of the sensor increased with increasing TiO 2 film thickness. For the fabricated waveguide with a 20 nm-thick TiO 2 film, the measured index change to the lead phase variation of 2 π was 1.8 × 10 -4.

  17. ZnO nanotube waveguide arrays on graphene films for local optical excitation on biological cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeonjun Baek


    Full Text Available We report on scalable and position-controlled optical nanoprobe arrays using ZnO nanotube waveguides on graphene films for use in local optical excitation. For the waveguide fabrication, position-controlled and well-ordered ZnO nanotube arrays were grown on chemical vapor deposited graphene films with a submicron patterned mask layer and Au prepared between the interspace of nanotubes. Mammalian cells were cultured on the nanotube waveguide arrays and were locally excited by light illuminated through the nanotubes. Fluorescence and optogenetic signals could be excited through the optical nanoprobes. This method offers the ability to investigate cellular behavior with a high spatial resolution that surpasses the current limitation.

  18. Optical Nano-antennae as Compact and Efficient Couplers from Free-space to Waveguide Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenin, Vladimir A.; Malureanu, Radu; Volkov, Valentyn

    Optical nano-antennae are one of the possible solutions for coupling free-space radiation into subwavelength waveguides. Our efforts were concentrated on coupling between an optical fibre and a plasmonic slot waveguide. Such coupling is still an issue to be solved in order to advance the use...... of plasmonic waveguides for optical interconnects. During the talk, we will present our modelling optimisation, fabrication and measurement of the nano-antennae functionality. For the modelling part, we used CST Microwave studio for optimising the antenna geometry. Various antennae were modelled and fabricated....... The fabrication was based on electron beam lithography and lift-off processes. The measurements were performed with scattering scanning near-field microscope and allowed the retrieval of both amplitude and phase of the propagating plasmon. The obtained values agree very well with the theoretically predicted ones...

  19. Chip-to-chip optical interconnect using gold long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides. (United States)

    Kim, Jin Tae; Ju, Jung Jin; Park, Suntak; Kim, Min-su; Park, Seung Koo; Lee, Myung-Hyun


    We demonstrate a novel on-board chip-to-chip optical interconnect using long-range surface plasmon polariton (LR-SPP) waveguides that feature 2.5-cm-long gold strips embedded in a low loss polymer cladding. A TM-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) operating at a wavelength of 1.3 microm was butt-coupled into the waveguides in order to excite a fundamental LR-SPP mode and then the transmitted light was received with a photo-diode (PD). The waveguide width is varied in the range of 1.5-5.0 microm in order to optimize the insertion loss where the 3-microm-wide waveguide provides a minimum insertion loss of -17 dB, consisting of 6 dB/cm propagation loss and 2 dB coupling loss. An interconnect system based on the optimized waveguide with a 4-channel array is assembled with the arrayed optoelectronic chips. It shows the feasibility of 10 Gbps (2.5 Gbps x 4 channels) signal transmission indicating that the LR-SPP waveguide is a potential transmission line for optical interconnection.

  20. Hybrid electro-optic polymer modulator compatible to silicon photonic waveguide (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Yokoyama, Shiyoshi


    Electro-optic (EO) polymers are the promising material of choice for the waveguide modulation application due to their high EO coefficient, optical transparency, low dielectric loss, and compatibility with many materials and substrates. This widespread compatibility enables the construction of the unique hybrid polymer device to the silicon waveguide. One of the successful demonstrations in recent progress is the hybrid silicon modulator to the EO polymer. The hybrid silicon and polymer modulators have already demonstrated a very low half-wave voltage and multi-GHz bandwidth response. While, the fabrication is quite elaborate, involving the high-resolution lithography, controlled etching, and ion implantation process. In order to simplify the hybrid silicon and EO polymer modulator, we apply the conventional photolithography technique. The waveguide consists of silicon core with a thickness of 30 nm and a width of 2 μm, and the cladding is the polymer. In such a thin silicon core, the side-wall scattering can be significantly reduced, thus the measured propagation loss of the waveguide is 1.5 dB/cm. The optical mode calculation reveals that 55% of the optical field extends into the polymer cladding. The hybrid phase modulator waveguide performed the half-wave voltage of the modulator to be 4.6 V at 1550 nm and excellent temperature stability at 85C for longer than 500 hours. We also investigate a mode converter which can couple the light from the hybrid polymer waveguide to the silicon strip waveguide. The coupling loss between two devices is measured to be 0.5 dB.

  1. Improved light emitting UV curable PbS quantum dots-polymer composite optical waveguides (United States)

    Shen, Kai; Baig, Sarfaraz; Jiang, Guomin; Paik, Young-hun; Kim, Sung Jin; Wang, Michael R.


    We present for the first-time light emitting ultraviolet (UV) curable active PbS quantum dots-polymer composite optical waveguides fabricated by vacuum assisted microfluidic (VAM) soft lithography technique. PbS quantum dots were synthesized by colloidal chemistry methods with tunable sizes resulting in light emissions in near infrared wavelengths. UV curable polymer of selective refractive index were synthesized facilitating waveguide mode confinement and good PbS quantum dots solubility. Photoluminescence of the composite exhibited ∼ 30 times better brightness than PbS-SU-8 composites. Light emitting multi-mode waveguides of about 50 × 42 μm cross-sectional dimension were successful demonstrated. Light emitting single-mode waveguides were fabricated by VAM technique with sectional flow tapers.

  2. Submicron optical waveguides and microring resonators fabricated by selective oxidation of tantalum. (United States)

    Rabiei, Payam; Ma, Jichi; Khan, Saeed; Chiles, Jeff; Fathpour, Sasan


    Submicron tantalum pentoxide ridge and channel optical waveguides and microring resonators are demonstrated on silicon substrates by selective oxidation of the refractory metal, tantalum. The novel method eliminates the surface roughness problem normally introduced during dry etching of waveguide sidewalls and also simplifies fabrication of directional couplers. It is shown that the measured propagation loss is independent of the waveguide structure and thereby limited by the material loss of tantalum pentoxide in waveguides core regions. The achieved microring resonators have cross-sectional dimensions of ~600 nm × ~500 nm, diameters as small as 80 µm with a quality, Q, factor of 4.5 × 10(4), and a finesse of 120.

  3. Highly efficient optical parametric generation in proton exchanged PPLN waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Chanvillard, L; Baldi, P; De Micheli, M; Ostrowsky, D B; Huang, L; Bamford, G


    Summary form only given. Parametric fluorescence, amplification, and oscillation in PPLN waveguides have already been demonstrated. In all previous experiments, the measured efficiencies were smaller than the theoretically predicted values since the waveguide fabrication process utilized, annealed proton exchange (APE) can reduce or even destroy the nonlinear coefficient and/or the periodic domain orientation in a portion of the guiding structure. In the experiment reported here, we used a 2 cm long, Z-cut PPLN with a 18 mu m domain inversion period. The waveguides are created using a direct proton exchange process in a highly diluted melt, which induces no crystallographic phase transition. This allows preserving both the nonlinear coefficient and the domain orientation while fully benefiting from the power confinement associated with the guided wave configuration. (4 refs).

  4. Light-guided localization within tissue using biocompatible surgical suture fiber as an optical waveguide (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Park, Kwan Seob; Lee, Byeong Ha


    In breast-conserving surgery, an optical wire is a useful surgical guiding tool to optically locate small lesions within the breast tissue. However, the use of a long silica glass fiber as the optical wire can be burdensome to patients because of its stiffness and nonbiocompatibility. We investigate the use of a biocompatible fiber for light localization in tissue. A surgical suture with a diameter of 400 μm and a few centimeters long is employed as the biocompatible optical waveguide to transport the visible laser light to the inner tissue site. Optical location is confirmed with glow ball-like red laser illumination at the tip of the suture embedded within a fresh chicken breast tissue. Effective optical power coupling to the suture is made by using a double-cladding fiber coupler. From this preliminary result, we realize practical light localization with biopolymer waveguides.

  5. Enhancement of optics-to-THz conversion efficiency by metallic slot waveguides. (United States)

    Ruan, Zhichao; Veronis, Georgios; Vodopyanov, Konstantin L; Fejer, Marty M; Fan, Shanhui


    A metallic slot waveguide, with a dielectric strip embedded within, is investigated for the purpose of enhancing the optics-to-THz conversion efficiency using the difference-frequency generation (DFG) process. To describe the frequency conversion process in such lossy waveguides, a fully-vectorial coupled-mode theory is developed. Using the coupled-mode theory, we outline the basic theoretical requirements for efficient frequency conversion, which include the needs to achieve large coupling coefficients, phase matching, and low propagation loss for both the optical and THz waves. Following these requirements, a metallic waveguide is designed by considering the trade-off between modal confinement and propagation loss. Our numerical calculation shows that the conversion efficiency in these waveguide structures can be more than one order of magnitude larger than what has been achieved using dielectric waveguides. Based on the distinct impact of the slot width on the optical and THz modal dispersion, we propose a two-step method to realize the phase matching for general pump wavelengths.

  6. High-speed electro-optic switch based on nonlinear polymer-clad waveguide incorporated with quasi-in-plane coplanar waveguide electrodes (United States)

    Jiang, Ming-Hui; Wang, Xi-Bin; Xu, Qiang; Li, Ming; Niu, Dong-Hai; Sun, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Fei; Li, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Da-Ming


    Nonlinear optical (NLO) polymer is a promising material for active waveguide devices that can provide large bandwidth and high-speed response time. However, the performance of the active devices is not only related to the waveguide materials, but also related to the waveguide and electrode structures. In this paper, a high-speed Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) type of electro-optic (EO) switch based on NLO polymer-clad waveguide was fabricated. The quasi-in-plane coplanar waveguide electrodes were also introduced to enhance the poling and modulating efficiency. The characteristic parameters of the waveguide and electrode were carefully designed and simulated. The switches were fabricated by the conventional micro-fabrication process. Under 1550-nm operating wavelength, a typical fabricated switch showed a low insertion loss of 10.2 dB, and the switching rise time and fall time were 55.58 and 57.98 ns, respectively. The proposed waveguide and electrode structures could be developed into other active EO devices and also used as the component in the polymer-based large-scale photonic integrated circuit.

  7. Planar waveguides and other confined geometries theory, technology, production, and novel applications

    CERN Document Server


    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the theoretical concepts and experimental applications of planar waveguides and other confined geometries, such as optical fibres. Covering a broad array of advanced topics, it begins with a sophisticated discussion of planar waveguide theory, and covers subjects including efficient production of planar waveguides, materials selection, nonlinear effects, and applications including species analytics down to single-molecule identification, and thermo-optical switching using planar waveguides. Written by specialists in the techniques and applications covered, this book will be a useful resource for advanced graduate students and researchers studying planar waveguides and optical fibers.

  8. Tuneable optical waveguide based on dielectrophoresis and microfluidics (United States)

    Kayani, Aminuddin A.; Chrimes, Adam F.; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh; Mitchell, Arnan


    In this work, an array of dielectrophoretic curved microelectrodes patterned in a microfluidic channel and integrated with a multimode rib polymeric waveguide is demonstrated. The microfluidic channel is infiltrated with suspended silica (SiO2) and tungsten trioxide (WO3) nanoparticles. The optofluidic system is found to be sensitive and responds not only to the infiltration of nanoparticle suspensions in the microfluidic channel, but also to the magnitude and frequencies of dielectrophoretic forces applied on the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles can be uniformly concentrated or repelled from the region between the curved microelectrode tips forming either a dense stream of flowing nanoparticles or a region void of nanoparticles in the evanescent sensitive region of the polymeric waveguide. The concentration and repulsion of nanoparticles from this region creates a refractive index gradient in the upper cladding of the polymeric waveguide. These conditions made it possible for light to either remain guided or be scattered as a function of dielectrophoretic settings applied on the nanoparticles. The results demonstrate that we successfully developed a novel tuneable polymeric waveguide based on dielectrophoretic assembly of nanoparticles suspended in fluids.

  9. All-optical half adder using an SOA and a PPLN waveguide for signal processing in optical networks. (United States)

    Kumar, Saurabh; Willner, Alan E; Gurkan, Deniz; Parameswaran, Krishnan R; Fejer, Martin M


    We demonstrate an all-optical half adder for bit-wise addition of two serial data streams that simultaneously generates Sum and Carry outputs. The module performs the required XOR and AND operations using only two nonlinear optical elements. Difference Frequency Generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide serves as the AND gate and cross-gain modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier is employed to generate the XOR output. Error free operation for RZ data is reported.

  10. Chirped self-similar optical pulses in tapered centrosymmetric nonlinear waveguides doped with resonant impurities (United States)

    He, J. R.; Xu, S. L.; Xue, L.


    Exact chirped self-similar optical pulses propagating in tapered centrosymmetric nonlinear waveguides doped with resonant impurities are reported. The propagation behaviors of the pulses are studied by tailoring of the tapering function. Numerical simulations and stability analysis reveal that the tapering can be used to postpone the wave dispersion and the addition of a small cubic self-focusing term to the governing equation could stabilize the chirped bright pulses. An example of possible experimental protocol that may generate the pulses in realistic waveguides is given. The obtained chirped self-similar optical pulses are particularly useful in the design of amplifying or attenuating pulse compressors for chirped solitary waves in tapered centrosymmetric nonlinear waveguides doped with resonant impurities.

  11. Nonlinear optical characterization of poly (methyl methacrylate) polymer doped with different dyes for laser waveguide fabrication (United States)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S.; Darwish, Abdalla M.; Bryant, William; Venkateswarlu, Putcha; Abdeldayem, Hossin A.; Frazier, Donald O.


    The charactertization of light guiding and nonlinear optical properties of thin films based on poly(methyl methacrylate) doped with organic dyes 4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-p- dimethylaminostyryl-4H-pyran (DCM), Pyrromethene 567, and sulforhodamin was done using the prism coupling technique and nonlinear optical spectroscopy. Stimulated light emission in DCM doped waveguide with apparent pump threshold and spectrum narrowing was observed at transverse pumping with frequency doubled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. PM-567 doped waveguide being transversely pumped with CW Ar+ laser at 514 nm demonstrated fluorescence with 0.19% energy conversion slope efficiency at 616 nm spectral peak. Upconverted fluorescence was found in the same waveguide at longitudinal CW infrared pumping. Sulforhodamin doped films demonstrated multiphoton excited fluorescence and surface enhanced second harmonic generation.

  12. Microfabrication with femtosecond laser processing : (A) laser ablation of ferrous alloys, (B) direct-write embedded optical waveguides and integrated optics in bulk glasses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Junpeng; McDaniel, Karen Lynn; Palmer, Jeremy Andrew; Yang, Pin; Griffith, Michelle Lynn; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Harris, Marc F.; Tallant, David Robert; Luk, Ting Shan; Burns, George Robert


    -write optical waveguides and integrated optics in bulk glass. The effects of laser and environmental parameters on such aspects as removal rate, feature size, feature definition, and ablation angle during the ablation process of metals were studied. In addition, the manufacturing requirements for component fabrication including precision and reproducibility were investigated. The effect of laser processing conditions on the optical properties of direct-written waveguides and an unusual laser-induced birefringence in an optically isotropic glass are reported. Several integrated optical devices, including a Y coupler, directional coupler, and Mach-Zehnder interferometer, were made to demonstrate the simplicity and flexibility of this technique in comparison to the conventional waveguide fabrication processes.

  13. Chalcogenide amorphous nanoparticles doped poly (methyl methacrylate) with high nonlinearity for optical waveguide (United States)

    Xue, Xiaojie; Nagasaka, Kenshiro; Cheng, Tonglei; Deng, Dinghuan; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Lai; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake


    Nonlinear optical polymers show promising potential applications in photonics, for example, electro-optical devices. Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is widely used in optical waveguides, integrated optics and optical fibers. However, PMMA has not been used for nonlinear optical waveguides since it has a low nonlinear refractive index. We successfully prepared chalcogenide amorphous nanoparticles doped PMMA that had a high nonlinearity. The As3S7 bulk glass was dissolved in propylamine to form a cluster solution. Then the As3S7/propylamine solution was added into methyl methacrylate (MMA) containing photoinitiator Irgacure 184 about 0.5 wt%. After well mixing the As3S7 nanoparticle doped MMA was transparent. Under the irradiation by a 365 nm UV lamp, As3S7 nanoparticles doped PMMA was obtained with yellow color. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of As3S7 nanoparticles doped PMMA was investigated. An optical waveguide array based on the As3S7 nanoparticles doped PMMA composite of high nonlinearity was fabricated.

  14. Fabrication of planar beamsplitter integrated with Er-doped waveguide amplifier for optical fiber communication (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Chung; Kim, Hong Koo


    We developed planar beamsplitter integrated with an Er-doped waveguide amplifier to compensate for the loss of the beamsplitter. In thin-film waveguide, a vertical dimension is determined by an Er-doped layer thickness, whereas a lateral dimension is defined by a patterning process that usually involves photolithography and etching techniques. Etching of Er-doped glass is known to be a challenging process. Chemical etching usually results in rough surfaces. Dry etching of Er-doped glasses containing alkaline metals shows a low etch-rate problem. Some researchers have used an ion milling technique to form a ridge structure with variable success. However, high temperature reflow is still required to minimize side wall roughness. We have developed a new fabrication process for Er-doped 2D waveguides. The process does not require etching of an Er-doped film, and therefore is simple, economical, and highly reproducible in defining a lateral dimension of a waveguide. Under-cladding silica layer was grown by Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition on silicon substrate. Patterning of waveguide was defined on the under cladding layer. After that, an Er-doped soda-lime silicate glass film was deposited with rf magnetron sputtering, and jointed with core layer region of waveguide beam splitter which has compatible mode profile with optical fiber.A 1.7-cm-long Er- doped waveguide shows 7.2 dB gain at 980 nm pump power of 40 mW. This demonstrates that the amplifier can provide an optical gain sufficiently to compensate for the splitter losses.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of hydrothermally grown zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods for optical waveguide application (United States)

    Pandey, Chandan A.; Rahim, Rafis; Manjunath, S.; Hornyak, Gabor L.; Mohammed, Waleed S.


    We report a simple method to synthesize Zinc oxide nanorods, grown without using catalysis with less complicity. This was done by hydrothermal treatment of zinc nitrate and hexamine at 90°C and various times (5- 20h) and also we find that the nanorod size and shape depends on heating rate, temperature and heating time. ZnO nanorods have been investigated for their light guiding ability and their effective index of refraction for use in near air index optical systems by developing a ridge waveguide structure. ZnO nanorod waveguides (100 μm w x 2.5 μm h x 1mm l) were grown on a seeded glass substrate template using hydrothermal process at 90°C. Modification of the substrate surface in order to obtain dense perpendicularly-oriented ordered nanorods induced selective growth. These structures were characterized by SEM, EDX, and XRD. The guiding property, i.e. locally excited photoluminescence propagation along the length of the waveguide, was analyzed with imageprocessing program in MATLAB. Following application of a fiber optic white light source on the ZnO nanostructure, we found that light propagation occurred within the glass substrate. No such propagation occurred if light was applied on uncoated areas of the glass. Modeling of waveguide behavior to determine the number propagating modes was exercised using waveguide mode solver in COMSOL.

  16. Modeling of mode-locked coupled-resonator optical waveguide lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Christian; Skovgård, Troels Suhr; Gregersen, Niels


    Coupled-resonator optical waveguides made from coupled high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities are investigated for use as cavities in mode-locked lasers. Such devices show great potential in slowing down light and can serve to reduce the cavity length of a mode-locked laser. An explicit expression...

  17. Calculation of optical-waveguide grating characteristics using Green's functions and Dyson's equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Lars Henning; Mortensen, Asger


    We present a method for calculating the transmission spectra, dispersion, and time delay characteristics of optical-waveguide gratings based on Green's functions and Dyson's equation. Starting from the wave equation for transverse electric modes we show that the method can solve exactly both...

  18. Optical nano-antennae as compact and efficient couplers from free-space to waveguide modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Zenin, Volodymyr; Malureanu, Radu


    Optical nano-antennae are one of the possible solutions for coupling free-space radiation into subwavelength waveguides. Other possibilities include, among others, grating couplers and end-fire end couplers. Our efforts were concentrated on nano-antennae used for coupling IR light in the telecom ...

  19. Integrated Sagnac optical gyroscope sensor using ultra-low loss high aspect ratio silicon nitride waveguide coil (United States)

    Gundavarapu, Sarat; Belt, Michael; Huffman, Taran; Tran, Minh A.; Komljenovic, Tin; Bowers, John E.; Blumenthal, Daniel J.


    We demonstrate operation of an interferometric optical gyroscope that uses an on-chip 3m ultra-low-loss silicon nitride waveguide coil. The measured minimum waveguide loss of the waveguide coil fabricated using lithographic die stitching was 0.78 dB/m. The angle random walk and bias instability of the gyroscope were characterized to be 8.52 deg/hr1/2 and 58.7 deg/hr respectively.

  20. Amplification Properties of Femtosecond Laser-Written Er3+/Yb3+ Doped Waveguides in a Tellurium-Zinc Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Olivero


    Full Text Available We report on the fabrication and characterization of active waveguides in a TeO2-ZnO glass sample doped with Er3+/Yb3+ fabricated by direct laser writing with a femtosecond laser delivering 150 fs pulses at 1 kHz repetition rate. The waveguides exhibit an internal gain of 0.6 dB/cm at 1535 nm, thus demonstrating the feasibility of active photonics lightwave circuits and lossless components in such a glass composition.

  1. Development of the optical waveguide solar lighting system for space-based plant growing. (United States)

    Nakamura, T; Case, J A; Mankamyer, M


    This article summarizes the study on the Optical Waveguide (OW) Solar Lighting System for space-based plant growing. In the OW solar lighting system, solar radiation is collected by the concentrator, which transfers the concentrated solar radiation to the OW transmission line consisting of low-loss optical fibers. The OW line transmits the solar radiation to the plant growing units where the solar radiation from the optical fibers is defocused and directed to the plants for optimum intensity for plant growing. In this study, the laboratory OW solar lighting system was constructed and tested for plant growth. The OW system consists of: 1) tracking reflective concentrators; 2) the optical waveguide transmission line; and 3) the plant lighting device. Results of the performance tests and the plant growth tests of the OW solar lighting system showed that the OW system is a viable plant lighting system for growing plant in space.

  2. Slow light enhanced correlated photon pair generation in photonic-crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguides. (United States)

    Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Takesue, Hiroki; Shimizu, Kaoru; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Notomi, Masaya


    We demonstrate the generation of quantum-correlated photon pairs from a Si photonic-crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguide. A slow-light supermode realized by the collective resonance of high-Q and small-mode-volume photonic-crystal cavities successfully enhanced the efficiency of the spontaneous four-wave mixing process. The generation rate of photon pairs was improved by two orders of magnitude compared with that of a photonic-crystal line defect waveguide without a slow-light effect.

  3. Optical coupling of GaAs photodetectors integrated with lithium niobate waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, W.K.; Yan, A.Y.Y.; Gmitter, T.J.; Florez, L.T.; Jackel, J.L.; Hwang, D.M.; Yablonovitch, E.; Bhat, R.; Harbison, J.P. (Bellcore, Red Bank, NJ (US))


    The optical coupling of GaAs photodetectors integrated with LiNbO{sub 3} waveguides using epitaxial liftoff is measured and compared to calculations based on a complex index model. The measured coupling is found to be comparable to that obtained in epitaxial semi-conductor waveguide detectors, but lower than expected. Low coupling efficiency is attributed to the presence of a low index barrier layer, not present in semiconductor-based structures, at the GaAs-LiNbO{sub 3} interface. The authors propose a simple method to restore the coupling to its original value without the need to eliminate the barrier layer.

  4. High confinement, high yield Si3N4 waveguides for nonlinear optical application

    CERN Document Server

    Epping, Jörn P; Mateman, Richard; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René G; van Rees, Albert; van der Slot, Peter J M; Lee, Chris J; Boller, Klaus-J


    In this paper we present a novel fabrication technique for silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguides with a thickness of up to 900 nm, which are suitable for nonlinear optical applications. The fabrication method is based on etching trenches in thermally oxidized silicon and filling the trenches with Si3N4. Using this technique no stress-induced cracks in the Si3N4 layer were observed resulting in a high yield of devices on the wafer. The propagation losses of the obtained waveguides were measured to be as low as 0.4 dB/cm at a wavelength of around 1550 nm.

  5. Ultra-thin silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid waveguide modulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Feng; Spring, Andrew M. [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Sato, Hiromu [Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Maeda, Daisuke; Ozawa, Masa-aki; Odoi, Keisuke [Nissan Chemical Industries, Ltd., 2-10-1 Tuboi Nishi, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8507 (Japan); Aoki, Isao; Otomo, Akira [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 588-2 Iwaoka, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2492 (Japan); Yokoyama, Shiyoshi, E-mail: [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)


    Ultra-thin silicon and electro-optic (EO) polymer hybrid waveguide modulators have been designed and fabricated. The waveguide consists of a silicon core with a thickness of 30 nm and a width of 2 μm. The cladding is an EO polymer. Optical mode calculation reveals that 55% of the optical field around the silicon extends into the EO polymer in the TE mode. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator was prepared using common coplanar electrodes. The measured half-wave voltage of the MZI with 7 μm spacing and 1.3 cm long electrodes is 4.6 V at 1550 nm. The evaluated EO coefficient is 70 pm/V, which is comparable to that of the bulk EO polymer film. Using ultra-thin silicon is beneficial in order to reduce the side-wall scattering loss, yielding a propagation loss of 4.0 dB/cm. We also investigated a mode converter which couples light from the hybrid EO waveguide into a strip silicon waveguide. The calculation indicates that the coupling loss between these two devices is small enough to exploit the potential fusion of a hybrid EO polymer modulator together with a silicon micro-photonics device.

  6. Optical near-field studies of waveguiding organic nanofibers by angular dependent excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maibohm, Christian

    defined and highly polarized. By UV excitation in a fluorescence microscope it has also been shown that nanofibers have waveguiding properties. To further characterize the waveguiding properties the optical near-field has to be investigated. This is done by transferring nanofibers to an quartz half sphere...

  7. The spontaneous emission noise limit of active resonator optical waveguide gyroscope (United States)

    Li, Wenxiu; Zhang, Hao; Lin, Jian; Liu, Jiaming; Xue, Xia; Huang, Anping; Xiao, Zhisong


    Active resonators based on optical waveguides can significantly enhance the performance of optical gyroscope due to its loss compensation effect. The spontaneous emission noise (SEN) stemmed from optical gain will broaden the linewidth of the resonator and limit the sensitivity and resolution of active resonator optical gyroscope (AROG). In this paper, we modified the sensitivity formula when the spontaneous emission noise is dominant and analyzed theoretically the performance limitations of the AROG. After considering the spontaneous emission noise source, the resolution can be improved through optimizing the design parameters of the AROG

  8. Small slot waveguide rings for on-chip quantum optical circuits. (United States)

    Rotenberg, Nir; Türschmann, Pierre; Haakh, Harald R; Martin-Cano, Diego; Götzinger, Stephan; Sandoghdar, Vahid


    Nanophotonic interfaces between single emitters and light promise to enable new quantum optical technologies. Here, we use a combination of finite element simulations and analytic quantum theory to investigate the interaction of various quantum emitters with slot-waveguide rings. We predict that for rings with radii as small as 1.44 μm, with a Q-factor of 27,900, near-unity emitter-waveguide coupling efficiencies and emission enhancements on the order of 1300 can be achieved. By tuning the ring geometry or introducing losses, we show that realistic emitter-ring systems can be made to be either weakly or strongly coupled, so that we can observe Rabi oscillations in the decay dynamics even for micron-sized rings. Moreover, we demonstrate that slot waveguide rings can be used to directionally couple emission, again with near-unity efficiency. Our results pave the way for integrated solid-state quantum circuits involving various emitters.

  9. Sol-gel coatings: An alternative route for producing planar optical waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey-Garcia, F.; Gomez-Reino, C. [Unidad Asociada de Optica and Microoptica GRIN (CSIC-ICMA), Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Escola Universitaria de Optica e Optometria, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur s/n, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Flores-Arias, M.T., E-mail: [Unidad Asociada de Optica and Microoptica GRIN (CSIC-ICMA), Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Escola Universitaria de Optica e Optometria, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur s/n, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); De La Fuente, G.F., E-mail: [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon (CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza), Maria de Luna 3, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Duran, A. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio (CSIC), Kelsen 5, E-28049, Madrid (Spain); Castro, Y., E-mail: [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio (CSIC), Kelsen 5, E-28049, Madrid (Spain)


    Inorganic and hybrid planar waveguides with different compositions (silica-titania, methacrylate-silica-cerium oxide, zirconia-cerium oxide and silica-zirconia) have been obtained by sol-gel synthesis followed by dip-coating. Soda-lime glass slides and conventional commercial window glass were used as substrates. The thickness and refractive index of the coatings were determined by profilometry and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry. Waveguide efficiency was measured at ca. 70.8% with a He-Ne laser beam, coupled with an optical microscope objective into and out of the waveguiding layer via a double prism configuration. Thicknesses between 150 and 2000 nm, along with refractive index values ranging between 1.45 and {approx} 1.99 ({lambda} = 633 nm) were obtained depending on the sol composition and the dip-coating conditions. This wide range of values allows designing multilayered guides that can be used in a variety of applications.

  10. Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy (OWLS as a Sensor for Thin Film and Quantum Dot Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinke Tang


    Full Text Available Optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS is usually applied as a biosensor system to the sorption-desorption of proteins to waveguide surfaces. Here, we show that OWLS can be used to monitor the quality of oxide thin film materials and of coatings of pulsed laser deposition synthesized CdSe quantum dots (QDs intended for solar energy applications. In addition to changes in data treatment and experimental procedure, oxide- or QD-coated waveguide sensors must be synthesized. We synthesized zinc stannate (Zn2SnO4 coated (Si,TiO2 waveguide sensors, and used OWLS to monitor the relative mass of the film over time. Films lost mass over time, though at different rates due to variation in fluid flow and its physical effect on removal of film material. The Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD technique was used to deposit CdSe QD coatings on waveguides. Sensors exposed to pH 2 solution lost mass over time in an expected, roughly exponential manner. Sensors at pH 10, in contrast, were stable over time. Results were confirmed with atomic force microscopy imaging. Limiting factors in the use of OWLS in this manner include limitations on the annealing temperature that maybe used to synthesize the oxide film, and limitations on the thickness of the film to be studied. Nevertheless, the technique overcomes a number of difficulties in monitoring the quality of thin films in-situ in liquid environments.

  11. Optical waveguide BTX gas sensor based on polyacrylate resin thin film. (United States)

    Kadir, Razak; Yimit, Abliz; Ablat, Hayrensa; Mahmut, Mamtimin; Itoh, Kiminori


    An optical sensor sensitive to BTX has been developed by spin coating a thin film of polyacrylate resin onto a tin- diffused glass optical waveguide. A pair of prism coupler was employed for optical coupling matched with diiodomethane (CH2l2). The guided wave transmits in waveguide layer and passes through the film as an evanescent wave. Polyacrylate film has a strong capacity of absorbing oil gases. The film is stable in N2 but benzene exposure at room temperature can result in rapid and reversible changes of transmittance (7) and refractive index (n1) of this film. It has been demonstrated that the sensor containing a 10 mm boardand about a hundred nanometers thick resin film can detect lower than 8 ppm BTX.

  12. Rotating Circular Micro-Platform with Integrated Waveguides and Latching Arm for Reconfigurable Integrated Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Briere


    Full Text Available This work presents a laterally rotating micromachined platform integrated under optical waveguides to control the in-plane propagation direction of light within a die to select one of multiple outputs. The platform is designed to exhibit low constant optical losses throughout the motion range and is actuated electrostatically using an optimized circular comb drive. An angular motion of ±9.5° using 180 V is demonstrated. To minimize the optical losses between the moving and fixed parts, a gap-closing mechanism is implemented to reduce the initial air gap to submicron values. A latch structure is implemented to hold the platform in place with a resolution of 0.25° over the entire motion range. The platform was integrated with silicon nitride waveguides to create a crossbar switch and preliminary optical measurements are reported. In the bar state, the loss was measured to be 14.8 dB with the gap closed whereas in the cross state it was 12.2 dB. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first optical switch based on a rotating microelectromechanical device with integrated silicon nitride waveguides reported to date.

  13. Optical parametric oscillation in orientation patterned GaAs waveguides (United States)

    Oron, M. B.; Blau, P.; Pearl, S.; Katz, M.


    Orientation patterned GaAs waveguides for parametric conversion from near to mid-infrared have been fabricated by MOCVD growth on OPGaAs templates. A monolithic OPO cavity was formed by dielectric facet coating. Parametric oscillation characteristics were investigated using a pulsed source tunable in the range of 1.98-2.05μm. Type I and II parametric interactions have been observed, differing in QPM wavelength. OPO threshold power of 7W, using a pulsed pump, and 5.7W using a CW laser was obtained in a 13mm long waveguide of 39μm period. Overall Parametric peak power of 0.6W at pulsed pump peak power of 11.6W was generated at signal & idler wavelengths of 3.6μm & 4.5μm respectively and pump wavelength of 2.015μm. Tuning curves for Type I and type II parametric operation in OPGaAs WGs have been calculated and verified by the measured signal and idler wavelengths.

  14. Planar micro-optic solar concentration using multiple imaging lenses into a common slab waveguide (United States)

    Karp, Jason H.; Ford, Joseph E.


    Conventional CPV systems focus sunlight directly onto a PV cell, usually through a non-imaging optic to avoid hot spots. In practice, many systems use a shared tracking platform to mount multiple smaller aperture lenses, each concentrating light into an associated PV cell. Scaling this approach to the limit would result in a thin sheet-like geometry. This would be ideal in terms of minimizing the tracking system payload, especially since such thin sheets can be arranged into louvered strips to minimize wind-force loading. However, simply miniaturizing results in a large number of individual PV cells, each needed to be packaged, aligned, and electrically connected. Here we describe for the first time a different optical system approach to solar concentrators, where a thin lens array is combined with a shared multimode waveguide. The benefits of a thin optical design can therefore be achieved with an optimum spacing of the PV cells. The guiding structure is geometrically similar to luminescent solar concentrators, however, in micro-optic waveguide concentrators sunlight is coupled directly into the waveguide without absorption or wavelength conversion. This opens a new design space for high-efficiency CPV systems with the potential for cost reduction in both optics and tracking mechanics. In this paper, we provide optical design and preliminary experimental results of one implementation specifically intended to be compatible with large-scale roll processing. Here the waveguide is a uniform glass sheet, held between the lens array and a corresponding array of micro-mirrors self-aligned to each lens focus during fabrication.

  15. Integrated Optical Transceiver for Inertial Sensors Using Polymer Waveguide Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Temmen, Mark; Diffey, William; Ashley, Paul


    .... This paper describes the application of this technology in an integrated optical transceiver unit designed for inertial sensor system, or specifically, for an interferometric fiber optic gyroscope (IFOG) system...

  16. Growth and electro-optical characterization of ZnMgTe/ZnTe waveguide by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, W.; Nakasu, T.; Taguri, K.; Aiba, T.; Yamashita, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Laboratory of Materials Science and Technology, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Togo, H. [Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation, Atsugi (Japan); Asahi, T. [JX Nippon Oil and Energy, Hitachi (Japan)


    ZnMgTe/ZnTe/ZnMgTe thin film waveguide with high crystal quality were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The in-plane mismatch between the ZnMgTe cladding layers and ZnTe core layer was about 0.02% which was measured by X-ray reciprocal space mapping (RSM). It indicated that films were grown coherently with high crystal quality. The Electro-Optical characterization of waveguide was evaluated using 1.55 μm polarized lights and bias applied on the waveguide device from -15 V to +15 V. The dependence of light phase shift passed though the waveguide on the applied voltage bias was studied. The electro-optical characterization of the waveguide device was about 7% of the theoretical calculation. It could be improved by increasing the resistance ratio between the ZnMgTe/ZnTe/ZnMgTe waveguide structure and substrate so that the electric field applied on the waveguide structure could be improved. It was indicated that the ZnMgTe/ZnTe/ZnMgTe thin film waveguide has the potential to become a high efficiency electro-optical device. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Electric Field-Induced Second Order Nonlinear Optical Effects in Silicon Waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Timurdogan, E; Watts, M R


    The demand for nonlinear effects within a silicon platform to support photonic circuits requiring phase-only modulation, frequency doubling, and/or difference frequency generation, is becoming increasingly clear. However, the symmetry of the silicon crystal inhibits second order optical nonlinear susceptibility, $\\chi^{(2)}$. Here, we show that the crystalline symmetry is broken when a DC field is present, inducing a $\\chi^{(2)}$ in a silicon waveguide that is proportional to the large $\\chi^{(3)}$ of silicon. First, Mach-Zehnder interferometers using the DC Kerr effect optical phase shifters in silicon ridge waveguides with p-i-n junctions are demonstrated with a $V_{\\pi}L$ of $2.4Vcm$ in telecom bands $({\\lambda}_{\\omega}=1.58{\\mu}m)$ without requiring to dope the silicon core. Second, the pump and second harmonic modes in silicon ridge waveguides are quasi-phase matched when the magnitude, spatial distribution of the DC field and $\\chi^{(2)}$ are controlled with p-i-n junctions. Using these waveguides, sec...

  18. Theoretical investigation of Vernier effect based sensors with hybrid porous silicon-polymer optical waveguides (United States)

    Azuelos, Paul; Girault, Pauline; Lorrain, Nathalie; Poffo, Luiz; Hardy, Isabelle; Guendouz, Mohammed; Thual, Monique


    A new combination of porous silicon and polymer optical waveguides is investigated for two different designs of Vernier effect based sensors for the surface detection of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) molecules. The hybrid structures studied consist of two cascaded micro-resonators for one and a micro-resonator cascaded with a Mach-Zehnder for the other. Because of its high specific surface and bio-compatibility, we use porous silicon to implement the waveguides in the sensing part of the sensor into which BSA molecules are grafted. Polymer waveguides are then used for the reference part of the sensor because of their low optical losses. We consider the opto-geometric parameters of both waveguides for single mode propagation. Finally, optimized designs, taking into account standard experimental wavelength shift measurement limitation, are presented for both structures. We demonstrate a theoretical Limit Of Detection (LOD) of 0.019 pg mm-2 and a sensitivity of 12.5 nm/(pg mm-2) with these hybrid sensors. To our knowledge, these values are lower by a factor of 8 for the LOD and higher by a factor of 200 for the sensitivity, as compared to state of the art Vernier effect biosensors.

  19. Ink-jet printed fluorescent materials as light sources for planar optical waveguides on polymer foils (United States)

    Bollgruen, Patrick; Gleissner, Uwe; Wolfer, Tim; Megnin, Christof; Mager, Dario; Overmeyer, Ludger; Korvink, Jan G.; Hanemann, Thomas


    Polymer-based optical sensor networks on foils (planar optronic systems) are a promising research field, but it can be challenging to supply them with light. We present a solvent-free, ink-jet printable material system with optically active substances to create planar light sources for these networks. The ink is based on a UV-curable monomer, the fluorescent agents are EuDBMPhen or 9,10-diphenylantracene, which fluoresce at 612 or 430 nm, respectively. We demonstrate the application as light source by printing a small area of fluorescent material on an optical waveguide fabricated by flexographic printing on PMMA foil, resulting in a simple polymer-optical device fabricated entirely by additive deposition techniques. When excited by a 405-nm laser of 10 mW, the emitted light couples into the waveguide and appears at the end of the waveguide. In comparison to conventional light sources, the intensity is weak but could be detected with a photodiode power sensor. In return, the concept has the advantage of being completely independent of any electrical elements or external cable connections.

  20. Dispersion and optical gradient force from high-order mode coupling between two hyperbolic metamaterial waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guanghui, E-mail:; Zhang, Weifeng; Lu, Jiahui; Zhao, Huijun


    We analytically study dispersion properties and optical gradient forces of different-order transverse magnetic (TM) modes in two coupled hyperbolic metamaterial waveguides (HMMWs). According to Maxwell's equations, we obtain the dispersion relation of symmetric and antisymmetric modes, and calculate optical gradient forces of different-order modes by using Maxwell stress tensor. Numerical results show that the dispersion properties are dependent on the filling ratio, and the optical gradient forces of high-order TM modes are larger than the fundamental mode when the gap between two HMMWs is very narrow, but they weaken much faster than the case of low-order TM modes with the gap width increasing. In addition, the effects of the dielectric surrounding of waveguides on the coupling effect and optical gradient force are clarified. These properties offer an avenue for various optomechanical applications in optical sensors and actuators. - Highlights: • The dependence of dispersion properties in hyperbolic metamaterials on the filling ratio is analyzed. • It is possible that the optical gradient forces of high-order modes are larger than the fundamental mode. • Optical gradient forces of high-order modes weaken much faster than the case of low-order modes. • The influence of the dielectric surrounding on the coupling effect and optical gradient force are clarified.

  1. Ultrashort optical waveguide excitations in uniaxial silica fibers: Elastic collision scenarios (United States)

    Kuetche, Victor K.; Youssoufa, Saliou; Kofane, Timoleon C.


    In this work, we investigate the dynamics of an uniaxial silica fiber under the viewpoint of propagation of ultimately ultrashort optical waveguide channels. As a result, we unveil the existence of three typical kinds of ultrabroadband excitations whose profiles strongly depend upon their angular momenta. Looking forward to surveying their scattering features, we unearth some underlying head-on scenarios of elastic collisions. Accordingly, we address some useful and straightforward applications in nonlinear optics through secured data transmission systems, as well as laser physics and soliton theory with optical soliton dynamics.

  2. Optical switching of a metal-clad waveguide with a ferroelectric liquid crystal. (United States)

    Mitsuishi, M; Ito, S; Yamamoto, M; Fischer, T; Knoll, W


    Optical switching based on waveguide optics with a ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) is reported. The FLC cell was prepared as a prism coupler on which the liquid-crystal layer was sandwiched between two gold cladding layers. The role of the gold layer was examined, and the optimum thickness of the top gold layer for obtaining high contrast was determined by use of the Fresnel equation. Various optical modulations of reflectivity were predicted on the basis of theoretical calculation, taking into account the molecular reorientation of the FLC, and examined at an appropriate angle of incidence and rotational angle of the FLC cell with respect to the plane of incidence.

  3. Optical Formation of Waveguide Elements in Photorefractive Surface Layer of a Lithium Niobate Sample (United States)

    Bezpaly, A. D.; Shandarov, V. M.

    Formation of channel optical waveguides due to the sequential point-to-point exposure of local stripe-like regions of Y-cut lithium niobate sample surface is experimentally investigated. The surface layer of the sample is thermally doped with Cu ions to increase its photorefractive sensitivity. The laser radiation with wavelength of 532 nm and optical power of 10 mW is used for the crystal exposure in experiments. The optical inhomogeneities formed during the sample exposure are studied with their probing by laser beams with wavelength of 633 nm.

  4. Second-order optical nonlinearities in dilute melt proton exchange waveguides in z-cut LiNbO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veng, Torben Erik; Skettrup, Torben; Pedersen, Kjeld


    Planar optical waveguides with different refractive indices are made in z-cut LiNbO3 with a dilute proton exchange method using a system of glycerol containing KHSO4 and lithium benzoate. The optical second-order susceptibilities of these waveguides are measured by detecting the 266 nm reflected .......013 at the 632.8 nm wavelength, whereas the susceptibilities are strongly reduced for larger index changes. (C) 1996 American Institute of Physics....

  5. Design rules for phase-matched terahertz surface electromagnetic wave generation by optical rectification in a nonlinear planar waveguide. (United States)

    Musin, Roman R; Xing, Qirong; Li, Yanfeng; Hu, Minglie; Chai, Lu; Wang, Qingyue; Mikhailova, Yuliya M; Nazarov, Maksim M; Shkurinov, Alexander P; Zheltikov, Aleksei M


    The theory of guided waves in metal-dielectric planar multilayer structures is applied to reduce the loss and maximize optical nonlinearity for efficient terahertz-field generation in a surface electromagnetic wave by femtosecond laser pulses confined in a (chi)((2)) nonlinear planar waveguide. For typical parameters of thin-film polymer waveguides and metal-dielectric interfaces, the optimal size of the (chi)((2)) waveguide core providing the maximum efficiency of terahertz plasmon-field generation is shown to be less than the wavelength of the optical pump field.

  6. Optical temperature sensor with enhanced sensitivity by employing hybrid waveguides in a silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Xiaowei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn


    We report on a novel design of an on-chip optical temperature sensor based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration where the two arms consist of hybrid waveguides providing opposite temperature-dependent phase changes to enhance the temperature sensitivity of the sensor. The sensitivity...... of the fabricated sensor with silicon/polymer hybrid waveguides is measured to be 172 pm/°C, which is two times larger than a conventional all-silicon optical temperature sensor (∼80 pm/°C). Moreover, a design with silicon/titanium dioxide hybrid waveguides is by calculation expected to have a sensitivity as high...

  7. Si3N4 grated waveguide optical cavity based sensors for bulk-index concentration, label-free protein, and mechano-optical gas sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Van So, P.V.S.; Dijkstra, Mindert; Hollink, Anton; de Ridder, R.M.; Pollnau, Markus; Hoekstra, Hugo

    A grated waveguide (GWG), which is a waveguide with a finite-length grated section, acts as an optical resonator, showing sharp fringes in the transmission spectrum near the stop-band edges of the grating. These oscillations are due to Fabry-Perot resonances of Bloch modes propagating in the cavity

  8. Ultra-Fast Optical Signal Processing in Nonlinear Silicon Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Pu, Minhao


    We describe recent demonstrations of exploiting highly nonlinear silicon nanowires for processing Tbit/s optical data signals. We perform demultiplexing and optical waveform sampling of 1.28 Tbit/s and wavelength conversion of 640 Gbit/s data signals.......We describe recent demonstrations of exploiting highly nonlinear silicon nanowires for processing Tbit/s optical data signals. We perform demultiplexing and optical waveform sampling of 1.28 Tbit/s and wavelength conversion of 640 Gbit/s data signals....

  9. Thermal field analysis of polymer/silica hybrid waveguide thermo-optic switch (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Fen; Wang, Xi-Bin; Sun, Jian; Gu, Hong-Jun; Sun, Xiao-Qiang; Chen, Chang-Ming; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Da-Ming


    The thermal field and the temperature change of the optical waveguide core of thermo-optic (TO) switch generated by heating the Al electrode are simulated using the finite-element method (FEM), and the steady-state temperature distribution and time response of TO switch are presented. Our research covers several conditions, including different electrode heater widths, upper cladding layer thicknesses, under cladding layer materials and different structures. The results turn out that the performance of the TO switch can be improved using the polymer/silica hybrid and the air trench waveguide structures. The TO switch was fabricated and the surface thermal field distribution was measured. A good agreement between the experimental results and theory analysis has been observed.

  10. Simultaneous optical digital half-subtraction and -addition using SOAs and a PPLN waveguide. (United States)

    McGeehan, John E; Kumar, Saurabh; Willner, Alan E


    We demonstrate an optical half-subtracter and half-adder module that performs simultaneous bit-wise subtraction and addition of two 5 Gbit/s RZ data streams. We generate Borrow (/X*Y) and Difference/Sum (X plus sign in circleY, or XOR) outputs using cross-gain modulation (XGM) in two parallel SOAs. Taking advantage of the gain saturation inherent to SOAs, we generate two signals, /X*Y, and X*/Y, and combine them using a passive optical coupler to generate the XOR Difference/Sum output. We use difference-frequency-generation-based lambda-conversion in a PPLN waveguide to generate the Carry (X*Y) output. The PPLN waveguide allows bit-synchronous wavelength shifting, is wide-bandwidth, and offers no intrinsic chirp. Our module uses three active elements to perform simultaneous half-subtraction and addition, and carries a maximum power penalty of 1.0 dB.

  11. Mirror-based polarization-insensitive broadband vertical optical coupling for Si waveguide (United States)

    Noriki, Akihiro; Amano, Takeru; Shimura, Daisuke; Onawa, Yosuke; Sasaki, Hironori; Yaegashi, Hiroki; Yamada, Koji; Nishi, Hidetaka; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Mori, Masahiko; Sakakibara, Yoichi


    To achieve an efficient, broadband, and polarization-insensitive vertical optical input/output for Si photonics, we demonstrated vertical optical coupling for a Si photonic wire waveguide with an integrated 45° mirror and a spot size converter. The output beam from the fabricated mirror was evaluated and a high-quality single mode beam was obtained. On the basis of coupling loss measurements, the coupling losses for the Si photonic wire waveguide were estimated to be 0.85 and 0.55 dB in TE and TM polarizations, respectively. The wavelength-dependent loss was ±0.1 dB over a wavelength range of 1500-1600 nm.

  12. Photodefinition of channel waveguide in electro-optic polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murali, B.; Balakrishnan, M.; Driessen, A.; Diemeer, Mart; Faccini, M.; Borreman, A.; Verboom, Willem; Gilde, M.J.; Reinhoudt, David


    Polymers with optically active nonlinear chromophores have been shown to have a promising future in low cost and high speed electro–optic device applications. However, a main question of concern is the photochemical stability of the chromophores for long term application. The chromophore TCVDPA with

  13. Optical bistability in a nonlinear photonic crystal waveguide notch filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffer, Remco; Kivshar, Yu. S.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Besten, J.H.


    Optical bistability occurs when the effects of nonlinear behaviour of materials cause hysteresis in the transmission and reflection of a device. A possible mechanism for this is a strong dependence of the optical intensity on the index of refraction, e.g. in a cavity near resonance. In a 2-

  14. Nonlinear Optics in Doped Silica Glass Integrated Waveguide Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Duchesne, David; Razzari, Luca; Morandotti, Roberto; Little, Brent; Chu, Sai T; Moss, David J


    Integrated photonic technologies are rapidly becoming an important and fundamental milestone for wideband optical telecommunications. Future optical networks have several critical requirements, including low energy consumption, high efficiency, greater bandwidth and flexibility, which must be addressed in a compact form factor.

  15. Ultrapure glass optical waveguide: Development in microgravity by the sol gel process (United States)

    Mukherjee, S. P.; Debsikdar, J. C.; Beam, T.


    The sol-gel process for the preparation of homogeneous gels in three binary oxide systems was investigated. The glass forming ability of certain compositions in the selected oxide systems (SiO-GeO2, GeO2-PbO, and SiO2-TiO2) were studied based on their potential importance in the design of optical waveguide at longer wavelengths.

  16. Fabrication of optical channel waveguides in crystals and glasses using macro- and micro ion beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Banyasz, I.; Rajta, I.; Nagy, G. U. L.; Zolnai, Z.; Havránek, Vladimír; Veres, M.; Berneschi, S.; Nunzi-Conti, G.; Righini, G. C.


    Roč. 331, JUL (2014), s. 157-162 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : channel optical waveguides * ion beam irradiation * focussed ion beam * Er-doped tungsten-tellurite glass * Bismuth germanate * Micro Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2014

  17. Tunable optical wavelength conversion of OFDM signal using a periodically-poled lithium niobate waveguide. (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoxia; Peng, Wei-Ren; Arbab, Vahid; Wang, Jian; Willner, Alan


    We experimentally demonstrate tunable optical wavelength conversion of a 10-Gb/s radio frequency (RF)-tone assisted orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) signal with approximately-5 dB (approximately 30%) efficiency over approximately 30 nm bandwidth using a periodically-poled lithium-niobate (PPLN) waveguide. A penalty of < 3 dB is obtained after wavelength conversion. Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) size and subcarrier number are varied to further evaluate the performance of the wavelength converter.

  18. Monolithic integration of optical waveguides for absorbance detection in microfabricated electrophoresis devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Petersen, Nickolaj Jacob; Hübner, Jörg


    The fabrication and performance of an electrophoretic separation chip with integrated of optical waveguides for absorption detection is presented. The device was fabricated on a silicon substrate by standard microfabrication techniques with the use of two photolithographic mask steps. The wavegui.......2 mum rhodamine 110, 8 mum 2,7-dichlorofluorescein, 10 mum fluorescein and 18 mum 5-carboxyfluorescein was demonstrated on the device using the detection cell for absorption measurements at 488 nm....

  19. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Optical Waveguide Sensing and Imaging in Medicine, Environment, Security and Defence

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, Wojtek J; Tanev, Stoyan


    The book explores various aspects of existing and emerging fiber and waveguide optics sensing and imaging technologies including recent advances in nanobiophotonics. The focus is both on fundamental and applied research as well as on applications in civil engineering, biomedical sciences, environment, security and defence. The main goal of the multi-disciplinarry team of Editors was to provide an useful reference of state-of-the-art overviews covering a variety of complementary topics on the interface of engineering and biomedical sciences.

  20. A nonlinear plasmonic waveguide based all-optical bidirectional switching (United States)

    Bana, Xiaoqiang; Pang, Xingxing; Li, Xiaohui; Hu, Bin; Guo, Yixuan; Zheng, Hairong


    In this paper, an all-optical switching with a nanometer coupled ring resonator is demonstrated based on the nonlinear material. By adjusting the light intensity, we implement the resonance wavelength from 880 nm to 940 nm in the nonlinear material structure monocyclic. In the bidirectional switch structure, the center wavelength (i.e. 880 nm) is fixed. By changing the light intensity from I = 0 to I = 53 . 1 MW /cm2, the function of optical switching can be obtained. The results demonstrate that both the single-ring cavity and the T-shaped double-ring structure can realize the optical switching effect. This work takes advantage of the simple structure. The single-ring cavity plasmonic switches have many advantages, such as nanoscale size, low pumping light intensity, ultrafast response time (femtosecond level), etc. It is expected that the proposed all-optical integrated devices can be potentially applied in optical communication, signal processing, and signal sensing, etc.

  1. Design of short length and C+L-band mismatched optical coupler with waveguide weighted by the Blackman function (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Feng; Ku, Yun-Sheng; Kung, Tsu-Te


    A mismatched optical coupler with waveguide weighted by the Blackman function is numerically investigated in the demand of short length, C+L-band, and low crosstalk. Utilizing the full factorial design, the structure parameters of coupling waveguide are obtained by beam propagation method. In the condition of crosstalk of -35 dB, the mismatched optical coupler with proper selected waveguide structure parameters is found to have a coupling length of 3.60 mm in the transmission wavelength ranges of C+L-band (1.53-1.61 μm). Obviously, the selection and design of waveguide structure are very important to satisfy the qualities of a mismatched optical coupler for the demand of short length, broad bandwidth, and low crosstalk.

  2. A new generation of previously unrealizable photonic devices as enabled by a unique electro-optic waveguide architecture (United States)

    Davis, Scott R.; Rommel, Scott D.; Farca, George; Anderson, Michael H.


    A new electro-optic waveguide platform, which provides unprecedented electro-optical phase delays (> 1mm), with very low loss (integrated photonic architecture has applications in a wide array of commercial and defense markets including: remote sensing, micro-LADAR, OCT, laser illumination, phased array radar, optical communications, etc. Performance attributes of several example devices are presented.

  3. Phase engineered wavelength conversion of ultra-short optical pulses in TI:PPLN waveguides (United States)

    Babazadeh, Amin; Nouroozi, Rahman; Sohler, Wolfgang


    A phase engineered all-optical wavelength converter for ultra-short pulses (down to 140 fs) in a Ti-diffused, periodically poled lithium niobate (Ti:PPLN) waveguide is proposed. The phase engineering, due to the phase conjugation between signal and idler (converted signal) pulses which takes place in the cascaded second harmonic generation and difference frequency generation (cSHG/DFG) based wavelength conversion, already leads to shorter idler pulses. The proposed device consists of an unpoled (passive) waveguide section beside of the PPLN waveguide section in order to compensate pulse broadening and phase distortion of the idler pulses induced by the wavelength conversion (in the PPLN section). For example numerical analysis shows that a 140 fs input signal pulse is only broadened by 1.6% in a device with a combination of 20 mm and 6 mm long periodically poled and unpoled waveguide sections. Thus, cSHG/DFG based wavelength converters of a bandwidth of several Tbits/s can be designed.

  4. Optical waveguide characterization of dielectric films deposited by reactive low-voltage ion plating. (United States)

    Kimble, T C; Himel, M D; Guenther, K H


    We determine the quality of single films of various oxides, which are deposited on thermally oxidized silicon wafers by reactive low-voltage ion plating (RLVIP), by measuring their optical waveguide losses. We use a prism coupler for inserting the radiation of a wavelength-selectable He-Ne laser into the waveguide and a CCD camera for imaging the light scattered from the surface of the films. The waveguide losses of the RLVIP films are typically of the order of 1 to 10 dB/cm. Some data obtained for TiO(2) layers on thermally grown SiO(2) and RLVIP SiO(2) seem to confirm the presence of an absorbing boundary layer between RLVIP SiO(2) and TiO(2) that has been found in SiO(2)-TiO(2) multilayers. The waveguide measurements also reveal unusual index gradients in thick (~ 10 µm) single layers of Al(2)O(3) derived from multimode effective index calculations.

  5. Manufacturing of polymer optical waveguides using self-assembly effect on pre-conditioned 3D-thermoformed flexible substrates (United States)

    Hoffmann, Gerd-Albert; Wolfer, Tim; Zeitler, Jochen; Franke, Jörg; Suttmann, Oliver; Overmeyer, Ludger


    Optical data communication is increasingly interesting for many applications in industrial processes. Therefore mass production is required to meet the requested price and lot sizes. Polymer optical waveguides show great promises to comply with price requirements while providing sufficient optical quality for short range data transmission. A high efficient fabrication technology using polymer materials could be able to create the essential backbone for 3D-optical data transmission in the future. The approach for high efficient fabrication technology of micro optics described in this paper is based on a self-assembly effect of fluids on preconditioned 3D-thermoformed polymer foils. Adjusting the surface energy on certain areas on the flexible substrate by flexographic printing mechanism is presented in this paper. With this technique conditioning lines made of silicone containing UV-varnish are printed on top of the foils and create gaps with the exposed substrate material in between. Subsequent fabrication processes are selected whether the preconditioned foil is coated with acrylate containing waveguide material prior or after the thermoforming process. Due to the different surface energy this material tends to dewet from the conditioning lines. It acts like regional barriers and sets the width of the arising waveguides. With this fabrication technology it is possible to produce multiple waveguides with a single coating process. The relevant printing process parameters that affect the quality of the generated waveguides are discussed and results of the produced waveguides with width ranging from 10 to 300 μm are shown.

  6. Analytical analysis of sensitivity of optical waveguide sensor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    are compatible with fiber networks for use in remote spectroscopy and distributed ... Generally, effective refractive index Neff of a guided mode is considered to be ... So we utilize the concept of small optical mode area structure in core, where a.

  7. A Compact, Waveguide Based Programmable Optical Comb Generator Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA Phase I STTR effort will establish the feasibility of developing a compact broadband near to mid-IR programmable optical comb for use in laser based remote...

  8. Characterization of optical strain sensors based on silicon waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, W.J.; Pozo Torres, J.M.; Muilwijk, P.M.; Leinders, S.M.; Harmsma, P.J.; Tabak, E.; Dool, T.C. van den; Dongen, K.W.A. van; Yousefi, M.; Urbach, H.P.


    Strain gauges are widely employed in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for sensing of, for example, deformation, acceleration, pressure, or sound [1]. Such gauges are typically based on electronic piezoresistivity. We propose integrated optical sensors which have particular benefits:

  9. Formation of femtosecond pulses during the SRS self-transformation of optical solitons in fiber-optic waveguides (United States)

    Serkin, V. N.


    A physical model is proposed which describes the SRS self-transformation of femtosecond pulses in a nonlinear dispersing medium. The dynamics of the decomposition of the coupled states of solitons in fiber-optic waveguides to femtosecond wave packets is analyzed. An indirect method for measuring the lifetime of the excited state of vibrational resonances in glass is proposed which is based on an analysis of the correlation functions of luminescence.

  10. Azo biphenyl polyurethane: Preparation, characterization and application for optical waveguide switch (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Da, Zulin; Qiu, Fengxian; Yang, Dongya; Guan, Yijun; Cao, Guorong


    Azo waveguide polymers are of particular interest in the design of materials for applications in optical switch. The aim of this contribution was the synthesis and thermo-optic waveguide switch properties of azo biphenyl polyurethanes. A series of monomers and azo biphenyl polyurethanes (Azo BPU1 and Azo BPU2) were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and 1H NMR. The physical and mechanical properties of thin polymer films were measured. The refractive index and thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) of polymer films were investigated for TE (transversal electric) polarizations by ATR technique. The transmission loss of film was measured using the Charge Coupled Device digital imaging devices. The results showed the Azo BPU2 containing chiral azobenzene chromophore had higher dn/dT and lower transmission loss. Subsequently, a 1 × 2 Y-branch and 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder optical switches based on the prepared polymers were designed and simulated. The results showed that the power consumption of all switches was less than 1.0 mW. Compared with 1 × 2 Y-branch optical switch, the 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder optical switches based on the same polymer have the faster response time, which were about only 1.2 and 2.0 ms, respectively.

  11. Ultra-high speed all-optical signal processing using silicon waveguides and a carbon nanotubes based mode-locked laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Hua

    This thesis concerns the use of nano-engineered silicon waveguides for ultra-high speed optical serial data signal processing. The fundamental nonlinear properties of nano-engineered silicon waveguides are characterized. Utilizing the nonlinear effect in nano-engineered silicon waveguides for dem...

  12. Wideband slow-light modes for time delay of ultrashort pulses in symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide. (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanlin; Yuan, Wen; Chen, Xianfeng; Cao, Zhuangqi


    A widebandwidth optical delay line is a useful device for various fascinating applications, such as optical buffering and processing of ultrafast signal. Here, we experimentally demonstrated effective slow light of sub-picosecond signal over 10 THz frequency range by employing the wide slow light modes in thick symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide (SMCOW). Ultrahigh-order guided modes travelling as slow light in waveguide together with strong confinement provided by metal-cladding makes this scheme nearly material dispersion independent and compatible with wide bandwidth operation. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  13. All-optical UWB pulse generation using sum-frequency generation in a PPLN waveguide. (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Sun, Qizhen; Sun, Junqiang; Zhang, Weiwei


    We propose and demonstrate a novel approach to optically generate ultrawideband (UWB) monocycle pulses by exploiting the parametric attenuation effect of sum-frequency generation (SFG) in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. The SFG process changes the continuous-wave pump into dark optical pulse pump with undershoot, resulting in the generation of UWB monocycle through the combination of input signal and output pump with proper relative time advance/delay. Pairs of polarity-inverted UWB monocycle pulses meeting the UWB definition of U. S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC, part 15) are successfully obtained in the experiment.

  14. Comparative analysis of absorbance calculations for integrated optical waveguide configurations by use of the ray optics model and the electromagnetic wave theory. (United States)

    Mendes, S B; Saavedra, S S


    Focusing on the use of planar waveguides as platforms for highly sensitive attenuated total reflection spectroscopy of organic thin films, we extend the ray optics model to provide absorbance expressions for the case of dichroic layers immobilized on the waveguide surface. Straightforward expressions are derived for the limiting case of weakly absorbing, anisotropically oriented molecules in the waveguide-cladding region. The second major focus is on the accuracy of the ray optics model. This model assumes that the introduction of absorbing species, either in the bulk cladding or as an adlayer on the waveguide surface, only causes a small perturbation to the original waveguide-mode profile. We investigate the accuracy of this assumption and the conditions under which it is valid. A comparison to an exact calculation by use of the electromagnetic wave theory is implemented, and the discrepancy of the ray optics model is determined for various waveguide configurations. We find that in typical situations in which waveguide-absorbance measurements are used to study organic thin films (k(l)/n(l) optics and the exact calculations is only a few percent (2-3%).

  15. Silica waveguide-type ring resonators for resonant micro-optic gyroscopes (United States)

    Lin, Yi; Zhang, Jianjie; Li, Hanzhao; Ma, Huilian; Jin, Zhonghe


    The resonant micro-optic gyroscope (RMOG) is an attractive candidate for inertial rotation sensors requiring small, light and robust gyros. A high-performance RMOG needs a low-loss and high finesse waveguide-type ring resonator (WRR). Two general configurations of the WRRs which are made of Ge-doped silica core waveguides based on plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition including the reflector-type and the transmitter-type are introduced. The reflector-type WRR with a length of 7.9 cm and a diameter of 2.5 cm has a finesse of 196.7 and a resonant depth of 98%. In addition, it's pigtailed with single-polarization fiber to reduce the polarization error. The transmitter-type WRR with a length of 15.9 cm and a diameter of 5.06 cm has a finesse of 128 and a resonant depth of 95%. The waveguide loss low as 0.007 dB/cm has been measured, leading to the shot-noise limited sensitivity of 1.0°/h when the average optical power at the input of the photodetector is 1 mW and the detecting bandwidth is 1 Hz.

  16. Optical-loss suppressed InGaN laser diodes using undoped thick waveguide structure (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Masao; Imafuji, Osamu; Nozaki, Shinichiro; Hagino, Hiroyuki; Takigawa, Shinichi; Katayama, Takuma; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi


    We propose optical-loss suppressed thick-optical-waveguide (TOW) InGaN laser diodes (LDs) without operatingvoltage increase. A record high continuous-wave (CW) output of 7.2W for a single-emitting InGaN LD is achieved without thermal peak-out in the light-current curve. The TOW enables to confine major part of the propagating light into a transparent undoped region, and thus significantly reduces the optical-loss. An electron-overflow-suppression (EOS) layer placed between the waveguide layer and a p-cladding layer plays an important role to reduce the operating voltage after introduction of the undoped TOW layer. We executed a self-consisted calculation of voltage-current characteristics taking into account Schrödinger and Poisson equations in conjunction with a carrier continuity equation. The calculation result indicates possible presence of conductivity-modulation in the waveguide filled with electrons reflected backward by the EOS layer and holes injected from the p-type cladding layer. We successfully demonstrated the optical-loss suppressed operation resulting in the slope efficiency (SE) increase from 2.0W/A to 2.5W/A. It is noted that the operating voltage of the TOW LD is nearly identical to the conventional LD thanks to the above conductivitymodulation phenomenon. The presented result suggests that our TOW structure can overcome the optical-loss drawback of the InGaN LDs, and hence will lead them to the applications requiring high wattage light sources.

  17. Characterization of Integrated Optical Strain Sensors Based on Silicon Waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, W.J.; Leinders, S.M.; Muilwijk, P.M.; Pozo, J.


    Microscale strain gauges are widely used in micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) to measure strains such as those induced by force, acceleration, pressure or sound. We propose all-optical strain sensors based on micro-ring resonators to be integrated with MEMS. We characterized the strain-induced

  18. Multi-function all optical packet switch by periodic wavelength arrangement in an arrayed waveguide grating and wideband optical filters. (United States)

    Feng, Kai-Ming; Wu, Chung-Yu; Wen, Yu-Hsiang


    By utilizing the cyclic filtering function of an NxN arrayed waveguide grating (AWG), we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel multi-function all optical packet switching (OPS) architecture by applying a periodical wavelength arrangement between the AWG in the optical routing/buffering unit and a set of wideband optical filters in the switched output ports to achieve the desired routing and buffering functions. The proposed OPS employs only one tunable wavelength converter at the input port to convert the input wavelength to a designated wavelength which reduces the number of active optical components and thus the complexity of the traffic control is simplified in the OPS. With the proposed OPS architecture, multiple optical packet switching functions, including arbitrary packet switching and buffering, first-in-first-out (FIFO) packet multiplexing, packet demultiplexing and packet add/drop multiplexing, have been successfully demonstrated.

  19. Performance of thermo-optic components based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides (United States)

    Gosciniak, Jacek; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.


    Theoretical analysis of thermo-optic (TO) modulation with dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide (DLSPPW) components at telecom wavelength of 1.55 μm is presented with simulations performed using the finite-element method (FEM). The investigated DLSPPW configuration consists of a 1 μm-thick and 1 μm-wide polymer ridge placed on a 50 nm-thin gold stripe and supported by a buffer layer material covering a Si wafer. Our analysis covers a broad range of parameters, including the buffer layer thickness, its thermal conductivity, and the metal stripe width, and takes into account the effect of isolation trenches structured along the heated part of waveguide. The results of our simulations agree well with the reported experimental data and provide valuable information for further development of TO plasmonic components with low switching powers, fast responses and small footprints.

  20. Single-photon non-linear optics with a quantum dot in a waveguide. (United States)

    Javadi, A; Söllner, I; Arcari, M; Hansen, S Lindskov; Midolo, L; Mahmoodian, S; Kiršanskė, G; Pregnolato, T; Lee, E H; Song, J D; Stobbe, S; Lodahl, P


    Strong non-linear interactions between photons enable logic operations for both classical and quantum-information technology. Unfortunately, non-linear interactions are usually feeble and therefore all-optical logic gates tend to be inefficient. A quantum emitter deterministically coupled to a propagating mode fundamentally changes the situation, since each photon inevitably interacts with the emitter, and highly correlated many-photon states may be created. Here we show that a single quantum dot in a photonic-crystal waveguide can be used as a giant non-linearity sensitive at the single-photon level. The non-linear response is revealed from the intensity and quantum statistics of the scattered photons, and contains contributions from an entangled photon-photon bound state. The quantum non-linearity will find immediate applications for deterministic Bell-state measurements and single-photon transistors and paves the way to scalable waveguide-based photonic quantum-computing architectures.

  1. All-optical broadcast and multicast technologies based on PPLN waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Lingyun; Wang, Ju; Hu, Hao


    All-optical 1×4 broadcast and 1×3 multicast experiments of a 40-Gb/s return-to-zero on-off keying (RZ-OOK) signal based on a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide are demonstrated in this letter. Clear opened eye diagrams and error-free performance are achieved for the broadcast...... signals at 1541.3, 1543.7, 1548.5, and 1550.9 nm. Multicast technology uses cascaded second-harmonic generation and difference-frequency generation in a Ti:PPLN waveguide. An error-free operation with a negligible power penalty is achieved for the three wavelength-division multiplexing multicast signals...

  2. A three-dimensional wide-angle BPM for optical waveguide structures. (United States)

    Ma, Changbao; Van Keuren, Edward


    Algorithms for effective modeling of optical propagation in three- dimensional waveguide structures are critical for the design of photonic devices. We present a three-dimensional (3-D) wide-angle beam propagation method (WA-BPM) using Hoekstra's scheme. A sparse matrix algebraic equation is formed and solved using iterative methods. The applicability, accuracy and effectiveness of our method are demonstrated by applying it to simulations of wide-angle beam propagation, along with a technique for shifting the simulation window to reduce the dimension of the numerical equation and a threshold technique to further ensure its convergence. These techniques can ensure the implementation of iterative methods for waveguide structures by relaxing the convergence problem, which will further enable us to develop higher-order 3-D WA-BPMs based on Padé approximant operators.

  3. Inkjet Printing of Soft, Stretchable Optical Waveguides through the Photopolymerization of High-Profile Linear Patterns. (United States)

    Samusjew, Aleksandra; Kratzer, Markus; Moser, Andreas; Teichert, Christian; Krawczyk, Krzysztof K; Griesser, Thomas


    Optical waveguides have been fabricated via photopolymerization of stable, inkjet-printed patterns. In order to obtain high-profile lines, the properties of both the ink and the substrate were adjusted. We prove that suitable patterns, with contact angles close to 90°, can be printed by using not fully cured, "sticky" PDMS as a substrate. In addition, we propose a simple sliding-drop experiment to show the crucial difference in how the ink dewets the "sticky" and the fully cured substrate, which is otherwise difficult to demonstrate. The light attenuation vs strain curve of the obtained waveguides was determined experimentally and was found to be almost linear within the measured strain range.

  4. Toward photostable multiplex analyte detection on a single mode planar optical waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Harshini [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xei, Hongshi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Aaron S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Grace, Wynne K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Jennifer S [NON LANL; Swanson, Basil [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We have developed a waveguide-based optical biosensor for the sensitive and specific detection of biomarkers associated with disease. Our technology combines the superior optical properties of single-mode planar waveguides, the robust nature of functionalized self-assembled monolayer sensing films and the specificity of fluorescence sandwich immunoassays to detect biomarkers in complex biological samples such as serum, urine and sputum. We have previously reported the adaptation of our technology to the detection of biomarkers associated with breast cancer and anthrax. However, these approaches primarily used phospholipid bilayers as the functional film and organic dyes (ex: AlexaFluors) as the fluorescence reporter. Organic dyes are easily photodegraded and are not amenable to multiplexing because of their narrow Stokes' shift. Here we have developed strategies for conjugation of the detector antibodies with quantum dots for use in a multiplex detection platform. We have previously evaluated dihydroxylipoic acid quantum dots for the detection of a breast cancer biomarker. In this manuscript, we investigate the detection of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen using antibodies conjugated with polymer-coated quantum dots. Kinetics of binding on the waveguide-based biosensor is reported. We compare the sensitivity of quantum dot labeled antibodies to those labeled with AlexaFluor and demonstrate the photostability of the former in our assay platform. In addition, we compare sulfydryl labeling of the antibody in the hinge region to that of nonspecific amine labeling. This is but the first step in developing a multiplex assay for such biomarkers on our waveguide platform.

  5. Design and Fabrication of Waveguide Optics for Imaging Applications


    Babu, P; Ganganagunta, S.


    Due to the non-ionizing property, researchers have chosen to investigate terahertz radiation (THz) Imaging instrumentation for Bio-Sensing applications. The present work is to design and fabricate a near field lens that can focus guided terahertz radiation to a microscopic region for the detection of cancer-affected cells in Biological tissue. Operational characteristics such as field of view, optical loss factor, and hydrophobicity must be included to achieve an effective design of the lens.

  6. Vertical optical ring resonators fully integrated with nanophotonic waveguides on silicon-on-insulator substrates. (United States)

    Madani, Abbas; Kleinert, Moritz; Stolarek, David; Zimmermann, Lars; Ma, Libo; Schmidt, Oliver G


    We demonstrate full integration of vertical optical ring resonators with silicon nanophotonic waveguides on silicon-on-insulator substrates to accomplish a significant step toward 3D photonic integration. The on-chip integration is realized by rolling up 2D differentially strained TiO(2) nanomembranes into 3D microtube cavities on a nanophotonic microchip. The integration configuration allows for out-of-plane optical coupling between the in-plane nanowaveguides and the vertical microtube cavities as a compact and mechanically stable optical unit, which could enable refined vertical light transfer in 3D stacks of multiple photonic layers. In this vertical transmission scheme, resonant filtering of optical signals at telecommunication wavelengths is demonstrated based on subwavelength thick-walled microcavities. Moreover, an array of microtube cavities is prepared, and each microtube cavity is integrated with multiple waveguides, which opens up interesting perspectives toward parallel and multi-routing through a single-cavity device as well as high-throughput optofluidic sensing schemes.

  7. Design of transmission line driven slot waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometers and application to analog optical links. (United States)

    Witzens, Jeremy; Baehr-Jones, Thomas; Hochberg, Michael


    Slot waveguides allow joint confinement of the driving electrical radio frequency field and of the optical waveguide mode in a narrow slot, allowing for highly efficient polymer based interferometers. We show that the optical confinement can be simply explained by a perturbation theoretical approach taking into account the continuity of the electric displacement field. We design phase matched transmission lines and show that their impedance and RF losses can be modeled by an equivalent circuit and linked to slot waveguide properties by a simple set of equations, thus allowing optimization of the device without iterative simulations. We optimize the interferometers for analog optical links and predict record performance metrics (V(pi) = 200 mV @ 10 GHz in push-pull configuration) assuming a modest second order nonlinear coefficient (r(33) = 50 pm/V) and slot width (100 nm). Using high performance optical polymers (r(33) = 150 pm/V), noise figures of state of the art analog optical links can be matched while reducing optical power levels by approximately 30 times. With required optical laser power levels predicted at 50 mW, this could be a game changing improvement by bringing high performance optical analog link power requirements in the reach of laser diodes. A modified transmitter architecture allows shot noise limited performance, while reducing power levels in the slot waveguides and enhancing reliability.

  8. A portable optical waveguide resonance light-scattering scanner for microarray detection. (United States)

    Xing, Xuefeng; Liu, Wanyao; Li, Tao; Xing, Shu; Fu, Xueqi; Wu, Dongyang; Liu, Dianjun; Wang, Zhenxin


    In the present work, a portable and low-cost planar waveguide based resonance light scattering (RLS) scanner (termed as: PW-RLS scanner) has been developed for microarray detection. The PW-RLS scanner employs a 2 × 4 white light emitting diode array (WLEDA) as the excitation light source, a folded optical path with a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) as the signal/image acquisition device and stepper motors with gear drives as the mechanical drive system. The biological binding/recognizing events on the microarray can be detected with an evanescent waveguide-directed illumination and light-scattering label (e.g., nanoparticles) while the microarray slide acts as an evanescent waveguide substrate. The performance of the as-developed PW-RLS scanner has been evaluated by analyzing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk genes. Highly selective and sensitive (less than 1% allele frequency at the attomole-level) T2DM risk gene detection is achieved using single-stranded DNA functionalized gold nanoparticles (ssDNA-GNPs) as detection probes. Additionally, the successful simultaneous analysis of 15 T2DM patient genotypes suggests that the device has great potential for the realization of a personalized diagnostic test for a given disease or patient follow-up.

  9. All-optical logic gates based on nanoscale plasmonic slot waveguides. (United States)

    Fu, Yulan; Hu, Xiaoyong; Lu, Cuicui; Yue, Song; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang


    We report realizations of nanoscale integrated all-optical XNOR, XOR, NOT, and OR logic gates using plasmonic slot waveguides based on linear interference between surface plasmon polariton modes. The miniature device size with lateral dimensions smaller than 5 μm, precisely controlled optical phase difference, and quasi-monochromatic surface plasmon polariton modes excited by a continuous wave 830 nm laser beam ensure a high intensity contrast ratio of 24 dB between the output logic states "1" and "0". Compared with previous reported results, the intensity contrast ratio is enhanced 4-fold, whereas the lateral dimension is reduced 4-fold. These compact logic devices are stable, robust, free from environmental impact, and much suitable for practical on-chip applications. These also provide a means to construct all-optical logic devices and nanophotonic processors.

  10. Design of novel SOI 1 × 4 optical power splitter using seven horizontally slotted waveguides (United States)

    Katz, Oded; Malka, Dror


    In this paper, we demonstrate a compact silicon on insulator (SOI) 1 × 4 optical power splitter using seven horizontal slotted waveguides. Aluminum nitride (AIN) surrounded by silicon (Si) was used to confine the optical field in the slot region. All of the power analysis has been done in transverse magnetic (TM) polarization mode and a compact optical power splitter as short as 14.5 μm was demonstrated. The splitter was designed by using full vectorial beam propagation method (FV-BPM) simulations. Numerical investigations show that this device can work across the whole C-band (1530-1565 nm) with excess loss better than 0.23 dB.

  11. Low power 1 × 4 polymer/SiO2 hybrid waveguide thermo-optic switch (United States)

    He, Guobing; Ji, Lanting; Gao, Yang; Liu, Rui; Sun, Xiaoqiang; Yi, Yunji; Wang, Xibin; Chen, Changming; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Daming


    A 1 × 4 thermo-optic switch based on polymer /SiO2 waveguide has been investigated. The input light can be routed to any of the four output ports by different metal heater control. An asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer is adopted to avoid pre-biasing. Silica bottom-cladding speeds up the process of material refractive index restoration and corresponding switching operation. Finite element method is used to optimize the optical design. The air trench formed on both sides of the active branch reduces the electrical power consumption by 20%. The experimental result demonstrates an extinction ratio of 20 dB at an electrical power consumption of 6 mW. The rise time and fall time are 160 and 80 μs, respectively. This work has promising potentials for optical network connections.

  12. 1 ×3 Silicon Oxynitride Tunable Optical Waveguide Attenuators Based on the Multimode Interference Effect (United States)

    Liao, Zhen-Liang; Chuang, Ricky W.


    The silicon oxynitride (SiON) films of various refractive indices achieved through the careful adjustments of oxygen-to-nitrogen contrast ratios were deposited on silicon substrates using the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. The refractive indices of SiON films spanning from 1.47 to 1.94 were realized by manipulating the flow rates of pertinent gaseous precursors. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were gathered in order to verify that a significant reduction in the infrared absorption of the N-H bond could in fact be achieved with the thermal annealing process. Afterward, the integrated 1 ×3 SiO2/SiON/SiO2 tunable multimode interference (MMI) optical waveguide attenuators were then designed and simulated using the beam propagation method (BPM), and the optimal structures were then proceeded for device fabrication. The positive thermooptic (TO) effect of SiON was employed to change the self-imaging light pattern as generated by the side-heated MMI region for purposes of optical steering and beam attenuation. The experiment results showed that a 22-dB attenuation could be realized with the heating power of 2.2 W. Finally, when the heating power of ˜1.73 W was applied, the rise and fall times of 1 ×3 tunable MMI optical waveguide attenuators were obtained as 455 and 420 µs, respectively.

  13. Polymer single-arm optical waveguide interferometer for detection of toxic industrial materials (United States)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S.; Curley, Michael J.; Adamovsky, Grigory


    We report a novel single-arm double-mode double-order waveguide interferometer being used as a chemical sensor for detection f toxic industrial materials such as ammonia in air. The sensor is based on thin films of polymers poly(methyl methacrylate) and polyimide doped with indicator dyes bromocresol purple and bromothymol blue. These dye- doped polymer materials exhibit a reversible optical absorption in a band near 600 nm being exposed to ammonia in wet air. The rise of absorption is accompanied by the change of the refractive index in near IR region out of the absorption band. The distinguished feature of the sensor is that is uses for reading the change of the refractive index of the dye-doped polymer film the interference of two propagation waveguide modes of different orders. The modes TM0 and TM1 are simultaneously excited in the light- guiding polymer film with a focusing optics and a prism coupler. The modes are decoupled from the film and recombined producing an interference pattern in the face of an output optical fiber. The sensitivity of the sensor to ammonia is 200 ppm per one full oscillation of the signal. We analyze effects of various factors such as polymer composition, light wavelength, ambient humidity and atmospheric pressure on the performance of the sensor. Various design and fabrication issues are also discussed. The problems of particular interest are reduction of losses and sensitivity improvement.

  14. Crosstalk improvement of a thermo-optic polymer waveguide MZI MMI switch (United States)

    Al-Hetar, Abdulaziz M.; Supa'at, Abu Sahmah M.; Mohammad, A. B.; Yulianti, I.


    A 2 × 2 MZI-MMI switch based on thermo-optic effect with a ridge in the silicon substrate was proposed and the performance of switch was simulated. The main purpose behind this change in substrate layer is to localize the heating at a heated arm single mode waveguide and limit the increasing temperature at a second one. The switch performance of the device should be improved, compare to the usual one. Using finite difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM) and thermal computing simulation based on finite element method (FEM), the results clearly indicate that the MZI-MMI switch can satisfy -31 dB crosstalk at two states.

  15. Silicon Oxynitride Optical Waveguide Ring Resonator Utilizing a Two-Mode Interferometer Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaixin Chen


    Full Text Available Silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy, SiON optical waveguide ring resonator, in which a two-mode interferometer is used to replace the directional coupler in a conventional ring resonator, has been designed and fabricated. Preliminary results exhibit the same of free spectral range of 100 GHz but different quality factors of 3700 and 3900 at 1550 nm for transverse electric (TE and transverse magnetic (TM mode, respectively. The extinction ratio is more than 18 dB over the entire C-band, and the insertion loss is lower than 9.5 dB for TE and TM mode.

  16. Optical waveguiding and temperature dependent photoluminescence of nanotubulars grown from molecular building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maibohm, Christian; Rastedt, Maren; Kutscher, Frauke


    Optical waveguiding of blue light after UV-excitation is demonstrated in bundles of organic nanotubulars obtained via template assisted aggregation of the small p-conjugated non planar molecules 17H-Tetrabenzo[ a,c,g,i]fluorene (17H-Tbf) and 17-Trimethylsilyltetrabenzo[a,c,g,i]fluorene (TMS......-Tbf). The propagating blue light is strongly attenuated due to self-absorption. Vibronic spectra for both nanotubulars and macroscopic crystallites for temperatures between 5 and 300 K show a behavior of TMS-Tbf that resembles that of long chained molecules while 17H-TbF resembles that of small organic molecules...

  17. Optical waveguiding and applied photonics technological aspects, experimental issue approaches and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Massaro, Alessandro


    Optoelectronics--technology based on applications light such as micro/nano quantum electronics, photonic devices, laser for measurements and detection--has become an important field of research. Many applications and physical problems concerning optoelectronics are analyzed in Optical Waveguiding and Applied Photonics.The book is organized in order to explain how to implement innovative sensors starting from basic physical principles. Applications such as cavity resonance, filtering, tactile sensors, robotic sensor, oil spill detection, small antennas and experimental setups using lasers are a

  18. Mode conversion using optical analogy of shortcut to adiabatic passage in engineered multimode waveguides. (United States)

    Lin, Tzung-Yi; Hsiao, Fu-Chen; Jhang, Yao-Wun; Hu, Chieh; Tseng, Shuo-Yen


    A shortcut to adiabatic mode conversion in multimode waveguides using optical analogy of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage is investigated. The design of mode converters using the shortcut scheme is discussed. Computer-generated planar holograms are used to mimic the shaped pulses used to speed up adiabatic passage in quantum systems based on the transitionless quantum driving algorithm. The mode coupling properties are analyzed using the coupled mode theory and beam propagation simulations. We show reduced device length using the shortcut scheme as compared to the common adiabatic scheme. Modal evolution in the shortened device indeed follows the adiabatic eigenmode exactly amid the violation of adiabatic criterion.

  19. Development of embedded Mach–Zehnder optical waveguide structures in polydimethylsiloxane thin films by proton beam writing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kada, W., E-mail: [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjincho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Miura, K. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjincho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Kato, H. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, 3-7-5 Toyosu, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8548 (Japan); Saruya, R.; Kubota, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjincho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Satoh, T.; Koka, M.; Ishii, Y.; Kamiya, T. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Nishikawa, H. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, 3-7-5 Toyosu, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8548 (Japan); Hanaizumi, O. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjincho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)


    A focused 750 keV proton microbeam was used to fabricate an embedded Mach–Zehnder (MZ) optical waveguide in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film for interferometer application. The sample position was precisely controlled by a mechanical stage together with scanning microbeam to form an embedded MZ waveguide structure within an area of 0.3 mm × 40 mm. The MZ waveguides with core size of 8 μm was successfully embedded in PDMS film at a depth of 18 μm by 750 keV proton microbeam with fluences from 10 to 100 nC/mm{sup 2}. The MZ waveguides were coupled with an IR fiber-laser with a center wavelength of 1550 nm and evaluated by using the transmitted intensity images from an IR vidicon camera. The results indicate that the embedded MZ waveguide structure in PDMS achieved single spot light propagation, which is necessary for building optical switching circuits based on polymer MZ waveguides.

  20. Optical autocorrelation performance of silicon wire p-i-n waveguides utilizing the enhanced two-photon absorption. (United States)

    Cong, Guangwei; Ohno, Morifumi; Maegami, Yuriko; Okano, Makoto; Yamada, Koji


    Optical autocorrelation accuracy was for the first time analyzed for the silicon waveguide based autocorrelators utilizing two-photon absorption (TPA) under various short pulse conditions by numerical simulation. As for autocorrelation operation in the sub-μm silicon p-i-n rib waveguides on the 220 nm SOI (silicon on insulator) wafers, the autocorrelation error of pulse width measurement gradually increases with the increase of the peak power for both Gaussian and hyperbolic secant pulses due to the influence of free-carrier absorption (FCA). For the same pulse type, the relative error is independent of the input pulse width; however different pulse type has different peak power dependency of the accuracy. It was verified that this thin rib waveguide has a TPA responsivity >60 times higher than the thick rib waveguides and the correct pulse width can be measured with a autocorrelator detector.

  1. Modeling of all-optical 3x8 line decoder using optical Kerr effect in plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguides (United States)

    Singh, Lokendra; Bedi, Amna; Kumar, Santosh


    MIM plasmonic waveguides are considered in proposed work, due to their ability of confining the surface plasmons to deep subwavelength scale or beyond diffraction limit. By cascading various MIM waveguides Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is designed which has been used to design all-optical 3 × 8 line decoder. To attain the nonlinearity Kerr material has been used. The proposed device is studied and analyzed using finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) method and MATLAB simulations.

  2. Controlling the volatility of the written optical state in electrochromic DNA liquid crystals (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Varghese, Justin; Gerasimov, Jennifer Y.; Polyakov, Alexey O.; Shuai, Min; Su, Juanjuan; Chen, Dong; Zajaczkowski, Wojciech; Marcozzi, Alessio; Pisula, Wojciech; Noheda, Beatriz; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Clark, Noel A.; Herrmann, Andreas


    Liquid crystals are widely used in displays for portable electronic information display. To broaden their scope for other applications like smart windows and tags, new material properties such as polarizer-free operation and tunable memory of a written state become important. Here, we describe an anhydrous nanoDNA-surfactant thermotropic liquid crystal system, which exhibits distinctive electrically controlled optical absorption, and temperature-dependent memory. In the liquid crystal isotropic phase, electric field-induced colouration and bleaching have a switching time of seconds. Upon transition to the smectic liquid crystal phase, optical memory of the written state is observed for many hours without applied voltage. The reorientation of the DNA-surfactant lamellar layers plays an important role in preventing colour decay. Thereby, the volatility of optoelectronic state can be controlled simply by changing the phase of the material. This research may pave the way for developing a new generation of DNA-based, phase-modulated, photoelectronic devices.

  3. NIR luminescent Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped SiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} nanostructured planar and channel waveguides: Optical and structural properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Cesar dos Santos [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto/SP (Brazil); Ferrari, Jefferson Luis [Grupo de Pesquisa em Quimica de Materiais - (GPQM), Departamento de Ciencias Naturais, Universidade Federal de Sao Joao Del Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praca Dom Helvecio, 74, 36301-160, Sao Joao Del Rei, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Drielly Cristina de [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto/SP (Brazil); Maia, Lauro June Queiroz [Grupo Fisica de Materiais, Instituto de Fisica, UFG, Campus Samambaia, Caixa Postal 131, 74001-970, Goiania/GO (Brazil); Gomes, Anderson Stevens Leonidas [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitaria, Recife/PE, 50670-901 (Brazil); Ribeiro, Sidney Jose Lima [Laboratorio de Materiais Fotonicos, Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, Caixa Postal 355, 14801-970, Araraquara/SP (Brazil); and others


    Optical and structural properties of planar and channel waveguides based on sol-gel Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} co-doped SiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} are reported. Microstructured channels with high homogeneous surface profile were written onto the surface of multilayered densified films deposited on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates by a femtosecond laser etching technique. The densification of the planar waveguides was evaluated from changes in the refractive index and thickness, with full densification being achieved at 900 Degree-Sign C after annealing from 23 up to 500 min, depending on the ZrO{sub 2} content. Crystal nucleation and growth took place together with densification, thereby producing transparent glass ceramic planar waveguides containing rare earth-doped ZrO{sub 2} nanocrystals dispersed in a silica-based glassy host. Low roughness and crack-free surface as well as high confinement coefficient were achieved for all the compositions. Enhanced NIR luminescence of the Er{sup 3+} ions was observed for the Yb{sup 3+}-codoped planar waveguides, denoting an efficient energy transfer from the Yb{sup 3+} to the Er{sup 3+} ion. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sol-gel high NIR luminescent nanostructured planar and channel waveguides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructured channels written by a femtosecond laser etching technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transparent glass ceramic with rare earth-doped ZrO{sub 2} nanocrystals in a silica host. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced NIR luminescence, efficient energy transfer from the Yb{sup 3+} to the Er{sup 3+} ion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New planar channel waveguides to be applied as EDWA in the C telecommunication band.

  4. Turnable Semiconductor Laser Spectroscopy in Hollow Optical Waveguides, Phase II SBIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory J. Fetzer, Ph.D.


    In this study a novel optical trace gas sensor based on a perforated hollow waveguide (PHW) was proposed. The sensor has been given the acronym ESHOW for Environmental Sensor using Hollow Optical Waveguides. Realizations of the sensor have demonstrated rapid response time (<2s), low minimum detection limits (typically around 3 x 10-5 absorbance). Operation of the PHW technology has been demonstrated in the near-infrared (NIR) and mid0infrared (MIR) regions of the spectrum. Simulation of sensor performance provided in depth understanding of the signals and signal processing required to provide high sensitivity yet retain rapid response to gas changes. A dedicated sensor electronics and software foundation were developed during the course of the Phase II effort. Commercial applications of the sensor are ambient air and continuous emissions monitoring, industrial process control and hazardous waste site monitoring. There are numerous other applications for such a sensor including medical diagnosis and treatment, breath analysis for legal purposes, water quality assessment, combustion diagnostics, and chemical process control. The successful completion of Phase II resulted in additional funding of instrument development by the Nations Institute of Heath through a Phase I SBIR grant and a strategic teaming relationship with a commercial manufacture of medical instrumentation. The purpose of the NIH grant and teaming relationship is to further develop the sensor to monitor NO in exhaled breath for the purposes of asthma diagnosis.

  5. Parallel optical interconnect between surface-mounted devices on FR4 printed wiring board using embedded waveguides and passive optical alignments (United States)

    Karppinen, Mikko; Alajoki, Teemu; Tanskanen, Antti; Kataja, Kari; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Karioja, Pentti; Immonen, Marika; Kivilahti, Jorma


    Technologies to design and fabricate high-bit-rate chip-to-chip optical interconnects on printed wiring boards (PWB) are studied. The aim is to interconnect surface-mounted component packages or modules using board-embedded optical waveguides. In order to demonstrate the developed technologies, a parallel optical interconnect was integrated on a standard FR4-based PWB. It consists of 4-channel BGA-mounted transmitter and receiver modules as well as of four polymer multimode waveguides fabricated on top of the PWB using lithographic patterning. The transmitters and receivers built on low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrates include flip-chip mounted VCSEL or photodiode array and 4x10 Gb/s driver or receiver IC. Two microlens arrays and a surface-mounted micro-mirror enable optical coupling between the optoelectronic device and the waveguide array. The optical alignment is based on the marks and structures fabricated in both the LTCC and optical waveguide processes. The structures were optimized and studied by the use of optical tolerance analyses based on ray tracing. The characterized optical alignment tolerances are in the limits of the accuracy of the surface-mount technology.

  6. Ultrastrong extraordinary transmission and reflection in PT-symmetric Thue-Morse optical waveguide networks. (United States)

    Wu, Jiaye; Yang, Xiangbo


    In this paper, we construct a 1D PT-symmetric Thue-Morse aperiodic optical waveguide network (PTSTMAOWN) and mainly investigate the ultrastrong extraordinary transmission and reflection. We propose an approach to study the photonic modes and solve the problem of calculating photonic modes distributions in aperiodic networks due to the lack of dispersion functions and find that in a PTSTMAOWN there exist more photonic modes and more spontaneous PT-symmetric breaking points, which are quite different from other reported PT-symmetric optical systems. Additionally, we develop a method to sort spontaneous PT-symmetric breaking point zones to seek the strongest extraordinary point and obtain that at this point the strongest extraordinary transmission and reflection arrive at 2.96316 × 105 and 1.32761 × 105, respectively, due to the PT-symmetric coupling resonance and the special symmetry pattern of TM networks. These enormous gains are several orders of magnitude larger than the previous results. This optical system may possess potential in designing optical amplifier, optical logic elements in photon computers and ultrasensitive optical switches with ultrahigh monochromatity.

  7. Electro-Optic Contact Poling of Polymer Waveguide Devices and Thin Films (United States)

    Briseno, Michael Joseph

    Optical communication is a high speed, large bandwidth, low cost, and power efficient method of transferring data over short-haul and long-haul channels. Optical communication requires devices (optical modulators) that utilize the originating electrical signal information to modulate a corresponding optical signal. State of the art optical modulators can be used for communicating signals at modulation frequencies up to 100 GHz and faster. Polymer modulators are used over lithium niobate due to the large potential electro-optic coefficient, which has been shown to be as high as 226 pm/V in thin films. Organic electro-optic polymers used in thin film modulators contain nonlinear optical chromophore dipoles that when aligned produce an electro-optic coefficient from the pockels effect. The magnitude of the electro-optic coefficient is dependent on the strength and uniformity of the electric field applied to the thin film polymer. In multi-layer devices the applied field is determined by design, fabrication, layer thickness, and pinhole defects that cause dielectric breakdown of the device. A laboratory process was designed and created for electro-optic contact poling of waveguide devices and thin film polymers. A sample is heated to the glass transition temperature of the electro-optic polymer and an electric field is applied to allow alignment of chromophores. The sample is then cooled to room temperature to lock the chromophores in place. Soluxra SEO100C polymer is used for validation of the poling process because of its high electro-optic coefficient potential. First time large area contact poling of electro-optic polymer thin films is performed and verified enabling the use of electro-optic polymers in a variety of applications. The index of refraction change after poling was measured in Soluxra SEO100C spun thin films using a prism coupler to verify poling. TM index of refraction of thin film SEO100C increased by 0.00402-0.00486 with voltages of 39-51 V/?m after

  8. Amplifier-free slab-coupled optical waveguide optoelectronic oscillator systems. (United States)

    Loh, William; Yegnanarayanan, Siva; Klamkin, Jonathan; Duff, Shannon M; Plant, Jason J; O'Donnell, Frederick J; Juodawlkis, Paul W


    We demonstrate a free-running 3-GHz slab-coupled optical waveguide (SCOW) optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) with low phase-noise (noise on a spectrum analyzer measurement (>88 dB down from carrier). The SCOW-OEO uses high-power low-noise SCOW components in a single-loop cavity employing 1.5-km delay. The noise properties of our SCOW external-cavity laser (SCOWECL) and SCOW photodiode (SCOWPD) are characterized and shown to be suitable for generation of high spectral purity microwave tones. Through comparisons made with SCOW-OEO topologies employing amplification, we observe the sidemode levels to be degraded by any amplifiers (optical or RF) introduced within the OEO cavity.

  9. A hybrid electro-optic polymer and TiO2 double-slot waveguide modulator (United States)

    Qiu, Feng; Spring, Andrew M.; Maeda, Daisuke; Ozawa, Masa-Aki; Odoi, Keisuke; Otomo, Akira; Aoki, Isao; Yokoyama, Shiyoshi


    An electro-optic (EO) modulator using a TiO2 slot hybrid waveguide has been designed and fabricated. Optical mode calculations revealed that the mode was primarily confined within the slots when using a double-slot configuration, thus achieving a high EO activity experimentally. The TiO2 slots also acted as an important barrier to induce an enhanced DC field during the poling of the EO polymer and the driving of the EO modulator. The hybrid phase modulator exhibited a driving voltage (Vπ) of 1.6 V at 1550 nm, which can be further reduced to 0.8 V in a 1 cm-long push-pull Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) structure. The modulator demonstrated a low propagation loss of 5 dB/cm and a relatively high end-fire coupling efficiency.

  10. Symmetric two dimensional photonic crystal coupled waveguide with point defect for optical switch application

    CERN Document Server

    Hardhienata, Hendradi


    Two dimensional (2D) photonic crystals are well known for its ability to manipulate the propagation of electromagnetic wave inside the crystal. 1D and 2D photonic crystals are relatively easier to fabricate than 3D because the former work in the microwave and far infrared regions whereas the later work in the visible region and requires smaller lattice constants. In this paper, simulation for a modified 2D PC with two symmetric waveguide channels where a defect is located inside one of the channel is performed. The simulation results show that optical switching is possible by modifying the refractive index of the defect. If more than one structure is applied this feature can potentially be applied to produce a cascade optical switch.

  11. Direct measurement of the matched spot size in a slow capillary discharge optical waveguide. (United States)

    Antsiferov, Pavel S; Akdim, Mohamed R; van Dam, Herman T


    This communication presents direct method for experimental determining the matched spot size in a plasma optical waveguide, created in a slow capillary discharge. It can be used for Laser Wakefield Acceleration experiments in addition to interferometry for fast control of optical properties of discharge plasma. The measurements are done by means of the comparison of the laser beam size at the entrance and at the exit of the plasma channel. They are direct in the sense that the interpretation is made in terms of the refractive index without usage of the information about electron density distribution. The method can be used for matched spot size measurement in conditions of the nonlinear effects (transmission of high power laser pulses).

  12. Thermo-optic Imbert-Fedorov effect in a prism-waveguide coupling system with silicon-on-insulator (United States)

    Tang, Tingting; Li, Chaoyang; Luo, Li; Zhang, Yanfen; Yuan, Quan


    In this paper, a prism-waveguide coupling system based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) is revisited. We find that thermo-optic Imbert-Fedorov (TOIF) effect displays in this four-layer optical system which has not been proposed before. Furthermore, we discuss the TOIF shifts in prism/SiO2/Si/SiO2 and prism/Au/Si/SiO2 waveguides with different parameters and study the observed phenomena from physical point of view. It is shown that the maximum IF shift can achieve 140 μm in a prism/Au/Si/SiO2 waveguide which is large enough to be directly measured by the calculation results. Accordingly, TOIF shift provides a temperature control method for the enhancement and modulation of IF shift.

  13. Optical temperature sensor with enhanced sensitivity by employing hybrid waveguides in a silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer. (United States)

    Guan, Xiaowei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Frandsen, Lars H


    We report on a novel design of an on-chip optical temperature sensor based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration where the two arms consist of hybrid waveguides providing opposite temperature-dependent phase changes to enhance the temperature sensitivity of the sensor. The sensitivity of the fabricated sensor with silicon/polymer hybrid waveguides is measured to be 172 pm/°C, which is two times larger than a conventional all-silicon optical temperature sensor (~80 pm/°C). Moreover, a design with silicon/titanium dioxide hybrid waveguides is by calculation expected to have a sensitivity as high as 775 pm/°C. The proposed design is found to be design-flexible and robust to fabrication errors.

  14. Mechanisms for optical loss in SOI waveguides for mid-infrared wavelengths around 2 μm (United States)

    Hagan, David E.; Knights, Andrew P.


    We report the measurement of optical loss in submicron silicon-on-insulator waveguides at a wavelength of 2.02 μm for the fundamental TE mode. Devices were fabricated at IMEC and at A⋆STAR's Institute of Microelectronics (IME) and thus these measurements are applicable to studies which require fabrication using standard foundry technology. Propagation loss for strip and rib waveguides of 3.3 ± 0.5 and 1.9 ± 0.2 dB cm-1 were measured. Waveguide bending loss in strip and rib waveguides was measured to be 0.36 and 0.68 dB per 90° bend for a radius of 3 μm. Doped waveguide loss in rib waveguides was measured for both n-type and p-type species at two doping densities for each doping type. Measured results from propagation, bending, and free-carrier loss were found to be in good agreement with analytical or numerical models. Loss due to lattice defects introduced by ion-implantation is found to be underestimated by a previously proposed empirical model. The thermal annealing of the lattice defects is consistent with removal of the silicon divacancy.

  15. Imaging optical fields below metal films and metal-dielectric waveguides by a scanning microscope (United States)

    Zhu, Liangfu; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Douguo; Wang, Ruxue; Qiu, Dong; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai; Badugu, Ramachandram; Rosenfeld, Mary; Lakowicz, Joseph R.


    Laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy (LSCM) is now an important method for tissue and cell imaging when the samples are located on the surfaces of glass slides. In the past decade, there has been extensive development of nano-optical structures that display unique effects on incident and transmitted light, which will be used with novel configurations for medical and consumer products. For these applications, it is necessary to characterize the light distribution within short distances from the structures for efficient detection and elimination of bulky optical components. These devices will minimize or possibly eliminate the need for free-space light propagation outside of the device itself. We describe the use of the scanning function of a LSCM to obtain 3D images of the light intensities below the surface of nano-optical structures. More specifically, we image the spatial distributions inside the substrate of fluorescence emission coupled to waveguide modes after it leaks through thin metal films or dielectric-coated metal films. The observed spatial distribution were in general agreement with far-field calculations, but the scanning images also revealed light intensities at angles not observed with classical back focal plane imaging. Knowledge of the subsurface optical intensities will be crucial in the combination of nano-optical structures with rapidly evolving imaging detectors.

  16. Er:Ti:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide optical amplifiers by optical grade dicing and three-side Er and Ti in-diffusion (United States)

    Suntsov, Sergiy; Rüter, Christian E.; Kip, Detlef


    Erbium-doped titanium in-diffused ridge waveguide optical amplifiers in x-cut congruent LiNbO3 substrates pumped by a 1486 nm laser diode are reported for the first time. High internal gain of 2.7 dB/cm has been demonstrated in 2.5 cm long waveguides for the coupled pump power 200 mW exceeding the best literature values reported for Er:Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguides. For gain improvement, we have developed a novel technique which is comprised of ridge definition using diamond blade dicing followed by three-side erbium (Er) and titanium (Ti) layer deposition and high-temperature diffusion. Thereby both higher Er concentrations with more symmetric diffusion profiles and lower scattering losses due to the high-temperature smoothened waveguide side walls have been obtained.

  17. Single-Mode Propagation in Optical Waveguides and Fibres: A Critical Review of its Treatment in Physics Textbooks (United States)

    Ruddock, Ivan S.


    The derivation and description of the modes in optical waveguides and fibres are reviewed. The version frequently found in undergraduate textbooks is shown to be incorrect and misleading due to the assumption of an axial ray of light corresponding to the lowest order mode. It is pointed out that even the lowest order must still be represented in…

  18. High-Speed Near Infrared Optical Receivers Based on Ge Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianlorenzo Masini


    Full Text Available We discuss our approach to monolithic intergration of Ge photodectors with CMOS electronics for high-speed optical transceivers. Receivers based on Ge waveguide photodetectors achieve a sensitivity of −14.2 dBm (10−12 bit error rate (BER at 10 Gbps and 1550 nm.

  19. Direct milling and casting of polymer-based optical waveguides for improved transparency in the visible range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snakenborg, Detlef; Perozziello, Gerardo; Klank, Henning


    properties. Direct micromilling enabled us to fabricate 100 mu m wide optical waveguides. Propagation losses of less than 1 dB cm(-1) could be achieved throughout the entire visual range down to a wavelength of 400 nm. A casting process amenable to high number production of such devices was furthermore...

  20. All optical wavelength conversion and parametric amplification in Ti:PPLN channel waveguides for telecommunication applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouroozi, Rahman


    Efficient ultra-fast integrated all-optical wavelength converters and parametric amplifiers transparent to the polarization, phase, and modulation-level and -format are investigated. The devices take advantage of the optical nonlinearity of Ti:PPLN waveguides exploiting difference frequency generation (DFG). In a DFG, the signal ({lambda}{sub s}) is mixed with a pump ({lambda}{sub p}) to generate a wavelength shifted idler (1/{lambda}{sub i}=1/{lambda}{sub p}-1/{lambda}{sub s}). Efficient generation of the pump in Ti:PPLN channel guides is investigated using different approaches. In the waveguide resonators, first a resonance of the fundamental wave alone is considered. It is shown that the maximum power enhancement of the fundamental wave, and therefore the maximum second-harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency, can be achieved with low loss matched resonators. By this way, SHG efficiency of {proportional_to}10300%/W (10.3 %/mW) has been achieved in a 65 mm long waveguide resonator. Its operation for cSHG/DFG requires narrowband reflector for fundamental wave only. Thus, the SH (pump) wave resonator is investigated. The SH-wave resonator enhances the intracavity SH power only. Based on this scheme, an improvement of {proportional_to}10 dB for cSHG/DFG based wavelength conversion efficiency has been achieved with 50 mW of coupled fundamental power in a 30 mm long Ti:PPLN. However, operation was limited to relatively small fundamental power levels (<50 mW) due to the onset of photorefractive instabilities destroying the cavity stabilization. The cSHG/DFG efficiency can be considerably improved by using a double-pass configuration in which all the interacting waves were reflected by a broadband dielectric mirror deposited on the one endface of the waveguide. Three different approaches are investigated and up to 9 dB improvement of the wavelength conversion efficiency in comparison with the single-pass configuration is achieved. Polarization-insensitive wavelength

  1. Reconfigurable liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides with dielectrophoresis-driven virtual microchannels on an electromicrofluidic platform. (United States)

    Fan, Shih-Kang; Lee, Hsuan-Ping; Chien, Chia-Chi; Lu, Yi-Wen; Chiu, Yi; Lin, Fan-Yi


    An electrically reconfigurable liquid-core/liquid-cladding (L(2)) optical waveguide with core liquid γ-butyrolactone (GBL, ncore = 1.4341, εcore = 39) and silicone oil (ncladding = 1.401, εcladding = 2.5) as cladding liquid is accomplished using dielectrophoresis (DEP) that attracts and deforms the core liquid with the greater permittivity to occupy the region of strong electric field provided by Teflon-coated ITO electrodes between parallel glass plates. Instead of continuously flowing core and cladding liquids along a physical microchannel, the DEP-formed L(2) optical waveguide guides light in a stationary virtual microchannel that requires liquids of limited volume without constant supply and creates stable liquid/liquid interfaces for efficient light guidance in a simply fabricated microfluidic device. We designed and examined (1) stationary and (2) moving L(2) optical waveguides on the parallel-plate electromicrofluidic platform. In the stationary L-shaped waveguide, light was guided in a GBL virtual microchannel core for a total of 27.85 mm via a 90° bend (radius 5 mm) before exiting from the light outlet of cross-sectional area 100 μm × 100 μm. For the stationary spiral waveguide, light was guided in a GBL core containing Rhodamine 6G (R6G, 1 mM) and through a series of 90° bends with decreasing radii from 5 mm to 2.5 mm. With the stationary straight waveguide, the propagation loss was measured to be 2.09 dB cm(-1) in GBL with R6G (0.01 mM). The moving L-shaped waveguide was implemented on a versatile electromicrofluidic platform on which electrowetting and DEP were employed to generate a precise GBL droplet and form a waveguide core. On sequentially applying appropriate voltage to one of three parallel L-shaped driving electrodes, the GBL waveguide core was shifted; the guided light was switched at a speed of up to 0.929 mm s(-1) (switching period 70 ms, switching rate 14.3 Hz) when an adequate electric signal (173.1 VRMS, 100 kHz) was applied.

  2. Microfabricated Waveguide Atom Traps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jau, Yuan-Yu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A nanoscale , microfabricated waveguide structure can in - principle be used to trap atoms in well - defined locations and enable strong photon-atom interactions . A neutral - atom platform based on this microfabrication technology will be prealigned , which is especially important for quantum - control applications. At present, there is still no reported demonstration of evanescent - field atom trapping using a microfabricated waveguide structure. We described the capabilities established by our team for future development of the waveguide atom - trapping technology at SNL and report our studies to overcome the technical challenges of loading cold atoms into the waveguide atom traps, efficient and broadband optical coupling to a waveguide, and the waveguide material for high - power optical transmission. From the atomic - physics and the waveguide modeling, w e have shown that a square nano-waveguide can be utilized t o achieve better atomic spin squeezing than using a nanofiber for first time.

  3. Theoretical modeling of a coupled plasmon waveguide resonance sensor based on multimode optical fiber (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Xue, Meng; Jiang, Junfeng; Wang, Tao; Chang, Pengxiang; Liu, Tiegen


    A coupled plasmon waveguide resonance (CPWR) sensor based on metal/dielectric-coated step index multimode optical fiber is proposed. Theoretical simulations using the four-layer Fresnel equations based on a bi-dimensional optical fiber model were implemented on four structures: Ag-ZnO, Au-ZnO, Ag-TiO2 and Au-TiO2. By controlling the thickness of dielectric layer, we managed to manipulate the CPWR resonance wavelengths. When a CPWR resonance dip is in the short wavelength region, it is insensitive to the change of surrounding refractive index (SRI) and can be used as a reference to improve the sensing accuracy of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) mode. With the increase of the thickness of the dielectric layer, the CPWR resonance dips shift to longer wavelength and the corresponding sensitivities increase. When the 1st CPWR resonance wavelength is near 1550 nm and SRI is around 1.333, the sensitivities of four structures reach 1360.61 nm/RIU, 1375.76 nm/RIU, 1048.48 nm/RIU and 1015.15 nm/RIU, respectively. The values are close to that of the conventional SPR optical fiber sensor while the spectral bandwidths of the optical fiber CPWR sensors are narrower.

  4. Analytical approach for modeling and performance analysis of microring resonators as optical filters with multiple output bus waveguides (United States)

    Lakra, Suchita; Mandal, Sanjoy


    A quadruple micro-optical ring resonator (QMORR) with multiple output bus waveguides is mathematically modeled and analyzed by making use of the delay-line signal processing approach in Z-domain and Mason's gain formula. The performances of QMORR with two output bus waveguides with vertical coupling are analyzed. This proposed structure is capable of providing wider free spectral response from both the output buses with appreciable cross talk. Thus, this configuration could provide increased capacity to insert a large number of communication channels. The simulated frequency response characteristic and its dispersion and group delay characteristics are graphically presented using the MATLAB environment.

  5. Modeling of all-optical even and odd parity generator circuits using metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguides (United States)

    Singh, Lokendra; Bedi, Amna; Kumar, Santosh


    Plasmonic metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguides sustain excellent property of confining the surface plasmons up to a deep subwavelength scale. In this paper, linear and S-shaped MIM waveguides are cascaded together to design the model of Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). Nonlinear material has been used for switching of light across its output ports. The structures of even and odd parity generators are projected by cascading the MZIs. Parity generator and checker circuit are used for error correction and detection in an optical communication system. Study and analysis of proposed designs are carried out by using the MATLAB simulation and finite-differencetime-domain (FDTD) method.

  6. General Method for Calculating the Response and Noise Spectra of Active Fabry-Perot Semiconductor Waveguides With External Optical Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaaberg, Søren; Mørk, Jesper


    We present a theoretical method for calculating small-signal modulation responses and noise spectra of active Fabry-Perot semiconductor waveguides with external light injection. Small-signal responses due to either a modulation of the pump current or due to an optical amplitude or phase modulation...... amplifiers and an injection-locked laser. We also demonstrate the applicability of the method to analyze slow and fast light effects in semiconductor waveguides. Finite reflectivities of the facets are found to influence the phase changes of the injected microwave-modulated light....

  7. Phase shift multiplication effect of all-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in two micro-cavities side coupled to a waveguide system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Boyun; Wang, Tao, E-mail:; Tang, Jian; Li, Xiaoming; Dong, Chuanbo [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)


    We propose phase shift multiplication effect of all-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in two photonic crystal micro-cavities side coupled to a waveguide system through external optical pump beams. With dynamically tuning the propagation phase of the line waveguide, the phase shift of the transmission spectrum in two micro-cavities side coupled to a waveguide system is doubled along with the phase shift of the line waveguide. π-phase shift and 2π-phase shift of the transmission spectrum are obtained when the propagation phase of the line waveguide is tuned to 0.5π-phase shift and π-phase shift, respectively. All observed schemes are analyzed rigorously through finite-difference time-domain simulations and the coupled-mode formalism. These results show a new direction to the miniaturization and the low power consumption of microstructure integration photonic devices in optical communication and quantum information processing.

  8. Writing single-mode waveguides in lithium niobate by ultra-low intensity solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazio, E. [Universita degli Studi di Roma ' La Sapienza' and INFM, I-00161 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail:; Ramadan, W. [Physics department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Damietta (Egypt); Petris, A. [Romanian Center of Excellence in Photonics, R-76900 Bucharest (Romania); Chauvet, M. [Laboratoire d' optique P.M. Duffieux, Universite de Franche Comte, Besancon (France); Bosco, A. [Universita degli Studi di Roma ' La Sapienza' and INFM, I-00161 Rome (Italy); Vlad, V.I. [Romanian Center of Excellence in Photonics, R-76900 Bucharest (Romania); Bertolotti, M. [Universita degli Studi di Roma ' La Sapienza' and INFM, I-00161 Rome (Italy)


    Optical waveguides can be conveniently written in photorefractive materials by using spatial solitons. We have generated bright spatial solitons inside lithium niobate which allow single-mode light propagation. Efficient waveguides have been generated with CW light powers as high as few microwatts. According to the soliton formation, waveguides can be formed with different shapes. Due to the slow response time of the lithium niobate, both for soliton formation and relaxation, the soliton waveguide remains memorised for a long time, of the order of months.

  9. Ultrapure glass optical waveguide development in microgravity by the sol-gel process (United States)


    Containerless melting of glasses in space for the preparation of ultrapure homogeneous glass for optical waveguides is discussed. The homogenization of the glass using conventional raw materials is normally achieved on Earth either by the gravity induced convection currents or by the mechanical stirring of the melt. Because of the absence of gravity induced convection currents, the homogenization of glass using convectional raw materials is difficult in the space environment. Multicomponent, homogeneous, noncrystalline oxide gels can be prepared by the sol-gel process and these gels are promising starting materials for melting glasses in the space environment. The sol-gel process is based on the polymerization reaction of alkoxysilane with other metal alkoxy compounds or suitable metal salts. Many of the alkoxysilanes or other metal alkoxides are liquids and thus can be purified by distillation.

  10. Spontaneous emission noise in long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguide based optical gyroscope. (United States)

    Wang, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Tong


    Spontaneous emission noise is an important limit to the performance of active plasmonic devices. Here, we investigate the spontaneous emission noise in the long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide based optical gyroscope. A theoretical model of the sensitivity is established to study the incoherent multi-beam interference of spontaneous emission in the gyroscope. Numerical results show that spontaneous emission produces a drift in the transmittance spectra and lowers the signal-to-noise-ratio of the gyroscope. It also strengthens the shot noise to be the main limit to the sensitivity of the gyroscope for high propagation loss. To reduce the negative effects of the spontaneous emission noise on the gyroscope, an external feedback loop is suggested to estimate the drift in the transmittance spectra and therefor enhance the sensitivity. Our work lays a foundation for the improvement of long-range surface plasmon-polariton gyroscope and paves the way to its practical application.

  11. High finesse silica waveguide ring resonators for resonant micro-optic gyroscopes (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjie; Li, Hanzhao; Ma, Huilian; Jin, Zhonghe


    A high-finesse silica waveguide ring resonator (WRR) is designed and a new record is demonstrated experimentally. The finesse and the resonant depth of the silica WRR with a length of 7.9 cm and a diameter of 2.5 cm are 196.7 and 98%, respectively. In addition, the silica WRR is pigtailed with single-polarization fiber to improve the polarization extinction ratio thus to reduce the polarization error. With the application of this high-finesse and high polarization extinction ratio WRR to the resonant micro-optic gyroscope (RMOG), a bias stability of 0.004°/s was observed over a one-hour timeframe.

  12. A saccharides sensor developed by symmetrical optical waveguide-based surface plasmon resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Li


    Full Text Available We proposed a new saccharides sensor developed by symmetrical optical waveguide (SOW-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR. This unique MgF2/Au/MgF2/Analyte film structure results in longer surface plasmon wave (SPW propagation lengths and depths, leading to an increment of resolution. In this paper, we managed to decorate the dielectric interface (MgF2 layer by depositing a thin polydopamine film as surface-adherent that provides a platform for secondary reactions with the probe molecule. 3-Aminophenylboronic acid (3-PBA is chosen to be the saccharides sense probe molecule in the present work. The aqueous humor of Diabetes and Cataract patient whose blood glucose level is normal are analyzed and the results demonstrated that this sensor shows great potential in monitoring the blood sugar and can be adapted in the field of biological monitoring in the future.

  13. Reconfigurable dual-channel all-optical logic gate in a silicon waveguide using polarization encoding. (United States)

    Gao, Shiming; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Yanqiao; Hu, Peiran; Yan, Qiang


    A reconfigurable dual-channel all-optical logic gate is proposed and experimentally demonstrated using four-wave mixing in a silicon waveguide for polarization encoding signals. Six logic functions, XNOR, AND, NOR, XOR, AB¯, and A¯B are implemented at two different wavelength channels by adjusting the polarization states of two 10 Gb/s non-return-to-zero polarization-shift keying (NRZ-PolSK) signals modulated by 10-bit on-off keying (OOK) sequences. The eye diagrams of the logic signals are clearly observed, and the logic functions are well demonstrated as the two incident NRZ-PolSK signals are both modulated by the OOK sequences, which originate from 2(31)-1 pseudo-random binary sequences.

  14. Design of optical channel waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) for environmental sensor applications (United States)

    Mahmudin, D.; Huda, N.; Estu, T. T.; Fathnan, A. A.; Daud, P.; Hardiati, S.; Hasanah, L.; Wijayanto, Y. N.


    High sensitivity environmental sensors with a simple and compact structure are required to monitor unwanted pollution such as liquid waste. In this research, a component of environmental sensor based on optical channel waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) has been designed and also simulated. The materials used in the design were titanium dioxide (TiO2) as a core and silicon dioxide (SiO2) with air as cladding. The sensitivity value of the MZI sensor obtained by simulation using computer program was 11 nm/RIU at the angle of 16°. Meanwhile, the obtained fixed length of MZI sensing arm was 4 μm. The proposed design can be used for identifying the existence of liquid material precisely.

  15. All-optical intensity modulation based on graphene-coated microfibre waveguides (United States)

    Wang, Ruiduo; Li, Diao; Jiang, Man; Wu, Hao; Xu, Xiang; Ren, Zhaoyu


    We investigate graphene-covered microfibre (GCM) waveguides, and analyse the microfibres' evanescent field distributions in different diameters and lengths by numerically simulation. According to the simulation results, we designed a graphene-based all-optical modulator using 980 nm and Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) lasers, employing the microfibre's evanescent field induced light-graphene interaction. We studied the modulation effect that is influenced by the microfibre's diameter, number of graphene layers, and effective graphene length. Compared to a single graphene layer of shorter length, the double graphene layer with longer length presents stronger absorption and higher modulation depth. Using a 2- μm diameter microfibre covered by ∼0.3 cm double graphene sheets, we achieved a modulation depth of 8.45 dB. This modulator features ease of fabrication, low cost, and a controllable modulation depth.

  16. Broadband optical waveguide couplers with arbitrary coupling ratios designed using a genetic algorithm. (United States)

    Fu, Po-Han; Tu, Yi-Chou; Huang, Ding-Wei


    In this work, we present a generalized design of broadband optical waveguide couplers with arbitrary coupling ratios on the silicon-on-insulator platform. The device is segmented into 34 short sections, where the propagation constant and the coupling coefficient of each section are viewed as variables during the optimization process. The optimal variable combination is determined by a genetic algorithm. We can achieve a performance superior to that of other design methods with fewer degrees of freedom. For 75%/25%, 50%/50%, 25%/75%, and 0%/100% couplers, the device lengths are 34 μm and the ±2% bandwidths are all in excess of 100 nm at the central wavelength of 1580 nm.

  17. Optical wave propagation in epitaxial Nd:Y2O3 planar waveguides. (United States)

    Li, Wei; Webster, Scott E; Kumaran, Raveen; Penson, Shawn; Tiedje, Thomas


    Optical wave propagation in neodymium-doped yttrium oxide (Nd:Y(2)O(3)) films grown on R-plane sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy has been studied by the prism coupler method. The measurements yield propagation loss data, the refractive index, and the dispersion relation. The refractive index of the Nd:Y(2)O(3) at 632.8 nm is found to be 1.909, and the lowest propagation loss measured is 0.9 +/- 0.2 cm(-1) at 1046 nm with a polymethyl methacrylate top cladding layer on a film with 6 nm root mean square surface roughness. The loss measurements suggest that the majority loss of this planar waveguide sample is scatter from surface roughness that can be described by the model of Payne and Lacey [Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977 (1994)].

  18. Analysis of coupled resonator optical waveguide gyroscope based on periodically modulated coupling and circumferences (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Zhang, Hailiang; Yang, Junbo; Zhang, Jingjing; Wu, Wenjun; Chang, Shengli


    Based on periodically modulated coupling and circumferences, we developed a new structure for coupled resonator optical waveguide (CROW) gyroscopes. Its sensitivity and resolution were significantly improved. With our new structure, which overcomes the individual limitations of the previous schemes, the sensitivity and resolution of our gyroscope are higher than those with coupling-coefficient modulation alone and circumference modulation alone. The resolution of the gyroscope gradually declines with increasing resonator propagation loss; when the quality factor Q ≤ 2 ×106 , the height of the center resonance peak of the transmission band decreases by more than 90%. Fortunately, this effect can be weakened by increasing the circumference difference. We also numerically analyzed the influence of manufacturing errors on the performance of the gyroscope. We found that the fluctuations of radius have a greater influence than the fluctuations of quality factor.

  19. Low-noise RF-amplifier-free slab-coupled optical waveguide coupled optoelectronic oscillators: physics and operation. (United States)

    Loh, William; Yegnanarayanan, Siva; Plant, Jason J; O'Donnell, Frederick J; Grein, Matthew E; Klamkin, Jonathan; Duff, Shannon M; Juodawlkis, Paul W


    We demonstrate a 10-GHz RF-amplifier-free slab-coupled optical waveguide coupled optoelectronic oscillator (SCOW-COEO) system operating with low phase-noise (70 dB measurement-limited). The optical pulses generated by the SCOW-COEO exhibit 26.8-ps pulse width (post compression) with a corresponding spectral bandwidth of 0.25 nm (1.8X transform-limited). We also investigate the mechanisms that limit the performance of the COEO. Our measurements indicate that degradation in the quality factor (Q) of the optical cavity significantly impacts COEO phase-noise through increases in the optical amplifier relative intensity noise (RIN).

  20. Analog-to-digital optical waveguide conversion at sampling periods greater than the free-space wavelength. (United States)

    Ramadan, Tarek A


    Nyquist sampling theorem reveals the possibility of sampling the continuous refractive index profiles of optical waveguides at periods greater than the free-space wavelength, λ(o). Binary encoding of these analog waveguides is investigated using the zero-order effective medium theory, while conserving the quantization of the modal spectrum implied by their boundary conditions. Both analytical and numerical approaches are developed for this analog-to-digital (A-to-D) conversion. An example is presented for the A-to-D conversion of a graded index waveguide with a hyperbolic secant profile at a sample period of 1.3λ(o). The results are confirmed using a beam propagation method.

  1. LPE growth of yttrium lutetium, indium gallium garnet films for optical waveguide formation on a GGG substrate (United States)

    Kubota, Eishi; Shimokozono, Makoto; Katoh, Yujiro


    Yttrium-lutetium, indium-gallium garnet single-crystal films with a composition of { YxLu3-x}[ Yy1Luy2Iny3Ga2-y1-y2-y3]( Ga3) O12 (0⩽x⩽3, y1=0.02x, y2=0.12-0.04x, y3=1.08-0.11x) were grown on - oriented GGG substrate by the LPE technique in order to fabricate a planar optical waveguide. The LPE growth results and optical properties of the films are reported. It was easy to control the composition of the film, because the distribution coefficients of the solutes showed gradual changes with the composition, and the coefficients ratios of Y/Lu and In/Ga, respectively, were 1.33-1.39 and 0.61-1.07. The films had high transparency in the visible and near-infrared regions. In this system, the addition of In increased and refractive index as a result of substitution on the Ga atom site. The films had a refractive index variation of ˜0.7% with the variation in the film composition, and this is large enough for optical waveguide fabrication. To evaluate its optical propagation loss as a waveguide material, a slab waveguide, composed of core and cladding layers, was formed on a GGG substrate. The propagation loss was 1.2 dB/cm at 1523 nm, indicating that the light was confined effectively in the waveguide with a low loss.

  2. Cutoff-mesa isolated rib optical waveguide for III-V heterostructure photonic integrated circuits (United States)

    Vawter, G.A.; Smith, R.E.


    A cutoff mesa rib waveguide provides single-mode performance regardless of any deep etches that might be used for electrical isolation between integrated electrooptic devices. Utilizing a principle of a cutoff slab waveguide with an asymmetrical refractive index profile, single mode operation is achievable with a wide range of rib widths and does not require demanding etch depth tolerances. This new waveguide design eliminates reflection effects, or self-interference, commonly seen when conventional rib waveguides are combined with deep isolation etches and thereby reduces high order mode propagation and crosstalk compared to the conventional rib waveguides. 7 figs.

  3. Low-loss optical waveguides in β-BBO crystal fabricated by femtosecond-laser writing (United States)

    Li, Ziqi; Cheng, Chen; Romero, Carolina; Lu, Qingming; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier Rodríguez; Chen, Feng


    We report on the fabrication and characterization of β-BBO depressed cladding waveguides fabricated by femtosecond-laser writing with no significant changes in the waveguide lattice microstructure. The waveguiding properties and the propagation losses of the cladding structures are investigated, showing good transmission properties at wavelengths of 400 and 800 nm along TM polarization. The minimum propagation losses are measured to be as low as 0.19 dB/cm at wavelength of 800 nm. The well-preserved waveguide lattice microstructure and good guiding performances with low propagation losses suggest the potential applications of the cladding waveguides in β-BBO crystal as novel integrated photonic devices.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of cross-linkable polyurethane-imide electro-optic waveguide polymer (United States)

    Wang, Long-De; Tang, Jie; Li, Ruo-Zhou; Zhang, Tong; Tong, Ling; Tang, Jing


    The novel electro-optic (EO) polymers of fluorinated cross-linkable polyurethane-imides (CLPUI) were designed and synthesized by polycondensation of azo chromophore C1 and C2, diisocyanate MDI, and aromatic dianhydride 6FDA. Molecular structural characterization for the resulting polymers was achieved by 1HNMR, FT-IR, elemental analysis, and gel permeation chromatography. The polymers exhibit good film-forming properties, high glass transition temperature ( T g) in the range of 193-200 °C, and thermal stability up to 290 °C. The polymers that possess a high EO coefficient (γ_{33} = 48 and 56 pm/V) at 1550 nm for poled polymer thin films were measured by the simple reflection technique. Excellent temporal stability and low optical losses in the range of 1.1-1.7 dB/cm at 1550 nm were observed for these polymers. Using the synthesized side-chain electro-optic CLPUI as the active core material and of a fluorinated polyimide as cladding material, we have designed and successfully fabricated the high-performance polymer waveguide Mach-Zehnder EO modulators.

  5. Enhanced optical nonlinearities in CMOS-compatible ultra-silicon-rich nitride photonic crystal waveguides (United States)

    Sahin, E.; Ooi, K. J. A.; Chen, G. F. R.; Ng, D. K. T.; Png, C. E.; Tan, D. T. H.


    We present the design, fabrication, and characterization of photonic crystal waveguides (PhCWs) on an ultra-silicon-rich nitride (USRN) platform, with the goal of augmenting the optical nonlinearities. The design goals are to achieve an optimized group index curve on the PhCW band edge with a non-membrane PhCW with symmetric SiO2 undercladding and overcladding, so as to maintain back-end CMOS compatibility and better structural robustness. Linear optical characterization, as well as nonlinear optical characterization of PhCWs on ultra-silicon-rich nitride is performed at the telecommunication wavelengths. USRN's negligible two-photon absorption and free carrier losses at the telecommunication wavelengths ensure that there is no scaling of two-photon related losses with the group index, thus maintaining a high nonlinear efficiency. Self-phase modulation experiments are performed using a 96.6 μm PhCW. A 1.5π phase shift is achieved with an input peak power of 2.5 W implying an effective nonlinear parameter of 1.97 × 104 (W m)-1. This nonlinear parameter represents a 49× enhancement in the nonlinear parameter from the slow light effect, in good agreement with expected scaling from the measured group index.

  6. Theory of Optical-Filtering Enhanced Slow and Fast Light Effects in Semiconductor Optical Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Xue, Weiqi; Öhman, Filip


    A theoretical analysis of slow and fast light effects in semiconductor optical amplifiers based on coherent population oscillations and including the influence of optical filtering is presented. Optical filtering is shown to enable a significant increase of the controllable phase shift experienced...

  7. Temporal-Mode Interferometry: A Technique for Highly Selective Quantum Pulse Gating via Cascaded Frequency Conversion in Nonlinear Optical Waveguides (United States)

    Reddy, Dileep Venkatarama

    A new, and thus far only, method to overcome a selectivity barrier in parametrically pumped quantum pulse gates is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for the first time, using frequency conversion of optical temporal modes in second-order nonlinear waveguides. Temporal modes and quantum pulse gates are defined and their utilities are explored. Pulsed operation of three-field and four-field, parametric, optical processes are modeled and numerically investigated. A maximum limit to achievable selectivity for quantum pulse gating in uniform media is discovered and theoretically explained. An interferometric means of overcoming said limit and asymptotically approaching unit selectivity is proposed. The principle is experimentally verified by double-passing specifically shaped optical pulses derived from an ultrafast Ti:sapphire laser through a periodically-poled lithium niobate waveguide phasematched for sum-frequency generation. Further improvements and future implications for quantum technologies are discussed.

  8. Multi-point, multi-wavelength fluorescence monitoring of DNA separation in a lab-on-a-chip with monolithically integrated femtosecond-laser-written waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongre, C.; van Weerd, J.; van Weeghel, R.; Martinez-Vazquez, R.; Osellame, R.; Ramponi, R.; Cerullo, G.; Dekker, R; Dekker, R.; Besselink, G.A.J.; van den Vlekkert, H.H.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Pollnau, Markus; not available, NA


    Electrophoretic separation of fluorescently labeled DNA molecules in on-chip microfluidic channels was monitored by integrated waveguide arrays, with simultaneous spatial and wavelength resolution. This is an important step toward point-of-care diagnostics with multiplexed DNA assays.

  9. Fabrication and optical characterization of GaN waveguides on (−201)-oriented β-Ga_2O_3

    KAUST Repository

    Awan, Kashif M.


    Gallium nitride (GaN), a wide-bandgap III-V semiconductor material with a bandgap wavelength λ = 366 nm (for Wurtzite GaN) and transparency window covering the visible spectrum, has a large number of applications for photonics and optoelectronics. However, the optical quality of this material suffers from growth imperfections due to the lack of a suitable substrate. Recent studies have shown that GaN grown on (-201) β - GaO (gallium oxide) has better lattice matching and hence superior optical quality as compared to GaN grown traditionally on AlO (sapphire). In this work, we report on the fabrication of GaN waveguides on GaO substrate, followed by a wet-etch process aimed at the reduction of waveguide surface roughness and improvement of side-wall verticality in these waveguides. The propagation loss in the resulting waveguides has been experimentally determined to be 7.5 dB/cm.

  10. Optical-resolution photoacoustic imaging through thick tissue with a thin capillary as a dual optical-in acoustic-out waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Simandoux, Olivier; Gateau, Jerome; Huignard, Jean-Pierre; Moser, Christophe; Psaltis, Demetri; Bossy, Emmanuel


    We demonstrate the ability to guide high-frequency photoacoustic waves through thick tissue with a water-filled silica-capillary (150 \\mu m inner diameter and 30 mm long). An optical-resolution photoacoustic image of a 30 \\mu m diameter absorbing nylon thread was obtained by guiding the acoustic waves in the capillary through a 3 cm thick fat layer. The transmission loss through the capillary was about -20 dB, much lower than the -120 dB acoustic attenuation through the fat layer. The overwhelming acoustic attenuation of high-frequency acoustic waves by biological tissue can therefore be avoided by the use of a small footprint capillary acoustic waveguide for remote detection. We finally demonstrate that the capillary can be used as a dual optical-in acoustic-out waveguide, paving the way for the development of minimally invasive optical-resolution photoacoustic endoscopes free of any acoustic or optical elements at their imaging tip.

  11. Three-dimensional imaging of direct-written photonic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Graham D; Thayil, Anisha; Withford, Michael J; Booth, Martin


    Third harmonic generation microscopy has been used to analyze the morphology of photonic structures created using the femtosecond laser direct-write technique. Three dimensional waveguide arrays and waveguide-Bragg gratings written in fused-silica and doped phosphate glass were investigated. A sensorless adaptive optical system was used to correct the optical aberrations occurring in the sample and microscope system, which had a lateral resolution of less than 500 nm. This non-destructive testing method creates volume reconstructions of photonic devices and reveals details invisible to other linear microscopy and index profilometry techniques.

  12. Large Core Planar 1 x 2 Optical Power Splitter with Acrylate and Epoxy Resin Waveguides on Polydimetylsiloxane Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Prajzler


    Full Text Available Fabrication process of multimode 1x2 optical rectangular planar power splitter suitable for low-cost short distance optical network is presented. The splitters were designed by beam propagation method for standard input/output plastic optical fibre. Materials used for the splitter were: UV acrylate photopolymer polymer or epoxy resin for optical core waveguide layers and Y-groove substrate for the core layer was poly(methyl methacrylate or polydimetylsiloxane made by replication process on poly(methyl methacrylate pattern. The insertion losses of 1x2 splitters with acrylate waveguide layers were around 2.7 dB at 532 nm and 4.1 dB at 650 nm and those for epoxy resin waveguide layer were around 3.7 dB at 850 nm. The 1x2 splitters were tested by signal transmission being connected to the internet network by using optoelectronic switches and we achieved the maximum possible transmission data rate as provided by the computer network.

  13. The combination methodic of diffusion and implantation technologies for creating optic wave-guided layers in lithium niobate (United States)

    Orlikov, L. N.; Orlikov, N. L.; Arestov, S. I.; Mambetova, K. M.; Shandarov, S. M.


    The implantation of copper into Lithium Niobate in the prohibited crystal zone forms a definite energetic level for optic transits. This paper examines conditions of optic wave-guided layers formation on Niobate Lithium due to the method of implantation copper ions with the next diffusion. Reflect Spectrum in consequences implantation is extended. The transfer of the optical power from the primary beam into the another beam was discovered and in reverse. Photo galvanic characteristics of implantation specimen identity of crystal by traditional technology and doping CuO manufacture.

  14. Optical waveguide sensor based on silica nanotube arrays for label-free biosensing. (United States)

    Fan, Yong; Ding, Yu; Ma, Hui; Teramae, Norio; Sun, Shuqing; He, Yonghong


    Label-free biosensing based on optical waveguide spectroscopy of silica nanotube (SNT) arrays is realized with high sensitivity. The SNT arrays fabricated using a porous anodic alumina (PAA) template assisted by surface sol-gel (SSG) method showed a high value of 552 reciprocal refractive index unit as the sensing figure of merit by exchanging the sensing environment with water and ethanol. A standard biotin-streptavidin affinity model was tested using the SNT arrays which support a TM1 mode and the fundamental response of the system was investigated. Results show that the response of the SNT arrays for adsorption of streptavidin is higher than the one using substrate without removing the PAA template due to the larger surface area and the stronger electromagnetic field. The limit of detection (LOD) of the SNT arrays for detection of streptavidin was estimated as 93 pM, with the detection time of 40 min. Additionally, the Fresnel calculations suggested higher potential sensitivity of the current system compared to that of the conventional SPR sensors. Thus, the SNT arrays may be used as a versatile platform for high-sensitive label-free optical biosensing due to the high performance and the large potential of the surface functionality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Arylacetylene-substituted naphthalene diimides with dual functions: optical waveguides and n-type semiconductors. (United States)

    Li, Yonghai; Zhang, Guanxin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jianguo; Chen, Xin; Liu, Zitong; Yan, Yongli; Zhao, Yongsheng; Zhang, Deqing


    New arylacetylene-substituted naphthalene diimides (NDIs) 1-6, with both light-emitting and semiconducting functions, are reported. Among them, the crystal structure of 1 was determined. On the basis of their reduction potentials and thin-film absorption spectra, the HOMO/LUMO energies of these modified NDIs were estimated. The results reveal that their HOMO/LUMO energies are slightly affected by the flanking aryl groups. The emission colors of these NDIs vary from green to red, and interestingly, they show aggregation-induced emission enhancement behavior with fluorescence quantum yields reaching 9.86% in the solid state. Microrods of 1, 3, and 5 show typical optical wave-guiding behavior with relatively low optical-loss coefficients. Organic field-effect transistors with thin films of these NDIs were fabricated with conventional techniques. The results indicate that thin films of 2, 4, and 6, with long and branched alkyl chains, show air-stable n-type semiconducting properties with electron mobilities of up to 0.035 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) after thermal annealing, whereas 1, 3, and 5, with short alkyl chains, behave as n-type semiconductors under a nitrogen atmosphere with electron mobilities of up to 0.075 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) after thermal annealing. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Optical Wave Propagation in Epitaxial Nd:Y2O3 Planar Waveguides (United States)

    Li, Wei; Webster, Scott; Kumaran, Raveen; Penson, Shawn; Tiedje, T.


    Optical wave propagation in neodymium doped yttrium oxide (Nd:Y2O3) films grown on R-plane sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy has been studied by the prism coupler method. The measurements yield propagation loss data, precise values for the refractive index and the dispersion relation. The refractive index of the Nd:Y2O3 at 632.8nm is found to be 1.909, which is close to the available data for bulk Y2O3 crystal (1.923 at 645nm from Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II). The lowest propagation loss measured is 0.9±0.2 cm-1 at 1046 nm with a spin-on polymethyl-methacrylate top cladding layer on a film with 6 nm RMS surface roughness. The loss measurements suggest the majority loss of this planar waveguide sample is due to scattering from surface roughness. The loss measurements are in good agreement with the model of Payne and Lacey (Opt. and Quantum Electron 26 (1994) 977-986) in which we use the experimental value for the surface autocorrelation obtained from AFM measurements.

  17. Optical properties of an atomic ensemble coupled to a band edge of a photonic crystal waveguide (United States)

    Munro, Ewan; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Chang, Darrick E.


    We study the optical properties of an ensemble of two-level atoms coupled to a 1D photonic crystal waveguide (PCW), which mediates long-range coherent dipole-dipole interactions between the atoms. We show that the long-range interactions can dramatically alter the linear and nonlinear optical behavior, as compared to a typical atomic ensemble. In particular, in the linear regime, we find that the transmission spectrum contains multiple transmission dips, whose properties we characterize. Moreover, we show how the linear spectrum may be used to infer the number of atoms present in the system, constituting an important experimental tool in a regime where techniques for conventional ensembles break down. We also show that some of the transmission dips are associated with an effective ‘two-level’ resonance that forms due to the long-range interactions. In particular, under strong global driving and appropriate conditions, we find that the atomic ensemble is only capable of absorbing and emitting single collective excitations at a time. Our results are of direct relevance to atom-PCW experiments that should soon be realizable.

  18. Optical data exchange of m-QAM signals using a silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguide: proposal and simulation. (United States)

    Gui, Chengcheng; Wang, Jian


    We present modulation-format-transparent data exchange for m-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (m-QAM) signals using a single silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguide which offers tight light confinement and enhanced nonlinearity. By exploiting the parametric depletion effect of non-degenerate four-wave mixing (ND-FWM) process in the slot waveguide, we simulate low-power (data exchange of 640 Gbaud (2.56 Tbit/s) optical time-division multiplexed (OTDM) 16-QAM and 640 Gbaud (3.84 Tbit/s) OTDM 64-QAM signals and characterize the operation performance in terms of error vector magnitude (EVM) and bit-error rate (BER). The calculated signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) penalties of data exchange are negligible for 2.56 Tbit/s 16-QAM signals and less than 2 dB for 3.84 Tbit/s 64-QAM signals at a BER of 2e-3. For a given pump power of 9 mW, the operation performance dependence on the waveguide length is studied, showing an optimized waveguide length of ~17 mm. For a given waveguide length of 17 mm, the SNR penalty of data exchange, at a BER of 2e-3, is kept below 4 dB when varying input pump power from 8.4 to 9.8 mW for 2.56 Tbit/s 16-QAM and from 8.9 to 9.2 mW for 3.84 Tbit/s 64-QAM. In addition, data exchange running at low speed (e.g. 20 Gbaud) and data exchange taking into account waveguide propagation loss are also analyzed with favorable operation performance.

  19. Optimized design of 1×4 optical splitter based on annealed proton exchanged waveguides in LiNbO3 crystal (United States)

    Yang, Zuoyun; Wang, Dayong; Yang, Dengcai; Wang, Yunxin; Rong, Lu


    A 1×4 optical splitter based on annealed proton exchanged (APE) waveguides is designed and fabricated. The beam propagation method and refractive index profile of APE waveguide are analyzed numerically. The symmetry of the optical splitter is reformed and optimized by adding straight waveguide in the cascaded Y-branch structure. The relationship between the length of the straight waveguide and the beam-slipper coefficient is obtained. The function of the 1×4 optical splitter is simulated by the commercial software BeamProp (RSoft). And the result indicates that the output uniformity of the optical splitter is improved when the length of the straight waveguide is 1935μm. Furthermore, the polarization-maintaining is gained in the 1×4 optical splitter since only the TE mode can propagate in the APE waveguide in X-cut LiNbO3 crystal. Finally, the optical splitter is fabricated and tested experimentally and the results show good agreement with the simulation.

  20. Very low loss reactively ion etched Tellurium Dioxide planar rib waveguides for linear and non-linear optics. (United States)

    Madden, S J; Vu, K T


    We report on the fabrication and optical properties of the first very low loss nonlinear Tellurite planar rib waveguides ever demonstrated. A new reactive ion etch process based on Hydrogen as the active species was developed to accomplish the low propagation losses. Optical losses below approximately 0.05 dB/cm in most of the NIR spectrum and approximately 0.10 dB/cm at 1550 nm have been achieved - the lowest ever reported by more than an order of magnitude and clearly suitable for planar integrated devices. We demonstrate strong spectral broadening of 0.6 ps pulses in waveguides fabricated from pure TeO(2), in good agreement with simulations.

  1. High sensitive temperature sensor based on a polymer waveguide integrated in an optical fibre micro-cavity (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Li, Min; Zhao, Panjuan; Wang, Xinshun; Qu, Shiliang


    A Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on a polymer waveguide integrated in an optical fibre micro-cavity was proposed. The micro-cavity with two symmetric openings was fabricated in single mode fibre by using femtosecond laser micromachining and fibre splicing. Then, the polymer waveguide with a length of 70 μm was integrated into the micro-cavity by using a two-photon polymerization fabrication method. The MZI exhibited a perfect interference spectrum with a fringe visibility of almost 25 dB. Owing to the high thermo-optical coefficient of the polymer material, the temperature sensitivity of the proposed MZI reached 447 pm/°C. Meanwhile, it can be used as a reliable temperature sensor as its perfect linearity (99.7%) and repeatability.

  2. Mechanically flexible waveguide arrays for optical chip-to-chip coupling (United States)

    Peters, Tjitte-Jelte; Tichem, Marcel


    This paper reports on the progress related to a multichannel photonic alignment concept, which aims to achieve submicrometer alignment of the waveguides of two photonic integrated circuits (PICs). The concept consists of two steps: chip-to-chip positioning and fixing provide a coarse alignment after which waveguide-to-waveguide positioning and fixing result in a fine alignment. For the waveguide-to-waveguide alignment, mechanically flexible waveguides are used. Positioning of the waveguides is performed by integrated MEMS actuators. The flexible waveguides and the actuators are both integrated in one of the PICs. This paper reports on the fabrication and the mechanical characterization of the suspended waveguide structures. The flexible waveguide array is created in a PIC which is based on TriPleX technology, i.e. a silicon nitride (Si3N4) core encapsulated in a silicon dioxide (SiO2) cladding. The realized flexible waveguide structures consist of parallel cantilevered waveguide beams and a crossbar that connects the free ends of the waveguide beams. The fabrication of suspended structures consisting of a thick, i.e. 15 µm, TriPleX layer stack is challenged by the compressive mean stress in the SiO2. We have developed a fabrication method for the reliable release of flexible TriPleX structures, resulting in a 96% yield of cantilever beams. The realized suspended waveguide arrays have a natural out-of-plane deformation, which is studied using white light interferometry. Suspended waveguide beams reveal a downward slope at the base of the beams close to 0:5_. In addition to this slope, the beams have a concave upward profile. The constant curvature over the length of the waveguide beams is measured to range from 0:2 µm to 0:8 µm. The profiles measured over the length of the crossbars do not seem to follow a circular curvature. The variation in deflection within crossbars is measured to be smaller than 0:2 µm.

  3. Single-mode propagation in optical waveguides and fibres: a critical review of its treatment in physics textbooks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruddock, Ivan S [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)], E-mail:


    The derivation and description of the modes in optical waveguides and fibres are reviewed. The version frequently found in undergraduate textbooks is shown to be incorrect and misleading due to the assumption of an axial ray of light corresponding to the lowest order mode. It is pointed out that even the lowest order must still be represented in an elementary treatment by a ray reflecting between opposite core and cladding boundaries.

  4. Subwavelength optics with hyperbolic metamaterials: Waveguides, scattering, and optical topological transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishii, Satoshi; Babicheva, Viktoriia E.; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y.


    Hyperbolic metamaterials possess unique optical properties owing to their hyperbolic dispersion. As hyperbolic metamaterials can be constructed just from periodic multilayers of metals and dielectrics, they have attracted considerable attention in the nanophotonics community. Here, we review some...

  5. Thermo-optic properties of epitaxial Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6 waveguides and their application as optical modulator. (United States)

    Liu, Wen Chao; Mak, Chee Leung; Wong, Kin Hung


    A prism-coupler technique was introduced to determine the refractive indices and thermo-optic coefficients of epitaxial Sr(0.6)Ba(0.4)Nb(2)O(6) (SBN) waveguides, in a temperature range covering the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition. A strong enhancement in the TO coefficient is observed near T(c). This strong enhancement is related to the critical change of the polarization. The values of dn(e)/dT are significantly larger than dn(o)/dT due to the larger quadratic electro-optic coefficient in TM polarization. In TM mode, the refractive index of SBN is increased by 1.3% as the temperature is increased to 160 degrees C. Our results suggest that SBN waveguide is a potential candidate for thermo-optic modulators and switches.

  6. Planar optical waveguide based sandwich assay sensors and processes for the detection of biological targets including early detection of cancers (United States)

    Martinez, Jennifer S [Santa Fe, NM; Swanson, Basil I [Los Alamos, NM; Shively, John E [Arcadia, CA; Li, Lin [Monrovia, CA


    An assay element is described including recognition ligands adapted for binding to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) bound to a film on a single mode planar optical waveguide, the film from the group of a membrane, a polymerized bilayer membrane, and a self-assembled monolayer containing polyethylene glycol or polypropylene glycol groups therein and an assay process for detecting the presence of CEA is described including injecting a possible CEA-containing sample into a sensor cell including the assay element, maintaining the sample within the sensor cell for time sufficient for binding to occur between CEA present within the sample and the recognition ligands, injecting a solution including a reporter ligand into the sensor cell; and, interrogating the sample within the sensor cell with excitation light from the waveguide, the excitation light provided by an evanescent field of the single mode penetrating into the biological target-containing sample to a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide thereby exciting any bound reporter ligand within a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide and resulting in a detectable signal.

  7. Fiber design and realization of point-by-point written fiber Bragg gratings in polymer optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Stecher, Matthias; Town, Graham E.


    and realization of a microstructured polymer optical fiber made of PMMA for direct writing of FBGs. The fiber was designed specifically to avoid obstruction of the writing beam by air-holes. The realized fiber has been used to point-by-point write a 5 mm long fourth order FBG with a Bragg wavelength of 1518 nm......An increasing interest in making sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) written in polymer optical fibers (POFs) has been seen recently. Mostly microstructured POFs (mPOFs) have been chosen for this purpose because they are easier to fabricate compared, for example, to step index fibers....... The grating was inspected under Differential Interferometric Contrast microscope and the reflection spectrum was measured. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first FBGs written into a mPOF with the point-by-point technique and also the fastest ever written into a polymer optical fiber, with less than...

  8. Integrated optical components based on planar photonic crystal waveguides with perturbed border holes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemi, Tapio; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Harpøth, Anders


    In this work, we have experimentally and by simulations investigated the effect of making small perturbations of the size of the border holes adjacent to the planar photonic crystal waveguide (PCW). The waveguide is created by removing one row of holes in the nearest-neighbour direction of air ho...

  9. Design of the low-loss waveguide coil for interferometric integrated optic gyroscopes (United States)

    Fei, Yao; Yang, Tianshu; Li, Zhaofeng; Liu, Wen; Wang, Xiaodong; Zheng, Wanhua; Yang, Fuhua


    With the development of manufacturing technology, the propagation loss of the planar waveguide is getting lower and lower, and the shot-noise-limited sensitivity of an IIOG will be greatly improved. When the propagation loss is getting lower, improper coupling-out waveguide in the waveguide coil may lead to non-ignorable bending loss and crosstalk because of the small radius of curvature and X-junction. In this paper, different coupling-out waveguides have been designed. After calculation and optimization by the beam propagation method, we found the proper coupling-out waveguide having relatively low propagation loss, which can improve the sensitivity of the IIOG. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61274066, 61504138, 61474115) and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2016YFA02005003).

  10. Annealed proton exchanged optical waveguides in lithium niobate differences between the X- and Z-cuts

    CERN Document Server

    Nekvindova, P; Cervena, J; Budnar, M; Razpet, A; Zorko, B; Pelicon, P; 10.1016/S0925-3467(01)00186-0


    Summarizes results and assessments of our systematic fabrication and characterization of proton exchanged (PE) and annealed proton exchanged (APE) waveguides in lithium niobate. This study focused on different behavior of crystallographically diverse X(1120) and Z (0001) substrate cuts during waveguide fabrication, and differences in characteristics of the resulting waveguides. Non-toxic adipic acid was used as a proton source, and the waveguides properties were defined by mode spectroscopy (waveguide characteristics) and neutron depth profiling (NDP, lithium concentration and distribution), infrared vibration spectra and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA, concentration and depth distribution of hydrogen). It was discovered that the X-cut structure is more permeable for moving particles (lithium and hydrogen ions), which leads to a higher effectiveness of the PE process within the X-cut. The explanation of this phenomenon is based on fitting X-cut orientation towards cleavage planes of lithium niobate c...

  11. Optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopic techniques for investigating membrane-bound ion channel activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Székács

    Full Text Available Optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopic (OWLS techniques were probed for monitoring ion permeation through channels incorporated into artificial lipid environment. A novel sensor set-up was developed by depositing liposomes or cell-derived membrane fragments onto hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE membrane. The fibrous material of PTFE membrane could entrap lipoid vesicles and the water-filled pores provided environment for the hydrophilic domains of lipid-embedded proteins. The sensor surface was kept clean from the lipid holder PTFE membrane by a water- and ion-permeable polyethylene terephthalate (PET mesh. The sensor set-up was tested with egg yolk lecithin liposomes containing gramicidin ion channels and with cell-derived membrane fragments enriched in GABA-gated anion channels. The method allowed monitoring the move of Na(+ and organic cations through gramicidin channels and detecting the Cl(--channel functions of the (α5β2γ2 GABAA receptor in the presence or absence of GABA and the competitive GABA-blocker bicuculline.

  12. The analysis of time-resolved optical waveguide absorption spectroscopy based on positive matrix factorization. (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Li, Zhu; Li, Bo; Shi, Guolong; Li, Minqiang; Yu, Daoyang; Liu, Jinhuai


    Time-resolved optical waveguide absorption spectroscopy (OWAS) makes use of an evanescent field to detect the polarized absorption spectra of sub-monomolecular adlayers. This technique is suitable for the investigation of kinetics at the solid/liquid interface of dyes, pigments, fluorescent molecules, quantum dots, metallic nanoparticles, and proteins with chromophores. In this work, we demonstrate the application of positive matrix factorization (PMF) to analyze time-resolved OWAS for the first time. Meanwhile, PCA is researched to compare with PMF. The absorption/desorption kinetics of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) onto a hydrophilic glass surface and the dynamic process of Meisenheimer complex between Cysteine and TNT are selected as samples to verify experimental system and analytical methods. The results are shown that time-resolved OWAS can well record the absorption/desorption of R6G onto a hydrophilic glass surface and the dynamic formation process of Meisenheimer complexes. The feature of OWAS extracted by PMF is dynamic and consistent with the results analyzed by the traditional function of time/wavelength-absorbance. Moreover, PMF prevents the negative factors from occurring, avoids contradicting physical reality, and makes factors more easily interpretable. Therefore, we believe that PMF will provide a valuable analysis route to allow processing of increasingly large and complex data sets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A hybrid humidity sensor using optical waveguides on a quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinbo, Kazunari, E-mail: [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Otuki, Shunya; Kanbayashi, Yuichi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Ohdaira, Yasuo [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Baba, Akira [Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Miyadera, Nobuo [Hitachi Chemical Co., Ltd., 48 Wadai, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki 300-4247 (Japan)


    In this study, slab and ridge optical waveguides (OWGs) made of fluorinated polyimides were deposited on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and hybrid sensors using OWG spectroscopy and the QCM technique were prepared. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film with CoCl{sub 2} was deposited on the OWGs, and the characteristics of humidity sensing were investigated. A prism coupler was used to enter a He-Ne laser beam ({lambda} = 632.8 nm) to the slab OWG. The output light intensity markedly changed due to chromism of the CoCl{sub 2} as a result of humidity sorption, and this change was dependent on the incident angle of the laser beam to the slab OWG. During the measurement of output light, the QCM frequency was simultaneously monitored. The humidity dependence of the sensor with the slab OWG was also investigated in the range from 15 to 85%. For the sensor with the ridge OWG, white light was entered by butt-coupling, and the characteristics of humidity sensing were investigated by observing the output light spectrum and the QCM frequency.

  14. Omnidirectional Photonic Band Gap Using Low Refractive Index Contrast Materials and its Application in Optical Waveguides

    KAUST Repository

    Vidal Faez, Angelo


    Researchers have argued for many years that one of the conditions for omnidirectional reflection in a one-dimensional photonic crystal is a strong refractive index contrast between the two constituent dielectric materials. Using numerical simulations and the theory of Anderson localization of light, in this work we demonstrate that an omnidirectional band gap can indeed be created utilizing low refractive index contrast materials when they are arranged in a disordered manner. Moreover, the size of the omnidirectional band gap becomes a controllable parameter, which now depends on the number of layers and not only on the refractive index contrast of the system, as it is widely accepted. This achievement constitutes a major breakthrough in the field since it allows for the development of cheaper and more efficient technologies. Of particular interest is the case of high index contrast one-dimensional photonic crystal fibers, where the propagation losses are mainly due to increased optical scattering from sidewall roughness at the interfaces of high index contrast materials. By using low index contrast materials these losses can be reduced dramatically, while maintaining the confinement capability of the waveguide. This is just one of many applications that could be proven useful for this discovery.

  15. Vertical adiabatic transition between a silica planar waveguide and an electro-optic polymer fabricated with gray-scale lithography. (United States)

    Chang, Daniel H; Azfar, Talal; Kim, Seong-Ku; Fetterman, Harold R; Zhang, Cheng; Steier, William H


    We report on a vertical adiabatic transition between silica planar waveguides and electro-optic (EO) polymer. Gray-scale lithography was used to pattern a polymer transition with an exponential profile. Excess losses of the order of 1 dB were measured, and good mode matching to simulation was observed. This configuration, which married the advantages of both silica and EO-polymer planar-optic technologies, demonstrates a new technique for fabricating hybrid active devices with high modulation speed, low insertion loss, and complex geometries.

  16. Erbium-doped silicon-oxycarbide materials for advanced optical waveguide amplifiers (United States)

    Gallis, Spyros

    As a novel silicon based material, amorphous silicon oxycarbide (a-SiC xOyHz) has found many important applications (e.g. as a low-k material for interconnects) in Si microelectronics. This Ph.D. thesis work has explored another potential application of amorphous silicon oxycarbide: as a silicon-based host material for planar erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers (EDWAs) that operate at the telecommunications wavelength of 1540 nm. Such EDWAs are an important component of planar photonic integrated circuits being developed for implementation of the fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) technology. Furthermore, these Si-based EDWAs could be combined with other Si photonic devices (e.g. light sources, detectors, modulators) for achieving opto-electronic integration on Si chips, or silicon micro/nanophotonics. This thesis will start with basics about Er-doped systems and material challenges in the design of EDWAs. A detailed study of the structural and optical properties of a-SiCxOyHz materials under various deposition and processing conditions, concerning several aspects, such as thin film composition, chemical bonding, refractive index and optical gap, will be presented and discussed. Lastly, this work will focus on the photoluminescence (PL) properties of erbium-doped amorphous silicon oxycarbides (a-SiCxOyHz:Er). Results of both Er-related (near infrared ˜1540 nm) and matrix-related (visible) luminescence properties will be presented, and mechanisms leading to efficient excitation of Er ions in the materials will be discussed. This work indicates that a-SiC xOyHz:Er can be a promising matrix for realizing high-performance EDWAs using inexpensive broadband light sources.

  17. Optical properties of planar waveguides on ZnWO₄ formed by carbon and helium ion implantation and effects of annealing. (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Hua; Liu, Tao; Guo, Sha-Sha; Guan, Jing; Wang, Xue-Lin


    We report on the optical properties of ZnWO(4) planar waveguides created by ion implantation, and the effect annealing has on these structures. Planar optical waveguides in ZnWO(4) crystals are fabricated by 5.0 MeV carbon ion implantation with a fluence of 1 × 10(15) ions/cm(2) or 500 keV helium ion implantation with the a fluence of 1 × 10(16) ions/cm(2). The thermal stability was investigated by 60 minute annealing cycles at different temperatures ranging from 260°C to 550°C in air. The guided modes were measured by a model 2010 prism coupler at wavelengths of 633 nm and 1539 nm. The reflectivity calculation method (RCM) was applied to simulate the refractive index profile in these waveguides. The near-field light intensity profiles were measured using the end-face coupling method. The absorption spectra show that the implantation processes have almost no influence on the visible band absorption.

  18. Nonclassical statistics of intracavity coupled chi((2)) waveguides: The quantum optical dimer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth


    A model is proposed where two chi((2)) nonlinear waveguides are contained in a cavity suited for second-harmonic generation. The evanescent wave coupling between the waveguides is considered as weak, and the interplay between this coupling and the nonlinear interaction within the waveguides gives...... to asymmetric states. The correlations imply strong correlations and anticorrelations induced by the coupling. The violations of the standard quantum limit are particularly strong when two instabilities are competing. The results are based on the full quantum Langevin equations derived from the boson operator...

  19. Subwavelength photonic crystal waveguide with trapezoidal shaped dielectric pillars in optical systems (United States)

    Xu, Xiaochuan; Chen, Ray T.


    A method for reducing loss in a subwavelength photonic crystal waveguide bend is disclosed. The method comprising: forming the subwavelength photonic crystal waveguide bend with a series of trapezoidal shaped dielectric pillars centered about a bend radius; wherein each of the trapezoidal shaped dielectric pillars comprise a top width, a bottom width, and a trapezoid height; wherein the length of the bottom width is greater than the length of the top width; and wherein the bottom width is closer to the center of the bend radius of the subwavelength photonic crystal waveguide bend than the top width. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  20. Short hybrid polymer/sol-gel silica waveguide switches with high in-device electro-optic coefficient based on photostable chromophore


    Y. Enami; Luo, J.; A. K-Y. Jen


    The highest electro-optic (EO) coefficient to date is achieved in short polymeric directional coupler switches based on hybrid EO polymer/sol-gel silica waveguides. Optimized poling conditions in such waveguides give a highest in-device EO coefficient of 160 pm/V at 1550 nm using highly efficient and photostable guest–host EO polymer SEO100. Adiabatic waveguide transitions from the passive sol-gel core to active EO polymer cores surrounding the sol-gel core are shown using EO polymer cores wi...

  1. Fabrication of polarization-independent waveguides deeply buried in lithium niobate crystal using aberration-corrected femtosecond laser direct writing (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Qi, Jia; Liu, Zhengming; Liao, Yang; Chu, Wei; Cheng, Ya


    Writing optical waveguides with femtosecond laser pulses provides the capability of forming three-dimensional photonic circuits for manipulating light fields in both linear and nonlinear manners. To fully explore this potential, large depths of the buried waveguides in transparent substrates are often desirable to facilitate achieving vertical integration of waveguides in a multi-layer configuration, which, however, is hampered by rapidly degraded axial resolution caused by optical aberration. Here, we show that with the correction of the spherical aberration, polarization-independent waveguides can be inscribed in a nonlinear optical crystal lithium niobate (LN) at depths up to 1400 μm, which is more than one order of magnitude deeper than the waveguides written with aberration uncorrected femtosecond laser pulses. Our technique is beneficial for applications ranging from miniaturized nonlinear light sources to quantum information processing.

  2. Optical waveguides with compound multiperiodic grating nanostructures for refractive index sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neustock, Lars Thorben; Jahns, Sabrina; Adam, Jost


    The spectral characteristics and refractive index sensitivity of compound multiperiodic grating waveguides are investigated in theory and experiment. Compound gratings are formed by superposition of two or more monoperiodic gratings. Compared to monoperiodic photonic crystal waveguides, compound...... grating waveguides offer more degrees of design freedom by choice of component grating periods and duty cycles. Refractive index sensing is achieved by evaluating the wavelength or intensity of guided-mode resonances in the reflection spectrum. We designed, fabricated and characterized 24 different...... compound multiperiodic nanostructured waveguides for refractive index sensing. Simulations are carried out with the Rigorous Coupled Wave Algorithm (RCWA). The resulting spectra, resonance sensitivities and quality factors are compared to monoperiodic as well as to three selected aperiodic nanostructures...

  3. Silicon-Nitride-based Integrated Optofluidic Biochemical Sensors using a Coupled-Resonator Optical Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei eWANG


    Full Text Available Silicon nitride (SiN is a promising material platform for integrating photonic components and microfluidic channels on a chip for label-free, optical biochemical sensing applications in the visible to near-infrared wavelengths. The chip-scale SiN-based optofluidic sensors can be compact due to a relatively high refractive index contrast between SiN and the fluidic medium, and low-cost due to the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS-compatible fabrication process. Here, we demonstrate SiN-based integrated optofluidic biochemical sensors using a coupled-resonator optical waveguide (CROW in the visible wavelengths. The working principle is based on imaging in the far field the out-of-plane elastic-light-scattering patterns of the CROW sensor at a fixed probe wavelength. We correlate the imaged pattern with reference patterns at the CROW eigenstates. Our sensing algorithm maps the correlation coefficients of the imaged pattern with a library of calibrated correlation coefficients to extract a minute change in the cladding refractive index. Given a calibrated CROW, our sensing mechanism in the spatial domain only requires a fixed-wavelength laser in the visible wavelengths as a light source, with the probe wavelength located within the CROW transmission band, and a silicon digital charge-coupled device (CCD / CMOS camera for recording the light scattering patterns. This is in sharp contrast with the conventional optical microcavity-based sensing methods that impose a strict requirement of spectral alignment with a high-quality cavity resonance using a wavelength-tunable laser. Our experimental results using a SiN CROW sensor with eight coupled microrings in the 680nm wavelength reveal a cladding refractive index change of ~1.3 × 10^-4 refractive index unit (RIU, with an average sensitivity of ~281 ± 271 RIU-1 and a noise-equivalent detection limit (NEDL of 1.8 ×10^-8 RIU ~ 1.0 ×10^-4 RIU across the CROW bandwidth of ~1 nm.

  4. Physics and applications of slow and fast light in semiconductor optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Chen, Yaohui; Ek, Sara

    We review the physics of slow and fast light based on coherent population oscillations in active semiconductor waveguides. Exploiting these effects, microwave phase shifters realizing 360 degree phase shift and operating at tens of GHz have been realized.......We review the physics of slow and fast light based on coherent population oscillations in active semiconductor waveguides. Exploiting these effects, microwave phase shifters realizing 360 degree phase shift and operating at tens of GHz have been realized....

  5. Optical characterisation of photonic wire and photonic crystal waveguides fabricated using nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Lavrinenko, Andrei


    We have characterised photonic-crystal and photonic-wire waveguides fabricated by thermal nanoimprint lithography. The structures, with feature sizes down below 20 nm, are benchmarked against similar structures defined by direct electron beam lithography.......We have characterised photonic-crystal and photonic-wire waveguides fabricated by thermal nanoimprint lithography. The structures, with feature sizes down below 20 nm, are benchmarked against similar structures defined by direct electron beam lithography....

  6. M-line spectroscopic, spectroscopic ellipsometric and microscopic measurements of optical waveguides fabricated by MeV-energy N{sup +} ion irradiation for telecom applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bányász, I., E-mail: [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 49, H-1525, Budapest (Hungary); Berneschi, S. [“Enrico Fermi” Center for Study and Research, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy); MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Fried, M.; Lohner, T. [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 49, H-1525, Budapest (Hungary); Conti, G. Nunzi; Righini, G.C.; Pelli, S. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Zolnai, Z. [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 49, H-1525, Budapest (Hungary)


    Irradiation with N{sup +} ions of the 1.5–3.5 MeV energy range was applied to optical waveguide formation. Planar and channel waveguides have been fabricated in an Er-doped tungsten–tellurite glass, and in both types of bismuth germanate (BGO) crystals: Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} (eulytine) and Bi{sub 12}GeO{sub 20} (sillenite). Multi-wavelength m-line spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry were used for the characterisation of the ion beam irradiated waveguides. Planar waveguides fabricated in the Er-doped tungsten–tellurite glass using irradiation with N{sup +} ions at 3.5 MeV worked even at the 1550 nm telecommunication wavelength. 3.5 MeV N{sup +} ion irradiated planar waveguides in eulytine-type BGO worked up to 1550 nm and those in sillenite-type BGO worked up to 1330 nm. - Highlights: ► Waveguides were fabricated in glass and crystals using MeV energy N{sup +} ions. ► SRIM simulation and spectroscopic ellipsometry yielded similar waveguide structures. ► Multi-wavelength m-line spectroscopy was used to study the waveguides. ► Waveguides fabricated in an Er-doped tungsten–tellurite glass worked up to 1.5 μm. ► Waveguides in Bi{sub 12}GeO{sub 20} remained operative up to 1.5 μm.

  7. New configurations for high-efficiency prism couplers with application to GeO2 optical waveguides. (United States)

    Yin, Z Y; Garside, B K


    A new prism coupler configuration is described which is very simple and reproducible. This device has been used to couple an Ar laser beam into a TEO single-mode GeO2 thin film waveguide with efficiencies exceeding 92%. Two specific air gap profiles using only one ball bearing and two sets of aluminum films have been examined.The theoretical description and experimental performance of this new type of prism coupler are presented; in both cases the air gap profiles are very close to the theoretically optimum shape, especially for a gap which does not have a mechanical contact point near the input optical beam incidence point on the waveguide. This approach is particularly advantageous for use with a fragile or soft thin film waveguide, since surface damage can more easily be avoided. Theoretical coupling efficiencies of 96.4 and 98.8% are predicted for the particular experimental samples investigated, and measured values of 90 and 92% have been achieved.

  8. Writing and probing light-induced waveguides thanks to an endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber. (United States)

    Huy, Kien Phan; Safioui, Jassem; Guichardaz, Blandine; Devaux, Fabrice; Chauvet, Mathieu


    We demonstrate writing and probing of light-induced waveguides in photorefractive bulk LiNbO3 crystal using an endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber. The optical waveguides are written at visible wavelengths by slightly raising the ferroelectric crystal temperature to benefit from the pyroelectric-driven photorefractive effect and the guiding properties are investigated at telecom wavelengths using the same photonic crystal fiber. End butt coupling with this photonic crystal fiber enables writing and probing of optical waveguides due to the self-alignment properties of spatial solitons.

  9. Dynamic Mass Transfer of Hemoglobin at the Aqueous/Ionic-Liquid Interface Monitored with Liquid Core Optical Waveguide. (United States)

    Chen, Xuwei; Yang, Xu; Zeng, Wanying; Wang, Jianhua


    Protein transfer from aqueous medium into ionic liquid is an important approach for the isolation of proteins of interest from complex biological samples. We hereby report a solid-cladding/liquid-core/liquid-cladding sandwich optical waveguide system for the purpose of monitoring the dynamic mass-transfer behaviors of hemoglobin (Hb) at the aqueous/ionic liquid interface. The optical waveguide system is fabricated by using a hydrophobic IL (1,3-dibutylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, BBimPF6) as the core, and protein solution as one of the cladding layer. UV-vis spectra are recorded with a CCD spectrophotometer via optical fibers. The recorded spectra suggest that the mass transfer of Hb molecules between the aqueous and ionic liquid media involve accumulation of Hb on the aqueous/IL interface followed by dynamic extraction/transfer of Hb into the ionic liquid phase. A part of Hb molecules remain at the interface even after the accomplishment of the extraction/transfer process. Further investigations indicate that the mass transfer of Hb from aqueous medium into the ionic liquid phase is mainly driven by the coordination interaction between heme group of Hb and the cationic moiety of ionic liquid, for example, imidazolium cation in this particular case. In addition, hydrophobic interactions also contribute to the transfer of Hb.

  10. Utilization of Field Enhancement in Plasmonic Waveguides for Subwavelength Light-Guiding, Polarization Handling, Heating, and Optical Sensing. (United States)

    Dai, Daoxin; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Wei


    Plasmonic nanostructures have attracted intensive attention for many applications in recent years because of the field enhancement at the metal/dielectric interface. First, this strong field enhancement makes it possible to break the diffraction limit and enable subwavelength optical waveguiding, which is desired for nanophotonic integrated circuits with ultra-high integration density. Second, the field enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures occurs only for the polarization mode whose electric field is perpendicular to the metal/dielectric interface, and thus the strong birefringence is beneficial for realizing ultra-small polarization-sensitive/selective devices, including polarization beam splitters, and polarizers. Third, plasmonic nanostructures provide an excellent platform of merging electronics and photonics for some applications, e.g., thermal tuning, photo-thermal detection, etc. Finally, the field enhancement at the metal/dielectric interface helps a lot to realize optical sensors with high sensitivity when introducing plasmonic nanostrutures. In this paper, we give a review for recent progresses on the utilization of field enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures for these applications, e.g., waveguiding, polarization handling, heating, as well as optical sensing.

  11. Integrated all-optical wavelength multicasting for 40 Gbit/s PDM-QPSK signals using a single silicon waveguide (United States)

    Feng, Xianglian; Wu, Zhihang; Wang, Xiaoyan; Gao, Shiming


    All-optical wavelength multicasting is presented and experimentally demonstrated for 40 Gbit/s polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM) nonreturn-to-zero quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signals using four-wave mixing (FWM) with angled-polarization pumps in a silicon waveguide. Five multicast channels are obtained on the generated idlers. The eye diagrams, constellation diagrams, and bit error rates (BERs) of the QPSK sequences on the two polarization states are measured for each wavelength channel. The power penalties of all these multicast QPSK sequences on x or y polarization state are less than 2.0 dB at the BER of 3 × 10-3.

  12. Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths. (United States)

    Martínez, Alejandro; Blasco, Javier; Sanchis, Pablo; Galán, José V; García-Rupérez, Jaime; Jordana, Emmanuel; Gautier, Pauline; Lebour, Youcef; Hernández, Sergi; Guider, Romain; Daldosso, Nicola; Garrido, Blas; Fedeli, Jean Marc; Pavesi, Lorenzo; Martí, Javier; Spano, Rita


    We demonstrate experimentally all-optical switching on a silicon chip at telecom wavelengths. The switching device comprises a compact ring resonator formed by horizontal silicon slot waveguides filled with highly nonlinear silicon nanocrystals in silica. When pumping at power levels about 100 mW using 10 ps pulses, more than 50% modulation depth is observed at the switch output. The switch performs about 1 order of magnitude faster than previous approaches on silicon and is fully fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor technologies.

  13. Metal-optic cavity for a high efficiency sub-fF germanium photodiode on a silicon waveguide. (United States)

    Going, Ryan; Kim, Myung-Ki; Wu, Ming C


    We propose two designs of nanoscale sub-fF germanium photodiodes which are efficiently integrated with silicon waveguides. The metal-optic cavities are simulated with the finite difference time domain method and optimized using critical coupling concepts. One design is for a metal semiconductor metal photodiode with photodiode with <100 aF capacitance, 51% external quantum efficiency, and 0.804 (λ/n)³ cavity volume. Both designs make use of CMOS compatible materials germanium and aluminum metal for potential future monolithic integration with silicon photonics.

  14. Optical phase conjugation by an As(2)S(3) glass planar waveguide for dispersion-free transmission of WDM-DPSK signals over fiber. (United States)

    Pelusi, M D; Luan, F; Choi, D-Y; Madden, S J; Bulla, D A P; Luther-Davies, B; Eggleton, B J


    We report the first demonstration of optical phase conjugation (OPC) transmission of phase encoded and wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) signals by the Kerr effect in a planar structured waveguide. The phase conjugated electric field of the signal is produced by four wave mixing pumped by a CW laser during co-propagating with the signal in a highly nonlinear waveguide fabricated in As(2)S(3) glass. Experiments demonstrate the capability of the device to perform dispersion-free transmission through up to 225 km of standard single mode fiber for a 3 × 40 Gb/s WDM signal, with its channels encoded as return-to-zero differential phase shift keying and spaced either 100 or 200 GHz apart. This work represents an important milestone towards demonstrating advanced signal processing of high-speed and broadband optical signals in compact planar waveguides, with the potential for monolithic optical integration.

  15. Internal Optical Waveguide Loss and p-Type Absorption in Blue and Green InGaN Quantum Well Laser Diodes (United States)

    Sizov, Dmitry S.; Bhat, Rajaram; Heberle, Albert; Song, Kechang; Zah, Chung-en


    We present a new characterization method for internal optical waveguide loss of blue, aquamarine, and green group-III-nitride laser diodes from as-grown wafers without need for further fabrication. This approach relies on excitation-position dependent polarization-resolved photoluminescence spectra collected from the edge of the planar waveguide. The high measurement accuracy of +/-1 cm-1 enables for the first time determination of the mechanisms for p-layer optical loss from the waveguide loss difference before and after Mg dopant activation. Temperature-dependent measurements show that the dominant optical loss mechanism is absorption by acceptor-bound holes. This absorption mechanism does not depend significantly on light polarization.

  16. Investigation of a planar optical waveguide in 2D PPLN using helium implantation technique. (United States)

    Ripault, Q; Lee, M W; Mériche, F; Touam, T; Courtois, B; Ntsoenzok, E; Peng, L-H; Fischer, A; Boudrioua, A


    In this work, we report the investigation of a planar waveguide in a 2D periodically-poled lithium niobate (PPLN). The waveguide is fabricated by helium (He(+)) implantation at 2 MeV and a fluence of 1.5 x 10(16) ions/cm(2). Second harmonic generation (SHG) at 532 nm using a Q-switched laser and a CW laser diode at 1064 nm, was measured as a function of angular distribution and temperature. The experimental results show higher gain in SHG conversion efficiency in the waveguide than in the bulk 2D PPLN. In particular, SHGs from 2D reciprocal lattice vectors (RLV) are observed and studied.

  17. Offset-Free Gigahertz Midinfrared Frequency Comb Based on Optical Parametric Amplification in a Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate Waveguide (United States)

    Mayer, A. S.; Phillips, C. R.; Langrock, C.; Klenner, A.; Johnson, A. R.; Luke, K.; Okawachi, Y.; Lipson, M.; Gaeta, A. L.; Fejer, M. M.; Keller, U.


    We report the generation of an optical-frequency comb in the midinfrared region with 1-GHz comb-line spacing and no offset with respect to absolute-zero frequency. This comb is tunable from 2.5 to 4.2 μ m and covers a critical spectral region for important environmental and industrial applications, such as molecular spectroscopy of trace gases. We obtain such a comb using a highly efficient frequency conversion of a near-infrared frequency comb. The latter is based on a compact diode-pumped semiconductor saturable absorber mirror-mode-locked ytterbium-doped calcium-aluminum gadolynate (Yb:CALGO) laser operating at 1 μ m . The frequency-conversion process is based on optical parametric amplification (OPA) in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) chip containing buried waveguides fabricated by reverse proton exchange. The laser with a repetition rate of 1 GHz is the only active element of the system. It provides the pump pulses for the OPA process as well as seed photons in the range of 1.4 - 1.8 μ m via supercontinuum generation in a silicon-nitride (Si3 N4 ) waveguide. Both the PPLN and Si3 N4 waveguides represent particularly suitable platforms for low-energy nonlinear interactions; they allow for mid-IR comb powers per comb line at the microwatt level and signal amplification levels up to 35 dB, with 2 orders of magnitude less pulse energy than reported in OPA systems using bulk devices. Based on numerical simulations, we explain how high amplification can be achieved at low energy using the interplay between mode confinement and a favorable group-velocity mismatch configuration where the mid-IR pulse moves at the same velocity as the pump.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The hollow core photonic crystal waveguide biosensor is designed and described. The biosensor was tested in experiments for artificial sweetener identification in drinks. The photonic crystal waveguide biosensor has a high sensitivity to the optical properties of liquids filling up the hollow core. The compactness, good integration ability to different optical systems and compatibility for use in industrial settings make such biosensor very promising for various biomedical applications.

  19. On-chip positionable photonic waveguides for chip-to-chip optical interconnects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, T.J.; Tichem, M.; Vivien, Laurent; Pavesi, Lorenzo; Pelli, Stefano


    This paper reports on the progress related to a multichannel photonic alignment concept, aiming for sub-micrometer precision in the alignment of the waveguides of two photonic integrated circuits (PICs). The concept consists of two steps: chip-to-chip positioning and chip bonding provide a coarse

  20. Giant optical gain in rare-earth-ion-doped thin films and waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geskus, D.; Aravazhi, S.; García Blanco, Sonia Maria; Pollnau, Markus

    In a rare-earth-ion-doped double tungstate channel waveguide amplifier, we demonstrate an ultra-high modal gain of 950 dB/cm, two order of magnitude higher than in other rare-earth-ion-doped materials and comparable to modal gain in semiconductors.

  1. A semianalytical method of mode determination for a multilayer planar optical waveguide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stratonnikov, AA; Bogatov, AP; Drakin, AE; Kamenets, FF

    A new method for mode determination of multilayer planar waveguides with complex-valued dielectric permeability is proposed. The method is based on the combination of an argument principle in complex analysis and a quasi-Newton method. The argument principle allows reliable determination of the

  2. Optical two-beam traps in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine


    An attractive solution for optical trapping and stretching by means of two counterpropagating laser beams is to embed waveguides or optical fibers in a microfluidic system. The microfluidic system can be constructed in different materials, ranging from soft polymers that may easily be cast in a r...... written waveguides and in an injection molded polymer chip with grooves for optical fibers. (C) 2016 The Japan Society of Applied Physics....

  3. Transmission line model for extraction of transmission characteristics in photonic crystal waveguides with stubs: optical filter design. (United States)

    Khavasi, Amin; Miri, Mehdi; Rezaei, Mohsen; Mehrany, Khashayar; Rashidian, Bizhan


    A simple and efficient transmission line model is proposed here to study how the transmission characteristics of photonic crystal waveguides are tailored by introduction of stubs patterned in the photonic crystal lattice. It is shown that band-pass and band-stop optical filters can be easily designed and optimized when stubs of appropriate length are brought in. Since the lengths of the designed stubs are not necessarily integer multiples of the photonic crystal lattice constant, a geometric shift in a portion of the photonic crystal structure is shown to be essential. The proposed model is verified by using a rigorous numerical method. An excellent agreement is observed between the numerical results and the transmission characteristics as extracted by the proposed model. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  4. Nearly degenerate wavelength-multiplexed polarization entanglement by cascaded optical nonlinearities in a PPLN ridge waveguide device. (United States)

    Arahira, Shin; Murai, Hitoshi


    In this paper we report the generation of wavelength-multiplexed polarization-entangled photon pairs in the 1.5-μm communication wavelength band by using cascaded optical second nonlinearities (sum-frequency generation and subsequent spontaneous parametric down-conversion, c-SFG/SPDC) in a periodically poled LiNbO(3) ridge waveguide device. The c-SFG/SPDC method makes it possible to fully use the broad spectral bandwidth of SPDC in nearly frequency-degenerate conditions, and can provide more than 50 pairs of wavelength channels for the entangled photon pairs in the 1.5-μm wavelength band, using only standard optical resources in the telecom field. Visibilities higher than 98% were clearly observed in two-photon interference fringes for all the wavelength channels under investigation (eight pairs). We further performed a detailed experimental investigation of the cross-talk characteristics and the impact of detuning the pump wavelengths.

  5. A Functionalized Tetrakis(4-NitrophenylPorphyrin Film Optical Waveguide Sensor for Detection of H2S and Ethanediamine Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulimire Tuerdi


    Full Text Available The detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S and ethanediamine, toxic gases that are emitted from industrial processes, is important for health and safety. An optical sensor, based on the absorption spectrum of tetrakis(4-nitrophenylporphyrin (TNPP immobilized in a Nafion membrane (Nf and deposited onto an optical waveguide glass slide, has been developed for the detection of these gases. Responses to analytes were compared for sensors modified with TNPP and Nf-TNPP composites. Among them, Nf-TNPP exhibited significant responses to H2S and ethanediamine. The analytical performance characteristics of the Nf-TNPP-modified sensor were investigated and the response mechanism is discussed in detail. The sensor exhibited excellent reproducibilities, reversibilities, and selectivities, with detection limits for H2S and ethanediamine of 1 and 10 ppb, respectively, and it is a promising candidate for use in industrial sensing applications.

  6. A Functionalized Tetrakis(4-Nitrophenyl)Porphyrin Film Optical Waveguide Sensor for Detection of H₂S and Ethanediamine Gases. (United States)

    Tuerdi, Gulimire; Kari, Nuerguli; Yan, Yin; Nizamidin, Patima; Yimit, Abliz


    The detection of hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) and ethanediamine, toxic gases that are emitted from industrial processes, is important for health and safety. An optical sensor, based on the absorption spectrum of tetrakis(4-nitrophenyl)porphyrin (TNPP) immobilized in a Nafion membrane (Nf) and deposited onto an optical waveguide glass slide, has been developed for the detection of these gases. Responses to analytes were compared for sensors modified with TNPP and Nf-TNPP composites. Among them, Nf-TNPP exhibited significant responses to H₂S and ethanediamine. The analytical performance characteristics of the Nf-TNPP-modified sensor were investigated and the response mechanism is discussed in detail. The sensor exhibited excellent reproducibilities, reversibilities, and selectivities, with detection limits for H₂S and ethanediamine of 1 and 10 ppb, respectively, and it is a promising candidate for use in industrial sensing applications.

  7. Fluorescence detection using optical waveguide collection device with high efficiency on assembly of nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond (United States)

    Zhang, Shaowen; Ma, Zongmin; Qin, Li; Fu, Yueping; Shi, Yunbo; Liu, Jun; Li, Yan Jun


    In this letter, we propose a fluorescence waveguide excitation and collection (FWEC) method that allows for an excess of 45% collection efficiency of pump photons into optically detected magnetic resonance. The FWEC system used can collect fluorescence 96 times higher than the confocal system under spin manipulation with a microwave. Furthermore, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the FWEC system is improved 9 times compared with that of the confocal system. In addition, the increase in contrast observed using the FWEC system shows that the integration of the system is much improved with 3D printing technology. Thus, this research has a great potential application in subsequent magnetic detection and quantum optics.

  8. Radio-over-optical waveguide system-on-wafer for massive delivery capacity 5G MIMO access networks (United States)

    Binh, Le N.


    Delivering maximum information capacity over MIMO antennae systems beam steering is critical so as to achieve the flexibility via beam steering, maximizing the number of users or community of users in Gb/s rate per user over distributed cloud-based optical-wireless access networks. This paper gives an overview of (i) demands of optical - wireless delivery with high flexibility, especially the beam steering of multi-Tbps information channels to information hungry community of users via virtualized beam steering MIMO antenna systems at the free-license mmW region; (ii) Proposing a novel photonic planar integrated waveguide systems composing several passive and active, passive and amplification photonic devices so as to generate mmW carrier and embedded baseband information channels to feed to antenna elements; (iii) Integration techniques to generate a radio over optical waveguide (RoOW) system-on-wafer (SoW) comprising MIMO planar antenna elements and associate photonic integrated circuits for both up- and down- links; (iv) Challenges encountered in the implementation of the SoW in both wireless and photonic domains; (v) Photonic modulation techniques to achieve maximum transmission capacity per wavelength per MIMO antenna system. (vi) A view on control-feedback systems for fast and accurate generation of phase pattern for MIMO beam steering via a bank of optical phase modulators to mmW carrier phases and their preservation in the converted mmW domain . (vi) The overall operational principles of the novel techniques and technologies based on the coherent mixing of two lightwave channels The entire SoW can be implemented on SOI Si-photonic technology or via hybrid integration. These technological developments and their pros- and cons- will be discussed to achieve 50Tera-bps over the extended 110 channel Cband single mode fiber with mmW centered at 58.6GHz and 7GHz free-license band.

  9. Narrow linewidth 578 nm light generation using frequency-doubling with a waveguide PPLN pumped by an optical injection-locked diode laser. (United States)

    Kim, Eok Bong; Lee, Won-Kyu; Park, Chang Yong; Yu, Dai-Hyuk; Park, Sang Eon


    This study demonstrates 578 nm yellow light generation with a narrow linewidth using a waveguide periodically poled lithium niboate (PPLN) and an optical injection-locked diode laser. The frequency of an external cavity diode laser used as a master laser operating at 1156 nm in optical injection-locking mode was locked into a high-finesse cavity with the Pound-Drever-Hall technique, which results in a linewidth reduction of the master laser. The linewidth of the master laser was estimated to be approximately 1.6 kHz. In an effort to amplify the optical power, a distributed feed-back laser was phase-locked to the master laser by an optical injection-locking technique. A waveguide PPLN was used for second harmonic generation. Frequency-doubled yellow light of approximately 2.4 mW was obtained with a conversion efficiency of 6.5%. (c) 2010 Optical Society of America.

  10. Structure and optical properties of rare earth doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} waveguide films derived by sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, H.; Zhang, W.; Lou, L.; Brioude, A.; Mugnier, J


    Pure and rare earth ions doped yttrium oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) waveguide films were prepared by a simple sol-gel process and dip-coating technique. Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} were successfully synthesized by hydrolysis of yttrium acetate. The structural evolution of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} films with annealing temperature was investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, waveguide Raman spectroscopy and High-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The propagation loss of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films at 632.8 nm measured by scattering-detection method is approximately 1.5 dB/cm. The fluorescence of Er{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} waveguide thin films were studied under the waveguide configuration. The fluorescence intensities evolution with annealing temperature of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Er{sup 3+} films has been studied and was explained by the multi-phonon non-radiative processes. Our results show that Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is a good host material for optically active waveguide thin films and sol-gel process is a useful method to derive pure and doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} waveguide films.

  11. 110 km transmission of 160 Gbit/s RZ-DQPSK signals by midspan polarization-insensitive optical phase conjugation in a Ti:PPLN waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Nouroozi, R.; Ludwig, R.


    and difference frequency generation in a Ti:PPLN waveguide. Error-free operation with a negligible optical signal-to-noise ratio penalty for the signal after the OPC transmission without and with polarization scrambling was achieved. The results also show the polarization insensitivity of the OPC system using...

  12. Tunable All-Optical Wavelength Conversion Based on Cascaded SHG/DFG in a Ti:PPLN Waveguide Using a Single CW Control Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Nouroozi, Rahman; Wang, Wenrui


    Tunable all-optical wavelength conversion (AOWC) of a 40-Gb/s RZ-OOK data signal based on cascaded second-harmonic generation (SHG) and difference-frequency generation (DFG) in a Ti:PPLN waveguide is demonstrated. Error-free performances with negligible power penalty are achieved for the wavelength...

  13. Measurement of ultrafast optical Kerr effect of Ge-Sb-Se chalcogenide slab waveguides by the beam self-trapping technique (United States)

    Kuriakose, Tintu; Baudet, Emeline; Halenkovič, Tomáš; Elsawy, Mahmoud M. R.; Němec, Petr; Nazabal, Virginie; Renversez, Gilles; Chauvet, Mathieu


    We present a reliable and original experimental technique based on the analysis of beam self-trapping to measure ultrafast optical nonlinearities in planar waveguides. The technique is applied to the characterization of Ge-Sb-Se chalcogenide films that allow Kerr induced self-focusing and soliton formation. Linear and nonlinear optical constants of three different chalcogenide waveguides are studied at 1200 and 1550 nm in femtosecond regime. Waveguide propagation loss and two photon absorption coefficients are determined by transmission analysis. Beam broadening and narrowing results are compared with simulations of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation solved by BPM method to deduce the Kerr n2 coefficients. Kerr optical nonlinearities obtained by our original technique compare favorably with the values obtained by Z-scan technique. Nonlinear refractive index as high as (69 ± 11) × 10-18m2 / W is measured in Ge12.5Sb25Se62.5 at 1200 nm with low nonlinear absorption and low propagation losses which reveals the great characteristics of our waveguides for ultrafast all optical switching and integrated photonic devices.

  14. Controlling the volatility of the written optical state in electrochromic DNA liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Kai; Varghese, Justin; Gerasimov, Jennifer Y.; Polyakov, Alexey O.; Shuai, Min; Su, Juanjuan; Chen, Dong; Zajaczkowski, Wojciech; Marcozzi, Alessio; Pisula, Wojciech; Noheda, Beatriz; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Clark, Noel A.; Herrmann, Andreas

    Liquid crystals are widely used in displays for portable electronic information display. To broaden their scope for other applications like smart windows and tags, new material properties such as polarizer-free operation and tunable memory of a written state become important. Here, we describe an

  15. Ultrafast Laser Fabrication of Bragg Waveguides in GLS Chalcogenide Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMillen Ben


    Full Text Available We present work on the fabrication of Bragg waveguides in gallium-lanthanum-sulfide chalcogenide glass using an ultrafast laser. Waveguides were written with a single pass while modulating the writing beam. The spatial and temporal profile of the writing beam was ontrolled during waveguide fabrication in order to control the shape and size of the waveguide cross-section.

  16. Optical nano-structuring in light-sensitive AgCl-Ag waveguide thin films: wavelength effect. (United States)

    Talebi, Razieh; Nahal, Arashmid; Bashouti, Muhammad Y; Christiansen, Silke H


    Irradiation of photosensitive thin films results in the nanostructures formation in the interaction area. Here, we investigate how the formation of nanostructures in photosensitive waveguide AgCl thin films, doped by Ag nanoparticles, can be customized by tuning the wavelength of the incident beam. We found, silver nanoparticles are pushed towards the interference pattern minima created by the interference of the incident beam with the excited TEn-modes of the AgCl-Ag waveguide. The interference pattern determines the grating constant of the resulting spontaneous periodic nanostructures. Also, our studies indicate a strong dependence of the shape and size distribution of the formed Ag nano-coalescences on the wavelength of the incident beam. It also influences on the surface coverage of the sample by the formed silver nanoparticles and on period of the self-organized nano-gratings. It is found, exposure time and intensity of the incident light are the most determinant parameters for the quality and finesse of our nanostructures. More intense incident light with shorter exposure time generates more regular nanostructures with smaller nano-coalescences and, produces gratings with higher diffraction efficiency. At constant intensity longer exposure time produces more complete nanostructures because of optical positive feedback. We observed exposure with longer wavelength produces finer gratings.

  17. Miniaturized Waveguide Fourier Transform Spectrometer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To characterize the IR optical properties of the metal-coated hollow waveguide ensemble; configure the Hollow Waveguide FTS (HWFTS) chip in such a way that we...

  18. Wide optical spectrum range, sub-volt, compact modulator based on electro-optic polymer refilled silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xingyu; Luo, Jingdong; Jen, Alex K -Y; Chen, Ray T


    We design and demonstrate a compact and low-power band-engineered electro-optic (EO) polymer refilled silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide (PCW) modulator. The EO polymer is engineered for large EO activity and near-infrared transparency. A PCW step coupler is used for optimum coupling to the slow-light mode of the band-engineered PCW. The half-wave switching-voltage is measured to be V{\\pi}=0.97+-0.02V over optical spectrum range of 8nm, corresponding to the effective in-device r33 of 1190pm/V and V{\\pi} L of 0.291+-0.006V mm in a push-pull configuration. Excluding the slow-light effect, we estimate the EO polymer is poled with an efficiency of 89pm/V in the slot.

  19. Investigation of phase matching for third-harmonic generation in silicon slow light photonic crystal waveguides using Fourier optics. (United States)

    Monat, Christelle; Grillet, Christian; Corcoran, Bill; Moss, David J; Eggleton, Benjamin J; White, Thomas P; Krauss, Thomas F


    Using Fourier optics, we retrieve the wavevector dependence of the third-harmonic (green) light generated in a slow light silicon photonic crystal waveguide. We show that quasi-phase matching between the third-harmonic signal and the fundamental mode is provided in this geometry by coupling to the continuum of radiation modes above the light line. This process sustains third-harmonic generation with a relatively high efficiency and a substantial bandwidth limited only by the slow light window of the fundamental mode. The results give us insights into the physics of this nonlinear process in the presence of strong absorption and dispersion at visible wavelengths where bandstructure calculations are problematic. Since the characteristics (e.g. angular pattern) of the third-harmonic light primarily depend on the fundamental mode dispersion, they could be readily engineered.

  20. Performance Analysis of Triple Asymmetrical Optical Micro Ring Resonator with 2 × 2 Input-Output Bus Waveguide (United States)

    Ranjan, Suman; Mandal, Sanjoy


    Modeling of triple asymmetrical optical micro ring resonator (TAOMRR) in z-domain with 2 × 2 input-output system with detailed design of its waveguide configuration using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is presented. Transfer function in z-domain using delay-line signal processing technique of the proposed TAOMRR is determined for different input and output ports. The frequency response analysis is carried out using MATLAB software. Group delay and dispersion characteristics are also determined in MATLAB. The electric field analysis is done using FDTD. The method proposes a new methodology to design and draw multiple configurations of coupled ring resonators having multiple in and out ports. Various important parameters such as coupling coefficients and FSR are also determined.

  1. Performance Analysis of Triple Asymmetrical Optical Micro Ring Resonator with 2 × 2 Input-Output Bus Waveguide (United States)

    Ranjan, Suman; Mandal, Sanjoy


    Modeling of triple asymmetrical optical micro ring resonator (TAOMRR) in z-domain with 2 × 2 input-output system with detailed design of its waveguide configuration using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is presented. Transfer function in z-domain using delay-line signal processing technique of the proposed TAOMRR is determined for different input and output ports. The frequency response analysis is carried out using MATLAB software. Group delay and dispersion characteristics are also determined in MATLAB. The electric field analysis is done using FDTD. The method proposes a new methodology to design and draw multiple configurations of coupled ring resonators having multiple in and out ports. Various important parameters such as coupling coefficients and FSR are also determined.

  2. Group IV Materials for High Performance Methane Sensing in Novel Slot Optical Waveguides at 2.883 μm and 3.39 μm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio M. N. PASSARO


    Full Text Available In this paper a detailed investigation of novel photonic sensors based on slot waveguides has been carried out. Appropriate alloys of group IV materials, such as germanium (Ge, silicon (Si, carbon (C and tin (Sn, are applied in silicon-on-insulator (SOI technology for homogeneous optical sensing at 2.883 µm and 3.39 μm. Electronic and optical properties of group IV alloys have been investigated. In addition, we have designed novel group IV vertical slot waveguides in order to achieve ultra-high sensitivities, as well as good fabrication tolerances. All these features have been compared with well-known SOI slot waveguides for optical label-free homogeneous sensing at 1.55 µm. In conclusion, theoretical investigation of ring resonators based on these novel slot waveguides has revealed very good results in terms of ultra high sensing performance of methane gas, i.e., limit of detection ~ 3.6×10-5 RIU and wavelength sensitivity > 2×103 nm/RIU.

  3. Electro-optic coefficient mapping and the design, fabrication and analysis of coplanar waveguide resonators in lithium niobate (United States)

    Narayan, Raghuram


    The main topics in this dissertation are (a) Investigation of Electro-Optic (EO) coefficient variation in lithium niobate and (b) the design, fabrication and analysis of coplanar waveguide resonant electrodes for EO modulators. An optical sampling technique is used to determine the EO coefficient variations in lithium niobate processed using the titanium in-diffusion technique and the Annealed Proton Exchange (APE) technique. A spatial mapping of the EO coefficients in lithium niobate is presented. The measurements enable us to quantitatively estimate the reduction in the EO coefficient as a function of the processing conditions. The results clearly indicate that samples processed using titanium in-diffusion show no degradation of the EO coefficient. Samples processed using the APE technique display a dramatic drop in the processed region immediately after the proton exchange step. Thermal annealing is shown to restore the EO coefficient in the proton exchanged regions. But the efficacy of thermal annealing is dependent on the initial proton exchange process. Prolonged thermal annealing is effective in restoring the EO coefficients provided the initial proton exchange depth is less than 1.5/mu m. Coplanar Waveguide (CPW) is a popular planar transmission line because of its tight confinement and non-dispersive nature at high frequencies (>60 GHz). In this dissertation, several CPW resonant electrodes have been fabricated, tested and analyzed. The advantage of CPW resonant electrode structure is that there is an enhancement in the field strength by a factor proportional to /sqrt[Q], where Q is the quality factor of the resonator. The dis-advantage is that the device is narrow-band in its frequency response. The focus of this dissertation is to investigate the design and fabrication issues related to CPW resonators. The results indicate the need for better design tools to properly predict the performance of the resonator and in general CPW structures. The measurements

  4. Short hybrid polymer/sol-gel silica waveguide switches with high in-device electro-optic coefficient based on photostable chromophore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Enami


    Full Text Available The highest electro-optic (EO coefficient to date is achieved in short polymeric directional coupler switches based on hybrid EO polymer/sol-gel silica waveguides. Optimized poling conditions in such waveguides give a highest in-device EO coefficient of 160 pm/V at 1550 nm using highly efficient and photostable guest–host EO polymer SEO100. Adiabatic waveguide transitions from the passive sol-gel core to active EO polymer cores surrounding the sol-gel core are shown using EO polymer cores with a coplanar tapered structure. Switching voltages of 8.4 and 10.5 V are achieved for electrodes that are 2.1 and 1.5 mm long, respectively, which are half those of EO switches containing the chromophore AJLS102.

  5. UV Written Integrated Optical Beam Combiner for Near Infrared Astronomical Interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael; Olivero, Massimo; Jocou, Laurent


    A near infrared integrated optical beam combiner for astronomical interferometry is demonstrated for the first time by direct UV writing. High fringe contrast >95%, low total loss (0.7 dB), low crosstalk and broadband performance is demonstrated....

  6. A compact and low-loss silicon waveguide crossing for O-band optical interconnect (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Streshinsky, Matthew; Novack, Ari; Ma, Yangjin; Yang, Shuyu; Lim, Andy Eu-Jin; Lo, Guo-Qiang; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Hochberg, Michael


    Silicon photonics has attracted extensive attention in recent years as a promising solution for next generation high-speed, low energy consumption, and low cost data transmission systems. Although a few experiments indicated board-level and long haul communication capability, major and near-future application of silicon photonics is commonly seen as Ethernet at 100Gb/s and beyond, such as interconnects in data centers, where O-Band (near 1310 nm wavelength) has been standardized for its low fiber dispersion. However, almost all silicon photonics devices demonstrated up to date operate at C-Band (1530 nm to 1560 nm), the fiber loss and erbium amplification window, probably due to the wider availability of lasers and testing apparatus at this wavelength. Typical C-Band devices cannot operate at O-Band, thus the whole device library needs to be redesigned and recalibrated for O-Band applications. In this paper, we present an ultra compact, low loss, and low crosstalk waveguide crossing operating at O-Band. It is designed using the finite difference time domain method coupled with a particle swarm optimization. Device footprint is only 6 μm × 6 μm. The measured insertion loss is 0.19+/-0.02 dB across an 8-inch wafer. Cross talk is lower than -35 dB. We also report a second waveguide crossing with a 9 μm × 9 μm footprint with 0.017+/-0.005 dB insertion loss. Finally we summarize the performance of our overall O-Band device library, including low-loss waveguides, high-speed modulators, and photodetectors.

  7. Thermal waveguide OPO. (United States)

    Lin, S T; Lin, Y Y; Wang, T D; Huang, Y C


    We report a mid-infrared, CW singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with a thermally induced waveguide in its gain crystal. We measured a numerical aperture of 0.0062 for the waveguide at 80-W intracavity power at 3.2 microm. This thermal-guiding effect benefits to the stable operation of an OPO and improves the parametric conversion efficiency by more than a factor of two when compared with that without thermal guiding.

  8. Response Characterization of a Fiber Optic Sensor Array with Dye-Coated Planar Waveguide for Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Sung Lee


    Full Text Available We have developed a multi-array side-polished optical-fiber gas sensor for the detection of volatile organic compound (VOC gases. The side-polished optical-fiber coupled with a polymer planar waveguide (PWG provides high sensitivity to alterations in refractive index. The PWG was fabricated by coating a solvatochromic dye with poly(vinylpyrrolidone. To confirm the effectiveness of the sensor, five different sensing membranes were fabricated by coating the side-polished optical-fiber using the solvatochromic dyes Reinhardt’s dye, Nile red, 4-aminophthalimide, 4-amino-N-methylphthalimide, and 4-(dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde, which have different polarities that cause changes in the effective refractive index of the sensing membrane owing to evanescent field coupling. The fabricated gas detection system was tested with five types of VOC gases, namely acetic acid, benzene, dimethylamine, ethanol, and toluene at concentrations of 1, 2,…,10 ppb. Second-regression and principal component analyses showed that the response properties of the proposed VOC gas sensor were linearly shifted bathochromically, and each gas showed different response characteristics.

  9. Design of signal router employing optical switching in MIM plasmonic waveguides (United States)

    Singh, Lokendra; Bedi, Amna; Kumar, Santosh


    The all optical routing is novel approach for establishment of transparent information flow in optical networks. The diffraction limit of light is major factor which backseats the photonic components and mitigated by integrated all optical components. In this paper, an all-optical signal router with two optical inputs using nonlinear plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is proposed. The nonlinearity in MZI structure is achieved by using nonlinear Kerr-material, which is also responsible for switching of optical signal across two output ports. The study of proposed device is carried out using finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) method and verified using MATLAB.

  10. Optical coupling structure made by imprinting between single-mode polymer waveguide and embedded VCSEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karppinen, M.; Salminen, N.; Korhonen, T.; Alajoki, T.; Petäjä, J.; Bosman, E.; Steenberge, G. van; Justice, J.; Khan, U.; Corbett, B.; Boersma, A.


    Polymer-based integrated optics is attractive for inter-chip optical interconnection applications, for instance, for coupling photonic devices to fibers in high density packaging. In such a hybrid integration scheme, a key challenge is to achieve efficient optical coupling between the photonic chips

  11. Slow light in narrow-core hollow optical waveguide with low loss and large bandwidth. (United States)

    Kaur, Harpinder; Kumar, Varun; Kumar, Mukesh


    A narrow-core hollow waveguide with low loss is proposed that exhibits slow light characteristics. The slow light is guided in air between the top and bottom mirrors, each based on high-index-contrast gratings. The proposed design shows a low propagation loss of 1.8 dB/cm at a 1-μm-thick narrow air core, and the loss remains low for a broad range of wavelengths from 1200 to 1600 nm. Also, the flat band slow light is realized at a grating period of 0.8 μm in 1-μm-thick narrow air core. Further design analysis reveals a large fabrication tolerance of the proposed hollow structure with respect to the grating period.

  12. Theoretical and computational studies of disorder-induced scattering and nonlinear optical interactions in slow-light photonic crystal waveguides (United States)

    Mann, Nishan Singh

    Photonic crystal waveguides (PCWs) are nano-scale devices offering an exciting platform for exploring and exploiting enhanced linear and nonlinear light-matter interactions, aided in-part by slowing down the group velocity (vg) of on-chip photons. However, with potential applications in telecommunications, bio-sensing and quantum computing, the road to commercialization and practical devices is hindered by our limited understanding of the influence of structural disorder on linear and nonlinear light propagation. This thesis refines and develops state-of-the-art mathematical and numerical models for understanding the important role of disorder-related optical phenomena for PCWs in the linear and optical nonlinear regime. The importance of Bloch modes is demonstrated by computing the power loss caused by disorder-induced scattering for various dispersion engineered PCWs. The theoretical results are found to be in very good agreement with related experiments and it is shown how dispersion engineered designs can minimize the Bloch fields around spatial imperfections resulting in a radical departure from the usual assumed scaling vg. -2 of backscatteringlosses. We also conduct a systematic investigation of the influence of intra-hole correlation length, a parameter characterizing disorder on backscattering losses and find the loss behaviour to be qualitatively dependent on waveguide design and frequency. We then model disorder-induced resonance shifts to compute the ensemble averaged disordered density of states, accounting for important local field effects which are crucial in achieving good qualitative agreement with experiments. Lastly, motivated by emerging experiments examining enhanced nonlinear interactions, we develop an intuitive time dependent coupled mode formalism to derive propagation equations describing nonlinear pulse propagation in the presence of disorder-induced multiple scattering. The framework establishes a natural length scale for each physical

  13. Design and Fabrication of Diffractive Optical Element-Microlens with Continuous Relief Fabricated On-Top of Optical Fibre by Focused Ion Beam for Fibre-to-Waveguide Coupling (United States)

    Schiappelli, F.; Kumar, R.; Prasciolu, M.; Cojoc, D.; Cabrini, S.; Proietti, R.; Degiorgio, V.; Di Fabrizio, E.


    The purpose of this work is to demonstrate efficient optical coupling between a single mode fibre and a waveguide (LiNbO3-APE) using a diffractive optical elements (DOEs)-microlens with continuous relief fabricated directly on the top of a cleaved fibre using a focused ion beam (FIB) milling process. DOE’s with diameters as small as 15 μm were fabricated by means of FIB milling process. A focused Ga + ion beam was used to mill a continuous relief microstructure at a 30 kV acceleration voltage. The design of the DOE-microlens and the calculations related to the optical fibre-to-waveguide coupling was carried with our own developed code. The profile of the fabricated DOE-microlens was very well reproduced in nine annulus each of 100 nm thick. The focusing performance of DOE-microlens with nine annulus was investigated. This fabricated DOE-microlens was able to focalize the Gaussian beam leaving the fibre, into a wave guide plane at a distance of 28 μm from the DOE-microlens surface. The fundamental mode size of the beam leaving the fibre was of about 10.5 μm while the size of the focused waist was 5.2 μm. This has led to an efficient matching the fundamental mode of the fibre vis-à-vis that of waveguide. Coupling efficiency test were carried using a laser beam λ=1550-nm wavelength. The optical coupling using the DOE-microlens on-top-of the fibre-to-waveguide is 67% more efficient than the direct coupling between the fibre and the waveguide. This shows that the design meets the application’s requirement for fibre-waveguide coupling, and that DOE-microlens fabricated by FIB technology are practicable.

  14. Analysis of waveguide architectures of InGaN/GaN diode lasers by nearfield optical microscopy (United States)

    Friede, Sebastian; Tomm, Jens W.; Kühn, Sergei; Hoffmann, Veit; Wenzel, Hans


    Waveguide (WG) architectures of 420-nm emitting InAlGaN/GaN diode lasers are analyzed by photoluminescence (PL) and photocurrent (PC) spectroscopy using a nearfield scanning optical microscope (NSOM) for excitation and detection. The measurements with a spatial resolution of 100 nm are implemented by scanning the fiber tip along the unprepared front facets of standard devices. PL is collected by the fiber tip, whereas PCs are extracted from the contacts that are anyway present for power supply. The mechanisms of signal generation are addressed in detail. The components of the `optical active region', multiple quantum wells (MQW), WGs, and cladding layers are separately inspected. Even separate analysis of p- and n-sections of the WG become possible. Defect levels are detected in the p-part of the WG. Their presence is consistent with the doping by Mg. An increased efficiency of carrier capture into InGaN/GaN WGs compared to GaN WGs is observed. Thus, beyond the improved optical confinement, the electrical confinement is improved, as well. NSOM PL and PC at GaN based devices do not reach the clarity and spatial resolution for WG mode analysis as seen before for GaAs based devices. This is due to higher modal absorption and higher WG losses. NSOM based optical analysis turns out to be an efficient tool for analysis of single layers grown into InAlGaN/GaN diode laser structures, even if this analysis is done at a packaged ready-to-work device.

  15. FD-TD modeling of 2-D dielectric waveguides for propagation and scattering of femtosecond optical solitons (United States)

    Joseph, Rose; Goorjian, Peter; Taflove, Allen


    Experimentalists have produced all-optical switches capable of 100-fs responses. To adequately model such switches, nonlinear effects in optical materials (both instantaneous and dispersive) must be included. In principle, the behavior of electromagnetic fields in nonlinear dielectrics can be determined by solving Maxwell's equations subject to the assumption that the electric polarization has a nonlinear relation to the electric field. However, until our previous work, the resulting nonlinear Maxwell's equations have not been solved directly. Rather, approximations have been made that result in a class of generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equations (GNLSE) that solve only for the envelope of the optical pulses. In this paper, we present first-time calculations from the vector nonlinear Maxwell's equations of femtosecond soliton propagation and scattering, including carrier waves, in two-dimensional systems of dielectric waveguides exhibiting the Kerr and Raman quantum effects. We use the finite-difference time-domain (FD-TD) method in an extension of our 1-D work. There, in a fundamental innovation, we treated the linear and nonlinear convolutions for the electric polarization as new dependent variables. By differentiating these convolutions in the time domain, we derived an equivalent system of coupled, nonlinear second-order ODE's. These equations together with Maxwell's equations form the system that is solved to determine the electromagnetic fields in inhomogeneous nonlinear dispersive media. Backstorage in time is limited to only that needed by the time-integration algorithm for the ODE's, rather than that needed to store the time-history of the kernel functions of the convolutions (1000-10,000 time steps). Thus, a 2-D nonlinear optics model from Maxwell's equations is now feasible.

  16. Ultrafast all-optical flip-flop based on passive micro Sagnac waveguide ring with photonic crystal fiber. (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Yang, Wan; Hong, Tao; Kang, TangZhen; Ji, JianHua; Wang, Ke


    Ultrafast all-optical flip-flop based on a passive micro Sagnac waveguide ring is studied through theoretical analysis and numerical simulation in this paper. The types of D, R-S, J-K, and T flip-flop are designed by controlling the cross-phase modulation effect of lights in this special microring. The high nonlinearity of the hollow-core photonic crystal fiber is implanted on a chip to shorten the length of the ring and reduce input power. By sensible management, the pulse width ratio of the input and the control signal, problems of pulse narrowing, and residual pedestal at the out port are solved. The parameters affecting the performance of flip-flops are optimized. The results show that the all-optical flip-flops have stable performance, low power consumption, high transmission rate (up to 100  Gb/s), and response time in picosecond order. The small size microwaveguide structure is suitable for photonic integration.

  17. New waveguide shape for low loss and high uniformity y-branch optical splitter (United States)

    Burtscher, Catalina; Seyringer, Dana; Lucki, Michal; Kohler, Linda


    The most common application of optical Y-splitters is their use in FTTx networks. It allows several customers to share the same physical medium, bringing high-speed networking, digital television and telephone services to residences using fiber-optic cables. The task of the optical splitters in such FTTH networks is to split one optical signal in many identical signals bringing for example the same TV signal in different households. Of course, the more buildings can be served by one optical splitter the lower are the installation costs. Therefore, the special attention is paid mainly to the design of high channel optical splitters presenting the serious challenge for the professional designers. In this paper a new Y-branch shape is proposed for 1×32 Y-branch splitter ensuring better splitting properties compared to the one recommended by ITU, in terms of their performance in transmission systems using wavelength division multiplexing.

  18. Optical waveguides formed by silver ion exchange in Schott SG11 glass for waveguide evanescent field fluorescence microscopy: evanescent images of HEK293 cells. (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Abdollah; Nitsche, Michael; Armstrong, Souzan; Nabavi, Noushin; Harrison, Rene; Dixon, S Jeffrey; Langbein, Uwe; Mittler, Silvia


    Planar glass waveguides with a specific number of modes were fabricated by Ag(+)-Na(+) exchange in Schott SG11 glass. The effective refractive indices were determined using m-line spectroscopy in both s- and p-polarization. By using the reversed Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation, the index profiles were described by a nonlinear diffusion equation. The diffusion coefficients for Ag(+) were established, as well as the penetration depth of the evanescent field in an aqueous environment for the different modes. The integrals of \\E\\(2) fields for the evanescent-guided fields were investigated. These are important when evanescent fields are used for illumination in interface microscopy, an alternative method to total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. The photoluminescent behavior of the waveguides was investigated as a function of ion exchange time and excitation wavelengths. Comparable images were obtained of fluorescently labeled HEK293 cells using TIRF microscopy and waveguide evanescent field fluorescence microscopy. Imaging was performed using HEK293 cells, delivering similar images and information.

  19. Design of optical seven-segment decoder using Pockel's effect inside lithium niobate-based waveguide (United States)

    Pal, Amrindra; Kumar, Santosh; Sharma, Sandeep


    Seven-segment decoder is a device that allows placing digital information from many inputs to many outputs optically, having 11 Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) for their implementation. The layout of the circuit is implemented to fit the electrical method on an optical logic circuit based on the beam propagation method (BPM). Seven-segment decoder is proposed using electro-optic effect inside lithium niobate-based MZIs. MZI structures are able to switch an optical signal to a desired output port. It consists of a mathematical explanation about the proposed device. The BPM is also used to analyze the study.

  20. Direct UV-Written Integrated Optical Beam Combiner for Stellar Interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivero, Massimo; Svalgaard, Mikael; Jocou, L.


    In this paper, we report the fabrication of an optical-beam combiner for stellar interferometry by means of direct ultraviolet (UV) writing. The component is shown to have good performance (fringe contrast > 95%, total loss similar to 0.7, -40-dB crosstalk, broadband operation covering at least...... the range 1.49-1.65 mu m, and low differential chromatic dispersion). The overall performance exceeds that of similar components currently used for astronomical research. This result, combined with the fast-prototyping ability of UV writing, opens up new possibilities for the realization of highly optimized...

  1. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara

    due to photonic crystal dispersion. The observations are explained by the enhancement of net gain by light slow down. Another application based on active photonic crystal waveguides is micro lasers. Measurements on quantum dot micro laser cavities with different mirror configurations and photonic......This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... crystal semiconductor optical amplier. As a step towards such a component, photonic crystal waveguides with a single quantum well, 10 quantum wells and three layers of quantum dots are fabricated and characterized. An experimental study of the amplied spontaneous emission and a implied transmission...

  2. Al2O3-Y2O3 ultrathin multilayer stacks grown by atomic layer deposition as perspective for optical waveguides applications (United States)

    López, J.; Borbón-Nuñez, H. A.; Lizarraga-Medina, E. G.; Murillo, E.; Machorro, R.; Nedev, N.; Marquez, H.; Farías, M. H.; Tiznado, H.; Soto, G.


    Nanolaminate multilayers made of Al2O3 and Y2O3 bilayer slabs were grown at 250 °C by means of thermal Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). Several samples were prepared, where the number of ALD cycles for the Al2O3 slab was kept constant at 17 ALD cycles, while the number for the Y2O3 slabs was varied from 1 to 100. An optical model was built and adapted for each sample considering the Cauchy relationship, which was used to simulate the optical response for transparent materials. The thickness obtained from the optical model was in agreement with the thickness of cross-sectional SEM images. The optical band gap, obtained from single-effective-oscillator model, varied from 5.45 to 4.24 eV as a function of the Y2O3 slab thickness. The refractive index as well as the optical band gap can be modulated systematically using the Al2O3:Y2O3 ratio as control parameter. By means of simulated propagation modes it is shown that there is a multimode behavior for thickness around 200 nm at wavelengths between 300 and 1550 nm. This study reveals the possibility of using Al2O3-Y2O3 nanolaminates as the core of optical waveguides. It also shows the potential of ALD technique for fabrication of submicron waveguides useful in miniature optical circuits.

  3. On-chip all-optical wavelength conversion of multicarrier, multilevel modulation (OFDM m-QAM) signals using a silicon waveguide. (United States)

    Li, Chao; Gui, Chengcheng; Xiao, Xi; Yang, Qi; Yu, Shaohua; Wang, Jian


    We report on-chip all-optical wavelength conversion of multicarrier multilevel modulation signals in a silicon waveguide. Using orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) combined with advanced multilevel quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signals (i.e., OFDM m-QAM), we experimentally demonstrate all-optical wavelength conversions of 3.2 Gbaud/s OFDM 16/32/64/128-QAM signals based on the degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) nonlinear effect in a silicon waveguide. The measured optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties of wavelength conversion are ∼3  dB for OFDM 16-QAM and ∼4  dB for OFDM 32-QAM at 7% forward error correction (FEC) threshold and ∼3.5  dB for OFDM 64-QAM and ∼4.5  dB for OFDM 128-QAM at 20% FEC threshold. The observed clear constellations of converted idlers imply favorable performance obtained for silicon-waveguide-based OFDM 16/32/64/128-QAM wavelength conversions.

  4. Strong coupling and high contrast all optical modulation in atomic cladding waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Liron; Mazurski, Noa; Levy, Uriel


    In recent years we are witnessing a flourish in research aimed to facilitate alkali vapors in guided wave configurations. Owing to the significant reduction in device dimensions, the increase in density of states, the interaction with surfaces and primarily the high intensities carried along the structure, a rich world of light vapor interactions can be studied, and new functionalities, e.g. low power nonlinear light-matter interactions can be achieved. One immense remaining challenge is to study the effects of quantum coherence and shifts in such nano-scale waveguides, characterized by ultra-small mode areas and fast dynamics. Here, we construct a serpentine silicon-nitride wave guide, having atomic vapor as its cladding. The unprecedented mode volume of 5e-13 m^3 supported over a length of 17 mm is used to demonstrate efficient linear and non-linear spectroscopy. Fascinating and important phenomena such as van der Waals shifts, dynamical stark shifts, and coherent effects such as strong coupling (in the for...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Dyomichev


    Full Text Available We present spectra of the alkali-silicate glasses with copper ions in near-surface area, introduced by ion exchange of different temperature and duration. It is shown that the reduction of Cu2+ in the near-surface area causes existence of Cu+ and neutral atoms in glass after the ion-exchange in divalent salt. The ion-exchange itself involves only Cu+ and Na+ ions. The formation of subnanometer clusters Cun is due to neutral copper atoms staying in near-surface zone. We have shown that the waveguide layer in near-surface area, made by ion-exchange, has а visible luminescence with the excitation by UVradiation. At the same time, the contribution to luminescence is made by Cu+ ions, molecular clusters Cun and by dimers Cu+ - Cu+ . During the high-temperature ion-exchange at 600 °С the formation and destruction equilibrium shift of molecular clusters Cun can be seen. An hour ion-exchange leads to molecular clusters Cun destruction, while at time periods less than 30 min and around 18 hours it leads to the formation of Cun. The sample turns green after 18,5 hours ion-exchange showing formation of a considerable amount of divalent copper ions Cu2+ therein.

  6. Active and Passive Devices in Ion-Exchanged Glass Waveguides (United States)

    Roman, Jose Eduardo

    The design, fabrication, and characterization of active and passive devices in ion-exchanged glass waveguides is described. The ion-exchanged devices demonstrated include the first distributed Bragg reflector laser, the first photowritten beam deflector, and a waveguide grating filter for pulse compression and dispersion compensation. The laser was fabricated in neodymium-doped, soda -lime, silicate glass using silver ion exchange. A surface -relief Bragg reflector was produced and served as one of the end mirrors. The use of a Bragg grating as one of the cavity mirrors narrowed the emission linewidth of the laser from 2000 GHz to less than 35 MHz, allowing single -longitudinal mode operation at 1054 nm. Except for the optical fiber-based devices, this is the first single-frequency integrated glass waveguide laser. This laser is compatible with optical fibers and could represent an alternative to semiconductor laser diodes as an integrated narrowband source for optical communications. The photowritten beam deflector was based on a new method for producing gratings in ion-exchanged glass waveguides. The glass was made photosensitive to ultraviolet light by creating a bleachable absorption band centered at 330 nm. This band was produced by irradiating the glass with gamma rays from a cobalt source. A phase grating was optically written directly into the waveguide film using the 350-nm line from an argon laser. This light bleached the absorption band and created a refractive index change through the Kramers-Kronig relationship. This novel direct-write technique could facilitate the fabrication of grating-based devices in ion-exchanged waveguides. Finally, two theoretical design methods for waveguide grating filters were investigated. The first method was based on inverse Fourier transform techniques. The second, more powerful method, uses the Gel'fand-Levitan-Marchenko (GLM) inverse scattering technique. The GLM method was used to design a waveguide grating filter for

  7. Demonstration of optical vortex propagation in on-chip rectangular dielectric waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir S.; Chipouline, Arkadi; Sokolovskii, Grigorii S.


    Orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light provides an additional degree of freedom for multiplexing the data streams in optical communications, increasing further the channel capacity [1]. Applications of OAM for both classical data transmission [2] and quantum information [3] have been demonstrate....... The key step towards robust, suitable for massive production, and cost-efficient OAM-assisted communications is the development of compact, on-chip integrable optical components....

  8. All-optical signal processing in novel highly nonlinear fibres and waveguides


    Ettabib, Mohamed A.


    All-optical signal processing has recently become an attractive research field, a result of nonlinear optical systems making major advances in terms of cost, compactness, energy consumption, integrability and reliability. This technology has impacted several areas ranging from telecommunications and biomolecular sensing to military and quantum communications, and spanning a vast range of frequencies from the near to mid-infrared. This PhD research project was aimed at investigating the featur...

  9. Loss engineered slow light waveguides. (United States)

    O'Faolain, L; Schulz, S A; Beggs, D M; White, T P; Spasenović, M; Kuipers, L; Morichetti, F; Melloni, A; Mazoyer, S; Hugonin, J P; Lalanne, P; Krauss, T F


    Slow light devices such as photonic crystal waveguides (PhCW) and coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW) have much promise for optical signal processing applications and a number of successful demonstrations underpinning this promise have already been made. Most of these applications are limited by propagation losses, especially for higher group indices. These losses are caused by technological imperfections ("extrinsic loss") that cause scattering of light from the waveguide mode. The relationship between this loss and the group velocity is complex and until now has not been fully understood. Here, we present a comprehensive explanation of the extrinsic loss mechanisms in PhC waveguides and address some misconceptions surrounding loss and slow light that have arisen in recent years. We develop a theoretical model that accurately describes the loss spectra of PhC waveguides. One of the key insights of the model is that the entire hole contributes coherently to the scattering process, in contrast to previous models that added up the scattering from short sections incoherently. As a result, we have already realised waveguides with significantly lower losses than comparable photonic crystal waveguides as well as achieving propagation losses, in units of loss per unit time (dB/ns) that are even lower than those of state-of-the-art coupled resonator optical waveguides based on silicon photonic wires. The model will enable more advanced designs with further loss reduction within existing technological constraints.

  10. Tubular optical waveguide particle plasmon resonance biosensor for multiplex real-time and label-free detection (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Han; Lin, Hsing-Ying; Chau, Lai-Kwan


    A tubular optical waveguide particle plasmon resonance (TW-PPR) sensor is demonstrated for higher-throughput and sensitive label-free biochemical detections. Compared to other evanescent field absorption sensors, the TW-PPR sensor possesses merits of itself being a microchamber of a defined sample volume, a mechanical support for sensor coatings, and ease of systematic multichannel expansion. The sensor resolution is estimated to be 2.6 × 10-6 RIU in measuring solutions of various refractive indices (RIs). Additionally, the multichannel TW-PPR sensing system can perform independent measurements simultaneously and its limit of detection (LOD) of anti-DNP antibody and streptavidin separately measured by DNP-functionalized and biotin-functionalized TW-PPR microchambers is demonstrated to be 1.21 × 10-10 and 2.27 × 10-10 g/ml, respectively. Accurate determinations of these molecules with known concentrations spiked in artificial urine are examined and the sensor responses give excellent correlation with results demonstrated in standard buffer examinations, supporting the utility of the device for analyte screening in more complex media. The TWPPR sensor can be inexpensively fabricated and has a special niche as high-sensitivity refractive index sensor as well as biosensor for label-free monitoring biomolecular interactions in real-time. It is ideally suitable for disposable uses, especially promising for convenient higher-throughput biochemical sensing applications.

  11. 110 km transmission of 160 Gbit/s RZ-DQPSK signals by midspan polarization-insensitive optical phase conjugation in a Ti:PPLN waveguide. (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Nouroozi, Rahman; Ludwig, Reinhold; Schmidt-Langhorst, Carsten; Suche, Hubertus; Sohler, Wolfgang; Schubert, Colja


    We demonstrate 160 Gbit/s return-to-zero (RZ) differential quarternary phase-shift keying (DQPSK) signal transmission over a 110 km single-mode fiber by taking advantage of mid-span optical phase conjugation (OPC). The technique is based on nonlinear wavelength conversion by cascaded second harmonic and difference frequency generation in a Ti:PPLN waveguide. Error-free operation with a negligible optical signal-to-noise ratio penalty for the signal after the OPC transmission without and with polarization scrambling was achieved. The results also show the polarization insensitivity of the OPC system using a polarization diversity scheme.

  12. Waveguide-based optofluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnutsch, Christian; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana; Monat, Christelle


    blocks in many applications, from microlasers and biomedical sensor systems to optical switches and integrated circuits. In this paper, we show that PhC microcavities can be formed by infusing a liquid into a selected section of a uniform PhC waveguide and that the optical properties of these cavities...... and highlight the benefits of an optofluidic approach, focusing on optofluidic cavities created in silicon photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide platforms. These cavities can be spatially and spectrally reconfigured, thus allowing a dynamic control of their optical characteristics. PhC cavities are major building...... can be tuned and adapted. By taking advantage of the negative thermo-optic coefficient of liquids, we describe a method which renders PhC cavities insensitive to temperature changes in the environment. This is only one example where the fluid-control of optical elements results in a functionality...

  13. Luminescence and Gain in Co-Sputtered Al2O3 Erbium-Doped Waveguides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Klein


    Rare earth doping of planar waveguides may potentially yield very compact optical amplifiers, lasers, and amplified spontaneous emission light sources, as well as zero insertion loss waveguide routers...

  14. Electro-Optic Modulator Based on Organic Planar Waveguide Integrated with Prism Coupler (United States)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S.


    The objectives of the project, as they were formulated in the proposal, are the following: (1) Design and development of novel electro-optic modulator using single crystalline film of highly efficient electro-optic organic material integrated with prism coupler; (2) Experimental characterization of the figures-of-merit of the modulator. It is expected to perform with an extinction ratio of 10 dB at a driving signal of 5 V; (3) Conclusions on feasibility of the modulator as an element of data communication systems of future generations. The accomplishments of the project are the following: (1) The design of the electro-optic modulator based on a single crystalline film of organic material NPP has been explored; (2) The evaluation of the figures-of-merit of the electro-optic modulator has been performed; (3) Based on the results of characterization of the figures-of-merit, the conclusion was made that the modulator based on a thin film of NPP is feasible and has a great potential of being used in optic communication with a modulation bandwidth of up to 100 GHz and a driving voltage of the order of 3 to 5 V.

  15. Temporal mode selectivity by frequency conversion in second-order nonlinear optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, D. V.; Raymer, M. G.; McKinstrie, C. J.


    in a transparent optical network using temporally orthogonal waveforms to encode different channels. We model the process using coupled-mode equations appropriate for wave mixing in a uniform second-order nonlinear optical medium pumped by a strong laser pulse. We find Green functions describing the process......We explore theoretically the feasibility of using frequency conversion by sum- or difference-frequency generation, enabled by three-wave-mixing, for selectively multiplexing orthogonal input waveforms that overlap in time and frequency. Such a process would enable a drop device for use...

  16. Visualization of unidirectional optical waveguide using topological photonic crystals made of dielectric material

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yuting; Xu, Tao; Wang, Hai-Xiao; Jiang, Jian-Hua; Hu, Xiao; Hang, Zhi Hong


    The introduction of topology unravels a new chapter of physics. Topological systems provide unique edge/interfacial quantum states which are expected to contribute to the development of novel spintronics and open the door to robust quantum computation. Optical systems can also benefit from topology. Engineering locally in real space a honeycomb photonic crystal with double Dirac cone in its photonic dispersion, topology transition in photonic band structure is induced and a pseudospin unidirectional optical channel is created and demonstrated by the backscattering immune electromagnetic transportation. The topological photonic crystal made of dielectric material can pave the road towards steering light propagations and contribute to novel communication technology.

  17. Low-power, ultrafast, and dynamic all-optical tunable plasmon induced transparency in two stub resonators side-coupled with a plasmonic waveguide system (United States)

    Wang, Boyun; Zeng, Qingdong; Xiao, Shuyuan; Xu, Chen; Xiong, Liangbin; Lv, Hao; Du, Jun; Yu, Huaqing


    We theoretically and numerically investigate a low-power, ultrafast, and dynamic all-optical tunable plasmon induced transparency (PIT) in two stub resonators side-coupled with a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) plasmonic waveguide system. The optical Kerr effect is enhanced by the local electromagnetic field of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and the plasmonic waveguide based on graphene-Ag composite material structures with large effective Kerr nonlinear coefficient. An ultrafast response time of the order of 1 ps is reached because of ultrafast carrier relaxation dynamics of graphene. With dynamically tuning the propagation phase of the plasmonic waveguide, π-phase shift of the transmission spectrum in the PIT system is achieved under excitation of a pump light with an intensity as low as 5.8 MW cm‑2. The group delay is controlled between 0.14 and 0.67 ps. Moreover, the tunable bandwidth of about 42 nm is obtained. For the indirect coupling between two stub cavities or the phase coupling scheme, the phase shift multiplication effect of the PIT effect is found. All observed schemes are analyzed rigorously through finite-difference time-domain simulations and coupled-mode formalism. This work not only paves the way towards the realization of on-chip integrated nanophotonic devices but also opens the possibility of the construction of ultrahigh-speed information processing chips based on plasmonic circuits.

  18. Optical manipulation with two beam traps in microfluidic polymer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury Arvelo, Maria; Matteucci, Marco; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl


    An optical trapping system with two opposing laser beams, also known as the optical stretcher, are naturally constructed inside a microfluidic lab-on-chip system. We present and compare two approaches to combine a simple microfluidic system with either waveguides directly written in the microflui...

  19. Efficient thermo-optically controlled Mach-Zhender interferometers using dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosciniak, J.; Markey, L.; Dereux, A.


    Compact fiber-coupled dielectric-loaded plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometers operating at telecom wavelengths and controlled via the thermo-optic effect are reported. Two fabricated structures with Cytop substrate and a ridge made of PMMA or a cycloaliphatic acrylate polymer (CAP) were considered...

  20. Efficient ultra-fast all-optical wavelength converters with Ti:PPLN waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nouroozi, Rahman; Suche, Hubertus; Hu, Hao


    Applications of packaged and pigtailed (tunable) integrated all-optical Ti:PPLN wavelength converters (AOWC) with different modulation formats (RZ-DQPSK, 16-ary QAM) are reported. The devices take advantage of cascaded second order nonlinear interactions allowing tuning with either one or two...

  1. High Performance Optical Waveguides based on Boron and Phosphorous doped Silicon Oxynitride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, F.; Driessen, A.; Worhoff, Kerstin; Broquin, Jean-Emmanuel; Greiner, Christoph M.


    Silicon oxynitride (SiON) is a highly attractive material for integrated optics, due to its excellent properties such as high transparency, adjustable refractive index and good stability. In general, the growth of SiON layers by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is followed by a high

  2. Optimization of PECVD boron-phosphoros doped silicon oxynitride for low-loss optical waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussein, M.G.


    Boron phosphorus-doped silicon oxynitride layers for integrated optics applications have been deposited from 2% SiH4/N2 + N2O + 5% PH3/Ar and 5% B2H6/Ar. The influence of boron and phosphorus-doping to the PECVD SiON layer properties has been investigated. The boron concentration was found to

  3. Optical modeling of waveguide coupled TES detectors towards the SAFARI instrument for SPICA (United States)

    Trappe, N.; Bracken, C.; Doherty, S.; Gao, J. R.; Glowacka, D.; Goldie, D.; Griffin, D.; Hijmering, R.; Jackson, B.; Khosropanah, P.; Mauskopf, P.; Morozov, D.; Murphy, A.; O'Sullivan, C.; Ridder, M.; Withington, S.


    The next generation of space missions targeting far-infrared wavelengths will require large-format arrays of extremely sensitive detectors. The development of Transition Edge Sensor (TES) array technology is being developed for future Far-Infrared (FIR) space applications such as the SAFARI instrument for SPICA where low-noise and high sensitivity is required to achieve ambitious science goals. In this paper we describe a modal analysis of multi-moded horn antennas feeding integrating cavities housing TES detectors with superconducting film absorbers. In high sensitivity TES detector technology the ability to control the electromagnetic and thermo-mechanical environment of the detector is critical. Simulating and understanding optical behaviour of such detectors at far IR wavelengths is difficult and requires development of existing analysis tools. The proposed modal approach offers a computationally efficient technique to describe the partial coherent response of the full pixel in terms of optical efficiency and power leakage between pixels. Initial wok carried out as part of an ESA technical research project on optical analysis is described and a prototype SAFARI pixel design is analyzed where the optical coupling between the incoming field and the pixel containing horn, cavity with an air gap, and thin absorber layer are all included in the model to allow a comprehensive optical characterization. The modal approach described is based on the mode matching technique where the horn and cavity are described in the traditional way while a technique to include the absorber was developed. Radiation leakage between pixels is also included making this a powerful analysis tool.

  4. Strong coupling of diffraction coupled plasmons and optical waveguide modes in gold stripe-dielectric nanostructures at telecom wavelengths (United States)

    Thomas, Philip A.; Auton, Gregory H.; Kundys, Dmytro; Grigorenko, Alexander N.; Kravets, Vasyl G.


    We propose a hybrid plasmonic device consisting of a planar dielectric waveguide covering a gold nanostripe array fabricated on a gold film and investigate its guiding properties at telecom wavelengths. The fundamental modes of a hybrid device and their dependence on the key geometric parameters are studied. A communication length of 250 μm was achieved for both the TM and TE guided modes at telecom wavelengths. Due to the difference between the TM and TE light propagation associated with the diffractive plasmon excitation, our waveguides provide polarization separation. Our results suggest a practical way of fabricating metal-nanostripes-dielectric waveguides that can be used as essential elements in optoelectronic circuits.

  5. Hybrid waveguide from As2S3 and Er-doped TeO2 for lossless nonlinear optics. (United States)

    Vu, Khu; Yan, Kunlun; Jin, Zhe; Gai, Xin; Choi, Duk-Yong; Debbarma, Sukanta; Luther-Davies, Barry; Madden, Steve


    The fabrication and characterization of loss-compensated dispersion-engineered nonlinear As(2)S(3) on Er:TeO2 waveguides is reported for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The hybrid waveguide is a strip loaded structure made from an Er-doped TeO2 slab and an etched As(2)S(3) strip. Almost complete loss compensation is demonstrated with 1480 nm pumping and a fully lossless waveguide with high nonlinear coefficient can be achieved with higher 1480 nm pump power.

  6. Optical spectroscopy and optical waveguide fabrication in Eu{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} doped zinc–sodium–aluminosilicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldiño, U., E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Speghini, A. [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Università di Verona and INSTM, UdR Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37314 Verona (Italy); Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara, C.N.R., Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Berneschi, S. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara, C.N.R., Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Bettinelli, M. [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Università di Verona and INSTM, UdR Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37314 Verona (Italy); Brenci, M. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara, C.N.R., Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Pasquini, E. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara, C.N.R., Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Pelli, S. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara, C.N.R., Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Righini, G.C. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata Nello Carrara, C.N.R., Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “Enrico Fermi”, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy)


    Optical and spectroscopic properties of 2.0% Eu(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} singly doped and 5.0% Tb(PO{sub 3}){sub 3}–2.0% Eu(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} codoped zinc–sodium–aluminosilicate glasses were investigated. Reddish-orange light emission, with x=0.64 and y=0.36 CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, is obtained in the europium singly doped glass excited at 393 nm. Such chromaticity coordinates are close to those (0.67,0.33) standard of the National Television System Committee for the red phosphor. When the sodium–zinc–aluminosilicate glass is co-doped with Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}, reddish-orange light emission, with (0.61,0.37) CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, is obtained upon Tb{sup 3+} excitation at 344 nm. This reddish-orange luminescence is generated mainly by {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 1} and {sup 5}D{sub 0} →{sup 7}F{sub 2} emissions of Eu{sup 3+}, europium being sensitized by terbium through a non-radiative energy transfer. From an analysis of the Tb{sup 3+} emission decay curves it is inferred that the Tb{sup 3+}→Eu{sup 3+} energy transfer might take place between Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} clusters through a short-range interaction mechanism, so that an electric dipole–quadrupole interaction appears to be the most probable transfer mechanism. The efficiency of this energy transfer is about 62% upon excitation at 344 nm. In the singly doped and codoped glasses multimode optical waveguides were successfully produced by Ag{sup +}–Na{sup +} ion exchange, and they could be characterized at various wavelengths. -- Highlights: • Reddish-orange light emission can be generated from Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} codoped zinc–sodium–aluminosilicate glasses excited at 344 nm. • The Eu{sup 3+} is sensitized by Tb{sup 3+} through a non-radiative energy transfer. • Highly multimode waveguides can be fabricated by diluted silver–sodium exchange. • This type of AlGaN LEDs pumped glass phosphors might be useful for generation of reddish-orange light.

  7. Low-cost fiber-optic waveguide sensor for the colorimetric detection of ammonia


    Schmitt, Katrin; Rist, Jonas; Peter, Carolin; Wöllenstein, Jürgen


    We present the development and characterization of a low-cost fiber-optic colorimetric gas sensor for ammonia combined with the electronic circuitry for measurement control and RFID communication. The gas sensor detects ammonia using a 300 μm polyolefin fiber coated with a gas-sensitive polymer film. The spectral and time-dependent sensitivity of various polymer films was tested in transmission measurements at λ = 590 nm. A prototype of the gas sensor was tested under realistic measurement co...

  8. Characterization of silver halide fiber optics and hollow silica waveguides for use in the construction of a mid-infrared attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy probe. (United States)

    Damin, Craig A; Sommer, André J


    Advances in fiber optic materials have allowed for the construction of fibers and waveguides capable of transmitting infrared radiation. An investigation of the transmission characteristics associated with two commonly used types of infrared-transmitting fibers/waveguides for prospective use in a fiber/waveguide-coupled attenuated total internal reflection (ATR) probe was performed. Characterization of silver halide polycrystalline fiber optics and hollow silica waveguides was done on the basis of the transmission of infrared light using a conventional fiber optic coupling accessory and an infrared microscope. Using the fiber optic coupling accessory, the average percent transmission for three silver halide fibers was 18.1 ± 6.1% relative to a benchtop reflection accessory. The average transmission for two hollow waveguides (HWGs) using the coupling accessory was 8.0 ± 0.3%. (Uncertainties in the relative percent transmission represent the standard deviations.) Reduced transmission observed for the HWGs was attributed to the high numerical aperture of the coupling accessory. Characterization of the fibers/waveguides using a zinc selenide lens objective on an infrared microscope indicated 24.1 ± 7.2% of the initial light input into the silver halide fibers was transmitted. Percent transmission obtained for the HWGs was 98.7 ± 0.1%. Increased transmission using the HWGs resulted from the absence or minimization of insertion and scattering losses due to the hollow air core and a better-matched numerical aperture. The effect of bending on the transmission characteristics of the fibers/waveguides was also investigated. Significant deviations in the transmission of infrared light by the solid-core silver halide fibers were observed for various bending angles. Percent transmission greater than 98% was consistently observed for the HWGs at the bending angles. The combined benefits of high percent transmission, reproducible instrument responses, and increased bending

  9. Compact on-Chip Temperature Sensors Based on Dielectric-Loaded Plasmonic Waveguide-Ring Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi


    Full Text Available The application of a waveguide-ring resonator based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides as a temperature sensor is demonstrated in this paper and the influence of temperature change to the transmission through the waveguide-ring resonator system is comprehensively analyzed. The results show that the roundtrip phase change in the ring resonator due to the temperature change is the major reason for the transmission variation. The performance of the temperature sensor is also discussed and it is shown that for a waveguide-ring resonator with the resonator radius around 5 mm and waveguide-ring gap of 500 nm which gives a footprint around 140 µm2, the temperature sensitivity at the order of 10−2 K can be achieved with the input power of 100 mW within the measurement sensitivity limit of a practical optical detector.

  10. Theory of frustrated total internal reflection: Superluminal singularities of optical waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perel' man, Mark E. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem (Israel)], E-mail:


    Classical approach to frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR) does not describe its temporal properties, that are additionally considered and their superluminal singularity is shown. The transition to quantum electrodynamics shows that momenta of photons are reduced at FTIR relative to energy, i.e. it is the tunnel process, the nonlocal manifestation of near field. The tunneling consists in the instantaneous jump of excitations (virtual photons) onto definite distance, and can be described by equation having certain instanton features. Thus, the possibility of signal transfer with superluminal group velocity via optical fibers is substantiated that conforms to certain supervisions. Such properties of FTIR near field may explain, in principle, some other observed phenomena.

  11. Residual Phase Noise Measurement of Optical Second Harmonic Generation in PPLN Waveguides (United States)

    Delehaye, Marion; Millo, Jacques; Bourgeois, Pierre-Yves; Groult, Lucas; Boudot, Rodolphe; Rubiola, Enrico; Bigler, Emmanuel; Kersale, Yann; Lacroute, Clement


    We report on the characterization, including residual phase noise and fractional frequency instability, of fiber-coupled PPLN non-linear crystals. These components are devoted to frequency doubling 871 nm light from an extended-cavity diode laser to produce a 435.5 nm beam, corresponding to the ytterbium ion electric quadrupole clock transition. We measure doubling efficiencies of up to 117.5 %/W. Using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and an original noise rejection technique, the residual phase noise of the doublers is estimated to be lower than ${\\rm -35\\, dBrad^2/Hz}$ at 1 Hz, making these modules compatible with up-to-date optical clocks and ultra-stable cavities. The influence of external parameters such as pump laser frequency and intensity is investigated, showing that they do not limit the stability of the frequency-doubled signal. Our results demonstrate that such compact, fiber-coupled modules are suitable for use in ultra-low phase noise metrological experiments, including transportable optical atomic clocks.

  12. Finite-width plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic multilayer cladding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y.; Ishii, Satoshi


    Engineering plasmonic metamaterials with anisotropic optical dispersion enables us to tailor the properties of metamaterial-based waveguides. We investigate plasmonic waveguides with dielectric cores and multilayer metal-dielectric claddings with hyperbolic dispersion. Without using any......, are strongly absorbed. By avoiding the resonant widths in the design of the actual waveguides, the strong absorption can be eliminated. (C) 2015 Optical Society of America...

  13. Pulse propagation in inhomogeneous optical waveguides. Final report, September 15, 1992--March 14, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menyuk, C.R.


    Accomplishments include two Ph.D. dissertations, twenty-six archival journal publications that have appeared in print, six articles that have appeared in conference or summer school proceedings, sixteen regular conference presentations, and eleven invited conference presentations. A complete record of the publications and presentations may be found in Sec. II.E. The areas in which the author has been working--randomly varying optical fiber birefringence, passively modelocked lasers, and quasi-phase matched second harmonic generation--are all still of great current interest. Recent progress in soliton transmission has been nothing short of outstanding with the recent achievement of single channel 15 Gbit/sec, nearly error-free transmission over 35,000 km. At the same time, remarkable progress with the presently used NRZ (non-return-to-zero) transmission mode makes it less clear that solitons will ultimately be used. The author has contributed in important respects to all these areas. In long-distance transmission systems, the length scale on which the birefringence varies randomly (30--100 m) is short compared to the nonlinear and dispersive scale lengths (100--1,000 km). Consequently, it is crucial to understand and characterize this randomly varying birefringence when studying long-distance evolution in optical fibers. That has been done in a series of studies that has also led to the proposal of a numerical scheme for modeling these systems that should be orders of magnitude faster than the schemes presently being used. In the studies of the fiber ring and figure-8 lasers, the author proposed that nonlinear polarization rotation is the mechanism responsible for fast saturable absorption in the fiber ring lasers--a result that was later verified experimentally. He also explored a new approach to determining the conditions for modelocking and self-starting in these lasers that uses the computer to determine the linear stability of both the pulsed and cw solutions

  14. Adaptive coupling approach for single mode VCSELs with polymer waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, E.; Elmogi, A.; Wiegersma, S.; Berg, H. van den; Ortsiefer, M.; Daly, A.; Duis, J.; Steenberge, G. van


    A novel coupling approach for single mode VCSELs and planar optical waveguides is presented. The coupling is based on the embedding of the VCSELs inside the substrate and the adaptive fabrication of waveguides on top.

  15. Fabrication of optical waveguides inside transparent silica xerogels containing PbS quantum dots using a femtosecond laser (United States)

    Nakashima, Seisuke; Tanaka, Tomoya; Ishida, Akihiro; Mukai, Kohki


    The fabrication and photoluminescence properties of waveguide structures inside transparent silica xerogels containing PbS quantum dots (QDs) have been investigated. Stable dispersion of water-soluble PbS QDs, which emit in the wavelength region of 1.3 μm, in silica xerogels was conducted by a sol-gel method using 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. It was found that both the photoluminescence intensity and the dispersion stability are highly sensitive to catalysts, reaction temperature and time, and annealing temperature. Continuous and straight waveguide structures with refractive-index change were obtained by choosing appropriate irradiation conditions. The fabricated waveguides led approximately 60% increase in the intensity of the photoluminescence generated from the PbS QDs.

  16. Quantum plasmonic waveguides: Au nanowires (United States)

    Cordaro, C. E. A.; Piccitto, G.; Priolo, F.


    Combining miniaturization and good operating speed is a compelling yet crucial task for our society. Plasmonic waveguides enable the possibility of carrying information at optical operating speed while maintaining the dimension of the device in the nanometer range. Here we present a theoretical study of plasmonic waveguides extending our investigation to structures so small that Quantum Size Effects (QSE) become non-negligible, namely quantum plasmonic waveguides. Specifically, we demonstrate and evaluate a blue-shift in Surface Plasmon (SP) resonance energy for an ultra-thin gold nanowire.

  17. Polymeric slot waveguide for photonics sensing (United States)

    Chovan, J.; Uherek, F.


    Polymeric slot waveguide for photonics sensing was designed, simulated and studied in this work. The polymeric slot waveguide was designed on commercial Ormocer polymer platform and operates at visible 632.8 nm wavelength. Designed polymeric slot waveguide detects the refractive index change of the ambient material by evanescent field label-free techniques. The motivation for the reported work was to design a low-cost polymeric slot waveguide for sensing arms of integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical sensor with reduced temperature dependency. The minimal dimensions of advanced sensing slot waveguide structure were designed for researcher direct laser writing fabrication by nonlinear two-photon polymerization. The normalized effective refractive index changes of TE and TM fundamental modes in polymeric slot waveguide and slab waveguides were compared. The sensitivity of the normalized effective refractive index changes of TE and TM fundamental modes on refractive index changes of the ambient material was investigated by glucose-water solutions.

  18. Waveguide structures in anisotropic nonlinear crystals (United States)

    Li, Da; Hong, Pengda; Meissner, Helmuth E.


    We report on the design and manufacturing parameters of waveguiding structures of anisotropic nonlinear crystals that are employed for harmonic conversions, using Adhesive-Free Bonding (AFB®). This technology enables a full range of predetermined refractive index differences that are essential for the design of single mode or low-mode propagation with high efficiency in anisotropic nonlinear crystals which in turn results in compact frequency conversion systems. Examples of nonlinear optical waveguides include periodically bonded walk-off corrected nonlinear optical waveguides and periodically poled waveguide components, such as lithium triborate (LBO), beta barium borate (β-BBO), lithium niobate (LN), potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP), zinc germanium phosphide (ZGP) and silver selenogallate (AGSE). Simulation of planar LN waveguide shows that when the electric field vector E lies in the k-c plane, the power flow is directed precisely along the propagation direction, demonstrating waveguiding effect in the planar waveguide. Employment of anisotropic nonlinear optical waveguides, for example in combination with AFB® crystalline fiber waveguides (CFW), provides access to the design of a number of novel high power and high efficiency light sources spanning the range of wavelengths from deep ultraviolet (as short as 200 nm) to mid-infrared (as long as about 18 μm). To our knowledge, the technique is the only generally applicable one because most often there are no compatible cladding crystals available to nonlinear optical cores, especially not with an engineer-able refractive index difference and large mode area.

  19. Single- and double energy N{sup +} ion irradiated planar optical waveguides in Er: Tungsten–tellurite oxide glass and sillenite type Bismuth Germanate crystals working up to telecommunications wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bányász, I., E-mail: [Department of Crystal Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Zolnai, Z.; Fried, M.; Lohner, T. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Berneschi, S.; Righini, G.C. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); “Enrico Fermi” Center for Study and Research, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy); Pelli, S.; Nunzi-Conti, G. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)


    Ion implantation proved to be a universal technique for producing waveguides in most optical materials. Tellurite glasses are good hosts of rare-earth elements for the development of fibre and integrated optical amplifiers and lasers covering all the main telecommunication bands. Er{sup 3+}-doped tellurite glasses are good candidates for the fabrication of broadband amplifiers in wavelength division multiplexing around 1.55 μm, as they exhibit large stimulated cross sections and broad emission bandwidth. Fabrication of channel waveguides in such a material via N{sup +} ion implantation was reported recently. Sillenite type Bismuth Germanate (BGO) crystals are good nonlinear optical materials. Parameters of waveguide fabrication in both materials via implantation of MeV-energy N{sup +} ions were optimized. First single-energy implantations at 3.5 MeV at various fluences were applied. Waveguide operation up to 1.5 μm was observed in both materials. Then double-energy implantations at a fixed upper energy of 3.5 MeV and lower energies between 2.5 and 3.1 MeV were performed to suppress leaky modes by increasing barrier width. Improvement of waveguide characteristics was found by m-line spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry.

  20. Mesa-top quantum dot single photon emitter arrays: Growth, optical characteristics, and the simulated optical response of integrated dielectric nanoantenna-waveguide systems (United States)

    Zhang, Jiefei; Chattaraj, Swarnabha; Lu, Siyuan; Madhukar, Anupam


    Nanophotonic quantum information processing systems require spatially ordered, spectrally uniform single photon sources (SPSs) integrated on-chip with co-designed light manipulating elements providing emission rate enhancement, emitted photon guidance, and lossless propagation. Towards this goal, we consider systems comprising an SPS array with each SPS coupled to a dielectric building block (DBB) based multifunctional light manipulation unit (LMU). For the SPS array, we report triggered single photon emission from GaAs(001)/InGaAs single quantum dots grown selectively on top of nanomesas using the approach of substrate-encoded size-reducing epitaxy (SESRE). Systematic temperature and power dependent photoluminescence (PL), PL excitation, time-resolved PL, and emission statistics studies reveal high spectral uniformity and single photon emission at 8 K with g(2)(0) of 0.19 ± 0.03. The SESRE based SPS arrays, following growth of a planarizing overlayer, are readily integrable with LMUs fabricated subsequently using either the 2D photonic crystal approach or, as theoretically examined here, DBB based LMUs. We report the simulated optical response of SPS embedded in DBB based nanoantenna-waveguide structures as the multifunctional LMU. The multiple functions of emission rate enhancement, guiding, and lossless propagation are derived from the behavior of the same collective Mie resonance (dominantly magnetic) of the interacting DBB based LMU tuned to the SPS targeted emission wavelength of 980 nm. The simulation utilizes an analytical approach that provides physical insight into the obtained numerical results. Together, the combined experimental and modelling demonstrations open a rich approach to implementing co-designed on-chip integrated SPS-LMUs that, in turn, serve as basic elements of integrated nanophotonic information processing systems.

  1. Ultra-compact electromagnetic wave sensor featuring electro-optics polymer infiltrated one-dimensional photonic-crystal-slotted waveguide (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Chung, Chi-Jui; Pan, Zeyu; Wang, Rui; Xu, Xiaochuan; Subbaraman, Harish; Chen, Ray T.


    An ultra-compact Electro-Magnetic (EM) Wave Sensor working at 14GHz is designed and demonstrated experimentally. The sensor is based on electro-optics (EO) modulation and therefore has several important advantages over conventional electrical RF sensors including compact size and immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). The proposed sensor contains a set of bowtie antenna and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) structure with one arm of slow-light enhanced EO polymer infiltrated one dimensional (1D) photonic crystal slotted waveguide and the other arm of silicon strip waveguide with tooth. To minimize the RC delay as well as the electrical connection between the two bowtie antenna, the innovative silicon tooth design are applied for both arms of the MZI respectively so that the device can be operated at 14Ghz. The bowtie antenna concentrates electrical field of the impinging wireless EM wave at its designed frequency of 14Ghz and applies it onto the EO polymer filled slot for modulating phase of the guided optical wave. By combining the effect of strong slow light effect of the slotted PCW, high field enhancement of the bowtie antenna, and also large EO coefficient of the EO polymer(r33=135pm/V), the device is only 4.6mmX4.8mm in size with active region of 300μm and has minimum detectable electromagnetic power density as low as 27 mW/m2.

  2. Single-mode laser studies: Design and performance of a fixed-wave length source and coupling of lasers to thin-film optical waveguides (United States)

    Ladany, I.; Hammer, J. M.


    A module developed for the generation of a stable single wavelength to be used for a fiber optic multiplexing scheme is described. The laser is driven with RZ pulses, and the temperature is stabilized thermoelectrically. The unit is capable of maintaining a fixed wavelength within about 6 A as the pulse duty cycle is changed between 0 and 100 percent. This is considered the most severe case, and much tighter tolerances are obtainable for constant input power coding schemes. Using a constricted double heterostructure laser, a wavelength shift of 0.083 A mA is obtained due to laser self-heating by a dc driving current. The thermoelectric unit is capable of maintaining a constant laser heat-sink temperature within 0.02 C. In addition, miniature lenses and couplers are described which allow efficient coupling of single wavelength modes of junction lasers to thin film optical waveguides. The design of the miniature cylinder lenses and the prism coupling techniques allow 2 mW of single wavelength mode junction laser light to b coupled into thin film waveguides using compact assemblies. Selective grating couplers are also studied.

  3. Effect of optical waveguiding mechanism on the lasing action of chirped InAs/AlGaInAs/InP quantum dash lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa


    We report on the atypical emission dynamics of InAs/AlGaInAs/InP quantum dash (Qdash) lasers employing varying AlGaInAs barrier thickness (multilayer-chirped structure). The analysis is carried out via fabry-perot (FP) ridge (RW) and stripe waveguide (SW) laser characterization corresponding to the index and gain guided waveguiding mechanisms, respectively, and at different current pulse width operations. The laser emissions are found to emerge from the size dispersion of the Qdash ensembles across the four Qdash-barrier stacks, and governed by their overlapping quasi-zero dimensional density of states (DOS). The spectral characteristics demonstrated prominent dependence on the waveguiding mechanism at quasi-continuous wave (QCW) operation (long pulse width). The RW geometry showed unusual spectral split in the emission spectra on increasing current injection while the SW geometry showed typical broadening of lasing spectra. These effects were attributed to the highly inhomogeneous active region, the nonequilibrium carrier distribution and the energy exchange between Qdash groups across the Qdash-barrier stacks. Furthermore, QCW operation showed a progressive red shift of emission spectra with injection current, resulted from active region heating and carrier depopulation, which was observed to be minimal in the short pulse width (SPW) operation. Our investigation sheds light on the device physics of chirped Qdash laser structure and provides guidelines for further optimization in obtaining broad-gain laser diodes. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  4. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer electro-optic switch with ultralow voltage-length product using poled-polymer/silicon slot waveguide (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-liang; Li, Cui-ting; Dang, Pei-pei; Zheng, Chuan-tao


    By using poled-polymer/silicon slot waveguides in the active region and the Pockels effect of the poled-polymer, we propose a kind of Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) electro-optic (EO) switch operated at 1 550 nm. Structural parameters are optimized for realizing normal switching function. Dependencies of switching characteristics on the slot waveguide parameters are investigated. For the silicon strip with dimension of 170 nm×300 nm, as the slot width varies from 50 nm to 100 nm, the switching voltage can be as low as 1.0 V with active region length of only 0.17-0.35 mm, and the length of the whole device is only about 770-950 μm. The voltage-length product of this switching structure is only 0.17-0.35 V·mm, and it is at least 19-40 times smaller than that of the traditional polymer MZI EO switch, which is 6.69 V·mm. Compared with our previously reported MZI EO switches, this switch exhibits some superior characteristics, including low switching voltage, compact device size and small wavelength dependency.

  5. Effects of Low Ag Doping on Physical and Optical Waveguide Properties of Highly Oriented Sol-Gel ZnO Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Dehimi


    Full Text Available A sol-gel dip-coating process was used to deposit almost stress-free highly c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO thin films onto glass substrates. The effects of low silver doping concentration (Ag/Zn < 1% on the structural, morphological, optical, and waveguide properties of such films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy, UV-Visible spectrophotometry, and M-lines spectroscopy (MLS. XRD analysis revealed that all the films were in single phase and had a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The grain size values were calculated and found to be about 24–29 nm. SEM micrographs and AFM images have shown that film morphology and surface roughness were influenced by Ag doping concentration. According to UV-Vis. measurements all the films were highly transparent with average visible transmission values ranging from 80% to 86%. It was found that the Ag contents lead to widening of the band gap. MLS measurements at 632.8 nm wavelength put into evidence that all thin film planar waveguides demonstrate a well-guided fundamental mode for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarized light. Moreover, the refractive index of ZnO thin films was found to increase by Ag doping levels.

  6. The ideal imaging AR waveguide (United States)

    Grey, David J.


    Imaging waveguides are a key development that are helping to create the Augmented Reality revolution. They have the ability to use a small projector as an input and produce a wide field of view, large eyebox, full colour, see-through image with good contrast and resolution. WaveOptics is at the forefront of this AR technology and has developed and demonstrated an approach which is readily scalable. This paper presents our view of the ideal near-to-eye imaging AR waveguide. This will be a single-layer waveguide which can be manufactured in high volume and low cost, and is suitable for small form factor applications and all-day wear. We discuss the requirements of the waveguide for an excellent user experience. When enhanced (AR) viewing is not required, the waveguide should have at least 90% transmission, no distracting artifacts and should accommodate the user's ophthalmic prescription. When enhanced viewing is required, additionally, the waveguide requires excellent imaging performance, this includes resolution to the limit of human acuity, wide field of view, full colour, high luminance uniformity and contrast. Imaging waveguides are afocal designs and hence cannot provide ophthalmic correction. If the user requires this correction then they must wear either contact lenses, prescription spectacles or inserts. The ideal imaging waveguide would need to cope with all of these situations so we believe it must be capable of providing an eyebox at an eye relief suitable for spectacle wear which covers a significant range of population inter-pupillary distances. We describe the current status of our technology and review existing imaging waveguide technologies against the ideal component.

  7. A hybrid semiconductor-glass waveguide laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Youwen; Oldenbeuving, Ruud; Klein, E.J.; Lee, Christopher James; Song, H.; Khan, M.R.H.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Boller, Klaus J.; Mackenzie, J.I.; Jelinkova, H.; Taira, T.; Ahmed, M.A.


    abstract .We report on a novel type of laser in which a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) receives frequency-selective feedback from a glass-waveguide circuit. The laser we present here is based on InP for operation in the 1.55 μm wavelength range. The Si3N4/SiO2 glass waveguide circuit

  8. A hybrid semiconductor-glass waveguide laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Y.; Oldenbeuving, R.M.; Klein, E.J.; Lee, C.J.; Song, H.; Khan, M.R.H.; Offerhaus, H.L.; Van der Slot, P.J.M.; Boller, K.J.


    We report on a novel type of laser in which a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) receives frequency-selective feedback from a glass-waveguide circuit. The laser we present here is based on InP for operation in the 1.55 µm wavelength range. The Si3N4/SiO2 glass waveguide circuit comprises two

  9. Infrared nanoantenna couplers for plasmonic slot waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    A slot plasmonic waveguide is promising solution as a replacement of electrical interconnects in the future optical integrated circuits. In this contribution we consider a set of compact solutions for coupling the infrared light from free space to the plasmonic slot waveguide. We systematically...

  10. Near-field characterization of plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenin, Volodymyr


    simply by changing geometric parameters of the waveguide, keeping in mind the trade-off between confinement and propagation losses. A broad variety of plasmonic waveguides and waveguide components, including antennas for coupling the light in/out of the waveguide, requires correspondent characterization...... capabilities, especially on experimental side. The most straight-forward and powerful technique for such purpose is scanning near-field optical microscopy, which allows to probe and map near-field distribution and therefore becomes the main tool in this project. The detailed description of the used setups...

  11. Highly stable and low loss electro-optic polymer waveguides for high speed microring modulators using photodefinition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balakrishnan, M.; Diemeer, Mart; Driessen, A.; Faccini, M.; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David; Leinse, Arne; Sidorin, Y.; Waechter, C.A.


    Different electro-optic polymer systems are analyzed with respect to their electro-optic activity, glass transition temperature (Tg) and photodefinable properties. The polymers tested are polysulfone (PS) and SU8. The electro-optic chromophore, tricyanovinylidenediphenylaminobenzene (TCVDPA), which

  12. Laser-direct writing of single mode and multi-mode polymer step index waveguide structures for optical backplanes and interconnection assemblies (United States)

    Kruse, Kevin; Middlebrook, Christopher


    A laser direct writing (LDW) method is implemented as a cost efficient polymer waveguide (WG) fabrication method for prototyping large substrates for optical backplanes and optical interconnection assemblies. The LDW setup utilizes a 3-axis air-bearing motion platform to reduce WG fabrication error to within ±0.15 μm. A UV laser diode coupled single mode fiber with a focusing lens module is capable of LDW WGs at both multimode (50 μm) and single mode (6 μm) dimensions. Correlation between LDW parameters and fabricated WG dimensions using Dow Corning® OE-4140 UV-Cured Optical Elastomer (ncore = 1.5142, nclad = 1.5064) is discussed theoretically and confirmed experimentally for both applications. A theoretical model is developed and utilized for producing LDW multi-mode (0.04 dB/cm, λ = 850 nm) and single mode (0.55 dB/cm, λ = 1310 nm) WGs. Measured propagation losses of LDW WGs are comparable to losses of photolithographic multi-mode (0.04 dB/cm @ 850 nm) and single mode (0.59 dB/cm @ 1310 nm) WG builds. LDW multi-mode and single mode WG radial bend and crossing losses are evaluated for advanced optical communication channel routing capabilities and do not exhibit significant deviations from photolithographic-manufactured WG device loss.

  13. Design of high-speed optical transmission module with an integrated Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser/ LiNbO3 electro-optic modulator (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Chen, Shufen; Fu, Li; Fang, Wei; Lu, Junjun


    A high bit rate more than 10Gbit/s optical pulse generation device is the key to achieving high-speed and broadband optical fiber communication network system .Now, we propose a novel high-speed optical transmission module(TM) consisting of a Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser and a Mach-Zehnder-type encoding modulator on the same Er-doped substrate. According to the standard of ITU-T, we design the 10Gbit/ s transmission module at 1.53μm on the Z cut Y propagation LiNbO3 slice. A dynamic model and the corresponding numerical code are used to analyze the waveguide laser while the electrooptic effect to design the modulator. Meanwhile, the working principle, key technology, typical characteristic parameters of the module are given. The transmission module has a high extinction ratio and a low driving voltage, which supplies the efficient, miniaturized light source for wavelength division multiplexing(WDM) system. In additional, the relation of the laser gain with the cavity parameter, as well as the relation of the bandwidth of the electrooptic modulator with some key factors are discussed .The designed module structure is simulated by BPM software and HFSS software.

  14. Objectively discriminating the optical analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency from Autler-Townes splitting in a side coupled graphene-based waveguide system (United States)

    Wei, Buzheng; Jian, Shuisheng


    A mid-infrared side coupled graphene nanotube waveguide system is proposed to investigate the origin discerning from electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) to Autler-Townes splitting (ATS). The analytic transmission analysis seeks an evolution tendency of transmission spectrum from ATS to EIT, which is numerically verified by the simulation results. The origin of transparency is mainly attributed to ATS effect in the strong coupling regime while EIT is favored in the weak coupling condition. We plot the field distribution to help understand the underlying physics of the interference process. The high group index of 5000 indicates that a slow light effect is successfully observed and Fano resonance is presented by varying the Fermi energy of the dark mode. These ideas may provide potential views in filters, optical buffers, light storage and on chip metamaterials.

  15. Low-loss and flatband silicon-nanowire-based 5th-order coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW) fabricated by ArF-immersion lithography process on a 300-mm SOI wafer (United States)

    Jeong, Seok-Hwan; Shimura, Daisuke; Simoyama, Takasi; Seki, Miyoshi; Yokoyama, Nobuyuki; Ohtsuka, Minoru; Koshino, Keiji; Horikawa, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Yu; Morito, Ken


    We present flatband, low-loss and low-crosstalk characteristics of Si-nanowire-based 5th-order coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW) fabricated by ArF-immersion lithography process on a 300-mm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. We theoretically specified why phase controllability over Si-nanowire waveguides is prerequisite to attain desired spectral response, discussing spectral degradation by random phase errors during fabrication process. It was experimentally demonstrated that advanced patterning technology based on ArF-immersion lithography process showed extremely low phase errors even for Si-nanowire channel waveguides. As a result, the device exhibited extremely low loss of CROW. We believe these high-precision fabrication technologies based on 300-mm SOI wafer scale ArF-immersion lithography would be promising for several kinds of WDM multiplexers/demultiplexers having much complicated configurations and requiring much finer phase controllability.

  16. Waveguide-Based Biosensors for Pathogen Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nile Hartman


    Full Text Available Optical phenomena such as fluorescence, phosphorescence, polarization, interference and non-linearity have been extensively used for biosensing applications. Optical waveguides (both planar and fiber-optic are comprised of a material with high permittivity/high refractive index surrounded on all sides by materials with lower refractive indices, such as a substrate and the media to be sensed. This arrangement allows coupled light to propagate through the high refractive index waveguide by total internal reflection and generates an electromagnetic wave—the evanescent field—whose amplitude decreases exponentially as the distance from the surface increases. Excitation of fluorophores within the evanescent wave allows for sensitive detection while minimizing background fluorescence from complex, “dirty” biological samples. In this review, we will describe the basic principles, advantages and disadvantages of planar optical waveguide-based biodetection technologies. This discussion will include already commercialized technologies (e.g., Corning’s EPIC® Ô, SRU Biosystems’ BIND™, Zeptosense®, etc. and new technologies that are under research and development. We will also review differing assay approaches for the detection of various biomolecules, as well as the thin-film coatings that are often required for waveguide functionalization and effective detection. Finally, we will discuss reverse-symmetry waveguides, resonant waveguide grating sensors and metal-clad leaky waveguides as alternative signal transducers in optical biosensing.

  17. Polymer Waveguide Fabrication Techniques (United States)

    Ramey, Delvan A.


    The ability of integrated optic systems to compete in signal processing aplications with more traditional analog and digital electronic systems is discussed. The Acousto-Optic Spectrum Analyzer is an example which motivated the particular work discussed herein. Provided real time processing is more critical than absolute accuracy, such integrated optic systems fulfill a design need. Fan-out waveguide arrays allow crosstalk in system detector arrays to be controlled without directly limiting system resolution. A polyurethane pattern definition process was developed in order to demonstrate fan-out arrays. This novel process is discussed, along with further research needs. Integrated optic system market penetration would be enhanced by development of commercial processes of this type.

  18. Ultra-compact optical auto-correlator based on slow-light enhanced third harmonic generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Monat, Christelle; Collins, Matthew; Clark, Alex; Schroeder, Jochen; Xiong, Chunle; Li, Juntao; O'Faolain, Liam; Krauss, Thomas F; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Moss, David J


    The ability to use coherent light for material science and applications is directly linked to our ability to measure short optical pulses. While free-space optical methods are well-established, achieving this on a chip would offer the greatest benefit in footprint, performance, flexibility and cost, and allow the integration with complementary signal processing devices. A key goal is to achieve operation at sub-Watt peak power levels and on sub-picosecond timescales. Previous integrated demonstrations require either a temporally synchronized reference pulse, an off-chip spectrometer, or long tunable delay lines. We report the first device capable of achieving single-shot time-domain measurements of near-infrared picosecond pulses based on an ultra-compact integrated CMOS compatible device, with the potential to be fully integrated without any external instrumentation. It relies on optical third-harmonic generation in a slow-light silicon waveguide. Our method can also serve as a powerful in-situ diagnostic to...

  19. Enhancement of optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission due to waveguide geometry in the conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene (United States)

    Lampert, Zach E.; Papanikolas, John M.; Lewis Reynolds, C.


    We report enhanced amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and optical gain performance in a conjugated polymer (CP)-based thin film waveguide (WG) Si(100)/SiO2/poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) by encapsulating the active layer with a transparent dielectric film of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). With index matched SiO2 and PMMA claddings, symmetric WGs are formed that exhibit increased mode confinement and reduced propagation loss enabling lower ASE threshold (40%) and higher optical gain (50%) compared to Si(100)/SiO2/MEH-PPV/air asymmetric WGs. An extremely large net gain coefficient of 500 cm-1 is achieved under picosecond pulse excitation, which is >4× larger than values previously reported in the literature. Fabrication of symmetric WGs requires no complex processing techniques, thus offering a simple, low-cost approach for effectively controlling the ASE behavior of CP-based WGs and related optical devices.

  20. Nanolayer-transfer method of TiO2 slot layers and its application for fabricating hybrid electro-optic polymer/TiO2 vertical slot waveguide modulators (United States)

    Jouane, Youssef; Enami, Yasufumi


    We have presented a alternative soft process named nanolayer transfer (NLT), to fabricate hybrid electro-optic polymer/TiO2 vertical slot waveguide modulators. We have transfered successfully a 100 nm thick TiO2 line pattern layer on sol-gel silica cladding layer, and at the same time we have created a line waveguide in sol-gel silica cladding layer with the widths up to 1 μ m. The sol-gel silica layer is hydrolyzed and cross-linked, creating a SiO2 network with a highly oriented polycrystalline film of TiO2 in which all crystals grow in the main preferential direction. NLT method also enables to control the high refractive index with better crystallization and lower optical propagation loss of transferred TiO2 slot layer, which allows us to have a higher optical mode confinement of EO polymer ensuring the feasibility of the EO device modulators.