WorldWideScience

Sample records for wrestling

  1. Training of referees in wrestling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Ievtyfiiev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the analysis of problems in the training of referees in wrestling. Material & Methods: theoretical analysis and generalization of literary sources, pedagogical observation. Results: the analysis and generalization of the opinions of experts shows that the success of the complex of judicial activities caused by the judges' experience, knowledge of the techniques and tactics of wrestling and a high level of development of professionally important psycho-physiological functions. Conclusions: given the lack of professional officiating freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestling, the preference shall be given independent forms of training short-term precompetitive workshops not only for training, but and for testing of individual capabilities of individual judges.

  2. Only for Males: Gendered Perception of Wrestling

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    Y. Umar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wrestling has generally been considered to be a masculine sport. To increase female participation in the sport, managers and administrators will need to understand how wrestling is perceived differently by the genders. A focus group interview was conducted with eight participants from both genders to examine how wrestling was perceived. The findings suggested that wrestling was regarded more as a form of violent entertainment rather than as a sport. A survey instrument was then constructed using statements made by the focus group. The survey was administered to 155 respondents of which 56% were females. The mean age of the respondents was 19.8 years. The findings from the survey concurred with the findings from the focus group interview. Wrestling is considered to be a violent and gendered form of entertainment. However, gender differences exist with females more likely to see wrestling as a form of entertainment as compared to males. Females are also more likely to view wrestling as violent and consequently, they tend to see wrestling as more suited for male participation. The findings suggest that sports managers and administrators will need to manage the perception that wrestling is a form of violent entertainment among females by creating opportunities for women to experience the sport and to correct their perception of the sport.

  3. PHYSICALTRAINING OF YOUNGATHLETES INVOLVEDBELT WRESTLING

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    Михаил Александрович Правдов

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study - definition of physical training of young athletes aged 11-12 by taking into account the specific execution of motor actions in Wrestling.The main method used dual development of physical skills and forming technology of motor actions in athletes involved in the fight on belts.The article presents a set of special exercises, performed in a closed circuit biokinematicheskoy hand during training sessions with young fighters on belts. Shows the effect of a physical fitness training on young fighters on belts. Training program for young wrestlers in the annual cycle of training. In the process of pedagogical experiment verified its effectiveness.The use of special exercises, performed in a closed circuit biokinematicheskoy hand, using rubber bands and are aimed at the development of the dual physical properties and forming technology of motor actions in young wrestlers increased rates the physical fitness.The results can be used during the physical training of young athletes aged 11-12, and to improve the planning of training loads athletes involved in the struggle on belts.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-32

  4. Fractures of the humerus during arm wrestling

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    Bumbaširević Marko Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Humeral shaft fractures may occur as a result of arm wrestling. The aim of this study was to present our treatment of humerus fracture sustained during arm wrestling. Methods. A total of six patients, aged 22 to 48, were treated at our department form January 2008 to January 2010 with open reduction and internal fixation and with hanging arm casts. A review of all the relevant literature on the subject was also presented. Results. In all the cases, the fractures healed and function returned to normal. No patient had any neural or vascular compromise. Conclusion. Closed and operative treatments were equally successful in all reported cases. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175-095

  5. Indirect Catastrophic Injuries in Olympic Styles of Wrestling in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Kordi, Ramin; Ziaee, Vahid; Rostami, Mohsen; Wallace, W. Angus

    2011-01-01

    Background: Data on indirect catastrophic injuries in wrestling are scarce. Objectives: To develop a profile of indirect catastrophic injuries in international styles of wrestling and to describe possible risk factors. Study Design: Retrospective case series; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Indirect catastrophic injuries that occurred in wrestling clubs in Iran from July 1998 to June 2005 were identified by contacting several sources. The cases were retrospectively reviewed. Results: The injur...

  6. Traditional wrestling in Niger: between state voluntarism and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional wrestling occupies pride of place in Niger, compared to other sports and cultural activities. Interest in traditional wrestling is widespread among Nigériens from all walks of life: young men, adults, senior citizens, young women, mature women, adult men, handicapped persons, prisoners, peasant farmers, civil ...

  7. Technical-tactical and physiological demands of wrestling combats

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    Bianka Miarka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Technical-tactical and physiological demand analyses of wrestling combats are important because they reveal essential information for the development of contextual training and specific physical preparation of wrestlers. Therefore, the aim of this review is to describe the characteristics of wrestling combats in freestyle, female and Greco-roman styles. The time-motion analysis presented in this article is the main component to carry out inferences on intensity and effort: pause ratio of combat actions. After rules modification in 2013, wrestling combats showed quicker and more diversified actions, especially in the lighter categories. For Greco-roman wrestling, most studies showed takedowns as the most effective techniques in World competitions for the period 2009-2011. For the same period, foot/leg techniques were the most effective in female and freestyle wrestling, followed by takedown attacks. Recent analyses, developed after 2013 rules modification, showed that the decisive offensive actions were applied on foot and in par terre situations – especially gutwrenches techniques and derivatives of suplex movements. The knowledge on the determinant and predominant actions of wrestling combats can be applied in future research, as well as can be used practically for training, physical preparation and assessments of similar combat actions. It also allows interventions to prevent injuries resulting from technical and tactical wrestling actions.

  8. LACTATE PROFILE DURING GRECO-ROMAN WRESTLING MATCH

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    Ognjen Uljevic

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine and compare lactate profile of two groups of Greco-Roman wrestlers with different competences and training experience. Study was conducted on 10 wrestles that were members of Croatian national team and 10 wrestlers that were members of Wrestling club Split. Lactate samples were collected at four intervals during control fights that were held according to international wrestling rules of World wrestling federation FILA. Values of lactate increased as competition progressed, and they were highest at the end of the match for both groups of wrestlers. According to this study there were no significant differences in lactate between two groups at the end of the match, while significant differences were noted during the match. The information about lactate profile presented in this study can be used by coaches and wrestlers to develop condition programs

  9. Technical-tactical and physiological demands of wrestling combats

    OpenAIRE

    Bianka Miarka

    2016-01-01

    Technical-tactical and physiological demand analyses of wrestling combats are important because they reveal essential information for the development of contextual training and specific physical preparation of wrestlers. Therefore, the aim of this review is to describe the characteristics of wrestling combats in freestyle, female and Greco-roman styles. The time-motion analysis presented in this article is the main component to carry out inferences on intensity and effort: pause ratio of comb...

  10. Wrestling game injuries among children in Dakar: a report on 172 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Ngom, Gabriel; Mohamed, Azhar Salim; Mbaye, Papa Alassane; Fall, Mbaye; Ndour, Oumar; Faye, Aim? Lakh; El-Hasnaoui, Zakaria

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The objective was to report epidemiological and lesional features among children practicing wrestling as a game in Dakar, Senegal. Methods It was a retrospective study including all patients under 16, victims of wrestling game injuries. We studied epidemiological and lesional aspects in children: frequency of wrestling game injuries among all games, age, sex, geographic origin, place of injury, parent?s socioeconomic status, nature of the injury and location. Results Wrestling ga...

  11. Wrestling: An Integral Part of Iranian Fighting Arts

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    Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Wrestling played and has been playing a very important role in Iranian cultural heritage. First, the present article discusses the terms and different uses of wrestling techniques be it in unarmed duels or in combination with weapons. Then, three relevant manuscripts will be analyzed such as an untitled wrestling manuscript by an anonymous author from the period of Šāh Esmāil Safavid (1502-1524 C.E., the manuscript Tumār-e Puryā-ye Vali also written by an anonymous author during the Safavid period (1502-1722 C.E. and the work by a famous poet named Mirnejāt with the title Masnavi-ye Golkošti-ye Mirnejāt that was written towards the end of the period of Šāh Soleymān Safavid (1666-1694 C.E. or the beginning of the period of Šāh Soltān Hosseyn Safavid (1694-1722 C.E.. Based on some terms and descriptions of the techniques found in these manuscripts, it is possible to appreciate how traditional forms of wrestling in Iran have preserved some of these techniques.

  12. Why do fans attend world Wrestling Entertainment? | Kruger | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research examined the travel motives of South African World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) fans at a live Smackdown event in July 2011, which was part of the WWE's world tour. Based on these motives, different market segments at the events were identified and profiled. This was the first time that the motives of ...

  13. Investigation of Ego and Task Orientation among International Wrestling Referees

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    I. Barbas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: study was to investigate any possible effect(s of experiences from active membership and participation in task or ego orientations among referees in the sport of wrestling. Material: The sample consisted of 213 international referees from 30 countries (Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria, France, Italy, Germany, Sweden, Finland, Switzerland, Russia, Poland, Hungary, U.S.A, Ukraine, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Egypt, Canada, Georgia, Croatia, Uzbekistan, Norway, Cuba, Belarus, & Tunisia. Their age ranged from 26 to 60 yrs. old ( M =43, SD =8.6. During the procedure, the participants were asked to fill a specific questionnaire, the «Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire» (Duda & Nicholls, 1992. Results: Results showed that the referees from elite wrestling level’ countries (Russia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, U.S.A., Korea, Japan, Kazakhstan, & Cuba are more task oriented than those from the non-elite wrestling level’ countries. Researchers believe that this occurred because referees from non-elite wrestling level’ countries might have less game-sport experience and more specifically in high level games. At the same time, the Olympic experience referees were more task oriented than the non-Olympic experienced. Conclusion: Referee’s decisions are an important issue in the sport milieu. The investigations in decision-making by referees and factors that affect it are rather scarce and research should focus on such topics. Improvement of decision-making by referees, would lead to safer and better performance. Thus, better understanding of referees’ behavior, through identification and operationalization of the factors affecting it, might lead to more effective selection, training and performance.

  14. DILEMAS AND IDEAS CONNECTED WITH FREE-STYLING WRESTLING IN SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO

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    Goran Kasum

    2006-01-01

    By desintegration of Yugoslavia, free-styling wrestling has almost extincted in Serbia and Montenegro. In Montenegro any kind of sports wrestling has never become alive even beside some individual attempts. In Serbia, Greek-Roman style has been nursed and developed and wrestling style has relatively stable results and renawn at the olimpic sports’family. Some tendencies presented at the Internation Olimpic Comitee bring up to date an idea about starting and affirmation of free-styling wrestli...

  15. Concussion Knowledge and Communication Behaviors of Collegiate Wrestling Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily; Kerr, Zachary Y; DeFreese, J D; Parsons, John T

    2017-08-01

    Sport coaches can play an important role in shaping a team's approach to concussion safety through their communication with team members. However, across all sports, there is limited knowledge about factors that make coaches more or less likely to engage in safety-supportive communication. The objectives of this study were to assess the concussion-related knowledge and attitudes of wrestling coaches, as well as the extent to which they engage in autonomy-supportive coaching practices, and to determine how these factors are related to communication with athletes in support of concussion safety. Data were collected through an online survey of head coaches of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) wrestling teams (n = 89, 40.5% response rate). On average, coaches answered five out of a possible nine knowledge questions correctly and were significantly more likely to think it was acceptable for an athlete to continue playing after sustaining a concussion during a national qualifying competition as compared to during an early-season competition. Engaging in autonomy-supportive coaching behaviors was the coach factor explaining the largest percentage of variability in communication. Findings suggest that while knowledge deficits and attitudes about the acceptability of continued play while symptomatic during more consequential competitive matches should be addressed in educational programming for collegiate wrestling coaches, these changes alone may not be a sufficient for adequately increasing concussion safety communication. Targeting more distal factors such as autonomy-supportive approaches to coaching may hold promise for intervention design and should be explored in future prospective research.

  16. Neuromuscular factors related to success in Olympic wrestling

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    Alfonso Martínez-Moreno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between maximum dynamic and isometric strength and success in male and female Olympic wrestling. Thirty-five female and thirty-seven male wrestlers were assigned into 4 groups according to their gender and competitive level: men elite (♂ ET, n = 18 and amateur (AT ♂, n = 19 and female elite (♀ ET n = 13 and amateur (AT ♀, n = 22. All subjects underwent assessments of body composition, countermovement jump, maximum dynamic strength test in full squat and bench press exercises and maximum isometric strength test of grip and hip extension. All the neuromuscular markers studied showed significantly higher values in the two elite groups compared to their respective amateur groups results, except the jump height between ♀ET y ♀AT, where no significant differences were detected. The present results suggest that the higher maximum isometric and dynamic strength values, explained in part by the differences in lean mass, will give elite wrestlers a clear advantage during the most frequently used techniques in Olympic wrestling.  Key  Words: bench press; squat; maximum dynamic strength; maximum isometric strength; combat.

  17. Neuromuscular factors related to success in Olympic wrestling

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    Alfonso Martínez-Moreno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study was undertaken to determine the relationship between maximum dynamic and isometric strength and success in male and female Olympic wrestling. Thirty-five female and thirty-seven male wrestlers were assigned into 4 groups according to their gender and competitive level: men elite (♂ ET, n = 18 and amateur (AT ♂, n = 19 and female elite (♀ ET n = 13 and amateur (AT ♀, n = 22. All subjects underwent assessments of body composition, countermovement jump, maximum dynamic strength test in full squat and bench press exercises and maximum isometric strength test of grip and hip extension. All the neuromuscular markers studied showed significantly higher values in the two elite groups compared to their respective amateur groups results, except the jump height between ♀ET y ♀AT, where no significant differences were detected. The present results suggest that the higher maximum isometric and dynamic strength values, explained in part by the differences in lean mass, will give elite wrestlers a clear advantage during the most frequently used techniques in Olympic wrestling. Key  Words: bench press; squat; maximum dynamic strength; maximum isometric strength; combat.

  18. Wrestling with Contradictions in Government Social Media Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Research in government social media practices highlights expectations of co-creation and progression mirrored in maturity models, but research also documents low deployment degree and thereby points to a discrepancy. The paper suggests that the authors instead of co-creation and progression draw...... on a dialectical approach and understand the development of government social media practices as a wrestling with contradictions. The case of emerging social media practices in a Danish municipality used to illustrate this framework suggests three main categories of contradictions in emerging social media...... practices: Contradictions between service administration and community feeling as forms of practice, contradictions in organizing between local engagement and central control, and contradictions in the digital infrastructure between proprietary municipal websites and public social media platforms. The paper...

  19. Competitive Wrestling-related Injuries in School Aged Athletes in U.S. Emergency Departments

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Richard J.; Linakis, Seth W.; Mello, Michael J.; Linakis, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the characteristics of wrestling injuries occurring in male athletes aged 7-17 treated in United States (U.S.) emergency departments (ED) from 2000-2006, and to compare injury patterns between younger & older youth wrestlers. Methods: A stratified probability sample of U.S. hospitals providing emergency services in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was used for 2000-2006. ED visits for injuries sustained in organized wrestling were analyzed for...

  20. Frequency of Sports Trauma in Elite National Level Greco-Roman Wrestling Competitions

    OpenAIRE

    Akbarnejad, Ali; Sayyah, Mansour

    2012-01-01

    Background Trauma is an inescapable part of sports competitions. It occurs more frequently in contact sports such as wrestling. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of injury in Greco-Roman style wrestling competitions at national level. Patients and Methods This descriptive epidemiological research included 50 Greco-Roman style wrestlers who participated in national level competitions between the years 2003 and 2008. A questionnaire was completed by each partic...

  1. Assessing performance in pre-season wrestling athletes using biomarkers.

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    Papassotiriou, Ionas; Nifli, Artemissia-Phoebe

    2018-06-15

    Although regular training introduces the desired changes in athletes' metabolism towards optimal final performance, literature is rarely focusing on the metabolic responses off-competition. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate biochemical indices during typical preseason training in wrestling athletes. Twenty male freestyle and Greco-roman wrestlers (14 to 31 years) followed a typical session of the preparatory phase. Capillary blood glucose and lactate concentrations were assessed immediately before and after training. Protein, microalbumin, creatinine and their ratio were estimated the next day in the first morning urine. Pre-training lactate concentrations were lower in Greco-roman than in freestyle wrestlers (1.8 (1.4 - 2.1) vs. 2.9 (2.1 - 3.1) mmol/L). Exertion resulted in a significant increase in lactate concentrations, by 3.2 (2.6 - 4.1) mmol/L in Greco-roman wrestlers and 4.5 (3.4 - 5.3) mmol/L in freestylers. These changes were found to correlate with athlete's sport experience (r s = 0.71, P training is associated with mobilization of both lactic and alactic anaerobic energy systems. The regular comprehensive monitoring of biochemical markers would be advantageous in determining the efficiency of the preparatory phase and the long-term physiological adaptations towards the competition phase, or athlete's overtraining.

  2. Theoretical bases of individualization of training in wrestling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Latyshev

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical bases of individualization of training in wrestling are developed. They include the structure of organization of research, positions of conception, system of individualization of training. The system of individualization of training is designed as an aggregate of elements and subsystems, which guided mutually assist an exposure, forming, development and perfection of own style of opposing. It is marked that in the system of training activity substantially more attention is spared development of the special endurance and attended directed qualities. In the system of after training and after a competition activity an accent was displaced toward the search of facilities of more effective renewal and stimulation of the special capacity, search of new optimum rations of feed and new food additions, search of new methods of decline of weight of fighters. Tactic of conduct of duels changed in the system of competition activity, which foresees yet more rational and economy expense of energy in a fight and in a competition on the whole.

  3. SOME CARACTERISTICS WRESTLING DEVELOPMENT IN THE SLAVEHOLDING SYSTEM IN EGYPT AND GREECE

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    Mališa Radović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The oldest slaveholding countries were founded in the fertile valleys of the big rivers: Euphrates, Tigris, Hoangho, Yangtse – Kiang, Nile, Indies and Ganges in the period between 4000 and 3000 yeares BC, and they represented the beginning of slave- holding system which lasted until the year of 476. The first traces and knowledge on wrestling can be founded in the ancient civiliza- tions at first in Mesopotamia, then in the territory of Far East and in the Mediterranean which belongs to the territory of the Middle East. Vavylon, Egypt, Imolia, China, Crete, Mycenaee, Greece and Rome are rich with various archeological and other facts which mention wrestling as important fighting skill of that time. Wrestling in Egypt and Gree- ce had important place and role according to the historical facts, some of which wil be established in this study

  4. BOXING, WRESTLING, AND MARTIAL ARTS RELATED INJURIES TREATED IN EMERGENCY DEPARTMENTS IN THE UNITED STATES, 2002-2005

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    Evangelos Pappas

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of injury in combat sports has not been adequately reported although it is important to identify the nature and frequency of injuries prior to the implementation of prevention programs. This study compared injury rates treated in Hospital Emergency Departments between different combat sports of boxing, wrestling, and martial arts. A secondary objective described anatomic region and diagnosis of these injuries. Data were obtained on all boxing, wrestling, and martial arts-related injuries that were in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database and resulted in Emergency Department visits between 2002 and 2005. Pearson's chi-square statistics were calculated to compare injury rates for each activity accounting for complex sample design. Martial arts had lower injury rates compared to boxing and wrestling for all diagnoses (p<0.001. Boxing had lower injury rates compared to wrestling for strains/sprains and dislocations. Boxing and wrestling had similar injury rates for concussions. Injury prevention efforts should consider the distribution of injuries and concentrate on preventing strains/sprains in wrestling, concussions in boxing and wrestling, and fractures for all three activities. The findings of the present study do not provide evidence that combat sports have alarmingly high rates of injuries resulting in emergency department visits

  5. Comparison of Power, Velocity and Force Parameters during Loaded Squat Jump Exercise in the Handball and Arm Wrestling Players

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    Can, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare power, velocity and force parameters during loaded squat jump (SJ) exercise in the handball and arm wrestling players. In accordance with this purpose, ten arm wrestling athletes from the Turkish National Team (age: 20,7 ± 3,05 years; height: 175,2 ± 5,55 cm; weight: 71,7 ± 8,17 kg) who had ranks in…

  6. Boxing, Wrestling, and Martial Arts Related Injuries Treated in Emergency Departments in the United States, 2002-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Pappas, Evangelos

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of injury in combat sports has not been adequately reported although it is important to identify the nature and frequency of injuries prior to the implementation of prevention programs. This study compared injury rates treated in Hospital Emergency Departments between different combat sports of boxing, wrestling, and martial arts. A secondary objective described anatomic region and diagnosis of these injuries. Data were obtained on all boxing, wrestling, and martial arts-related...

  7. "Wrestling induced cervical spondylosis, fact or fiction? A study conducted in 148 athletes "

    OpenAIRE

    "Fakhr Tabatabai SA; Hussain Khan Z; Nabaei B "

    2000-01-01

    Traumatic injuries are leading causes of spinal cord damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether wrestling induced cervical spondylosis amongst professional wrestlers or not. To test this assumption, two groups of athletes, 72 wrestlers versus 76 non-wrestlers 15-55 years of age were studied. Radiographic findings and clinical assessment were compared in both groups. Significant difference (Odd ratio=2.91, P=0.007) were noted between the two groups regarding the prevalence of ra...

  8. Boxing, Wrestling, and Martial Arts Related Injuries Treated in Emergency Departments in the United States, 2002-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Evangelos

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of injury in combat sports has not been adequately reported although it is important to identify the nature and frequency of injuries prior to the implementation of prevention programs. This study compared injury rates treated in Hospital Emergency Departments between different combat sports of boxing, wrestling, and martial arts. A secondary objective described anatomic region and diagnosis of these injuries. Data were obtained on all boxing, wrestling, and martial arts-related injuries that were in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database and resulted in Emergency Department visits between 2002 and 2005. Pearson’s chi-square statistics were calculated to compare injury rates for each activity accounting for complex sample design. Martial arts had lower injury rates compared to boxing and wrestling for all diagnoses (pMartial arts have lower emergency department injury rates compared to boxing and wrestling. Wrestling has higher strains/sprains and dislocation injury rates compared to boxing. Combat sports do not appear to have higher injury rates compared to non-combat sports. PMID:24198705

  9. Competitive Wrestling-related Injuries in School Aged Athletes in U.S. Emergency Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers, Richard J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the characteristics of wrestling injuries occurring in male athletes aged 7-17 treated in United States (U.S. emergency departments (ED from 2000-2006, and to compare injury patterns between younger & older youth wrestlers.Methods: A stratified probability sample of U.S. hospitals providing emergency services in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was used for 2000-2006. ED visits for injuries sustained in organized wrestling were analyzed for male patients ages 7-17 years old (subdivided into 7-11 years old [youth group] and 12-17 years old [scholastic group].Results: During the study period, there were an estimated 167,606 ED visits for wrestling injuries in 7-17 years old U.S. males, with 152,710 (91.1% occurring in the older (12-17 years old group. The annual injury incidence was 6.49 injuries/1,000 wrestlers in the youth group and 29.57 injuries/1,000 wrestlers in the scholastic group. The distribution of diagnoses was similar in both age groups, with sprain/strain as the most common diagnosis, followed by fracture and contusion/abrasion. Distributions of injury by location were significantly different between groups (p=0.02, although both groups exhibited approximately 75% of all injuries from the waist up. Overexertion and struck by/against were the most common precipitating and direct mechanisms in both groups, respectively. Over 97% of all injured wrestlers were treated and released.Conclusion: The types of injury in youth (7-11 years old wrestlers are similar to those of scholastic (12-17 years old wrestlers, although the distribution of body parts injured differs between the age groups. The majority of injuries occurs above the waist and may be a target for prevention strategies. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(5:442-449.

  10. Acute Response of Some Iron Indices of Young Elite Wrestlers to Three Types of Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Wrestling Exercise

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    Seyed Morteza Tayebi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the acute responses of some iron indices of young elite wrestlers to three types of aerobic, anaerobic, and wrestling exercises. A total of 24 elite volunteer wrestlers were randomly categorized into three groups (n=8 aerobic, anaerobic, and routine wrestling exercises. The exercises were conducted during three non-consecutive sessions within one week. The aerobic exercises included 35 min of continuous running with 130 beats per minute (BPM on a treadmill; the anaerobic exercises included 15 min circuit movements and 15 min rest with 160 BPM, and the wrestling training included routine wrestling exercises. Blood sampling was done in the first and third sessions in order to study the acute responses which included four stages of 1 h before, immediately, 3 h, and finally 24 h after exercises. The study of the acute response to the first session showed that the type of exercise had no effect on serum iron (p=0.57. Furthermore, the serum ferritin (p=0.012 and TIBC (p=0.006 affected was affected by type of exercise. The study of the acute response to the second session showed that the type of exercise had no effect on serum ferritin (p=0.731 and TIBC (p=0.231, rather the serum iron was affected by the type of exercise (p=0.01. Conclusively, the study of acute response showed that wrestling exercises led to a decline in iron stores during exercise and reduced total iron binding capacity during a 24-h recovery period. The study of acute exercise after a short adaptation period showed that despite the fact that serum iron had no change in anaerobic and wrestling exercises over the passage of time, it changed during aerobic exercise and 24-h recovery periods. Furthermore, the progress of iron deficiency was only observed in the first stage which prevented its progress to the next stage.

  11. Analysis of the respirogram phase of Korean wrestling athletes compared with nonathletes for sports physiotherapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Sub; Yang, Seung-Min; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Respiratory function is important for patients including athletes who require physical therapy for respiratory dysfunction. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the differences in the respirograms between Korean wrestling athletes and nonathletes according to phase for the study of sports physiotherapy. [Subjects and Methods] Respiratory function was measured using spirometry in both the athletes and nonathletes while they were in a sitting position. [Results] Spirometry parameters in the athletes were significantly higher than in the nonathletes. In respirogram phasic analysis, the expiratory area and total area of forced vital capacity were significantly increased in the athletes compared with the nonathletes. The slopes of the forced vital capacity for athletes at slopes 1, 2, and 3 of the A area were significantly increased. In correlative analysis, chest circumference was significantly correlated with slope 3 of the A area of the forced vital capacity. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the differences in changes in the phases of the respirogram between the Korean wrestling athletes and nonathletes may in part contribute to our understanding of respiratory function in sports physiotherapy research.

  12. The training of Olympic wrestling coaches: study of the sources of knowledge and essential training contents

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    Paulo Martins

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the representation of wrestling coaches regarding the sources of knowledge and the training contents to be adopted during the training process of young wrestlers’ coaches. The study was based on Grossman’s (1990 model of professional knowledge for teaching and followed a qualitative, multiple case study methodology. Following a semi-structured script, six Olympic wrestling experts were interviewed in-depth, trying to identify the sources of knowledge that the coaches used for their training and what didactic-methodological contents they considered essential to play their role as coach. The analysis revealed that the coaches’ sources of professional knowledge were diverse, including academic training and professional experience as the main sources of access to professional knowledge. The coaches also pointed out that their first sources of knowledge were their experiences as competitive athletes. Finally, this study concludes that expert coaches must acquire a profound knowledge of the competition environment, seeking to optimize their influence on athletes, which should extend not only to the sport practice of the youngster – as an athlete – but also at the level of the athlete as a person.

  13. The Effect of a New Sodium Bicarbonate Loading Regimen on Anaerobic Capacity and Wrestling Performance

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    Krzysztof Durkalec-Michalski

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal side effects are the main problem with sodium bicarbonate (SB use in sports. Therefore, our study assessed the effect of a new SB loading regimen on anaerobic capacity and wrestling performance. Fifty-eight wrestlers were randomized to either a progressive-dose regimen of up to 100 mg∙kg−1 of SB or a placebo for 10 days. Before and after treatment, athletes completed an exercise protocol that comprised, in sequence, the first Wingate, dummy throw, and second Wingate tests. Blood samples were taken pre- and post-exercise. No gastrointestinal side effects were reported during the study. After SB treatment, there were no significant improvements in the outcomes of the Wingate and dummy throw tests. The only index that significantly improved with SB, compared to the placebo (p = 0.0142, was the time-to-peak power in the second Wingate test, which decreased from 3.44 ± 1.98 to 2.35 ± 1.17 s. There were also no differences in blood lactate or glucose concentrations. In conclusion, although the new loading regimen eliminated gastrointestinal symptoms, the doses could have been too small to elicit additional improvements in anaerobic power and wrestling performance. However, shortening the time-to-peak power during fatigue may be particularly valuable and is one of the variables contributing to the final success of a combat sports athlete.

  14. Cauliflower ear – a minimally invasive treatment method in a wrestling athlete: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haik J

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Josef Haik,1–4 Or Givol,2 Rachel Kornhaber,1,5 Michelle Cleary,6 Hagit Ofir,1,2 Moti Harats1–3 1Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Ramat Gan, 2Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; 3Burn Injury Research Node, Institute for Health Research University of Notre Dame Fremantle, Fremantle WA, Australia; 4Talpiot Leadership Program, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Ramat Gan, Israel; 5Faculty of Health, 6School of Health Sciences, College of Health and Medicine, University of Tasmania, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Acute auricular hematoma can be caused by direct blunt trauma or other injury to the external ear. It is typically seen in those who practice full contact sports such as boxing, wrestling, and rugby. “Cauliflower ear” deformity, fibrocartilage formation during scarring, is a common complication of auricular hematomas. Therefore, acute drainage of the hematoma and postprocedural techniques for preventing recurrence are necessary for preventing the deformity. There are many techniques although no superior method of treatment has been found. In this case report, we describe a novel method using needle aspiration followed by the application of a magnet and an adapted disc to the affected area of the auricular. This minimally invasive, simple, and accessible method could potentially facilitate the treatment of cauliflower ear among full contact sports athletes. Keywords: cauliflower ear, hematoma, ear deformity, athletic injuries, wrestling, case report

  15. The Effect of a New Sodium Bicarbonate Loading Regimen on Anaerobic Capacity and Wrestling Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkalec-Michalski, Krzysztof; Zawieja, Emilia Ewa; Podgórski, Tomasz; Zawieja, Bogna Ewa; Michałowska, Patrycja; Łoniewski, Igor; Jeszka, Jan

    2018-05-30

    Gastrointestinal side effects are the main problem with sodium bicarbonate (SB) use in sports. Therefore, our study assessed the effect of a new SB loading regimen on anaerobic capacity and wrestling performance. Fifty-eight wrestlers were randomized to either a progressive-dose regimen of up to 100 mg∙kg -1 of SB or a placebo for 10 days. Before and after treatment, athletes completed an exercise protocol that comprised, in sequence, the first Wingate, dummy throw, and second Wingate tests. Blood samples were taken pre- and post-exercise. No gastrointestinal side effects were reported during the study. After SB treatment, there were no significant improvements in the outcomes of the Wingate and dummy throw tests. The only index that significantly improved with SB, compared to the placebo ( p = 0.0142), was the time-to-peak power in the second Wingate test, which decreased from 3.44 ± 1.98 to 2.35 ± 1.17 s. There were also no differences in blood lactate or glucose concentrations. In conclusion, although the new loading regimen eliminated gastrointestinal symptoms, the doses could have been too small to elicit additional improvements in anaerobic power and wrestling performance. However, shortening the time-to-peak power during fatigue may be particularly valuable and is one of the variables contributing to the final success of a combat sports athlete.

  16. Music videos, pro wrestling, and acceptance of date rape among middle school males and females: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestle, Christine Elizabeth; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Brown, Jane D

    2007-02-01

    Exposure to televised music videos and pro wrestling were associated with rape acceptance (lower levels of agreeing with the statement "forcing a partner to have sex is never OK") among males, but not females, in a sample of 904 middle school students (controlling for overall television exposure, parenting style, and demographics).

  17. The structure of technical actions in the all-in wrestling on the example of Cadets' European Championships - Warsaw 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruchewskij A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Successive significant amendments to wrestling regulations made competitors and coaches adapt technical-tactical actions to the needs of the new situation of the fight. The main objective of the study is an analysis of the course of a wrestling match in events of the rank of the European championships allowing a determination of dominant technical actions of Greco-Roman wrestlers at the age of 14-16 years. 221 competitors from 33 countries took part in Cadets' European Championships in the Greco-Roman style in Warsaw. An analysis of technical actions comprised all offensive and defensive actions both in the standing and in the kneeling position during every round of the fight. In 255 fights athletes performed 1500 technical actions and tactical operations, for which they received 2891 points in total. A method of secondary direct observation was used for observation of the course of a wrestling match. During Cadets' European Championships athletes most often used the technique "taking down" in the standing position (13%, and the "cart" during the fight in the kneeling position (27%. Key words: combat sports, structure of a fight, Greco-Roman wrestling

  18. "Wrestling induced cervical spondylosis, fact or fiction? A study conducted in 148 athletes "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Fakhr Tabatabai SA

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injuries are leading causes of spinal cord damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether wrestling induced cervical spondylosis amongst professional wrestlers or not. To test this assumption, two groups of athletes, 72 wrestlers versus 76 non-wrestlers 15-55 years of age were studied. Radiographic findings and clinical assessment were compared in both groups. Significant difference (Odd ratio=2.91, P=0.007 were noted between the two groups regarding the prevalence of radiological cervical spondylosis. The clinical radiculo-myelopathy was significantly developing in wrestlers in higher ages (odd ratio=77.5, P<0.001. Torg ratio of < 80% was found to be somehow more in the younger age group. Considering the awesome and debilitating implications of this entity among professional wrestlers, it seems prudent to keep an eye on the cervical spine of all new entrants and closely follow up the professional wrestlers to prevent developing myelopathy.

  19. [Injuries in the Martial Arts Judo, Taekwondo and Wrestling - A Systematic Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäggi, U; Joray, C P; Brülhart, Y; Luijckx, E; Rogan, S

    2015-12-01

    Martial arts such as judo, taekwondo and wrestling are regulated, usually athletic duels. The aim is to score better than your opponent or to win. As with any type of sport, athletes in martial arts sustain minor and major injuries, which may have many negative consequences. In addition, sports injuries and their rehabilitation generate high costs to the healthcare system. In contrast to the FIFA 11+ warm-up program, no preventive programs have been postulated for injury prevention in these martial arts. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to summarise the latest research findings and to evaluate whether initial recommendations can be given for the reduction of injuries in the martial arts judo, wrestling and taekwondo. To gain an overview of the latest research findings, we searched for systematic reviews in PEDro, PubMed, Cochrane and the internet search engine Google Scholar. The methodological quality of these reviews was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Tool for a Systematic Review (CASP), and data was extracted on the risk of injury, injury location and injury type. It was found that all three review articles are of low to moderate methodological quality. Regarding injury location, it became evident that the extremities are particularly vulnerable to injury in all three martial arts. Effusion was observed to be the most common type of injury. Due to the moderate methodological quality and the injury type of effusion, it is not possible to formulate recommendations for injury prevention. Moreover, uniform definitions should be developed to describe sports injuries. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Quantitative and qualitative indicators of developing anticipation skills in wrestling athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex V. Isaev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Actual problems of modern psychology are fundamental studies of the phenomenon of anticipation, the search for new methodological approaches to the study of its mechanisms and processes of development are considered. There is a particular interest in the anticipation issue in sport, where the probabilistic forecast of the situation is crucial for winning. The paper presents the results of testing methods for anticipation skills in wrestling. The main objective of the study was to find psycho-physiological and behavioral indicators to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the degree of anticipation. The skills formation procedure was based on the reinforcement of the correct choice of behaviour in simulated situations of decision-making using multiple choices technique. Stimuli were videos of simulated situations in wrestling. Simultaneous recording of oculomotor activity and registration of multi-channel electroencephalogram (EEG was carried out. The results showed the effectiveness of the proposed method. After completing training the number of errors and the decision taking time span reduced. Expert assessment of the main qualifying factors showed a significant increase of the test group. On the psychophysiological level, there is a reduction of oculomotor activity in selecting the right answers, reducing the number of fixations, the number of fixations and saccades reverse on the text of questions and answers. Analysis of EEG parameters showed a gradual decrease in the index of brain activation when analysing simulated situations and dynamic movement of the peaks of activity in the frontal areas of the temporal and occipital areas during the series of trainings.

  1. STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING PRACTICES OF IRAN Wrestling League STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING COACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Far Saeed Jamshidi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study describes the results of a survey of the practices of Iranian Wrestling League strength and conditioning (IWL S&C coaches. Material: The response rate was 88.5% (100 of 113. The contents survey examines include: (a background information, (b physical testing, (c flexibility development, (d speed development, (e plyometrics, (f strength/power development, (g unique aspects, and (h comments from coaches providing additional information. Results: Results indicate, in part, that coaches assess an average of 7.3 parameters of fitness, with tests speed being the most common. All coaches used a variety of flexibility development strategies. Results reveal that all of IWL S&C coaches follow a periodization model. Speed as the first priority (100% and muscular endurance, power and strength as second priority (97% of importance in evaluating their athletes. Sixty-six percent coaches (66% indicated that their athletes used Olympic-style lifts. All coaches employed plyometric exercises with their athletes. Ninety-two percent (92% of the coaches reported that used plyometric trainings for increasing the speed of their wrestlers and 82% of the coaches used plyometric jump in place exercises as regular practice in their trainings. Conclusions: The squat and its variations, as well as the Olympic-style lifts and their variations, were the most frequently used exercises. The survey serves as a review and a source of applied information and new ideas.

  2. Physiological and performance changes from the addition of a sprint interval program to wrestling training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzad, Babak; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Agha-Alinejad, Hamid; Curby, David G; Bayati, Mahdi; Bahraminejad, Morteza; Mäestu, Jarek

    2011-09-01

    Increasing the level of physical fitness for competition is the primary goal of any conditioning program for wrestlers. Wrestlers often need to peak for competitions several times over an annual training cycle. Additionally, the scheduling of these competitions does not always match an ideal periodization plan and may require a modified training program to achieve a high level of competitive fitness in a short-time frame. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 4 weeks of sprint-interval training (SIT) program, on selected aerobic and anaerobic performance indices, and hormonal and hematological adaptations, when added to the traditional Iranian training of wrestlers in their preseason phase. Fifteen trained wrestlers were assigned to either an experimental (EXP) or a control (CON) group. Both groups followed a traditional preparation phase consisting of learning and drilling technique, live wrestling and weight training for 4 weeks. In addition, the EXP group performed a running-based SIT protocol. The SIT consisted of 6 35-m sprints at maximum effort with a 10-second recovery between each sprint. The SIT protocol was performed in 2 sessions per week, for the 4 weeks of the study. Before and after the 4-week training program, pre and posttesting was performed on each subject on the following: a graded exercise test (GXT) to determine VO(2)max, the velocity associated with V(2)max (νVO(2)max), maximal ventilation, and peak oxygen pulse; a time to exhaustion test (T(max)) at their νVO(2)max; and 4 successive Wingate tests with a 4-minute recovery between each trial for the determination of peak and mean power output (PPO, MPO). Resting blood samples were also collected at the beginning of each pre and posttesting period, before and after the 4-week training program. The EXP group showed significant improvements in VO(2)max (+5.4%), peak oxygen pulse (+7.7%) and T(max) (+32.2%) compared with pretesting. The EXP group produced significant increases

  3. Lesões musculoesqueléticas em atletas de luta olímpica Musculoskeletal injuries in wrestling athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Garcia Barroso

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as lesões musculoesqueléticas em atletas de elite da luta olímpica. MÉTODOS: Avaliação retrospectiva de 95 atletas por meio de um questionário estruturado contendo informações sobre lesões prévias e dados clínicos e epidemiológicos. RESULTADOS: Foram relatadas 145 lesões em 81 (85,3% atletas. As regiões anatômicas mais freqüentemente acometidas foram o joelho (25,5%, o ombro (20%, a coxa (15,2% e o tornozelo (14,5%. As entorses e as lesões musculares foram as lesões mais comumente relatadas com 34,5% e 30,4%, respectivamente. O tratamento cirúrgico foi necessário em 9% das lesões e a maioria destas lesões (61,5% localizavam-se nos membros.inferiores. CONCLUSÕES: Lesões do aparelho locomotor são frequentes nos praticantes de luta olímpica e os membros inferiores são o segmento mais acometido.OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to retrospectively evaluate musculoskeletal injuries in elite Brazilian wrestlers. METHODS: Ninety-five wrestlers completed a structured questionnaire to asses wrestling injury history and clinical and demographic data. RESULTS: Eighty one athletes (85,3% informed 145 lesions. The most commonly injured body regions were knee (25,5%, shoulder (20%, thigh (15,2% and ankle (14,5%. Sprains (34,5% and muscle lesions (30,4% were the most common injuries. Surgical treatment was performed in 9% of the lesions and the majority of these lesions (61,5% were located in the lower limbs. CONCLUSIONS: Musculoskeletal lesions are common in wrestling athletes and the lower limbs are the most frequently injured site.

  4. The need of a weight management control program in judo: a proposal based on the successful case of wrestling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, Guilherme G; Franchini, Emerson; Nicastro, Humberto; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Solis, Marina Y; Lancha, Antonio H

    2010-05-04

    Judo competitions are divided into weight classes. However, most athletes reduce their body weight in a few days before competition in order to obtain a competitive advantage over lighter opponents. To achieve fast weight reduction, athletes use a number of aggressive nutritional strategies so many of them place themselves at a high health-injury risk. In collegiate wrestling, a similar problem has been observed and three wrestlers died in 1997 due to rapid weight loss regimes. After these deaths, the National Collegiate Athletic Association had implemented a successful weight management program which was proven to improve weight management behavior. No similar program has ever been discussed by judo federations even though judo competitors present a comparable inappropriate pattern of weight control. In view of this, the basis for a weight control program is provided in this manuscript, as follows: competition should begin within 1 hour after weigh-in, at the latest; each athlete is allowed to be weighed-in only once; rapid weight loss as well as artificial rehydration (i.e., saline infusion) methods are prohibited during the entire competition day; athletes should pass the hydration test to get their weigh-in validated; an individual minimum competitive weight (male athletes competing at no less than 7% and females at no less than 12% of body fat) should be determined at the beginning of each season; athletes are not allowed to compete in any weight class that requires weight reductions greater than 1.5% of body weight per week. In parallel, educational programs should aim at increasing the athletes', coaches' and parents' awareness about the risks of aggressive nutritional strategies as well as healthier ways to properly manage body weight.

  5. The Efficacy of Wrestling-Style Compression Suits to Improve Maximum Isometric Force and Movement Velocity in Well-Trained Male Rugby Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. McMaster

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The prevalence of compression garment (CG use is increasing with athletes striving to take advantage of the purported benefits to recovery and performance. Here, we investigated the effect of CG on muscle force and movement velocity performance in athletes.Methods: Ten well-trained male rugby athletes wore a wrestling-style CG suit applying 13–31 mmHg of compressive pressure during a training circuit in a repeated-measures crossover design. Force and velocity data were collected during a 5-s isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP and repeated countermovement jump (CMJ, respectively; and time to complete a 5-m horizontal loaded sled push was also measured.Results: IMTP peak force was enhanced in the CG condition by 139 ± 142 N (effect size [ES] = 0.36. Differences in CMJ peak velocity (ES = 0.08 and loaded sled-push sprint time between the conditions were trivial (ES = −0.01. A qualitative assessment of the effects of CG wear suggested that the likelihood of harm was unlikely in the CMJ and sled push, while a beneficial effect in the CMJ was possible, but not likely. Half of the athletes perceived a functional benefit in the IMTP and CMJ exercises.Conclusion: Consistent with other literature, there was no substantial effect of wearing a CG suit on CMJ and sprint performance. The improvement in peak force generation capability in an IMTP may be of benefit to rugby athletes involved in scrummaging or lineout lifting. The mechanism behind the improved force transmission is unclear, but may involve alterations in neuromuscular recruitment and proprioceptive feedback.

  6. The Efficacy of Wrestling-Style Compression Suits to Improve Maximum Isometric Force and Movement Velocity in Well-Trained Male Rugby Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Daniel T; Beaven, Christopher M; Mayo, Brad; Gill, Nicholas; Hébert-Losier, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The prevalence of compression garment (CG) use is increasing with athletes striving to take advantage of the purported benefits to recovery and performance. Here, we investigated the effect of CG on muscle force and movement velocity performance in athletes. Methods: Ten well-trained male rugby athletes wore a wrestling-style CG suit applying 13-31 mmHg of compressive pressure during a training circuit in a repeated-measures crossover design. Force and velocity data were collected during a 5-s isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) and repeated countermovement jump (CMJ), respectively; and time to complete a 5-m horizontal loaded sled push was also measured. Results: IMTP peak force was enhanced in the CG condition by 139 ± 142 N (effect size [ES] = 0.36). Differences in CMJ peak velocity (ES = 0.08) and loaded sled-push sprint time between the conditions were trivial (ES = -0.01). A qualitative assessment of the effects of CG wear suggested that the likelihood of harm was unlikely in the CMJ and sled push, while a beneficial effect in the CMJ was possible, but not likely. Half of the athletes perceived a functional benefit in the IMTP and CMJ exercises. Conclusion: Consistent with other literature, there was no substantial effect of wearing a CG suit on CMJ and sprint performance. The improvement in peak force generation capability in an IMTP may be of benefit to rugby athletes involved in scrummaging or lineout lifting. The mechanism behind the improved force transmission is unclear, but may involve alterations in neuromuscular recruitment and proprioceptive feedback.

  7. Challenging environmental mythology: wrestling Zeus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dini, J. W; Lehr, Jay H

    2003-01-01

    .... At a time when the public can be thoroughly confused between fact and fiction regarding our environmental concerns, this book proposes to challenge our concerns in clear, jargon free language that we can...

  8. Individualization program training in freestyle wrestling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Latyshev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study - the development and verification of the effectiveness of the program individualization of training fighters. The program aims at the establishment of individual style confrontation wrestlers. The experiment involved two groups of fighters: experimental (21 fighter and control group (30 wrestlers, aged 16-17 years. Duration of the experiment was 2.5 years. Model profiles of each of the typical style of confrontation included anthropometry, physical and psychological indicators. The coefficients of correlation between the profile of preparedness wrestler and model profiles of each of the typical style of warfare. The maximum correlation coefficient showed a predisposition to certain typical fighter style confrontation. Found that most of the fighters have a moderate degree of conformity to one of the typical styles of warfare.

  9. Wrestling with Equity: Reauthorization of IDEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Julie Fisher

    1997-01-01

    Explores six proposed changes and the controversies that have stalled Congress's reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Although IDEA's fundamental characteristics will remain unchanged, there is likely to be an increased focus on outcomes, an augmented appeals process, and provisions addressing discipline problems.…

  10. Erasmus University Rotterdam Wrestles With Sustainability Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Coughlan (Geraldine); T. Yue (Tao); F.H. Wijen (Frank)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractErasmus University Rotterdam (EUR) is in the midst of a sustainability dilemma. The university is in a stage of transition, shifting focus from the city to the world stage. EUR’s current environmental sustainability policy needs more impetus. The university wants to incorporate

  11. Europe wrestles with ITER site bid

    CERN Multimedia

    Feder, T

    2003-01-01

    "The European Union is in a quandary over whether to put forward the French or Spanish site to host ITER, a $5 billion magnetic fusion experiment intended to prove the feasability of fusion energy. The decision is set for 27 November, with the final site selection, between the victorious European bid and bids from Canada and Japan, to follow within a couple of months" (1 page)

  12. METODOLOGÍAS Y EFECTOS DE LAS CAÍDAS DE PESO EN LUCHA OLÍMPICA: UNA REVISIÓN Methodologies and effects of weight cutting approaches in Olympic Wrestling: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Díaz Suárez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa Lucha fue un deporte fundamental en los Juegos Olímpicos antiguos y todavía hoy sigue siendo una de las modalidades más populares en el Juegos Olímpico modernos. Actualmente, la Lucha Olímpica es un deporte de combate basado en un sistema de categorías por pesos que trata de equilibrar el potencial físico entre rivales, y por consiguiente aumentar el porcentaje del rendimiento que depende de las habilidades técnico-tácticas y psicológicas que cada luchador demuestra sobre el tapiz. Este sistema de categorías por peso obliga a todos los luchadores a cumplir o "dar el peso" unas pocas horas antes del comienzo del torneo, por lo que a lo largo de las últimas décadas los luchadores han puesto en práctica numerosas estrategias y metodologías de reducción de la masa corporal de cara a este pesaje oficial. En esta revisión se describirán pormenorizadamente estas metodologías de pérdida abrupta de masa corporal, así como los efectos que estas estrategias tienen sobre el rendimiento físico de los luchadores. Igualmente, y en base a evidencias científicas, se realizarán propuestas de adecuación y actualización de este reglamento oficial, considerado por la mayor parte de los científicos y técnicos relacionados con esta modalidad como parcialmente desfasado y en ocasiones irracional.Palabras Clave: pérdida de peso; libre olímpica, grecorromana, combateAbstractWrestling was an important part of the ancient Olympic Games and is still one of the more popular events of the modern Olympic Games. Nowadays, this combat sport is based on a weight class system which aims to balance out the physical characteristics between wrestlers and therefore increase the percentage of performance that depends on technical and psychological skills. This weight class system requires all wrestlers to "make weight" few hours before the tournament begins, so that over the last decades the wrestlers have implemented numerous kinds of weight

  13. Wrestling the Hydra: Exploiting Organizational Evolution in Terrorist Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    outside that come from the competition for scarce resources.28 25 Aldrich, 22. The 26...forced to rebuild following the employment of over 250,000 Turkish troops and security forces.39 The Zapatitstas sit on the other end of the spectrum...consistency has and will continue to be tested. Al-Qaeda and its franchises fall far short of presenting a monolithic front. In fact, if this look at

  14. Wrestling with Pedagogical Change: The TEAL Initiative at MIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslow, Lori

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the physics department at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) had a problem. The department was responsible for teaching the two required physics courses that are part of the General Institute Requirements (GIRs), MIT's core curriculum--Physics I (mechanics, or in MIT parlance, 8.01) and Physics II (electricity and…

  15. Wrestling the Bear: The Rise of Russian Hybrid Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    34Russia: Mythology in the Service of Realpolitik." American Foreign Policy Interests 36, no. 3 (20 14): 195, http:l...complications in 13Michael Rywkin, "Russia: Mythology in the Service of Realpolitik." American Foreign Policy Interests 36, no. 3 (20 14): 195, http...ukraine- crisis-mh 17 -investigation-idUSKBNOH40LM20 140909. Rywkin, Michael. "Russia: Mythology in the Service of Realpolitik." American Foreign Policy

  16. Wrestling with Philosophy: Improving Scholarship in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezar, Adrianna

    2004-01-01

    Method is usually viewed as completely separate from philosophy or theory, focusing instead on techniques and procedures of interviewing, focus groups, observation, or statistical analysis. Several texts on methodology published recently have added significant sections on philosophy, such as Creswell's (1998) Qualitative inquiry and research…

  17. Wrestling with Chromosomes: The Roles of SUMO During Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottke, Amanda C; Kim, Hyun-Min; Colaiácovo, Monica P

    2017-01-01

    Meiosis is a specialized form of cell division required for the formation of haploid gametes and therefore is essential for successful sexual reproduction. Various steps are exquisitely coordinated to ensure accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis, thereby promoting the formation of haploid gametes from diploid cells. Recent studies are demonstrating that an important form of regulation during meiosis is exerted by the post-translational protein modification known as sumoylation. Here, we review and discuss the various critical steps of meiosis in which SUMO-mediated regulation has been implicated thus far. These include the maintenance of meiotic centromeric heterochromatin , meiotic DNA double-strand break repair and homologous recombination, centromeric coupling, and the assembly of a proteinaceous scaffold between homologous chromosomes known as the synaptonemal complex.

  18. Wrestling with IWMP implementation: case study challenges and lessons learnt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Muswema, Aubrey P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available / A / . * + , - . / D 4 + 5 8 ' 4 2 ' E / ' F G H I J F K I L M N O P Q R N O S T R U N O V R M R P O W O M N X Y R M M Z M P [ L T V X \\ ] R U Q O ^ _ P M Z U O S R U R U ` _ Q N a N O Q W U N Q R N O P b Z M Z N Z R N Z c O d _ Q N ` O e f g Y Z... ^ R M S e Q Z c R N O U O ^ N _ Q Z M N ` O h R N Z _ M R Y T R U N O V R M R P O W O M N H N Q R N O P b R U d R Q g R ^ i R U j k k k [ l m F I n j k k k \\ o I O M b O R Q U Y R N O Q n N ` Q _ f P ` N ` O T R U N O F ^ N _ M j p f Y b q r r k n N...

  19. Wrestling with Deterrence: Bush Administration Strategy After 9/11

    OpenAIRE

    Knopf, Jeffrey W.

    2008-01-01

    The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13523260802284076 After the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, many observers concluded that the central American strategies of the Cold War – containment and deterrence – no longer applied. Deterring suicide terrorists is a daunting challenge, as people who plan to kill themselves to carry out an attack have no reason to care about a threat to punish them after the fact. Deterring the organizat...

  20. The role of support in wrestling with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The support provided to patients with cancer is an important determinant of their sense of security and quality of life at all stages of diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, remission or progression of the disease. The support is complex; its nature and scope depend on the current needs of the people who receive it. The subjective dimension of the support given to oncology patients offer sample opportunities to address the psychological impact, overcoming stress, a pathy and feelings of lesser self-esteem and use less ness. The level of support very often determines the level of optimistic attitude to life of patients and influences their motivation to fight with the disease.

  1. Wrestling on the Table: The Contemporary Wedding Meal in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astra Spalvēna

    2012-03-01

    I argue that the wedding ceremony reveals the shift from rites of passage to social distinction. This argument is developed by analysing how social and family relationships, value systems and the ethos as a whole have changed recently in Latvia. The use of the symbolic capacity of wedding food, denoting fertility and prosperity, provides the stability of the structure of the wedding feast, which also affects the structure of the marriage ceremony as a whole.

  2. Wrestling with Social Media on Information Systems’ Home Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Lars

    2014-01-01

    While there are many possible approaches and areas of research for the study of social media, a review shows that only a few of these are used in extant information systems literature. The paper therefore suggests that increased awareness of the possibilities can strengthen research in social media....... It is also suggested that information systems scholars can strengthen their interdisciplinary position by making the information systems discipline itself the home ground for research about social media. To address the issue of possible approaches and areas of research, the paper develops a framework...... that includes conceptual framing and methodology as well as research areas in the information systems discipline. First, the framework guides a review of extant literature about external social media. Going forward, the framework facilitates the development of a future research agenda about social media...

  3. Sibling violence silenced: rivalry, competition, wrestling, playing, roughhousing, benign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Debby A; Phillips, Kate H; Grupp, Kitty; Trigg, Lisa J

    2009-01-01

    In this article, sibling violence and the silence surrounding it is explicated through professional literature and research findings, exemplars from clinical practice, and statistics. Theoretical positions and discourse analysis have been used to help explain how regular broken bones, bruises, lacerations, and verbal humiliation can be minimized as normal sibling rivalry or roughhousing, which does not cause serious consequences. Nursing should be on the front lines of ending practices of violence. Recognizing sibling violence as such is part of this work and is a social justice issue.

  4. Steer wrestling : Hemisphere GPS hopes to bring its auto-steering technology to the oilsands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentein, J.

    2009-01-15

    Hemisphere GPS has developed a technology to guide giant dump trucks used in oilsand mining operations. The technology offers the possibility to haul oilsands from northern Alberta mines using driverless, remotely-guided trucks. The GPS system would ensure more accuracy than a human operator. The technology has the potential to be commercialized within the next year, and may be adapted for the mining industry. The unmanned technology would help oilsands mine operators lower their labour costs. Hemisphere GPS gained access to the steer-by-wire technology when it purchased the Australian software company Beeline Technologies Pty Ltd. Hemisphere GPS has also developed prototype unmanned drilling rig technology which has considerable potential in the energy industry. The company has won numerous awards in recognition of its commercial achievements in science and technology. 1 fig.

  5. Targeting outpatient drug safety: recommendations of the Dutch HARM-Wrestling Task Force.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warle-van Herwaarden, M.F.; Kramers, C.; Sturkenboom, M.C.; Bemt, P.M. van den; Smet, P.A.G.M. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Two Dutch observational studies (HARM [Hospital Admissions Related to Medication] and IPCI [Integrated Primary Care Information]) have shown that approximately 5% of all unplanned hospital admissions are associated with adverse drug events (ADEs), of which 40-46% are potentially

  6. Wrestling with Data: Learning Network Grapples with How to Gather and Analyze Valuable Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Harriette Thurber

    2012-01-01

    As facilitator, the author noted some trepidation in the room as the eight secondary principals from Eugene (Oregon.) School District 4J quietly discussed questions that surfaced through their hopes and fears exercise. Could the practice of visiting classrooms together help them to better lead instruction in their buildings? Would this process…

  7. ‘Enlisting in the struggle to be free’: A feminist wrestle with gender and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochurani Abraham

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the gendered underpinnings of religion using a feminist lens. It names the violence embedded in the gendered notions of religious ideology and praxis and shows how religion can be “injurious” to women’s growth because of the following factors: the hierarchical dualism that alienates them from the Spirit and identifies them with the body while marginalizing them through their positioning on the lower rungs of the hierarchical ladder; the exclusive male imagery of God and its mediation by an all male priestly class and the scriptural injunctions which are inscribed by patriarchal thought and deployed to keep women in defined roles and spaces. Catholic teachings and practices are taken as a case of analysis to unearth the political dynamics by which religion reinforces ‘gendering –women’s exclusion from theological knowledge making spaces and the gendered religious indoctrination which become hegemonic codes that shape women’s consciousness and keep them without grievance  in their  subjugated status.  It shows further how female body and sexuality are major sites of religious gender politics through the strict controls on women’s dress-codes  and the sexual servicing expected of them in marriage. Finally, the paper advocates critical thought as a tool for exploding the hardened rock of gendered religious foundations and shows how overcoming the contradictory consciousness and waking up to a critical consciousness becomes imperative for women  to be freed of the gender dictates of religion.   Key words: gender, religion, theological knowledge-making, sexuality, critical consciusness

  8. Feminists wrestle with testosterone: hormones, socialization and cultural interactionism as predictors of women's gendered selves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Shannon N; Risman, Barbara J

    2015-01-01

    Sociology of gender has developed beyond a personality-centered idea of "sex-roles" to an approach that stresses interaction and social structure. At the same time, there has been a concurrent development in the psychological sex-differences and medical literatures toward including the biological bases of sex-typed behavior and gender identities. In this paper, while we conceptualize gender as a social structure, we focus only on the individual level of analysis: testing the relative strength of (maternal circulating) prenatal hormones, childhood socialization, and the power of expectations attached to adult social roles (cultural interactionist) as explanations for women's self-reported feminine and masculine selves. Our findings are complex, and support some importance of each theory. Prenatal hormones, childhood socialization, and cultural interactionism were all influential factors for gendered selves. While cultural expectations predicted only feminine selves, prenatal hormones were more robust predictors of masculine sense of self. While personality may be a relatively stable characteristic influenced by the body and childhood socialization, our results reinforce the importance of studying how the social world responds to and reinforces gendered personality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Wrestling with data: Establishing a national waste information baseline for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swanepoel, H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ) Waste Type Identified Quantity Estimated Quantity % error between identified and estimated quantity Medical Waste 125 tons/month 205 tons/month 61.0 Oil/Grease Wastes 160 tons/month 400 tons/month 40.0 Used Oil 0.79 million litres/year 9 million... Regulations. Accuracy of data is a second concern that requires urgent attention. Implementation of the SAWIS and reaping the benefit of such a system is highly dependent on the availability of accurate data. It is however envisaged that accuracy of waste...

  10. Wrestling the Devil in the Details: An Early Look at Restructuring in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Caitlin

    2006-01-01

    To learn more about district and school decision making for No Child Left Behind (NCLB) restructuring, the Center on Education Policy (CEP) turned to California, a state with a substantial number of schools in restructuring and several state and regional supports for making decisions about restructuring. In the summer and fall of 2005, CEP…

  11. Wrestling with Stephen and Matilda: Planning Challenging Enquiries to Engage Year 7 in Medieval Anarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    McDougall found learning about Stephen and Matilda fascinating, was sure that her pupils would also and designed an enquiry to engage them in "the anarchy" of 1139-1153 AD. Pupils enjoyed exploring "the anarchy" and learning about it enhanced their knowledge and understanding of the medieval period considerably. However,…

  12. "Who Am I to Bring Diversity into the Classroom?" Learning Communities Wrestle with Creating Inclusive College Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Jennifer R.; Mihalick, Jennifer E.; Mogi-Hein, Yoko R.; Penick-Parks, Marguerite W.; Van Auken, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the experiences of gateway course instructors during the implementation of pedagogical changes aimed at improving the success of diverse students. A detailed case study was built through analysis of peer observations, focus groups, oral and written reflections, student grades, in-depth interviews, and pre and post student…

  13. Wrestling with empowerment: a BBBEE (Enterprise Development) case study and model for the waste sector from Durban

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Muswema, Aubrey P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available / . * + , - . / D 4 + 5 8 ' 4 2 ' E / F G H I J F K I H L M N N O P Q R S T Q Q U R S V N P W R S X Q L M N N U L T W R P L M S W L R V Y Z [ Q R \\ T W T S ] T Y ^ Y R Q T Q _ H ` ` a Q b U R Q Q T T S M Q ] c T V Z Y S T Y Q ] Z S T Z d T V Z S Z L R V W T e T N... T Q Z d j Z Z W l Y M V ] R V T U ] Z M Q Q R Q ] R S Q ] Y T S X ] c T S R S X M S W Q P ^ ^ Z Y ] R S X ] c R Q T L T Y X R S X Q T V ] Z Y m I c R Q ^ M ^ T Y W R Q V P Q Q T Q M Q P V V T Q Q d P N V M Q T Q ] P W n f c T Y T M S T L T Y X R S X...

  14. Wrestling with Expectations: An Examination of How Asian American College Students Negotiate Personal, Parental, and Societal Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samura, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    This research draws on a broader study that situates Asian American college students within larger sociohistorical and political contexts. I examined Asian American college students' experiences and what it means to be "Asian American" in and through these experiences. Two types of expectations emerged from the data: students' internal…

  15. Wrestling with 'doubt-sayers': a first step in leading community-wide climate change action for better health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Jan

    2011-12-01

    Although the evidence base for climate change is indisputable and the potential human health impact is extremely concerning, to date public health professionals are playing little part in influencing community change to accept and act on the science. In reviewing the techniques used to obstruct action on tobacco control by vested interests through constantly raising doubt about the science in this arena, a similar pattern is seen in obstructing action on climate change. It is clear that the raising of unverified doubt is the primary tool employed by profit-driven corporations to prevent constructive action in both these arenas, with the very high potential for the health of the whole population to suffer as a result. Those promoting the health of Australians have a responsibility to optimise health in this regard and need to think differently through embracing complexity science and then take action, with the first step being to provide constant counter-arguments to the unsubstantiated statements of the 'doubt-sayers'.

  16. "There's a Problem, and We've Got to Face It": How Staff Members Wrestled with Race in an Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Educators who initiate school reform work often find that attempts to raise student achievement and change school culture are derailed when staff members refuse to address issues of race. At the same time, staff members who collectively resist engaging in discussions of racism and racial inequality may be actively involved in their own individual…

  17. Remediation activities wrestling with environmental pollution and radwaste generated by the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident due to the Tohoku district-off the pacific ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Motoi; Fujitsuka, Tetsuro; Yoshihara, Koichi; Katsumi, Takeshi; Tochiyama, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Based on the lectures and panel discussions 'Radioactive waste countermeasures and the role of civil engineering technology' on the occasion of 3rd year of the Great East Japan Earthquake, March 11, 2011, hosted by the Japan Society of Civil Engineers, the paper summarizes remediation activities reported during the seminar. Radioactive materials contaminated area due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident from the Department of Environment, endeavors for setting-up of temporary storage facilities for the decontaminated soils and solid wastes, present status of roadmap toward the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi Plants from the Japanese Government and Tokyo Electric Power Co. were presented followed by expectations of civil engineers cooperation. (S. Ohno)

  18. FACTORES PSICOLÓGICOS Y LESIONES DEPORTIVAS EN LUCHA OLÍMPICA Y TAEKWONDO Psychological factors and sports injuries in olympic wrestling and taekwondo

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Almarcha Teruel; José M. López Gullón; Enrique J. Garcés de los Fayos Ruiz; Rosendo Berengüí Gil

    2011-01-01

    ResumenEn los últimos años ha aumentado el interés por el estudio de la relación entre las variables psicológicas y las lesiones deportivas. Considerando éstas como acontecimientos negativos e inevitables en el contexto deportivo, en el presente estudio abordamos dos disciplinas que tradicionalmente han registrado altas cifras de incidencia, lucha olímpica y  taekwondo. Con una muestra de 34 deportistas de ambas modalidades, los resultados más destacados indican puntuaciones similares, aunque...

  19. Analysis of the competitive activities of Ukrainian champions with the strongest fighters of world (based on world championship in Greco-Roman wrestling in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radchenko Y.А.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of results of competition activity of the strongest fighters is presented Greco-Roman style on a world of 2011 cup. Found out some tendencies and conformities to the law in application technical tactical actions by fighters in a competition duel on the modern stage of development to Greco-Roman fight. It is set that in most cases sportsmen won due to ability to win with insignificant advantage for all of competitors. They most adjusted to the modern requirements of conduct of duel, conduct an active fight and own effective attacking receptions, reliably they are applied and rarely attack without an estimation. One of more effective receptions in an orchestra there is defence of fighter which is down. Found out failings in preparation of the Ukrainian sportsmen can underlie correction of the programs of preparation to the Olympic games. It is recommended to utillize the resulted information for the design of the special trainings tasks which are conditioned the individual features of separate sportsmen.

  20. Proximal biceps rupture: management of an unusual injury in an arm wrestler

    OpenAIRE

    Pratt, D A; Tennent, T D

    2007-01-01

    Arm wrestling may cause unusual injuries, which may require operative repair in the sporting individual. Injury to the proximal biceps as a consequence of arm wrestling has not been reported previously. The diagnosis and treatment of a 36‐year‐old man who sustained a proximal biceps rupture while arm wrestling and his operative management are described.

  1. Public Medical Preparedness at the “Swiss Wrestling and Alpine Games 2013”: Descriptive Analysis of 1,533 Patients Treated at the Largest 3-Day Sporting Event in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Hostettler-Blunier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Medical preparedness at mass gatherings is challenging, as little is known about the optimal planning. Most studies and case reports are based on mass casualty incidents, so the results cannot be extrapolated to mass gatherings. Aim of this study was to evaluate the preclinical medical structure and the frequency of specific injuries and medical emergencies during the event. Methods. Retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database. Three on-site medical assistance points were set up, completed by mobile teams, and coordinated by an on-site operational management team. Medical staff requirements were calculated using Maurer’s formula. Results. A total of 1,533 patients were treated during the three-day event. Overall, the medical usage rate (MUR; patients per 10,000 visitors was 51.1. A total of 58 patients (3.8% required a hospital transfer. In 1,063 cases (69.3% a diagnosis was documented. Of these, 503 patients (47.3% suffered from hymenoptera stings; the two most common non-trauma-related diagnoses were alcohol/drug intoxication (4.1% and gastrointestinal diseases (4.0%. Conclusion. Overall, the on-site medical care worked well. However, a high frequency of hymenoptera stings occurred, resulting in a shortage of antihistamine medication. Moreover, more than half of the patients were managed at the second largest medical assistance point. Prospective and critical evaluation of medical care at mass gatherings is crucial in order to optimize on-site medical preparedness at future events.

  2. METODOLOGÍAS Y EFECTOS DE LAS CAÍDAS DE PESO EN LUCHA OLÍMPICA: UNA REVISIÓN Methodologies and effects of weight cutting approaches in Olympic Wrestling: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo Díaz Suárez; Xabier Muriel; Ernesto de la Cruz; María Dolores Torres-Bonete; Jesús García-Pallarés

    2011-01-01

    ResumenLa Lucha fue un deporte fundamental en los Juegos Olímpicos antiguos y todavía hoy sigue siendo una de las modalidades más populares en el Juegos Olímpico modernos. Actualmente, la Lucha Olímpica es un deporte de combate basado en un sistema de categorías por pesos que trata de equilibrar el potencial físico entre rivales, y por consiguiente aumentar el porcentaje del rendimiento que depende de las habilidades técnico-tácticas y psicológicas que cada luchador demuestra sobre el tapiz. ...

  3. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report. Volume 21, Number 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    with medical encoun- ters related to boxing (E008.0; STANAG 203, 223), wrestling (E008.1), martial arts (E008.4), or unspecifi ed combat sport ...Th e practice of combat sports (spe- cifi cally, boxing, wrestling, and mixed martial arts ) is inherently physical and creates a potential for...individuals who engage in contact sports such as wrestling, boxing, and mixed martial arts . Service members regularly engage in sports and combat training and

  4. 26 CFR 44.4421-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., boxing and wrestling matches and exhibitions, baseball, football, and basketball games, tennis and golf..., endurance, popularity, politics, strength, appearances, etc., such as a general or primary election, the...

  5. New, Novice or Nervous? The "Quick" Guide to the "No-Quick-Fix"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching History, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Teaching History" presents "New, Novice or Nervous (NNN)" for those new to the published writings of history teachers. Each problem newcomers wrestle with is one other teachers have wrestled with too. Quick fixes do not exist. But in others' writing, there is something better: "conversations in which other history…

  6. Examining Decision Making Level of Wrestlers in Terms of Some Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Sihmehmet; Dalbudak, Ibrahim; Musa, Mihriay; Gürkan, Alper C.; Dalkiliç, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine decision making level of wrestlers who joined Turkey inter university wrestling championship, according to variables as wrestlers' sex, age, grade, department, and education type. Study group consists of 34 females and 196 males, totally 230 athletes, who joined Turkey Inter University Wrestling Championship…

  7. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-22

    Sep 22, 2012 ... Department of History and Heritage Management, College of Social Science, Post Box No: 395, .... resourceful historical source that refers to human ... very important. ..... this class advanced military talent like wrestling,.

  8. Sports and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hockey Paintball Racquetball Softball Squash Fencing Lacrosse Wrestling Football Golf Badminton Soccer Tennis Fishing Bicycling Gymnastics Track ... Media Policies and Other Important Links NEI Employee Emergency Information NEI Intranet (Employees Only) *PDF files require ...

  9. Warfighting is for the Warriors? How the U.S. Military Can Ensure Effectiveness Despite the Participation of Political Leadership in Operational Decision-Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAleer, Pete

    2007-01-01

    .... Any further involvement by the national-strategic leadership hampers the conduct of the war, impacts the military leadership, and wrestles decision-making from the trained, professional, experienced...

  10. Overview: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... close physical contact, such as athletes involved in football and wrestling, soldiers kept in close quarters, inmates, ... LaMontagne, Ph.D. James C. Hill, Ph.D. History Dr. Joseph J. Kinyoun: Father of the NIH ...

  11. Turf Toe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Although this injury is most commonly reported in football players, participants in soccer, basketball, wrestling, gymnastics and ... foot and ankle surgeon will obtain your medical history and examine your foot. X-rays are typically ...

  12. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin contact with others, such as athletes playing football or wrestling. Reducing the Risk The best way ... About the Foundation Media Center Attendance Policy Our History Board of Trustees Our Leadership Careers Reports and ...

  13. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injuries Relax & Unwind People, Places & Things That Help Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens ... such as wrestling, swimming, dance, or gymnastics — might feel pressure to lose weight, but they need to ...

  14. Barriers and Opportunities for the Use of Alternative Technologies to Reduce Nitrogen in Coastal Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    In coastal New England, many communities wrestling with nitrogen over-enrichment from insufficient wastewater management are considering alternative technologies to supplement traditional sewering technology. In particular, communities on Cape Cod, Massachusetts are actively comp...

  15. Mouthguard

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... softball, football, wrestling, soccer, lacrosse, rugby, in-line skating and martial arts, as well as recreational sports such as skateboarding and bicycling, should wear mouthguards while competing. Why ...

  16. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ... were better known as the “alternative Nobel prizes” for biology and received media ..... The wrestling with such different approaches to communication must have ... of altruism and ethics in human beings, for example, is an excellent ...

  17. Film Music: The Material, Literature and Present State of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Martin

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive look at the neglected art of film music. Examines the nature of the medium, the literature (how others have wrestled with film music's recalcitrant materials), and the present state of research into film music. Includes a bibliography. (PD)

  18. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... athletes work out more than their less-active peers, they generally need extra calories to fuel both ... as wrestling, swimming, dance, or gymnastics — might feel pressure to lose weight, but they need to balance ...

  19. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as wrestling, swimming, dance, or gymnastics — might feel pressure to lose weight, but they need to balance ... may hurt. Caffeine increases heart rate and blood pressure. Too much caffeine can leave an athlete feeling ...

  20. [Injuries to the upper limbs in competitive wrestlers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, J W-P; Müller, L; Schikora, N; Eysel, P; König, D P

    2008-06-01

    Great variety of tackling and defence in wrestling in standing position and on the floor cannot be compared to other kind of sports. High demand to motoric characteristics and tournament specific movability is required. However wrestling in Germany belongs to a fringe sport there is an increase of professionality. This leads to a sufficient and high-demanded supervision. Aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate sport injuries using a questionnaire and to figure out a correlation between kind and frequency of sport injuries of different body regions. 163 questionnaires out of 200 had been evaluated. In the region of the upper limb injuries had been found in 23%. The injury rate was higher in the athletes wrestling in the 2nd league. Wrestling is a technically and tactically ambitious sport. Injuries should be evaluated very careful to minimize the risk changing tactics and training methods.

  1. ASSOCIATION OF ACTN3 R577X AND ACE I/D POLYMORPHISMS IN BRAZILIANS WRESTLERS

    OpenAIRE

    Ribas, Marcelo Romanovitch; Oliveira Netto, Zair Candido; Salgueirosa, Fabiano; Fernandes, Priscila; Matos, Oslei de; Bassan, Julio Cesar

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: By associating genetics and sport, it is possible to identify subjects with greater capacity to adapt to training, and lower chances of injury. Objective: The investigation evaluated the genotypic and allelic distribution of ACTN3 R577X and ACE I/D polymorphisms in Brazilian high-performance athletes in wrestling and percussion combat sports. Methods: The study included 37 male athletes ranked from first to third place in world scenarios, divided into two groups: wrestl...

  2. An Independent, Prospective, Head to Head Study of the Reliability and Validity of Neurocognitive Test Batteries for the Assessment of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    women), ice hockey, and wrestling. Baseline testing for football, lacrosse, rugby and soccer is scheduled for spring 2013. The postinjury protocol for...hockey, field hockey, rugby , wrestling), football will provide the large quantity of both baseline testing participants and concussed athletes. 6...test results to be rendered invalid for a variety of reasons (e.g., unsatisfactory test conditions, motivational factors, psychometric properties of

  3. The effect of uniform color on judging athletes' aggressiveness, fairness, and chance of winning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, Bjoern

    2015-04-01

    In the current study we questioned the impact of uniform color in boxing, taekwondo and wrestling. On 18 photos showing two athletes competing, the hue of each uniform was modified to blue, green or red. For each photo, six color conditions were generated (blue-red, blue-green, green-red and vice versa). In three experiments these 108 photos were randomly presented. Participants (N = 210) had to select the athlete that seemed to be more aggressive, fairer or more likely to win the fight. Results revealed that athletes wearing red in boxing and wrestling were judged more aggressive and more likely to win than athletes wearing blue or green uniforms. In addition, athletes wearing green were judged fairer in boxing and wrestling than athletes wearing red. In taekwondo we did not find any significant impact of uniform color. Results suggest that uniform color in combat sports carries specific meanings that affect others' judgments.

  4. Sport-specific fitness testing and intervention for an adolescent with cerebral palsy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lisa K; Sleeper, Mark D; Tovin, Melissa M

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes the development, implementation, and outcomes of a fitness-related intervention program that addressed the sport-specific goals of an adolescent with cerebral palsy. The participant in this case was a 16-year-old African American male with spastic diplegia. The participant joined his high school wrestling team and asked to focus his physical therapy on interventions that would improve his wrestling performance. An examination was performed using the muscle power sprint test, the 10 x 5-m sprint test, strength tests, the 10-m shuttle run test, and the Gross Motor Function Measure. The intervention consisted of interval training, which focused on the demands of wrestling. Scores on all tests and measures were higher after the intervention. The outcomes of this case report seem to support the use of a fitness-related intervention program for addressing the sport-specific goals of an adolescent with cerebral palsy.

  5. Pedagogical basement of sport selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullaev A.K.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of relevance, goals, objectives psychological selection of sports heroes. The analysis of the literature reveals the stages of the selection of fighters, revealed three interdependent parts of the selection of athletes as part of the wrestling coach. Established that the content and focus of initial training for wrestling must meet age, stage of training, the level of preparedness practitioners. So it is proved that the intellectual sphere of athletes is mediocre and the average level of development.

  6. Play as a Basic Pathway to the Self: An Interview with Thomas S. Henricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Play, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Thomas S. Henricks is the J. Earl Danieley Professor of Sociology and Distinguished University Professor at Elon University. Since receiving his doctorate in sociology at the University of Chicago, Henricks has investigated the sociology of sports from the fandom of modern American professional wrestling to the relationship between sports and…

  7. Examination of Youth Team Athletes' Social Values According to Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdenk, Serhat; Karabulut, Ebru Olcay

    2018-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to examine of youth team athletes' social values according to some variables. The study was carried out by screening model and includes in range of 9-17 years 273 youth team athletes who take part in individual and team sports such as Taekwondo, Handball, Badminton, Wrestling, Volleyball and Football. "A Tool for…

  8. Expiration of private property rights: a note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter E. Block

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available According to libertarian law, upon what occasions may a person’s private property rights in goods, commodities, in himself, be alienated from him? The present paper is an attempt to wrestle with this question. We consider abandonment, punishment, salvage, misplacement, liberation of property.

  9. Complicated Contradictions Amid Black Feminism and Millennial Black Women Teachers Creating Curriculum for Black Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachae, Tiffany M.

    2016-01-01

    Millennial Black women teachers wrestle with two simultaneous burdens: disrupting the racist and sexist status quo of schooling through curriculum, and employing tactics to survive school politics among their majority White women colleagues. This article describes how the "Sisters of Promise" (SOP) curriculum aligned with Black feminism…

  10. Public Intellectuals in the New-Media Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Henry

    2008-01-01

    The author has what most people would agree is a pretty cool gig: he studies pop culture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which means he has written scholarly articles about "Star Trek" fans, video games, and pro wrestling, among other topics. He is also one of the directors of the institute's comparative-media-studies program, which…

  11. Momentum Probabilities for a Single Quantum Particle in Three-Dimensional Regular "Infinite" Wells: One Way of Promoting Understanding of Probability Densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Students often wrestle unsuccessfully with the task of correctly calculating momentum probability densities and have difficulty in understanding their interpretation. In the case of a particle in an "infinite" potential well, its momentum can take values that are not just those corresponding to the particle's quantised energies but…

  12. Head trauma in female professional wrestlers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomoto, Jun; Seiki, Yoshikatsu; Nemoto, Masaaki

    2007-01-01

    The clinical characteristics of head trauma were evaluated in 18 wrestlers belonging to a female professional wrestling organization, 13 regular members and five trainees aged 15-34 years. Medical examinations for head trauma were performed in all wrestlers, and wrestlers treated at our emergency outpatient department were clinically evaluated. In addition, the relationships of head trauma with duration of the wrestling career of 1-16 years (mean 8 years) in the regular members, and less than 1 year in the five trainees, and body mass index (BMI) of 21.0-32.0 in the 16 subjects, excluding two trainees, was evaluated. Chronic symptoms were noted in four of the 18 wrestlers with long wrestling careers (16 years in 1, 13 years in 1, and 5 years in 2). Three wrestlers with symptoms immediately after head trauma showed recurrent retrograde amnesia and had low BMI (21.6, 21.6, and 23.1). Five wrestlers were treated at our emergency outpatient clinic, three required hospitalization and two showed intracranial traumatic changes on computed tomography (acute subdural hematoma in 1 and diffuse brain swelling in 1). Head trauma in female professional wrestlers is associated with longer wrestling career and low BMI. Periodic medical examinations are recommended to monitor for signs of head trauma. (author)

  13. Who Cares for the Children? Denmark's Unique Public Child-Care Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polakow, Valerie

    1997-01-01

    U.S. working mothers wrestle daily with a child-care crisis characterized by unavailable infant care, high costs, and inadequate access and regulation. In Denmark, high-quality child care is a guaranteed entitlement for every child. Other benefits include paid parental leaves, single-parent allowances, housing subsidies, and universal health care.…

  14. No Child Left Behind and the Spectacle of Failing Schools: The Mythology of Contemporary School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, David A.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses what David Berliner (2005) has called the perverse "spectacle of fear" (208) surrounding issues of teacher quality and accountability in contemporary school reform. Drawing principally on the critical semiotics of Roland Barthes' essay, "The World of Wrestling" (1957), it examines the way that this…

  15. The Institutionalization of Photojournalism Education: Bringing the Blue-Apron Ghetto to American Schools of Journalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Stanton M.

    2017-01-01

    As journalism educators wrestle to keep programs up-to-date in an evolving news landscape, there is value in understanding how education in an early form of multimedia journalism--photography--came to be. Little attention has been paid to the intersection of journalism education and photojournalism. This subject furnishes a unique perspective on…

  16. Principal Pressure in the Middle of Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrington, Mary Lynne; Larsen, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    When a new superintendent is hired, Tom Thompson, middle school principal, is squeezed between complying with the demands of the district and cultivating a positive culture in his school. He wrestles with the stress of facing tough leadership choices that take a toll on his physical and mental health. Tom realizes that a career-ending move might…

  17. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... guys, including increased risk for fractures and other injuries. Athletes and Dieting Since teen athletes need extra fuel, it's usually a bad idea to diet. Athletes in sports where weight is emphasized — such as wrestling, swimming, dance, or gymnastics — might feel pressure to ...

  18. 44 CFR 19.415 - Access to course offerings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to course offerings. 19.415 Section 19.415 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... in wrestling, boxing, rugby, ice hockey, football, basketball, and other sports the purpose or major...

  19. Military Construction and Family Housing Program. Fiscal Year (FY) 2001 Budget Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    does not provide the required space to support the demand for basketball, volleyball, racquetball, weightlifting , wrestling, judo, karate, and other...will be written up as deficiencies in the year 2000 NCAA certification visit to the Academy. Athletic training shortfalls preclude effective injury

  20. Real Talk, Real Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Maria

    2014-01-01

    What happens in classrooms when we create the time and space for authentic talk about texts? Extended, collaborative conversations that allow understanding to unfold over time can be messy and dynamic. As students wrestle with complex texts and ideas, talk can become lively--and predictable problems can arise. In this article, Marie Nichols uses…

  1. Multiprofessional education to stimulate collaboration: a circular argument and its consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roodbol, Petrie F

    2010-01-01

    The current developments in healthcare are unprecedented. The organization of health care is complex. Collaboration is essential to meet all the healthcare needs of patients and to achieve coordinated and unambiguous information. Multiprofessional education (MPE) or multidisciplinary training (MDT) seems a logical step to stimulate teamwork. However, collaboration and MPE are wrestling with the same problems: social identity and acceptance.

  2. Multiprofessional education to stimulate collaboration: a circular argument and its consequences [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roodbol, Petrie F.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] The current developments in healthcare are unprecedented. The organization of health care is complex. Collaboration is essential to meet all the healthcare needs of patients and to achieve coordinated and unambiguous information. Multiprofessional education (MPE or multidisciplinary training (MDT seems a logical step to stimulate teamwork. However, collaboration and MPE are wrestling with the same problems: social identity and acceptance.

  3. Rebels with a Cause: Obedience, Resistance and Convent Life, 1800-1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Deirdre

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the biographies and personal records of nineteenth-century Catholic nuns who worked in education, with a view to determining how they reconciled their individuality with the demands of religious life. Their resistance to rules, and the ways in which they wrestled with the vow of obedience, is examined. The roles of the Novice…

  4. Renewing Audience Response in Study of Medieval Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, David V.

    Although modern readers often find the interpretation of medieval literature difficult, they should be encouraged to use their imagination to resolve the dilemmas they encounter. Often, these are the same issues with which medieval audiences had to wrestle and which the poets intended to raise. W. Iser's and H. R. Jauss's principles of…

  5. Developing Students' Critical Literacy: Exploring Identity Construction in Young Adult Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Thomas W.; Moni, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Notes that adolescent readers view characters in young adult novels as living and wrestling with real problems close to their own life experiences as teens. Reviews recent studies related to teaching literature and adolescent identity construction. Offers a framework teachers can use to initiate discussions based on critical literacy in their own…

  6. Breaking down Literature Boxes while Traveling with the Little Prince

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, Sharilyn C.

    2012-01-01

    Teach "The Little Prince" to senior English students? Senior Advanced Placement English students? What could these people who had analyzed "A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man," wrestled with "The Sound and the Fury," dissected "Heart of Darkness," and deconstructed "East of Eden" possibly find of value in a "children's book"? The tendency to…

  7. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in enough calories every day won't be as fast and as strong as they could be and may not be able ... Athletes in sports where weight is emphasized — such as wrestling, swimming, dance, or gymnastics — might feel pressure ...

  8. A Classroom Note on Generating Examples for the Laws of Sines and Cosines from Pythagorean Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Lawrence; Sher, David

    2007-01-01

    By selecting certain special triangles, students can learn about the laws of sines and cosines without wrestling with long decimal representations or irrational numbers. Since the law of cosines requires only one of the three angles of a triangle, there are many examples of triangles with integral sides and a cosine that can be represented exactly…

  9. Exploring the Intersections of Science and History Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Catherine; Cosbey, Allison

    2016-01-01

    How can history museums incorporate Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) activities while preserving their missions and identities? How do interdisciplinary experiences lead to learning? A cross-institutional exhibit development and evaluation team wrestled with these ideas as they developed "Create.Connect," an National…

  10. The Drinking Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poe, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Americans have been wrestling with college drinking for so long that they've forgotten there was a time when they didn't. Prior to World War II there were a number of "crises" on American campuses--loutish behavior at football games, the introduction of the research-heavy "German Method," the corruption of coeds--but excessive college drinking was…

  11. Physical Education for High School Students. A Book of Sports, Athletics, and Recreational Activities for Teen-Age Boys and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, William H., Ed.

    This book about physical activity was written especially for high school students. It is divided into chapters on different physical events. Among the activities discussed are archery, badminton, baseball and softball, golf, riflery, swimming, tennis, touch football, volleyball, and wrestling. Each chapter contains discussions of the history of…

  12. Plagiarism Litigation Trends in the USA and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Cumming, J. Joy

    2008-01-01

    In this article we explore the increasing complexity of plagiarism litigation in the USA and Australia. Plagiarism has always been a serious academic issue and academic staff and students have wrestled with its definition and appropriate penalties for some time. However, the advent of the Internet and more freely accessible information resources,…

  13. Body Mass Bias in a Combat Fitness Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    Allometric scaling of isokinetic peak torque: The Nebraska Wrestling Study. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 80, 240–248. White, C. R...applied to the Movement and 3-mi run times after converting times to velocity (in meters ). The estimated metabolic rate mass coefficients were

  14. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... usually a bad idea to diet. Athletes in sports where weight is emphasized — such as wrestling, swimming, dance, or gymnastics — might feel pressure to lose weight, but they need to balance that choice with the possible negative side effects ...

  15. The Promise of Education Information Systems: How Technology Can Improve School Management and Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Nathan; Boser, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Many school district strategic plans and education conferences are aggressively embracing technology to improve teaching and learning. Classroom technology typically includes blended learning, personalized learning, online courses for students, and professional development for teachers, among many other things. As districts wrestle with tighter…

  16. Perceptions of physical education and sports teachers towards folk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to the teachers' specialties. Subsequent to the teachers who specialised in folk dance, the teachers who had the most positive attitude towards folk dance were the teachers in the martial arts (wrestling, judo, boxing, taekwondo) group. Keywords: Attitudes/Perceptions; Folk dance; Physical education; Sport; Teachers.

  17. Analysis of bone mass density of lumbar spine zone of athletes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate T-Z scores of lumbar spine zone (L1, L2, L3, L4, L1-L4) bone mass density (BMD) of elite active male athletes in different branches and to determine the differences between them. 42 healthy male athletes aged 18 - 25 competing in different branches (Taekwondo 12, wrestling 8, Judo ...

  18. The promise of pre-exposure prophylaxis with antiretroviral drugs to prevent HIV transmission: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hankins, Catherine A.; Dybul, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Public health experts are wrestling with how to translate recent scientific findings from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) effectiveness trials into real-world programmes. This review summarizes clinical trial findings on oral and topical PrEP, discusses how decision-makers can evaluate the place of

  19. Lessons for the Future Internet: Learning from the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael M.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago, the Internet was fighting for recognition in the arena of telecommunications. Now, everyone is using the net, and using it in more and more interesting ways, some of them controversial. Members of the U.S. Congress are wrestling with issues, such as Internet gambling and porn, that they never had to think about before. This…

  20. Southeast Asia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-30

    tennis, volleyball, wrestling, shooting and gymnastics . [Text] [Hanoi VNA in English 1529 GMT 12 Sept 85 OW] LE DUAN ATTENDS ANNIVERSARY—Hanoi...VNA 11 September—More than 200 cultural and artistic activists and cadres of cultural and information service have gathered here recently to mark the

  1. Individual Differences and Short-Term Military Factors Associated With Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors Among Active Duty and Reserve Army Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    sports associated with leanness such as gymnastics or wrestling are more likely to engage in unhealthy weight loss behaviors than athletes involved...unhealthy weight loss behaviors in the months prior to the APFT and weigh-in (Dale & Landers, 1999). Performing artists such as dancers also may be more

  2. Controversy in the Psychology Classroom: Using Hot Topics to Foster Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Dana S., Ed.; Gurung, Regan A. R., Ed.; Naufel, Karen Z., Ed.; Wilson, Janie H., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of a quality liberal arts education is providing undergraduates the opportunity to wrestle with controversial issues. Yet many teachers feel ill-equipped when it comes to broaching disagreeable topics, managing the resulting heated debates, or helping students to separate their personal feelings from scientific evidence. This…

  3. Learning to Take an Inquiry Stance in Teacher Research: An Exploration of Unstructured Thought-Partner Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton-Sticklor, Nastasia; Bodamer, Scott F.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores a research partnership between a university-based researcher and a middle school science teacher. Our partnership began with project-based inquiry and continued with unstructured thought-partner spaces: meetings with no agenda where we wrestled with problems of practice. Framed as incubation periods, these meetings allowed us…

  4. Probing the Deep: Theory and History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadie, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Professor Tamura, in her paper "Narrative History and Theory," poses an issue with which the author has lately wrestled. She reviews some of the challenges to the tradition of narrative history presented by "social-scientifically oriented historians" like Fernand Braudel and "analytic philosophers" like Hayden White in the 1960s and 1970s, and…

  5. Combatives for Alienated Youth: Problems and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellison, Don

    Combative activities (boxing, wrestling, kung fu, etc.) are seen as having a positive influence on alienated inner city youth. Potential contributions of such activities in a school curriculum or recreation program include involvement, security, self-concept, and self-realization. Participants may be able to free themselves from such stereotype…

  6. From Risk to Resilience: Promoting School-Health Partnerships for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jeanita W.

    2008-01-01

    Across the globe, educational and health practitioners wrestle daily with the paradoxes of risk and resilience. Though the causes of risk are generally outside the control of professionals, manifestations of disadvantage directly affect service delivery and the realizing of accountability benchmarks. This article proposes a shift in attention from…

  7. Take a scientist to the sauna: A great way to keep science and stewardship working together for another 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan E. Watson; H. Ken Cordell

    2014-01-01

    At a workshop in Oulanka National Park in Finland, shortly after the Finnish Wilderness Act had passed in 1991, managers and scientists wrestled with how to incorporate science into protection of wildlands of northern Finland. One working group was assigned to develop a list of "why managers don't apply the information scientists provide" and another...

  8. 1997 Arthur Ashe Jr. Sport Scholars Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    Winners of the "Black Issues in Higher Education" Arthur Ashe Jr. 1997 athletes of the year, one male and one female, are profiled and Sport Scholars are listed for baseball, softball, basketball, fencing, archery, football, handball, soccer, field hockey, crew, swimming, gymnastics, tennis, squash, golf, volleyball, lacrosse, wrestling, water…

  9. Five Year Overview of Sport Injuries: The NAIRS Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, William E.

    1982-01-01

    Data from a survey of institutional members of the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) are presented and discussed. Included are tables showing injuries reported in high schools and colleges and universities for male and female athletes in baseball, basketball, football, gymnastics, soccer, wrestling, field hockey, track and…

  10. Sexual Harassment and Manly Sports: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murolo, Nancy Maurer; Schmelkin, Liora Pedhazur

    This study investigates the relationship between sexual harassment and participation in "manly" sports (i.e., football, baseball, basketball, soccer, and wrestling) at the high school level. Manly sports are defined as those sports that celebrate values of dominance, aggression, male solidarity, and female exclusion. Participants were 353 11th-…

  11. 1998 Arthur Ashe Jr. Sports Scholars Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoweth, Karin; Evelyn, Jamilah

    1998-01-01

    Announces the Sports Scholars Awards for 1998. One male and one female college athlete are profiled, and others are named for baseball, softball, basketball, fencing, riflery, bowling, football, wrestling, soccer, lacrosse, field hockey, swimming/diving, gymnastics, crew, tennis, golf, volleyball, track/field, cross country, downhill skiing, and…

  12. Adapting Total Quality Doesn't Mean "Turning Learning into a Business."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoker, Mike; Wilson, Richard B.

    1993-01-01

    Although Alfie Kohn is a first-rate thinker, his article in the same "Educational Leadership" issue confuses adopting Total Quality Management methods with intelligently adapting them. Kohn wrestles too hard with the "worker/student" metaphor and wrongly disparages Deming's emphasis on data and performance. Schools can definitely benefit from…

  13. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    robots which play with children, decorative butterflies which keep flapping the wings, robots that learn to live as a colony, wrestle with one another ... 1926 Release of the first movie based on robots - 'Metropolis' in Germany. 1939 Display of a ...

  14. Taking pluralism seriously: arguing for an institutional turn in political philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, V.M.; Engelen, E.R.

    2003-01-01

    There is a growing sense of dissatisfaction among political philosophers with the practical sterility and empirical inadequacy of the discipline. Post-Rawlsian philosophy is wrestling with the need to construct a 'contextualized morality' that is sensitive to the particularities and complexities of

  15. Teaching Combative Sports through Tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozub, Francis M.; Kozub, Mary L.

    2004-01-01

    Martial arts have become popular in the United States and have transitioned from being spectator sports to avenues for active participation by people of all ages. The purpose of this article is to highlight tactical similarities in selected combative sport activities and to provide martial arts and wrestling instructors with an alternative…

  16. Acute physiological changes in elite free-style wrestlers during a one-day tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafkas, Muhammed E; Taşkiran, Celal; Şahin Kafkas, Armağan; Özen, Gökmen; Taşkapan, Çağatay; Özyalin, Fatma; Skarpańska-Stejnborn, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine free radical production, muscle damage and inflammation responses of well-trained wrestlers to a simulated one-day tournament of free-style wrestling. Twelve elite competitive wrestlers with mean age (±SD) of 24.09±6.20 years, body mass 74.09±11.50 kg, and body height 174.90±8.8 cm and who had competed for national teams completed five matches according to the official Olympic wrestling tournament regulations. Blood sampling was collected before and after fifth match. Baseline blood testing was measured at 10:00 a.m. and then matches started at 12:00. Each match was implemented within one hour. Also, the resting time was 45 minutes following each match. The measurements were analyzed by Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test, which is used to test for significant differences between pre- and post-test. The post-match lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), and interleukin (IL)-6 levels were significantly increased compared with the baseline status. However, baseline malondialdehyde levels were not found significantly different compared with post-match. The current study ensured that one-day Free-Style wrestling tournament brings about significantly increasing on CK, LDH of muscle damage markers. Also, inflammatory status showed a progressive worsening during the course of one-day tournament. The study showed enhanced muscle damage markers and inflammatory status after one-day Free-Style wrestling tournament. Therefore, it appears that one-day free-style wrestling tournament imposes significant physiological demands on wrestlers that may adversely affect their performance and inflammatory status, thereby putting the athletes in a greater risk for injury.

  17. Grappling with Gender: Exploring Masculinity and Gender in the Bodies, Performances, and Emotions of Scholastic Wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis L. Baker

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We contribute to the sociology of sport and gender literature with an ethnographic analysis of scholastic wrestling by observing the current climate of masculinity and gender. Our results suggest that it is necessary to understand men and sporting behavior within a broader framework of gender, not just masculinity, because the behavior of high school wrestlers fell along a gender continuum between an orthodox masculinity and femininity. Our exploration of the body, performance, and emotion practices of scholastic wrestlers gives credence to the current critiques of a hegemonic masculinity in men's sports. We show that gender is not dichotomous and that even in the highly masculinized sport of wrestling, feminine behavior by men is evident.

  18. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF COMPETITIVE STATE ANXIETY AMONG TEAM SPORT AND INDIVIDUAL SPORT ATHLETES IN IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    Soltani Hossein; Hojati Zahra; Reza Attarzadeh Hossini Seyed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: With respect to the fact that every sport field has its own special nature, the aim of present study was to compare competitive state anxiety among team sport and individual sport athletes in Iran. Material: The statistic sample included 120 male athletes, 60 athletes in individual sports (wrestling, taekwondo and karate) and 60 athletes in team sports (futsal, volleyball and basketball). The research instrument employed was the Persian version of the Competitive State Anxiety Invent...

  19. Hygienic assessment of risk factors for skin infections in athletes–wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Ch. Davletova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Healthy male volunteers namely 91 wrestling athletes and 52 students, who are not engaged in sports, have participated in the study, based on the informed consent and the questionnaire. It was found out that among the fighters: the majority of respondents (55 % at least once suffered from contagious skin diseases. For the hygienic assessment of the risk factors for skin infections of wrestlers the Wallace «rule of nines» was used, which helps to estimate the square of the body exposed areas (the parts of body which are not covered with sports equipment in various kinds of wrestling. According to the results of the study of wrestling athletes it was determined that the risk of skin infections of this group of people is higher, especially of the wrestlers engaged in professional wrestling. The number of cases of skin infections among the wrestlers-respondents is 9.5 times higher (p<0.001 than among the students not involved in professional sports. The study helped to identify main risk factors for infectious skin diseases of wrestlers in training and competitive processes: direct factors including constant contact “skin to skin” of athletes during the contest; failure to comply with the requirements for body hygiene, clean sportswear and shoes, the presence of competitors with obvious signs of infectious disease at the competitions and training sessions and indirect factors including being in a constant stress state as a result of the frequent competitions, daily training sessions, etc. The article presents systematic informing of all participants of training and competitive processed on the existing risk of skin infections in athletes and the negative consequences of their implementation.

  20. Driverless operation for public passenger transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehl, R. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Bereich Verkehrstechnik

    2001-07-01

    The author presents the automation of new and existing lines as a possible solution to the twin problems of the growing need for public transport and the threat of collapse facing many public transport systems in the big conurbations as they wrestle against overloading. It emerges that automatic, driverless operation is a suitable approach to making systems more flexible and more attractive. Automation can increase the capacities of existing systems significantly and thus help them gain more passengers. (orig.)

  1. Assessment of body composition by segmental bioelectrical impedance method in Japanese college athletes : focus on the different characteristic of sports

    OpenAIRE

    村松, 愛梨奈; 乙木, 幸道; 井川, 正治

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify a characteristic of body composition of limbs in Japanese athletes by the segmental bioelectric impedance analysis (S-BIA) method. The subjects were 131 college athletes (baseball, volleyball, handball, combined competition, wrestling, soft tennis, swimming; athletes group) and 107 healthy college students (control group). The items of measurement were body height, body weight, BMI, percent of body fat (%FAT), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). We measured %F...

  2. Multicultural supervision: lessons learned about an ongoing struggle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Abigail Tolhurst; Thomas, Volker; Kafescioglu, Nilufer; Karakurt, Gunnur; Lowe, Walter; Smith, William; Wittenborn, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of seven diverse therapists in a supervision course as they wrestled with the real-world application of multicultural supervision. Existing literature on multicultural supervision does not address the difficulties that arise in addressing multicultural issues in the context of the supervision relationship. The experiences of six supervisory candidates and one mentoring supervisor in addressing multicultural issues in supervision are explored. Guidelines for conversations regarding multicultural issues are provided. © 2011 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  3. The Strategic Utility of U.S. Navy SEALs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    USA Swimming, rugby organizations and wrestling organizations. In addition, while the demographics do not fully support it, the Navy and NSW put a... motivate Army SF to reinforce their UW roots and maintain it as their primacy (Rothstein 2006). The Rangers have a comparative advantage at larger...focused on defeating the ideologies or motivations that spawn terrorism by non-kinetic means. These could include, but are not limited to, PSYOP, IO

  4. Benefits Analysis of the Naval Junior Reserve Officers Training Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Football, baseball, softball, soccer, 2086 (54.7) track, swimming, wrestling, weightlifting , volleyball, or other sports) Church youth group 1382 (36.3... weightlifting , voltleytt, or other wports) 80. Cheerleading a b 81. Student Council/Government a b 82. Marching Band a b 83. Debate Team a b 84...Their suer camp teaches cleanliness, organizational skills, nutrition and cooperation in addition to specific military skills. The variety of field

  5. Direct‐to‐consumer advertising of pharmaceuticals: developed countries experiences and Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Semin, Semih; Aras, Şahbal; Guldal, Dilek

    2006-01-01

    While several major problems concerning drugs occur in the world, the attempts to direct‐to‐consumer advertising (DTCA) has gained a considerable impetus lately in both developed and developing countries. DTCA has increasingly become an appealing advertising alternative for the pharmaceutical industry as drug companies have come to wrestle with such problems as the expansion of the drug market; the decline of the medical representatives’ work efficiency; drug reimbursement restrictions; and t...

  6. Epidemiology of Pediatric Sports Injuries: Individual Sports

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book enc...

  7. International Law, the Civilizing Mission and the Ambivalence of Development in Africa: Conceptual Underpinnings

    OpenAIRE

    Forji, Amin George

    2013-01-01

    International law, past and present has had to constantly wrestle with striking a balancing act between legality and imperialism. Following the Agrarian and Industrial revolutions, European1 economies increasingly witnessed profound boosts in productivity and net output beginning from the 17th century. By the start of the 19th century when explorations and discoveries were the currency of the day, European powers increasingly saw the acquisition of Africa as crucial to satisfy its economic im...

  8. Environmental Assessment for the Construction of Eielson AFB Youth Center Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...AND ADDRESS(ES) Bestech,1040 Lorne Street unit 3,Sudbury, Ontario P3C 4R9, 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING...athletic activities, including soccer, baseball, softball , t-ball, football, cheerleading, junior wrestling, and basketball. Instructional programs

  9. Comparison of respiratory functions of athletes engaged in different individual sports branches

    OpenAIRE

    Tülin Atan; Pelin Akyol; Mehmet Çebi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: It was aimed to research pulmonary functionsof sedentary males and athletes who engaged in differentindividual sports branches in the same age group.Methods: 50 male athletes in 15-16 age group in the starcategory participated from each of the branches of judo,athletics, wrestling, taekwondo, table tennis and swimmingand 50 sedentary males participated as well; beingin total 350 subjects. Among respiratory functions tests;vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC) and maximu...

  10. Social and environmental assessment of municipal solid waste management scenarios in Cali: from landfilling towards integrated recycling schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Osorio, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The environmental and social challenges of Solid Waste Management in developing countries have become an increasingly pressing issue. Disparities between the rich and poor continues to increase in many of these regions where growing urban areas often witness the worst signs of maltreatment of human labour and misallocation of waste as a resource. This thesis is a case study of the Municipality of Cali in Colombia, where city managers and the stakeholders involved are wrestling with the challe...

  11. Knee Injuries in Wrestlers: A Prospective Study from the Indian Subcontinent

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal; Mann

    2016-01-01

    Background Wrestling is a very popular sport the world over and its popularity is rapidly increasing in India. However, due to its arduous nature it is associated with a high incidence of injuries. Out of all the injuries, those to the knee are one of the commonest injuries reported. Objectives Our aim was to study the pattern of these injuries in the Indian wrestlers. Methods A pr...

  12. Rebels with a cause: obedience, resistance and convent life, 1800-1940

    OpenAIRE

    Raftery, Deirdre

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the biographies and personal records of nineteenth-century Catholic nuns who worked in education, with a view to determining how they reconciled their individuality with the demands of religious life. Their resistance to rules, and the ways in which they wrestled with the vow of obedience, is examined. The roles of the Novice Mistress and the Superior in teaching and managing the members of their religious communities are explored, with particular reference to three orde...

  13. Business schools' international networks for faculty development

    OpenAIRE

    Pennarola F.

    2008-01-01

    Business schools are facing ever increasing internationalization: students are far less homogenous than before, faculty members come from different countries, and teaching is carried out in second (or even third) languages. As a result business schools and their teachers wrestle with new challenges as these changes accelerate. Teaching and Learning at Business Schools brings together contributions from business school managers and educators involved in the International Teachers Programm...

  14. Honduras: A Pariah State, or Innovative Solutions to Organized Crime Deserving U.S. Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    organized crime and delinquency in the coun- try. More controversially, he has created a new police force within the military, the Military Police of...and ambitious structure, wrestling with the inter-institutional challenges of the fight against orga- nized crime and delinquency in Honduras is no...example, statistics involving the activi- ties of the organizations under its operational control, 36 including counter-narcotics operations, actions

  15. Racial Discrepancies in the Participation Between Alcohol Prohibition and the Drug War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whalin Luke L.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Why is it that young Italian-American men were shooting each other over turf during the prohibition of alcohol in the 20th century, and young African-American men are shooting each other over turf in the 21st? Was this just a historical accident? Could it easily have been the other way around? That is the question with which the present paper attempts to wrestle.

  16. Dentofacial injuries in contact sports in Yaounde, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    M A Agbor; C C Azodo; N. E. F. Ngagoue

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dentofacial injuries constitute serious problems among competitive and recreational athletes, worldwide. Objective: To determine the prevalence of dentofacial injuries and related factors among individuals participating in contact sports in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study among individuals participating in karate, judo, basketball, handball, football and wrestling in Yaoundé, Cameroon was conducted between January and April, 2012. Results: Of t...

  17. Pascal's wager and economics in a hotter time; Commentary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, D.W. (Oberlin College, OH (USA))

    1992-07-01

    In wrestling with the problem of the existence of God, Blaise Pascal proposed a line of reasoning at once prudent and self-interested. His reasoning is instructive to policy makers now facing the prospect of global warming. In contrast to some economists and the findings of the Adaptation Panel of the National Academy of Sciences, Pascal's logic would lead us to minimize greenhouse gas emissions for reasons of both prudence and self-interest. 7 refs.

  18. The 1985 ARI Survey of Army Recruits: Tabular Description of NPS Army Reserve Accessions. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    NBA basketball 1 2 3 4 102. College besketball 1 2 3 4 103. NHL hockey 1 2 3 4 104. Profesional wrestling 1 2 3 4 1OS. Car reces 1 2 3 4 106. Golf...did you participate in while you were in high school? (CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY) SFootball ....................... I Basketball ..................... 2... Basketball ..................... 2 Swimming ....................... 3 Baseball ....................... Track ............ 5............ Other (Specify

  19. The 1984 ARI Survey of Army Recruits: Supplementary User’s Manual for October 1984/February 1985 Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    league baseball playoffs 106. World Series 116. Which of the following mathematics 107. NBA basketball and technical courses, if any, did you take and pass...baseball playoffs 94. World Series (Mark all that apply) 95. NBA bdsketball A. Elementary Algebra B. Plane Geometry e 96. College basketball C...in high school? 108. College basketball (Mark all that apply) 109. NHL hockey A. Elementary Algebra 110. Professional wrestling S. Plane Geometry C

  20. The 1984 ARI Survey of Army Recruits: Tabular Description of NPS Army Reserve Guard Accessions. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    SERIES NBA BASKETBALL COLLEGE BASKETBALL NHL HOCKEY PROFESSIONAL WRESTLING CAR RACES GOLF TOURNAMENTS TENNIS TOURNAMENTS WKEND SPORTS SH/WIDE...TV PROG* NBA BASKETBALL MARK ONE LETTER FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS OR PROGRAMMING TYPES ON TV: NBA BASKETBALL . 1 - REGULARLY TURN ON THE TV...188 T262 — WATCH TV PROG:COLLEGE BASKETBALL MARK ONE LETTER FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS OR PROGRAMMING TYPES ON TV: COLLEGE BASKETBALL

  1. The 1984 ARI Survey of Army Recruits: Tabular Description of NPS (active) Army Accessions. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    YOU WATCH ANY OF THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS OR PROGRAMMING TYPES ON TV? - NBA BASKETBALL 1 - REGULARLY TURN ON THE TV TO WATCH IT 2 - SOMETIMES WATCH IT...league baseball — regular season games 105. Major league baseball playoffs 106. World Series 107. NBA basketball 108. College basketball 109...LAG BASEBALL PLAYOFFS WORLD SERIES MBA BASKETBALL COLLEGE BASKETBALL NHL HOCKEY PROFESSIONAL WRESTLING CAR RACES 154 156 158- 160 162- 164

  2. The 1985 ARI Survey of Army Recruits: Tabular Description of NPS Army Reserve Accessions. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    4 101. NBA baketball 1 2 3 4 102. College basketball 1 2 3 4 103. N4. hckey 1 2 3 4 104. Professional wrestling 1 2 3 4 105. Car roee 1 2 3 4 106...you participate in while you were in high school? (CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY) Football........................1 Basketball ...................... 2...ALL THAT APPLY) Football ........................ 1 Basketball ..................... 2 Swi ning ........................ 3 Baseball

  3. A New Approach to the Measurement of Educational Outcomes for Institutions of High Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    assistance with the two-year NBA data. In ad- dition, helpful comments about the educational aspects of this effort were provided by Dr. Steven Boasert...admittante policy of the UofU, NBA program, and the quanti- ty of available data. there is sow deviation from the variables as outlined above for the... basketball , football, hockey, track, tennis, lacrosse, soccer, swimming, wrestling, golf, and any other sport with which a prospective cadet may have been

  4. The 1984 ARI Survey of Army Recruits: Tabular Description of NPS (active) Army Accessions. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    WATCH TV PROG MJR LEAG BASEBALL PLAYOFFS 232-233 WATCH TV PROG WORLD SERIES 23<«-235 WATCH TV PROG NBA BASKETBALL 236-237 WATCH TV PROG COLLEGE...PROG:NBA BASKETBALL DO YOU ’^ATCH ANY OF THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS OR PROGRAMMING TYPES ON TV? - NBA BASKETBALL , 1 - REGULARLY TURN ON THE TV TO WATCH...107. NBA basketball 108. College basketball 109. NHL hockey 110. Professional wrestling 111. Car r.ices 112. Golf tournaments 113. Tennis

  5. Embedded Media: Failed Test or the Future of Military/Media Relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-19

    Napoleon The Media View? “War is a drug…….it is peddled by myth makers, historians, war correspondents, filmmakers , novelists and the state... effectively throwing fuel on a fire that was already beginning to burn out of control. As the administration wrestled with the challenge of getting its...press censorship , no matter how complex the problems that might have generated.”10 This is an indicator of how extensively the relationship had

  6. Concepts for Contemporary Social Work: Globalization, Oppression, Social Exclusion, Human Rights, Etc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The society wrestles with mass social change congruent with economic globalization and the communications revolution. This change creates new challenges for the social work profession in the areas of social and economic justice. This article analyzes the terminology of the new global era, words that signify a paradigm shift in outlook, most of them a reaction to the new authoritarianism of the age. Globalization, oppression, social exclusion, human rights, harm reduction, and restorative justice are the representative terms chosen.

  7. The United States Air Force Academy’s First Twenty-Five Years, Some Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    opportunity to analyze major art concepts, artists , and styles. In dealing with the development of art styles, we place emphasis on the esthetic and...wrestling, boxing, swimming, and gymnastics . The women take swimming, gymnastics , fencing, and physical development. Swimming is the only course that is...identical in content and grading criteria for both men and women. Although gymnastics is given in a co-educational atmosphere, the course is patterned

  8. The Role of Physical and Physiological Capacities and Their Modification on the Tolerance to Various Stress Experienced by Air Force Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-30

    2. To partition the energy utilization during HSG and RTE into oxidation of fat and carbohydrate components; and glycogen utilization and lactate...and physical conditioning. Given the entrance of women into the Air Force Academy and the acknowledged interaction of thermoregulation-dehydration on...basketball, wrestling, soccer and cross-country teams. E-7. CO2 Rebreathing Method The final noninvasive method of assessing cardiac function was the

  9. Enhancing the Physical Fitness in the Marine Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    34 Coordination Technique: Harmonious combination or interaction of physical movements. " Psychological Factors: Pertaining to, dealing with, or affecting the mind...sports such as soccer , volleyball, wrestling, basketball, etc. While the soldier is trained in other tasks which contribute to his physical fitness...glycogen (the form in which carbohydrates are stored in human tissue) to lactic and pyruvic acid ( carbohydrate metabolism formed from either glucose

  10. determinant of psychophysiological state of sportsmen of high qualification with different emotional characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Korobeynikova L.G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the work - to study the determinants of psycho-physiological state of sportsmen of high qualification with different emotional characteristics. In experiment took part 19 highly skilled athletes involved in the Greco-Roman wrestling. The survey was carried out using a hardware-software complex psychodiagnostic "Multipsihometr-05. Determined by the emotional background of athletes according to the method A. Rukavishnikova features of visual perception and perceptual speed.

  11. determinant of psychophysiological state of sportsmen of high qualification with different emotional characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikova L.G.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work - to study the determinants of psycho-physiological state of sportsmen of high qualification with different emotional characteristics. In experiment took part 19 highly skilled athletes involved in the Greco-Roman wrestling. The survey was carried out using a hardware-software complex psychodiagnostic "Multipsihometr-05. Determined by the emotional background of athletes according to the method A. Rukavishnikova features of visual perception and perceptual speed.

  12. Post-reform continuation of social goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graniere, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Public utility regulators are currently wrestling with the issue of how and to what extent the social goals that have grown up around traditional regulation might be continued in a restructured electric power industry. This report critically examines six mechanisms that could be used for this purpose in the wake of the introduction of competition in the generation segment. Their pros and cons are thoroughly appraised in economic terms.

  13. Science, History, Progress: Myth as a Story about Time Caught between Eternity and Infinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Pintarič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The function of myth, just like that of science, is to achieve a uniform picture of the world in the human mind. Myth, however, is based on supposed truth, not reality. Rather than a beginning, it is the end of any possible discussion. The article, based on French mediaeval and renaissance literature, introduces a view on how Western consciousness wrestled itself out of myth and into history.

  14. ASSOCIATION OF ACTN3 R577X AND ACE I/D POLYMORPHISMS IN BRAZILIANS WRESTLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Romanovitch Ribas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: By associating genetics and sport, it is possible to identify subjects with greater capacity to adapt to training, and lower chances of injury. Objective: The investigation evaluated the genotypic and allelic distribution of ACTN3 R577X and ACE I/D polymorphisms in Brazilian high-performance athletes in wrestling and percussion combat sports. Methods: The study included 37 male athletes ranked from first to third place in world scenarios, divided into two groups: wrestling (23 wrestlers, being 11 of Judo, 4 of Greco-Roman style, 8 of Brazilian Jiu Jitsu, with mean age of 27.3 ± 6.9 years and percussion combat sports (14 athletes with a mean age of 25.7±4.4 years, being 6 of Karate, 3 of Muay Thai, 4 of Taekwondo, 1 Boxing. Genotyping of ACTN3 and ACE I/D polymorphisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR from the genomic DNA. Genotypic and allelic distributions were compared with control populations and athletes by Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test; all analyzes considered p ≤ 0.05. Results: The genotypic distributions and allelic frequencies of ACTN3 RR=46%, RX=38% and XX=16%; R=65% and X=35%, and ACE I/D DD=47.7%, ID=34.3% and II=20%; D=62.9% and I=37.1% did not differ from the control population; however, when compared with wrestling athletes a significant difference was observed. Conclusion: These results suggest an association of ACTN3 R577X and ACE I/D genes with Brazilian high-performance wrestling athletes.

  15. Infectious disease and boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Osric S

    2009-10-01

    There are no unique boxing diseases but certain factors contributing to the spread of illnesses apply strongly to the boxer, coach, and the training facility. This article examines the nature of the sport of boxing and its surrounding environment, and the likelihood of spread of infection through airborne, contact, or blood-borne routes of transmission. Evidence from other sports such as running, wrestling, and martial arts is included to help elucidate the pathophysiologic elements that could be identified in boxers.

  16. Weight Loss Strategies in Combat Sports and Concerning Habits in Mixed Martial Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Oliver R; Chapman, Dale W; Abbiss, Chris R

    2017-12-28

    Combat sports are typically divided into weight classes and body mass manipulation to reach a weight class is commonplace. Previous research suggests that mixed martial arts (MMA) weight loss practices may be more extreme than other combat sports. We sought to investigate the magnitude of weight lost and prevalence of weight loss strategies in different combat sports. Competitors (n=637) from Brazilian jiu jitsu (BJJ), boxing, judo, MMA, muay Thai/kickboxing (MT/K), taekwondo (TKD) and wrestling completed an online questionnaire seeking information regarding their weight loss practices. Body mass manipulation was commonly undertaken by all combat sports athletes, with a particularly high incidence of gradual dieting, increased exercise and fluid restriction. Skipping meals was higher in TKD and wrestling (84%) compared with the other combat sports (~58%), whilst training in heated rooms and forced oral fluid loss (spitting) was higher in wrestling (83% and 47%, respectively) compared with other combat sports (~45% and ~19%, respectively). MMA athletes reported the highest usage of sauna (76%) and water loading (67%) whilst also reporting the second highest use of training in rubber/plastic suits (63%). Body mass manipulation was present in all combat sports with the prevalence and magnitude of acute weight loss greater in MMA. The incidence of and practices reported will assist support staff to be fully aware of the variety of methods these athletes and coaches may use to achieve weight loss. Additionally, the results could aid regulatory bodies in the further development of policies on weight cutting.

  17. Outbreak of tinea gladiatorum in wrestlers in Tehran (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassiri-Jahromi Shahindokht

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, skin diseases in wrestling have finally received the attention they deserve. Outbreaks of tinea corporis are often associated with sports involving extensive bodily contact; such sports include wrestling. Tinea corporis gladiatorum is primarily caused by Trichophyton tonsurans , infecting wrestlers at alarming rates. The management of skin infections in wrestlers and other athletes in sports involving skin-to-skin contact entails numerous challenges, from making an accurate diagnosis to determining eligibility for playing the sports. To control outbreaks, we conducted an epidemiologic investigation. The purpose of this article is to determine the prevalence of tinea corporis gladiatorum in wrestlers in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods: A study of dermatophytosis was carried out during the period of March 2004 to December 2005 on 612 mycological proven cases of dermatophytosis found in male wrestlers in Tehran. Mycological examination consisted of culturing of pathologic material followed by direct microscopic observation. Diagnosis was based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the colonies. Results: T. tonsurans was the predominant dermatophyte, accounting for> 90% of all tinea corporis gladiatorum isolates during the 2 year analysis. Tinea corporis gladiatorum was found to be more frequent in individuals between the ages of 10 and 20 years of age (72.7%. Wrestlers with tinea corporis gladiatorum were predominantly from wrestling clubs in southern and southeastern Tehran. Transmission of tinea corporis is primarily through skin-to-skin contact. Conclusion: Rapid identification and treatment of tinea corporis gladiatorum is required to minimize the disruption of team practices and competitions. Infection with dermatophytes can disqualify a wrestler from competing in matches, and thus, vigilant surveillance and rapid initiation of treatment is important to prevent the suspension of team practices and

  18. Point rating system as the training monitoring basis of the athletes of the national pickedwrestling team of MGSU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkov Aleksandr Yur'evich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the point rating system for the students-athletes of the Department of Sport Development in Wrestling, which used various indicators of the wrestlers all-around training. The training is divided into a number of modules: speed qualities and endurance; speed-strength quality and flexibility; technical training; functional training; agility and coordination; theoretical training; personal characteristics, moral, strongwilled preparation and self-preparation.Each module corresponds to a certain number of points: from 0 to 20,from 0 to 15,from 0 to 10,from 0 to 5.Using the proposed point rating system evaluation for the students-athletes in wrestling, the training level of the athletes in each of the modules is determined. The range of point values, corresponding to the maximum form are 90—100 points ("excellent".Evaluation of the "good" range is 70—89 points, "satisfactory" — 50—69 points, disappointing — from 0 to 49 points.The authors offer the comparative analysis of the dynamics of high-speed performance and endurance, speed-strength qualities, functional training, agility and coordination, theoretical training and personal qualities of the academic team in wrestling during the summer and training camp of 2013.The objective information, obtained from the routine tests of physical, psychological and functional status of an athlete, the major indicators of his physical fitness, gives the opportunity to effectively manage the training process improvement of the athletes, ensures the steady increase of sportsmanship.The research results of the functional training and the physical qualities of studentsathletes during the preparatory stage of the training help to make the necessary adjustments in time and to bring the wrestlers to the top form till the main student competition.

  19. Nanopublication beyond the sciences: the PeriodO period gazetteer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Golden

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The information expressed in humanities datasets is inextricably tied to a wider discursive environment that is irreducible to complete formal representation. Humanities scholars must wrestle with this fact when they attempt to publish or consume structured data. The practice of “nanopublication,” which originated in the e-science domain, offers a way to maintain the connection between formal representations of humanities data and its discursive basis. In this paper we describe nanopublication, its potential applicability to the humanities, and our experience curating humanities nanopublications in the PeriodO period gazetteer.

  20. Innovation System for ICT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo; Baskaran, Angathevar

    2006-01-01

    "Running across the informative chapters on the diverse experience of several important countries with ICT is a unifying theory of what it takes for succesful economic development in today's globalized economy. While drawing on the high-tech products offered by advanced industrial nations...... officials. The case studies show different countries wrestling with the problem, some doing better and some worse. This is a fascinating and important book." Richard R. Nelson, George Blumenthal, Professor Emeritus of International and Public Affairs, Business, and Law, Columbia University, New York, USA....

  1. Democratic design experiments: between parliament and laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas; Brandt, Eva; Ehn, Pelle

    2015-01-01

    For more than four decades participatory design has provided exemplars and concepts for understanding the democratic potential of design participation. Despite important impacts on design methodology participatory design has however been stuck in a marginal position as it has wrestled with what has...... been performed and accomplished in participatory practices. In this article we discuss how participatory design may be reinvigorated as a design research programme for democratic design experiments in the light of the de-centring of human-centredness and the foregrounding of collaborative...

  2. Analyzing the attitudes of elite wrestlers related to the use of doping

    OpenAIRE

    TURKCAPAR, Unal; KOC, Mine; KOC, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the attitudes of elite Turkish wrestlers related to the use of doping. The study group of the research included freestyle and Greco-Roman (cadet, junior,and senior) 180 Turkish wrestlers in 2013 wrestling World Championship National Team training camps. In order to measure the attitudes of wrestlers, “The Attitude Scale Related to the Use of Doping” developed by Şapcı (2010) (3), and “Personal Information Form” developed by us were used. According to th...

  3. Deployment Surveillance Report: Traumatic Brain Injury Identified from Hospitalization and Air Evacuation Records - Army, 2004-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Army Institute of Public Health U.S. Army Public Health Command Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland...21010-5403 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 12-HF-0F7E-09 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) None 10. SPONSOR...Hospitalized Air Evacuated n % n % American football 17 28.8 9 25.7 Combatives/boxing/wrestling 10 16.9 8 22.9 Basketball 13 22.0 5 14.3 Baseball/ softball 8

  4. The quantum ten a passion, tragedy, ambition, and science

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Sheilla

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical physics is in trouble. At least that's the impression you'd get from reading a spate of recent books on the continued failure to resolve the 80-year-old problem of unifying the classical and quantum worlds. The seeds of this problem were sewn eighty years ago when a dramatic revolution in physics reached a climax at the 1927 Solvay conference in Brussels. It's the story of a rush to formalize quantum physics, the work of just a handful of men fired by ambition, philosophical conflicts and personal agendas. Sheilla Jones paints an intimate portrait of the key figures who wrestled wi

  5. Billion dollar paperclip think smarter about your data

    CERN Document Server

    Short, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    EVERY PRODUCT HAS A STORY TO BE TOLD Two nearly identical products are released: one breaks all sales records while the other sits on store shelves untouched. The products look the same. They have the same target market, the same price, and similar retailers. So why did one succeed, where the other failed? Market researchers and data analysts have been wrestling with questions like this for decades. As the flood of Big Data adds both possibilities and complexities to traditional research methodologies, the ultimate solution for companies seeking to become data enabled has finally emerged. Insp

  6. Leadership: What’s Love Got to Do With It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-11

    would come over to announce the games when he could break away from school. Our next two sons were playing. The next one warmed up the goalies all the...Now I have my daughter involved as the physician’s assistant, and I’m saying, “Christina, you have to let me know when I can pull the trigger with...he has a grenade in his hand. The pin is already pulled , but he is holding the hand grip on it, and they begin to wrestle, Dunham and this insurgent

  7. Making Enterprise Information Management (EIM) Work for Business A Guide to Understanding Information as an Asset

    CERN Document Server

    Ladley, John

    2010-01-01

    Organizations of all types struggle with information. Millions of dollars are spent on ERP applications to integrate data and yet this data still isn't accessible or relevant. Emails contain hidden liabilities. Safety manuals endanger workers. Worse, there is data and information being created and handled in every nook and cranny of large organizations, well out of view of formal oversight, but within view of customers and regulators. Thus far, any efforts to wrestle the "data-beast" to the ground have failed, and there exists a profound need for all levels of business management, not just IT,

  8. Multicultural Upper Secondary School Life in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    Education has played an important role in the development of the Nordic welfare states. As in other European countries, present day Denmark wrestles with the problem of finding ways to handle the increased diversity of its population in terms of, for instance, ethnicity, religion and language...... secondary school as a micro-sociological laboratory of the multicultural processes and developments taking place in society at large. It is recommended to reflect upon and implement different strategies that could support a ‘citizenship education' which is needed in order to advance the cohesion...

  9. Plug into 'the modernizing machine'!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John B.

    2013-01-01

    of the public sector. Taking its point of departure in Danish university reform, the article explores how the university is transformed by this desiring-producing machine. ‘The modernizing machine’ wrestles with the so-called ‘democratic-Humboldtian machine’. The University Act of 2003 and the host of reforms...... before and after this law are productions of those struggles that change what it means to work as an academic subject at a university. This is staged through a host of new social technologies such as development contracts, appraisal interviews, individual performance reviews and so forth. Individual...

  10. Etiology of Fall-Related Injuries in the Army: Review of Narrative Incident Reports, January to December 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Injuries * “Other” includes sports with ɜ% of occurrence (e.g. soccer, Frisbee, softball ) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% P e rc e n ta ge o f Sp o...Sports (Non-Battle Accidents) Injury Cause Codes Codes 200 – 249 201 On ship basketball 203 On ship boxing 204 On ship PT 212 On ship softball ...Soccer, football 232 Softball & rounders 233 Swimming,diving,waterpolo 234 Tennis,badminton 235 Track & field 236 Wrestling, judo 237

  11. Intellectual Reviews of Fundamentalist Islamic Groups’ Leaders and their Impact on the Jihadi Action, the Muslim World, and the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    wrestling and karate , and pushed the members of the university students from the group for conversion to military colleges to use them for a military coup...district of Cairo. The Prime Minister was unhurt, but some passersby suffered various injuries . The Islamic Jihad Group assassinated the first witness...side invites Allah’s curse on the party that is lying.” Dr. Fadl adds insult to injury when he stated that “some people pay money for fame, or to

  12. Brands, bundles and customer retention: The new utility juggling act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    As customer choice comes to more and more states, enabling consumers to buy natural gas from marketers other than their gas utility, utilities are wrestling with customer retention: How do they persuade customers to choose to stay utility customers rather than selecting someone else to be their gas supplier? This grappling promises only to become more intense, as soon-to-be-deregulated electric utilities begin dealing with customer choice and customer retention issues of their own. American Gas explores some of the most recent initiatives in the industry

  13. East Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-05

    slaughter and meat can be sold in limited quantities in the Common Market and we must also find means of selling meat in Scandinavia and the Arab countries...while his wife is giving the eye to an Arab . The sheriff’s office takes away his furniture, there is no money to buy shoes, the police break into his...Is America Too." The hedonistic orgies, female mud wrestling, group massage and baths, the entire industry of porn gadgets, approached with deadly

  14. New training material management system. Tasks and first experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kummer, Simon; Schoenfelder, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Rather than bringing an end to the paper based era, the age of information technology has brought with it numerous types of publication and a plethora of new media. Anyone involved in documentation or digital paper based publication simply cannot escape the requirement for even more information to be printed and made available digitally in even shorter periods of time. Anyone wrestling with this issue is bound to hit upon buzz words such as ''content management'' and ''XML'' (Extensible Markup Language - ability to define the role of content within a document using tags). (orig.)

  15. The 1985 Survey of Army Recruits: Codebook for Summer 85 Active Army Survey Respondents. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    OR PROGRAMMING TYPES ON REGULAR TV STATIONS? - NBA BASKETBALL . RAN DATA ICARD #1 COLS TLENGTHI I I__ II 0 6 [076-0771 2-1 I SAS DATASET I I POSITION...PROG:NBA BASKETBALL 340 T262 WATCH TV PROG:COLLEGE BASKETBALL 341 T263 WATCH TV PROG:NHL HOCKEY 342 T264 WATCH TV PROG:PROFESSIONAL WRESTLING 343 T265...ON REGULAR TV STATIONS? - COLLEGE BASKETBALL . RAW DATA CARD 11 COLS ILENGTH I 0-6 W-07912’ II _ _ _ I _ _ _ I _ _ I I SAS DATASET _POSITION 335 FREQ

  16. The 1984 ARI Survey of Army Recruits: Codebook for Summer 84 USAR and ARNG Survey Respondents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS OR PROGRAMMING TYPES ON TV: NBA BASKETBALL . RAW DATA ICARD #I COLS ILENGTHI I _ _ _ I _ _ I _ _ _ I05 0-2-043 20I __ I I SAS...LEAG BASEBALL REG SEAS 249 T259 WATCH TV PROG:MJR LEAG BASEBALL PLAYOFFS 250 T260 WATCH TV PROG:WORLD SERIES 251 V T261 WATCH TV PROG:NBA BASKETBALL 252...T262 WATCH TV PROG:COLLEGE BASKETBALL 253 T263 WATCH TV PROG:NHL HOCKEY 254 T264 WATCH TV PROG:PROFESSIONAL WRESTLING 255 T265 WATCH TV PROG:CAR RACES

  17. The 1984 ARI Survey of Army Recruits: Codebook for October 84/February 85 USAR (U.S. Army Reserve) and ARNG (Army National Guard) Survey Respondents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    USAR & ARNG SURVEY RESPONDENTS T261 - MARK ONE LETTER FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS OR PROGRAMMING TYPES ON TV: NBA BASKETBALL . RAW DATA TCARD 91...248 T259 WATCH TV PROG:MJR LEAG BASEBALL PLAYOFFS 249 T260 WATCH TV PROG:WORLD SERIES 250 T261 WATCH TV PROG:NBA BASKETBALL 251 T262 WATCH TV...PROG:COLLEGE BASKETBALL 252 T263 WATCH TV PROG:NHL HOCKEY 253 T264 WATCH TV PROG:PROFESSIONAL WRESTLING 254 T265 WATCH TV PROG:CAR RACES 255 T266 WATCH TV

  18. The 1984 ARI Survey of Army Recruits. Codebook for Summer 84 Active Army Survey Respondents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    ARMY SURVEY RESPONDENTS T261 - DO YOU HATCH ANY OF THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS OR PROGRAMMING TYPES ON TV? - NBA BASKETBALL . RAN DATA ICARD i1 COLS ILENGTHII... BASKETBALL 280 T262 WATCH TV PROG:COLLEGE BASKETBALL 281 T263 WATCH TV PROG:NHL HOCKEY 282 T264 WATCH TV PROG:PROFESSIONAL WRESTLING 283 T265 WATCH TV...SURVEY RESPONDENTS T262 - DO YOU HATCH ANY OF THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS OR PROGRAMMING TYPES ON TV? - COLLEGE BASKETBALL . RAW DATA ICARD #1 COLS ILENGTHII

  19. Human push capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Ralph L; Liber, Theodore

    2006-02-22

    Use of unassisted human push capability arises from time to time in the areas of crowd and animal control, the security of locked doors, the integrity of railings, the removal of tree stumps and entrenched vehicles, the manoeuvering of furniture, and athletic pursuits such as US football or wrestling. Depending on the scenario, human push capability involves strength, weight, weight distribution, push angle, footwear/floor friction, and the friction between the upper body and the pushed object. Simple models are used to establish the relationships among these factors.

  20. New training material management system. Tasks and first experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kummer, Simon; Schoenfelder, Christian [AREVA NP GmbH (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Rather than bringing an end to the paper based era, the age of information technology has brought with it numerous types of publication and a plethora of new media. Anyone involved in documentation or digital paper based publication simply cannot escape the requirement for even more information to be printed and made available digitally in even shorter periods of time. Anyone wrestling with this issue is bound to hit upon buzz words such as ''content management'' and ''XML'' (Extensible Markup Language - ability to define the role of content within a document using tags). (orig.)

  1. Medicina legal y muertes en el deporte

    OpenAIRE

    Peña, José Antonio; Jiménez Díaz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Hacemos un análisis de las lesiones y muertes ocurridas en el Deporte de la Lucha Libre y el Boxeo; causas y efectos, lo que aplica la normativa mexicana en el caso de los deportes y cuál es la intervención de la procuración y administración de justicia. This is analysis of the injuries and deaths that occur duri ng wrestling and boxing, its causes and effects, the application of Mexican standards in sports and the intervention of the enforcement and administration of justic...

  2. A Comprehensive Examination of the Soviet Naval Infantry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-11

    already mentioned, a Marine can participate in classical and free-style wrestling and rugby . Tram- polines are balso availaole lor use.164 Political...following abbreviations are used in this appendix. U = Unit N a Northern Fleet SU = Subunit B = Baltic Fleet Regt = Regiment B1 = Black Sea Fleet Bn...author 1973’D Pushkaresv Ke(engr) author 1976* Soroka, A. Ruthor 1970’ Sysoltatin, I.I. Regt B1 1971 LU 196? su (P) 1965 (Maij) SU 16 141 Baranov, we Lu 1

  3. The Object of Study in Martial Arts and Combat Sports Research – Contributions to a Complex Whole

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Abel

    2009-01-01

    Sport is social and, in martial arts and combat sports, sociology and philosophy, at pair with other sciences, contribute to the theoretical core of sport science studies. Wushu, Wrestling, Taekwondo, Sumo, Sambo, Muaythai, Kickboxing, Kendō, Karate, Judō, Ju-jitsu, Fencing, Boxing and Aikidō are sports integrated in GAISF. A large part of them became institutionalized in Asian countries during end of XIX century and earlier XX century, leaded by Japan with Budō and Sumo. Other ones came f...

  4. Geskiedenis en geloof: Gedagtes van en oor Emst Troeltsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. J. Botha

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available History and faith: Considering the ideas of Ernst Troeltsch The work of Ernst Troeltsch (1865-1923 is an important contribution to the discussion on the relationship between faith and history. This article structures Troeltsch's work around his fundamental wrestling with historicism as a valid world view. His views on history and the philosophy of history are summarised, as well as his explanation of the theological task. These are followed by indicating some aspects of his philosophical paradigm. In conclusion some problems that Troeltsch tried to solve, are pointed out as relevant to our own situation.

  5. An outbreak of tinea gladiatorum in Lanzarote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pique, E; Copado, R; Cabrera, A; Olivares, M; Fariña, M C; Escalonilla, P; Soriano, M L; Requena, L

    1999-01-01

    Canary Islands wrestling is a variant of the sport played exclusively in that region, and is associated with close participant contact. An outbreak of a fungal infection, so-called tinea gladiatorum, amongst such wrestlers in Lanzarote, one island in the archipelago is now described. 102 wrestlers from the eight teams on the island were examined; some of the clubs are 50 km apart; 45 wrestlers (44.1% of those examined) were noted to be affected. To our knowledge, this is the largest reported series of patients with tinea gladiatorum and the only one to demonstrate such infection in a variety of geographical locations.

  6. Geloof en wete(-nskap In gesprek met Ben du Toit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. van Wyk

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Faith and science. Discussion with Ben du Toit The Dutch Reformed minister Ben du Toit published a very challenging book in which he wrestles with the old dilemma regarding the relation between faith and science/reason. The author investigates the question of how to integrate premodern theological thought into a postmodern world context. Accordingly he (re-interprets many teachings of the Bible (a premodern book from a postmodern perspective, although he refuses to do so with the substitutionary work of Christ and his resurrection – a fortunate exception. The review closes with a few critical remarks.

  7. Retrospective Review of Pectoralis Major Ruptures in Rodeo Steer Wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda H. F. Lau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pectoralis major tendon ruptures have been reported in the literature as occupational injuries, accidental injuries, and sporting activities. Few cases have been reported with respect to rodeo activities. Purpose. To describe a series of PM tendon ruptures in professional steer wrestlers. Study Design. Case series, level of evidence, 4. Methods. A retrospective analysis of PM ruptures in a steer wrestling cohort was performed. Injury data between 1992 and 2008 were reviewed using medical records from the University of Calgary Sport Medicine Center. Results. Nine cases of pectoralis major ruptures in professional steer wrestlers were identified. Injuries occurred during the throwing phase of the steer or while breaking a fall. All athletes reported unexpected or abnormal behavior of the steer that contributed to the mechanism of injury. Seven cases were surgically repaired, while two cases opted for nonsurgical intervention. Eight cases reported successful return to competition following the injury. Conclusion. Steer wrestlers represent a unique cohort of PM rupture case studies. Steer wrestling is a demanding sport that involves throwing maneuvers that may predispose the muscle to rupture. All cases demonstrated good functional outcomes regardless of surgical or non-surgical treatment.

  8. Frequency and direction of competitive anger in contact sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robazza, B; Bertollo, M; Bortoli, L

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether athletes involved in physical contact sports may interpret their feelings of anger as facilitative of performance, and to examine differences in the interpretation of anger as a function of the type of sport (team vs individual) or the competitive skill level (high vs low). A modified version of the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory was administered to 100 Italian adult male athletes practicing rugby or individual combat sports (judo, freestyle wrestling, or Greco-Roman wrestling). The questionnaire was intended to measure the frequency and the direction (i.e., the facilitative-debilitative interpretation) of competitive anger. Many athletes engaged in contact sports tended interpret their competitive anger as facilitative of performance rather than debilitative. The type of sport and the athlete's standard level can mediate the individual's interpretation of the effects of anger symptoms upon performance. Competitors can interpret their anger as helpful to energize behavior and channel physical and mental resources for skill execution. Practitioners should assist athletes in gaining control over anger rather than attempting to suppress it.

  9. [Accidents of the everyday life (AcVC) in children in Dakar: about 201 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Azhar Salim; Sagna, Aloïse; Fall, Mbaye; Ndoye, Ndeye Aby; Mbaye, Papa Alassane; Fall, Aimé Lakh; Diaby, Alou; Ndour, Oumar; Ngom, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Accidents of everyday life (AcVC) are common in children and can led to disabling injuries and death. This study aimed to analyze the epidemiological aspects of AcVC and the related injury mechanisms in Dakar. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted from 1 January 2013 to 30 June 2013. All the children victims of domestic accidents, sport and leisure accidents or school accidents were included. We studied some general parameters and some parameters related to each type of AcVC. Two hundred and one children were included, accounting for 27% of emergency consultations. There were 148 boys and 53 girls. Children less than 5 years of age were most affected (37.8%). Football and wrestling game were the main causes of AcVC. AcVC occur mainly at home (58.2%) and in the areas of sport and recreation (31.8%). The fractures predominated in the different types of AcVC: 54.9% of domestic accidents, 68.8% of sport and recreation accidents and 40% of school accidents. From an epidemiological perspective, our results are superimposable to literature. Fractures predominated contrary to literature where bruises were preponderant. Wrestling game is the main cause of these fractures, after football. The acquisition of knowledge about the epidemiological aspects of AcVC and the related injury mechanisms will allow for prevention campaigns in Dakar.

  10. CINE CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Ciné Club

    2011-01-01

    Thursday 24 March 2011 at 20:30 / Jeudi 24 Mars 2011 à 20:30 CERN Council Chamber / Salle du Conseil The Wrestler   By/de : Darren Aronofsky (USA/France 2008) 109 min With/avec: Mickey Rourke, Marisa Tomei, Evan Rachel Wood This is a drama about an aging professional wrestler, decades past his prime, who now barely gets by working small wrestling shows and as a part-time grocery store employee. As he faces health problems that may end his wrestling career for good he attempts to come to terms with his life outside the ring: by working full time at the grocery store, trying to reconcile with the daughter he abandoned in childhood and forming a closer bond with a stripper he has romantic feelings for. He struggles with his new life and an offer of a high-profile rematch with his 1980s arch-nemesis, The Ayatollah, which may be his ticket back to stardom. Original version english; french subtitles Version originale anglaise; soutitrée en français Entrance : 2 CHF ...

  11. [Perception, processing of visual information and resistance to emotional stresses in athletes of different ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobeĭnikova, L H; Makarchuk, M Iu

    2013-01-01

    Among the numerous studies devoted to the study of perception and information processing, no data available on the effects of age on these processes. In this paper we studied the influence of psycho-emotional stress and different levels of stress on the mental processes of perception and information processing in highly skilled athletes divided into two groups. The first group included the athletes aged 19-24 years (12 athletes, members of the Ukrainian team in Greco-Roman wrestling), the second group included the athletes aged 27-31 years (7 highly skilled athletes, members of the Ukrainian team in Greco-Roman wrestling). We revealed that the athletes of the first group had higher productivity and better visual perception and visual information processing efficiency, compared with athletes from the second group. This observation suggests a dependency of cognitive component of perception and information processing on the age of the athletes. Sportsmen from the second group had higher stress resistance compared to the older age group.

  12. Competitive activity of highly skilled freestyle wrestlers at the present stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Boyko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to compare competitive activity of highly skilled freestyle wrestlers after making adjustments to the wrestling rules. Material: the analysis involved 80 bouts performed by high skilled wrestlers at 2011 World Wrestling Championships (Ankara, Turkey and 2012 Olympic Games in London (weight categories 84 and 96 kg. Results: the resultant technical actions have been analyzed in the standing position performed by highly skilled freestyle wrestlers in major events of the annual cycle for the last three years. The characteristic changes in a competitive activity of highly skilled freestyle wrestlers in the weight categories 84 and 96 kg have been determined. We identified the techniques which were used most frequently in different periods of bout by elite athletes: spurt moving, throwing by knock, pressing, pushing the mat, etc. Conclusions: the competitions in the training of athletes are not only a means of controlling the level of preparedness, the process for deciding the winner, but also an important means of improving fitness and sports mastership. In the future, specialists can use these features of competitive activity in determining the overall training strategy of freestyle wrestlers to competitions at various levels.

  13. How IRBs view and make decisions about coercion and undue influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Scholars have debated how to define coercion and undue influence, but how institutional review boards (IRBs) view and make decisions about these issues in actual cases has not been explored. I contacted the leadership of 60 US IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by National Institutes of Health funding), and interviewed 39 IRB leaders or administrators from 34 of these institutions (response rate=55%), and 7 members. IRBs wrestled with defining of 'coercion' and 'undue inducement', most notably in deciding about participant compensation. IRBs often use these terms synonymously and define undue inducement in varying ways, often wrestling with these issues, relying on 'gut feelings', and seeking compromises. Ambiguities arose, partly reflecting underlying tensions: whether subjects should 'get paid' versus 'volunteer' (ie, whether subjects should be motivated by compensation vs altruism), and whether subjects should be paid differently based on income, given possible resultant selection bias. Lack of consistent standards emerged between and even on single IRBs. Questions arose concerning certain aspects and types of studies; for example, how to view and weigh providing free care in research, whether and how recruitment flyers should mention compensation, and how to avoid coercion in paediatric, developing world, or students research. These data, the first to probe qualitatively how IRBs view and approach questions about coercion, undue influence and participant compensation, and to examine how IRBs have reviewed actual cases, reveal several critical ambiguities and dilemmas, and have vital implications for future practice, education, policy and research.

  14. General laws of competition duel and universal requirements to technical-tactic fitness of elite wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Korobeynikov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine and formulate general technical-tactic laws (rules of competition duel in modern free style wrestling. Material: competition functioning of free style wrestlers at Olympic Games has been analyzed. Results of authors’ own pedagogic observations and advanced experience of free style wrestling specialists have been generalized. Results: it was found that victory in duel can be resulted only from attacking tactic of duel. It was determined that wrestlers’ activity (quantity of actual attacks in unit of time varies from 1 to 2.2 attacks per minute. Reliability of attack (ratio of quantity of assessed attacks to quantity of actually fulfilled attacks is within 0.33-0.63. Reliability of defense (ratio of quantity of successfully repelled opponent’s attacks to general quantity of his actual attacks is from 0.55-0.78. Efficiency of fighting in stance is within 0.6-1.3 points per minute. Efficiency of ground fighting is 1.3-2.3 points per minute. Conclusions: coach shall bring the formulated laws in compliance with specificity of his functioning and consider them, when planning training process of junior wrestlers.

  15. Sports-Oriented Model of Organization of Classes on Physical Education with Freshman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Sіnіcina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of questionnaires, which made it possible to determine the priority kinds of sports among the freshmen of the National University of Water Management and Nature Management. Respondents were offered the choice of the following sports: volleyball, basketball, football, mini football, swimming, track and field, table tennis, wrestling, weight sport, arm wrestling, chess, checkers, boxing, fitness. It was found that 33% of male freshman who took part in the study prioritized football above all. Volleyball is the second most common kind of sport among boys (it was chosen by 16% of respondents. The third position (11.4% of respondents was taken by basketball. The least popular (0.6% of the polled is the power kind of sports – weight lifting. Among female freshman, fitness was placed on the first place by 82% of respondents; athletics occupied the second position (4.8%; in the third place was tennis (4.2% of the respondents. The sports-oriented model of organizing the physical education courses provides students of the university who have chosen a certain sport to take part in competitions of different levels.

  16. Effect of caffeine on upper-body anaerobic performance in wrestlers in simulated competition-day conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedma, Martin; Timpmann, Saima; Ööpik, Vahur

    2013-12-01

    Peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) attained in upper body sprint performance test are considered important factors for competitive success in wrestling. This study aimed to determine whether acute caffeine ingestion would better maintain PP and MP across a simulated competition day in wrestling. In a double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover study, 14 trained wrestlers ingested either placebo or 5 mg/kg caffeine and completed four 6-min upper body intermittent sprint performance tests with 30-min recovery periods between consecutive tests. PP and MP were recorded during and blood lactate concentration was measured before and after each test. Ratings of perceived fatigue (RPF) and exertion (RPE) were recorded before and after each test, respectively. Heart rate (HR) was monitored across the whole testing period. Mean power decreased across four tests in both trials (p caffeine trial. Both pretest blood lactate concentration and HR were higher in caffeine than in placebo trial (p caffeine ingestion has a partially detrimental effect on upper body intermittent sprint performance in trained wrestlers. Elevated HR and blood lactate levels observed between tests after caffeine ingestion suggest that caffeine may impair recovery between consecutive maximal efforts.

  17. Alternative Visions for Pastoral Work with LGBTQ Individuals, Families, and Communities: A Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Joretta L

    2017-03-01

    Multiple theological perspectives provide frameworks for pastoral work with lesbian, gay, bisesxual and trans individuals, families, and communities. One model is offered by those who argue for celibacy or heterosexual marriages for those who self-identify as part of LGBTQ communities. This article names other theologically grounded perspectives with the goal of inviting practitioners to broaden their understandings and wrestle with the implications of their theological and ethical stances. When reflecting on the intersection of spirituality and sexuality, the meaning of theological terms such as sin, contributions from queer theologians and pastoral counselors, and the limitations of binary categories common in our theological history, this article encourages pastoral counselors and spiritual care providers to re-examine theological assumptions they bring to their work. The article ends with questions and opportunities for ongoing pastoral theological work and reflection.

  18. PREFERENCES FOR INTRODUCTION OF ELECTIVE SPORTS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES AMONG PARENTS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ilić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine which sports are most popular among parents of pupils of primary school in Serbia, in order to determine which sports would be advisable to introduce in the classes of physical education. The sample included 5865 parents. Most parents would like to introduce as an optional sport swimming, football, basketball, volleyball and at last parents would like to introduce acrobatics, wrestling, orienteering and rowing. Obtained were statistically significant differences according to gender (fathers would like to be introduced football and mothers would like swimming and according to educational level (parents with higher educational level would most like to be introduced swimming and volleyball; while parents with the lowest educational level prefered football. The results indicates that with enlargement of educational level of parents comes higher level of interest for other sports, like skiing and basketball and decrease level interest for bicycling, football and karate.

  19. Cataloging the world Paul Otlet and the birth of the information age

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Alex

    2014-01-01

    The dream of capturing and organizing knowledge is as old as history. From the archives of ancient Sumeria and the Library of Alexandria to the Library of Congress and Wikipedia, humanity has wrestled with the problem of harnessing its intellectual output. The timeless quest for wisdom has been as much about information storage and retrieval as creative genius. In Cataloging the World, Alex Wright introduces us to a figure who stands out in the long line of thinkers and idealists who devoted themselves to the task. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, Paul Otlet, a librarian by training, worked at expanding the potential of the catalog card, the world's first information chip. From there followed universal libraries and museums, connecting his native Belgium to the world by means of a vast intellectual enterprise that attempted to organize and code everything ever published. Forty years before the first personal computer and fifty years before the first browser, Otlet envisioned a network of "electric t...

  20. Color and Contingency in Robert Boyle's Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tawrin

    2015-01-01

    This essay investigates the relationship between color and contingency in Robert Boyle's Experiments and Considerations Touching Colours (1664) and his essays on the unsuccessfulness of experiments in Certain Physiological Essays (1661). In these two works Boyle wrestles with a difficult practical and philosophical problem with experiments, which he calls the problem of contingency. In Touching Colours, the problem of contingency is magnified by the much-debated issue of whether color had any deep epistemic importance. His limited theoretical principle guiding him in Touching Colours, that color is but modified light, further exacerbated the problem. Rather than theory, Boyle often relied on craftsmen, whose mastery of color phenomena was, Boyle mentions, brought about by economic forces, to determine when colors were indicators of important 'inward' properties of substances, and thus to secure a solid foundation for his experimental history of color.

  1. Direct-to-consumer advertising of pharmaceuticals: developed countries experiences and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semin, Semih; Aras, Sahbal; Guldal, Dilek

    2007-03-01

    While several major problems concerning drugs occur in the world, the attempts to direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) has gained a considerable impetus lately in both developed and developing countries. DTCA has increasingly become an appealing advertising alternative for the pharmaceutical industry as drug companies have come to wrestle with such problems as the expansion of the drug market; the decline of the medical representatives' work efficiency; drug reimbursement restrictions; and the escalating role of the Internet in the consumer market. Some of the main disadvantages of the DTCA are: increasing drug expenditures, unnecessary drug consumption and adverse effect risks. Even though the influence of pharmaceuticals on health services and the economy hold the same importance in the developed and developing countries, its negative consequences have increased by encompassing developing countries in its grip. Therefore, in this review, using Turkey as an example, the situation of direct-to-consumer advertisements in developing countries is analysed in relation with developed countries.

  2. Dear Professor Dyson twenty years of correspondence between Freeman Dyson and undergraduate students on science, technology, society and life

    CERN Document Server

    Neuenschwander, Dwight E

    2016-01-01

    Freeman Dyson has designed nuclear reactors and bomb-powered spacecraft; he has studied the origins of life and the possibilities for the long-term future; he showed quantum mechanics to be consistent with electrodynamics and started cosmological eschatology; he has won international recognition for his work in science and for his work in reconciling science to religion; he has advised generals and congressional committees. An STS (Science, Technology, Society) curriculum or discussion group that engages topics such as nuclear policies, genetic technologies, environmental sustainability, the role of religion in a scientific society, and a hard look towards the future, would count itself privileged to include Professor Dyson as a class participant and mentor. In this book, STS topics are not discussed as objectified abstractions, but through personal stories. The reader is invited to observe Dyson's influence on a generation of young people as they wrestle with issues of science, technology, society, life in g...

  3. Energy markets and European Integration: The World Energy Council role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.

    2002-01-01

    Energy market reform brings many benefits. Central and East Europe's challenge is to establish such markets when, at list in the case of electricity, the established market economies are still wrestling with how to apply competitive principles to this market. Design challenges include the natural monopoly elements within the electricity supply chain and the fact that it is, in practical terms, as essential social service. There is no one single model suitable to all markets at all stages of development. At the same time, there is a need for sustainable energy pricing, which means prices should cover all costs, with transparent and time-limited subsidies bringing the afford ability gap. Cross-border integration extends the benefits available from market reform by overcoming constraints at the national level and by broadening the geographical limits of a market. The World Energy Council works with its Central and East European members to analyse, understand and meet these challenges. (author)

  4. Value management: optimizing quality, service, and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makadon, Harvey J; Bharucha, Farzan; Gavin, Michael; Oliveira, Jason; Wietecha, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Hospitals have wrestled with balancing quality, service, and cost for years--and the visibility and urgency around measuring and communicating real metrics has grown exponentially in the last decade. However, even today, most hospital leaders cannot articulate or demonstrate the "value" they provide to patients and payers. Instead of developing a strategic direction that is based around a core value proposition, they focus their strategic efforts on tactical decisions like physician recruitment, facility expansion, and physician alignment. In the healthcare paradigm of the next decade, alignment of various tactical initiatives will require a more coherent understanding of the hospital's core value positioning. The authors draw on their experience in a variety of healthcare settings to suggest that for most hospitals, quality (i.e., clinical outcomes and patient safety) will become the most visible indicator of value, and introduce a framework to help healthcare providers influence their value positioning based on this variable.

  5. The liberal party and the achievement of national Medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, P E

    2009-01-01

    The process that led to the implementation of a full national health insurance system in Canada was as complicated and contested as the battles that were fought over Medicare in Saskatchewan. The federal Liberal party had to first adopt health insurance as a serious component of its electoral platform, devise a strategy for dealing with provinces which had constitutional jurisdiction over health, and finally wrestle with those within the party--and within the cabinet--who continued to question whether Canada was financially prepared to administer such a costly program. The strategies were devised and the battles were fought privately, but had an important effect on the timing and shape of a national health insurance system.

  6. Control of physical fitness of athletes specializing in combat sambo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Tron

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Confiscation of informative educational tests to assess motor qualities of skilled athletes. The survey was attended by 94 athletes (18 to 30 years. This group of tests includes: running too far on the bridge (second coups in space (second; perform 100 punches on the punching bag (second, perform 50 kicks on the punching bag (second. It was found that the highest correlation between the result and the qualifications of athletes seen in tests involving the use of wrestling skills (rushing on the bridge and from the place of revolutions. It is shown that in the groups of athletes of medium and heavy weight categories in tests measuring the speed of the application of various attacks on the punching bag have a weak relationship with the level of sportsmanship. The trend is strengthening correlation sports training and exercise, describing the power of athletes of different skills to increase their weight classes.

  7. Mandate of the Covenant problem in the reigns of kings Sennacherib and Esarhaddon (704-669 BC. M مشكلة ولاية العهد في عهدي الملكين سنحاريب واسرحدون (704- 669 ق . م

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Habib Snead Al-Fatlawi أحمد حبيب سنيد الفتلاوي

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mandate of the Covenant of important issues given by the Kings Assyrians attention and clear through careful selection of the crown prince during their lives, in order to avoid wrestling, which might occur between their children in order to ascend the throne of the Assyrian after their death, and despite what Attention and importance those kings gave to this matter, failure However, it was an ally of some of them, as is the case with all of the King (Sennacherib (704-681 BC. m, and King (Esarhaddon (680-669 BC. m, which they had set the young their children in the position of crown prince on others their children account older; because of their love to their children who are chosen in this position of love feelings , as submission to the wishes of (pure - Zakoto, the second wife and mother first.

  8. Research Analysis of Conflicting Behaviour Peculiarities Among Student Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povilas Tamošauskas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Almost always there is a certain degree of tension, irritation, and conflicts among athletes of various types of sports. The objective of the research is to evaluate conflicting behaviour of student wrestlers in the public safety faculties (PSF at Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU and Mykolas Romeris University (MRU. In the introduction of the research, conflict descriptions, types, criteria, solutions, and psychological climate factors as theorized by different authors are introduced. Survey data on student athletes is analyzed. In addition to this, psychological climate and predominant features among wrestling teams in higher education schools are assessed and emerging conflict types and solutions are determined. Finally, the differences in athletes and coaches‘ evaluation of psychological climate and indications are described.

  9. ACL Rupture in Collegiate Wrestler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay A. Palmer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To educate others on unique Anterior Cruciate Ligament tears and percentage of usage of the ACL in normal daily function. Background: Patient is an eighteen year old male participating in wrestling and football at the time of the injury. Patient now only participates in wrestling. No previous knee or chronic injuries were reported prior to this injury. Patient was playing football during the time of injury. The patient stated that he planted his foot down and was tackled at the same time when the injury occurred. The patient felt his knee twist and buckle. Patient complained of clicking inside the knee and had minimal swelling. He also complained of it being difficult to bear weight at the time. The patient did not seek further treatment until two months after the injury occurred when he received an MRI. His MRI showed a positive finding for an Anterior Cruciate Ligament rupture. His previous Athletic Trainer could not find a positive diagnosis for the patient prior to the MRI. Differential Diagnosis: Possible meniscal or ACL injury. Treatment: Doctors officially diagnosed the injury as a complete rupture of the ACL. The patient did not receive surgery immediately. Doctors have stated that he only uses about 50% of his ACL on a daily basis compared to a normal person who uses about 95% of their ACL daily. Because of this, the patient played on his rupture for seven months before receiving surgery. He played a whole season of high school football and a whole season of wrestling his senior year with the ACL ruptured. The patient only used a brace for better comfort during the seven months. The patient then received reconstructive surgery to repair the rupture. A hamstring tendon graft was used to repair the ruptured ACL. Because a tendon was taken from the hamstring, patient experienced a tight ACL and hamstring of the left leg post-surgery. The patient participated in Physical Therapy for five months to strengthen and stretch the new

  10. Research of the role of self-consciousness on the efficiency of sportsmen rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Tyshchenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: empirically explain the role of the individual identity of the sportsman on the effectiveness of rehabilitation after injury. Material/Methods: The experiment involved 22 athletes, representatives of individual sports (weightlifting, Greco-Roman wrestling and gymnastics. All athletes had injuries of the musculoskeletal system and began moderate rehabilitation period. The study used specially adapted test evaluation grids to determine the level of anxiety. Results: It was determined that personified psychological work should be aimed at optimizing the internal installations of athletes. It affects the speed and quality of the rehabilitation process, improves the selective ability of the individual, positive impact on their career. Found that increasing the amount of information in the personal construct increases the level of personal development. Conclusions: It is advisable to include the theory of personal constructs in a program of psychological rehabilitation of athletes.

  11. Coliseo de Jacksonville, (U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryad Fisher, G.

    1966-04-01

    Full Text Available This hall has room for 1,200 spectators, sitting down, and is suitable for holding wrestling, boxing and other similar sporting activities, also conventions, lectures, industrial exhibitions, festivals, circus, skating spectacles and other performances. The roof of this hall is its most significant feature, and also the manner of arrangement of the seats, which makes it possible to distribute them in a variety of ways.Este edificio, capaz de albergar a 1.200 espectadores sentados, ha sido construido para celebrar: combates de lucha libre y de boxeo, convenciones, conferencias, exposiciones industriales, festivales, partidos de hockey sobre hielo, baloncesto, sesiones de circo, campeonatos de tenis, espectáculos sobre hielo, etc. Lo más notable del Coliseo es la solución estructural adoptada para la cubierta, así como la disposición dada a los asientos para permitir una gran flexibilidad de usos.

  12. Demonstration of intuitive thinking in conditions of competitive activity depending on athletes' psychophysiological state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikov G.V.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One investigated application of intuitive thinking, depending on the physiological status of skilled fighters in their competitive activity. In research members of the team of Ukraine in Greco-Roman wrestling participated. 29 effective throws were analysed reverse a capture from position orchestra. One analyzed the effectiveness of intuitive thinking in athletes of different weight categories and the distribution coefficients of correlation of psychophysiological functions of athletes directly in competition during championships of Ukraine, World and Europe. One found that expression of intuitive thinking is associated with weight category of skilled fighters. It is shown that the effectiveness of intuitive thinking in terms of competitive activity is related to physiological state, and, above all qualified wrestlers' neurodynamic functions.

  13. Predictors of disordered eating in a sample of elite Division I college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Scott G; Johnson, Craig; Powers, Pauline S; Crosby, Ross D; Wonderlich, Steve A; Wittrock, David A; Mitchell, James E

    2003-11-01

    The present study sought to investigate the relationship between a number of areas of elite student-athletes' lives and disordered eating. We surveyed 1445 elite Division I athletes at 11 different institutions and in 11 different sports. Hierarchical regression was used to indicate specific areas of the participants' collegiate experience that may be associated with disordered eating attitudes and symptomatology. Results demonstrate that the variables entered into each model predicted between 40.5% and 46.4% of the variance for the restriction of food, body dissatisfaction, and drive for thinness. Categories of variables that generally predicted the most variance for each dependent measure were demographics, athletic involvement, and personality. Of the 11 sports included in the analysis, wrestling and gymnastics demonstrated elevated levels of drive for thinness, food restriction, and purging behavior compared to other athletes. Findings suggest that in elite athletes gender, ethnicity, sport, and self-esteem are associated with several behaviors and attitudes indicative of disordered eating.

  14. Physician directed networks: the new generation of managed care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, T; O'Sullivan, D

    1996-07-01

    The external pressure to reduce cost while maintaining quality and services is moving the whole industry into a rapid mode of integration. Hospitals, vendors, MCOs, and now, physicians, are faced with the difficult decisions concerning how their operations will be integrated into the larger health care delivery system. These pressures have forced physicians to consolidate, build leverage, and create efficiencies to become more productive; thereby better positioning themselves to respond to the challenges and the opportunities that lie before them. This initial phase of consolidation has given many physicians the momentum to begin to wrestle back the control of health care and the courage to design the next generation of managed care: Physician Directed Managed Care. What will be the next phase? Perhaps, the next step will be fully-integrated specialty and multi-specialty groups leading to alternate delivery sites. "Everyone thinks of changing the world, but no one thinks of changing himself." - Leo Tolstoy

  15. No More Provincialism: Art and Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Barker

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the writing and personalities surrounding the 1981 establishment of the Australian art magazine, Art & Text, and traces its progression under Paul Taylor’s editorship up to his relocation to New York. During this period, Art & Text published Taylor’s own essays and, more importantly, those of other writers and artists — Meaghan Morris, Paul Foss, Philip Brophy, Imants Tillers, Rex Butler, Edward Colless — all articulating a consistent and complex postmodern position. The magazine’s founder and editor, Paul Taylor, personified the shattering impact of postmodernism upon the Australian art world as well as postmodernism’s limitations. Taylor facilitated a new theoretical framework for the discussion of Australian art, one that continues to dominate the internationalist aspirations of Australian art writers. He produced temporarily convincing solutions to problems that earlier critics had wrestled with unsuccessfully, in particular the twin problems of provincialism, and the relationship of Australian to international art.

  16. Reduce operational cost and extend the life of pipeline infrastructure by automating remote cathodic protection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosado, Elroy [Freewave Technologies, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States). Latin America

    2009-07-01

    Energy and Pipeline Companies wrestle to control operating costs largely affected by new government regulations, ageing buried metal assets, rising steel prices, expanding pipeline operations, new interference points, HCA encroachment, restrictive land use policies, heightened network security, and an ageing soon-to-retire work force. With operating costs on the rise, seemingly out of control, many CP and Operations Professionals look to past best practices in cost containment through automation. Many companies achieve solid business results through deployment of telemetry and SCADA automation of remote assets and now hope to expand this success to further optimize operations by automating remote cathodic protection systems. This presentation will provide examples of how new remote cathodic protection systems are helping energy and pipeline companies address the growing issue of the aging pipeline infrastructure and reduce their costs while optimizing their operations. (author)

  17. Development of a Test for Evaluating Beginning Taekwondo Students’ Motor Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Pieter

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to develop a motor skills test for beginners in tae-kwondo. Subjects were students enrolled in a beginning taekwondo class at a university on the West Coast of the USA. The taekwondo skills test battery was based on previous work in gymnastics and wrestling. Test-retest reliability, i.e., repeatability of the test, and objectivity coefficients, i.e., an index of the consistency between the raters, were calculated. The objectivity, i.e., a measure of the consistency between the raters over both days for Group 1 was very high, and for Group 2, high. The reliability, or the consistency of the results of the test when administered on two different occasions, was very high for both groups. Future research should comprise more subjects, while test batteries for intermediate and advanced students should be developed.

  18. High School Coaches' Experiences With Openly Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbrook, Meghan K; Watson, Jack C; Voelker, Dana K

    2018-01-17

    Despite reports that there has been a positive trend in perception and treatment of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals in recent years (Griffin, 2012 ; Loftus, 2001 ), sport, in general, is still an uncertain, and sometimes even hostile, environment for LGB athletes (Anderson, 2005 ; Waldron & Krane, 2005 ). To gain more information on coach understanding and perceptions of the team environment, 10 high school head coaches in the United States were interviewed to explore their experiences coaching openly LGB athletes. Qualitative analyses revealed four primary themes associated with coach experiences: team environment dogmas and observations, fundamental beliefs contributing to perceptions of LGB athletes, types and timing of sexual orientation disclosure, and differential LGB athlete characteristics. Future research should examine these primary themes in more detail through interviews with LGB athletes, as well as high school coaches in more traditionally masculine sports, such as football, men's basketball, and wrestling.

  19. Restructuring locality: practice, identity and place-making on the German-Polish border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Taking cities as analytical entry points for investigating practice, identity and place-making, this article explores the differential restructurings of locality in the twin cities of Görlitz and Zgorzelec on the German-Polish border. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork, it shows how the local cities......′ leaderships are attempting to wrestle the cities out of their downmarket positioning in the global economy. Deploying a performative research strategy of methodological relationalism, the article examines intersections between these cities′ strategies of situating local youth within urban regeneration...... and cross-border projects and local youth′s preferences for engaging in other kinds of place-making. By ‘seeing’ the cities in border regions through practices of place-making within the multiscalar processes of urban regeneration, new insights about ‘place’ are generated in which city branding...

  20. Chronic Morel-Lavallée Lesion: A Novel Minimally Invasive Method of Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettu, Ramireddy; Surath, Harsha Vardhan; Chayam, Hanumantha Rao; Surath, Amaranth

    2016-11-01

    A Morel-Lavallée lesion is a closed internal degloving injury resulting from a shearing force applied to the skin. The etiology of this condition may be motor vehicle accidents, falls, contact sports (ie, football, wrestling),1 and iatrogenic after mammoplasty or abdominal liposuction.2 Common sites of the lesions include the pelvis and/or thigh.3 Isolated Morel-Lavallée lesions without underlying fracture are likely to be missed, which result in chronicity. Management of this condition often requires extensive surgical procedures such as debridement, sclerotherapy, serial percutaneous drainage, negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), and skin grafting.4,5 The authors wish to highlight a minimally invasive technique for the treatment of chronic Morel-Lavallée lesions.

  1. Maintenance of ageing CANDU reactors. A regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunstan, T.

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this paper is, 'requirements for maintenance of ageing reactors from the perspective of a regulator', with a focus on the particular theme of; 'continuing safety assurance'. A major role of maintenance is to ensure the continuing reliability and effectiveness of safety related systems and equipment. Continuing safety assurance is an issue the Atomic Energy Control Board has been wrestling with for some time. From my perspective, much remains to be done before the AECB can be confident that Canadian nuclear plants have the necessary programs in place to achieve continuing safety assurance. To introduce the topic, it would be appropriate to say a few words about the AECB's position with respect to the situation at the Pickering NGS. Why did we blow the whistle last August and, what are we doing about it? (author)

  2. ... It’s a blooming miracle - a special LHC Report

    CERN Document Server

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2012-01-01

    Wrestling a 27 km superconducting collider under control is not easy. Throw in high intensity beams and it can sometimes seem a continual, frustrating battle with the vagaries of a hugely complex problem space.   This problem space has been thoroughly explored over the last three or four years. The myriad of potential obstacles to smooth operation ranges from unidentified falling objects (UFOs), electron clouds, beam dynamics, radiation to electronics, vacuum instabilities, “transparent” software changes, Radio Frequency (RF) trips, electrical network glitches etc. etc. The huge extended systems, such as the beam loss monitors, cryogenics, and quench protection systems, have a phenomenal number of components that inevitably have occasional failures (there is, of course, a higher probability that these occur late Friday evening and over the weekend). On the cryogenics front, cooling and keeping 36,000 tonnes of magnets at 1.9 K is a challenging prerequisite for everythi...

  3. Improving rehabilitation standards to meet changing community concerns: A history of uranium mine rehabilitation with particular reference to Northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggitt, P.W.; Zapantis, A.

    2002-01-01

    Rehabilitation of land after mining is an issue that society has been wrestling with for at least 400 years. The issue is made even more emotive when the mineral extracted has been uranium. Over the past 50 years or so society has become ever more aware of the environment and the level of concern for proper environmental management has also increased. Today the community expects that mining in general, and uranium mining in particular, will be undertaken in an environmentally sensitive manner. As a consequence the expectations and standards for rehabilitation demanded by the community and regulators have been increasing and improving over time. Today the rehabilitation process is driven by issues of sustainable development, stakeholder involvement and consultation, inter-and intragenerational equity and a strong desire for environmental protection to be of the highest order. The paper describes this progressive improvement in rehabilitation standards using the uranium mines of northern Australia as case histories. (author)

  4. Managing the bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basrur, Rajesh M.

    1997-01-01

    It is one of the great tragedies associated with the progress of human civilization that human ingenuity should have produced a technology for universal destruction. The dilemma posed by nuclear weapons is inescapable. Their possession brings a security that is based on the uncomfortable hope that they will never be used. Their absence carries with it the fear that, in the hands of others, they just might be used. Each nation seeks to grapple with this contradiction in its own way, none a measure of trepidation. India's new nuclear status and Pakistan's matching response mark a perceptible shift in their ongoing efforts to wrestle with the nuclear dilemma. The judicious management of this new status is now the central issue

  5. The Contemporary Goffman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Despite aversion to famedom, idolatry and cults of intellectual celebrity, Erving Goffman was one of the leading and most original sociologists of the 20th century. This book takes him into the 21st century. The Contemporary Goffman offers a wide range of readings, interpretations and applications...... of the work of Erving Goffman by a host of international scholars. Some chapters grapple with the personal background and academic ascendency of Goffman, while others wrestle with his continued relevance to a variety of disciplines and sub-disciplines. Some of the chapters included deal with developments...... unforeseeable in Goffman's own lifetime such as the invention of the internet and mobile telephones, the rise of global tourism and everyday mobility as well as the emergence of a new cult of individualism, while other chapters locate his perspective within recent developments in social theory...

  6. Automating the AFROTC Four-Year Scholarship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    ATCH 2 b1 C -d C4 4" %C N 0" cl4 es C4 CN 1 onin %DG C1 06 0 -0 40 V 44-4 LIU-4- c4 A: U. -4 La 4 E vt a-’ iv El "l 04 0 0.I t b U El 4 V do v 0 CoU. -4...CEEB CLAS~S BOARD 1ST 2ND DCF QEP/ STRT,"’ HWFADC CfI3; PEL SCORES SCORE COMP SCOPE STAND RAMK".,H~DC ’ PREF PREF RACE PREY" rTL B1 = 46/1 C hiroms...A/N 88 Fencing 4 AIN 89 La Crosse 4 AIN 90 Rifle/Pistol 4 AIN 91 Rugby 4 AIN 92 Track 4 A/N 93 Wrestling 4 A/N 94 Others (Name and Codes) 15 A/N 95

  7. The effect of winter sports participation on high school football players: strength, power, agility, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroble, R R; Moxley, D R

    2001-02-01

    In this study, football players (N = 57) in grades 9-11 from 3 high schools chose to participate in 1 of 2 groups. Group WC (N = 39) participated in off-season strength training only. Group SP (N = 18) participated in both a winter sport (either wrestling or basketball) and an identical strength training program. All participants were tested at the close of football season (Pre) and at the end of the winter sports season (Post), a period of 4 months. Body composition (weight [W] and body fat percentage [BF]), strength (calculated 1RM [1 repetition maximum] max for barbell bench press [BP] and squat [SQ]), power (vertical jump [VJ] and seated shot put [UP]), and agility (18.3-m agility run [AG]) were measured. Both groups WC and SP increased significantly in W and BF and improved significantly in BP and VJ (p training.

  8. Are mouthguards necessary for basketball?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, David; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2005-06-01

    This literature review evaluates the significance of dental injuries and their relationship to a specific sport--basketball. Many studies have been published on individual sports or groups of sports, but most pertain to specific age groups or levels of competition. Research suggests that many sports that do not require mouthguards should encourage male and female participants to use orofacial protectors. Athletes, coaches, athletic directors, athletic trainers, parents, and members of the dental community should be aware of how individuals who participate in sporting activities are at risk for dental trauma. Any sport where the potential for dental trauma can exist, such as basketball, soccer, or wrestling, should consider utilizing mouthguards to protect the competitors. The establishment of mouthguard programs for athletes of all ages and genders who participate in basketball may help to reduce the incidence of dental trauma.

  9. A literature review of sports-related orofacial trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, David P; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2004-01-01

    This literature review evaluates the significance of dental injuries and their relationship to specific sports activities. Many studies have been published on individual sports or groups of sports but most pertain to specific age groups or levels of competition. Research suggests that many sports that do not require mouthguards should encourage male and female participants to use orofacial protectors. Athletes, coaches, athletic directors, athletic trainers, parents, and members of the dental community should be aware of how individuals who participate in sporting activities are at risk for dental trauma. Any sport where the potential for dental trauma can exist (such as basketball, soccer, or wrestling) should consider utilizing mouthguards to protect the competitors. The establishment of mouthguard programs for athletes of all ages, genders, and sports may help to reduce the incidence of dental trauma. A sports-related, orofacial/dental trauma reporting system is considered.

  10. Growing the Blockchain information infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbar, Karim; Bjørn, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present ethnographic data that unpacks the everyday work of some of the many infrastructuring agents who contribute to creating, sustaining and growing the Blockchain information infrastructure. We argue that this infrastructuring work takes the form of entrepreneurial actions......, which are self-initiated and primarily directed at sustaining or increasing the initiator’s stake in the emerging information infrastructure. These entrepreneurial actions wrestle against the affordances of the installed base of the Blockchain infrastructure, and take the shape of engaging...... or circumventing activities. These activities purposefully aim at either influencing or working around the enablers and constraints afforded by the Blockchain information infrastructure, as its installed base is gaining inertia. This study contributes to our understanding of the purpose of infrastructuring, seen...

  11. Conforming and nonconforming personality and stress coping styles in combat athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernacka Ryszarda Ewa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate whether the personality dimension of conformism/nonconformism was a predictor of stress coping styles in athletes training combat sports, and to present the characteristics of this personality dimension in the context of the competitors’ adaptive/innovative sport performance. Scores of 346 males practising combat sports such as kick boxing, MMA, thai boxing, boxing and wrestling were analyzed. The participants completed the Creative Behaviour Questionnaire (KANH III measuring the conformity/nonconformity personality dimension and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS measuring stress coping styles. The comparative analyses were conducted only for the groups of conformists and nonconformists. Differences in stress coping styles between conformists and nonconformists training combat sports were found as nonconformists tended to prefer the task-oriented coping style. Conclusively, a higher rate of nonconformity was associated with increasingly frequent occurrence of task-oriented coping and decreasingly frequent emotion-oriented coping.

  12. Personal review and justice analysis of nursing experiences in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmott, Helen

    2008-08-01

    Health care providers frequently struggle to develop wise applications of theoretical knowledge. As a nurse studying traditional approaches in ethics while simultaneously volunteering in Haiti, I wrestled with the notion of justice in the midst of radical material inequities. Paul Farmer, physician and anthropologist, provides an analytic perspective for health care providers who work in poor and underserved countries by expanding the liberation theology of the 1970s to include social applications. Analyzing my past experiences in Haiti using Farmer's methodology provided insight into my successes and failures and prompted me to search for personal and professional reasons to provide care for the poor in the future. This type of reflection is essential for health care providers who work with the underserved, regardless of their religion or the country in which they work.

  13. HARDINESS, WORLD ASSUMPTIONS, MOTIVATION OF ATHLETES OF CONTACT AND NOT CONTACT KINDS OF SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vladimirovna Molchanova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of personal psychological specificity of athletes of contact (freestyle wrestling and not contact (archery kinds of sport were carried out. Pronounced deviation in hardiness, world assumptions, motives for sport doing were obtained. In particularly, archery athletes possess higher values of hardiness and positively view the world, than wrestlers, while possess less motives for sport doing as “successful for life quality and skills” and “physical perfection”. Thus for athletes not contact kinds of sports rather coping in permanent stressed conditions are predicted. The obtained results are practically important for counseling work of sport psychologists and moreover they could be a basement for training teach programs and challenge stress overcoming programs.

  14. Students’ motivation to fitness classes at technical university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Balitskaya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the motives of students to fitness classes at technical university. The results of the survey of students I - II courses motivation for fitness classes in physical education. The survey involved 182 students (173 girls and 9 boys of technical faculties. Found that most of the students have been studying fitness for entry the university. The main motivation for fitness training is to increase the level of physical fitness and self-confidence, as well as the development of special vocational important physical qualities, which in the future will contribute to the professional activities of the students. It is shown that universities are engaged in fitness in 13.82% of the students. Swimming is the clear leader - 18.37% and athletic gymnastics - 17.19%. Also popular are sports games - 26.77% (football, basketball, volleyball, tennis. Also are visited sections in gymnastics, wrestling, boxing, and tourism.

  15. Effects that different types of sports have on the hearts of children and adolescents and the value of two-dimensional strain-strain-rate echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnetoğlu, Fatih Köksal; Babaoğlu, Kadir; Altun, Gürkan; Kayabey, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    Whether the hypertrophy found in the hearts of athletes is physiologic or a risk factor for the progression of pathologic hypertrophy remains controversial. The diastolic and systolic functions of athletes with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy usually are normal when measured by conventional methods. More precise assessment of global and regional myocardial function may be possible using a newly developed two-dimensional (2D) strain echocardiographic method. This study evaluated the effects that different types of sports have on the hearts of children and adolescents and compared the results of 2D strain and strain-rate echocardiographic techniques with conventional methods. Athletes from clubs for five different sports (basketball, swimming, football, wrestling, and tennis) who had practiced regularly at least 3 h per week during at least the previous 2 years were included in the study. The control group consisted of sedentary children and adolescents with no known cardiac or systemic diseases (n = 25). The athletes were grouped according to the type of exercise: dynamic (football, tennis), static (wrestling), or static and dynamic (basketball, swimming). Shortening fraction and ejection fraction values were within normal limits for the athletes in all the sports disciplines. Across all 140 athletes, LV geometry was normal in 58 athletes (41.4 %), whereas 22 athletes (15.7 %) had concentric remodeling, 20 (14.3 %) had concentric hypertrophy, and 40 (28.6 %) had eccentric hypertrophy. Global LV longitudinal strain values obtained from the average of apical four-, two-, and three-chamber global strain values were significantly lower for the basketball players than for all the other groups (p < 0.001).

  16. Practices of Weight Regulation Among Elite Athletes in Combat Sports: A Matter of Mental Advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Stefan; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Berg, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    Context The combination of extensive weight loss and inadequate nutritional strategies used to lose weight rapidly for competition in weight-category sports may negatively affect athletic performance and health. Objective To explore the reasoning of elite combat-sport athletes about rapid weight loss and regaining of weight before competitions. Design Qualitative study. Setting With grounded theory as a theoretical framework, we employed a cross-examinational approach including interviews, observations, and Internet sources. Sports observations were obtained at competitions and statements by combat-sport athletes were collected on the Internet. Patients or Other Participants Participants in the interviews were 14 Swedish national team athletes (9 men, 5 women; age range, 18 to 36 years) in 3 Olympic combat sports (wrestling, judo, and taekwondo). Data Collection and Analysis Semistructured interviews with 14 athletes from the Swedish national teams in wrestling, judo, and taekwondo were conducted at a location of each participant's choice. The field observations were conducted at European competitions in these 3 sports. In addition, interviews and statements made by athletes in combat sports were collected on the Internet. Results Positive aspects of weight regulation other than gaining physical advantage emerged from the data during the analysis: sport identity, mental diversion, and mental advantage. Together and individually, these categories point toward the positive aspects of weight regulation experienced by the athletes. Practicing weight regulation mediates a self-image of being “a real athlete.” Weight regulation is also considered mentally important as a part of the precompetition preparation, serving as a coping strategy by creating a feeling of increased focus and commitment. Moreover, a mental advantage relative to one's opponents can be gained through the practice of weight regulation. Conclusions Weight regulation has mentally important functions

  17. The Relationship between Perceived Coaching Behaviours, Motivation and Self-Efficacy in Wrestlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarı, İhsan; Bayazıt, Betül

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The current study aimed to determine the relationship between perceived coaching behaviours, motivation, self-efficacy and general self-efficacy of wrestlers who competed in the Super National Wrestling League. The sample consisted of 289 wrestlers. The Self-Efficacy Scale was used to measure self-efficacy perception, the Sports Motivation Scale to measure the motivation of the athletes, the Leadership Scale for Sport to determine perceived leadership behaviours, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale to determine the general self-efficacy perceptions of the athletes. For data analyses, SPSS 17.0 software was used. According to the results of the regression analyses performed with the enter method, it was found that perceived training and instruction behaviour along with perceived social support behaviour significantly explained self-efficacy (adjusted R2_ = .03), intrinsic motivation (adjusted R2 = .04) and amotivation (adjusted R2 = .05). Also, perceived training and instruction behaviour (β = .51), autocratic behaviour (β = -.17) and social support behaviour (β = -.27) significantly contributed to athletes’ general self-efficacy (adjusted R2 = .10). In light of these findings, it may be argued that perceived training and instruction behaviour may be beneficial for self-efficacy, general self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, and amotivation. On the other hand, it could be stated that perceived autocratic behaviour may be detrimental for general self-efficacy of the athletes. As for social support behaviour, it may be suggested that it is negatively related to self-efficacy, general self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation. Lastly, a positive relationship was observed between perceived social support behaviour and amotivation in wrestlers. The results reveal the specific characteristics of wrestlers and suggest some implications for wrestling coaches. PMID:28713476

  18. Practices of weight regulation among elite athletes in combat sports: a matter of mental advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Stefan; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Berg, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    The combination of extensive weight loss and inadequate nutritional strategies used to lose weight rapidly for competition in weight-category sports may negatively affect athletic performance and health. To explore the reasoning of elite combat-sport athletes about rapid weight loss and regaining of weight before competitions. Qualitative study. With grounded theory as a theoretical framework, we employed a cross-examinational approach including interviews, observations, and Internet sources. Sports observations were obtained at competitions and statements by combat-sport athletes were collected on the Internet. Participants in the interviews were 14 Swedish national team athletes (9 men, 5 women; age range, 18 to 36 years) in 3 Olympic combat sports (wrestling, judo, and taekwondo). Semistructured interviews with 14 athletes from the Swedish national teams in wrestling, judo, and taekwondo were conducted at a location of each participant's choice. The field observations were conducted at European competitions in these 3 sports. In addition, interviews and statements made by athletes in combat sports were collected on the Internet. Positive aspects of weight regulation other than gaining physical advantage emerged from the data during the analysis: sport identity, mental diversion, and mental advantage. Together and individually, these categories point toward the positive aspects of weight regulation experienced by the athletes. Practicing weight regulation mediates a self-image of being "a real athlete." Weight regulation is also considered mentally important as a part of the precompetition preparation, serving as a coping strategy by creating a feeling of increased focus and commitment. Moreover, a mental advantage relative to one's opponents can be gained through the practice of weight regulation. Weight regulation has mentally important functions extending beyond the common notion that combat-sport athletes reduce their weight merely to gain a physical edge

  19. The Relationship Between Perceived Coaching Behaviours, Motivation and Self-Efficacy in Wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarı İhsan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to determine the relationship between perceived coaching behaviours, motivation, self-efficacy and general self-efficacy of wrestlers who competed in the Super National Wrestling League. The sample consisted of 289 wrestlers. The Self-Efficacy Scale was used to measure self-efficacy perception, the Sports Motivation Scale to measure the motivation of the athletes, the Leadership Scale for Sport to determine perceived leadership behaviours, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale to determine the general self-efficacy perceptions of the athletes. For data analyses, SPSS 17.0 software was used. According to the results of the regression analyses performed with the enter method, it was found that perceived training and instruction behaviour along with perceived social support behaviour significantly explained self-efficacy (adjusted R2_ = .03, intrinsic motivation (adjusted R2 = .04 and amotivation (adjusted R2 = .05. Also, perceived training and instruction behaviour (β = .51, autocratic behaviour (β = -.17 and social support behaviour (β = -.27 significantly contributed to athletes’ general self-efficacy (adjusted R2 = .10. In light of these findings, it may be argued that perceived training and instruction behaviour may be beneficial for self-efficacy, general self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, and amotivation. On the other hand, it could be stated that perceived autocratic behaviour may be detrimental for general self-efficacy of the athletes. As for social support behaviour, it may be suggested that it is negatively related to self-efficacy, general self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation. Lastly, a positive relationship was observed between perceived social support behaviour and amotivation in wrestlers. The results reveal the specific characteristics of wrestlers and suggest some implications for wrestling coaches.

  20. The Relationship between Perceived Coaching Behaviours, Motivation and Self-Efficacy in Wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarı, İhsan; Bayazıt, Betül

    2017-06-01

    The current study aimed to determine the relationship between perceived coaching behaviours, motivation, self-efficacy and general self-efficacy of wrestlers who competed in the Super National Wrestling League. The sample consisted of 289 wrestlers. The Self-Efficacy Scale was used to measure self-efficacy perception, the Sports Motivation Scale to measure the motivation of the athletes, the Leadership Scale for Sport to determine perceived leadership behaviours, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale to determine the general self-efficacy perceptions of the athletes. For data analyses, SPSS 17.0 software was used. According to the results of the regression analyses performed with the enter method, it was found that perceived training and instruction behaviour along with perceived social support behaviour significantly explained self-efficacy (adjusted R 2_ = .03), intrinsic motivation (adjusted R 2 = .04) and amotivation (adjusted R 2 = .05). Also, perceived training and instruction behaviour (β = .51), autocratic behaviour (β = -.17) and social support behaviour (β = -.27) significantly contributed to athletes' general self-efficacy (adjusted R 2 = .10). In light of these findings, it may be argued that perceived training and instruction behaviour may be beneficial for self-efficacy, general self-efficacy, intrinsic motivation, and amotivation. On the other hand, it could be stated that perceived autocratic behaviour may be detrimental for general self-efficacy of the athletes. As for social support behaviour, it may be suggested that it is negatively related to self-efficacy, general self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation. Lastly, a positive relationship was observed between perceived social support behaviour and amotivation in wrestlers. The results reveal the specific characteristics of wrestlers and suggest some implications for wrestling coaches.

  1. ANTHROPOMETRICAL PROFILE AND BIO-MOTOR ABILITIES OF YOUNG ELITE WRESTLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jafari Rahmat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study investigated the association between motor performance and somatic type, anthropometric, body composition, physiologic and physical fitness profile in young wrestlers. Material: 16 young wrestlers aging 16-19 with a 4-year-experience of taking part in national championships were selected for the study. Following the standard methods in the testing center of Alborz province some tests like aerobic power, muscular endurance, flexibility and agility speed tests and 1RM were taken to integrate the participants. Also, it should be noted that the participants’ height, weight, the girth of thigh, elbow, calf and arm and skin thickness were measured. Results: Somatotype, Somatotype Attitudinal Distance (SAD, Height Weight ratio (HWR were calculated according to Carter and Heath anthropometric method. Body Fat Percentage (%BF, HWR and SAD resulted in 10.90±1.64, 43.27±0.87 and 0.94±0.87 respectively. Somatotype Standard Deviation and mean regarding endomorphic, mesomorphic and ectomorphic components were 2.16±0.46, 5.20±0.77 and 2.88±0.64 respectively. Physiologically, wrestlers VO2MAX (kg/min were 49.31±4.22 and their Resting Heart Rate (bpm were 68.31±6.64. Conclusion: As the present study illustrates, Somatotype of the Endomorphs, Mesomorphs and Ectomorphs were the same. As a result, coaches can plan wrestlers’ training programs and review of techniques based on anthropometric and physiologic data driven from their sports performances.Besides, wrestlers could be well-informed about their performance. Moreover, aforesaid information could be beneficial to wrestling federations and all other organizations contributing the wrestling federation while holding talent identification programs and recognizing young wrestlers.

  2. Is international junior success a reliable predictor for international senior success in elite combat sports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pingwei; De Bosscher, Veerle; Pion, Johan; Weissensteiner, Juanita R; Vertonghen, Jikkemien

    2018-05-01

    Currently in the literature, there is a dearth of empirical research that confirms whether international junior success is a reliable predictor for future international senior success. Despite the uncertainty of the junior-senior relationship, federations and coaches still tend to use junior success as a predictor for long-term senior success. A range of former investigations utilising a retrospective lens has merely focused on success that athletes attained at junior level competitions. Success that was achieved at senior-level competitions but at a junior age was relatively ignored. This study explored to what extent international senior success can be predicted based on success that athletes achieved in either international junior level competitions (i.e. junior medalists) or senior competitions at a junior age (i.e. early achievers). The sample contains 4011 international male and female athletes from three combat sports (taekwondo, wrestling and boxing), who were born between 1974 and 1990 and participated in both international junior and senior-level competitions between 1990 and 2016. Gender and sport differences were compared. The results revealed that 61.4% of the junior medalists and 90.4% of the early achievers went on to win international medals at a senior age. Among the early achievers, 92.2% of the taekwondo athletes, 68.4% of the wrestling athletes and 37.9% of the boxing athletes could be reliably "predicted" to win international senior medals. The findings demonstrate that specific to the three combat sports examined, international junior success appears to be an important predictor to long-term international senior success.

  3. EDITORIAL: Electroactive polymer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Kim, Kwang J.; Ryeol Choi, Hyouk; Madden, John D. W.

    2007-04-01

    . Turning EAP materials into actuators-of-choice requires a well established infrastructure. This involves improving the understanding of the basic principles that drive the various EAP materials. It is also necessary to develop a comprehensive material science, as well as effective electro-mechanics analytical tools and material processing techniques. Efforts are underway to study the parameters that control EAP electro-activation force and deformation and many successes have been reported. The processes of synthesizing, fabricating, electroding, shaping and handling are being refined to maximize the actuation capability and robustness of EAP materials. Methods of reliably characterizing the response of these materials are being developed and efforts are being made to establish a database with documented material properties in order to support design engineers who are considering the use of these materials. Grand challenge for the development of EAP-actuated robotics. The technology of artificial muscles is still in its emerging stages but the increased resources, growing number of investigators conducting research related to EAP, and improved collaboration among developers, users and sponsors are leading to rapid advances in this field. In 1999, in an effort to promote worldwide development towards the realization of the potential of EAP materials, Yoseph Bar-Cohen posed an arm-wrestling challenge (http://ndeaa.jpl.nasa.gov/nasa-nde/lommas/eap/EAP-armwrestling.htm). A graphic rendering of this challenge is illustrated in the above figure. In posing this challenge, he is seeking to see an EAP-activated robotic arm win against a human in a wrestling match in order to provide a gauge of the level of advances in the development of these materials. Success in wrestling against humans will enable capabilities that are currently considered impossible. It would allow applying EAP materials to improve many aspects of our life where some of the possibilities include effective

  4. Eye Injuries in High School and Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Barry P; Pierpoint, Lauren A; Boden, Rebecca G; Comstock, R Dawn; Kerr, Zachary Y

    Although eye injuries constitute a small percentage of high school and college sports injuries, they have the potential to be permanently debilitating. Eye injury rates will vary by sport, sex, and between the high school and college age groups. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. Data from eye injury reports in high school and college athletes were obtained from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System, High School Reporting Information Online (HS RIO) database over a 10-year span (2005-2006 through 2014-2015 school years) and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance Program (ISP) over an 11-year span (2004-2005 through 2014-2015 school years). Injury rates per 100,000 athlete-exposures (AEs), injury rate ratios (RRs), and 95% CIs were calculated. Distributions of eye injuries by diagnosis, mechanism, time loss, and surgery needs were also examined. A total of 237 and 273 eye injuries were reported in the HS RIO and the NCAA ISP databases, respectively. The sports with the highest eye injury rates (per 100,000 AEs) for combined high school and college athletes were women's basketball (2.36), women's field hockey (2.35), men's basketball (2.31), and men's wrestling (2.07). Overall eye injury rates at the high school and college levels were 0.68 and 1.84 per 100,000 AEs, respectively. Eye injury rates were higher in competition than practice in high school (RR, 3.47; 95% CI, 2.69-4.48) and college (RR, 3.13; 95% CI, 2.45-3.99). Most injuries were contusions (high school, 35.9%; college, 33.3%) and due to contact (high school, 89.9%; college, 86.4%). Only a small percentage of injuries resulted in time loss over 21 days (high school, 4.2%; college, 3.0%). Eye injury rates and patterns vary by sport, sex, and between the high school and college age groups. Although severe injuries do occur, most eye injuries sustained by high school and college athletes are minor, with limited time loss and full recovery

  5. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PEDIATRIC SPORTS INJURIES: INDIVIDUAL SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Caine

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book encourages coaches and sports administrators to discuss rules, equipment standards, techniques, and athlete conditioning programs. In turn, they can inform parents about the risks and how they can help their children avoid or limit injury in sports. A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. All the sports-specific chapters are laid out with the same basic headings, so that it is easy for the reader to find common information across chapters. Chapter headings are: 1 Epidemiology of children's individual sports injuries, 2 Equestrian injuries, 2 Gymnastics injuries, 3 Martial arts injuries, 4 Skiing and snowboard injuries, 5 Tennis injuries, 6 Track and field injuries, 7 Wrestling injuries, 8 Injury prevention and future research. Chapter headings include: i Incidence of injury, ii Injury characteristics, iii Injury severity, iv njury risk factors, v Suggestions for injury prevention, vi Suggestions for further research. In each sports-specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables are numerous, helpful and very useful. The book provides a very useful resource for sport scientist, pediatricians, family practitioners and healthcare professionals in the field of child and adolescent injury and prevention The readers are going to

  6. Rugby headgear and concussion prevention: misconceptions could increase aggressive play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menger, Richard; Menger, Austin; Nanda, Anil

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Multiple studies have illustrated that rugby headgear offers no statistically significant protection against concussions. However, there remains concern that many players believe rugby headgear in fact does prevent concussions. Further investigation was undertaken to illustrate that misconceptions about concussion prevention and rugby headgear may lead to an increase in aggressive play. METHODS Data were constructed by Internet survey solicitation among United States collegiate rugby players across 19 teams. Initial information given was related to club, age, experience, use of headgear, playing time, whether the rugger played football or wrestling in high school, and whether the player believed headgear prevented concussion. Data were then constructed as to whether wearing headgear would increase aggressive playing style secondary to a false sense of protection. RESULTS A total of 122 players responded. All players were male. The average player was 19.5 years old and had 2.7 years of experience. Twenty-three of 122 players (18.9%) wore protective headgear; 55.4% of players listed forward as their primary position. Overall, 45.8% (55/120) of players played 70-80 minutes per game, 44.6% (54/121) played football or wrestled in high school, 38.1% (45/118) believed headgear prevented concussions, and 42.2% (51/121) stated that if they were using headgear they would be more aggressive with their play in terms of running or tackling. Regression analysis illustrated that those who believed headgear prevented concussions were or would be more likely to engage in aggressive play (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Nearly 40% of collegiate rugby players surveyed believed headgear helped to prevent concussions despite no scientific evidence that it does. This misconception about rugby headgear could increase aggressive play. Those who believed headgear prevented concussion were, on average, 4 times more likely to play with increased aggressive form than those who believed

  7. Is Participation in Certain Sports Associated With Knee Osteoarthritis? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driban, Jeffrey B; Hootman, Jennifer M; Sitler, Michael R; Harris, Kyle P; Cattano, Nicole M

    2017-06-02

      Information regarding the relative risks of developing knee osteoarthritis (OA) as a result of sport participation is critical for shaping public health messages and for informing knee-OA prevention strategies. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the association between participation in specific sports and knee OA.   We completed a systematic literature search in September 2012 using 6 bibliographic databases (PubMed; Ovid MEDLINE; Journals@Ovid; American College of Physicians Journal Club; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Review, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects; and Ovid HealthStar), manual searches (4 journals), and reference lists (56 articles).   Studies were included if they met the following 4 criteria: (1) an aim was to investigate an association between sport participation and knee OA; (2) the outcome measure was radiographic knee OA, clinical knee OA, total knee replacement, self-reported diagnosis of knee OA, or placement on a waiting list for a total knee replacement; (3) the study design was case control or cohort; and (4) the study was written in English. Articles were excluded if the study population had an underlying condition other than knee OA.   One investigator extracted data (eg, group descriptions, knee OA prevalence, source of nonexposed controls).   The overall knee-OA prevalence in sport participants (n = 3759) was 7.7%, compared with 7.3% among nonexposed controls (referent group n = 4730, odds ratio [OR] = 1.1). Specific sports with a significantly higher prevalence of knee OA were soccer (OR = 3.5), elite-level long-distance running (OR = 3.3), competitive weight lifting (OR = 6.9), and wrestling (OR = 3.8). Elite-sport (soccer or orienteering) and nonelite-sport (soccer or American football) participants without a history of knee injury had a greater prevalence of knee OA than nonexposed participants.   Participants in soccer (elite and nonelite

  8. From Late-Onset Stress Symptomatology to Later-Adulthood Trauma Reengagement in Aging Combat Veterans: Taking a Broader View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Eve H; Kaiser, Anica Pless; Spiro, Avron; Moye, Jennifer; King, Lynda A; King, Daniel W

    2016-02-01

    About a decade ago we proposed the notion of late-onset stress symptomatology, to characterize the later-life emergence of symptoms related to early-life warzone trauma among aging combat Veterans. We hypothesized that aging-related challenges (role transition and loss, death of family members and friends, physical and cognitive decline) might lead to increased reminiscence, and possibly distress, among Veterans who had previously dealt successfully with earlier traumatic events. Recently, we have reexamined our earlier ideas, to better reflect our developing understanding of this phenomenon, and to incorporate more contemporary perspectives on posttraumatic growth and resilience. As a result, we have broadened our conceptualization to later-adulthood trauma reengagement (LATR). We suggest that in later life many combat Veterans confront and rework their wartime memories in an effort to find meaning and build coherence. Through reminiscence, life review, and wrestling with issues such as integrity versus despair, they intentionally reengage with experiences they avoided or managed successfully earlier in life, perhaps without resolution or integration. This article links LATR to classic gerontologic notions, and elaborates how the LATR process can lead positively to personal growth or negatively to increased symptomatology. We also address the role of preventive intervention in enhancing positive outcomes for Veterans who reengage with their wartime memories in later life. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2015.

  9. A different voice: Mary Hays's the Memoirs of Emma Courtney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A

    2001-01-01

    Mary Hays wrote in the decade of the 1790s, a period of intense creative flowering in England. Writing in a period enshrined to the works of the canonical Wordsworth and Coleridge, Hays explored through her Jacobinical novel, The Memoirs of Emma Courtney, the contentious relationship between self and society. Like other Jacobin women writers - Elizabeth Inchbald, Charlotte Smith and Mary Wollstonecraft - Mary Hays too used her novel to explode the insidious connection between education and gender construction. Emma Courtney is a landmark novel that wrestles with the paradigm of decorum and propriety which disallows women from voicing their aspirations. In the process, Hays merges the plots of the domestic novel of courtship and love with the novel of ideas to create a searing portrait of women's intellectual confinement and psychic dissonance in a society that only projects them in terms of their gender construction. Memoirs of Emma Courtney is a remarkable novel in its depiction of the emotional imbalance created by thwarted desire: intellectual and sexual.

  10. Aerosol-cloud interactions from urban, regional to global scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuan [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States). Seismological Lab.

    2015-10-01

    The studies in this dissertation aim at advancing our scientific understandings about physical processes involved in the aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction and quantitatively assessing the impacts of aerosols on the cloud systems with diverse scales over the globe on the basis of the observational data analysis and various modeling studies. As recognized in the Fifth Assessment Report by the Inter-government Panel on Climate Change, the magnitude of radiative forcing by atmospheric aerosols is highly uncertain, representing the largest uncertainty in projections of future climate by anthropogenic activities. By using a newly implemented cloud microphysical scheme in the cloud-resolving model, the thesis assesses aerosol-cloud interaction for distinct weather systems, ranging from individual cumulus to mesoscale convective systems. This thesis also introduces a novel hierarchical modeling approach that solves a long outstanding mismatch between simulations by regional weather models and global climate models in the climate modeling community. More importantly, the thesis provides key scientific solutions to several challenging questions in climate science, including the global impacts of the Asian pollution. As scientists wrestle with the complexities of climate change in response to varied anthropogenic forcing, perhaps no problem is more challenging than the understanding of the impacts of atmospheric aerosols from air pollution on clouds and the global circulation.

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF COMPETITIVE STATE ANXIETY AMONG TEAM SPORT AND INDIVIDUAL SPORT ATHLETES IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltani Hossein

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: With respect to the fact that every sport field has its own special nature, the aim of present study was to compare competitive state anxiety among team sport and individual sport athletes in Iran. Material: The statistic sample included 120 male athletes, 60 athletes in individual sports (wrestling, taekwondo and karate and 60 athletes in team sports (futsal, volleyball and basketball. The research instrument employed was the Persian version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. This inventory was distributed among the subjects about 30 minutes before the first competition. Finally by one-way ANOVA data was analyzed. Results: The results indicated that the mean score of somatic anxiety and cognitive anxiety among individual sport athletes was significantly higher than that of team sport athletes (p0.05. Conclusion: It seems the being part of a team alleviates some of the pressure experienced by those who compete alone. It seems the individual sport athletes may be more exposed to evaluation and more engaged in their own skills and abilities than team sport athletes given that responsibility for performance is not distributed across several performers.

  12. Hydration status of Greco-Roman wrestlers in an authentic precompetition situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ööpik, Vahur; Timpmann, Saima; Burk, Andres; Hannus, Innar

    2013-06-01

    We assessed the urinary indexes of hydration status of Greco-Roman wrestlers in an authentic precompetition situation at the time of official weigh-in (OWI). A total of 51 of 89 wrestlers competing in the Estonian Championship in 2009 donated a urine sample. Questionnaire responses revealed that 27 wrestlers (body mass losers (BMLs)) reduced body mass before the competition, whereas 24 wrestlers (those who do not lose body mass (n-BMLs)) did not. In 42 wrestlers, values of urine specific gravity ≥1.020 and urine osmolality ≥700 mOsmol·kg(-1) revealed a hypohydrated status. The prevalence of hypohydration in the BMLs (96%) was higher than in the n-BMLs (67%) (χ(2) = 7.68; p 1.030) was 5.3 times greater (χ(2) = 8.32; p OWI. The prevalence of hypohydration and serious hypohydration is especially high among wrestlers who are accustomed to reducing body mass before competition. These results suggest that an effective rehydration strategy is needed for Olympic-style wrestlers, and that changes in wrestling rules should be considered to reduce the prevalence of harmful body mass management behaviours.

  13. Effects of fetal exposure to gamma rays on aggressive behavior in adult male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamisawa, Takeru; Hirokaga, Kouichi; Sasaki, Shunsaku; Noda, Yutaka.

    1992-01-01

    Aggressive behavior (AB) in first generation (F 1 ) hybrid male C57BL/6 x C3H mice irradiated on the 14th day of gestation was studied at 100-135 days of age. Gravid female mice were irradiated with 1.0 or 2.0 Gy of gamma rays to the whole body. The AB of pairs of mice were recorded with a capacitance-induction motility monitor and on videotape. Recordings were continued for 90 min, starting at 2:00 PM. Vigorous wrestling, boxing and biting were regarded as AB. Data recorded at 15-min intervals were stored on micro-computer discs. The body weight for the irradiated group was significantly lower than that for the control group. The number of instances of AB was significantly higher in the irradiated group. The AB of the 2.0 Gy group was significantly more intensive than that of the control group. No difference in the duration of AB was found for the 2 irradiated and the control groups. Results demonstrate that male mice irradiated prenatally show increased aggressiveness. (author)

  14. [15 years insurance statistics of incidents and accident types of combat sports injuries of the Rhineland-Pfalz Federal Sports Club].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschka, C; Parzeller, M; Banzer, W

    1999-03-01

    The primary intention of this study is the grouping of sports accidents, being described by the athletes in their own words in a classification system of specific accident classes with regard to specific motions and topography. The investigation is based on the data of the sports insurance Gerling-Konzern during a 15-year period in Rhineland Palatinate (1981-1995). The study is based on the insurance documents and clinical protocols if available. 137 accident protocols were related to this 15-year period including weight lifting (n = 1) and martial arts (n = 136). Listed in hierarchical order we received the following results: judo (n = 47), karate (n = 44), wrestling (n = 22), taekwondo (n = 9), boxing (n = 7), ju-jutsu (n = 5), fencing (n = 1) and aikido (n = 1). In accordance to accident types there were no sex related differences. As special preventive measures we suggest the use of protective mouthguards and solid glasses, proprioceptive training and physiological taping for knee, ankle and elbow joints.

  15. Coupling systems and designs in use in the Gold and Platinum sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Walt, PG

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available to accidents - but is a symptom of the problem rather then the root cause. The operator has to, in the very confined area between the cars or hoppers, exert significant mechanical effort from an unbalanced position to wrestle the link into a position... 3.3.1 Specialisation…………………………………………………….. 18 3.3.2 Training……………………………………………………………. 18 3.4 Impact loads……………………………………………………. 18 3.5 Clearance between cars……………………………………… 19 3.6 Risk assessment ……………………………………………… 19 3.6.1 Operational...

  16. Teenage use of public sport space in post-communist society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ionescu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the use of public sport space by teenagers as a function of social class in a postcommunistsociety. Through an analysis of data collected through a questionnaire given to wrestlers and skateboarders in thecity of Timisoara, Romania, we examine the significance of using public, covered gymnasiums for wrestling and public,uncovered skate parks for skateboarders. If the communist sport system was organized to promote performance in the classicand organized sports, the post-communist system permits the development of street sports and ideals of non-conformism. Thiscomparative analysis between wrestlers and skaters reveals significant links between the social origin of the young sportsmenand their sports as an organized or no organized form. Our findings indicate that many wrestlers originate from a lower socialclass and use the sport as a way of winning respect in their peer group, while skaters are mainly from the middle class — anemerging social class in Romania — and skate as a way to express their non-conformism.

  17. Health federalism: the role of health care professionals in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulal, R K

    2009-01-01

    Nepal has entered from its unitary system into a new "Federal Democratic Republic State". The current constitution presents basic health care services as a fundamental right. The Ministry for Health and Population has been providing resources to meet health demands, but managers are wrestling to meet these demands. Persistent disparities between rural and urban and across regions resulted inferior health outcomes, e.g., life expectancy in an urban district like Bhaktapur is 71 years, whereas in the rural district of Mugu it is 44 years. The poor health and poor access to health care in the past systems prompted people to seek a different model. Ultimately, all political parties except one have agreed on federalism. The exact number of federal states that are going to be created is unknown. In federalism, all federated states have to assume certain relationships between the locality, the region, and the nation that apply not only in politics but in health care too. Managing changes in health care organization during the transitional period and after restructuring the unitary Nepal into federal states should be carefully planned. In case, if new system also fails to deliver necessary health care services, the possibility of igniting of dissatisfaction, public unrest and even disintegration cannot be ignored. In order to outline a structure and give life to a health care system under federalism, health care professionals need to engage themselves seriously.

  18. The Many Colors and Shapes of Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, James T.

    While many enterprises and business entities are deploying and exploiting Cloud Computing, the academic institutes and researchers are also busy trying to wrestle this beast and put a leash on this possible paradigm changing computing model. Many have argued that Cloud Computing is nothing more than a name change of Utility Computing. Others have argued that Cloud Computing is a revolutionary change of the computing architecture. So it has been difficult to put a boundary of what is in Cloud Computing, and what is not. I assert that it is equally difficult to find a group of people who would agree on even the definition of Cloud Computing. In actuality, may be all that arguments are not necessary, as Clouds have many shapes and colors. In this presentation, the speaker will attempt to illustrate that the shape and the color of the cloud depend very much on the business goals one intends to achieve. It will be a very rich territory for both the businesses to take the advantage of the benefits of Cloud Computing and the academia to integrate the technology research and business research.

  19. Future developments of diversification of electric utilities. Denki jigyo no keiei takakuka no hokosei; Takakuka senshin kigyo ni taisuru jirei bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariu, Toshio; Iguchi, Norio; (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo, Japan)

    1989-10-01

    Electric utilities positively wrestle now with business diversification such as telecomunication, thermal supplying, urban planning to intensify the administrative foundation under relaxation for regulations. These businesses are yet small scale ones but are supposed to enlarge to the scale equivalent to the main business for a long period. Since the electric industry is a public utility enterprise and has fewer experiences to develop concrete diversifying strategy, this research was proceeded to determine the directions of diversification by analyzing management data or making hearing for well-diversified corporations such as fiber industry, private railway industry, and leasing industry. It was found from this study that diversification would have the possibility of plus for multiple managerial indeces such as profitability, growability and stability and that the diversification would be developed by using effectively the managerial resources. Then, the conditions on which electric utilities must consider when they enter into new businesses were arranged on the basis of this survey. 46 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. History of Physics Education Research as a Model for Geoscience Education Research Community Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T. F.

    2011-12-01

    Discipline-based Education Research (DBER) is a research field richly combining a deep understanding of how to teach a particular discipline with an evolving understanding how people learn that discipline. At its center, DBER has an overarching goal of improving the teaching and learning of a discipline by focusing on understanding the underlying mental mechanisms learners use as they develop expertise. Geoscience Education Research, or GER, is a young but rapidly advancing field which is poised to make important contributions to the teaching and learning of earth and space science. Nascent geoscience education researchers could accelerate their community's progress by learning some of the lessons from the more mature field of Physics Education Research, PER. For the past three decades, the PER community has been on the cutting edge of DBER. PER started purely as an effort among traditionally trained physicists to overcome students' tenaciously held misconceptions about force, motion, and electricity. Over the years, PER has wrestled with the extent to which they included the faculty from the College of Education, the value placed on interpretive and qualitative research methods, the most appropriate involvement of professional societies, the nature of its PhD programs in the College of Science, and how to best disseminate the results of PER to the wider physics teaching community. Decades later, as a more fully mature field, PER still struggles with some of these aspects, but has learned important lessons in how its community progresses and evolves to be successful, valuable, and pertinent.

  1. Injuries associated with combat sports, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The practice of combat sports creates a potential for training- and sports-related injuries among military members. During the 4-year surveillance period, there were 12,108 cases of injuries associated with combat sports among active component service members; the overall incidence rate was 21.0 per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs). The rates were higher among service members who were male, Hispanic, in the youngest age groups, in the Army, junior enlisted, and in combat-specific occupations. The rate among recruit/ trainees (779.4 per 10,000 p-yrs) was more than 165 times the rate among all other active component service members (non-recruits) (4.7 per 10,000 p-yrs). Sprains, strains, and contusions accounted for more than one-half of the primary (first-listed) diagnoses associated with combat sports cases. More serious conditions such as concussions/head injuries and skull/face fractures/intracranial injuries were reported among 3.9% and 2.1% of all cases and were more common among boxing-related cases. Hand/wrist fractures were also common among boxing cases. Wrestling had comparatively greater proportions of dislocations and open wounds. Although the combat sport training provides many physical and mental benefits to the individual, safety practices should be enforced to reduce the most frequent and serious injuries.

  2. "It Can Promote an Existential Crisis": Factors Influencing Pap Test Acceptability and Utilization Among Transmasculine Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzmeier, Sarah M; Agénor, Madina; Bernstein, Ida M; McDowell, Michal; Alizaga, Natalie M; Reisner, Sari L; Pardee, Dana J; Potter, Jennifer

    2017-12-01

    Transmasculine (i.e., female-to-male transgender) individuals have lower rates of cervical cancer screening than nontransgender women and often report negative experiences with the Pap test. Deciding to undergo screening and the test experience itself are characterized by the following processes: negotiating identity as the patient, provider, and insurance company wrestle with the degree of (in)congruence between a patient's masculine gender identity and their conception of the Pap test as feminine; bargaining for health as a Pap test may be required to obtain medical transition services or avoid undesired health outcomes; withstanding acute challenges during the Pap test to body, identity, and privacy; or reframing challenges as affirmation. The degree of distress triggered by the Pap test varied from "routine" to traumatic. Participants affirmed that a trusted, trans-competent health care provider could significantly reduce barriers to regular and satisfactory cervical cancer screening. Data are from 32 in-depth interviews conducted in Boston, Massachusetts, with transmasculine individuals; a modified grounded theory approach informed the analysis.

  3. Post-Dictatorship Documentary in Chile: Conversations with Three Second-Generation Film Directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Traverso

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available No other medium has rejected the restorative narrative of Chile’s democratic state’s memory discourse as vigorously as documentary cinema. After the several democratic governments that succeeded the civic-military dictatorial alliance that ruled this nation uninterruptedly between 1973 and 1990, documentary films have resisted monumental versions of historical memory by confronting the ambivalent nuances of the traumatic legacy of the dictatorship. Chilean documentarians have investigated, uncovered, and depicted the dictatorial state’s crimes, while offering testimonial space to survivors, and have also interrogated the perspectives of the dictatorship’s supporters, collaborators, and perpetrators while wrestling with an open dialectic of confrontational and reconciliatory gestures. More recently, this interest has intensified and combined with what is often described as a “boom” in second-generation personal-narration memory films. The present article includes the author’s conversations with the directors of three recent Chilean second-generation documentaries that explore the perspectives of former secret service collaborators: Adrian Goycoolea’s ¡Viva Chile Mierda! [Long Live Chile, Damn It!] (2014, Andrés Lübbert’s El color del camaleón [The Color of the Chameleon] (2017, and Lissette Orozco’s El pacto de Adriana [Adriana’s Pact] (2017.

  4. Axillary artery injury secondary to inferior shoulder dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaga, Brad R; Looby, Peter; Feldhaus, Steven J; Kreutzmann, Karl; Babb, Aaron

    2010-11-01

    Dislocation injuries of the glenohumeral joint are common in the general public and generally are corrected without complication. One serious complication with shoulder dislocations, or the subsequent reduction, is a lesion to the axillary artery. This specific complication is most frequently seen in the elderly population, where vascular structures have become less flexible. Also, these injuries are most common in association with anterior dislocations of the shoulder. To bring awareness to the possibility of axillary artery injury with inferior dislocation of the shoulder, the treatment options, and a review. We report a 15-year-old male athlete who inferiorly dislocated his shoulder during wrestling practice. The injury was reduced at the scene with manual traction and the patient was transferred to our clinic for evaluation. The patient was determined to have a pseudoaneurysm of the axillary artery, and the history and treatment of the illness are presented. Axillary artery injuries secondary to shoulder dislocations are rare, especially in the young athlete, and proper recognition and treatment offer patients a full recovery. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Asian/Pacific Islander women in medical education: personal and professional challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, D

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify the complex issues facing Asian/Pacific Islander (API) women students at one Midwestern medical school as they subjectively experience their medical training. Of particular interest was how students navigated family influences, career planning, and ethnic and gender stereotypes. Sixty-five percent of the students reported that their parents exerted various degrees of encouragement or pressure to enter medicine. The remaining students said that the decision was entirely theirs (20%) or that the decision had been made for them (15%). Many reported the larger Asian "community" as a source of influence. A slight majority of students thought they were perceived by faculty as being "quiet," often too quiet. With only 1 exception, all of the students believed that their cultural identity influenced their specialty choice. Stressors reported by students centered on competition, achievement, and formation of intimate relationships (i.e., dating). Medical educators who provide personal and professional support for API women students should be keenly aware of the career, gender, and family issues that emerge at the intersection of API and Euro-American cultures. Faculty development should include an educational component on issues of concern to API students, men and women. Faculty also need to wrestle with the cultural values of "modesty, respect for authority, public self-consciousness, and other directness" as they intersect with assertion as a primary value found in Euro-American culture in general and in medical education in particular.

  6. God of the hinge: treating LGBTQIA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Annie

    2017-11-01

    This paper looks at systems of gender within the context of analysis. It explores the unique challenges of individuation faced by transsexual, transgender, gender queer, gender non-conforming, cross-dressing and intersex patients. To receive patients generously we need to learn how a binary culture produces profound and chronic trauma. These patients wrestle with being who they are whilst simultaneously receiving negative projections and feeling invisible. While often presenting with the struggles of gender conforming individuals, understanding the specifically gendered aspect of their identity is imperative. An analyst's unconscious bias may lead to iatrogenic shaming. The author argues that rigorous, humble inquiry into the analyst's transphobia can be transformative for patient, analyst, and the work itself. Analysis may, then, provide gender-variant patients with their first remembered and numinous experience of authentic connection to self. Conjuring the image of a hinge, securely placed in the neutral region of a third space, creates a transpositive analytic temenos. Invoking the spirit of the Trickster in the construction of this matrix supports the full inclusion of gender-variant patients. Nuanced attunement scaffolds mirroring and the possibility of play. Being mindful that gender is sturdy and delicate as well as mercurial and defined enriches the analyst's listening. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  7. National nursing strategies in seven countries of the Region of the Americas: issues and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shasanmi, Rebecca O; Kim, Esther M; Cassiani, Silvia Helena De Bortoli

    2015-07-01

    To identify and examine the current national nursing strategies and policy impact of workforce development regarding human resources for health in seven selected countries in the Region of the Americas: Argentina, Canada, Costa Rica, Jamaica, Mexico, Peru, and the United States. A review of available literature was conducted to identify publicly-available documents that describe the general backdrop of nursing human resources in these seven countries. A keyword search of PubMed was supplemented by searches of websites maintained by Ministries of Health and nursing organizations. Inclusion criteria limited documents to those published in 2008-2013 that discussed or assessed situational issues and/or progress surrounding the nursing workforce. Nursing human resources for health is progressing. Canada, Mexico, and the United States have stronger nursing leadership in place and multisectoral policies in workforce development. Jamaica shows efforts among the Caribbean countries to promote collaborative practices in research. The three selected countries in Central and South America championed networks to revive nursing education. Yet, overall challenges limit the opportunities to impact public health. The national nursing strategies prioritized multisectoral collaboration, professional competencies, and standardized educational systems, with some countries underscoring the need to align policies with efforts to promote nursing leadership, and others, focusing on expanding the scope of practice to improve health care delivery. While each country wrestles with its specific context, all require proper leadership, multisectoral collaboration, and appropriate resources to educate, train, and empower nurses to be at the forefront.

  8. National nursing strategies in seven countries of the Region of the Americas: issues and impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca O. Shasanmi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify and examine the current national nursing strategies and policy impact of workforce development regarding human resources for health in seven selected countries in the Region of the Americas: Argentina, Canada, Costa Rica, Jamaica, Mexico, Peru, and the United States. METHODS: A review of available literature was conducted to identify publicly-available documents that describe the general backdrop of nursing human resources in these seven countries. A keyword search of PubMed was supplemented by searches of websites maintained by Ministries of Health and nursing organizations. Inclusion criteria limited documents to those published in 2008-2013 that discussed or assessed situational issues and/or progress surrounding the nursing workforce. RESULTS: Nursing human resources for health is progressing. Canada, Mexico, and the United States have stronger nursing leadership in place and multisectoral policies in workforce development. Jamaica shows efforts among the Caribbean countries to promote collaborative practices in research. The three selected countries in Central and South America championed networks to revive nursing education. Yet, overall challenges limit the opportunities to impact public health. CONCLUSIONS: The national nursing strategies prioritized multisectoral collaboration, professional competencies, and standardized educational systems, with some countries underscoring the need to align policies with efforts to promote nursing leadership, and others, focusing on expanding the scope of practice to improve health care delivery. While each country wrestles with its specific context, all require proper leadership, multisectoral collaboration, and appropriate resources to educate, train, and empower nurses to be at the forefront.

  9. [Sports injuries and illnesses during the 2008 Olympic Games and 2013 China National Games in Shenyang Division].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengzhe; Chen, Zhian; Pan, Shinong; Liao, Wei; Zhan, Yuhua; Zheng, Liqiang; Wang, Yitong; Lu, Chunxue; Fu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaogang; Liang, Hongjun; Guo, Qiyong

    2015-05-05

    To retrospectively analyse the medical imaging examination results of the injuries and illnesses during the 2008 Olympic Games and 2013 China National Games in Shenyang Divison. Collected and analyzed the health information and medical imaging examination results from Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University during the two games. There was 9 cases of sports injuries in the 2008 Olympic Games, mainly for knee, ankle ligament injury and muscle sprain, 36 cases of sports injuries in the 2013 China National Games, mainly for head traumas (9 cases), knee injuries (7 cases), ankle injuries (7 cases), shoulder injures (4 cases). Competitions of high risk of being injured were wrestling (10 cases), track and field (8 cases), American football (6 cases). The most common cause of illness were respiratory system (60 cases) and the digestive system (27 cases) in the total 233 cases illnesses in the China National Games. Different sports have different characteristic, regularity and mechanism of injury. Medical imaging examination has important value in the diagnosis of injury during large games. The respiratory system and digestive system are the most common illnesses and affect the athletes training and competition as important as injuries. So illness is the focus on the medical care assurance of the large games.

  10. “To Sing with the Spirit:” Psalms, Hymns and the Spirituality of Late Eighteen Century American Presbyterians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Harrison Taylor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contends that the contemporary discussion among theologians regarding the relationship between theology and spirituality can offer new insight into the eighteenth century religious world. This theological discussion has wrestled with, among other things, the questions of whether theology and spirituality are mutually exclusive and what exactly their relationship looks like. Resoundingly, theologians such as Alister McGrath, J. I. Packer, and Sandra Schneiders have concluded that any separation of the two represents a false dichotomy within Christianity. Accordingly, Christians are called to “the quest for a fulfilled and authentic Christian existence, involving the bringing together of the fundamental ideas of Christianity and the whole experience of living on the basis of, and within, the scope of the Christian faith.” Sound theology, then, necessitates living by the Spirit and vice versa. The benefit of this theological position for religious history lies in its reevaluation of the common categorization of Christians as either theologically or spiritually focused. By heeding the call of contemporary theologians and blurring these lines of distinction, historians can afford eighteen century American Christians the chance to better define themselves. Considered in this light, the actions of the Presbyterians, for instance, are freed from the manipulative “social control” framework as one of the “establishmentarian” churches. Instead, the Presbyterians reveal characteristics generally reserved for the democratically charged “sectarians,” such as a robust spiritual life compelled by music.

  11. A review of time-motion analysis and combat development in mixed martial arts matches at regional level tournaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo; Hirata, Sérgio Masashi; Franchini, Emerson

    2011-04-01

    Mixed martial arts (MMA) have become a fast-growing worldwide expansion of martial arts competition, requiring high level of skill, physical conditioning, and strategy, and involving a synthesis of combat while standing or on the ground. This study quantified the effort-pause ratio (EP), and classified effort segments of stand-up or groundwork development to identify the number of actions performed per round in MMA matches. 52 MMA athletes participated in the study (M age = 24 yr., SD = 5; average experience in MMA = 5 yr., SD = 3). A one-way analysis of variance with repeated measurements was conducted to compare the type of action across the rounds. A chi-squared test was applied across the percentages to compare proportions of different events. Only one significant difference (p < .05) was observed among rounds: time in groundwork of low intensity was longer in the second compared to the third round. When the interval between rounds was not considered, the EP ratio (between high-intensity effort to low-intensity effort plus pauses) was 1:2 to 1:4. This ratio is between ratios typical for judo, wrestling, karate, and taekwondo and reflects the combination of ground and standup techniques. Most of the matches ended in the third round, involving high-intensity actions, predominantly executed during groundwork combat.

  12. Direct‐to‐consumer advertising of pharmaceuticals: developed countries experiences and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semin, Semih; Aras, Şahbal; Guldal, Dilek

    2006-01-01

    Abstract While several major problems concerning drugs occur in the world, the attempts to direct‐to‐consumer advertising (DTCA) has gained a considerable impetus lately in both developed and developing countries. DTCA has increasingly become an appealing advertising alternative for the pharmaceutical industry as drug companies have come to wrestle with such problems as the expansion of the drug market; the decline of the medical representatives’ work efficiency; drug reimbursement restrictions; and the escalating role of the Internet in the consumer market. Some of the main disadvantages of the DTCA are: increasing drug expenditures, unnecessary drug consumption and adverse effect risks. Even though the influence of pharmaceuticals on health services and the economy hold the same importance in the developed and developing countries, its negative consequences have increased by encompassing developing countries in its grip. Therefore, in this review, using Turkey as an example, the situation of direct‐to‐consumer advertisements in developing countries is analysed in relation with developed countries. PMID:17324191

  13. Trivial trauma and delayed rupture of a normal spleen: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowers Nicholas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Although a majority of splenic ruptures present acutely with a known mechanism of injury, a minority of patients present days to weeks following trauma with a delayed rupture. Also uncommon is the atraumatic rupture, the vast majority of which occur in patients with underlying splenic pathology. A handful of cases of apparently spontaneous rupture of a normal spleen are reported; however, there is debate about whether these actually represent delayed ruptures following a history of trauma that is not elicited. Although a few cases of delayed rupture of the spleen following trivial trauma have been reported, the majority of these present evidence of an underlying disease process. We found only two such cases that documented a normal spleen and three cases where underlying splenic pathology was not reported. We review the literature and discuss the phenomenon of delayed rupture of the normal spleen following trivial trauma. Case presentation A 27-year-old Caucasian man with no underlying splenic pathology presented with splenic rupture one week after playfully wrestling with his partner. The patient did not present at the time of the injury and only recalled it upon repeated questioning after computed tomography diagnosis. Conclusions This case lends support to the theory that the normal spleen can rupture some time after trivial trauma, which seems like a more plausible explanation than rupture without cause. However, given the dearth of similar reports in the literature, the possibility remains that the association we have observed is not causational.

  14. Fifty Shades of African Lightness: A Bio-psychosocial Review of the Global Phenomenon of Skin Lightening Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Meagan; Levine, Susan; Abney, Kate; Davids, Lester

    2016-12-31

    Skin-lightening is an aesthetic practice of global concern. By adopting a biopsycho-social approach, we consider the interplay between the biological, psychological and social factors that underpin the circulation and consumption of skin lighteners in South Africa. This paper reflects on biological aspects of skin lightening, interpersonal relationships, individual beliefs and expectations about the maintenance of health and well being that informs cosmetic practices. The paper seeks to examine claims made by historians (Thomas) and political philosophers and activists (Biko) that colonialism and apartheid in South Africa historically reinforced the use of skin lightening products in the country. The paper also investigates the role of media in staking out the boundaries of beauty. We argue that men and women practice skin-lightening not only as a complex result of the internalization of global standards of beauty, but meshed with a national politics of race and colorism. Banning skin lightening products without understanding the biological effects but also the social forces that underlie their increased popularity will prove futile. Moreover, we must consider the immeasurable pleasures associated with lightening, and the feelings with achieving visibility in South Africa, a country that continues to wrestle with blackness.

  15. Fifty shades of African lightness: a bio-psychosocial review of the global phenomenon of skin lightening practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meagan Jacobs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin-lightening is an aesthetic practice of global concern. By adopting a biopsycho-social approach, we consider the interplay between the biological, psychological and social factors that underpin the circulation and consumption of skin lighteners in South Africa. This paper reflects on biological aspects of skin lightening, interpersonal relationships, individual beliefs and expectations about the maintenance of health and well being that informs cosmetic practices. The paper seeks to examine claims made by historians (Thomas and political philosophers and activists (Biko that colonialism and apartheid in South Africa historically reinforced the use of skin lightening products in the country. The paper also investigates the role of media in staking out the boundaries of beauty. We argue that men and women practice skinlightening not only as a complex result of the internalization of global standards of beauty, but meshed with a national politics of race and colorism. Banning skin lightening products without understanding the biological effects but also the social forces that underlie their increased popularity will prove futile. Moreover, we must consider the immeasurable pleasures associated with lightening, and the feelings with achieving visibility in South Africa, a country that continues to wrestle with blackness.

  16. The food and weight combat. A problematic fight for the elite combat sports athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Stefan; Pipping Ekström, Marianne; Berg, Christina M

    2012-10-01

    Weight reduction in athletes is motivated by optimisation of performance, aesthetic reasons or to achieve a pre-designated weight. Previous research has shown that dietary restraint and short term weight regulation frequently takes place among combat sports athletes such as wrestlers and judokas. The aim of this study was to explore negative experiences related to dietary strategies and weight-making practises used by elite combat sports athletes. Using semi-structured interviews, 14 Swedish national team athletes in wrestling, judo and taekwondo were asked about their dietary intake and their engagement in both long- and short-term weight regulation practises. Content analysis of the transcribed interviews, display a constant struggle regarding nutritional standpoints. Sport demands such as achieving an optimal weight and nutritional intake were considered as central in order for excellent performance. Adhering to these demands was found to be problematic however, primarily because of; (1) negative physiological responses and (2) opposing ideals of a non-sport related nature, such as the importance of the athletes to be healthy and social in their everyday lives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison between Standing Broad Jump test and Wingate test for assessing lower limb anaerobic power in elite sportsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Anup; Sharma, Deep; Bhatt, Madhu; Dixit, Apoorv; Pradeep, P

    2017-04-01

    Lower limb explosive power is an important motor quality for sporting performance and indicates use of anaerobic energy systems like stored ATP and Creatine phosphate system. Weightlifting, Fencing and Wrestling use it for monitoring and identification of potential sportsmen. The Wingate test and Standing Broad Jump (SBJ) test are reliable and accurate tests for its assessment. This study conducted on elite Indian sportsmen tries to analyse feasibility of use of the SBJ test in sports and military medicine when Wingate test is impractical. 95 elite sportsmen (51 Fencers, 17 Weight lifters and 27 Wrestlers) of a sports institute were administered Wingate cycle ergometer test and SBJ under standardised conditions. The results were analysed for mass and inter-discipline correlation. Analysis using Pearson's correlation showed significant positive correlation between Peak power ( r  = 0.446, p  Weightlifters. Bland-Altman plot analysis showed that about 94% pairs of peak power and SBJ were within limits of agreement for each discipline as well as among all sportsmen. The test results show definite correlation and SBJ test can be used as a field test in performance monitoring, talent identification, military recruit screening and injury prevention.

  18. Axillary nerve injury associated with sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangkook; Saetia, Kriangsak; Saha, Suparna; Kline, David G; Kim, Daniel H

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to present and investigate axillary nerve injuries associated with sports. This study retrospectively reviewed 26 axillary nerve injuries associated with sports between the years 1985 and 2010. Preoperative status of the axillary nerve was evaluated by using the Louisiana State University Health Science Center (LSUHSC) grading system published by the senior authors. Intraoperative nerve action potential recordings were performed to check nerve conduction and assess the possibility of resection. Neurolysis, suture, and nerve grafts were used for the surgical repair of the injured nerves. In 9 patients with partial loss of function and 3 with complete loss, neurolysis based on nerve action potential recordings was the primary treatment. Two patients with complete loss of function were treated with resection and suturing and 12 with resection and nerve grafting. The minimum follow-up period was 16 months (mean 20 months). The injuries were associated with the following sports: skiing (12 cases), football (5), rugby (2), baseball (2), ice hockey (2), soccer (1), weightlifting (1), and wrestling (1). Functional recovery was excellent. Neurolysis was performed in 9 cases, resulting in an average functional recovery of LSUHSC Grade 4.2. Recovery with graft repairs averaged LSUHSC Grade 3 or better in 11 of 12 cases Surgical repair can restore useful deltoid function in patients with sports-associated axillary nerve injuries, even in cases of severe stretch-contusion injury.

  19. [Alteration of textilfibres by explosion gases expelled distant from the muzzle (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, W; Kijewski, H

    1976-03-24

    This paper presents the reconstruction of an unusual case of suicide. After raiding a branch-bank a robber fled shooting with his Sauer-Western revolver caliber .44 magnum at the pursuing policemen and succeeded in wrestling a pistol Walther caliber 7,65 mm from them. Under the fire of sub-machine guns he destroyed himself by a shot to the neck. Our investigations concerned a textile damage at the front of the sweater of the deceased surrounded by primer residue, showing characteristics of a close-up shot. The damage was identified as effect of explosion gases exhausting far-off the muzzle. The distance between this injury and the bullet hole corresponded with the length of the barrel of the Sauer-Western revolver and could be used for identification; it confirmed the diagnosis of a close-up shot at the neck, too. Collateral experiments with shots from distant ranges developed spadiceous melt figures of textile fibers around the bullet hole, the appearance of which is considered proof for a close-up shot commonly.

  20. Chromium picolinate effects on body composition and muscular performance in wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, L S; Bemben, M G; Bemben, D A; Knehans, A W

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of 14 wk of chromium picolinate supplementation during the final 16 wk of a preseason resistance and conditioning program on body composition and neuromuscular performance in NCAA Division I wrestlers. During this phase of training, wrestlers are primarily interested in trying to improve physical performance and wrestling technique and are not engaged in severe, acute weight loss practices commonly employed before competition. This double-blinded, randomized placebo-controlled study involved 20 wrestlers from the University of Oklahoma assigned to either a treatment group (Cr+3; N = 7; 20.4 yr +/- 0.1) receiving 200 micrograms chromium picolinate daily, a placebo group (P; N = 7; 19.9 yr +/- 0.2), or a control group (C; N = 6; 20.2 yr +/- 0.1) using a stratified random sampling technique based on weight classification. Body composition, neuromuscular performance, metabolic performance, and serum insulin and glucose were measured before and immediately following the supplementation and training period. Repeated measures ANOVA indicated no significant changes in body composition for any of the groups. Aerobic power increased significantly (P pre- to post-test changes in bench press power were significant. These results suggest that chromium picolinate supplementation coupled with a typical preseason training program does not enhance body composition or performance variables beyond improvements seen with training alone.

  1. Effects of repetitive subconcussive head trauma on the neuropsychological test performance of high school athletes: A comparison of high, moderate, and low contact sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, William T; Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Siu, Andrea M; Yoshinaga, Kara; Choi, So Yung; Murata, Nathan M

    2018-02-02

    The aim of this study was to examine the neuropsychological test results of non-concussed high school athletes playing at three different levels of contact sports. Based on the concussion risk data of 12 different sports, a High Contact group (n=2819; wrestling/martial arts, cheerleading, track and field, football), a Moderate Contact group (n=2323; softball, basketball, soccer), and a Low Contact group (n=1580; baseball, volleyball, water polo, tennis, cross-country) were formed and compared in terms of their scores on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). The results revealed that the High Contact group obtained small but statistically poorer performances in ImPACT Visual Memory, Visual Motor Speed, Impulse Control, and Total Symptom scores compared to the Moderate and Low Contact groups. The High Contact group also had poorer Reaction Time scores compared to the Low Contact group. No differences between the Moderate and Low Contact groups were noted. The findings, along with prior similar results, tentatively raise concerns that participant in high contact sports, exposed to repetitive subconcussive head trauma, may be at greater risk for lowered neuropsychological functioning and increased symptoms, compared to other high school athletes. In view of the preliminary nature of this investigation, more research into the effects of frequent head impacts in high school sports is strongly recommended.

  2. Jesus, Josephus, and the fall of Jerusalem: On doing history with Scripture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William den Hollander

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The destruction of the temple in Jerusalem by the Romans in AD 70 was an unquestionably traumatic event in the history of the Jewish people. By all accounts it was a social, political, and theological disaster. As such, contemporary Jewish figures wrestled with the meaning of the event. This article analyses the efforts by two figures in this internal Jewish dialogue to provide this meaning, namely, the historian Josephus and Jesus of Nazareth. We will see that in both cases the meaning of the destruction was rooted in the firm conviction of the God of Israel’s existence and his self-revelation in Scripture. The temple was destroyed not apart from God or in spite of God, but in full accordance with his will. This will, moreover, was judged to be accessible through Scripture, both in terms of its prophetic value and its establishment of a metanarrative – redemptive history – that provided a framework for historical events. In addition, the reason for the destruction was judged by both to be the sins of (certain people. The major difference between them lay rather in the question of which sins exactly were judged to be responsible.

  3. Health status of young athletes — pupils of the school of physical culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Nyankovskyy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Health status of young athletes — pupils of the schools of physical culture — remains unexplored. The purpose of the study was a comparative assessment of health status of young athletes, depending on their age, gender and sport. Materials and methods. Health status of 499 pupils of the school of physical culture (330 boys and 169 girls aged 12–19 years old, representatives of 14 sports was studied according to medical examination results and records in dispensary observation cards. Results. 72 % of pupils had electrocardiographic (ECG deviations from norm, 65 % — somatic and infectious diseases, 48 % — musculoskeletal system diseases, 35 % — traumatic injuries, 14 % — health status complaints, the incidence of which usually depended on children’s age and gender. Specificity of sport direction significantly affected the incidence of ECG abnormalities, less significantly influenced the rate of musculoskeletal system pathology and traumatic injuries, almost did not affect the incidence of other somatic and infectious diseases. Conclusions. The higher incidence of ECG abnormalities, diseases and traumatic injuries was observed in representatives of cyclic, technical sports, wrestling and pentathlon.

  4. Catastrophic cervical spinal injury in an amateur college wrestler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana Kurup, Jayakrishnan Kelamangalathu; Jampani, Ravitheja; Mohanty, Simanchal P

    2017-07-18

    A young amateur wrestler presented with a burst fracture of the seventh cervical vertebra with complete paraplegia. He was treated with surgery for spine stabilisation and was actively rehabilitated. Adolescents and teenagers are indulging in high-contact sports like wrestling, without proper training and technical know-how, which can lead to severe injuries and possibly, permanent handicap or death. Trainers, assistants and institutions should be well equipped to diagnose and provide initial care of people with a spinal injury to prevent a partial injury from progressing to complete injury. Athletes, coaches and the public should be aware of methods of first aid and how to transport a patient with a cervical spine injury. Authorities should take steps to improve infrastructures in training institutions and ambulance services. Specialised spinal centres should be established throughout the country for management and rehabilitation of patients with paraplegia. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. The effect of sport on computerized electrocardiogram measurements in college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gademan, Maaike G J; Uberoi, Abhimanyu; Le, Vy-Van; Mandic, Sandra; van Oort, Eddy R; Myers, Jonathan; Froelicher, Victor F

    2012-02-01

    Broad criteria for abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) findings, requiring additional testing, have been recommended for preparticipation exams (PPE) of athletes. As these criteria have not considered the sport in which athletes participate, we examined the effect of sports on the computerized ECG measurements obtained in college athletes. During the Stanford 2007 PPE, computerized 12-lead ECGs (Schiller AG) were obtained in 641 athletes (350 male/291 female, age 19.5 ± 2 years). Athletes were engaged in 22 different sports and were grouped into 16 categories: baseball/softball, basketball, crew, crosscountry, fencing, field events, football linemen, football other positions, golf, gymnastics, racquet sports, sailing, track/field, volleyball, water sports, and wrestling. The analysis focused on ECG leads V2, aVF and V5 which provide a three-dimensional representation of the heart's electrical activity. As marked ECG differences exist between males and females, the data are presented by gender. In males, ANOVA analysis yielded significant ECG differences between sports for heart rate, QRS duration, QTc, J-amplitude in V2 and V5, spatial vector length (SVL) of the P wave, SVL R wave, and SVL T wave, and RS(sum) (p sports were found for heart rate, QRS duration, QRS axis and SVL T wave (p sports, and these differences were more apparent in males than females. Therefore, sport-specific ECG criteria for abnormal ECG findings should be developed to obtain a more useful approach to ECG screening in athletes.

  6. Elite athletes: is survival shortened in boxers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, M; Fabbricatore, C; Sanna, N; Fabiano, C; Palmieri, V; Zeppilli, P

    2007-08-01

    Moderate exercise and intense physical training are associated with increased life expectancy (LE). Boxing is characterized by intentional and repetitive head blows, sometimes causing brain injury, possibly reducing LE. We examined a sample of male athletes born between 1860 and 1930 selected from the international "hall of fame" inductees in baseball (n = 154), ice hockey (n = 130), tennis (n = 83), football (n = 81), boxing (n = 81), track and field (n = 59), basketball (n = 58), swimming (n = 37) and wrestling (n = 32). In boxing, we analyzed the number of disputed bouts/rounds and career records. Sports were also analyzed according to physiological demand and occurrence and kind of contact (intentional, unintentional). The Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used to compare survival curves (significance: p LE of the samples was 76.0 yrs and no differences were observed in different sports, although it was lower in boxers (73.0 yrs) and higher in tennis players (79.0 yrs). Sports of different physiological demand were similar in respect to LE. No differences in LE were found related to occurrence and kind of impact. Similar LE was found in boxers of different weight or career records. In conclusion, this study indicates that LE in top-level athletes is unaffected by the type of discipline, and not related to physiological demand and intentional contact.

  7. LHC Report: Freshly squeezed beams!

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    After careful validation of  new machine settings, the LHC was ready for higher luminosity operation. New luminosity records have been set, but the operations team continues to wrestle with machine availability issues.   The commissioning of the squeeze to a ß* of 1 m in ATLAS and CMS described in the last Bulletin took until Wednesday, 7 September to complete. In order to validate the new set-up, beam losses were provoked in a controlled way with low intensity beams. The distribution of beam loss around the machine in these tests is known as a loss map. The loss maps showed that the collimation system is catching the large majority of beam losses as it should, and that the machine was ready for us to ramp the number of bunches back up and go to physics production. The ramp-up of the number of bunches went smoothly with fills at 264, 480, and 912 bunches on the way back to the machine’s previous record of 1380 bunches (first fill on Friday, 9 Se...

  8. Affiliative and aggressive behavior in a group of female Somali wild ass (Equus africanus somalicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa, Cheryl S; Marshall, Fiona; Fischer, Martha

    2012-01-01

    We observed a group of three young female Somali wild asses to develop an ethogram of social behavior in the first phase of a longer term study of social, sexual, and maternal/infant behavior. The most unexpected finding was the frequency and extent of aggressive interactions, which included Charge, Drive, Neck Wrestle, Head Butt, and Body Slam, behaviors previously reported only for males of other equid species. The overall frequency of aggressive behavior was higher than that of affiliative behavior (84±16.5 vs. 32±5.5, P=0.03), yet no injuries occurred. The dyadic directionality of aggressive behavior suggested a dominance hierarchy, a feature not previously reported for either wild ass or domestic donkeys. The aggression observed may be an accurate representation of the behavior of this species, or their relatively young ages, or their recent transfer from their natal group through quarantine and into a new enclosure may have heightened agonistic tendencies. Further studies will determine whether with time their aggressive behavior becomes more intense or dissipates with maturity. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Social Connectedness of Older Adults: A National Profile*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, Benjamin; Laumann, Edward O.; Schumm, L. Philip

    2008-01-01

    For decades, scholars have wrestled with the notion that old age is characterized by social isolation. However, there has been no systematic, nationally representative evaluation of this possibility in terms of social network connectedness. In this paper, the authors develop a profile of older adults’ social integration with respect to nine dimensions of connectedness to interpersonal networks and voluntary associations. The authors use new data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a population-based study of non-institutionalized older Americans aged 57–85 conducted in 2005–2006. Findings suggest that among older adults, age is negatively related to network size, closeness to network members, and number of non-primary-group ties. On the other hand, age is positively related to frequency of socializing with neighbors, religious participation, and volunteering. In addition, it has a U-shaped relationship with volume of contact with network members. These findings are inconsistent with the notion that old age has a universal negative influence on social connectedness. Instead, life course factors have divergent consequences for different forms of social connectedness. Some later life transitions, like retirement and bereavement, may prompt greater connectedness. The authors close by urging increased dialogue between social gerontological and social network research. PMID:19018292

  10. Analysis of factors that influence the maximum number of repetitions in two upper-body resistance exercises: curl biceps and bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Eliseo; Boullosa, Daniel A; Dopico, Xurxo; Carballeira, Eduardo

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of exercise type, set configuration, and relative intensity load on relationship between 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and maximum number of repetitions (MNR). Thirteen male subjects, experienced in resistance training, were tested in bench press and biceps curl for 1RM, MNR at 90% of 1RM with cluster set configuration (rest of 30s between repetitions) and MNR at 70% of 1RM with traditional set configuration (no rest between repetitions). A lineal encoder was used for measuring displacement of load. Analysis of variance analysis revealed a significant effect of load (pbench press and biceps curl, respectively; pbench press and biceps curl, respectively; p>0.05). Correlation between 1RM and MNR was significant for medium-intensity in biceps curl (r=-0.574; pvelocity along set, so velocity seems to be similar at a same relative intensity for subjects with differences in maximum strength levels. From our results, we suggest the employment of MNR rather than % of 1RM for training monitoring. Furthermore, we suggest the introduction of cluster set configuration for upper-body assessment of MNR and for upper-body muscular endurance training at high-intensity loads, as it seems an efficient approach in looking for sessions with greater training volumes. This could be an interesting approach for such sports as wrestling or weightlifting.

  11. Presentation of the Polish family in primers used in the Second Republic of Poland (in Poland between the two World Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATARZYNA KOCHAN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The interwar period was a time of great significance in the history of the Polish nation. It was characterised by immense enthusiasm because of Poland's newly regained independence, however, the country wrestled with many post-partition problems. One of them was, for instance, a lack of a cohesive administration system resulting from regional administrative differences among the Polish partitioned territories. The main task for education, also in need of adjustment to the new circumstances, was to standardise its system because of the dissimilar educational procedures available in the Second Republic. The new social, political and economic situation also required up-to-date syllabuses and corresponding textbooks. Hence, 31 primers were published in the interwar period. Their reading texts dealt with various thematic fields; they were, for example, associated with the subject of the family as being close to the children's experience and feelings.The present paper aims at comparing if, and to what extent, the portraits of families presented in the primers were adequate to real models of families in the interwar Poland.

  12. Alaskan Salmon and Gen R: hunting, fishing to cultivate ecological mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2015-03-01

    Can mining and fisheries co-exist in Bristol Bay, Alaska? To delve into this interesting tension, I expand on Clay Pierce's (this special issue) thoughtful analysis of genetically modified salmon and AquaBounty Technologies, where he explores actor-network theory in relation to scientific literacy and schooling. Further, my essay explores the idea of embodied knowledge as paramount to the next generation of youth engaged with scientific literacy. I demonstrate the problems associated with using hegemonic science to normalize biocapitalism and the subjugated knowledges in relation. Ultimately, I provide justifications for strengthening an ecologically mindful scientific literacy, working towards what might be called "Neptunian democracy" in science education, including salmon and other nonhuman actors as integral for youth wrestling with ecojustice issues. To do this, I highlight the significance of renewing fishing, hunting, and salmon eating. These things ought to become an intimate characteristic of the imagined literacy of the next generation of youth (what I've been calling Generation R for responsibility).

  13. On Classification, Development and Protection of Tibetan Traditional Sports in Gansu%甘肃藏族传统体育项群分类及开发与保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高继科; 张正玲

    2012-01-01

    通过文献资料、田野实证等方法,对甘肃藏族传统体育进行调查。研究结果显示,甘肃藏族传统文化孕育出了以舞蹈、角力、竞速、合中、体能、武艺、智能和游戏八大类民族体育项群。这些藏族传统体育就是藏族人民智慧的结晶,是藏族传统体育文化的精髓,反映了甘肃藏族历史发展轨迹和文化的变迁过程。%This paper is, by using documentation and field demonstration, to investigate the Tibetan traditional sports in Gansu Province. The results show that traditional Tibetan culture has given birth to eight categories of national sports, such as dancing, wrestling, racing, combining, physical fitness, skill, intelligence, and games. These Tibetan traditional sports are the essence of the wisdom of the Tibetan people, which are also the essence of Tibetan traditional sports culture, reflecting the developmental track of Tibetan history and culture in transformation process.

  14. "What is Authorship, and What Should it Be? A Survey of Prominent Guidelines for Determining Authorship in Scientific Publications"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. Osborne

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Before the mid 20th century most scientific writing was solely authored (Claxton, 2005; Greene, 2007 and thus it is only relatively recently, as science has grown more complex, that the ethical and procedural issues around authorship have arisen. Fields as diverse as medicine (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, 2008, mathematics (e.g., American Statistical Association, 1999, the physical sciences (e.g., American Chemical Society, 2006, and the social sciences (e.g., American Psychological Association, 2002 have, in recent years, wrestled with what constitutes authorship and how to eliminate problematic practices such as honorary authorship and ghost authorship (e.g., Anonymous, 2004; Claxton, 2005; Manton & English, 2008. As authorship is the coin of the realm in academia (Louis, Holdsworth, Anderson, & Campbell, 2008, it is an ethical issue of singular importance. The goal of this paper is to review prominent and diverse guidelines concerning scientific authorship and to attempt to synthesize existing guidelines into recommendations that represent ethical practices for ensuring credit where (and only where credit is due.

  15. Nosing Around: Play in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Horback

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The predominant method of measuring welfare in swine focuses on overt physical ailments, such as skin lesions, lameness, and body condition. An alternative metric for assessing welfare in swine can be to measure the frequency and duration of positive behavioral states, such as play. Given that play occurs only when an animal's primary needs (food, comfort, safety, etc. have been satisfied, it has been suggested that play may be a sensitive indicator for assessing the welfare of non-human animals. Play has primarily been described in young piglets and is assessed via the occurrence of specific play markers. These play markers include overt bursts of energy like scamper, or more subtle social behaviors like nose-to-body contact. This review describes four areas of play for swine: locomotor, object, sow-piglet, and, peer play. From sporadic leaping to combative wrestling, play behavior allows for the fine-tuning of reflexive behavior which can enhance physical development, enrich cognitive abilities, and facilitate the maintenance of social bonds.

  16. Bridging the semantic gap in sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoxin; Errico, James; Pan, Hao; Sezan, M. Ibrahim

    2003-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing current media management systems and the related applications is the so-called "semantic gap" between the rich meaning that a user desires and the shallowness of the content descriptions that are automatically extracted from the media. In this paper, we address the problem of bridging this gap in the sports domain. We propose a general framework for indexing and summarizing sports broadcast programs. The framework is based on a high-level model of sports broadcast video using the concept of an event, defined according to domain-specific knowledge for different types of sports. Within this general framework, we develop automatic event detection algorithms that are based on automatic analysis of the visual and aural signals in the media. We have successfully applied the event detection algorithms to different types of sports including American football, baseball, Japanese sumo wrestling, and soccer. Event modeling and detection contribute to the reduction of the semantic gap by providing rudimentary semantic information obtained through media analysis. We further propose a novel approach, which makes use of independently generated rich textual metadata, to fill the gap completely through synchronization of the information-laden textual data with the basic event segments. An MPEG-7 compliant prototype browsing system has been implemented to demonstrate semantic retrieval and summarization of sports video.

  17. Aerosol-cloud interactions from urban, regional to global scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The studies in this dissertation aim at advancing our scientific understandings about physical processes involved in the aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction and quantitatively assessing the impacts of aerosols on the cloud systems with diverse scales over the globe on the basis of the observational data analysis and various modeling studies. As recognized in the Fifth Assessment Report by the Inter-government Panel on Climate Change, the magnitude of radiative forcing by atmospheric aerosols is highly uncertain, representing the largest uncertainty in projections of future climate by anthropogenic activities. By using a newly implemented cloud microphysical scheme in the cloud-resolving model, the thesis assesses aerosol-cloud interaction for distinct weather systems, ranging from individual cumulus to mesoscale convective systems. This thesis also introduces a novel hierarchical modeling approach that solves a long outstanding mismatch between simulations by regional weather models and global climate models in the climate modeling community. More importantly, the thesis provides key scientific solutions to several challenging questions in climate science, including the global impacts of the Asian pollution. As scientists wrestle with the complexities of climate change in response to varied anthropogenic forcing, perhaps no problem is more challenging than the understanding of the impacts of atmospheric aerosols from air pollution on clouds and the global circulation.

  18. Troubadour Biographies and the Value of Authentic Love: Daude de Pradas and Uc de Saint Circ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hinton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of an essential connection between the quality of a song and the sincerity of the emotion it expresses ("I sing because I love" is a topos used in various ways by troubadours, one which lent itself naturally to discussion of their relationship to audiences and to other poets. The topos transferred across to the thirteenth-century biographies (vidas found alongside the songs in numerous manuscripts, as in the arresting claim, made in the vida about Daude de Pradas, that his songs "did not spring from love and therefore did not find favour with audiences." Elsewhere, however, the biographies give a different account of inauthenticity, as the edge which allows troubadours to exercise control over their social environment; significantly, this version of the topos appears in the vida for Uc de Saint Circ, who is believed to be the main author of the corpus. In these contrasting accounts of poetic inauthenticity, we can see the biographies wrestling with questions of control and definition of the cultural capital of troubadour lyric: patron and poet, cleric and lay. The thirteenth century saw authors and their audiences increasingly asserting the lasting cultural value of vernacular literature in general, and (through its association with troubadour production Occitan in particular. Accordingly, these texts reflect the poets' engagement with the court audiences for whom they were writing, at the same time as they look ahead to the enduring record of posterity.

  19. Incidence and Risk of Concussions in Youth Athletes: Comparisons of Age, Sex, Concussion History, Sport, and Football Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, William T; Siu, Andrea M; Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Chang, Bolin L; Murata, Nathan M

    2018-03-15

    This study was designed to determine concussion incidence, risk, and relative risk among middle and high school athletes participating in various sports. Data were retrospectively obtained from 10,334 athletes of 12 different sports in Hawaii. In addition to determining the overall concussion incidence, comparisons of incidence, risk, and relative risk were made according to age, sex, concussion history, sport, and football position. The overall incidence of concussion among youth athletes was 1,250 (12.1%). The relative risk for a concussion was almost two times greater in 18-year olds than in 13-year-old athletes. In comparable sports, girls had a 1.5 times higher concussion risk than boys. Athletes with a prior concussion had 3-5 times greater risk to sustain a concussion than those with no history of a concussion. Among varied sports, wrestling and martial arts had the highest relative risk of a concussion, followed by cheerleading, football, and track and field. No differences in concussion risks were found among the football players in different positions. Older youths, females, those with a history of concussion, and those participating in high contact sports were found to have higher risks of sustaining a concussion. The findings increase awareness of concussion patterns in young athletes and raise concerns regarding protective strategies and concussion management in youth sports.

  20. Consequences of early postnatal benzodiazepines exposure in rats. II. Social behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eMikulecka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Social behavior represents an integral part of behavioral repertoire of rats particularly sensitive to pharmacological and environmental influences. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether early postnatal clonazepam (CZP exposure can induce age-dependent changes related to expression of social behavior. The drug was administered from postnatal day (P 7 until P11 at daily doses of 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg i.p. We designed three experiments to assess whether exposure to CZP affects social behavior in respect to the age of rats and the test circumstances, specifically their familiarity with test conditions during adolescence (P32, social behavior in juveniles and adolescents (P18-P42 and social behavior in a resident-intruder paradigm. The frequency and duration of a various patterns of social behavior related to play and social investigation not related to play were evaluated. The results showed that CZP postnatal exposure decreased social play behavior regardless of age and familiarity or unfamiliarity of experimental environment but did not affect the social investigation per se. When rats were confronted with an intruder in their home cages intense wrestling and inhibition of genital investigation were found. In conclusion, these findings show that short-term CZP postnatal exposure inhibits social play behavior and alters specific patterns of social behavior in an age and environment related manner

  1. Injuries Sustained by the Mixed Martial Arts Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Andrew R; Maciel, Robert C; Petrigliano, Frank A; Rodriguez, John P; Brooks, Adam G

    2016-08-16

    Mixed martial arts (MMA) is rapidly growing in popularity in the United States and abroad. This combat sport joins athletes from a wide variety of martial art disciplines, each with characteristic and distinguishing injury profiles, together in competition. Because of increasing participation by professionals and amateurs alike, injuries sustained by MMA athletes have been on the rise. A review of relevant publications using the search term mixed martial arts and each of its component combat sports (eg, Muay Thai, Brazilian jiu-jitsu) from 1980 through 2015 was completed using PubMed and Google Scholar. Clinical review. Level 5. The majority of studies on MMA injuries evaluate those sustained during competition, which range in incidence from 22.9 to 28.6 per 100 fight-participations. Striking-predominant disciplines such as boxing, karate, and Muay Thai have high rates of head and facial injuries, whereas submission-predominant disciplines such as Brazilian jiu-jitsu, judo, and wrestling have high rates of joint injuries. Numerous studies have evaluated injuries in athletes who participate in MMA and its component disciplines during competition but much remains to be discovered about injuries sustained during training and in specific patient populations such as adolescents and women. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. PERGULATAN TEOLOGI SALAFI DALAM MAINSTREAM KEBERAGAMAAN MASYARAKAT SASAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizah Faizah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Salafi movement has recently spread so widely in Indonesia that it has reached rural communities. In that context, its contact with local beliefs and practices produces a dynamic and creative tension between them. This paper will explore the contact dynamics by photographing wrestle of Salafi’s theological movement and beliefs in the mainstream of theological beliefs of local Sasak society of Lombok. The authors found that local knowledge that expressed through practicing several ceremonies associated with the human life-cycle from moment of human birth to death events considered by the Salafi as unauthentic element of Islam called heretic to which the Salafi has to carry out purification. That potential conflict between the Sasak and Salafis, requiring mutual respect and tolerance among them.Abstrak: Gerakan Salafi akhir-akhir ini semakin meluas penyebarannya di Indonesia hingga mencapai wilayah-wilayah pedesaan. Dalam konteks itu persentuhannya dengan keyakinan dan praktek masyarakat lokal menciptakan dinamika dan ketegangan kreatif di antara mereka. Tulisan ini akan mengupas dinamika itu dengan memotret pergulatan paham teologi gerakan Salafi itu di tengah mainstream keyakinan keberagamaan masyarakat Sasak, Lombok. Penulis menemukan bahwa keyakinan lokal yang diekspresikan melalui penyelenggaraan beberapa upacara yang berhubungan dengan lingkaran hidup manusia dari peristiwa kelahiran hingga kematian dipandang oleh kaum Salafi sebagai unsur baru yang disebut bid’ah dan keharusan bagi Salafi untuk melakukan purifikasi. Hal itu berpotensi menimbulkan konflik antara Sasak dan Salafi, sehingga diperlukan sikap saling menghargai dan tenggang rasa di antara mereka.

  3. Improving Technical, Tactical and Psychological Preparation of Freestyle Wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakulin Serhij

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1 to justify the ways of improvement of training free style wrestlers to improve the results of their activities and competitive sports skills; 2 to identify the areas of improvement of psychological preparation and the structure of complex psycho-pedagogical methods for optimizing mental condition of free style wrestlers. Material and methods: The following methods were used in the study: analysis and synthesis of the scientific data of methodological literature; pedagogical supervision; survey (interview, questionnaire; analysis of freestyle wrestlers competitive activity; testing of physical and psychological fitness; pedagogical experiment; methods of mathematical and statistical analysis of research results. Results: it has been demonstrated that there is a necessity to improve technical, tactical and psychological preparation of freestyle fighters; the basic problems of the process have been defined. Conclusion: 1 the method of preparation of freestyle wrestlers has been grounded and the feasibility of its use for rapid making the best technical and tactical decisions in a competitive activity has been proved. It is proposed to include specific tactical training methods for each action and various combinations of basic actions into the coach program of wrestling; 2 the directions of improving psychological preparation and the structure of complex psychological and pedagogical methods of optimizing the mental condition of free style wrestlers are substantiated.

  4. Birth of a theorem a mathematical adventure

    CERN Document Server

    Villani, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    This man could plainly do for mathematics what Brian Cox has done for physics" (Sunday Times). What goes on inside the mind of a rock-star mathematician? Where does inspiration come from? With a storyteller's gift, Cedric Villani takes us on a mesmerising journey as he wrestles with a new theorem that will win him the most coveted prize in mathematics. Along the way he encounters obstacles and setbacks, losses of faith and even brushes with madness. His story is one of courage and partnership, doubt and anxiety, elation and despair. We discover how it feels to be obsessed by a theorem during your child's cello practise and throughout your dreams, why appreciating maths is a bit like watching an episode of Columbo, and how sometimes inspiration only comes from locking yourself away in a dark room to think. Blending science with history, biography with myth, Villani conjures up an inimitable cast of characters including the omnipresent Einstein, mad genius Kurt Godel, and Villani's personal hero, John Nash. Bir...

  5. Organizations as complex systems an introduction to knowledge cybernetics

    CERN Document Server

    Yolles, Maurice

    2006-01-01

    Managing the Complex is an ambitious title - and it would be an audacious one if we were not to begin with a frank admission: to date few to none of us have a skill set which includes managing the complex. We try various things, we write about others, and we wonder about still others. When a tool, perspective, or technique comes along which seems to evoke success, we emulate it probe it and recoil at the all too often admission that it was situation and context which afforded success its opportunity, and not some quality intrinsic to the tool perspective or technique. Indeed, if the study of complexity has done anything for managers, and for those who espouse managerial theory, it is in providing a 'scientific foundation' for the notion that context matters. Those who preach abstract ideas have then to reconcile themselves to the notion that situation and embodiment matters. Those who believe in strong causality and determinism are left to wrestle with the role of chance, uncertainty, and chaos. Those who pre...

  6. Actual status and future outlook of Fukushima prefecture for accepting power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Origasa, Yoshiro

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental attitude of Fukushima prefecture to wrestle with nuclear power generation is explained after having described the details of inviting nuclear power plants. The prefecture intends to promote the nuclear power development in cooperation with the government, related cities, towns and villages, and electric power companies, and to develop the Futaba area, the coastal region of Pacific Ocean belonging to the low-developed area, by turning it to the base of nuclear power generation. The prefecture has improved its organization to strengthen to nuclear power administration. The prefecture also has concluded the convention on the security for nuclear power plants with Tokyo Electric Power Co. It takes care of the propagation of knowledge concerning nuclear energy and is endeavoring to provide the accurate and impartial information. The problem in promoting nuclear power generation is nothing but to obtain the consensus of inhabitants for the location of nuclear power plants. Problems on warm water discharge, employment, and of enterprises in the area inroad are to be considered on the basis of the coexistence and coprosperity of local community and power stations. The prefecture needs more powerful public relations on nuclear power, security, and fulfillment of the policy for environmental preservation, and enforcement of environmental assessment, by the government. It also demands that the enterprises complete the system that they can have their own function of the environment control. The abundant related reference are added at the end. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. Fiscal 2000 report on regional new energy vision formulation project for Yunomae town, Kumamoto prefecture; 2000 nendo Yunomaecho chiiki shin energy vision sakutei nado jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    A regional new energy vision has been formulated for Yunomae town, Kumamoto Prefecture, from the standpoint that local autonomies are required to work out measures compatible with Government energy policies and thereby to wrestle with environmental measures being undertaken across the world. The results of activities conducted for this purposed are stated in six chapters, which cover (1) the meaning of regional new energy vision formulation and its position, (2) outline of Yunomae town, (3) energy and environments, (4) energy situation in Yunomae town, (5) Yunomae town's regional new energy vision, and (6) plans for promoting the embodiment of the vision. In chapter (5), basic policies toward new energy utilization, overall plan, leading projects, and energy conservation measures are stated. The types of new energy taken up for discussion are photovoltaic power, wind power, biomass power, refuse-derived energy, and hydraulic energy. Projects are subjected to study, which relate to photovoltaic power generation, solar heat utilization, small scale hydroelectric power, small scale wind power, and the introduction of clean energy vehicles. It is expected that these projects when carried out will cover approximately 10% of the current energy consumption of the town. (NEDO)

  8. Copenhagen: citizen momentum in front of political status quo? Returns on the fifteenth Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), from the 7 to the 10 December 2009, Copenhagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetaille, Anne; Creach, Morgane; Blavier, Sebastien; Fauveaud, Swan; Berrebi, Mickael; Bessieres, Marie; Tiphagne, Alexandre; Burger, Patrice; Cheron, Marie; Dupre, Mathilde; Lefebvre, Olivier

    2010-02-01

    This report proposes an analysis of the Conference of the Parties held in Copenhagen as it has been perceived by French NGOs committed in international solidarity and in the protection of the environment. The first part discusses the main elements of the Copenhagen agreement and draws perspectives for the negotiations to come in 2010 (the agreement sounds hollow, is finally not an agreement, and questions who will be a leader for negotiations to come). The second part discusses the new geopolitical deal which emerged in Copenhagen with changes within the traditional balance of power (no leader in the developed countries, how to go beyond the arm-wrestling between China and the USA), citizen mobilization and issues of negotiation governance (confusion, question of a possible future strengthening of international governance on environment). The last chapter proposes an analysis of discussions from an operational point of view on three technical issues (adaptation for which there is a gap between financing and needs, agriculture and forests) in order to identify what is at stake in terms of international solidarity and must be addressed in a near future

  9. Data scientist: the sexiest job of the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Thomas H; Patil, D J

    2012-10-01

    Back in the 1990s, computer engineer and Wall Street "quant" were the hot occupations in business. Today data scientists are the hires firms are competing to make. As companies wrestle with unprecedented volumes and types of information, demand for these experts has raced well ahead of supply. Indeed, Greylock Partners, the VC firm that backed Facebook and LinkedIn, is so worried about the shortage of data scientists that it has a recruiting team dedicated to channeling them to the businesses in its portfolio. Data scientists are the key to realizing the opportunities presented by big data. They bring structure to it, find compelling patterns in it, and advise executives on the implications for products, processes, and decisions. They find the story buried in the data and communicate it. And they don't just deliver reports: They get at the questions at the heart of problems and devise creative approaches to them. One data scientist who was studying a fraud problem, for example, realized it was analogous to a type of DNA sequencing problem. Bringing those disparate worlds together, he crafted a solution that dramatically reduced fraud losses. In this article, Harvard Business School's Davenport and Greylock's Patil take a deep dive on what organizations need to know about data scientists: where to look for them, how to attract and develop them, and how to spot a great one.

  10. START TO PLAY TENNIS LIKE INCETIVE TO DEVELOPMENT SPORTS IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrije Rašović

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 19 centuries tenis like popular game has srarted to play in Vojvodina. At 1880 tennis grassy courts was built in Senta and from that year it started to play in Vojvodina. Austrohungarion officers propageted tennis who were built tennis courts in their barracks but they was built courts in city parks. At 1892 the first tennis competition organised which mean that the first clubs probably had establishment befor thet year. Later at 1894 tennis started to play at palace of greand duke Nikola in Cetinje. Later tennis started to play in srbia at 1900. At that year people organised the first tennis tournament in vrsac. Momcilo Tapavica the first sout slovenion who was montegrion descent who was participat at first modern olimpic’s games in atina at 1896 he gave great countrabucsion developeted tennis sport in Montenegro. Momcilo Tapavica come to palase of graund duke’s Nikola at 1902 and ofter thet date his all family moved to Herceg-Novi and they spent all time to secound world war. At first olimpic’s games Momcilo Tapavica took parr in these sports/tennis, life weights, wrestling. Certain thet like talented sportman he gave great contabution not only in tennis than he gave contribution in the other sports in Montenegro.

  11. Curricular priorities for business ethics in medical practice and research: recommendations from Delphi consensus panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, James M; Kraus, Elena M; Gursahani, Kamal; Mikulec, Anthony; Bakanas, Erin

    2014-11-15

    No published curricula in the area of medical business ethics exist. This is surprising given that physicians wrestle daily with business decisions and that professional associations, the Institute of Medicine, Health and Human Services, Congress, and industry have issued related guidelines over the past 5 years. To fill this gap, the authors aimed (1) to identify the full range of medical business ethics topics that experts consider important to teach, and (2) to establish curricular priorities through expert consensus. In spring 2012, the authors conducted an online Delphi survey with two heterogeneous panels of experts recruited in the United States. One panel focused on business ethics in medical practice (n = 14), and 1 focused on business ethics in medical research (n = 12). Panel 1 generated an initial list of 14 major topics related to business ethics in medical practice, and subsequently rated 6 topics as very important or essential to teach. Panel 2 generated an initial list of 10 major topics related to business ethics in medical research, and subsequently rated 5 as very important or essential. In both domains, the panel strongly recommended addressing problems that conflicts of interest can cause, legal guidelines, and the goals or ideals of the profession. The Bander Center for Medical Business Ethics at Saint Louis University will use the results of the Delphi panel to develop online curricular resources for each of the highest rated topics.

  12. Attentional bias in competitive situations: Winner does not take all

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqiang eSun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared to previous studies of competition with participants’ direct involvement, the current study for the first time investigated the influence of competitive outcomes on attentional bias from a perspective of an onlooker. Two simple games were employed: the Rock-Paper-Scissors game (Experiment 1 in which the outcome is based on luck, and Arm-wrestling (Experiment 2, in which the outcome is based on the competitors’ strength. After observing one of these games, participants were asked to judge a stimulus presented on either the winner’s or loser’s side of a screen. Both experiments yielded the same results, indicating that the onlookers made much quicker judgments on stimuli presented on the loser’s side than the winner’s side. This suggests the existence of an attention bias for loser-related information once a competition has ended. Our findings provide a new lens through which the influence of competition results on human cognitive processing can be understood.

  13. Method and metaphysics in Clements's and Gleason's ecological explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, Christopher

    2007-03-01

    To generate explanatory theory, ecologists must wrestle with how to represent the extremely many, diverse causes behind phenomena in their domain. Early twentieth-century plant ecologists Frederic E. Clements and Henry A. Gleason provide a textbook example of different approaches to explaining vegetation, with Clements allegedly committed, despite abundant exceptions, to a law of vegetation, and Gleason denying the law in favor of less organized phenomena. However, examining Clements's approach to explanation reveals him not to be expressing a law, and instead to be developing an explanatory structure without laws, capable of progressively integrating causal complexity. Moreover, Clements and Gleason largely agree on the causes of vegetation; but, since causal understanding here underdetermines representation, they differ on how to integrate recognized causes into general theory--that is, in their methodologies. Observers of the case may have mistakenly assumed that scientific representation across the disciplines typically aims at laws like Newton's, and that representations always reveal scientists' metaphysical commitments. Ironically, in the present case, this assumption seems to have been made even by observers who regard Clements as nai ve for his alleged commitment to an ecological law.

  14. Concussion associated with head trauma in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Murguía Cánovas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been increased attention to concussions that occur during sports activities, both at school level or amateur and professional level. Concussion is defined as a sudden and transient alteration of consciousness induced by traumatic biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. Such injuries most commonly occur in contact sports such as boxing, football, soccer, wrestling, hockey, among others. Concussion should be suspected in any athlete who suffers a head injury, whether or not it is associated to loss of consciousness. These athletes should not return to their sports activities immediately, and a few days of mental and physical leave are recommended in order to ensure full recovery. Repeat head injuries should be avoided, since there is evidence that in some athletes they can lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy. The present review focuses on the different definitions of concussion, management and long-term consequences. It also contains the Spanish version of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2.

  15. Policy on manager involvement in work re-integration: managers' experiences in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiwald, Karin; Meershoek, Agnes; de Rijk, Angelique; Nijhuis, Frans J N

    2014-01-01

    In Canada and other countries, sickness absence among workers is a significant concern. Local return-to-work policies developed by both management and workers' representatives are preferred to tackle the problem. This article examines how managers perceive this local bipartite agreed upon return-to-work policy, wherein a social constructivist view on the policy process is taken. In-depth interviews were held with 10 managers on their experiences with execution of this policy in a Canadian healthcare organization. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and qualitative analyses were completed to gain deep insight into the managers' perspectives. Results show that the managers viewed themselves as a linchpin between the workplace and the worker. They did not feel heard by the other stakeholders, wrestled with worker's limitations, struggled getting plans adjusted and became overextended to meet return-to-work objectives. The study shows that the managers felt unable to meet the responsibilities the policy demanded and got less involved in the return-to-work process than this policy intended. RTW policy needs to balance on the one hand, flexibility to safeguard active involvement of managers and, on the other hand, strictness regarding taking responsibility by stakeholders, particularly the health care and re-integration professionals.

  16. How to model a negligible probability under the WTO sanitary and phytosanitary agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark R

    2013-06-01

    Since the 1997 EC--Hormones decision, World Trade Organization (WTO) Dispute Settlement Panels have wrestled with the question of what constitutes a negligible risk under the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement. More recently, the 2010 WTO Australia--Apples Panel focused considerable attention on the appropriate quantitative model for a negligible probability in a risk assessment. The 2006 Australian Import Risk Analysis for Apples from New Zealand translated narrative probability statements into quantitative ranges. The uncertainty about a "negligible" probability was characterized as a uniform distribution with a minimum value of zero and a maximum value of 10(-6) . The Australia - Apples Panel found that the use of this distribution would tend to overestimate the likelihood of "negligible" events and indicated that a triangular distribution with a most probable value of zero and a maximum value of 10⁻⁶ would correct the bias. The Panel observed that the midpoint of the uniform distribution is 5 × 10⁻⁷ but did not consider that the triangular distribution has an expected value of 3.3 × 10⁻⁷. Therefore, if this triangular distribution is the appropriate correction, the magnitude of the bias found by the Panel appears modest. The Panel's detailed critique of the Australian risk assessment, and the conclusions of the WTO Appellate Body about the materiality of flaws found by the Panel, may have important implications for the standard of review for risk assessments under the WTO SPS Agreement. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Everybody behaves badly: the true story behind Hemingway's masterpiece The Sun Also Rises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Correa dos Santos Townsend

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2017v70n1p297 Lesley Blume’s book depicts the ‘making of’ of Ernest Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises by studying the personalities who inspired it and the immeasurable changes it brought to the literary world. Blume is a well accomplished North American cultural historian and journalist who - amongst other achievements - has covered the United States presidential elections of 2000 and the September 11th catastrophe of 2001. This book, released on June 7, 2016 has already become a source of polemic in face of her revelations about Hemingway’s debut novel that gave voice to the so-called “Lost Generation”. During the summer of 1925, Ernest Hemingway and a group of disorderly friends went to Pamplona, in Spain, for the well-known annual San Fermín bull fighting festival. Subsequently, throughout the next weeks to come he conducted the expedition like an orchestra of turbulent wild waters – quite a plate full of creative motivation for a writer - including drunkenness, wrestles, sexual competitiveness, nighttime infidelities, and next day hangovers, which he spilled out and translated into his trailblazing novel The Sun Also Rises.

  18. Current status of high level radioactive waste disposal in Japan and foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoru; Tanabe, Hiromi; Inagaki, Yusuke; Ishida, Hisahiro; Kato, Osamu; Kurata, Mitsuyuki; Yamachika, Hidehiko

    2002-01-01

    At a time point of 2002, there is no country actually disposing high level radioactive wastes into grounds, but in most of countries legislative preparation and practicing agents are carried out and site selection is promoted together with energetic advancement of its R and Ds. As disposal methods of the high level radioactive wastes, various methods such as space disposal, oceanic bottom disposal, ice bed disposal, ground disposal, and so on have been examined. And, a processing technology called partitioning and transmutation technology separating long-lived radionuclides from liquid high level radioactive waste and transmutation into short-lived or harmless radionuclides has also been studied. Here was introduced their wrestling conditions in Japan and main foreign countries, as a special issue of the Current status of high level radioactive waste disposal in Japan and foreign countries'. The high level radioactive wastes (glassification solids or spent nuclear fuels) are wastes always formed by nuclear power generation and establishment of technologies is an important subject for nuclear fuel cycle. (G.K.)

  19. Developing and Extending a Cyberinfrastructure Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Rosio

    2007-11-13

    Increasingly, research and education institutions are realizing the strategic value and challenge of deploying and supporting institutional cyberinfrastructure (CI). Cyberinfrastructure is composed of high performance computing systems, massive storage systems, visualization systems, and advanced networks to interconnect the components within and across institutions and research communities. CI also includes the professionals with expertise in scientific application and algorithm development and parallel systems operation. Unlike ?regular? IT infrastructure, the manner in which the components are configured and skills to do so are highly specific and specialized. Planning and coordinating these assets is a fundamental step toward enhancing an institution?s research competitiveness and return on personnel, technology, and facilities investments. Coordinated deployment of CI assets has implications across the institution. Consider the VC for Research whose new faculty in the Life Sciences are now asking for simulation systems rather than wet labs, or the Provost who lost another faculty candidate to a peer institution that offered computational support for research, or the VC for Administration who has seen a spike in power and cooling demands from many of the labs and office spaces being converted to house systems. These are just some of the issues that research institutions are wrestling with as research becomes increasingly computational, data-intensive and interdisciplinary. This bulletin will discuss these issues and will present an approach for developing a cyberinfrastructure model that was successfully developed at one institution and then deployed across institutions.

  20. Acute effects of one session dry needling on a chronic golfer’s elbow disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariat, Ardalan; Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Memari, Amir Hossein; Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Cleland, Joshua A.; Kordi, Ramin

    2018-01-01

    A 40-year-old retired male elite athlete with more than 20 years’ experience in wrestling and bodybuilding with mild elbow pain and disability of 2 years presented to our clinic reporting an acute pain in medial aspect of the elbow. Physical examination revealed symptoms of left Golfer’s elbow during target-directed movements. The results of sonography in left elbow showed low level of hypo echo irregularity and increased blood flow in color Doppler mode in the common flexor origin. The pain amplitude was moderate at rest and extremely high during kinetic and intentional movements. During last 2 years, the patient tried different types of therapy including manual therapy, Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and also received a variety of injections none of which were effective for reducing pain and disability. This is the first study showed that one sessions of dry needling improved both pain and disability and helped to return to a normal life and exercise training. PMID:29511665

  1. Cricket Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cricket Club

    2011-01-01

    Rhone CC v CERN CC at Parc de Parilly, Lyon on Sunday 11th September 2011 CERN travelled to Lyon to play our old friends Rhone at their new ground in the pretty and busy Parilly Parc. With no traffic problems CERN were at the ground in good time and even had time for a pre game kick around before skipper Elvin won the toss and decided to bowl. Onions and Chaudhuri opened the bowling and were penalized by some strict wide calling from the Rhone umpires. Onions finally made the breakthrough with the help of a brilliant running catch from the athletic Price. Chaudhuri then picked up 2 more Rhone wickets in a fiery opening spell as CERN took control. Rhone then rallied and Shiva made 50 before S. Ahmed had him trapped LBW. Skipper Elvin then turned to McFayden and the evergreen I. Ahmed to try and wrestle control back and McFayden was unlucky not to have Bala caught behind when the only person who did not think he had edged it was the umpire! Price again took another stunning catch in the deep to give I. Ahmed ...

  2. Detection of Candida species by nested PCR method in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, Ugur; Erbas, Goksel; Kirkan, Sukru; Savasan, Serap; Tugba Yuksel, H; Balat, Gamze

    2018-02-01

    Systemic fungal diseases are the infections caused by false treatment protocols and generally are not taken into consideration especially in the veterinary field. One-humped camels are found in the western side of the Aegean region of our country and bred for wrestling. The aim of this study is the application of diagnosing systemic fungi infection from camel blood samples by the PCR method. In this study, specific primers for DNA topoisomerase II gene sequences were used. As a result, a systemic fungal infection was detected by the nested PCR method from 10 (20%) out of 50 DNA samples taken from camels located on the western side of the Aegean region. In this study, 3 (30%) samples were identified as Candida albicans, 3 (30%) samples were identified as C. glabrata, and 4 (40%) samples were identified as C. parapsilosis. In conclusion, the 20% positive systemic fungal infection rate in one-humped camels observed in the present study showed that the systemic fungal infections are not taken into considerations in veterinary medicine. Further studies are suggested in order to obtain and to maintain extensive data for systemic fungal diseases in our country for one-humped camels.

  3. Effective Grid Utilization: A Technical Assessment and Application Guide; April 2011 - September 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balser, S.; Sankar, S.; Miller, R.; Rawlins, A.; Israel, M.; Curry, T.; Mason, T.

    2012-09-01

    In order to more fully integrate renewable resources, such as wind and solar, into the transmission system, additional capacity must be realized in the short term using the installed transmission capacity that exists today. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Transmission and Grid Integration Group supported this study to assemble the history of regulations and status of transmission technology to expand existing grid capacity. This report compiles data on various transmission technology methods and upgrades for increased capacity utilization of the existing transmission system and transmission corridors. The report discusses the technical merit of each method and explains how the method could be applied within the current regulatory structure to increase existing transmission conductor and/or corridor capacity. The history and current state of alternatives to new construction is presented for regulators, legislators, and other policy makers wrestling with issues surrounding integration of variable generation. Current regulations are assessed for opportunities to change them to promote grid expansion. To support consideration of these alternatives for expanding grid capacity, the report lists relevant rules, standards, and policy changes.

  4. El gimnasio de la universidad de Princeton – (EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter O. Cain, Arquitectos y asociados

    1973-07-01

    Full Text Available The building is made up of two levels, to hold 10,000 people. The top floor houses: athletics track, four tennis courts, basketball, hand-ball, volley-ball and badminton. The ground floor includes the throwing area, shooting, squash, wrestling, fencing, and the betweenfloor with offices and machine rooms. The metal roof structure is characteristic and extremely interesting; it comprises three parts: a conically shaped half dome, and two intermediate support triangular shapes, which also acto to give daylight to the great hall, which is free from vertical supports.El edificio se compone de dos plantas, con capacidad para 10.000 personas. La planta alta alberga: la pista de atletismo, cuatro pistas de tenis, baloncesto, balonmano, balón volea y badminton. La baja comprende la zona de lanzamientos, tiro, squash, lucha, esgrima, entreplanta de oficinas y cuartos de máquinas. Es característica y sumamente interesante la estructura metálica de ía cubierta, que se compone de tres partes: semicúpula, cónica y alabeada, con 2 formas trianguladas intermedias de soporte, que sirven también para proporcionar luz natural a la gran nave libre de pilares.

  5. Born to fight? Genetics and combat sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Franchini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the influence of genetics on sports performance has received increased attention from many researchers. In combat sports, some investigations have also been conducted. This article’s main objective was to review the representation of specific gene polymorphisms in combat sports athletes compared to controls. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science and SportDiscus. The terms used in this search involved combat sports (boxing, karate, judo, mixed martial arts, taekwondo and wrestling, genes, genetics and candidate genes. Articles published until November 2013 were included if combat sports athletes were considered as a single group (i.e., not mixed with athletes of other sports. Seven studies were found, with two presenting no difference between combat sports athletes and controls, two presenting higher frequencies of candidate genes related to a more endurance-related profile compared to controls, and three where a more power-related gene overrepresentation was found in comparison to controls. Taken together, the initial studies about the genetic characteristics of combat sports athletes are controversial, which is probably due to the mixed (aerobic and anaerobic characteristic and to the multifactorial performance determinants of these sports.

  6. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Saulle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is a long-term consequence of single or repetitive closed head injuries for which there is no treatment and no definitive pre-mortem diagnosis. It has been closely tied to athletes who participate in contact sports like boxing, American football, soccer, professional wrestling and hockey. Risk factors include head trauma, presence of ApoE3 or ApoE4 allele, military service, and old age. It is histologically identified by the presence of tau-immunoreactive NFTs and NTs with some cases having a TDP-43 proteinopathy or beta-amyloid plaques. It has an insidious clinical presentation that begins with cognitive and emotional disturbances and can progress to Parkinsonian symptoms. The exact mechanism for CTE has not been precisely defined however, research suggest it is due to an ongoing metabolic and immunologic cascade called immunoexcitiotoxicity. Prevention and education are currently the most compelling way to combat CTE and will be an emphasis of both physicians and athletes. Further research is needed to aid in pre-mortem diagnosis, therapies, and support for individuals and their families living with CTE.

  7. Film Learning in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, R.; Liddicoat, J.

    2012-04-01

    Is a picture worth a thousand words? That is a bit of a trick question. We process films and photographs very differently from the way we wrestle with words. They literally work on a different part of our brain, and their testimony is typically weighed differently as well, both in terms of emotional and evidentiary value. Film rhetoric does not quite play with the same deck of cards as classical rhetoric: it shuffles in some jokers and wild cards. To effectively use film in the classroom, faculty need to understand that these visual texts resemble but at the same time differ from written texts. By training faculty in various disciplines in the social and natural sciences to become more aware of not just what a film they are showing in a course says, but how it says it, the faculty can help frame their discussions in a dramatic new way, underlining the crucial connections between content and form that are essential to all critical thinking. There is a real urgency to this task in a world where more and more of the information that students receive is transmitted through visual means from sources of varying degrees of integrity and objectivity. Although this is a life skill that needs to be developed at any age, it most definitely is required at the university level. Recognizing this need, we will share our experience using film in a constructive way for teaching students social and natural sciences at colleges and universities in New York City.

  8. How Long a Life Is Enough Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Daniel; Gaylin, Willard

    2017-07-01

    Humans have long been troubled by the prospect of old age and its culmination in death. Whether to rebel against or accept this fate have been wrestled with down through the centuries. But new medical technologies and the growing science of aging have sided with rebellion. We know that aging can be pushed back and improved in its quality. That progress is well under way, but now intensified by many scientists and Silicon Valley entrepreneurs. In 2016, Mark Zuckerberg and Priscilla Chan pledged three billion dollars toward eventually "preventing, curing or managing all diseases." And some visionaries have made the elimination of death or its indefinite postponement a goal. To put those aspirations in a broader context, it is helpful to keep in mind where population growth and aging trends stand. Apart from any success in the explicit efforts to increase longevity, there will be a steady increase in the number of elderly worldwide-and a much higher percentage of the elderly as part of the overall population. Most of the largest changes will be in developing countries. They will be overburdened by the death of the elderly from expensive chronic diseases-already a vexing problem for affluent countries. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  9. Mouthguard usage by middle and high school student-athletes in Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael B; Johnson, Cleverick D; Cooley, Ralph A; Sharp, Holly; Servos, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    This survey recorded utilization levels of stock and custom mouthguards among middle and high school athletes in a US metropolitan area and gathered data on the prevalence of traumatic injuries that have occurred as a consequence of school-based athletic competition. The data also included reasons for the athletes' noncompliance. A 23-question, online survey form was developed. A geographically diverse list of public and private schools in the Houston metropolitan area was identified and included 30 public middle schools, 32 public high schools, 8 private middle schools, and 10 private high schools. The sports surveyed were baseball, basketball, field hockey, football, lacrosse, soccer, softball, volleyball, and wrestling. Only 1 private middle school participated. Only 5 of 32 public high schools and 1 private high school participated, representing response rates of 16% and 10%, respectively. Overall, there were 503 responses, and 56% of the respondents did not have a mouthguard. Among athletes who owned a mouthguard, most (70%) had stock versions purchased in a retail store, while 11% had a custom mouthguard fabricated by a dentist, and 19% had both types. The most frequent reasons cited for not wearing a mouthguard were forgetting to use it and a lack of comfort. The injury rates reported by respondents in the stock and custom mouthguard groups were 26% and 9%, respectively. A consistent, concerted effort by local dental societies should be aimed at school administrators and coaches to encourage enforcement or reinforcement of mouthguard usage policies among high school athletes, but, ultimately, parents need to step up to protect their children.

  10. The ABC's of Delivering A Research-Driven Adventure Learning Program From the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregont, P.; Porsild, M.

    2008-12-01

    A is for anchoring the delivery of your research to your audience in a standard-aligned curriculum. B is for BGAN Satellite Communication System assisting in delivering real-time authentic media. C is for a collaborative online learning environment to engage learners" Z is for the peaceful sleep you will get once your program is up and running! As part of Team GoNorth! (http://www.PolarHusky.com) it is our job to deliver adventure learning. We set out to do this back when the computer was a 4-foot, 50-lb box powered by a hand-crank where one would have a window of ten minutes in a 24-hour period to catch the satellite (before Al Gore created the Internet!). Every year we review the quantum leaps in what is now possible from the field and in the classroom, and over the years we have wrestled technical issues, solutions and numerous re-structures in the process of our of curriculum development. With this presentation we will provide some basic ABC's on how you can remained focused on your research, yet deliver an adventure learning program for learners to investigate real-world issues within your scientific research. Our scales are most likely different. The volume of our curriculum is an annual production of 4-500 pages to be used from Kindergarden through 12th grade around the world. The framework of our online learning environment must be able to supports millions of users at a time. "In the field" means on a a 3-4 month dogsled expedition - so sending out our live updates involve thawing out the computers and setting up the satellite communication system to work in a ground blizzard! But regardless of the scope and location of your field research, you can probably build on some of our experiences in the planning of an upcoming adventure learning program to engage learners of all or any ages in your scientific explorations!

  11. Procrastination phenomenon in individual and team sports athletes’ activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina V. Barabanshchikova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The modern world imposes strict conditions on people in various types of activities. A huge amount of processed information, tight timelines and other factors may cause people’s inability to cope with their tasks. Thus, there is a popular habit to put off the work without thinking about the consequences. This trait called procrastination is inherent to a million people all over the world. The problem of procrastination is just beginning to develop in Russia. Nowadays lots of foreign research and foreign questionnaires are being translated and approbated. The aim of this research is to identify the level of athletes’ procrastination, and define the differences of procrastination patterns in individual and team sports athletes. Also we want to study the relationship between procrastination and athletes’ personal characteristics such as extroversion, neuroticism, control over the actions, motivation to success, anxiety, time perspective and decision-making style (coping, and also indicators of state anxiety using a sample of individual athletes (boxing, unarmed self-defence, judo, karate, kickboxing, wrestling, taekwondo and teams (hockey, football, volleyball. Correlation analysis shows structural differences of procrastination manifestations in different types of sport. Regression analysis shows that in athletes of individual sports (model: p = 0,002, adjusted R2 = 0,368 there is only one significant predictor of procrastination - the negative past (p = 0,007, β = 0,495. The negative past (p = 0,003, β = 0,463, the control over the planning of the action (p = 0,05, β = -0.220 and the monitoring of the implementation of the action (p = 0,003, β = -0,465 are the predictors of procrastination in team sports (model: p = 0,002, adjusred R2 = 0,368.

  12. All physical activity may not be associated with a lower likelihood of adolescent smoking uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Rodriguez, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Research has documented that physical activity is associated with a lower risk of adolescent smoking uptake, yet it is unclear whether this relationship exists for all types of physical activity. We sought to determine whether certain types of physical activity are associated with a decreased or an increased risk of adolescent smoking uptake. In this longitudinal cohort study, adolescents (n=1356) were surveyed every six months for four years (age 14-18years old). Smoking and physical activity were measured at each of the eight time-points. Physical activity that was negatively associated with smoking across the eight waves was considered positive physical activities (i.e., PPA; linked to not smoking such as racquet sports, running, and swimming laps). Physical activity that was positively associated with smoking across the eight waves were considered negative physical activities (i.e., NPA; linked to smoking such as skating, walking, bicycling, sport fighting, and competitive wrestling). Associative Processes Latent Growth Curve Modeling revealed that each 30-minute increase in NPA per week at baseline was associated with a 4-fold increased odds of smoking progression (OR=4.10, 95% CI=2.14, 7.83). By contrast, each 30-minute increase in PPA at baseline was associated with a 51% decrease in the odds of smoking progression (OR=.49, 95% CI=.25, .93). The type of physical activity that an adolescent engages appears to be important for the uptake of cigarette smoking among adolescents. These associative relationships warrant consideration in interventions to increase overall physical activity and those promoting physical activity to prevent smoking uptake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Medical expenditures in division I collegiate athletics: an analysis by sport and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeding, Christopher C; Borchers, James; Oman, Janine; Pedroza, Angela

    2014-09-01

    Medical expenses for collegiate athletics include providing a training room with its supplies, equipment, personnel costs, and insurance coverage. Additional expenses beyond the training room include imaging, diagnostic testing, specialty consultations, and surgeries. We hypothesized that there would be no difference in average expenses or number of claims between male and female athletes over a 5-year period. Prospective patient cohort. A sports medicine center serving athletes in Big 10 Conference intercollegiate sports. All medical claims and charges for 36 varsity teams were analyzed from 2005 to 2010. The teams were categorized into 3 groups: female-only teams, male-only teams, and coed teams. Analysis of sports with corresponding male and female teams was also performed. Claims and charges for medical care for 36 intercollegiate athletic teams over 5 years. Individual team claims and charges were stable over the study period. In 11 of the 14 sex-matched sports, the female teams had higher average annual charges. After normalizing for roster size in the sex-matched sports, females had 0.97 more average annual claims (P sports with the highest average annual charges per athlete were softball, women's diving, men's basketball, wrestling, and men's gymnastics. Charges per claim were similar between the sex-matched sports, but the female sports had a higher number of annual claims per athlete and thus higher total charges per athlete/year. Football had the highest average annual total charges as a team, but when normalized for roster size football charges per athlete/year were similar to those of other sports.

  14. Diversity and utilization of bamboo species in Tigawasa Village, Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IDA BAGUS KETUT ARINASA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Tigawasa is one of the famous traditional villages as a center of bamboo handicraft in Buleleng regency-Bali. As a center of bamboo handicraft its have been wrestled since centuries. Their peoples have done traditionally bamboo conservation surrounding their house and garden too. The marginal area, river flow area and stiff slope that are outskirts of village become to focus of bamboo conservation by their peoples, too. This research conducted at Tigawasa village in June 2003 by stripe and interview methods. Two kilometers stripe length by 50 meters width; follow the direction north south of the river was investigated. To know the utilization of kind of bamboo and their product conducted by interview to craftsman and community figure. The result of inventory knew about four genus consist of 19 species planted in this village. To know those bamboo species will be presented their key of determination. The genus of Gigantochloa and Schizostachyum to dominate of their species, and have many uses of it’s, also. Not less than 54 kind of bamboos handicraft product was produced in this village. The diversity of bamboos handicraft product, develop according progress of the technology and demand of period. Many of new products composed and use of color or paint develop to produce varieties of fixed product. Two-kind of product that is traditional boxes (“sokasi” handicraft and woven bamboo (“bedeg” to become this village famous at Bali, even though in foreign countries Energetic development of bamboos home industry to come to decrease stock of raw materials. About two trucks supply from east Java regularly to anticipation of decrease local stock of raw materials every week.

  15. Review of Self-disclosure in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Rachel A; Del Castillo, Darren M; Stiles, William B

    2007-09-01

    Reviews the book, Self-disclosure in psychotherapy by Barry A. Farber (see record 2006-11792-000). At one point or another, most therapists have wondered how much their patients are telling them and wrestled with how much they should reveal themselves to their patients. This book aims to provide an integrative and up-to-date review of the literature that has addressed these kinds of questions. By looking at patient, therapist, supervisee, and supervisor self-disclosure, Farber attempts to show both common and unique aspects of self-disclosure across the different parties involved in psychotherapy. Work from historical, clinical, research, and cultural perspectives comes together to provide readers with a multifaceted view of self-disclosure in psychotherapy. This book will be of interest to therapists, researchers, psychotherapy supervisors, and therapists-in-training. Farber's discussion of self-disclosure offers a nuanced perspective on the dilemmas involved in the psychotherapy process. By highlighting the features of self-disclosure across patients, therapists, supervisees, and supervisors, Farber enriches understanding of the phenomenon and encourages empathy for the perspectives of those in other psychotherapy roles. We believe that Farber has successfully synthesized work from various perspectives to create an illuminating review of self-disclosure in psychotherapy. The book condenses a broad range of literature into clearly organized and digestible chapters. The integration of research and theory with clinical vignettes, quotations from books and movies, and popular song lyrics make this work an unusually engaging and accessible read. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Changes in body weight, body composition, and eating attitudes in high school wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka Humenikova; Betts, Nancy Mulhollen; Payton, Mark Edward

    2009-08-01

    Many wrestlers engage in chronic dieting and rapid "weight cutting" throughout the year to compete in a category below their natural weight. Such weight-management practices have a negative influence on their health and nutritional status, so the National Wrestling Coaches Association implemented a new weight-management program for high school wrestlers in 2006. The purpose of this study was to determine whether seasonal changes in weight, body fat, and eating attitudes occur among high school wrestlers after the implementation of the new weight-management rule. Fifteen high school wrestlers participated in the study. Their weight, body composition, and eating attitudes were measured preseason, in-season, and off-season. Body fat was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Attitudes toward dieting, food, and body weight were assessed using the Eating Attitude Test (EAT). No significant changes in body fat were detected from preseason to off-season. Weight increased from preseason to in-season (p < .05) and off-season (p < .05). Although the EAT score did not change significantly from preseason to off-season, 60% reported "thinking about burning up calories when exercising" during preseason, and only 40% felt that way during the season (p < .05) and 47% during, off-season (p < .05). The wrestlers experienced a significant weight gain from preseason to off-season with no significant changes in body fat. Their eating attitudes did not change significantly from preseason to off-season in this study, but further research using a large sample of high school wrestlers is warranted to confirm these findings.

  17. Comparison of respiratory functions of athletes engaged in different individual sports branches

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    Tülin Atan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It was aimed to research pulmonary functionsof sedentary males and athletes who engaged in differentindividual sports branches in the same age group.Methods: 50 male athletes in 15-16 age group in the starcategory participated from each of the branches of judo,athletics, wrestling, taekwondo, table tennis and swimmingand 50 sedentary males participated as well; beingin total 350 subjects. Among respiratory functions tests;vital capacity (VC, forced vital capacity (FVC and maximumvoluntary ventilation (MVV values were measured.Results were compared.Results: As a result of measurement, VC values of wrestlers,swimmer and taekwondo athletes were significantlyhigher than the values of sedentary males in statisticalsize (p<0.05 and p<0.01. VC values of swimmers weresignificantly higher than athletes of judo, track and fieldand table tennis athletes (p<0.01. It was determinedthat FVC and FEV1 values of swimmers and wrestlershave significantly higher values than sedentary subjects(p<0.05. FVIC values of swimmers were significantlyhigher than athletes, table tennis players and sedanters(p<0.05 and p<0.01. MVV values of swimmers were significantlyhigher than judo, track and field and table tennisathletes (p<0.05. When the respiration rate (RR was analyzed,RR value of table tennis players were significantlyhigher than wrestlers (p<0.05.Conclusion: As a result it was determined that respiratoryfunctions were higher among subjects who do exercisecompared to those who do not. That the respiratoryparameters of athletes doing exercise from differentbranches of star category are higher than those who donot shows the effect of training on respiratory system. Inaddition to this, the difference of respiratory functions betweenbranches shows that the sport branch influencesthe respiratory capacity.Key words: Respiratory functions, athletes, sport branches.

  18. How policy on employee involvement in work reintegration can yield its opposite: employee experiences in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiwald, Karin; Meershoek, Agnes; de Rijk, Angelique; Nijhuis, Frans

    2013-04-01

    Canada has a long tradition of involving employee representatives in developing work reintegration policies and expects this to positively affect employee involvement to improve work reintegration success. The purpose of this study was to examine employee involvement in reintegration in a Canadian province as experienced by employees. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were held with employees in a healthcare organization. The interview topic list was based on a review of local reintegration policy documents and literature. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using ethnographic methodology. Employees do not feel in control of their reintegration trajectory. In the phase of reporting sickness absence, they wrestle with a lack of understanding on how to report in sick. In the phase of reintegration planning and coordination, they hesitate to get involved in the organization of reintegration. In the phase of reintegration plan execution, employees encounter unfulfilled expectations on interventions. Employee involvement in the organization of reintegration makes them responsible for the development of reintegration trajectories. However, they consider themselves often incapable of completing this in practice. Moreover, employees experience that their contribution can boomerang on them. • It is not that employees are not able to think along or decide on their reintegration trajectory but rather they are expected to do so at times when they cannot oversee their illness and/or recovery trajectory. • Settings out reintegration procedures that are inflexible in practice do not recognize that employee involvement in work reintegration trajectories can develop over time. • The disability management professional has a central role in organizing and supporting employee involvement in work reintegration, however, the employees do not experience this is indeed happening.

  19. From the Myth of Level Playing Fields to the Reality of a Finite Planet: Comment on "A Global Social Support System: What the International Community Could Learn From the United States' National Basketball Association's Scheme for Redistribution of New Talent".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald

    2015-11-19

    Despite the mythology that the global economy with its trade rules creates a 'level playing field,' international trade has never involved 'level players.' The inequalities in outcomes generated by the more powerful winning more frequently has led to innovative ideas for ex post redistribution to make the matches between the players both fairer, and in the analogy to basketball used by the authors, more interesting and even more competitive. The proposal for a Global Social Protection Fund, financed by a small tax on the winners to enhance social protection spending for the losers, presumably increasing the latter's capabilities to compete more effectively in the global market game, is one such idea. It has much to commend it. Several problems, however, stand in its way, apart from those inherent within nations themselves and to which the authors give some attention. First, much global trade is now intra-firm rather than international, making calculations of which nations win or lose exceedingly difficult. Second, tax havens persist without the transparency and global regulatory oversights that would allow a better rendering of where winnings are stashed. Third, pre-distribution inequalities (those arising from market activities before government tax and transfer measures apply) are still increasing as labour's power to wrestle global capital into some ameliorative social contract diminishes. Fourth, there are finite limits to a planet on the cusp of multiple environmental crises. These problems do not diminish the necessity of alternative policy playbooks such as the proposed Fund, but point to the need to embrace the new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as a single set, such that economic growth for the bottom half of humanity includes deep structural reforms to both pre-distribution and redistribution, if the targets for environmental survival are to be met. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  20. Sustainability assessment of nuclear power: Discourse analysis of IAEA and IPCC frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel; Laes, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sustainability assessments (SAs) are methodologically precarious. • Discourse analysis reveals how the meaning of sustainability is constructed in SAs. • Discourse analysis is applied on the SAs of nuclear power of IAEA and IPCC. • For IAEA ‘sustainable’ equals ‘complying with best international practices’. • The IAEA framework largely inspires IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. - Abstract: Sustainability assessments (SAs) are methodologically precarious. Value-based judgments inevitably play a role in setting the scope of the SA, selecting assessment criteria and indicators, collecting adequate data, and developing and using models of considered systems. Discourse analysis can reveal how the meaning and operationalization of sustainability is constructed in and through SAs. Our discourse-analytical approach investigates how sustainability is channeled from ‘manifest image’ (broad but shallow), to ‘vision’, to ‘policy targets’ (specific and practical). This approach is applied on the SA frameworks used by IAEA and IPCC to assess the sustainability of the nuclear power option. The essentially problematic conclusion is that both SA frameworks are constructed in order to obtain answers that do not conflict with prior commitments adopted by the two institutes. For IAEA ‘sustainable’ equals ‘complying with best international practices and standards’. IPCC wrestles with its mission as a provider of “policy-relevant and yet policy-neutral, never policy-prescriptive” knowledge to decision-makers. IPCC avoids the assessment of different visions on the role of nuclear power in a low-carbon energy future, and skips most literature critical of nuclear power. The IAEA framework largely inspires IPCC AR5

  1. Science education reform in Confucian learning cultures: teachers' perspectives on policy and practice in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Syuan; Asghar, Anila

    2018-03-01

    This empirical study investigates secondary science teachers' perspectives on science education reform in Taiwan and reflects how these teachers have been negotiating constructivist and learner-centered pedagogical approaches in contemporary science education. It also explores the challenges that teachers encounter while shifting their pedagogical focus from traditional approaches to teaching science to an active engagement in students' learning. Multiple sources of qualitative data were obtained, including individual interviews with science teachers and teachers' reflective journals about Confucianism in relation to their educational philosophies. Thematic analysis and constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that Confucian traditions play a significant role in shaping educational practices in Taiwan and profoundly influence teachers' epistemological beliefs and their actual classroom practice. Indeed, science teachers' perspectives on Confucian learning traditions played a key role in supporting or obstructing their pedagogical commitments to inquiry-based and learner-centered approaches. This study draws on the literature concerning teachers' professional struggles and identity construction during educational reform. Specifically, we explore the ways in which teachers respond to educational changes and negotiate their professional identities. We employed various theories of identity construction to understand teachers' struggles and challenges while wrestling with competing traditional and reform-based pedagogical approaches. Attending to these struggles and the ways in which they inform the development of a teacher's professional identity is vital for sustaining current and future educational reform in Taiwan as well as in other Eastern cultures. These findings have important implications for teachers' professional development programs in East Asian cultures.

  2. Effects of carbohydrate, branched-chain amino acids, and arginine in recovery period on the subsequent performance in wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Tsong-Rong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many athletes need to participate in multiple events in a single day. The efficient post-exercise glycogen recovery may be critical for the performance in subsequent exercise. This study examined whether post-exercise carbohydrate supplementation could restore the performance in the subsequent simulated wrestling match. The effect of branched-chain amino acids and arginine on glucose disposal and performance was also investigated. Nine well-trained male wrestlers participated in 3 trials in a random order. Each trial contained 3 matches with a 1-hr rest between match 1 and 2, and a 2-hr rest between match 2 and 3. Each match contained 3 exercise periods interspersed with 1-min rests. The subjects alternated 10-s all-out sprints and 20-s rests in each exercise period. At the end of match 2, 3 different supplementations were consumed: 1.2 g/kg glucose (CHO trial, 1 g/kg glucose + 0.1 g/kg Arg + 0.1 g/kg BCAA (CHO+AA trial, or water (placebo trial. The peak and average power in the 3 matches was similar in the 3 trials. After the supplementation, CHO and CHO+AA trial showed significantly higher glucose and insulin, and lower glycerol and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations than the placebo trial. There was no significant difference in these biochemical parameters between the CHO and CHO+AA trials. Supplementation of carbohydrate with or without BCAA and arginine during the post-match period had no effect on the performance in the following simulated match in wrestlers. In addition, BCAA and arginine did not provide additional insulinemic effect.

  3. Ways of understanding parental chronic pain: a typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberger, Wendy; Martsolf, Donna; Jacobson, Ann; Risko, Judy; Calabro, Mary; Patterson, Mary

    2014-12-01

    Chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) is a prevalent occurrence and is experienced by adults in their child-rearing years. Communication within the family about parental illness can be formidable, and family members are often uninformed about illness details. To date, there is no research exploring how children and adolescents understand parental chronic pain, a very complex phenomenon, and its related disability. The aim of this study was to develop a substantive theory that describes how adolescents manage the experience of living with a parent suffering with CNCP and environmental factors that help or hinder this process. Grounded theory was used, the focus of which was adolescents' processes of dealing with parental illness in the interpersonal and environmental contexts of their daily lives. A sample of 30 young adults was recruited in northeastern Ohio using theoretical sampling. During open-ended interviews, participants were asked to look back on their adolescence and talk about how they managed living with parental chronic pain. Interview transcripts and field notes were analyzed using constant comparative methods. Six ways of understanding parental chronic pain emerged from the data: noticing something is different, wrestling with not knowing, searching for answers, questioning the validity of pain, developing insight into the complexity of pain, and learning important life lessons. Findings shed light on how adolescents understand and attach meaning and significance to parental chronic pain and disability and serve as the basis for the development of personalized family interventions. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The beliefs of nurses who were involved in a whistleblowing event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Kathryn; McDonald, Sally

    2002-05-01

    Nursing codes of ethics bind nurses to the role of patient advocate and compel them to take action when the rights or safety of a patient are jeopardized. Reporting misconduct is known as whistleblowing and studies indicate that there are personal and professional risks involved in blowing the whistle. The aim of this study was to explore the beliefs of nurses who wrestled with this ethical dilemma. A descriptive survey design was used to examine the beliefs of nurses in Western Australia who reported misconduct (whistleblowers) and of those who did not report misconduct (nonwhistleblowers). The instrument listed statements from current ethical codes, statements from traditional views on nursing and statements of beliefs related to the participant's whistleblowing experience. Respondents were asked to rate each item on a five-point Likert format which ranged from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Data were analysed using a Pearson's correlation matrix and one-way ANOVA. To further explore the data, a factor analysis was run with varimax rotation. Results indicated that whistleblowers supported the beliefs inherent in patient advocacy, while nonwhistleblowers retained a belief in the traditional role of nursing. Participants who reported misconduct (whistleblowers) supported the belief that nurses were primarily responsible to the patient and should protect a patient from incompetent or unethical people. Participants who did not report misconduct (nonwhistleblowers) supported the belief that nurses are obligated to follow a physician's order at all times and that nurses are equally responsible to the patient, the physician and the employer. These findings indicate that nurses may respond to ethical dilemmas based on different belief systems.

  5. From Olympia to Atlanta: a cultural-historical perspective on diet and athletic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivetti, L E; Applegate, E A

    1997-05-01

    Greek and Roman writers described diet and training of Olympic athletes. Lucian (A.D. 120-ca. 180) described distance and speed work in runners; Galen (A.D. 131-201) recommended ball-related exercises to train vision and the body; Philostratos (A.D. 170-249) suggested cross training by endurance running, weight training, and wrestling with animals. The ancient Greek training system, the tetrad (eta tau epsilon tau rho alpha sigma), was a four-day cycle with each day devoted to a different activity. Diogenes Laertius (died A.D. 222) wrote that Greek athletes trained on dried figs, moist cheese and wheat; then the pattern changed and focused on meat. Epictetus (2nd century A.D.) wrote that Olympic victors avoided desserts and cold water and took wine sparingly. Philostratos deprecated athletic diet in his era, a pattern based on white bread sprinkled with poppy seeds, fish and pork. Americans at the XIth Olympiad in Berlin (1936) consumed beefsteak with average daily intake of 125 grams of butter or cotton oil, three eggs, custard for dessert and 1.5 L of milk. The American pattern at Berlin was characterized by ad libitum intake of white bread, dinner rolls, fresh vegetables and salads. At Atlanta, more than 5 million meals will be served during the Olympic festival. The highly varied menu will include fresh vegetables and dips; fruits, cheeses and breads; salads; pasta, rice and fruit salads; soups; meat and seafood entrees; hot vegetables; desserts; and beverages. American Southern specialties will be served.

  6. Bionic Humans Using EAP as Artificial Muscles Reality and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoseph Bar-Cohen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available For many years, the idea of a human with bionic muscles immediately conjures up science fiction images of a TV series superhuman character that was implanted with bionic muscles and portrayed with strength and speed far superior to any normal human. As fantastic as this idea may seem, recent developments in electroactive polymers (EAP may one day make such bionics possible. Polymers that exhibit large displacement in response to stimulation that is other than electrical signal were known for many years. Initially, EAP received relatively little attention due to their limited actuation capability. However, in the recent years, the view of the EAP materials has changed due to the introduction of effective new materials that significantly surpassed the capability of the widely used piezoelectric polymer, PVDF. As this technology continues to evolve, novel mechanisms that are biologically inspired are expected to emerge. EAP materials can potentially provide actuation with lifelike response and more flexible configurations. While further improvements in performance and robustness are still needed, there already have been several reported successes. In recognition of the need for cooperation in this multidisciplinary field, the author initiated and organized a series of international forums that are leading to a growing number of research and development projects and to great advances in the field. In 1999, he challenged the worldwide science and engineering community of EAP experts to develop a robotic arm that is actuated by artificial muscles to win a wrestling match against a human opponent. In this paper, the field of EAP as artificial muscles will be reviewed covering the state of the art, the challenges and the vision for the progress in future years.

  7. From Socialism to Hedge Fund: The Human Element and the New History of Capitalism

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    David Huyssen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alfred Winslow Jones was a socialist who founded the first hedge fund in 1949. He had been U.S. Vice Consul in Berlin from 1931 to 1932, Soviet sympathizer and anti-Nazi spy with dissident German communists, humanitarian observer during the Spanish Civil War, acclaimed sociologist of class, and an editor for Fortune magazine. At every stage of his life, Jones occupied positions of advantage, and his invention of the modern hedge fund has had an outsized impact on global capitalism’s contemporary round of financialization. On its face, then, his life would appear to offer ideal material for a “great-man” biography. Yet this “great man” also wrestled with the continual recognition that structural forces were undermining his fondest hopes for social change. Following Georgi Derluguian, Giovanni Arrighi, and Marc Bloch, this article proposes a world-system biography of Jones as a method better suited for mapping the internal dialectics of twentieth-century capitalism, using Jones as a human connection between cyclical and structural transformations of capitalism, and across changes of phase from financial to material expansion—and back again. On another level, it suggests a theoretical reorientation—toward what Bloch called “the human element”—for studies of capitalism’s cultural and material history. It argues that such a reorientation would hold rewards for the “new history of capitalism” field, which until now has pursued its quarry primarily by tracing the movements of commodities, capital, institutions, and ideas.

  8. Adolescent Sports Participation, E-cigarette Use, and Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliz, Phil; McCabe, Sean Esteban; McCabe, Vita V; Boyd, Carol J

    2017-11-01

    Although sport participation among adolescents has been found to lower the risk of traditional cigarette smoking, no studies to date have assessed if this type of physical activity lowers the risk of e-cigarette use among adolescents. National data from the 2014 and 2015 Monitoring the Future study of 12th-grade students were used and analyses were conducted in 2016. Measures for past 30-day e-cigarette use and traditional cigarette smoking were used to assess differences between adolescents who participated in at least one competitive sport during the past year and adolescents who did not. Differences in e-cigarette use and traditional cigarette smoking were assessed between 13 different sports to determine which sports were associated with a greater or lower risk of these behaviors. Adolescents who participated in at least one competitive sport were less likely to engage in past 30-day traditional cigarette smoking (AOR=0.73, 95% CI=0.538, 0.973) and past 30-day dual use of traditional cigarettes and e-cigarettes (AOR=0.66, 95% CI=0.438, 0.982) when compared with their nonparticipating peers. Adolescents who participated in baseball/softball and wrestling were at greatest risk of e-cigarette use. Of the 13 assessed sports, none were found to lower the odds of e-cigarette use. No significant evidence was found that participation in a sport was a protective factor against e-cigarette use. Certain types of athletes are at an elevated risk of e-cigarette use, and prevention efforts targeted at these specific sports should be considered by school administrators. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Teaching Illiteracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Mansfield

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In mainstream humanities and social sciences, a traditional humanism has given way to an ethos of cultural difference. One form of cosmopolitanism triumphs over another as the goal of pedagogy. Both these cosmopolitanisms keep alive a model of culture as the thing that texts and practices instantiate, and what explains and locates them. The role of education becomes either knowledge of or at least sensitivity to the invisible parent formation out of which cultural practices arise. Yet a survey we conducted of Hong Kong–based students studying cultural studies in Australia found that they did not experience texts in relation to this larger parent formation, and seemed uninterested in reading culture this way. Their own tastes shifted from one form and context to another rapidly, without interest in texts' origins or provenance. Similarly, teachers of cultural studies wrestled with their own ignorance of the background and context of the texts they taught or that students suggested as examples. Both teachers and students taught and discussed cultural languages in which they were largely illiterate. These issues are discussed through a reading of Jacques Derrida's autobiographical work on language, pedagogy and colonialism Monolingualism of the Other. The contrast Derrida makes between 'source languages' and what he calls 'langues d'arrivee' (target languages or languages of arrival, happenstance or the event allows for a speculative reconsideration of texts  not as exemplary of culture but as an engagement with language traces whose historical/political significance comes from the event of their instantiation not the legacy of their origin.

  10. Adapting to Climate Change. A question for our societies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Euzen, Agathe; Thiebault, Stephanie; Laville, Bettina; Fuchs, Alain; Barbut, Monique; Zaccai, Edwin; Schoenfeld, Sarah; Jouzel, Jean; Magnan, Alexandre K.; Duvat, Virginie K.E.; Banks, William E.; Errico, Francesco d'; Garnier, Emmanuel; Grunau, Christoph; Joly, Dominique; Gibert, Patricia; Till-Bottraud, Irene; Vlassopoulos, Chloe Anne; Chenorkian, Robert; Abbadie, Luc; Courtois, Elodie A.; Chave, Jerome; Hossaert-Mckey, Martine; Boeuf, Gilles; Gardel, Antoine; Fromard, Francois; Anthony, Edward J.; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Gaill, Francoise; Courchamp, Franck; Bellard, Celine; Guegan, Jean-Francois; Torre-Schaub, Marta; Mathy, Sandrine; Weikmans, Romain; Bonduelle, Antoine; Berdoulay, Vincent; Soubeyran, Olivier; Brun, Eric; Duvernoy, Jerome; Mondon, Sylvain; Schafferer, Frederic; Girault, Anne; Francoise, Yann; Bertrand, Francois; Heulin, Thierry; Hatte, Christine; Abbadie, Luc; Dubost, Christian; Cochran, Ian; Depoues, Vivian; Hubert, Romain; Nicol, Morgane; Dutertre, Philippe; Garreau, Francois; Nahon, Claude; Maucort, Eric; Torres, Javier; Slaoui, Abdelilah; Brault, Pascal; Flamant, Gilles; David, Sylvain; Bouzeghoub, Mokrane; Sultan, Benjamin; Lalou, Richard; Sanni, Mouftaou Amadou; Oumarou, Amadou; Soumare, Mame Arame; Quenol, Herve; Yiou, Pascal; Jezequel, Aglae; Buclet, Nicolas; Simonet, Guillaume; Maris, Virginie

    2017-01-01

    Adapting to climate change and global change have become vital goals for all societies. These same societies are faced at times with unexpected meteorological phenomena that are becoming increasingly frequent and intense, including flooding, droughts and tornadoes. They are also having to wrestle with rising temperatures and the follow-on effects on the balance of ecosystems, the evolution of species, and animal and plant life, not to mention the development of human populations, their living conditions and social organisation. Although the capacity of ecosystems to adapt or convert has been demonstrated by studies on climate variations over time, the growing pace of some phenomena may well lead to a point of no return. In fact, with the global rise in temperature - caused by human activities in particular - we might already have reached this stage. This book, which consists of some fifty articles by scientists and experts, is unique. It makes us think about what lies behind the notions of adaptation and mal-adaptation, drawing on several disciplines, sectors and regional fields. It also highlights the checks and limitations of adaptation, as well as reflecting and suggesting ways of acting and adjusting. The contributions made to this work serve to reinforce the implementation of the Paris Climate Agreement (2015), especially the COP 23 climate conference (23. Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Bonn, 2017), where adaptation, its objectives and financing, are some of the priorities. This book is the result of a partnership between the CNRS and Comite 21. It was jointly edited by Agathe Euzen (deputy scientific director at the CNRS Ecology and Environment Institute); Bettina Laville (state councillor and Comite 21 chair); and Stephanie Thiebault (director of the CNRS Ecology and Environment Institute)

  11. Interaction of ACTN3 gene polymorphism and muscle imbalance effects on kinematic efficiency in combat sports athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hansang; Lee, Namju; Park, Sok

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the interaction of ACTN3 gene polymorphism and muscle imbalance effects on kinematic efficiency changes in combat sports athletes. Six types of combat sports athletes (Judo, Taekwondo, boxing, kendo, wrestling, and Korean Ssi-reum) participated in the study. ATCN3 gene polymorphism and muscle imbalance in lower extremity were evaluated followed by analysis of differences of moment in hip, knee, and ankle joint during V-cut jumping and stop. To examine the moment difference due to an interaction of ATCN3 polymorphism and muscle imbalance, all participants were divided into 4 groups (R+MB, R+MIB, X+MB, and X+MIB). There was no significant difference of hip, knee, and ankle joint moment in R allele and X allele during V-cut jumping and stop based on ACTN3 gene polymorphism. Otherwise, muscle imbalance of knee moment in X-axis and ground reaction force of knee in Z-axis showed a higher significance in muscle imbalance during V-cut jumping and stop compared to muscle balance (pimbalance in X allele group had significantly higher knee moment of V-cut ground reaction force in X-axis and higher ankle moment of jumping ground reaction force in X and Z-axis compared to muscle balance with R and/or X group (p imbalance in lower extremity of combat athletes might induce higher risk factors of sports injury incidence than genetic factor and training might reduce the ratio of sports injury risk incidence.

  12. Pabellón polideportivo de la Universidad de Liverpool, Inglaterra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Lasdun & Partners, Arquitectos

    1969-03-01

    Full Text Available In this general project two main zones can be clearly differentiated. One is the swimming pool, and the the other the sport field. There are also four pelota courts, rooms for general activities, where weightlifting, gymnastics, rythmic dancing, judo, wrestling and other exercises can be practised, as well as offices, dressing rooms for both sexes, a bar and store rooms. The pool is 33.53 m x 14.63 m in area, and its depth varies betwen 0.91 and 3.80 m. It has low and high diving boards, and a stand for 150 spectators, providing a good view of the swimming competitions. The multisports field, is 36.58 m x 19.50 m in area, can be used for basket ball, tennis, and other such sports. It can be divided by netting, so that several sports may be practised simultaneously.Se pueden apreciar claramente dos zonas principales: «piscina » y «pista para deportes». El conjunto cuenta además con cuatro campos de pelota; las salas de actividades generales, que permiten practicar el manejo de pesas, esgrima, gimnasia rítmica, judo, lucha, y otras formas de ejercicio físico; oficinas, vestuarios para ambos sexos, bar, almacenes, etc. La piscina mide 33,53 m x 14,63 m; su profundidad oscila entre 0,91 m y 3,80 m, y dispone de palancas y trampolines y una galería con asientos para 150 espectadores, desde la que se domina el desarrollo de las competiciones deportivas. En la pista polideportiva, da 36,58 m x 19,50 m, se practican el baloncesto, tenis, etc.; mediante un sistema de redes puede dividirse, con objeto de que se puedan desarrollar en ella, simultáneamente, varias actividades deportivas.

  13. Breyten Breytenbach se Boek: die taal (poësie as voelinstrument om bewussyn te verken

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    W. Burger

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Breyten Breytenbach’s Boek: language (poetry as feelinginstrument to explore consciousness One of the big questions of science is the mystery of consciousness. How is it possible that a state of consciousness, an awareness of your own being and actions, can originate from matter, from the movement of neurons in nerve tissue? While neuroscience does not have answers to these questions (yet, the subjective exploration of consciousness by means of works of art, could make a valuable contribution. Breyten Breytenbach explicitly views his art (writing and painting as ways to investigate consciousness. In “Boek” (1987 Breytenbach explains his views on art. In this complex work, he focusses, among other aspects, on the idea that the work of art, at a specific moment, produces an “other”, a meaning that has not hitherto existed somewhere, waiting to be discovered. This hitherto unknown meaning comes into existence in the moment of creation. The creative moment in which the hitherto unknown is wrestled from the known, cannot be produced by following a recipe. The unknown, the other, virtually invades the world of the artist, as if the work of art happens to the artist, instead of him creating it. This experience has a changing effect on the artist and in the process he learns more about his own consciousness. The changing effect is not restricted to the artist, as the reader of the poem shares this experience. Because the reader is also writer, according to Breytenbach, the work of art is recreated by the reader and the reader has the same experience of a virtual invasion of the “other” on his/her own life and in the process also discovers more about his/her own consciousness.

  14. Ang Usaping Pang-Wika sa Bagong Yugto ng Pantayong Pananaw: Ang Panloob na Hamon ng Pluralismo

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    S. Lily Mendoza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay engages the language debates in the Philippines as they play out within the politics of an intellectual movement in the Philippine academy called Pantayong Pananaw. Roughly translated as a “for-us, of-us, and by-us perspective,” the movement’s goal is to create the conditions for the possibility of a closed circuit of communication (the context of “us speaking among ourselves” vs. “us speaking with others” among Filipinos deemed crucial for the democratic constitution of a national polity of speakers able to share a vision of the common good. Key to the success of this national(izing project is the advocacy of a common medium of communication: in this case, F/Pilipino/Tagalog. In this study, I push back on Pantayong Pananaw in its singular focus on national unity and raise issue with its seeming lack of vision—if not in theory, in practice—for the role that the plural languages and cultures in the country might play in its envisioned “national community.” Cast as the interlocutor in this regard is a growing ethnonationalist movement among a number of regional ethnolinguistic communities who fear marginalization of their respective cultures, languages, and identities through what they call the oppresssive hegemony of one region (Manila and its ultimately assimilationist policy. How to make sense of the opposing imperatives of a nationalizing agenda, on the one hand, and of ethnonationalist survival and thriving, on the other, is the problematic being wrestled here. The stakes are spelled out and the larger political context mapped out, but in the end, both nationalist and ethnonationalist projects are challenged to take seriously not only the promise, but also the limits, of their respective visions.

  15. Towards a scientific concept of free will as a biological trait: spontaneous actions and decision-making in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembs, Björn

    2011-03-22

    Until the advent of modern neuroscience, free will used to be a theological and a metaphysical concept, debated with little reference to brain function. Today, with ever increasing understanding of neurons, circuits and cognition, this concept has become outdated and any metaphysical account of free will is rightfully rejected. The consequence is not, however, that we become mindless automata responding predictably to external stimuli. On the contrary, accumulating evidence also from brains much smaller than ours points towards a general organization of brain function that incorporates flexible decision-making on the basis of complex computations negotiating internal and external processing. The adaptive value of such an organization consists of being unpredictable for competitors, prey or predators, as well as being able to explore the hidden resource deterministic automats would never find. At the same time, this organization allows all animals to respond efficiently with tried-and-tested behaviours to predictable and reliable stimuli. As has been the case so many times in the history of neuroscience, invertebrate model systems are spearheading these research efforts. This comparatively recent evidence indicates that one common ability of most if not all brains is to choose among different behavioural options even in the absence of differences in the environment and perform genuinely novel acts. Therefore, it seems a reasonable effort for any neurobiologist to join and support a rather illustrious list of scholars who are trying to wrestle the term 'free will' from its metaphysical ancestry. The goal is to arrive at a scientific concept of free will, starting from these recently discovered processes with a strong emphasis on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying them.

  16. Key Success Factors in Business Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Adamala

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Business Intelligence can bring critical capabilities to an organization, but the implementation of such capabilities is often plagued with problems. Why is it that certain projects fail, while others succeed? The aim of this article is to identify the factors that are present in successful Business Intelligence projects and to organize them into a framework of critical success factors. A survey was conducted during the spring of 2011 to collect primary data on Business Intelligence projects. Findings confirm that Business Intelligence projects are wrestling with both technological and non-technological problems, but the non-technological problems are found to be harder to solve as well as more time consuming than their counterparts. The study also shows that critical success factors for Business Intelligence projects are different from success factors for Information Systems projects in general. Business Intelligences projects have critical success factors that are unique to the subject matter. Major differences can be found primarily among non-technological factors, such as the presence of a specific business need and a clear vision to guide the project. Success depends on types of project funding, the business value provided by each iteration in the project and the alignment of the project to a strategic vision for Business Intelligence at large. Furthermore, the study provides a framework for critical success factors that, explains sixty-one percent of variability of success for projects. Areas which should be given special attention include making sure that the Business Intelligence solution is built with the end users in mind, that the Business Intelligence solution is closely tied to the company’s strategic vision and that the project is properly scoped and prioritized to concentrate on the best opportunities first.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF COORDINATION ABILITIES OF FUTURE TEACHERS OF PHYSICAL TRAINING IN THE TRAINING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Nikolaevich Shutov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of implementing the methods of development coordination abilities in students of different sports specializations, students at the Faculty of Physical Education in the process of training in gymnastics. In the content of the classes includes a range of applied exercises with rotation in different planes of space, as a support, and the unsupported position, as well as their implementation in different directions of motion.The purpose - to improve the methods of development of coordination abilities of future teachers of physical culture in the process of training.Methodology development of coordination abilities based on the use of compound exercises with rotation in different planes of the space in the support and unsupported posture.Results. As a result of the development of methods of coordination abilities of the students showed a significant gain significant results when performing jumps with rotation (p <0.05. Significant increase was seen in the results of the students involved in wrestling, the results of which have reached the indicators close to the values typical for students specializing in gymnastics.The average value of the expert evaluation of the motor action from the arsenal of acrobatics and exercises on the equipment the students of the experimental group was 4.7 and 4.6 points, while the traditional method for dealing with this figure is 3.4 and 3.1 point, respectively (p < 0.05.Practical implications. Technique can be used as part of training students of physical culture of pedagogical universities.

  18. To regulate or not to regulate?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, G.; Wrixon, A. [IAEA, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In Hamlet famous soliloquy to be or not to be, he wrestles with the perennial human problem of choosing the right course of action in difficult circumstances. In recent years, we have witnessed a cast of thousands playing out a long-running scene that seems to echo Hamlet dilemma on a rather more prosaic level. When is it necessary to apply regulations to the control of exposure to ionizing radiation and when is regulatory control not warranted? This seemingly straightforward question has brought out the philosopher, ethician, lawyer, pragmatist, orator in simple radiation protection folk and has led to passionate debate on numerous occasions. This paper attempts an answer based on a review of recent developments. For deciding when to apply regulatory controls, several concepts have evolved over time, including exemption of practices and sources, exclusion of exposures and clearance of materials. These have different origins, purposes and characteristics. Exemption and clearance have often been associated with triviality of risk, while exclusion has been related to un-amenability of control. For each concept, criteria have been developed to assist the regulator in reaching a decision, but there has much disputation over numerical values. This paper briefly reviews and analyses recent developments and attempts to clarify the problem from first principles. The conclusion is that the underlying issue in each case is to determine when regulatory controls become unwarranted: that is, when the societal resources expended in applying them and complying with them would be disproportionate to any benefit they might bring. This is a natural extension of the principle of optimization of protection to the regulatory control of protection, in the context of exposure to radiation at very low levels. It also reflects common expectations of good governance: wise management of finite societal resources and avoidance of unwarranted controls on

  19. To regulate or not to regulate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.; Wrixon, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In Hamlet famous soliloquy to be or not to be, he wrestles with the perennial human problem of choosing the right course of action in difficult circumstances. In recent years, we have witnessed a cast of thousands playing out a long-running scene that seems to echo Hamlet dilemma on a rather more prosaic level. When is it necessary to apply regulations to the control of exposure to ionizing radiation and when is regulatory control not warranted? This seemingly straightforward question has brought out the philosopher, ethician, lawyer, pragmatist, orator in simple radiation protection folk and has led to passionate debate on numerous occasions. This paper attempts an answer based on a review of recent developments. For deciding when to apply regulatory controls, several concepts have evolved over time, including exemption of practices and sources, exclusion of exposures and clearance of materials. These have different origins, purposes and characteristics. Exemption and clearance have often been associated with triviality of risk, while exclusion has been related to un-amenability of control. For each concept, criteria have been developed to assist the regulator in reaching a decision, but there has much disputation over numerical values. This paper briefly reviews and analyses recent developments and attempts to clarify the problem from first principles. The conclusion is that the underlying issue in each case is to determine when regulatory controls become unwarranted: that is, when the societal resources expended in applying them and complying with them would be disproportionate to any benefit they might bring. This is a natural extension of the principle of optimization of protection to the regulatory control of protection, in the context of exposure to radiation at very low levels. It also reflects common expectations of good governance: wise management of finite societal resources and avoidance of unwarranted controls on

  20. Hematological, oxidative stress, and immune status profiling in elite combat sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopsaj, Violeta; Martinovic, Jelena; Dopsaj, Milivoj; Kasum, Goran; Kotur-Stevuljevic, Jelena; Koropanovski, Nenad

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to profile hematological, oxidative stress, and immunological parameters in male athletes who practiced combat sports and to determine whether the type of combat sport influenced the measured parameters. Eighteen karate professionals, 15 wrestlers, and 14 kickboxers participated in the study. Hematological, iron-related, oxidative stress, and immunological parameters were measured at the beginning of a precompetitive period. The general linear model showed significant differences between the karate professionals, wrestlers, and kickboxers with respect to their hematological and iron status parameters (Wilks' Lambda = 0.270, F = 2.186, p stress status (Wilks' Lambda = 0.529, F = 1.940, p < 0.05). The immature reticulocyte fraction was significantly higher in wrestlers (0.30 ± 0.03) compared with kickboxers (0.24 ± 0.04; p < 0.05) and karate professionals (0.26 ± 0.04; p < 0.05). Low hemoglobin density was significantly lower in wrestlers and kickboxers (p < 0.05) compared with karate professionals (karate: 3.51 ± 1.19, wrestlers: 1.95 ± 1.10, and kickboxers: 1.77 ± 0.76). Significant differences were observed between the karate professionals and wrestlers with respect to their pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance (437 ± 103 vs. 323 ± 148, p < 0.05) and superoxide-dismutase activity (SOD) (73 ± 37 vs. 103 ± 30, p < 0.05). All the measured parameters (with the exception of SOD activity) fell within their physiological ranges, indicating that the study participants represented a young and healthy male population. Hematological parameters differed between kickboxers and karate professionals. The low pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance and high SOD activity in wrestlers could be associated with the long-term impact of wrestling as a type of strenuous exercise.

  1. Tests for the Assessment of Sport-Specific Performance in Olympic Combat Sports: A Systematic Review With Practical Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabene, Helmi; Negra, Yassine; Bouguezzi, Raja; Capranica, Laura; Franchini, Emerson; Prieske, Olaf; Hbacha, Hamdi; Granacher, Urs

    2018-01-01

    The regular monitoring of physical fitness and sport-specific performance is important in elite sports to increase the likelihood of success in competition. This study aimed to systematically review and to critically appraise the methodological quality, validation data, and feasibility of the sport-specific performance assessment in Olympic combat sports like amateur boxing, fencing, judo, karate, taekwondo, and wrestling. A systematic search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, Google-Scholar, and Science-Direct up to October 2017. Studies in combat sports were included that reported validation data (e.g., reliability, validity, sensitivity) of sport-specific tests. Overall, 39 studies were eligible for inclusion in this review. The majority of studies (74%) contained sample sizes sport-specific tests (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.43-1.00). Content validity was addressed in all included studies, criterion validity (only the concurrent aspect of it) in approximately half of the studies with correlation coefficients ranging from r = -0.41 to 0.90. Construct validity was reported in 31% of the included studies and predictive validity in only one. Test sensitivity was addressed in 13% of the included studies. The majority of studies (64%) ignored and/or provided incomplete information on test feasibility and methodological limitations of the sport-specific test. In 28% of the included studies, insufficient information or a complete lack of information was provided in the respective field of the test application. Several methodological gaps exist in studies that used sport-specific performance tests in Olympic combat sports. Additional research should adopt more rigorous validation procedures in the application and description of sport-specific performance tests in Olympic combat sports.

  2. The impact of post-merger cross-shareholdings on South African merger control policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Charter

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a concentration of EU and US standards in the South African economy. In addition, a number of large industries have been undergoing consolidation. As a result, the phenomenon of cross-holdings, both within and across industries, is not unusual. In cases where the level of cross-holding falls short of joint control, the competition authorities have at times sought to apply the co-ordinated effects doctrine or some variation thereof hoping to lessen potential competition. More recently, the Tribunal has also considered the possible unilateral effects of the acquisition of a minority stake in a rival. A number of cases has emerged that to a greater or lesser degree explores the impact of crossholdings and cross-directorships on the competitive behaviour of the firms concerned. This paper includes a review of some of these decisions with a view to determining whether any clear policy seems likely to emerge from the competition authorities. The authorities’ approach to date, reveals an evolution from reflex suspicion to a more reasoned, fact-based outlook. Cross-holdings and directorships are treated in the same way as any other evidence relevant to an analysis of a given merger. However, despite the Tribunal’s willingness to wrestle with various economic theories, the most recent decision suggests that the acquisition of a non-controlling cross-holding in a company may not fall under the analysis of South African merger regulation at all. Should that position change, following clarification by the Tribunal or an unequivocal ruling of the Competition Appeal Court, the body of case law goes some way to indicating the type and manner of analysis the authorities will employ.

  3. Características de las instalaciones adaptadas

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    Editorial, Equipo

    1968-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of secondary adaptations were carried out at some of the Olympic installations. These included the improvement of the spectator seats, zones for the information services, increase in the number of wash rooms, so that the Olympic formal requirements could be met at the following specific Olympic sites: The Mexico Arena, for the boxing competitions; the Avandaro & Campo Marte, for the riding competitions; the Azteca Stadium, for football; the Auditorio Nacional, for gymnastics; the Estadio Municipal y Secundario de la «Magdalena Mixhuca », for hockey; the Teatro de los Insurgentes, for weightlif ting ; the Pista Hielo Insurgentes, for wrestling; Club de Yates at Acapulco, for sailing; Pista Hielo Revolución, for volleyball; and the Piscina de la Ciudad Universitaria, for water polo.Se hicieron una serie de adaptaciones secundarias: mejora de los asientos para espectadores, creación de zonas para los servicios de información, ampliación del número de cancelas y aseos, etcétera, de modo que satisficiesen los requisitos olímpicos reglamentarios en las siguientes instalaciones ya existentes: El Arena México, para la celebración de los combates de boxeo; el Avándaro y Campo Marte, para las pruebas ecuestres; Estadio Azteca, fútbol; Auditorio Nacional, gimnasia; Estadio Municipal y Secundarios de la «Magdalena Mixhuca», hockey; Teatro de los Insurgentes, levantamiento de pesas; Pista Hielo Insurgentes, lucha; Club de Yates en Acapulco, vela; Pista Hielo Revolución, balonvolea, y Piscina de la Ciudad Universitaria, water-polo.

  4. Integrated Disease Investigations and Surveillance planning: a systems approach to strengthening national surveillance and detection of events of public health importance in support of the International Health Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Sarah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The international community continues to define common strategic themes of actions to improve global partnership and international collaborations in order to protect our populations. The International Health Regulations (IHR[2005] offer one of these strategic themes whereby World Health Organization (WHO Member States and global partners engaged in biosecurity, biosurveillance and public health can define commonalities and leverage their respective missions and resources to optimize interventions. The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Cooperative Biologica Engagement Program (CBEP works with partner countries across clinical, veterinary, epidemiological, and laboratory communities to enhance national disease surveillance, detection, diagnostic, and reporting capabilities. CBEP, like many other capacity building programs, has wrestled with ways to improve partner country buy-in and ownership and to develop sustainable solutions that impact integrated disease surveillance outcomes. Designing successful implementation strategies represents a complex and challenging exercise and requires robust and transparent collaboration at the country level. To address this challenge, the Laboratory Systems Development Branch of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC and CBEP have partnered to create a set of tools that brings together key leadership of the surveillance system into a deliberate system design process. This process takes into account strengths and limitations of the existing system, how the components inter-connect and relate to one another, and how they can be systematically refined within the local context. The planning tools encourage cross-disciplinary thinking, critical evaluation and analysis of existing capabilities, and discussions across organizational and departmental lines toward a shared course of action and purpose. The underlying concepts and methodology of these tools are presented here.

  5. Risk assessment of AMC (Advanced measurement and control systems). Survey of information security vulnerabilities in AMC.; Risikovurdering av AMS. Kartlegging av informasjonssikkerhetsmessige s#Latin Small Letter A With Ring Above#rbarheter i AMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartnes, Line Maria [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Johansen, Gorm Idar [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); S#Latin Small Letter Ae#le, Hanne [Sintef Energy, Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-07-01

    SINTEF has carried out an overall assessment of Advanced measurement and control Systems (AMC) for Norway Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE). The assessment includes mainly AMC basis functions, which are record measurement data in customer and transfer these to the network, as well as wrestling / throttling power outlet in the each measuring point. Adjoining IT systems with network companies are considered only to a limited degree. The focus in analysis has been measuring point by geographical location, and the opportunity for both consumption and feed. Mobile devices such as measuring the charging of electric vehicles have not been touched upon in the analysis. It must be noted that this report provides an overall risk assessment related to general AMC technology and infrastructure. Each grid company must prepare their own risk assessments for their systems. The report describes a general AMC infrastructure with the refinements that have been made for this analysis. Then it is made an assessment on the basis of an information security perspective, the confidentiality, integrity and availability are the most important aspects. Different scenarios and events are presented and discussed, and the events that are judged to be at highest risk, one or more of the following elements out: - Unwanted shutdown of many customers - Software Error - Central system fails or used in the attack - Unfaithful servant's own employee misuses of knowledge and / or legitimate accesses In addition, a scenario with many gauges inoperative once considered to be critical, without cause need to be a targeted attack. This is because the consequences will incur substantial costs for repair and / or replacement of equipment. Malicious software could be causing, or a tool in several of events, especially at the onset that run from afar (remote connection). It is recommended that the Emergency Regulations should apply to AMC, because the risk assessment has been done shows that

  6. Acute myocardial infarction in a young male wrestler: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoorak Poorzand

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anabolic steroids have been widely used in recent years. It could adversely affect the cardiovascular system. Non-traditional risk factors for coronary heart diseases (CHDs have raised great concern. CASE REPORT: A young bodybuilder was presented with crushing retrosternal chest pain, excessive diaphoresis, and vomiting. The symptoms began during wrestling. The patient did not have a history of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. He was using large quantities of nutritional and bodybuilding supplements with multiple intramuscular injections of dexamethasone during past 6 months. The electrocardiography (ECG revealed ST-segment elevation in the precordial, I and aVL leads consistent with acute extensive myocardial infarction (MI. Lipid profile, cardiac troponin, and creatine phosphokinase-MB (CPK-MB was abnormal. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE revealed mild left ventricular (LV enlargement and reduced global systolic dysfunction with regional wall akinesia. The patient received thrombolytic therapy which was resulted in symptomatic relief and resolution in ST-T changes. Significant smoke was seen in LV cavity without clot formation on the discharge day. About 1 week later, large fresh clots were seen in the apex. He was admitted again, and the burden of clots was reduced significantly after initiation of oral warfarin. Other laboratory tests were as follows: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP: 25.9 mg/dl, homocysteine: 26.2 µmol/l. The patient was discharged with specific medication. Clots were disappeared after 6 weeks of warfarin therapy. Later, the patient was evaluated again, and there was not any symptom and LV clots.. CONCLUSION: Hyperhomocysteinemia could be induced by steroid abuse and may cause atherosclerotic and thrombotic effects in healthy athletes. We suggest clinicians to take a careful history of young athletes presented with MI or thrombotic events and also pay special attention to their homocysteine

  7. The neuropathology of sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Ann C; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Alvarez, Victor E; Stein, Thor D

    2014-01-01

    wrestling, soccer, rugby, and baseball.

  8. Weight Management Practices of Australian Olympic Combat Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Reid; Slater, Gary; Burke, Louise M

    2017-09-05

    Combat sport athletes undertake chronic and rapid weight loss (RWL) practices to qualify for weight divisions lower than their training weight. Variation between sports in the prevalence, methods, and magnitude of weight loss as well as recovery practices may be influenced by factors including competition level and culture. Differences in methodologies of previous research in combat sports make direct comparisons difficult, thus this study aimed to examine weight loss practices among all Olympic combat sports in Australia, using standardised methodology. High calibre competitors in wrestling, boxing, judo and taekwondo (n=260) at Australian competitions were surveyed using a validated tool which provides quantification of how extreme an athlete's weight loss practices are; the RWL score (RWLS). Additional qualitative and quantitative survey data were also collected. Neither sport, sex or weight division group had an effect on RWLS however a significant effect of athlete calibre was detected [F (2,215) = 4.953, MSE = 4.757, p = 0.00792]. Differences between sports were also evident for: most weight ever lost in order to compete [H = 19.92, p = 0.0002), age at which weight cutting began (H = 16.34, p = 0.001) and selected methods/patterns of RWL (p < 0.001). Weight cycling between competitions was common among all sports as were influences on athlete's behaviours. While many similarities in weight loss practices and experiences exist between combat sports, specific differences were evident. Nuanced, context/culturally specific guidelines should be devised to assist fighters' in optimising performance while minimising health implications.

  9. All mirrors are magic mirrors. A different view: Perspectives on science outreach from the children's book world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. R.

    2006-12-01

    I have met no scientists who are not superheroes -- particularly geologists and ocean scientists! -- worthy of action photos and writeups of their deeds of derring-do, whether it's wrestling a CTD up from the ocean floor, building a pool to demonstrate a sea turtle's navigation at sea, or analyzing the effects of an earthquake. Scientists, in discussing their work, are not likely to share much about themselves -- their experiences, adventures, fears, delights, even details of drudgery. But leaving these things out of your story is a grievous omission for kids who, more than anything, need stories -- but also need life applications and role models. Being able to understand what aspect of your work should be conveyed to kids -- little kids, big kids, college kids, and parents -- can make a difference to your funding, the public face of your discipline, and the future of science. The focus of my presentation is people -- in schools, museums, aquaria, the media, and my field, children's book publishing -- who are trying to change the effects of dreary science fairs, the nerdy stereotype of scientists, and the lack of understanding that scientists have incredible adventures, live and work in incredible places, and are, in fact, incredibly creative, exciting, interesting and inspiring. What are these people doing to open the window into your life as a scientist? How can scientists contribute more to the goal of a better bridge? Through examples of what is being done -- programs, practices, publications -- I shall convey ways scientists can meet media and education opportunities that come their way, and how they may create additional opportunities through new approaches to outreach.

  10. Athletes' Perception of Athletic Trainer Empathy: How Important Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Shannon; Larson, Mary

    2018-01-01

    Health care practitioners face increasing expectations to provide patient-centered care. Communication skills, specifically empathy, are critical in the provision of patient-centered care. Past work correlates empathy with improved patient satisfaction, compliance, and treatment outcomes. In particular, a predictive relationship exists between clients' ratings of their clinician's empathy and treatment outcomes. There is a dearth of studies examining empathy using qualitative methodology and factors of empathy in athletic training. To gain an understanding of athletes' perceptions of empathy in the patient-clinician relationship. Qualitative interviews were completed using grounded-theory techniques. A quiet office. A typical, purposeful sample of 15 college-age Division I student-athletes (8 female, 7 male; 19.3 ± 1.2 y) from a variety of sports (football, wrestling, volleyball, baseball, etc) participated. Researchers utilized an interview protocol designed to understand the factors of empathy related to athletic training. The interview protocol established a concept of empathy to help facilitate discussion of ideas. Data were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes and patterns using grounded-theory techniques. Trustworthiness of the data was ensured using an external auditor, member checks, and methods triangulation. Five themes described empathy: advocacy, communication, approachability, access, and competence. Advocacy was described as the athletic trainer (AT) representing the patient. Communication was the ability to listen reflectively; approachability emerged as the comfort and personal connection the patient felt with the AT. Access and technical competence were bridges required for the development of empathy. Providing patient-centered care facilitated by developing good patient-clinician relationships is critical in enabling the best treatment outcomes. ATs portray empathy through advocacy, communication, and approachability. Empathy

  11. The Use of Sports Imagery and Terminology on Cigarette Packs from Fourteen Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleb, Cerise; Welding, Kevin; Cohen, Joanna E; Smith, Katherine C

    2018-04-16

    Tobacco companies have historically associated their products with sports through event sponsorship and sports-themed advertising campaigns. Such linkages serve to enhance brand image by connecting cigarette brands to ideals associated with sports such as strength, individual accomplishment, and a healthy body. Public health policy progress has created restrictions for tobacco sponsorship and restricted traditional advertising avenues for tobacco products. Nonetheless, the pack itself remains as a mechanism by which to link cigarettes to sports and sporting prowess. Thus, we analyze depictions of sport and references to sports terminology on cigarette packs. To describe the sports-related marketing appeals on cigarette packages purchased in 14 low and middle income countries. In 2013, we collected and coded cigarette packs from 14 low and middle income countries and we returned to four of these countries for further data collection in 2015. Packs from both years were assessed for sports-related appeals (text and imagery) and sports-related brand names to identify sports appeals on cigarette packs. The analysis yielded 36 brands with distinct depictions of sport or sporting terminology on the pack. Text-based appeals were found on 24 of the 36 distinct "sports appeal" packs (e.g., "Polo," "Olympic," "Win," "iScore"). Sporting imagery was present on 22 packs (e.g., soccer ball, race car, wrestling match, trophy). The pack is a powerful medium through which tobacco companies continue to associate their products with idealized concepts associated with sports. These are potentially problematic associations that could be restricted through plain and standardized packaging policy initiatives.

  12. Multiple sclerosis (MS) in the life cycle of the family: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the perspective of persons with recently diagnosed MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ceuninck van Capelle, Archie; Visser, Leo H; Vosman, Frans

    2016-12-01

    In this study the authors explored how people with recently diagnosed multiple sclerosis (MS) experience their disease within their family lives. Ten people in various stages of the cycle of family life (leaving home, finding a partner, raising children, parenting adolescents, launching children) who had been diagnosed with MS were interviewed in half-structured conversational interviews. Transcriptions were analyzed following a phenomenological approach. Five themes were found: (a) dwindling capacity for housekeeping and childcare (b) struggling to ask for or to accept help, (c) countering awkward attitudes toward my illness, (d) suspecting family members of concealing their, and (e) watching family members wrestle with your illness. The participants described that their illness affected their ability to care for their family and home as they used to. Only a couple of studies have addressed the first person perspective of patients on family and MS. The study expands on these studies by exploring not previously examined perspectives on leaving home, finding a partner, parenting adolescents, and launching children. The findings on family and MS, approached as elements of the first person perspective of MS patients, may guide future research. Given the pivotal role of worries on family in patient experience of MS, we argue that acknowledgment of family as a constitutive element of the patient perspective should be integrated in regular MS care. The authors suggest that the clinical handling of MS as a family issue needs to be done thoughtfully and with attention to the specifics of each unique family situation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Dehydration and performance on clinical concussion measures in collegiate wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Amanda Friedline; Mihalik, Jason P; Register-Mihalik, Johna K; Mays, Sally; Prentice, William E; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2013-01-01

    The effects of dehydration induced by wrestling-related weight-cutting tactics on clinical concussion outcomes, such as neurocognitive function, balance performance, and symptoms, have not been adequately studied. To evaluate the effects of dehydration on the outcome of clinical concussion measures in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate wrestlers. Repeated-measures design. Clinical research laboratory. Thirty-two Division I healthy collegiate male wrestlers (age = 20.0 ± 1.4 years; height = 175.0 ± 7.5 cm; baseline mass = 79.2 ± 12.6 kg). Participants completed preseason concussion baseline testing in early September. Weight and urine samples were also collected at this time. All participants reported to prewrestling practice and postwrestling practice for the same test battery and protocol in mid-October. They had begun practicing weight-cutting tactics a day before prepractice and postpractice testing. Differences between these measures permitted us to evaluate how dehydration and weight-cutting tactics affected concussion measures. Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2), Balance Error Scoring System, Graded Symptom Checklist, and Simple Reaction Time scores. The Simple Reaction Time was measured using the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics. The SCAT2 measurements were lower at prepractice (P = .002) and postpractice (P < .001) when compared with baseline. The BESS error scores were higher at postpractice when compared with baseline (P = .015). The GSC severity scores were higher at prepractice (P = .011) and postpractice (P < .001) than at baseline and at postpractice when than at prepractice (P = .003). The number of Graded Symptom Checklist symptoms reported was also higher at prepractice (P = .036) and postpractice (P < .001) when compared with baseline, and at postpractice when compared with prepractice (P = .003). Our results suggest that it is important for wrestlers to be evaluated in a euhydrated state to

  14. Designing and creating Saccharomyces interspecific hybrids for improved, industry relevant, phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Jennifer R; Yang, Fei; Day, Martin P; Inglis, Debra L; Chambers, Paul J

    2015-10-01

    To remain competitive in increasingly overcrowded markets, yeast strain development programmes are crucial for fermentation-based food and beverage industries. In a winemaking context, there are many yeast phenotypes that stand to be improved. For example, winemakers endeavouring to produce sweet dessert wines wrestle with fermentation challenges particular to fermenting high-sugar juices, which can lead to elevated volatile acidity levels and extended fermentation times. In the current study, we used natural yeast breeding techniques to generate Saccharomyces spp. interspecific hybrids as a non-genetically modified (GM) strategy to introduce targeted improvements in important, wine-relevant traits. The hybrids were generated by mating a robust wine strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a wine isolate of Saccharomyces bayanus, a species previously reported to produce wines with low concentrations of acetic acid. Two hybrids generated from the cross showed robust fermentation properties in high-sugar grape juice and produced botrytised Riesling wines with much lower concentrations of acetic acid relative to the industrial wine yeast parent. The hybrids also displayed suitability for icewine production when bench-marked against an industry standard icewine yeast, by delivering icewines with lower levels of acetic acid. Additionally, the hybrid yeast produced wines with novel aroma and flavour profiles and established that choice of yeast strain impacts on wine colour. These new hybrid yeasts display the desired targeted fermentation phenotypes from both parents, robust fermentation in high-sugar juice and the production of wines with low volatile acidity, thus establishing their suitability for wine styles that are traditionally troubled by excessive volatile acidity levels.

  15. Poziom agresywności kobiet uprawiających sporty rodzajowo męskie i kobiece = The level of social aggressiveness in women practising male or female sports

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    Zuzanna Mazur

    2015-05-01

    . The instrumental character of aggressiveness takes place not only in competition- related activity, but also in the autonomy attitude of the views and conviction as well as ignoring the rights and reason of others. It seems puzzling whether a similar level of aggressiveness is represented by women training competitive male sports (box, motorcycle races, wrestling in comparison with women training female sports (rhythmic gymnastics, synchronized swimming.   Purpose of the study The main objective of the study is to find a difference in the level of women’s aggressiveness depending on the sport practiced.   Material and methods Women practising male sports (kick- boxing, wrestling; n=30 and female sports (rhythmic gymnastics, synchronized swimming; n=40 participated in the study. To assess the severity and structure of aggressiveness The Questionnaire “Moods and Temper” by A.H. Buss and A. Durkee was used.   Results The study stated the higher level of aggressiveness (mainly the physical one in women practising kick- boxing and wrestling.   Conclusions Women training gender inadequate sports differed significantly in the level of aggressiveness from women practising gender adequate sports. Wrestlers and kick- boxers have the higher level of aggressive behavior, manifested particularly in the physical aggressiveness. It may be related to the specific features of these disciplines with direct contact, oriented towards  the opponent’s body.

  16. COMPARISON OF NORMALIZED MAXIMUM AEROBIC CAPACITY AND BODY COMPOSITION OF SUMO WRESTLERS TO ATHLETES IN COMBAT AND OTHER SPORTS

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    Matthew D. Beekley

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Sumo wrestling is unique in combat sport, and in all of sport. We examined the maximum aerobic capacity and body composition of sumo wrestlers and compared them to untrained controls. We also compared "aerobic muscle quality", meaning VO2max normalized to predicted skeletal muscle mass (SMM (VO2max /SMM, between sumo wrestlers and controls and among previously published data for male athletes from combat, aerobic, and power sports. Sumo wrestlers, compared to untrained controls, had greater (p < 0.05 body mass (mean ± SD; 117.0 ± 4.9 vs. 56.1 ± 9.8 kg, percent fat (24.0 ± 1.4 vs. 13.3 ± 4.5, fat-free mass (88.9 ± 4.2 vs. 48.4 �� 6.8 kg, predicted SMM (48.2 ± 2.9 vs. 20.6 ± 4.7 kg and absolute VO2max (3.6 ± 1.3 vs. 2.5 ± 0.7 L·min-1. Mean VO2max /SMM (ml·kg SMM-1·min-1 was significantly different (p < 0.05 among aerobic athletes (164.8 ± 18.3, combat athletes (which was not different from untrained controls; 131.4 ± 9.3 and 128.6 ± 13.6, respectively, power athletes (96.5 ± 5.3, and sumo wrestlers (71.4 ± 5.3. There was a strong negative correlation (r = - 0.75 between percent body fat and VO2max /SMM (p < 0.05. We conclude that sumo wrestlers have some of the largest percent body fat and fat-free mass and the lowest "aerobic muscle quality" (VO2max /SMM, both in combat sport and compared to aerobic and power sport athletes. Additionally, it appears from analysis of the relationship between SMM and absolute VO2max for all sports that there is a "ceiling" at which increases in SMM do not result in additional increases in absolute VO2max

  17. Tests for the Assessment of Sport-Specific Performance in Olympic Combat Sports: A Systematic Review With Practical Recommendations

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    Helmi Chaabene

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The regular monitoring of physical fitness and sport-specific performance is important in elite sports to increase the likelihood of success in competition. This study aimed to systematically review and to critically appraise the methodological quality, validation data, and feasibility of the sport-specific performance assessment in Olympic combat sports like amateur boxing, fencing, judo, karate, taekwondo, and wrestling. A systematic search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, Google-Scholar, and Science-Direct up to October 2017. Studies in combat sports were included that reported validation data (e.g., reliability, validity, sensitivity of sport-specific tests. Overall, 39 studies were eligible for inclusion in this review. The majority of studies (74% contained sample sizes <30 subjects. Nearly, 1/3 of the reviewed studies lacked a sufficient description (e.g., anthropometrics, age, expertise level of the included participants. Seventy-two percent of studies did not sufficiently report inclusion/exclusion criteria of their participants. In 62% of the included studies, the description and/or inclusion of a familiarization session (s was either incomplete or not existent. Sixty-percent of studies did not report any details about the stability of testing conditions. Approximately half of the studies examined reliability measures of the included sport-specific tests (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.43–1.00. Content validity was addressed in all included studies, criterion validity (only the concurrent aspect of it in approximately half of the studies with correlation coefficients ranging from r = −0.41 to 0.90. Construct validity was reported in 31% of the included studies and predictive validity in only one. Test sensitivity was addressed in 13% of the included studies. The majority of studies (64% ignored and/or provided incomplete information on test feasibility and methodological limitations of the sport

  18. [Doctors belonging to the Senegalese Association of Sport Medicine and doping in sports: survey on knowledge and attitudes].

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    Dièye, Amadou Moctar; Diallo, Boubacar; Fall, Assane; Ndiaye, Mamadou; Cissè, Fallou; Faye, Babacar

    2005-01-01

    Doping in sports is as old as sports, but it grew considerably during the 20th century with the arrival in stadiums during the 1990s of amphetamines and anabolic steroids as well as such peptide hormones as erythropoietin. The international fight against doping took a giant step forward in 1999 with the creation of the world antidoping agency (WADA). This study is part of that fight. It follows an earlier survey of retail pharmacists in Senegal and aims to evaluate the knowledge about doping of doctors belonging to the Senegalese Association of Sports Medicine and to assess their attitude towards this phenomenon. Its goal is to determine how best to involve them in preventive actions. We conducted a survey in 2001 and randomly selected and interviewed 60 of the 92 doctors in the association. The questionnaire focused on three areas: their knowledge of doping, their attitudes to it, and the means of prevention that they proposed. The results showed that only 11 of the 60 doctors knew the definition of doping and 15% of doctors could not cite any family of doping products. They were aware mainly of testosterone and other anabolic steroids (84.3%), then amphetamines and other stimulants (64.7%), and finally peptide hormones (58.8%). The subjects mentioned blood doping and pharmacological manipulations as forbidden methods. They considered that the four groups of drugs most often used by athletes for doping were, in descending order, anabolic steroids, stimulants, peptide hormones and corticoids. Eighty per cent of doctors think that Senegalese athletes use doping products and that the sports most involved are football, wrestling, track and field and basketball. They also think that doping is a form of drug addiction and a public health problem. Eleven doctors (18%) said they had been contacted for information on use of doping products. The interviewees consider that the three best methods of prevention include information about side effects, unannounced urine and

  19. HORMONAL RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT REST INTERVALS DURING RESISTANCE TRAINING WITH LIGHT LOADS

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    Payam Mohamad-Panahi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to determine the appropriate rest time between sets during weight training with light load. Material: Seventeen cadet wrestlers (age =16.7В±0.6 yrs.; height =169.2В±8.2 cm; and weight =51.4В±7.9 kg were recruited from wrestling clubs in the Iranian province of Kurdistan and served as subjects in this study. This study was conducted over seven sessions with 48 hours recovery between sessions. In the first session, the characteristic features of subjects were recorded and the one repetition maximum in the bench press test was determined for each subject. On 6 separate occasions, subjects performed a 4 set of bench press at 60% 1RM with a 90 and 240 seconds rest interval until volitional fatigue. The numbers of repetition performed by the subjects, and also, cortisol and testosterone levels and 1RM were recorded. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the sustainability of repetitions during 4 sets bench press with 60 % load between 90 and 240 seconds rest intervals (rest interval effect (p<0.05 as well as with 90% load. Results: Additionally, there was a significant difference in the sustainability of repetitions during 4 sets bench press in 90 and 240 seconds rest intervals, both, between light and heavy loads (load effect. Plasma cortisol concentrations significantly increased after all bench press trials. Also, the rest interval effect was statistically significant in both 60 % and 90% load trials. But, the load effect was only statistically significant in 90 seconds rest interval trial (p<0.05. In contrast, plasma testosterone concentrations significantly increased after 4 sets bench press only in 90 seconds rest interval with heavy load and 240 seconds rest interval with light load (p<0.05. Accordingly, testosterone to cortisol (T:C ratio were significantly decreased after 4 sets bench press in 90 seconds rest interval with light load and 240 seconds rest interval with

  20. HORMONAL RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT REST INTERVALS DURING RESISTANCE TRAINING WITH LIGHT LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Mohamad-Panahi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to determine the appropriate rest time between sets during weight training with light load. Material: Seventeen cadet wrestlers (age =16.7±0.6 yrs.; height =169.2±8.2 cm; and weight =51.4±7.9 kg were recruited from wrestling clubs in the Iranian province of Kurdistan and served as subjects in this study. This study was conducted over seven sessions with 48 hours recovery between sessions. In the first session, the characteristic features of subjects were recorded and the one repetition maximum in the bench press test was determined for each subject. On 6 separate occasions, subjects performed a 4 set of bench press at 60% 1RM with a 90 and 240 seconds rest interval until volitional fatigue. The numbers of repetition performed by the subjects, and also, cortisol and testosterone levels and 1RM were recorded. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the sustainability of repetitions during 4 sets bench press with 60 % load between 90 and 240 seconds rest intervals (rest interval effect (p<0.05 as well as with 90% load. Results: Additionally, there was a significant difference in the sustainability of repetitions during 4 sets bench press in 90 and 240 seconds rest intervals, both, between light and heavy loads (load effect. Plasma cortisol concentrations significantly increased after all bench press trials. Also, the rest interval effect was statistically significant in both 60 % and 90% load trials. But, the load effect was only statistically significant in 90 seconds rest interval trial (p<0.05. In contrast, plasma testosterone concentrations significantly increased after 4 sets bench press only in 90 seconds rest interval with heavy load and 240 seconds rest interval with light load (p<0.05. Accordingly, testosterone to cortisol (T:C ratio were significantly decreased after 4 sets bench press in 90 seconds rest interval with light load and 240 seconds rest interval with heavy

  1. Injury and illness in college outdoor education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudio, Flavio G; Greenwald, Peter W; Holton, Mark

    2010-12-01

    Many colleges offer outdoor education courses such as rock climbing, kayaking, and mountain biking. Since these sports may be perceived as dangerous, we describe the prevalence of injuries and illnesses in a large, university-based outdoor education program. We also compare composite incident rates from this outdoor program to those of traditional college sports. Cohort of college students participating in either Cornell Outdoor Education (COE) or National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sports and comparison of incident rates. COE data were prospectively collected in the field; and NCAA data were prospectively collected through the Association's Injury Surveillance System. By definition, a COE injury or illness required follow-up care, prescription medication, or limited course participation. Similarly, a NCAA injury limited further practice or play. Incident rates were calculated as injuries and illnesses per 1000 participant-days (COE) or injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (NCAA). Included COE courses during 2002-2007 totaled 74 005 participant-days. There were 111 injuries and illnesses, rate = 1.50/1000 participant-days (95% CI 1.24-1.81). The NCAA reported 32 646 899 athlete-exposures during 1988-2004 and 181 476 injuries, rate = 5.56/1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI 5.53-5.58). Compared to COE, the relative risk of injury in NCAA sports was 3.7 (95% CI 3.1-4.5) overall and 3.3 (95% CI 2.8-4.0) after excluding the high-contact sports of football, ice hockey, and wrestling. For COE, mountain biking had the highest incident rate (7.5/1000), which was significantly lower than game injury rates in NCAA football and soccer. The most common injuries for both NCAA and COE were soft-tissue injuries such as sprains and strains. Outdoor education at this university-sponsored program was at least as safe as traditional college sports. Overall, college students were less likely to be injured while participating in COE courses than while participating in NCAA sports

  2. The Epidemiology of Severe Injuries Sustained by National Collegiate Athletic Association Student-Athletes, 2009–2010 Through 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Melissa C.; Register-Mihalik, Johna K.; Gray, Aaron D.; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P.; Kerr, Zachary Y.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Few researchers have described the incidence of the most severe injuries sustained by student-athletes at the collegiate level. Objective: To describe the epidemiology of severe injuries within 25 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sports in the 2009–2010 through 2014–2015 academic years. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: Aggregate injury and exposure data from 25 NCAA sports. Patients or Other Participants: Collegiate student-athletes in the 2009–2010 through 2014–2015 academic years. Main Outcome Measure(s): Injury data from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program were analyzed. A severe injury (1) occurred during a sanctioned competition or practice, (2) required medical attention by an athletic trainer or physician, and (3) resulted in at least 21 days lost from sport activity or a premature end to the sport season. Injury counts, proportions, rates per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs), rate ratios (RRs), and injury proportion ratios were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: A total of 3183 severe injuries were reported, for an injury rate of 0.66/1000 AEs. Wrestling had the highest severe injury rate (1.73/1000 AEs), followed by women's gymnastics (1.40/1000 AEs) and football (0.97/1000 AEs). Overall, the severe injury rate was higher in competition than in practice (RR = 4.25, 95% CI = 3.97, 4.56). Most severe injuries were reported during the regular season (69.3%, n = 2206); however, severe injury rates did not differ between the preseason and regular season (RR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.91, 1.06). Common severely injured body parts were the knee (32.9%, n = 1047), lower leg/ankle/foot (22.5%, n = 715), and head/face/neck (11.2%, n = 358). Common severe injury diagnoses were sprains (32.9%, n = 1048), strains (16.9%, n = 538), and fractures (14.4%, n = 458). Common severe injury mechanisms were player contact (39.3%, n = 1251), noncontact (25.1%, n = 800), and surface contact (12.0%, n = 383). Conclusions

  3. The Epidemiology of High Ankle Sprains in National Collegiate Athletic Association Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauntel, Timothy C; Wikstrom, Erik A; Roos, Karen G; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P; Kerr, Zachary Y

    2017-07-01

    Ankle sprains are among the most common injuries experienced by collegiate athletes. The type of ankle sprain is rarely differentiated in epidemiological studies. This differentiation is necessary, as each ankle sprain type has a unique injury mechanism and recovery period. High ankle sprains commonly result in long recovery periods. Thus, a further examination of the epidemiology of high ankle sprains is warranted. To describe the epidemiology of high ankle sprains in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sports during the 2009/2010-2014/2015 academic years. Descriptive epidemiology study. NCAA Injury Surveillance Program high ankle sprain data and athlete-exposures (AEs) from 25 sports were evaluated. Certified athletic trainers recorded sport-related injury, event, and AE data during team-sanctioned events. High ankle sprain injury rates per 10,000 AEs were calculated. Percentage distributions were calculated for the amount of time lost from sport and percentage of recurrent injuries. Injury rate ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs compared injury rates by event type, participation restriction time, and sex. 95% CIs not containing 1.00 were considered statistically significant. The overall high ankle sprain injury rate was 1.00 per 10,000 AEs. Overall, 56.7% of high ankle sprain injuries occurred during competitions, and 9.8% of high ankle sprain injuries were recurrent. Men's football (2.42/10,000 AEs), wrestling (2.11/10,000 AEs), and ice hockey (1.19/10,000 AEs) had the highest high ankle sprain injury rates. In sex-comparable sports, men had higher injury rates (RR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.28-2.44). Player contact was the most common injury mechanism (60.4%), and 69.0% of injuries resulted in ≥1 day of participation restriction, with 47.1% resulting in ≥7 days of participation restriction and 15.8% resulting in >21 days of participation restriction. High ankle sprains resulted in significant participation restriction time from sport participation. The majority of

  4. Assessment of US, Indian and Chinese Middle School Students' Outlook on the Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyogi, D.; Ganesh, N.; Singh, D.; Liu, X.; Shepardson, D. P.; Roychoudhury, A.; Hirsch, A.; Halversen, C.

    2012-12-01

    When you think of the greenhouse effect and climate change what images and concepts come to mind? Answers to these questions are important to educators and policy makers as they wrestle with the issue of educating and conveying these concepts in class rooms and to the general public. The greenhouse effect (GHE) sustains life on the earth through regulating the temperatures on the planet. Well-mixed greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide absorb outgoing (long wave) radiation from the Earth's surface while allowing passage without absorption of the incoming solar (shortwave) radiation. Increasing the GHG concentration in the atmosphere increases the absorption of long wavelength radiation thereby increasing global temperatures that result in changes in the atmospheric states consistently over multiple decades.The concept of the greenhouse effect is critical to the discussions underway pertaining to climate change and the controls on greenhouse emissions being proposed in different forums. This study sought to (1) investigate students' conceptions about the greenhouse effect, global warming and climate change; (2) determine if there are differences between perceptions for students in US, India and China (Asia)- where there are known differences in the political and scientific approaches; and (3) determine if there any differences, contextual or otherwise, in the way the greenhouse effect is taught in these countries. This study was conducted in select schools in the Midwest US, India and China that volunteered to work with this project. -For US, data from 51 secondary students from three different schools were analyzed, for India the number was 71 from 3 schools, while for China the number is over 100 (and being analyzed) from different classes within a school. Study Hypotheses: 1.Middle school students have a good scientific understanding of greenhouse gases. 2.The U.S and Asian students have the same outlook. Teachers

  5. INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STUDENTS ENROLLED IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF MOTOR ACTIVITY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION

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    E. M. Revenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine intensity of motor and intellectual abilities and motivation for physical activity of students engaged in physical education in different sports groups.Methodology and research methods. Motor abilities of the students were assessed by measuring: hand, strength endurance, speed-power abilities, speed ability and general stamina. Assessment of general intelligence (GI was carried out by R. Amthauer’s test in the adaptation of L. A. Yasjukova. Formal-dynamic characteristics of the individuality (FDCI were studied using the technique of FDCI feedback form proposed by V. M. Rusalov. Assessment of motivation to implement motor activity was performed using the author's questionnaire. The method of statistical information processing has allowed the author to reveal correlation communications between motor abilities and GI of first-year students.Results. Significant differences in the manifestation of the individual students’ characteristics choosing practicing in different types of physical activity are experimentally established. In particular, students who chose table tennis, are inferior to the students who went in for wrestling in the manifestation of certain (power, motor skills, motivation for physical activity, but at the same time show relatively higher rates of certain intellectual abilities.Formal-dynamic traits of individuality are peculiar to students involved in table tennis, reflecting lower psychomotor activity (integrated indicator PDI - Psychomotor Development Index, in comparison with students who prefer fighting. The material presented provides a basis to argue that sports-oriented approach has some potential in the aspect of increase of efficiency of students’ physical education, distinguished by individual characteristics of age specific development.Scientific novelty. Scientific findings on distinct differences in motivation to physical activity, manifestation of motor and mental

  6. A one-year monitoring of nicotine use in sport: frontier between potential performance enhancement and addiction issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marclay, François; Grata, Elia; Perrenoud, Laurent; Saugy, Martial

    2011-12-10

    sport practice (50 ng/mL for nicotine, cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine and 25 ng/mL for nicotine-N'-oxide, cotinine-N-oxide, anabasine, anatabine and nornicotine) revealed a prevalence of 15.3% amongst athletes. While this number may appear lower than the worldwide smoking prevalence of around 25%, focusing the study on selected sports highlighted more alarming findings. Indeed, active nicotine consumption in ice hockey, skiing, biathlon, bobsleigh, skating, football, basketball, volleyball, rugby, American football, wrestling and gymnastics was found to range between 19.0 and 55.6%. Therefore, considering the adverse effects of smoking on the respiratory tract and numerous health threats detrimental to sport practice at top level, likelihood of smokeless tobacco consumption for performance enhancement is greatly supported. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Validity of hydration non-invasive indices during the weightcutting and official weigh-in for Olympic combat sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Elías, Valentín E; Martínez-Abellán, Alberto; López-Gullón, José María; Morán-Navarro, Ricardo; Pallarés, Jesús G; De la Cruz-Sánchez, Ernesto; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    In Olympic combat sports, weight cutting is a common practice aimed to take advantage of competing in weight divisions below the athlete's normal weight. Fluid and food restriction in combination with dehydration (sauna and/or exercise induced profuse sweating) are common weight cut methods. However, the resultant hypohydration could adversely affect health and performance outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine which of the routinely used non-invasive measures of dehydration best track urine osmolality, the gold standard non-invasive test. Immediately prior to the official weigh-in of three National Championships, the hydration status of 345 athletes of Olympic combat sports (i.e., taekwondo, boxing and wrestling) was determined using five separate techniques: i) urine osmolality (UOSM), ii) urine specific gravity (USG), iii) urine color (UCOL), iv) bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and v) thirst perception scale (TPS). All techniques were correlated with UOSM divided into three groups: euhydrated (G1; UOSM 250-700 mOsm · kg H2O(-1)), dehydrated (G2; UOSM 701-1080 mOsm · kg H2O(-1)), and severely dehydrated (G3; UOSM 1081-1500 mOsm · kg H2O(-1)). We found a positive high correlation between the UOSM and USG (r = 0.89: p = 0.000), although this relationship lost strength as dehydration increased (G1 r = 0.92; G2 r = 0.73; and G3 r = 0.65; p = 0.000). UCOL showed a moderate although significant correlation when considering the whole sample (r = 0.743: p = 0.000) and G1 (r = 0.702: p = 0.000) but low correlation for the two dehydrated groups (r = 0.498-0.398). TPS and BIA showed very low correlation sizes for all groups assessed. In a wide range of pre-competitive hydration status (UOSM 250-1500 mOsm · kg H2O(-1)), USG is highly associated with UOSM while being a more affordable and easy to use technique. UCOL is a suitable tool when USG is not available. However, BIA or TPS are not sensitive enough to detect hypohydration at official weight

  8. Epidemiology of concussions among United States high school athletes in 20 sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marar, Mallika; McIlvain, Natalie M; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn

    2012-04-01

    In the United States (US), an estimated 300,000 sports-related concussions occur annually. Among individuals 15 to 24 years of age, sports are second only to motor vehicle crashes as the leading cause of concussions. To investigate the epidemiology of concussions in high school athletes by comparing rates and patterns of concussion among 20 sports. Descriptive epidemiology study. Using an Internet-based data collection tool, RIO, certified athletic trainers from a large, nationally disperse sample of US high schools reported athlete exposure and injury data for 20 sports during the 2008-2010 academic years. During the study period, 1936 concussions were reported during 7,780,064 athlete-exposures (AEs) for an overall injury rate of 2.5 per 10,000 AEs. The injury rate was higher in competition (6.4) than practice (1.1) (rate ratio [RR], 5.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.2-6.3). The majority of concussions resulted from participation in football (47.1%, n = 912), followed by girls' soccer (8.2%, n = 159), boys' wrestling (5.8%, n = 112), and girls' basketball (5.5%, n = 107). Football had the highest concussion rate (6.4), followed by boys' ice hockey (5.4) and boys' lacrosse (4.0). Concussions represented a greater proportion of total injuries among boys' ice hockey (22.2%) than all other sports studied (13.0%) (injury proportion ratio [IPR], 1.7; 95% CI, 1.4-2.1; P sports, girls had a higher concussion rate (1.7) than boys (1.0) (RR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.4-2.0). The most common mechanisms of injury were player-player contact (70.3%) and player-playing surface contact (17.2%). In more than 40% of athletes in sports other than girls' swimming and girls' track, concussion symptoms resolved in 3 days or less. Athletes most commonly returned to play in 1 to 3 weeks (55.3%), with 22.8% returning in less than 1 week and 2.0% returning in less than 1 day. Although interest in sports-related concussions is usually focused on full-contact sports like football and ice hockey

  9. Transmutation of Isotopes --- Ecological and Energy Production Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudowski, Waclaw

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes principles of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Wastes (ATW) and gives some flavour of the most important topics which are today under investigations in many countries. An assessment of the potential impact of ATW on a future of nuclear energy is also given. Nuclear reactors based on self-sustained fission reactions --- after spectacular development in fifties and sixties, that resulted in deployment of over 400 power reactors --- are wrestling today more with public acceptance than with irresolvable technological problems. In a whole spectrum of reasons which resulted in today's opposition against nuclear power few of them are very relevant for the nuclear physics community and they arose from the fact that development of nuclear power had been handed over to the nuclear engineers and technicians with some generically unresolved problems, which should have been solved properly by nuclear scientists. In a certain degree of simplification one can say, that most of the problems originate from very specific features of a fission phenomenon: self-sustained chain reaction in fissile materials and very strong radioactivity of fission products and very long half-life of some of the fission and activation products. And just this enormous concentration of radioactive fission products in the reactor core is the main problem of managing nuclear reactors: it requires unconditional guarantee for the reactor core integrity in order to avoid radioactive contamination of the environment; it creates problems to handle decay heat in the reactor core and finally it makes handling and/or disposal of spent fuel almost a philosophical issue, due to unimaginable long time scales of radioactive decay of some isotopes. A lot can be done to improve the design of conventional nuclear reactors (like Light Water Reactors); new, better reactors can be designed but it seems today very improbable to expect any radical change in the public perception of conventional

  10. A global epidemiological survey and strategy of treatment of military ocular injury

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    Mao-nian ZHANG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the current global status of military ocular injury for the purpose of improving the level of domestic epidemiological investigation,in order to improve treatment strategies,and to prevent and reduce the incidence of military ocular injury in Chinese PLA.Methods The epidemiological literature concerning military ocular injury occurring in our country and abroad in recent five years was retrieved by information research;the problems and experiences in the aspects of epidemiological survey,registry,data collection,systematic treatment and prevention of military ocular injury existed in PLA were also summarized and analyzed.Results There were currently no systematic epidemiological data about ocular injury in PLA.A few articles about epidemiological study on ocular injury showed that servicemen were the high risk population of ocular injury.Both in peacetime or wartime the ocular injury was the primary cause leading to monocular blindness of soldiers.As to the ocular injury,in 51.55% of the patients,it occurred in the military operations and work,and 30.31% in military training.The incidence of ocular injury was different in various services,for example,the incidence in the internal security forces of armed police could be as high as 78.85% due to training of martial arts and boxing and wrestling.The deficiency of microsurgery equipments and untimely evacuation were the main causes affecting prognosis during treatment course in primary military hospitals.Conclusions Military affairs,physical training,military maneuver and defense constructions are the main causes of ocular injury in servicemen,and young male soldiers are the main group for prevention and treatment for military ocular injury.More attention should be paid to the epidemiological survey of military ocular injury to find out the causes leading to ocular injury,to improve treatment strategies,to formulate feasible protective measures and then military ocular

  11. The e-book phenomenon: a disruptive technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom D. Wilson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the e-book as a major phenomenon in the publishing industry is of interest, world-wide. The English language market, with Amazon.com as the major player in the market may have dominated attention, but the e-book has implications for many other languages and book markets. The pre-e-book publishing world can be seen as a system in which authors delivered texts to publishers, who evaluated, edited, printed and distributed the published text to bookshops and thence to libraries and individual readers. This process has been going on since Gutenberg’s re-invention of movable type in about 1439 (following its original invention in China in the 9th century, and the use of metallic type in Korea in 1234, in other words, for about the past 550 years. The invention of movable type was an instance of a disruptive technology: eventually putting monastic scribes out of business altogether. Similarly, the e-book has the potential to disrupt the processes for the production, distribution and use of authorial texts, and is already in the process of doing so. First, the phenomenon of self-publishing has emerged as a serious contender to the more formal process; secondly, publishers may derive significant economic benefit from the reduction in printing and distribution costs, as well as the ability to sell directly to the consumer through their own Websites; thirdly, the impact on booksellers may result in a further reduction in the number of independent stores – a decline already in process as a result of online bookselling; fourthly, user demand is resulting in libraries wrestling with the problems of how to manage e-books within their collection development and management processes; and, finally, the behaviour of readers is changing as the devices available for using e-books become more numerous and cheaper. Only someone blessed with absolute certainty in forecasting the future can know exactly how things will change, but there is little

  12. Analysis of the methods for the achievement of comfort conditions of humidity and temperature in energetically efficient designs; Analisis de los mtodos para lograr condiciones de confort higrotermico en disenos energeticamente eficientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa A., N. A.; Morillon G., D. [Division de Estudios de Posgrado de la Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the analysis of the tools commonly utilized in Bioclimatic Design, for the achievement of humidity an temperature comfort conditions in architectonic spaces. The analysis was performed by means of field studies and experimentally for different sport activities, carried out in spaces designed for each purpose. In the experimental part, inside ambient temperature and relative humidity were measured in the different spaces where sport activities were conducted, such as calisthenics, dance, judo, wrestling, weight lifting, boxing, basket-ball, volley-ball, gymnastics and fencing. At the same time an inquiry was conducted among their occupants in respect to the thermal sensation they experimented while conducting such activities. The results obtained in the inquiry were compared with the results reported by other researchers, by means of tables and psychometric diagrams as optimum values for temperature comfort. As a conclusion it was decided that the graphic and mathematical methods analyzed, are based on a sedentary activity, therefore in using them for the design of spaces for different activities uncomfortable conditions are experimented with the consequential necessity of air conditioning, which implies energy consumption and the corresponding expenditure, lastly it is necessary to adapt these tools, that is, consider the activity that is going to be performed in the buildings. [Espanol] En este documento se presenta el analisis de las herramientas, comunmente utilizadas en Diseo Bioclimatico, para lograr el confort higrotermico de espacios arquitectonicos, el analisis se realizo mediante estudios de campo y experimental, para diversas actividades deportivas, llevadas a cabo en espacios disenados para ello. En la parte experimental, se tomaron mediciones de temperatura y humedad relativa internas, de los distintos espacios en los cuales se desarrollaban las actividades deportivas, tales como calistenia, danza, judo, lucha, trabajo con pesas

  13. From Healthcare to Health: An Update of Norman Daniels’s Approach to Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Skinner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Here is a health policy riddle: despite the fact that we are not always clear as to what we are trying to achieve, even on the most basic level, we must make policy anyway. Odder still: this is as we might expect it to be, and perhaps even as it should be. After all, part of what makes health policy important is precisely the fact that it raises critical questions about our most basic human values and social commitments. The conversation should be fluid. Norman Daniels has long been an important participant in these conversations. Just Health: Meeting Health Needs Fairly—a titular play on his 1985 book, Just Health Care (1—is Daniels’s attempt to wrestle with contemporary challenges that have forced him to rethink his positions. At its most basic level, then, Just Health can be read as a reminder of the tentativeness of scholarly positions on the core questions of health as well as the importance of being willing to revise both the questions we ask and the positions we take. In Just Health care, Daniels identified six important areas of concern: 1. Adequate nutrition, 2. Sanitary, safe, unpolluted living and working conditions, 3. Exercise, rest, and such important lifestyle features as avoiding substance abuse and practicing safe sex, 4. Preventive, curative, rehabilitative, and compensatory personal medical services (and devices, and 5. Nonmedical personal and social support services (pp. 42–3. Just Health adds a sixth critical component: other social determinants of health. To get to this level, Daniels uses early chapters to establish the “special moral importance of health” as an object of inquiry (Chapter 2, and to look beyond healthcare to a more-inclusive and socially-expansive view of health (Chapter 3. As Daniels notes, “bioethics has not looked ‘upstream’ from the point of delivery of medical services to the role of the healthcare system in improving population health.” As a result, it tends to miss

  14. [CLAVICLE FRACTURES IN CHILDREN--CIRCUMSTANCES AND CAUSES OF INJURY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antabak, Anko; Matković, Nikša; Papeš, Dino; Karlo, Robert; Romić, Ivan; Fuchs, Nino; Madarić, Miroslav; Stilinović, Marina; Stanić, Lana; Luetić, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    Clavicle fractures in children occur twice as often as in adults. During a child's growth period they account for 10-15% of all fractures sustained. The questions which should be asked are how these fractures are sustained and under which circumstances are the children injured. In the study 256 children with clavicle fractures treated during the period 2008-2013 were analyzed. The underlying cause and place of injuries were classified using the ICD-10 classification system, using environmental causes of injury. The circumstances were in each case accidental injury. Environmental causes were traffic accidents (V01-V99) or mishaps/accidents (W00-X59). Fracture injuries were caused in traffic accidents in 24 (9.4%), and in mishaps/accidents in 232 (90.6%) children. Of the injuries caused by mishaps/accidents, in 204 children these were caused by falls (W00-W19). In 123 of them the injuries were caused by falls from a ground level, and in 81 were from a greater height. Direct blow injuries, caused by another person or a blunt instrument, weere the causes of fractures seen in 28 children. Place of fracture sustainment was dominantly at home. This was followed by injuries sustained outside in recreational areas, while least were suffered at school or kindergarden facilities. Bicycle riding was the cause of clavicle fractures in 48 children, which was 18.7% of all fractures seen. Sports related injuries and fractures were seen in 47 (18.4%) out of 256 children: 30 in football, 10 in defensive sports (wrestling, judo, karate), three in hockey, while basketball and gymnastics accounted for two each. Preschool children were injured more often while in the care of their parents while school aged children were adaquately protected, but in after-school activities they were often injured. The most common injuries after school were those suffered in traffic accidents and recreational sports activities. In the adolescent period, the most common injuries seen were again those in

  15. Timely injection of knowledge when interacting with stakeholders and policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Timely injection of knowledge when interacting with stakeholders and policy makers. J.Bouma Em. Prof. Soil Science, Wageningen University, the Netherlands During the last decade, the spectacular development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has strongly increased the accessible amount of data and information for stakeholders and policy makers and the science community is struggling to adjust to these developments. In the Netherlands not only industry has now a major impact on the research agenda but this is now to be extended to citizens at large. Rather than complain about an apparent "gap" between science and society and wrestle with the challenge to bridge it in a rather reactive manner, the science community would be well advised to initiate a proactive approach, showing that knowledge implies a deep understanding of issues and processes that does not necessarily follow from having data and information. The "gap" certainly applies to soil research in the context of sustainable development where many often well informed stakeholders are involved with widely different opinions, norms and values. Changes are suggested in the manner in which we frame our work: (i) longer involvement with projects from initiation to implementation in practice; (ii) active role of "knowledge brokers" who inject the right type of knowledge during the entire project run in a joint-learning mode, and (iii) not proposing new research from a science perspective but demonstrating a clear need because existing knowledge is inadequate. Yet more conceptual discussions about e.g. inter- and transdisciplinarity, worrysome soil degradation and lack of professional recognition are less meaningful than specific case studies demonstrating the crucial role of soil science when analysing land-based environmental problems. New narratives are needed instead of statistics, openness to learn from best practices and pilot projects as a necessary next step beyond awareness raising. Soil

  16. Integrating Real-time Earthquakes into Natural Hazard Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, K. P.; Benz, H. M.; Whitlock, J. S.; Bittenbinder, A. N.; Bogaert, B. B.

    2001-12-01

    real-time, consulting other members of their class and accessing the E-DBMS server and other links to glean information that they will then use to make decisions. Students wrestle with the complications in interpreting natural hazard data, evaluating whether a response is needed, and problems such as those associated with communication between media and the public through these focused exercises. Although earthquakes are targeted at present, similar DBMS systems are envisioned for other natural hazards like flooding, volcanoes, and severe weather. We are testing this system as a prototype intended to be expanded to provide web-based access to classes at both the middle/high school and college/university levels.

  17. College Sports-Related Injuries - United States, 2009-10 Through 2013-14 Academic Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Dompier, Thomas P; Corlette, Jill; Klossner, David A; Gilchrist, Julie

    2015-12-11

    Sports-related injuries can have a substantial impact on the long-term health of student-athletes. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) monitors injuries among college student-athletes at member schools. In academic year 2013-14, a total of 1,113 member schools fielded 19,334 teams with 478,869 participating student-athletes in NCAA championship sports (i.e., sports with NCAA championship competition) (1). External researchers and CDC used information reported to the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (NCAA-ISP) by a sample of championship sports programs to summarize the estimated national cumulative and annual average numbers of injuries during the 5 academic years from 2009-10 through 2013-14. Analyses were restricted to injuries reported among student-athletes in 25 NCAA championship sports. During this period, 1,053,370 injuries were estimated to have occurred during an estimated 176.7 million athlete-exposures to potential injury (i.e., one athlete's participation in one competition or one practice). Injury incidence varied widely by sport. Among all sports, men's football accounted for the largest average annual estimated number of injuries (47,199) and the highest competition injury rate (39.9 per 1,000 athlete-exposures). Men's wrestling experienced the highest overall injury rate (13.1 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.2 per 1,000). Among women's sports, gymnastics had the highest overall injury rate (10.4 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.0 per 1,000), although soccer had the highest competition injury rate (17.2 per 1,000). More injuries were estimated to have occurred from practice than from competition for all sports, with the exception of men's ice hockey and baseball. However, injuries incurred during competition were somewhat more severe (e.g., requiring ≥7 days to return to full participation) than those acquired during practice. Multiple strategies are employed by NCAA and others to reduce the number of injuries in

  18. Słowo - obraz - pamięć w labiryntach komiksu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Gajewska

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The comic book is a product of mass culture. It got deeply rooted in American and Western European popular culture in the 1970s. In France, this type of sequential art told in pictorial stories was presented in daily papers ( bande dessinee and developed humorously-told threads o f the plot. In the UK it won juvenile audience with its simple jokes, genre scenes and shortened and abridged versions o f fables. In the United States, in turn, crude science fiction, horror or joke graphic stories were most popular. However, in the late 1990s these depictions increasingly started to develop into something of much different nature. On the one hand, popular culture embraced more and more different creative areas, wrestled with subject and themes that so far had been tackled only by more sophisticated literature (for example, war themes. On the other hand, Polish reader had a better chance to experience new titles and pictorial stories from the West or other far-away cultures that represented high artistic skills and offered original and remarkable stories. This, in turn, created a new situation in which adult readers turned to comic books. Moreover, comic books became a subject of interests for academics beyond those who were professionally involved in documenting and understanding popular culture, i.e. for methodologists of history, modern culture anthropologists, researchers in literature and art historians. Today’s status of comic books in literature is pronouncedly higher than that of several years ago. For it is not only the artistic level that has been much developed and improved, but also the thematic range of subject to be tackled by this form of literature. Additionally, the context within comics have been functioning in the space of modern discourse has also changed. A particular type of comics is the one that presents historical contents. Works of brilliant artists from different cultures such as, for example, Hiroshima 19Ą5 Barefoot Gen

  19. L'île d'Anjouan figure de la balkanisation de l'archipel des Comores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Taglioni

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available L'Union des Comores connaît une instabilité politique chronique depuis son indépendance en 1975. De tentatives de coups d'état en coups d'état aboutis, de révisions constitutionnelles en réconciliations nationales, l'Union est fragile et essaye de résister à une balkanisation devenue problématique. Cette tendance s'incarne dans l'appartenance politique de la quatrième île de l'archipel des Comores, Mayotte, à la République française et dans les tentatives séparatistes d'Anjouan et Mohéli. C'est dans ce contexte politique tendu qu'a eu lieu le 25 mars 2008 à Anjouan le débarquement d'une force internationale sous l'égide de l'Union africaine pour renverser le président Mohamed Bacar. L'Union des Comores illustre bien les obstacles de cohésion nationale dans un Etat multi-insulaire en prise avec de lourds problèmes politiques sur fond de mal développement économique et humain persistant.Union of the Comoros is experiencing chronic political instability since its independence in 1975. From coups attempts to coup, from constitutional developments to national reconciliation, the Union is fragile and tries to resist with an endemic balkanization. It is embodied with the political affiliation of the fourth island of the Comoros archipelago, Mayotte, in the French Republic and with the separatist attempts of Anjouan and Moheli.In this tense political context occurred on March 25, 2008 the landing in Anjouan of an international force under the aegis of the African Union to overthrow President Mohamed Bacar. Union of the Comoros illustrates the obstacles of a national cohesion within a multi-insular state wrestling with heavy political difficulties and persistent economic and human development problems.

  20. Analysis of the methods for the achievement of comfort conditions of humidity and temperature in energetically efficient designs; Analisis de los mtodos para lograr condiciones de confort higrotermico en disenos energeticamente eficientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa A, N A; Morillon G, D [Division de Estudios de Posgrado de la Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the analysis of the tools commonly utilized in Bioclimatic Design, for the achievement of humidity an temperature comfort conditions in architectonic spaces. The analysis was performed by means of field studies and experimentally for different sport activities, carried out in spaces designed for each purpose. In the experimental part, inside ambient temperature and relative humidity were measured in the different spaces where sport activities were conducted, such as calisthenics, dance, judo, wrestling, weight lifting, boxing, basket-ball, volley-ball, gymnastics and fencing. At the same time an inquiry was conducted among their occupants in respect to the thermal sensation they experimented while conducting such activities. The results obtained in the inquiry were compared with the results reported by other researchers, by means of tables and psychometric diagrams as optimum values for temperature comfort. As a conclusion it was decided that the graphic and mathematical methods analyzed, are based on a sedentary activity, therefore in using them for the design of spaces for different activities uncomfortable conditions are experimented with the consequential necessity of air conditioning, which implies energy consumption and the corresponding expenditure, lastly it is necessary to adapt these tools, that is, consider the activity that is going to be performed in the buildings. [Espanol] En este documento se presenta el analisis de las herramientas, comunmente utilizadas en Diseo Bioclimatico, para lograr el confort higrotermico de espacios arquitectonicos, el analisis se realizo mediante estudios de campo y experimental, para diversas actividades deportivas, llevadas a cabo en espacios disenados para ello. En la parte experimental, se tomaron mediciones de temperatura y humedad relativa internas, de los distintos espacios en los cuales se desarrollaban las actividades deportivas, tales como calistenia, danza, judo, lucha, trabajo con pesas

  1. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was “what is going on in the field of dying today?” What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Methods Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Results Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient’s death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on “gut feelings” - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia

  2. Esas empeñadas luchas a que son muy aficionados los naturales de este país: un acercamiento a la etnicidad a través de la lucha canaria (1840-1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso, Víctor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sports in general, and traditional sports in particular, make a key contribution to the processes linked to the configuration of any identity. These activities can be studied as a reality «in its own right» (with a certain relative autonomy, as a part of a specific social subject, or as a diacritical social matter that enables us to characterize structures and social processes which, over time, could favour the changes, meanings and visions, whether considered legitimate or maligned, that are contained in these practices. This article deals with the traditional sport of lucha canaria [Canary-island wrestling], which has proved a revealing historical construct, to the extent that this popular game turned sports discipline underwent intense transformation during the 19th and early- 20th centuries. Its analysis provides an insight into the different social meanings, supports and principles associated with this activity, revealing a complex space of relations where the indigenous Guanche, historical tradition and an ongoing link with modernity are particularly relevant. All of this endorses the debate in recent decades in social anthropology and the social sciences regarding ethnicity, identity and sports.El deporte, y especialmente los deportes tradicionales, son una contribución de primer orden a los procesos de construcción identitaria. Puede ser estudiado como realidad «en sí» (dotada de relativa autonomía, al modo de un campo social específico, o bien en modo de diacrítico social que permite caracterizar unas estructuras y procesos sociales que, a lo largo del tiempo, favorecen las transformaciones, sentidos y visiones legitimadas o denostadas contenidas en las prácticas. Este artículo trata la lucha canaria, un deporte tradicional que se manifiesta como constructo histórico revelador, al tratarse de un juego popular deportivizado que vive una intensa transformación a lo largo del siglo XIX y las primeras décadas del XX. Su

  3. Towards policy relevant environmental modeling: contextual validity and pragmatic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Scott B.

    2000-01-01

    "What makes for a good model?" In various forms, this question is a question that, undoubtedly, many people, businesses, and institutions ponder with regards to their particular domain of modeling. One particular domain that is wrestling with this question is the multidisciplinary field of environmental modeling. Examples of environmental models range from models of contaminated ground water flow to the economic impact of natural disasters, such as earthquakes. One of the distinguishing claims of the field is the relevancy of environmental modeling to policy and environment-related decision-making in general. A pervasive view by both scientists and decision-makers is that a "good" model is one that is an accurate predictor. Thus, determining whether a model is "accurate" or "correct" is done by comparing model output to empirical observations. The expected outcome of this process, usually referred to as "validation" or "ground truthing," is a stamp on the model in question of "valid" or "not valid" that serves to indicate whether or not the model will be reliable before it is put into service in a decision-making context. In this paper, I begin by elaborating on the prevailing view of model validation and why this view must change. Drawing from concepts coming out of the studies of science and technology, I go on to propose a contextual view of validity that can overcome the problems associated with "ground truthing" models as an indicator of model goodness. The problem of how we talk about and determine model validity has much to do about how we perceive the utility of environmental models. In the remainder of the paper, I argue that we should adopt ideas of pragmatism in judging what makes for a good model and, in turn, developing good models. From such a perspective of model goodness, good environmental models should facilitate communication, convey—not bury or "eliminate"—uncertainties, and, thus, afford the active building of consensus decisions, instead

  4. self-criticism to Arab and Muslim intellectuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachrizal Halim

    2007-06-01

    the Arab world. As an Arab intellectual living in the West, the author, Ibrahim M. Abu-Rabi`, invites his fellow Muslims, or more generally Arab intellectuals to answer the very basic question: why have we failed to produce a critical and constructive Islamic thinking or knowledge to wrestle with the multitude of problems facing Muslims in any of the world’s advanced capitalist societies (xiii?

  5. A RESEARCH ON IDENTIFYING THE NEED FOR DISTANCE EDUCATION FOR NATIONAL ATHLETES WHO STUDY IN SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner BOZKUS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the problems which national athletes, who study in School of Physical Education and Sport in universities, encounter in formal education and to determine their need for distance learning. Qualitative research, which is one the techniques of researching the method of the study, forms a structured deliberation technique. Deliberation questions are prepared with this technique based on expert opinions and during the deliberation, the questions were asked to the people who attended the deliberation in a partially flexible way. Population and sampling of the research; population of the study is the people who study in School of Physical Education and Sports, and sampling is the 348 national athletes who study wrestling, bocce, dart, bowling, basketball, volleyball, football, taekwando, karate, archery, atheism, tennis, judo, badminton, table tennis, boxing, weight lifting, handball, gymnastics and swimming in School of Physical Education and Sports. %20.4 of these sportsmen are female, %79.6 of them are male and %78.7 of them are between 19-25 years old, %14.4 of them are between 26-30 years old, %4.3 of them are between 31-35 years old, and %2.6 of them are 36 years old and older. %26.4 of the sportsmen who attend the research, study Coaching, %49.7 of them study Profession of Teaching, %14.1 of them study Sport Management and %9.8 of them study Recreation. And %97.7 of these sportsmen receive undergraduate education, %2.3 of them receive graduate education. At the end of the study, the national athletes, who attended the research, emphasized that they were having problems in formal education, they failed the exams because they couldn’t follow the courses, when they had to attend the courses, they delayed their trainings, and this situation effected their education level. %87.9 of the national athletes who took part in the study pointed that they need distance learning and if such a programme is developed

  6. Cutaneous community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in participants of athletic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2005-06-01

    their initial visit. Complete resolution of the skin infection occurred after the abscesses had been drained and the athlete had been treated with systemic antimicrobial therapy for which the bacterial strain was susceptible. Cutaneous CAMRSA infection typically presents as an abscess, with or without surrounding cellulitis, in otherwise healthy participants of athletic activities who have or do not have MRSA-associated risk factors. Athletes who have MRSA skin infections include weight lifters and team members from competitive sports such as basketball, fencing, football, rugby, volleyball, and wrestling. Bacterial culture of suspected infectious skin lesions should be performed to establish the diagnosis of cutaneous MRSA infection and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of the bacterial isolate. Treatment of cutaneous MRSA infection involves drainage of the abscess (either spontaneously or after incision) and appropriate systemic antimicrobial therapy. Direct skin-to-skin physical contact with infectious lesions or drainage, skin damage that facilitates the entry of bacteria, and sharing of infected equipment, clothing, or personal items may result in the acquisition and transmission of MRSA infection in participants of athletic activities. Earlier detection and topical treatment of the athlete's skin wounds by their coaches, avoidance of contact with other participants' cutaneous lesions and their drainage, and good personal hygiene are measures that can potentially prevent the spread of cutaneous MRSA infection in participants of athletic activities.

  7. ANALYSIS OF ISOKINETIC KNEE EXTENSION / FLEXION IN MALE ELITE ADOLESCENT WRESTLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanli Sadi Kurdak

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Wrestling requires strength of the upper and lower body musculature which is critical for the athletic performance. Evaluation of the adolescent's skeletal muscle is important to understand body movement, especially including those involved in sports. Strength, power and endurance capacity are defined as parameters of skeletal muscle biomechanical properties. The isokinetic dynamometer is an important toll for making this type of evaluation. However, load range phase of range of motion has to be considered to interpret the data correctly. With this in mind we aimed to investigate the lover body musculature contractile characteristics of adolescent wrestlers together with detailed analyses of load range phase of motion. Thirteen boys aged 12 - 14 years participated to this study. Concentric load range torque, work and power of knee extension and flexion were measured by a Cybex Norm dynamometer at angular velocities from 450°/sec to 30°/sec with 30°/sec decrements for each set. None of the wrestlers were able to attain load range for angular velocities above 390°/sec and 420°/sec for extension and flexion respectively. Detailed analyses of the load range resulted in statistically significant differences in the normalized load range peak torque for extension at 270°/sec (1.44 ± 0.28 Nm·kg-1 and 1.14 ± 0.28 Nm·kg-1 for total and load range peak torque respectively, p < 0.05, and for flexion at 300°/sec (1.26 ± 0.28 Nm·kg-1 and 1.03 ± 0.23 Nm·kg-1 for total and load range peak torque respectively, p < 0.05, compared to total peak torque data. Similarly, the significant difference was found for the work values at 90°/sec (1.91 ± 0.23 Nm·kg-1 and 1.59 ± 0.24 Nm·kg-1 for total and load range work respectively for extension and 1.73 ± 0.21 Nm·kg-1 and 1.49 ± 0.19 Nm·kg-1 for total and load range work respectively for flexion, p < 0.05, and was evident at higher angular velocities (p < 0.001 for both extension and flexion. At

  8. Risk Assessment and Management for Long-Term Storage of CO2 in Geologic Formations — United States Department of Energy R&D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Deel

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Concern about increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHG and their impact on the earth's climate has grown significantly over the last decade. Many countries, including the United States, wrestle with balancing economic development and meeting critical near-term environmental goals while minimizing long-term environmental risks. One promising solution to the buildup of GHGs in the atmosphere, being pursued by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL and its industrial and academic partners, is carbon sequestration—a process of permanent storage of CO2 emissions in underground geologic formations, thus avoiding CO2 release to the atmosphere. This option looks particularly attractive for point source emissions of GHGs, such as fossil fuel fired power plants. CO2 would be captured, transported to a sequestration site, and injected into an appropriate geologic formation. However, sequestration in geologic formations cannot achieve a significant role in reducing GHG emissions unless it is acceptable to stakeholders, regulators, and the general public, i.e., unless the risks involved are judged to be acceptable. One tool that can be used to achieve acceptance of geologic sequestration of CO2 is risk assessment, which is a proven method to objectively manage hazards in facilities such as oil and natural gas fields, pipelines, refineries, and chemical plants. Although probabilistic risk assessment (PRA has been applied in many areas, its application to geologic CO2 sequestration is still in its infancy. The most significant risk from geologic carbon sequestration is leakage of CO2. Two types of CO2 releases are possible—atmospheric and subsurface. High concentrations of CO2 caused by a release to the atmosphere would pose health risks to humans and animals, and any leakage of CO2 back into the atmosphere negates the effort expended to sequester the CO2

  9. Towards a Determination of the Physiological Characteristics Distinguishing Successful Mixed Martial Arts Athletes: A Systematic Review of Combat Sport Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lachlan P; Haff, G Gregory; Kelly, Vincent G; Beckman, Emma M

    2016-10-01

    Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a combat sport underpinned by techniques from other combat disciplines, in addition to strategies unique to the sport itself. These sports can be divided into two distinct categories (grappling or striking) based on differing technical demands. Uniquely, MMA combines both methods of combat and therefore appears to be physiologically complex requiring a spectrum of mechanical and metabolic qualities to drive performance. However, little is known about the physiological characteristics that distinguish higher- from lower-level MMA athletes. Such information provides guidance for training interventions, performance testing and talent identification. Furthermore, while MMA incorporates techniques from both grappling and striking sports, it is unknown precisely how these disciplines differ physiologically. Understanding the relationship between higher-level competitors in grappling and striking combat sports can provide further insight into the development of the optimal performance profile of a higher-level MMA athlete. This article aims to analyse the scientific literature on MMA and the primary combat sports underpinning it to determine the physiological adaptations that distinguish superior competitors, with a view to defining the optimal physiological profile for higher-level MMA performance. Furthermore, this article will explore the differences in these capabilities between grappling- and striking-based combat sports in the context of MMA. A literature search was undertaken via PubMed, Web of Science, SportDiscus and Google Scholar. The following sports were included for systematic review based on their relevance to MMA: mixed martial arts, boxing, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, judo, karate, kickboxing, Muay Thai and wrestling. The inclusion criteria allowed studies that compared athletes of differing competition levels in the same sport using a physiological performance measure. Only male, adult (aged 17-40 years), able-bodied competitors

  10. Une histoire impériale connectée ? Hải Phòng : jalon d’une stratégie lyonnaise en Asie orientale (1881-1886

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Klein

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Dans la seconde moitié du xixe siècle, les milieux d’affaires lyonnais liés à l’industrie de la soie – les Soyeux – réussissent à ravir aux Britanniques le marché des soies d’Asie (Bengale, Chine et Japon. Dans un premier temps, sous la Monarchie de Juillet et le Second Empire (de 1843 à 1870, ils mettent en place une route française des soies asiatiques, système complexe alliant maisons de commerce, banques, entrepôts, infrastructures portuaires et ferroviaires. Afin de renforcer leur avance – et dans un contexte de tensions économiques majeures liées à la récession de la fin du xixe siècle – les Soyeux vont jeter leur dévolu sur le Tonkin, vu comme une porte ouverte sur les marchés pensés comme fabuleux du Yunnan et du Sichuan. Ces libéraux, regroupés autour de meneurs d’hommes charismatiques (Aynard et Pila vont entrer par capitaux interposés dans une logique de repli impérial qui succède à la logique du tout ouverture internationale des lendemains du traité de libre-échange de 1860. Dans les logiques – à la fois politiques et économiques – des Soyeux, le Tonkin apparaît comme une pièce maîtresse dans la partie de poker qui les oppose à leurs partenaires Britanniques dans ce « scramble » indochinois de cette fin de siècle, pendant asiatique de la course au Nil. Au cœur de cette stratégie impériale des Soyeux, le port d’Hải Phòng devient un enjeu majeur, un lieu où s’entrecroise la trame des capitaux et la chaine des réseaux de ces hommes d’affaires qui n’ignoraient rien des subtilités des us commerciaux particuliers de la mer de Chine.During the second half of the 19th century, the Silk businessmen of Lyon succeeded in wrestling the Asian silk markets (Bengal, China, and Japan from the British. At first, under the July Monarchy and the Second Empire (from 1843 to 1870, they created a French route for Asian silks, a complex system linking mercantile houses

  11. NRAO Salutes Past, Looks to Future In 50th-Anniversary Science Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Radio telescopes now in operation or under construction will be indispensible to scientists wrestling with the big, unanswered questions of 21st-Century astrophysics. That was the conclusion of a wide-ranging scientific meeting held in Charlottesville, Virginia, June 18-21, to mark the 50th anniversary of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). 1957 Dedication Dedication of NRAO, 17 October 1957. Left to right: R.M. Emberson, L.V. Berkner, G.A. Nay, J.W. Findlay (seated in front of 140ft telescope model), N.L. Ashton, D.S. Heeschen, H. Hockenberry. CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on Image for Larger File ALMA Artist's conception of completed ALMA. CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/ESO Click on Image for Larger File (2.4 MB) Nearly 200 scientists from around the world heard presentations about the frontiers of astrophysics and how the challenges at those frontiers will be met. In specialties as disparate as seeking the nature of the mysterious Dark Energy that is speeding the Universe's expansion to unraveling the details of how stars and planets are formed, more than 70 presenters looked toward future research breakthroughs. "NRAO's telescopes have made landmark contributions to the vast explosion of astronomical knowledge of the past half- century, and we look eagerly to making even more important contributions in the coming decades," said Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO's director. Over the four days of the meeting, discussions ranged from recollections of radio astronomy's pioneering days of vacuum-tube equipment and paper chart recorders to the design of telescopes that will produce amounts of data that will strain today's computers. Presenters pointed out that, in the coming decades, radio telescope observations will advance not only astronomy but also fields of basic physics such as gravitational radiation, particle physics, and the fundamental physical constants. "This meeting provided a great overview of where astrophysics stands today and where the challenges and opportunities of

  12. Ultra-high throughput real-time instruments for capturing fast signals and rare events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Brandon Walter

    Wide-band signals play important roles in the most exciting areas of science, engineering, and medicine. To keep up with the demands of exploding internet traffic, modern data centers and communication networks are employing increasingly faster data rates. Wide-band techniques such as pulsed radar jamming and spread spectrum frequency hopping are used on the battlefield to wrestle control of the electromagnetic spectrum. Neurons communicate with each other using transient action potentials that last for only milliseconds at a time. And in the search for rare cells, biologists flow large populations of cells single file down microfluidic channels, interrogating them one-by-one, tens of thousands of times per second. Studying and enabling such high-speed phenomena pose enormous technical challenges. For one, parasitic capacitance inherent in analog electrical components limits their response time. Additionally, converting these fast analog signals to the digital domain requires enormous sampling speeds, which can lead to significant jitter and distortion. State-of-the-art imaging technologies, essential for studying biological dynamics and cells in flow, are limited in speed and sensitivity by finite charge transfer and read rates, and by the small numbers of photo-electrons accumulated in short integration times. And finally, ultra-high throughput real-time digital processing is required at the backend to analyze the streaming data. In this thesis, I discuss my work in developing real-time instruments, employing ultrafast optical techniques, which overcome some of these obstacles. In particular, I use broadband dispersive optics to slow down fast signals to speeds accessible to high-bit depth digitizers and signal processors. I also apply telecommunication multiplexing techniques to boost the speeds of confocal fluorescence microscopy. The photonic time stretcher (TiSER) uses dispersive Fourier transformation to slow down analog signals before digitization and

  13. Seeing Is Believing. Or Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-08-01

    Occasionally I get time to read something other than a scientific journal, book, or manuscript. On one such foray I discovered Kenneth Brower's "Photography in the Age of Falsification", which appeared in The Atlantic Monthly in May 1998. Brower described how an editor, who might never have experienced the wildness of nature, could conceive a photograph and assign a photographer to create it. Whether the scene depicted was actually possible often seemed relatively unimportant. The main thing was whether the image would interest viewers. Brower argued that today's vast array of software for manipulating digital versions of photographic images enables what he calls "photofakery" on an unprecedented scale. He described how editors at National Geographic decided to pull an ad that depicted a polar bear in Antarctica (where there are no bears); the ad had been created by digitally superimposing a photograph of a bear in a Cincinnati zoo and a photograph of the Lemaire Channel in Antarctica. According to Brower, "Too few photographers, I think, appreciate how directly the new technology aims at the heart of the credibility that distinguishes this art form from others." Credibility is also one of the hallmarks of science. Science progresses as a result of consensus on what results can be expected from carefully designed and carefully executed experiments and observations. As teachers of chemistry, we have a duty not to fall into the same kinds of traps that have made some photographers uneasy about their profession. And we need to help our students learn to avoid these traps. But it is not that easy, because we also need to capture students' attention and try to make our subject interesting by telling stories or showing phenomena or models that appeal to the imagination. As in the case of photography, defining where imagination begins to usurp reality is difficult. It is therefore a very important issue to wrestle with. Part of Brower's argument against manipulation of

  14. Nuisance Odors: Is there a Concern - 12340

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brounstein, Robert A. [TerranearPMC, Los Alamos New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    hygiene community equipped to carry out this responsibility?' 'Are new assessment methods and tools necessary? Are alternate exposure limits needed and can they be adequately implemented? As more of the non-traditional health hazards become recognized, it appears that it shall be essential for more sophisticated methods to be part of the standard practice used to assess human health. Whether that means more sensitive equipment that has greater detection capabilities, or the development of new technologies designed specifically for these hazards, at present can only be left to speculation. While the occupational health community may wrestle with these questions, the responsibility of the safety and health community must maintain its diligence. As such, persons within the discipline of environmental and occupational health must continue to communicate the hazards and controls to the work force. Through such efforts, the workforce shall become engaged in the process of hazard identification, assessment and control, which, in turn, will create a greater appreciation and acceptance for field assessment methods as well as the processes by which workplace controls are designed to protect them. (authors)

  15. Obituary: Robert Fleischer, 1918-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Peter Bradford; Saffell, Mary E.

    2003-12-01

    from time to time. Fleischer wrestled with the issue of how to assemble a committee of busy people who had not thought about the problems at hand, provide them with enough background to enable them to comment effectively, and structure any discussion so as to provide effective advice to the agency. Yet, he had a strong sense that NSF, having the broad overview of the situation and a better understanding of the politics of funding, was in a better position to make major decisions than any group of scientists that might be assembled. This ultimately led to confrontation with the astronomical community. Fleischer was also of the opinion that perhaps the most important advice a committee can give comes, not from the official pronouncements but, from the informal communication which happens when any group of people get together---the one-on-one discussions over coffee, the brief comments heard around the table, and even the general sense of body language. He stressed this to the staff before each meeting. Ironically, his zeal to run an effective meeting made him less receptive to the informal, and even some of the formal, communications from the Committee. Preparation for meetings of the NSF Astronomy Advisory Committee was intense. The agenda was structured so as to present a maximum amount of information to the Committee. Once the agenda was set, the meetings followed them strictly. As chairman of the Advisory Committee, Fleischer ran the meeting with an iron hand, sometimes cutting off discussion that the Committee might have felt valuable, adding to the sense of the Committee's frustration. As a consequence, the meetings actually had a negative effect on the community. Although Fleischer was a strong believer in helping and encouraging his staff, and arranged for the entire staff of the Astronomy Section to attend both internal and off-site management training courses, his tendency toward an autocratic personal style was unsettling. Pressures from the community and

  16. Wpływ wysiłku fizycznego wybranych dyscyplin sportowych na habitualną postawę ciała = The effect of physical exercise on selected sports on habitual posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mrozkowiak

    2016-10-01

    are a function of its intensity and duration. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the influence of sports training appropriate for their sport habitual posture athlete The material object of the method. Measurements 35 spatial characteristics of habitual posture made of 151 players judo, wrestling, volleyball, football and fencing. photogrammetric method. Results. Described the attitude of habitual athlete right every sports discipline, defined the significance of differences of values accepted traits of habitual attitudes of individuals not engaged in sport classified. Conclusions. (1 The health status of athletes qualified may depend on the knowledge, skills and sensitivity leading sports training. An important criterion for evaluating the load in sports may be asymmetric diagnostics of body posture, enabling correction of training methods and means used within it. It is the introduction of comprehensive training of players and improve functional balance of individual muscle groups, especially in the disciplines of asymmetric (2 Enter the correct selections in recruiting young students of sports clubs based on regular medical examinations, (3 disorders static posture in adulthood player may be the consequence of not applying the principles of training holistic and errors in the initial training phase, errors in the warm-up and lack of exercise forming the habit of correct posture within it, (4 Realized studies do not give a complete picture of changes in body posture the influence of labor characteristic of the sport.

  17. Teorias curriculares, perspectivas teóricas em Educação Física Escolar e implicações para a formação docente Teorías curriculares, perspectivas teóricas en educación física y las implicaciones con la formación docente Curriculum theories, theoretical perspectives in physical education and implications for school teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Luiz Ferraz

    2012-09-01

    y la sistematización del conocimiento pueden divergir considerablemente modificando el papel del componente curricular en la educación básica. Siendo así, este texto analiza aspectos del desarrollo de las teorías curriculares, relacionándolas a las perspectivas teóricas en Educación Física. En seguida, las implicaciones de este debate son relacionadas a la formación docente.The function of the teacher of physical education can be defined by the development, implementation and evaluation of programs that analyze, from the point of view didactic-pedagogic, games, sports, wrestling, gymnastics, dance, exercise, among others, with the intention of influence the student´s formation for democratic participation in society. However, this consensus dissolves when applied to the field of curriculum and teacher training. In the field of curriculum, despite the recognition that the schematization didactic-pedagogic makes up from cultural meanings and potential stimulation of the human organism that is present in the manifestations of the culture of movement; intentionality, curriculum organization and systematization of knowledge may differ considerably modifying the role of curricular component. Therefore, this paper analyzes aspects of the development of curriculum theories and relate them to theoretical perspectives in Physical Education. Then implications of this debate are related to teacher training.

  18. Exercício físico, desporto e função pulmonar em adolescentes fumadores versus não fumadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.L. Holmen

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A actividade física reduzida está, inequivocamente, associada a um aumento das taxas de morbilidade e mortalidade na idade adulta.Os autores estudaram a relação existente entre o tabagismo na adolescência e o exercício físico, assim como o papel da actividade desportiva na função pulmonar.Foram avaliados 8305 estudantes (idades 13-18 anos do município de Nord-Trondelag, Noruega, submetidos a um inquérito pessoal abrangendo os hábitos tabágicos e a actividade física. Esta última foi classificada em três níveis: exercício e” 4 dias//semana; exercício 2-3 dias/semana; exercício d” 1 dia/semana; Os desportos individuais englobavam desportos de elevada endurance, como sejam o esqui, o ciclismo e a corrida, e de reduzida endurance de que são exemplo a equitação, a ginástica, a musculação, o boxe, o wrestling, o judo e o taekwondo. Constituem desportos de equipa o futebol, o andebol e o voleibol. Foram incluídos no grupo de fumadores os adolescentes com hábitos tabágicos diários ou ocasionais e considerados como fumadores passivos os estudantes expostos ao fumo do tabaco no núcleo familiar (progenitores, irmãos.Um mês após completarem o inquérito foram submetidos a um exame clínico que incluiu a determinação da altura e peso e a realização de espirometrias segundo os requisitos da American Thoracic Society. Foram avaliadas a CVF, VEMS, DEM50 e Índice de Tiffeneau. Todos os estudantes com Asma Brônquica (1005 foram excluídos.Cerca de 2993 adolescentes (41,0% nunca fumaram e 1342 (18,4% eram fumadores regulares (10% diários. Nos fumadores diários, a idade de início foi de 13,9 anos, tendo os hábitos tabágicos aumentado com a idade.A maioria dos estudantes (88% exercia uma actividade desportiva, pelo menos, 2 dias por semana, fora da escola, sendo esta mais frequente no sexo masculino (p<0