WorldWideScience

Sample records for woven synthetic fabric

  1. Welded-woven fabrics for use as synthetic, minimally invasive orthopaedic implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodts, Timothy W.

    The treatment of osteoarthritis in healthcare today focuses on minimizing pain and retaining mobility. Osteoarthritis of the knee is a common disease and known to be associated with traumatic injuries, among other factors. An identified trend is that patients are younger and have expectations of life with the preservation of an active lifestyle. As a result, great strain is placed on the available offerings of healthcare professionals and device manufacturers alike. This results in numerous design challenges for managing pain and disease over an extended period of time. The available treatments are being extended into younger populations, which increasingly suffer traumatic knee injuries. However, these patients are not good candidates for total joint replacement. A common problem for young patients is localized cartilage damage. This can heal, but often results in a painful condition that requires intervention. A welded-woven three-dimensional polymer fabric was developed to mimic the properties of articular cartilage. A process for the laser welding reinforcement of the surface layers of three-dimensional fabrics was investigated. Confined compression creep and pin-on-disc wear studies were conducted to characterize the contribution of the surface welding reinforcement. All materials used in the studies have previously been used in orthopaedic devices or meet the requirements for United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) Class VI biocompatibility approval. The compressive behavior of three-dimensional fabrics was tailored by the inclusion of surface welds. The compressive properties of the welded-woven fabrics were shown to better approximate articular cartilage compressive properties than conventional woven materials. The wear performance was benchmarked against identical fabrics without welding reinforcement. The wear rates were significantly reduced and the lifespan of the fabrics was markedly improved due to surface welding. Welding reinforcement offers a

  2. Computational modelling of buckling of woven fabrics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anandjiwala, RD

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available for reducing unit production cost is critically important if garment industries in developed countries are keen to improve their competitiveness vis-à-vis low labour cost countries. The mechanics of the buckling behaviour of woven fabric started... of woven fabric. INTRODUCTION The buckling, bending and drape behaviours of a woven fabric influence its performance during actual use and during the process of making-up into the end product. These properties are important, particularly when the fabric...

  3. DRAPING SIMULATION OF WOVEN FABRICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, William [General Motors LLC; Jin, Xiaoshi [ESI Group NA; Zhu, Jiang [Optimal CAE; Wathen, Terrence [General Motors LLC; Doroudian2, Mark [ESI Group NA; Aitharaju, Venkat [General Motors LLC

    2016-09-07

    Woven fabric composites are extensively used in molding complex geometrical shapes due to their high conformability compared to other fabrics. Preforming is an important step in the overall process, where the two-dimensional fabric is draped to become the three-dimensional shape of the part prior to resin injection. During preforming, the orientation of the yarns may change significantly compared to the initial orientations. Accurate prediction of the yarn orientations after molding is important for evaluating the structural performance of the final part. This paper presents a systematic investigation of the angle changes during the preform operation for carbon fiber twill and satin weave fabrics. Preforming experiments were conducted using a truncated pyramid mold geometry designed and fabricated at the General Motors Research Laboratories. Predicted results for the yarn orientations were compared with experimental results and good agreement was observed

  4. MAGNETIC WOVEN FABRICS - PHYSICAL AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GROSU Marian C

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A coated material is a composite structure that consists of at least two components: base material and coating layer. The purpose of coating is to provide special properties to base material, with potential to be applied in EMI shielding and diverse smart technical fields. This paper reports the results of a study about some physical and magnetic properties of coated woven fabrics made from cotton yarns with fineness of 17 metric count. For this aim, a plain woven fabric was coated with a solution hard magnetic polymer based. As hard magnetic powder, barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19 was selected. The plain woven fabric used as base has been coated with five solutions having different amounts of hard magnetic powder (15% - 45% in order to obtain five different magnetic woven fabrics. A comparison of physical properties regarding weight (g/m2, thickness (mm, degree of charging (% and magnetic properties of magnetic woven samples were presented. Saturation magnetizing (emu/g, residual magnetizing (emu/g and coercive force (kA/m of pure hard magnetic powder and woven fabrics have been studied as hysteresis characteristics. The magnetic properties of the woven fabrics depend on the mass percentage of magnetic powder from coating solution. Also, the residual magnetism and coercive field of woven fabrics represents only a part of bulk barium hexafferite residual magnetism and coercive field.

  5. Laminate mechanics for balanced woven fabrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Remko

    2006-01-01

    Laminate mechanics equations are presented for composites with balanced woven fabric reinforcements. It is shown that mimicking these textile composites with equivalent transversely isotropic (‘unidirectional’) layers requires disputable manipulations. Various micromechanics predictions of textile

  6. Woven fabric composites: Can we peel it?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacchetti, Francisco; Grouve, Wouter Johannes Bernardus; Warnet, Laurent; Villegas, I. Fernandez

    2016-01-01

    The present work focuses on the applicability of the mandrel peel test to quantify the fracture toughness of woven fabric Carbon/PEEK composites. For this purpose, the mandrel peel test was compared to the standardized DCB test. Unstable crack propagation (stick-slip) was observed in both testing

  7. Numerical Tools for Composite Woven Fabric Preforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Cherouat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An important step in the manufacturing processes of thin composite components is the layingup of the reinforcement onto the mould surface. The prediction of the angular distortion of the reinforcement during draping and the changes in fibre orientation are essential for the understanding of the manufacture process and the evaluation of the mechanical properties of the composite structures. This paper presents an optimization-based method for the simulation of the forming processes of woven fabric reinforced composites. Two different approaches are proposed for the simulation of the draping of woven fabric onto complex geometries: geometrical and mechanical approaches. The geometrical approach is based on a fishnet model. It is well adapted to predimensioning fabrics and to give a suitable quantification of the resulting flat patterns. The mechanical approach is based on a mesostructural model. It allows us to take into account the mechanical properties of fibres and resin and the various dominating mode of deformation of woven fabrics during the forming process. Some numerical simulations of the forming process are proposed and compared with the experimental results in order to demonstrate the efficiency of our approaches.

  8. Geometrical Modeling of Woven Fabrics Weavability-Limit New Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The weavability limit and tightness for 2D and 3D woven fabrics is an important factor and depends on many geometric parameters. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature on textile fabric construction and property, and related research on fabric geometry, a study of the weavability limit and tightness relationships of 2D and 3D woven fabrics was undertaken. Experiments were conducted on a representative number of polyester and cotton woven fabrics which have been woven in our workshop, using three machines endowed with different insertion systems (rapier, projectiles and air jet. Afterwards, these woven fabrics have been analyzed in the laboratory to determine their physical and mechanical characteristics using air permeability-meter and KES-F KAWABATA Evaluation System for Fabrics. In this study, the current Booten’s weavability limit and tightness relationships based on Ashenhurst’s, Peirce’s, Love’s, Russell’s, Galuszynskl’s theory and maximum-weavability is reviewed and modified as new relationships to expand their use to general cases (2D and 3D woven fabrics, all fiber materiel, all yarns etc…. The theoretical relationships were examined and found to agree with experimental results. It was concluded that the weavability limit and tightness relationships are useful tools for weavers in predicting whether a proposed fabric construction was weavable and also in predicting and explaining their physical and mechanical properties.

  9. A Wear Geometry Model of Plain Woven Fabric Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Dapeng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper g describes a model meant for analysis of the wear geometry of plain woven fabric composites. The referred model consists of a mathematical description of plain woven fabric based on Peirce’s model coupled with a stratified method for the solution of the wear geometry. The evolutions of the wear area ratio of weft yarn, warp yarn and matrix resin on the worn surface are simulated by MatLab software in combination of warp and weft yarn diameters, warp and weft yarn-to-yarn distances, fabric structure phases (SPs. By comparing theoretical and experimental results from the PTFE/Kevlar fabric wear experiment, it can be concluded that the model can present a trend of the component area ratio variations along with the thickness of fabric, but has a inherently large error in quantitative analysis as an idealized model.

  10. Studies on the mechanical properties of woven jute fabric reinforced poly(l-lactic acid composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Arifuzzaman Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of ecofriendly biocomposites to replace non-biodegradable synthetic fiber composites is the main objective of this study. To highlight the biocomposites as a perfect replacement, the plain woven jute fabric (WJF reinforced poly(l-lactic acid (PLLA composites were prepared by the hot press molding method. The influence of woven structure and direction on the mechanical properties i.e. tensile, flexural and impact properties was investigated. The average tensile strength (TS, tensile modulus (TM, flexural strength (FS, flexural modulus (FM, and impact strength (IS of untreated woven jute composite (in warp direction were improved about 103%, 211%, 95.2%, 42.4% and 85.9%, respectively and strain at maximum tensile stress for composite samples was enhanced by 11.7%. It was also found that the strengths and modulus of composites in warp direction are higher than those in weft direction. WJF composites in warp and weft directions presented superior mechanical properties than non-woven jute fabric (NWJF composites. Chemical treatment of jute fabric through benzoylation showed a positive effect on the properties of composites. Morphological studies by SEM demonstrated that better adhesion between the treated fabric and PLLA was achieved.

  11. Notched Strength of Woven Fabric Kenaf Composites with Different Fiber Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hilton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The awareness of implementing sustainable materials in construction industry is gaining good attention among engineers worldwide. Kenaf fibers are local renewable materials to combine with epoxy polymers matrix in producing lightweight composite materials which may replace imported synthetic fiber composites especially in developing countries. Other benefits of using kenaf fiber composites are relatively cheap, less abrasive and less hazardous during fabrication handling. Current study investigates parametric study on notched strength of woven fabric kenaf composite plates with different fiber orientations and circular hole sizes. Stress concentration occurred at the notch edge promotes to micro-damage events such as matrix cracking and fiber fracture as remote tensile loading applied. Current study showed that 0° fiber orientation gives optimum notched strength, plates with larger fiber tilting than 0° are associated with further strength reduction. Kenaf fibers give an alternative to material designers to opt woven fabric kenaf composites in low and medium load bearing applications.

  12. Performance of non woven synthetic fabric and disc filters for fertirrigation water treatment Desempenho dos filtros de mantas não tecidas e de disco no tratamento de água para fertirrigação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Túlio Assunção Pires Ribeiro

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Obstruction of emitters caused by the presence of solid particles in the water raises the cost and maintenance of trickle irrigation systems, and might compromise their utilization. This research was performed through test fields, with the objective of evaluating the performance of a disc filter (130 microns and a non woven synthetic fabric filter on the removal of physical, chemical and biological impurities from the irrigation water, which may cause emitter obstruction during fertirrigation processes. The evaluation criteria of the impurities present in the irrigation water, were based on studies performed on trickle irrigation systems. Specifically, physical, chemical and biological parameters analyzed in the inflow and outflow water from both filters were: pH, turbidity, total suspended solids, salinity, total iron, sulphites, manganese, algae and bacteria. Results pointed to chemical factors, which presented medium clogging risks to the emitters; those factors were: pH, total iron and sulphite concentration. All the other parameters of water quality did not present clogging risks. A comparative analysis of head loss evolution, according to the filtered volume, was also atempted Non woven synthetic fabric filter presented a higher evolution when compared to the disc filter.Um dos fatores que elevam os custos de operação e manutenção dos sistemas de irrigação localizada e, em certos casos, inviabiliza a utilização desse método, é a obstrução de emissores pela presença de partículas sólidas na água de irrigação. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo principal estimar, através de ensaios experimentais de campo, o desempenho de um filtro de disco (130 microns com outro de manta sintética não tecida na remoção de impurezas de origens físicas, químicas e biológicas presentes na água de irrigação que promovem o entupimento dos emissores, quando se utiliza a fertirrigação. Os critérios para avaliação das impurezas

  13. Notched Strength of Woven Fabric Kenaf Composite Plates with Different Stacking Sequences and Hole Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Romayne Anders

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advantages of using kenaf fibres over synthetic fibres in composites manufacturing are relatively cheap, less abrasive and hazardous during handling, and renewable materials. Current work investigates parametric effects on notched strength of woven fabric kenaf polymer composites plates with variation of lay-up types, notch sizes and plate thickness. Testing coupons are prepared using hand lay-up technique and circular notch were drilled prior to mechanical testing. Stress concentration at the notch edge promotes micro-damage event as tensile loading was applied leading to crack initiation and propagations across the plate width. It is suggested that woven fabric kenaf polymer composites are potentially used in low and medium load bearing applications.

  14. Fatigue life prediction in woven carbon fabric polyester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Z.; Al-Sulaiman, F.S.; Farooqi, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    An analytical model, based on stiffness degradation during fatigue loading, which has been used for fatigue life predictions in the Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP), is employed to examine its validity to the fatigue life predictions in the Woven Fabric Reinforced Plastics. The rate of stiffness degradation (dE/dN) has been obtained from the constant amplitude fatigue testing of 8-ply coupons made from prepreg plain-weave woven carbon-carbon fabric having a polyester resin as the matrix material. The test coupons had three different ply stacking sequences, namely, the unidirectional (0)8,and two off axis plied (0,0,+45,-45)s, and (+45,-45,0,0)s orientations. The estimated fatigue lives obtained from the damage rate function dD/dN, which in turn was a function of the stiffness degradation rate dE/dN, were compared with the experimentally observed fatigue life data. It is shown that the stiffness degradation model provides reasonably good correlation between the analytically determined fatigue lives and the experimentally observed fatigue for the plain-weave woven Carbon-Carbon Fabric Reinforced Plastic Composites. (author)

  15. CAD/CAM for Double Woven Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Alali

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To bond the two layers in double fabrics, various types of stitching can be distinguished such as self-stitching, double stitching, center warp stitching, center weft stitching, and so on. In this article, a mathematic model based on a software program has been developed to automatically generate a double fabric stitched by additional warp called center warp. Each layer has been represented in a 2D binary matrix, and a new matrix called warps order matrix has been defined to demonstrate the modality of position of the center warps in relating to the top and bottom fabrics’ warps. After insertion of all warps in the extended weave matrix, the lifter conditions has been discussed and the stitching points have been determined.

  16. Influence of flock coating on bending rigidity of woven fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, O.; Kesimci, M. O.

    2017-10-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of our efforts that focused on the effect of the flock coating on the bending rigidity of woven fabrics. For this objective, a laboratory scale flocking unit is designed and flocked samples of controlled flock density are produced. Bending rigidity of the samples with different flock densities are measured on both flocked and unflocked sides. It is shown that the bending rigidity depends on both flock density and whether the side to be measured is flocked or not. Adhesive layer thickness on the bending rigidity is shown to be dramatic. And at higher basis weights, flock density gets less effective on bending rigidity.

  17. Antibacterial properties of modified biodegradable PHB non-woven fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepička, P; Malá, Z; Rimpelová, S; Švorčík, V

    2016-08-01

    The antibacterial properties of poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) non-woven fabric were explored in this study. The PHB was activated by plasma modification and subsequently processed with either immersion into a solution of nanoparticles or direct metallization. The wettability and surface chemistry of the PHB surface was determined. The thickness of the sputtered nanolayer on PHB fabric was characterized. It was found that plasma modification led to a formation of strongly hydrophilic surface, while the subsequent metallization by silver or gold resulted in a significantly increased water contact angle. Further, it was found that antibacterial activity may be controlled by the type of a metal and deposition method used. The immersion of plasma modified fabric into Ag nanoparticle solution led to enhanced antibacterial efficiency of PHB against Escherichia coli (E. coli). Direct silver sputtering on PHB fabric was proved to be a simple method for construction of a surface with strong antibacterial potency against both Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis). We demonstrated the antibacterial activity of PHB fabric modified by plasma activation and consecutive selection of a treatment method for an effective antibacterial surface construction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Automatic measurement for dimensional changes of woven fabrics based on texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jihong; Jiang, Hongxia; Liu, X.; Chai, Zhilei

    2014-01-01

    Dimensional change or shrinkage is an important functional attribute of woven fabrics that affects their basic function and price in the market. This paper presents a machine vision system that evaluates the shrinkage of woven fabrics by analyzing the change of fabric construction. The proposed measurement method has three features. (i) There will be no stain of shrinkage markers on the fabric specimen compared to the existing measurement method. (ii) The system can be used on fabric with reduced area. (iii) The system can be installed and used as a laboratory or industrial application system. The method processed can process the image of the fabric and is divided into four steps: acquiring a relative image from the sample of the woven fabric, obtaining a gray image and then the segmentation of the warp and weft from the fabric based on fast Fourier transform and inverse fast Fourier transform, calculation of the distance of the warp or weft sets by gray projection method and character shrinkage of the woven fabric by the average distance, coefficient of variation of distance and so on. Experimental results on virtual and physical woven fabrics indicated that the method provided could obtain the shrinkage information of woven fabric in detail. The method was programmed by Matlab software, and a graphical user interface was built by Delphi. The program has potential for practical use in the textile industry.

  19. Viscoelastic and thermal properties of woven sisal fabric reinforced natural rubber biocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the dynamic mechanical behavior of woven sisal fabric reinforced natural rubber composites. The influence of chemical modification on the viscoelastic properties has also been determined. Moreover, the effect of frequency...

  20. Dielectric Behaviour of Some Woven Fabrics on the Basis of Natural Cellulosic Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin St. C. Mustata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical permittivity of the weaves obtained from natural cellulosic yarns or mixed with synthetic fibers was established with capacitor method. The highest value of relative electrical permittivity in case of the woven fabric from natural cellulosic fibers has been observed at the weave made of pure hemp (13.55 and the lowest at the weave obtained from the pure jute—weave packing (1.87. Electrical permittivity value of the pure jute weave packing is comparable to that of the permittivity for the glass thread, when the work conditions are as follows: temperature 25°C and air humidity 35%. The relative electrical permittivity of the weave is depending on the degree of crimping yarns especially in the weft direction, technological density in direction of the warp and weft, and surface mass of the weave.

  1. The Effect Of Weave Construction On Tear Strength Of Woven Fabrics

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    Eryuruk Selin Hanife

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The tear strength of a woven fabric is very important, since it is more closely related to serviceability of the fabric. Tearing strength of the fabrics depend on the mobility of the yarn within the fabric structure. In this study, the tearing strength of four types of fabrics warp rib, weft rib, ripstop and plain weave were analysed, which were produced in different densities and with filament and texturised polyester yarns.

  2. Physical properties of recycled PET non-woven fabrics for buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstün Çetin, S.; Tayyar, A. E.

    2017-10-01

    Recycled fibers have been commonly used in non-woven production technology for engineering applications such as textile engineering and civil engineering. Nonwovens including recycled fibers can be utilized in insulation, roofing and floor separation applications. In this study, physical performance properties such as drape, bending resistance, tensile strength, and breaking elongation values of non-woven fabrics consisting of v-PET (virgin) and r-PET (recycled) fibers in five different blend ratios are examined comparatively. The test results indicated that r-PET can be used in non-wovens for civil engineering applications such as insulation, roofing and floor separation fulfilling the acceptable quality level values.

  3. STRESS - STRAIN CURVE ANALYSIS OF WOVEN FABRICS MAD E FROM COMBED YARNS TYPE WOOL

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    VÎLCU Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the tensile behavior of woven fabrics made from 45%Wool + 55% PES used for garments. Analysis of fabric behavior during wearing has shown that these are submitted to simple and repeated uni-axial or bi-axial tensile strains. The level of these strains is often within the elastic limit, rarely going over yielding. Therefore the designer must be able to evaluate the mechanical behavior of such fabrics in order to control the fabric behavior in the garment. This evaluation is carried out based on the tensile testing, using certain indexes specific to the stress-strain curve. The paper considers an experimental matrix based on woven fabrics of different yarn counts, different or equal yarn count for warp and weft systems and different structures. The fabrics were tested using a testing machine and the results were then compared in order to determine the fabrics’ tensile behavior and the factors of influence that affect it.From the point of view of tensile testing, the woven materials having twill weave are preferable because this type of structure is characterized by higher durability and better yarn stability in the fabric. In practice, the woven material must exhibit an optimum behavior to repeated strains, flexions and abrasions during wearing process. The analysis of fabrics tensile properties studied by investigation of stress-strain diagrams reveals that the main factors influencing the tensile strength are: yarns fineness, technological density of those two systems of yarns and the weaving type.

  4. The Layer of Kevlar Angle-interlock Woven Fabric Effect on the Tensile Properties of Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wan-Chen; Guo, Xu-Yi; Yan, Tao; Zhang, Shang-Yong

    2017-09-01

    This article is based on the structure of three-dimensional angle-interlock longitudinal.The 3-layer, 5-layer, 7-layer and 9-layer of angle-interlock 3D fabrics are woven on sample weaving machine respectively with the 1500D Kevlar fiber twist filament produced by United States DuPont. At the same time, Kevlar plain weave fabric is woven, and three, five, seven and nine layers’ fabric are to be compared. In the process of VARTM composite technology, epoxy resin is matrix material, acetone is diluent, triethylene tetramine is curing agent and the five different fabrics are the reinforced materials respectively. Finally, eight different three-dimensional woven fabric composites were prepared. In this paper, the tensile properties of eight kinds of three-dimensional woven fabric composites were tested respectively.Finally, it is concluded that the five-layer angle-interlock woven fabric prepared by Kevlar fiber shows the best tensile property.

  5. Modelling the Effect of Weave Structure and Fabric Thread Density on Mechanical and Comfort Properties of Woven Fabrics

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    Maqsood Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the effects of weave structure and fabric thread density on the comfort and mechanical properties of various test fabrics woven from polyester/cotton yarns. Three different weave structures, that is, 1/1 plain, 2/1 twill and 3/1 twill, and three different fabric densities were taken as input variables whereas air permeability, overall moisture management capacity, tensile strength and tear strength of fabrics were taken as response variables and a comparison is made of the effect of weave structure and fabric density on the response variables. The results of fabric samples were analysed in Minitab statistical software. The coefficients of determinations (R-sq values of the regression equations show a good predictive ability of the developed statistical models. The findings of the study may be helpful in deciding appropriate manufacturing specifications of woven fabrics to attain specific comfort and mechanical properties.

  6. 77 FR 31182 - Final Withdrawal of Regulations Pertaining to Imports of Cotton Woven Fabric and Short Supply...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... Woven Fabric and Short Supply Procedures AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... final rule withdrawing regulations pertaining to imports of cotton woven fabric and short supply..., and the short supply voluntary restraints have not affected U.S. trade for over 19 years. The removal...

  7. Studies on the chemical resistance and mechanical properties of natural polyalthia cerasoides woven fabric/glass hybridized epoxy composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jayaramudu, J

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, natural Polyalthiacerasoide woven fabrics were extracted from the bark of the tree and using these woven fabrics/glass fibre as reinforcements and epoxy as matrix the hybrid composites were prepared by the hand lay-up technique...

  8. The Improvement of the Resistance to Candida albicans and Trichophyton interdigitale of Some Woven Fabrics Based on Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelescu, Maria Daniela; Manaila, Elena; Nicula, Gheorghe; Iordache, Ovidiu; Dinca, Laurentiu Christian; Berechet, Mariana-Daniela; Vamesu, Mariana; Gurau, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the improvement of the antimicrobial character of woven fabrics based on cotton. The woven fabrics were cleaned in oxygen plasma and treated by padding with silver chloride and titanium dioxide particles. The existence of silver and titanium on woven fabrics was evidenced by electronic microscope images (SEM, EDAX) and by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The antimicrobial tests were performed with two fungi: Candida albicans and Trichophyton interdigitale. The obtained antimicrobial effect was considerably higher compared to the raw fabrics. Treatment of dyed fabrics with a colloidal solution based on silver chloride and titanium dioxide particles does not considerably influence colour resistance of dyes. PMID:25276112

  9. Influence of Laundering on the Quality of Sewn Cotton and Bamboo Woven Fabrics

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    Jurgita KOŽENIAUSKIENĖ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the presented study the effect of laundering on the quality of sewn cotton and bamboo plain woven fabrics was investigated considering both the textile parameters and the type of chemical treatment. Quality parameters of sewn cotton and bamboo woven fabrics such as: fabric strength, seam strength and seam slippage at the moment of 4 mm seam opening were evaluated before and after washing with “Tide” washing powder without softeners or with softeners: “Surcare” and “Pflege Weicspuler”. There was also determined surface density, warp and weft densities as well as thicknesses under the pressures 0.625 kPa and 3.125 kPa, and calculated the comparative thickness that was considered as softness or porosity of fabrics. Notwithstanding that both the investigated fabrics were cellulosic their behavior after laundering was different. Under the tested conditions, unwashed and laundered with or without chemical softeners cotton fabric didn’t demonstrate seam slippage. The seam slippage resistance of laundered without or with softener specimens of bamboo fabric was increased in respect to control fabric. The larger changes in seam efficiency and seam strength because of laundering were determined for bamboo woven fabric then for cotton fabric. They could be influenced by the higher changes in bamboo fabric’s structure. The highest difference between the structure parameters of both fabrics was determined for comparative thickness. It was significantly increased for cotton fabric and decreased for bamboo fabric after chemical softening comparing to untreated fabrics.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.1.3831

  10. Effect of storage conditions on graft of polypropylene non-woven fabric induced by electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Young; Jeun, Joon Pyo; Kang, Phil Hyun [Radiation Research Dvision for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup(Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, we fabricated effect of storage conditions on graft of polypropylene (PP) non-woven fabric induced by electron beam. The electron beam irradiations on PP non-woven fabric were carried out over a range of irradiation doses from 25 to 100 kGy to make free radicals on fabric surface. The radical measurement was established by electron spin resonance (ESR) for confirming the changes of the alkyl radical and peroxy radical according to effect of storage time, storage temperature and atmosphere. It was observed that the free radicals were increased with irradiation dose and decreased with storage time due to the continuous oxidation. However, the radical extinction was significantly delayed due to reduced mobility of radicals at extremely low temperature. The degree of graft based on the analysis of ESR was investigated. The conditions of graft reaction were set at a temperature: 60 degrees Celcius, reaction time: 6 hours and styrene monomer concentration: 20 wt%.

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Polypropylene Non-woven Fabrics Prepared by Melt-blown Spinning for Filtration Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Konghee; Park, Mira; Kim, Hakyong [Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Fanlong; Park, Soojin [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    PP non-woven fabrics were prepared by melt-blown spinning, followed by heat and plasma treatments. After heat treatment, the PP non-woven fabrics displayed decreased water flux, increased tensile strength, decreased elongation, and an average pore size of 0.7 μm. The hydrophilicity of the PP non-woven fabrics was improved by plasma treatment. The water flux of the PP non-woven fabrics increased about two fold after the plasma treatment. The particle removal efficiency was determined to be 97.2-99.4% for 1-3 μm sized particles, demonstrating a high particle removal efficiency. Polypropylene (PP) non-woven fabrics have been widely used as filtration membranes in wastewater purification with industrial applications due to their low cost, good mechanical strength, and high thermal and chemical stability. The membrane fouling behavior depends strongly on the physical and mechanical properties of the membrane, including pore size, porosity, morphology, and hydrophilicity. In general, PP non-woven fabrics have poor hydrophilicity; this has limited their application in the biomedical field. It is therefore necessary to develop PP non-woven fabrics with improved surface hydrophilicity to increase the scope of their use. Plasma treatment, an environmentally friendly alternative to traditional chemical activation, only changes the uppermost atomic layers of a membrane surface without affecting the bulk properties of the polymer.

  12. STRESS - STRAIN CURVE ANALYSIS OF WOVEN FABRICS MAD E FROM COMBED YARNS TYPE WOOL

    OpenAIRE

    VÎLCU Adrian; HRISTIAN Liliana; BORDEIANU Demetra L.; VÎLCU Catalin

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyses the tensile behavior of woven fabrics made from 45%Wool + 55% PES used for garments. Analysis of fabric behavior during wearing has shown that these are submitted to simple and repeated uni-axial or bi-axial tensile strains. The level of these strains is often within the elastic limit, rarely going over yielding. Therefore the designer must be able to evaluate the mechanical behavior of such fabrics in order to control the fabric behavior in the garment. This evaluation is ...

  13. Measurement of Electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness of Woven Fabrics Containing Metallic Yarns by Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Kenan ÇEVEN

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we introduce an alternative method to evaluate the electromagnetic shielding effectiveness (EMSE of woven fabrics containing metal wires. For experimental measurements, hybrid silk viscose yarns containing metal wires were first produced. Conductive test fabrics were then produced using the hybrid weft yarns and polyester warp yarns. The produced fabrics were separated in two parts and laminated together after rotating one fabric by 90 degrees to create a grid structure. The laminated fabrics were then folded by several times to create multiple layers such as 2,4,8,12,16. The EMSE of the multiple layered fabrics was measured over GSM signals received by a mobile device. For EMSE evaluation, the mobile device was placed between the laminated fabrics. The EMSE values of the fabrics were then calculated in accordance with the power variations of GSM signals.

  14. Numerical Simulation with Experimental Validation of the Draping Behavior of Woven Fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, William [General Motors LLC; Pasupuleti, Praveen [ESI Group NA; Zhao, Selina [General Motors LLC; Wathen, Terry [General Motors LLC; Doroudian, Mark [ESI Group NA; Aitharaju, Venkat [General Motors LLC

    2017-10-23

    Woven fabric composites are extensively used in molding complex geometrical shapes due to their high conformability compared to other fabrics. Preforming is an important step in the overall process. In this step, the two-dimensional fabric is draped to become the three-dimensional shape of the part prior to resin injection. During preforming, the orientation of the tows may change significantly compared to the initial orientations. Accurate prediction of the tow orientations after molding is important for evaluating the structural performance of the final part. This paper investigates the fiber angle changes for carbon fiber woven fabrics during draping over a truncated pyramid tool designed and fabricated at the General Motors Research Labs. This aspect of study is a subset of the broad study conducted under the purview of a Department of Energy project funded to GM in developing state of the art computational tools for integrated manufacturing and structural performance prediction of carbon fiber composites. Fabric bending, picture frame testing, and bias-extension evaluations were carried out to determine the material parameters for these fabrics. The PAM-FORM computer program was used to model the draping behavior of these fabrics. Following deformation, fiber angle changes at different locations on the truncated pyramid were measured experimentally. The predicted angles matched the experimental results well as measured along the centerline and at several different locations on the deformed fabric. Details of the test methods used as well as the numerical results with various simulation parameters will be provided.

  15. Flame-resistant pure and hybrid woven fabrics from basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshaid, H.; Mishra, R.; Militky, J.

    2017-10-01

    This work has been formulated to investigate the burning behavior of different type of fabrics. The main concentration is to see how long the fabric resists after it catches the fire and the propagation of fire can be reduced by using flame resistant fiber i.e basalt. Basalt fiber is an environmental friendly material with low input, high output, low energy consumption and less emission. The goal of present investigations is to show the dependence of fabric flammability on its structure parameters i.e weave type, blend type etc. Fabric weaves have strong effect on flammability properties. Plain weave has the lowest burning rate as the density of the plain weave fabric is more and the structure is tight which gives less chances of flame passing through the fabric. Thermal stability is evaluated with TGA of all hybrid and nonhybrid fabrics and compared. The thermal stability of the basalt fiber is excellent. When comparing thermal analysis curves for hybrid samples it demonstrates that thermal stability of the samples containing basalt is much higher than the non- hybrid samples. Percentage weight loss is less in hybrid samples as compared to non-hybrid samples. The effectiveness of hybridization on samples may be indicated by substantial lowering of the decomposition mass. Correlation was made between flammability with the infrared radiations (IR)

  16. Multi Length Scale Finite Element Design Framework for Advanced Woven Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Galip Ozan

    Woven fabrics are integral parts of many engineering applications spanning from personal protective garments to surgical scaffolds. They provide a wide range of opportunities in designing advanced structures because of their high tenacity, flexibility, high strength-to-weight ratios and versatility. These advantages result from their inherent multi scale nature where the filaments are bundled together to create yarns while the yarns are arranged into different weave architectures. Their highly versatile nature opens up potential for a wide range of mechanical properties which can be adjusted based on the application. While woven fabrics are viable options for design of various engineering systems, being able to understand the underlying mechanisms of the deformation and associated highly nonlinear mechanical response is important and necessary. However, the multiscale nature and relationships between these scales make the design process involving woven fabrics a challenging task. The objective of this work is to develop a multiscale numerical design framework using experimentally validated mesoscopic and macroscopic length scale approaches by identifying important deformation mechanisms and recognizing the nonlinear mechanical response of woven fabrics. This framework is exercised by developing mesoscopic length scale constitutive models to investigate plain weave fabric response under a wide range of loading conditions. A hyperelastic transversely isotropic yarn material model with transverse material nonlinearity is developed for woven yarns (commonly used in personal protection garments). The material properties/parameters are determined through an inverse method where unit cell finite element simulations are coupled with experiments. The developed yarn material model is validated by simulating full scale uniaxial tensile, bias extension and indentation experiments, and comparing to experimentally observed mechanical response and deformation mechanisms. Moreover

  17. Functionalisation of polypropylene non-woven fabrics (NWFs): Functionalisation by oxyfluorination as a first step for graft polymerisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vargha, V

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface oxyfluorination had been carried out on polypropylene non-woven fabric (PP NWF) samples of different morphologies and pore sizes. The modified surfaces were characterised by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform InfraRed (ATR...

  18. Effects of Crimped Fiber Paths on Mixed Mode Delamination Behaviors in Woven Fabric Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    of several fabric weave styles and crimp gradients on the damage tolerance and energy absorption capacities in 20-ply Kevlar / epoxy composite...Styles and Crimp Gradients on Woven Kevlar Epoxy Composites,” Experimental Mechanics, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 617–635, 2016. 12. ABAQUS, Ver. 6.10...mismatched element sizes between interface surfaces. Benzeggagh and Kenane3 conducted experimental tests and fractography on 6-mm-thick E-glass/ epoxy

  19. Improved Strength and Toughness of Carbon Woven Fabric Composites with Functionalized MWCNTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslam Soliman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation examines the role of carboxyl functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs in the on- and off-axis flexure and the shear responses of thin carbon woven fabric composite plates. The chemically functionalized COOH-MWCNTs were used to fabricate epoxy nanocomposites and, subsequently, carbon woven fabric plates to be tested on flexure and shear. In addition to the neat epoxy, three loadings of COOH-MWCNTs were examined: 0.5 wt%, 1.0 wt% and 1.5 wt% of epoxy. While no significant statistical difference in the flexure response of the on-axis specimens was observed, significant increases in the flexure strength, modulus and toughness of the off-axis specimens were observed. The average increase in flexure strength and flexure modulus with the addition of 1.5 wt% COOH-MWCNTs improved by 28% and 19%, respectively. Finite element modeling is used to demonstrate fiber domination in on-axis flexure behavior and matrix domination in off-axis flexure behavior. Furthermore, the 1.5 wt% COOH-MWCNTs increased the toughness of carbon woven composites tested on shear by 33%. Microstructural investigation using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR proves the existence of chemical bonds between the COOH-MWCNTs and the epoxy matrix.

  20. Geometrical analysis of woven fabric microstructure based on micron-resolution computed tomography data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Helga; Seide, Gunnar; Gries, Thomas; Stapleton, Scott E.

    2018-04-01

    The global mechanical properties of textiles such as elasticity and strength, as well as transport properties such as permeability depend strongly on the microstructure of the textile. Textiles are heterogeneous structures with highly anisotropic material properties, including local fiber orientation and local fiber volume fraction. In this paper, an algorithm is presented to generate a virtual 3D-model of a woven fabric architecture with information about the local fiber orientation and the local fiber volume fraction. The geometric data of the woven fabric impregnated with resin was obtained by micron-resolution computed tomography (μCT). The volumetric μCT-scan was discretized into cells and the microstructure of each cell was analyzed and homogenized. Furthermore, the discretized data was used to calculate the local permeability tensors of each cell. An example application of the analyzed data is the simulation of the resin flow through a woven fabric based on the determined local permeability tensors and on Darcy's law. The presented algorithm is an automated and robust method of going from μCT-scans to structural or flow models.

  1. Performance of Plain Woven Jute Fabric-Reinforced Polyester Matrix Composite in Multilayered Ballistic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Neves Monteiro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The ballistic performance of plain woven jute fabric-reinforced polyester matrix composites was investigated as the second layer in a multilayered armor system (MAS. Volume fractions of jute fabric, up to 30 vol %, were mixed with orthophthalic polyester to fabricate laminate composites. Ballistic tests were conducted using high velocity 7.62 mm ammunition. The depth of penetration caused by the bullet in a block of clay witness, simulating a human body, was used to evaluate the MAS ballistic performance according to the international standard. The fractured materials after tests were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results indicated that jute fabric composites present a performance similar to that of the much stronger Kevlar™, which is an aramid fabric laminate, as MAS second layer with the same thickness. The mechanism of this similar ballistic behavior as well as the comparative advantages of the jute fabric composites over the Kevlar™ are discussed.

  2. Experimental Strength of Single-Lap Hybrid Joints on Woven Fabric Kenaf Fiber Composites Under Quasi Static Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Lee Sim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past decades, usage of natural fiber reinforced composites in low bearing load applications are increasing tremendously due to drawbacks concerning the use of synthetic fibers. Kenaf fibers have a good potential to be used as composite reinforcements as they possesses excellent fiber strength compared to own self-weight. Current work concentrates on mechanical properties of woven fabric kenaf composites with single-lap hybrid joints configurations. Four width to diameter ratio, (W/d of cross-ply lay-up joints as designed in testing series were tested by using quasi static mechanical testing. Experimental results showed that the failure load increased with the increasing of W/d ratios. Thinner lay-up had better bearing strength compared to thicker lay-up as found in current study.

  3. Evaluation of microplastic release caused by textile washing processes of synthetic fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Francesca; Gullo, Maria Pia; Gentile, Gennaro; Di Pace, Emilia; Cocca, Mariacristina; Gelabert, Laura; Brouta-Agnésa, Marolda; Rovira, Angels; Escudero, Rosa; Villalba, Raquel; Mossotti, Raffaella; Montarsolo, Alessio; Gavignano, Sara; Tonin, Claudio; Avella, Maurizio

    2018-05-01

    A new and more alarming source of marine contamination has been recently identified in micro and nanosized plastic fragments. Microplastics are difficult to see with the naked eye and to biodegrade in marine environment, representing a problem since they can be ingested by plankton or other marine organisms, potentially entering the food web. An important source of microplastics appears to be through sewage contaminated by synthetic fibres from washing clothes. Since this phenomenon still lacks of a comprehensive analysis, the objective of this contribution was to investigate the role of washing processes of synthetic textiles on microplastic release. In particular, an analytical protocol was set up, based on the filtration of the washing water of synthetic fabrics and on the analysis of the filters by scanning electron microscopy. The quantification of the microfibre shedding from three different synthetic fabric types, woven polyester, knitted polyester, and woven polypropylene, during washing trials simulating domestic conditions, was achieved and statistically analysed. The highest release of microplastics was recorded for the wash of woven polyester and this phenomenon was correlated to the fabric characteristics. Moreover, the extent of microfibre release from woven polyester fabrics due to different detergents, washing parameters and industrial washes was evaluated. The number of microfibres released from a typical 5 kg wash load of polyester fabrics was estimated to be over 6,000,000 depending on the type of detergent used. The usage of a softener during washes reduces the number of microfibres released of more than 35%. The amount and size of the released microfibres confirm that they could not be totally retained by wastewater treatments plants, and potentially affect the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High energy ballistic and fracture comparison between multilayered armor systems using non-woven curaua fabric composites and aramid laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Oliveira Braga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For personal protection against high kinetic energy projectiles, multilayered armor systems (MAS are usually the best option. They combine synergistically the properties of different materials such as ceramics, composites and metals. In the present work, ballistic tests were performed to evaluate multilayered armor systems (MAS using curaua non-woven fabric epoxy composites as second layer. A comparison to a MAS using aramid (Kevlar™ fabric laminates was made. The results showed that the curaua non-woven fabric composites are suitable to the high ballistic applications, and are promising substitutes for aramid fabric laminates. Keywords: Composite, Natural fiber, Curaua fiber, Non-woven fabric, Aramid laminate, Ballistic test

  5. Comparative Analysis of Soft Computing Models in Prediction of Bending Rigidity of Cotton Woven Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruprasad, R.; Behera, B. K.

    2015-10-01

    Quantitative prediction of fabric mechanical properties is an essential requirement for design engineering of textile and apparel products. In this work, the possibility of prediction of bending rigidity of cotton woven fabrics has been explored with the application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and two hybrid methodologies, namely Neuro-genetic modeling and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) modeling. For this purpose, a set of cotton woven grey fabrics was desized, scoured and relaxed. The fabrics were then conditioned and tested for bending properties. With the database thus created, a neural network model was first developed using back propagation as the learning algorithm. The second model was developed by applying a hybrid learning strategy, in which genetic algorithm was first used as a learning algorithm to optimize the number of neurons and connection weights of the neural network. The Genetic algorithm optimized network structure was further allowed to learn using back propagation algorithm. In the third model, an ANFIS modeling approach was attempted to map the input-output data. The prediction performances of the models were compared and a sensitivity analysis was reported. The results show that the prediction by neuro-genetic and ANFIS models were better in comparison with that of back propagation neural network model.

  6. Rate Dependent Multicontinuum Progressive Failure Analysis of Woven Fabric Composite Structures under Dynamic Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lua

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine composite materials typically exhibit significant rate dependent response characteristics when subjected to extreme dynamic loading conditions. In this work, a strain-rate dependent continuum damage model is incorporated with multicontinuum technology (MCT to predict damage and failure progression for composite material structures. MCT treats the constituents of a woven fabric composite as separate but linked continua, thereby allowing a designer to extract constituent stress/strain information in a structural analysis. The MCT algorithm and material damage model are numerically implemented with the explicit finite element code LS-DYNA3D via a user-defined material model (umat. The effects of the strain-rate hardening model are demonstrated through both simple single element analyses for woven fabric composites and also structural level impact simulations of a composite panel subjected to various impact conditions. Progressive damage at the constituent level is monitored throughout the loading. The results qualitatively illustrate the value of rate dependent material models for marine composite materials under extreme dynamic loading conditions.

  7. Mechanical properties and fabrication of small boat using woven glass/sugar palm fibres reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misri, S; Leman, Z; Sapuan, S M; Ishak, M R

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, sugar palm fibre has been found to have great potential to be used as fibre reinforcement in polymer matrix composites. This research investigates the mechanical properties of woven glass/sugar palm fibres reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composite. The composite specimens made of different layer of fibres such as strand mat, natural and hand woven of sugar palm fibres. The composites were fabricated using a compression moulding technique. The tensile and impact test was carried out in accordance to ASTM 5083 and ASTM D256 standard. The fibre glass boat is a familiar material used in boat industry. A lot of research on fabrication process such as lay-up, vacuum infusion mould and resin transfer mould has been conducted. Hybrid material of sugar palm fibre and fibre glass was used in fabricating the boat. This research investigates the method selection for fabrication of small boat application of natural fibre composites. The composite specimens made of different layer of fibres; woven glass fibre, strand mat, natural and hand woven of woven sugar palm fibres were prepared. The small boat were fabricated using a compression moulding and lay up technique. The results of the experiment showed that the tensile strength, tensile modulus, elongation at break value and impact strength were higher than the natural woven sugar palm fibre. The best method for fabricating the small boat was compression moulding technique. As a general conclusion, the usage of glass fibre had improved the tensile properties sugar palm fibre composites and compression moulding technique is suitable to be used in making a small boat application of natural fibre composites.

  8. Hybrid composite laminates reinforced with Kevlar/carbon/glass woven fabrics for ballistic impact testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randjbaran, Elias; Zahari, Rizal; Jalil, Nawal Aswan Abdul; Majid, Dayang Laila Abang Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Current study reported a facile method to investigate the effects of stacking sequence layers of hybrid composite materials on ballistic energy absorption by running the ballistic test at the high velocity ballistic impact conditions. The velocity and absorbed energy were accordingly calculated as well. The specimens were fabricated from Kevlar, carbon, and glass woven fabrics and resin and were experimentally investigated under impact conditions. All the specimens possessed equal mass, shape, and density; nevertheless, the layers were ordered in different stacking sequence. After running the ballistic test at the same conditions, the final velocities of the cylindrical AISI 4340 Steel pellet showed how much energy was absorbed by the samples. The energy absorption of each sample through the ballistic impact was calculated; accordingly, the proper ballistic impact resistance materials could be found by conducting the test. This paper can be further studied in order to characterise the material properties for the different layers.

  9. Hybrid Composite Laminates Reinforced with Kevlar/Carbon/Glass Woven Fabrics for Ballistic Impact Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Randjbaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current study reported a facile method to investigate the effects of stacking sequence layers of hybrid composite materials on ballistic energy absorption by running the ballistic test at the high velocity ballistic impact conditions. The velocity and absorbed energy were accordingly calculated as well. The specimens were fabricated from Kevlar, carbon, and glass woven fabrics and resin and were experimentally investigated under impact conditions. All the specimens possessed equal mass, shape, and density; nevertheless, the layers were ordered in different stacking sequence. After running the ballistic test at the same conditions, the final velocities of the cylindrical AISI 4340 Steel pellet showed how much energy was absorbed by the samples. The energy absorption of each sample through the ballistic impact was calculated; accordingly, the proper ballistic impact resistance materials could be found by conducting the test. This paper can be further studied in order to characterise the material properties for the different layers.

  10. Woven electrochemical fabric-based test sensors (WEFTS): a new class of multiplexed electrochemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Tripurari; Rajamanickam, G P; Dendukuri, Dhananjaya

    2015-05-07

    We present textile weaving as a new technique for the manufacture of miniature electrochemical sensors with significant advantages over current fabrication techniques. Biocompatible silk yarn is used as the material for fabrication instead of plastics and ceramics used in commercial sensors. Silk yarns are coated with conducting inks and reagents before being handloom-woven as electrodes into patches of fabric to create arrays of sensors, which are then laminated, cut and packaged into individual sensors. Unlike the conventionally used screen-printing, which results in wastage of reagents, yarn coating uses only as much reagent and ink as required. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic yarns are used for patterning so that sample flow is restricted to a small area of the sensor. This simple fluidic control is achieved with readily available materials. We have fabricated and validated individual sensors for glucose and hemoglobin and a multiplexed sensor, which can detect both analytes. Chronoamperometry and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were used to detect glucose and hemoglobin, respectively. Industrial quantities of these sensors can be fabricated at distributed locations in the developing world using existing skills and manufacturing facilities. We believe such sensors could find applications in the emerging area of wearable sensors for chemical testing.

  11. Experimental and Numerical Simulation Analysis of Typical Carbon Woven Fabric/Epoxy Laminates Subjected to Lightning Strike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J. J.; Chang, F.; Li, S. L.; Yao, X. L.; Sun, J. R.; Xiao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    To clarify the evolution of damage for typical carbon woven fabric/epoxy laminates exposed to lightning strike, artificial lightning testing on carbon woven fabric/epoxy laminates were conducted, damage was assessed using visual inspection and damage peeling approaches. Relationships between damage size and action integral were also elucidated. Results showed that damage appearance of carbon woven fabric/epoxy laminate presents circular distribution, and center of the circle located at the lightning attachment point approximately, there exist no damage projected area dislocations for different layers, visual damage territory represents maximum damage scope; visible damage can be categorized into five modes: resin ablation, fiber fracture and sublimation, delamination, ablation scallops and block-shaped ply-lift; delamination damage due to resin pyrolysis and internal pressure exist obvious distinguish; project area of total damage is linear with action integral for the same type specimens, that of resin ablation damage is linear with action integral, but no correlation with specimen type, for all specimens, damage depth is linear with logarithm of action integral. The coupled thermal-electrical model constructed is capable to simulate the ablation damage for carbon woven fabric/epoxy laminates exposed to simulated lightning current through experimental verification.

  12. Study of the Contact Resistance of Interlaced Stainless Steel Yarns Embedded in Hybrid Woven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Simona

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The contact resistance of two interlacing electro-conductive yarns embedded in a hybrid woven fabric will constitute a problem for electro-conductive textiles under certain circumstances. A high contact resistance can induce hotspots, while a variable contact resistance may cause malfunctioning of the components that are interconnected by the electro-conductive yarns. Moreover, the contact robustness should be preserved over time and various treatments such as washing or abrading should not alter the functioning of the electro-conductive textiles. The electrical resistance developed in the contact point of two interlacing electro-conductive yarns is the result of various factors. The influence of diameter of the electro-conductive stainless steel yarns, the weave pattern, the weft density, and the abrasion on the contact resistance was investigated. Hybrid polyester fabrics were produced according to the design of experiments (DoE and statistical models were found that describe the variation of the contact resistance with the selected input parameters. It was concluded that the diameter of the stainless steel warp and weft yarns has a statistically significant influence on the contact resistance regardless of the weave. Weft density had a significant influence on the contact resistance but only in case of the twill fabrics. Abrasion led to an increase in contact resistance regardless of the weave pattern and the type of stainless steel yarn that was used. Finally, a combination of parameters that leads to plain and twill fabrics with low contact resistance and robust contacts is recommended.

  13. Damage development in woven fabric composites during tension-tension fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, U.

    1999-01-01

    of the operating fatigue damage mechanism(s). Fatigue leads to a degradation of material properties. Consequently, in connection with impact induced local stress raisers, fatigue produces continuously changing non-uniform stress fields because of stress redistribution effects. Other models addressing evolution...... of fatigue damage in composite materials have not been able to simulate evolving nonuniform stress fields. Therefore. in the second part of this paper, an analytical/numerical approach capable of addressing these issues is also proposed.......Impacted woven fabric composites were tested in tension-tension fatigue. In contrast to results from static testing, the effects of low energy impact damage in a fatigue environment were found to be the critical element leading to failure of the specimen. This difference emphasizes the need...

  14. Influence of Chemical Surface Modification of Woven Fabrics on Ballistic and Stab Protection of Multilayer Packets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana GRINEVIČIŪTĖ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve enhanced protective and wear (flexibility, less bulkiness properties of ballistic and stab protecting panels the investigation of chemical surface modification of woven p-aramid fabrics was performed applying different chemical composition shear thickening fluid (STF which improves friction inside fabric structure. For the chemical treatment silicic acid and acrylic dispersion water solutions were used and influence of their different concentrations on panels’ protective properties were investigated. Results of ballistic tests of multilayer protective panel have revealed that shear thickening effect was negligible when shooting at high energy range (E > 440 J. Determination of stab resistance of p-aramid panels has shown that different chemical composition of STFs had different influence on protective properties of the panels. Application of low concentrations of silicic acid determined higher stab resistance values comparing to higher concentrations of acrylic dispersion water solutions. At this stage of research stab tests results as ballistic ones determined that STF application for multilayer p-aramid fabrics protective panels is more efficient at low strike energy levels. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.2.3138

  15. Extended FMEA for Sustainable Manufacturing: An Empirical Study in the Non-Woven Fabrics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh-Lam Nguyen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Failure modes and effects analysis ( F M E A substantially facilitates the efforts of industrial manufacturers in prioritizing failures that require corrective actions to continuously improve product quality. However, the conventional approach fails to provide satisfactory explanation of the aggregate effects of a failure from different perspectives such as technical severity, economic severity, and production capacity in some practical applications. To fulfill the existing gap in the F M E A literature, this paper proposes an extension by considering associated quality cost and the capability of failure detection system as additional determinants to signify the priority level for each failure mode. The quality cost and capacity are considered as key factors for sustainable survival and development of an industrial manufacturer in the fierce competition market these days. The performance of the extended scheme was tested in an empirical case at a non-woven fabrics manufacturer. Analytical results indicate that the proposed approach outperforms the traditional one and remarkably reduces the percentage of defective fabrics from about 2.41% before the trial period to 1.13%,thus significantly reducing wastes and increasing operation efficiency, thereby providing valuable advantages to improve organizational competition power for their sustainable growth.

  16. A self-healing 3D woven fabric reinforced shape memory polymer composite for impact mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nji, Jones; Li, Guoqiang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) woven fabric reinforced shape memory polymer composite for impact mitigation was proposed, fabricated, programmed using a three-step strain-controlled thermomechanical cycle at a pre-strain level of 5% and machined to two groups of specimens (G1 and G2) with dimensions 152.4 mm × 101.6 mm × 12.7 mm. The specimens were impact tested, transversely, centrally and repeatedly with 32 and 42 J of energy. G1 specimens were healed after each impact until perforation occurred. G2 specimens were not healed after each impact and served as controls. At 32 J impact energy, G2 specimens were perforated at the 9th impact while G1 specimens lasted until the 15th impact; at 42 J impact energy, G2 specimens were perforated at the 5th impact while G1 specimens were perforated at the 7th impact. Visual inspection, C-scan, and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to evaluate damage, failure modes, and healing efficiency

  17. Basic Comparison of the Properties of the Loop and Frotte Yarns, Woven and Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Grabowska Katarzyna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Both loop fancy yarns and frotte fancy yarns belong to the group of yarns with continuous effects. The difference between frotte and loop yarn relies on the fact that the loop yarn is constructed with two core yarns and the frotte yarn is constructed with only one core yarn. The differences are evident in the shape of these two types of fancy yarns. These shape differences are the functions of the tensions of component yarns during the twisting process. The shape and construction of the fancy yarn influence its properties. The properties of loop and frotte fancy yarns, woven and knitted fabrics are compared in this article in order to find out the optimal yarn’s and fabric’s production condition to satisfy the final user and maintain low production costs. In terms of economy aspects only, the frotte fancy yarns are believed to be cheaper in production due to lower quantity of components utilize for their production to compare with loop fancy yarns, under conditions of the same settings of ring twisting frame.

  18. Effect of Mesoscale and Multiscale Modeling on the Performance of Kevlar Woven Fabric Subjected to Ballistic Impact: A Numerical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xin; Huang, Zhengxiang; Zu, Xudong; Gu, Xiaohui; Xiao, Qiangqiang

    2013-12-01

    In this study, an optimal finite element model of Kevlar woven fabric that is more computational efficient compared with existing models was developed to simulate ballistic impact onto fabric. Kevlar woven fabric was modeled to yarn level architecture by using the hybrid elements analysis (HEA), which uses solid elements in modeling the yarns at the impact region and uses shell elements in modeling the yarns away from the impact region. Three HEA configurations were constructed, in which the solid element region was set as about one, two, and three times that of the projectile's diameter with impact velocities of 30 m/s (non-perforation case) and 200 m/s (perforation case) to determine the optimal ratio between the solid element region and the shell element region. To further reduce computational time and to maintain the necessary accuracy, three multiscale models were presented also. These multiscale models combine the local region with the yarn level architecture by using the HEA approach and the global region with homogenous level architecture. The effect of the varying ratios of the local and global area on the ballistic performance of fabric was discussed. The deformation and damage mechanisms of fabric were analyzed and compared among numerical models. Simulation results indicate that the multiscale model based on HEA accurately reproduces the baseline results and obviously decreases computational time.

  19. Strengthening the Fabric of Government: A Description of WOVEN (Women's Ohio Volunteer Employment Network).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mary E.

    WOVEN (Women's Ohio Volunteer Employment Network), is directed at changing the low representation of women in decision making positions in public service. Women comprise more than a third of the work force in the State of Ohio; yet they have typically held the low level, low paying jobs. A 1973 status report on women in State government revealed…

  20. Mechanical properties of banana/kenaf fiber-reinforced hybrid polyester composites: Effect of woven fabric and random orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavudeen, A.; Rajini, N.; Karthikeyan, S.; Thiruchitrambalam, M.; Venkateshwaren, N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper is presents the fabrications of kenaf/banana fiber hybrid composites. • Effect of weaving pattern and random orientation on mechanical properties was studied. • Role of interfacial adhesion due to chemical modifications were analyzed with the aid of SEM. • Hybridization of kenaf and banana fibers in plain woven composites exhibits maximum mechanical strength. - Abstract: The present work deals with the effect of weaving patterns and random orientatation on the mechanical properties of banana, kenaf and banana/kenaf fiber-reinforced hybrid polyester composites. Composites were prepared using the hand lay-up method with two different weaving patterns, namely, plain and twill type. Of the two weaving patterns, the plain type showed improved tensile properties compared to the twill type in all the fabricated composites. Furthermore, the maximum increase in mechanical strength was observed in the plain woven hybrid composites rather than in randomly oriented composites. This indicates minimum stress development at the interface of composites due to the distribution of load transfer along the fiber direction. Moreover, alkali (NaOH) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) treatments appear to provide an additional improvement in mechanical strength through enhanced interfacial bonding. Morphological studies of fractured mechanical testing samples were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to understand the de-bonding of fiber/matrix adhesion

  1. Advanced soft coverpad made of non-woven fabric; Soft fushokufu coverpad no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, t; Kamezaki, K; Tokita, T [Takashimaya Nippatsu Kogyo, Aichi (Japan); Yamada, Y; Ono, H; Araki, O [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    At the present expected to enhance the product-value of automobile, it can be considered that advancement of touching and fitting feeling of seat would be important factors. For the purpose of materializing of these factors, We have noted softening of seat cover and carried out development of cover pad made of non-woven fablic. As a result of pursuing compatibility of soft feeling and durability of the cover pad, we could achieve to ensure the quality required for the material as the seat cover pad. 3 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Investigation on Shielding and Mechanical Behavior of Carbon/Stainless Steel Hybrid Yarn Woven Fabrics and Their Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagatheesan, Krishnasamy; Ramasamy, Alagirusamy; Das, Apurba; Basu, Ananjan

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the shielding characteristics of carbon/stainless steel/polypropylene (C/SS/PP) hybrid woven fabrics and their composites in low frequency (50 MHz-1.5 GHz) and C band (4-6 GHz) regions. The hybrid yarns prepared from carbon and SS filaments using a direct twisting machine have been made into woven fabric samples using a sample loom. The composite has been made by sandwiching a hybrid yarn fabric between the polypropylene films in a compression molding machine at 180°C for 5 min. The shielding behavior of the fabric and the composites has been tested using a coaxial transmission holder for the low frequency range and a wave guide method for the C band frequency range. It has been observed that a 1 end float composite showed a higher SE of 81.4 dB than the 4 end float (76.2 dB) and the 8 end float composites (64 dB) at the low frequency region. However, at the C band frequency, the effect of fabric structures on shielding effectiveness (SE) of fabric composite depends on thread density. For example, at low thread density, (i.e.) 3.93 ppcm, the 8 end float fabric composite showed the highest SE of 22.7 dB than did the 4 end (20.4 dB) and the 1 end float (16.5 dB) fabric composite. However, at high thread density (6.3 ppcm), the case was the reverse. The 1 end float fabric composite showed the highest SE of 29.7 dB rather than 4 end and 8 end float fabric composites (25.9 dB). In addition, all the composites showed less SE than their fabric forms. The increase in thread density also increased the shielding behavior of composites in both frequency ranges. A nonlinear regression model was developed using the Box-Behnken design for predicting the shielding behavior of fabric composites in C band region. In addition to shielding behavior, mechanical strength of C/SS/PP hybrid yarn, the fabric and composite has been tested using a Zwick Roell tensile tester. It has been observed that the work of rupture of C/SS/PP hybrid yarn is higher (6830.3 g

  3. Multi scale analysis by acoustic emission of damage mechanisms in natural fibre woven fabrics/epoxy composites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touchard F.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to develop an experimental program to characterize the type and the development of damage in composite with complex microstructure. A multi-scale analysis by acoustic emission has been developed and applied to hemp fibre woven fabrics/epoxy composite. The experimental program consists of tensile tests performed on single yarn, neat epoxy resin and composite materials to identify their AE amplitude signatures. A statistical analysis of AE amplitude signals has been realised and correlated with microscopic observations. Results have enabled to identify three types of damage in composites and their associated AE amplitudes: matrix cracking, interfacial debonding and reinforcement damage and fracture. Tracking of these damage mechanisms in hemp/epoxy composites has been performed to show the process of damage development in natural fibre reinforced composites.

  4. Synthetic mullite fabrication from smectite clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, L.N. de; Kiminami, R.H.G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The technological importance of mullite is mostly due to its refractory properties. Mullite in native form is very rare, and therefore it may be necessary to produced it by synthetic means. Brazil has a large reserve of smectite clays. In this work the process to produce synthetic mullite from these clays by treatment with aluminum sulphate was studied. X-ray analyses has shown the presence of mullite crystals in treated smectite clays of several colours, sinterized at 1100 0 C. By sintering at 1300 0 C, pure mullite was obtained in some colours. (author) [pt

  5. Comparison of compression properties of stretchable knitted fabrics and bi-stretch woven fabrics for compression garments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maqsood, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Stretchable fabrics have diverse applications ranging from casual apparel to performance sportswear and compression therapy. Compression therapy is the universally accepted treatment for the management of hypertrophic scarring after severe burns. Mostly stretchable knitted fabrics are used in

  6. A spectral profile multiplexed FBG sensor network with application to strain measurement in a Kevlar woven fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guodong; Hackney, Drew; Pankow, Mark; Peters, Kara

    2017-04-01

    A spectral profile division multiplexed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network is described in this paper. The unique spectral profile of each sensor in the network is identified as a distinct feature to be interrogated. Spectrum overlap is allowed under working conditions. Thus, a specific wavelength window does not need to be allocated to each sensor as in a wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) network. When the sensors are serially connected in the network, the spectrum output is expressed through a truncated series. To track the wavelength shift of each sensor, the identification problem is transformed to a nonlinear optimization problem, which is then solved by a modified dynamic multi-swarm particle swarm optimizer (DMS-PSO). To demonstrate the application of the developed network, a network consisting of four FBGs was integrated into a Kevlar woven fabric, which was under a quasi-static load imposed by an impactor head. Due to the substantial radial strain in the fabric, the spectrums of different FBGs were found to overlap during the loading process. With the developed interrogating method, the overlapped spectrum would be distinguished thus the wavelength shift of each sensor can be monitored.

  7. Low velocity impact properties of intra-ply hybrid composites based on basalt and nylon woven fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehkordi, Majid Tehrani; Nosraty, Hooshang; Shokrieh, Mahmood Mehrdad; Minak, Giangiacomo; Ghelli, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the low velocity impact behavior of homogenous and hybrid composite laminates reinforced by basalt-nylon intra-ply fabrics was experimentally investigated. Epoxy resin was used as matrix material. The purpose of using this hybrid composite is to combine the good mechanical properties of basalt fiber with the excellent impact resistant of nylon fiber. Five different types of woven fabrics were used as reinforcement with different volume percentages of nylon (0%, 25%, 33.3%, 50% and 100%). The effect of nylon/basalt fiber content on maximum force, maximum deflection, residual deflection, total absorbed energy, elastic energy, size and type of damage were studied at several low velocity impact nominal energy levels (16, 30 and 40 J). The results indicate that impact performance of these composites is significantly affected by the nylon/basalt fiber content. The visual inspection and ultrasonic C-scan of the impact damaged specimens reveals that content of nylon/basalt fiber controls the type and size of damage.

  8. Influence of Weaving Loom Setting Parameters on Changes of Woven Fabric Structure and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aušra ADOMAITIENĖ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available During the manufacturing of fabric of different raw material there was noticed, that after removing the fabric from weaving loom and after stabilization of fabric structure, the changes of parameters of fabric structure are not regular. During this investigation it was analysed, how weaving loom technological parameters (heald cross moment and initial tension of warp should be chosen and how to predict the changes of fabric structure parameters and its mechanical properties. The dependencies of changes of half-wool fabric structure parameters (weft setting, fabric thickness and projections of fabric cross-section and mechanical properties (breaking force, elongation at break, static friction force and static friction coefficient on weaving loom setting parameters (heald cross moment and initial warp tension were analysed. The orthogonal Box plan of two factors was used, the 3-D dependencies were drawn, and empirical equations of these dependencies were established.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.4.780

  9. Evaluation of bending rigidity behaviour of ultrasonic seaming on woven fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şevkan Macit, Ayşe; Tiber, Bahar

    2017-10-01

    In recent years ultrasonic seaming that is shown as an alternative method to conventional seaming has been investigated by many researchers. In our study, bending behaviour of this alternative method is examined by changing various parameters such as fabric type, seam type, roller type and seaming velocity. For this purpose fifteen types of sewn fabrics were tested according to bending rigidity test standard before and after washing processes and results were evaluated through SPSS statistical analyze programme. Consequently, bending length values of the ultrasonically sewn fabrics are found to be higher than the bending length values of conventionally sewn fabrics and the effects of seam type on bending length are seen statistically significant. Also it is observed that bending length values are in relationship with the rest of the parameters excluding roller type.

  10. Production of a textile reinforced concrete protective layers with non-woven polypropylene fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žák, J.; Štemberk, P.; Vodička, J.

    2017-09-01

    Textile concrete with nonwoven polypropylene fabric can be used for protective layers of reinforced concrete structures, reducing the thickness of the cover layer or reducing the water penetration rate into the structure. The material consists of cement matrix with finegrained aggregate and nonwoven textile reinforcement. The maximum grain size of the mixture suitable for the nonwoven textile infiltration is 0.25 mm. The interlayer contains larger aggregates and short fibers. Tensile loading causes a large amount of microcracks in the material. The material can withstand strain over 25% without collapsing. Increased quality and water-cement ratio reduction was achieved using the plasticizers and distribution of the mixture into a fabric using a vibrating trowel. It is possible to make flat plates and even curved structures from this material. Larger curvatures of structures should be solved by cutting and overlapping the fabric. Small curvatures can be solved within the deformability of the fabric. Proper infiltration of the cement mixture into the fabric is the most important task in producing this material.

  11. Moisture transfer and pressure drop of humidifying elements made of non-woven fabric (Rayon/PET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nae-Hyun [Incheon National University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In modern buildings, humidity control is an essential constituent of the building management, where spray-type humidifying element is widely used. For the spray-type element, there is a concern about the durability and the resistance to formation of mold. In this study, we made new humidifying elements were made using non-woven fabric rayon/PET and investigated the moisture transfer and pressure drop characteristics. Samples consisted of two different rayon compositions (30 % and 50 %). From the results the sample with 50 % rayon and 50 % PET showed superior moisture transfer performance than the sample with 50 % Kraft fiber and 50 % PET, probably due to better water absorption characteristics of rayon over Kraft fiber. However, pressure drop of the rayon/PET sample was larger than Kraft fiber/PET sample due to increased surface roughness. The moisture transfer performance of the rayon/PET sample deteriorated as the rayon content decreased. The efficiency (j{sub m}/{sup f}1/3) was the largest for rayon/PET (5:5) sample, followed by Kraft fiber/PET and rayon/PET (3:7) sample. The efficiency of commercially available Glasdek was much lower than other samples.

  12. Characterization of the dynamic friction of woven fabrics: Experimental methods and benchmark results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachs, Ulrich; Akkerman, Remko; Fetfatsidis, K.; Vidal-Sallé, E.; Schumacher, J.; Ziegmann, G.; Allaoui, S.; Hivet, G.; Maron, B.; Vanclooster, K.; Lomov, S.V.

    2014-01-01

    A benchmark exercise was conducted to compare various friction test set-ups with respect to the measured coefficients of friction. The friction was determined between Twintex®PP, a fabric of commingled yarns of glass and polypropylene filaments, and a metal surface. The same material was supplied to

  13. Environmental Effects on Long Term Displacement Data of Woven Fabric Webbings Under Constant Load for Inflatable Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, WInfred S.; Jones, Thomas C.; Doggett, William R.; Duncan, Quinton; Plant, James

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study of the effects of environmental temperature and humidity conditions on long-term creep displacement data of high strength Kevlar and VectranTM woven fabric webbings under constant load for inflatable structures is presented. The restraint layer of an inflatable structure for long-duration space exploration missions is designed to bear load and consists of an assembly of high strength webbings. Long-term creep displacement data of webbings can be utilized by designers to validate service life parameters of restraint layers of inflatable structures. Five groups of high-strength webbings were researched over a two year period. Each group had a unique webbing length, load rating, applied load, and test period. The five groups consisted of 1.) 6K Vectran webbings loaded to 49% ultimate tensile strength (UTS), 2.) 6K Vectran webbings loaded to 55% UTS, 3.) 12.5K Vectran webbings loaded to 22% UTS, 4.) 6K Kevlar webbings loaded to 40% and 43% UTS, and 5.) 6K Kevlar webbings loaded to 48% UTS. Results show that all webbing groups exhibit the initial two stages of three of a typical creep curve of an elastic material. Results also show that webbings exhibit unique local wave patterns over the duration of the test period. Data indicate that the local pattern is primarily generated by daily variations in relative humidity values within the test facility. Data indicate that after a three to six month period, where webbings reach a steady-state creep condition, an annual sinusoidal displacement pattern is exhibited, primarily due to variations in annual mean temperature values. Data indicates that variations in daily temperature values and annual mean humidity values have limited secondary effects on creep displacement behavior. Results show that webbings in groups 2 and 5 do not exhibit well defined annual displacement patterns because the magnitude of the applied loads cause large deformations, and data indicate that material yielding within a webbing

  14. Characterization and modeling of tensile behavior of ceramic woven fabric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wen-Shyong; Chen, Wennei Y.; Parvizi-Majidi, Azar; Chou, Tsu-Wei

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the tensile behavior of SiC/SiC fabric composites. In the characterization effort, the stress-strain relation and damage evolution are studied with a series of loading and unloading tensile test experiments. The stress-strain relation is linear in response to the initial loading and becomes nonlinear when loading exceeds the proportional limit. Transverse cracking has been observed to be a dominant damage mode governing the nonlinear deformation. The damage is initiated at the inter-tow pores where fiber yarns cross over each other. In the modeling work, the analysis is based upon a fiber bundle model, in which fiber undulation in the warp and fill directions and gaps among fiber yarns have been taken into account. Two limiting cases of fabric stacking arrangements are studied. Closed form solutions are obtained for the composite stiffness and Poisson's ratio. Transverse cracking in the composite is discussed by applying a constant failure strain criterion.

  15. Polyester non-woven fabric finger cover as a TRUCT Braille reading assistance tool for Braille learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Kouki; Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    2007-11-01

    Transparent resinous ultraviolet-curing type (TRUCT) Braille signs are becoming more and more popular in Japan, especially when they are printed together with visual characters. These signs are made by screen printing, a technique that can be applied to various base materials, such as paper, metal, and plastic. TRUCT Braille signs have begun to be used in public facilities, such as on tactile maps and on handrails. Naturally, it is expected that Braille beginners will utilize these signs. However, it has been pointed out that the friction between the forefinger and the base material may affect reading accuracy and speed. In this study, we developed a finger cover made of soft, thin polyester non-woven fabric to reduce friction during Braille reading. We also carried out a study to investigate the effect of its use. The subjects were 12 Braille learners with acquired visual impairment, who were asked to read randomly selected characters with and without the finger cover. The results showed that most participants could read TRUCT Braille significantly faster and more accurately with a finger cover than without it, regardless of the base material and dot height. This result suggests that wearing the finger cover enables Braille learners to read TRUCT Braille more efficiently. The finger cover can be used as a Braille reading assistance tool for Braille learners. An additional, health-related advantage of the finger cover is that the forefinger remains clean. We expect that the finger cover will be in practical use in Japan within 1 or 2 years.

  16. Pressure Drop Across Woven Screens Under Uniform and Nonuniform Flow Conditions. [flow characteristics of water through Dutch twill and square weave fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludewig, M.; Omori, S.; Rao, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the experimental pressure drop and velocity data for water flowing through woven screens. The types of materials used are dutch twill and square weave fabrics. Pressure drop measures were made at four locations in a rectangular channel. The data are presented as change in pressure compared with the average entry velocity and the numerical relationship is determined by dividing the volumetric flow rate by the screen area open to flow. The equations of continuity and momentum are presented. A computer program listing an extension of a theoretical model and data from that computer program are included.

  17. Natural and synthetic polymers in fabric and home care applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paderes, Monissa; Ahirwal, Deepak; Fernández Prieto, Susana

    2017-07-01

    Polymers can be tailored to provide different benefits in Fabric & Home Care formulations depending on the monomers and modifications used, such as avoiding dye transfer inhibition in the wash, modifying the surface of tiles or increasing the viscosity and providing suspension properties to consumer products. Specifically, the rheology modification properties of synthetic and natural polymers are discussed in this chapter. The choice of a polymeric rheology modifier will depend on the formulation ingredients (charges, functional groups), the type and the amount of surfactants, the pH and the desired rheology modification. Natural polymeric rheology modifiers have been traditionally used in the food industry, being xanthan gum one of the most well-known ones. On the contrary, synthetic rheology modifiers are preferably used in paints & coats, textile printing and cleaning products.

  18. Polypropylene non-woven fabric membrane via surface modification with biomimetic phosphorylcholine in Ce(IV)/HNO{sub 3} redox system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Jie; Shi Qiang; Luan Shifang; Song Lingjie; Yang Huawei [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Stagnaro, Paola [Istituto per Io Studio delle Macromolecole, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via de Marini 6, 16149 Genova (Italy); Yin Jinghua, E-mail: yinjh@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-10-01

    Surface modification of polypropylene non-woven fabric membrane (NWF) for improving its hemocompatibility was developed by grafting a biomimic monomer, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorycholine (MPC). The NWF membrane surface was first activated by potassium peroxydisulfate to form hydroxyl groups, and then grafted with MPC using ceric (IV) ammonium nitrate as the redox initiator. The surface chemical changes before and after modification were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with an ATR unit (FTIR-ATR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); the water contact angle results showed the gradual changes in wettability from hydrophobic to hydrophilic surface. Meanwhile, the hemocompatibility of these samples was also evaluated by protein adsorption and platelet adhesion. These experimental results exhibited that the introduction of poly(MPC) onto the NWF membrane surfaces substantially improved their hemocompatibility. The feasibility and simplicity of this procedure may lead to potential applications of NWF membranes in biomedical separation and blood purification. - Graphical abstract: 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorycholine (MPC), was grafted onto non-woven fabric (NWF) membrane surface by Ce(IV)/HNO{sub 3} redox system. The protein adsorption and platelet adhesion were substantially suppressed by the introduction of poly(MPC). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPC was successfully grafted onto NWF PP membrane surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Obviously enhanced hemocompatibility was acquired by the modified samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A facile redox grafting was adopted in the whole process.

  19. Phase I/II Trial of Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation with a Three-Dimensional Woven-Fabric Scaffold for Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Baba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative medicine is emerging as a promising option, but the potential of autologous stem cells has not been investigated well in clinical settings of periodontal treatment. In this clinical study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of a new regenerative therapy based on the surgical implantation of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs with a biodegradable three-dimensional (3D woven-fabric composite scaffold and platelet-rich plasma (PRP. Ten patients with periodontitis, who required a surgical procedure for intrabony defects, were enrolled in phase I/II trial. Once MSCs were implanted in each periodontal intrabony defect, the patients were monitored during 36 months for a medical exam including laboratory tests of blood and urine samples, changes in clinical attachment level, pocket depth, and linear bone growth (LBG. All three parameters improved significantly during the entire follow-up period (p<0.0001, leading to an average LBG of 4.7 mm after 36 months. Clinical mobility measured by Periotest showed a decreasing trend after the surgery. No clinical safety problems attributable to the investigational MSCs were identified. This clinical trial suggests that the stem cell therapy using MSCs-PRP/3D woven-fabric composite scaffold may constitute a novel safe and effective regenerative treatment option for periodontitis.

  20. In vivo testing of a biodegradable woven fabric made of bioactive glass fibers and PLGA80--a pilot study in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Jessica J; Frantzén, Janek P A; Moritz, Niko; Lankinen, Petteri; Tukiainen, Mikko; Kellomäki, Minna; Aro, Hannu T

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform an intra-animal comparison of biodegradable woven fabrics made of bioactive glass (BG) fibers and poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) 80/20 copolymer (PLGA(80)) fibers or PLGA(80) fibers alone, in surgical stabilization of bone graft. The BG fibers (BG 1-98) were aimed to enhance bone growth at site of bone grafting, whereas the PLGA component was intended to provide structural strength and flexibility to the fabric. Bone formation was analyzed qualitatively by histology and quantitatively by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at 12 weeks. The surgical handling properties of the control PLGA(80) fabric were more favorable. Both fabrics were integrated with the cortical bone surfaces, but BG fibers showed almost complete resorption. There were no signs of adverse local tissue reactions. As a proof of material integration and induced new bone formation, there was a significant increase in bone volume of the operated femurs compared with the contralateral intact bone (25% with BG/PLGA(80) fabric, p < 0.001 and 28% with the control PLGA(80) fabric, p = 0.006). This study failed to demonstrate the previously seen positive effect of BG 1-98 on osteogenesis, probably due to the changed resorption properties of BG in the form of fibers. Therefore, the feasibility and safety of BG as fibers needs to be reevaluated before use in clinical applications. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Multifunctional bioactive and improving the performance durability nanocoatings for finishing PET/CO woven fabrics by the sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalczyk, Dorota, E-mail: dkowalczyk@iw.lodz.pl; Brzeziński, Stefan; Kamińska, Irena

    2015-11-15

    The paper presents the results of studies on multifunctional thin-coatings of textiles, simultaneously imparting to them bioactive properties in relations to bacteria and fungi as well as an increased abrasion resistance and anti-pilling effect with the use of modified hybrid materials produced by the sol–gel method from two precursors: (3-glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and aluminum isopropoxide (ALIPO). The sol obtained was modified with bioactive particles in the form of nanopowder of metallic silver and copper alloy (Ag/Cu). Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} sol containing nanoparticles of Ag/Cu alloy was deposited on a polyester/cotton blend woven fabric (PET/CO 67/33) by the padding method. After drying and curing process, a thin and elastic bioactive silica coating was obtained on the fabric fibers surfaces. The fabrics with deposited nanocoatings were characterized by very good bioactive properties and increased resistance to abrasion and formation of pilling. - Highlights: • Multifunctional thin coating layer was prepared on the fabric using sol–gel method. • Modification of the hybrid Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} sol by Ag/Cu alloy nanoparticles. • Bioactive fabric created by deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} sol with Ag/Cu. • 30% increase the abrasion resistance of the thin coating fabric.

  2. Thermo-responsive wound dressings by grafting chitosan and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) to plasma-induced graft polymerization modified non-woven fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jyh-Ping; Kuo, Chang-Yi; Lee, Wen-Li

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and chitosan were grafted to polypropylene non-wovens. ► An easily stripped off thermo-responsive wound dressing was developed. ► The wound dressing is biocompatible, has antibacterial and wound healing abilities. ► The bigraft non-woven will be a potential wound dressing for biomedical use. - Abstract: To obtain a chitosan wound dressings with temperature-responsive characteristics, polypropylene (PP) non-woven fabric (NWF) was modified by direct current pulsed oxygen plasma-induced grafting polymerization of acrylic acid (AAc) to improve hydrophilicity and to introduce carboxylic acid groups. Conjugation of chitosan and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) followed by using water-soluble carbodiimide as a coupling agent to form a novel bigraft PP-g-chitosan-g-PNIPAAm wound dressing. The amount of chitosan and PNIPAAm grafted to PP-g-chitosan-g-PNIPAAm were 83.0 ± 4.6 μg/cm 2 and 189.5 ± 8.2 μg/cm 2 , respectively. The surface chemical composition and microstructure of the NWF were studied by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The linkages between AAc, chitosan, and PNIPAAm were confirmed with the formation of amide bonds. Physical properties of the NWF were characterized and potentials of these NWFs as wound dressings were evaluated using SD rat as the animal model. NWFs contained PNIPAAm were better than those contained only chitosan in wound healing rates and the wound areas covered by PP-g-chitosan-g-PNIPAAm wound dressings healed completely in 17 days.

  3. Non-woven PET fabric reinforced and enhanced the performance of ultrafiltration membranes composed of PVDF blended with PVDF-g-PEGMA for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Li, Tong; Chen, Chen; Chen, Sheng; Liu, Baicang; Crittenden, John

    2018-03-01

    Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) blended with poly(vinylidene fluoride)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PVDF-g-PEGMA) can present high flux and excellent foulant removal efficiencies under suitable preparation conditions. However, these PVDF/PVDF-g-PEGMA blended membranes cannot be applied industrially because of the insufficient mechanical strength (strength-to-break value of 8.4 ± 0.6 MPa). We incorporated two types of non-woven polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabrics (thin hydrophobic and thick hydrophilic fabrics) as support layers to improve the mechanical properties of the blended membranes. The thin and thick PET fabrics were able to significantly improve the tensile strength to 23.3 ± 3.7 MPa and 30.1 ± 1.4 MPa, respectively. The PET fabrics had a limited impact on the separation-related membrane performance such as hydrophilicity, foulant rejection, whereas the mechanical strength and pure water flux was improved several folds. The enhanced flux was attributed to the higher surface porosity and wider finger-like voids in the cross-section. The thin PET fabric with larger porosity was able to maintain a consistent toughness simultaneously; thus it is recommended as a support material for this blended membrane.

  4. The Effect of Customized Woven and Stacked Layer Orientation on Tensile and Flexural Properties of Woven Kenaf Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamdan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthetic fibres have created some issues including risk of inhalation during fabrication process, renewability, biodegradability, and recyclability in composites industry. The usage of biocomposites as a replacement to synthetic fibres is beginning to be widespread. However, it is noted that lesser attention has been devoted to evaluating the mechanical properties of woven kenaf composites at various woven and stacked layer orientation. Thus, the research objective is to identify the effect of woven and stacked layer orientation on tensile and flexural properties of kenaf composites. Two types of fibre orientation are employed; type A contains a higher yarn density and type B contains a low yarn density. The tensile and flexural tests are conducted to analyze the mechanical properties of woven kenaf fibre composites and compare them to random chopped kenaf composites. The fracture interface between fibre and matrix epoxy is further investigated via scanning electron microscope. Type A kenaf improved up to 199% and 177% as compared to random chopped kenaf for flexural strength and tensile strength, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy analysis shows that resin matrix is properly induced into kenaf fibre gap hence giving additional strength to woven kenaf as compared to random chopped kenaf.

  5. Bearing Stress at Failure of Double-Lap Hybrid Joints in Woven Fabric Kenaf Fiber Composite Plates under Quasi-static Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sim Yee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is focused on the bearing stress at failure of double-lap woven fabric kenaf fiber reinforced polymer (KFRP hybrid bonded-bolted joints in experimental frameworks. The effects of different normalized plate width (plate width/hole diameter, W/d, lay-up types and bolt loads were incorporated in current study as specified in testing series. Generally, hybrid joint coupons separated within adhesive layer prior to net-tension failure or bearing/net-tension failure. The bearing stress at failure increased as W/d ratio increment, critical W/d is given as four and three in clamped and finger tight condition respectively. Lay-up types present insignificant effect to bearing stress at failure due to low volume fiber fraction in kenaf fiber composites. Combination of thicker and clamped conditions plate demonstrated greater bearing stress than equivalent finger-tight (FT conditions due to higher load transferred from friction, as expected.

  6. Preparation of a non-woven poly(ε-caprolactone) fabric with partially embedded apatite surface for bone tissue engineering applications by partial surface melting of poly(ε-caprolactone) fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Ae; Rhee, Sang-Hoon

    2017-07-01

    This article describes a novel method for the preparation of a biodegradable non-woven poly(ε-caprolactone) fabric with a partially embedded apatite surface designed for application as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. The non-woven poly(ε-caprolactone) fabric was generated by the electro-spinning technique and then apatite was coated in simulated body fluid after coating the PVA solution containing CaCl 2 ·2H 2 O. The apatite crystals were partially embedded or fully embedded into the thermoplastic poly(ε-caprolactone) fibers by controlling the degree of poly(ε-caprolactone) fiber surface melting in a convection oven. Identical apatite-coated poly(ε-caprolactone) fabric that did not undergo heat-treatment was used as a control. The features of the embedded apatite crystals were evaluated by FE-SEM, AFM, EDS, and XRD. The adhesion strengths of the coated apatite layers and the tensile strengths of the apatite coated fabrics with and without heat-treatment were assessed by the tape-test and a universal testing machine, respectively. The degree of water absorbance was assessed by adding a DMEM droplet onto the fabrics. Moreover, cell penetrability was assessed by seeding preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells onto the fabrics and observing the degrees of cell penetration after 1 and 4 weeks by staining nuclei with DAPI. The non-woven poly(ε-caprolactone) fabric with a partially embedded apatite surface showed good water absorbance, cell penetrability, higher apatite adhesion strength, and higher tensile strength compared with the control fabric. These results show that the non-woven poly(ε-caprolactone) fabric with a partially embedded apatite surface is a potential candidate scaffold for bone tissue engineering due to its strong apatite adhesion strength and excellent cell penetrability. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1973-1983, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Fabrication of synthetic diffractive elements using advanced matrix laser lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Škeren, M; Svoboda, J; Kveton, M; Fiala, P

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a matrix laser writing device based on a demagnified projection of a micro-structure from a computer driven spatial light modulator. The device is capable of writing completely aperiodic micro-structures with resolution higher than 200 000 DPI. An optical system is combined with ultra high precision piezoelectric stages with an elementary step ∼ 4 nm. The device operates in a normal environment, which significantly decreases the costs compared to competitive technologies. Simultaneously, large areas can be exposed up to 100 cm2. The capabilities of the constructed device will be demonstrated on particular elements fabricated for real applications. The optical document security is the first interesting field, where the synthetic image holograms are often combined with sophisticated aperiodic micro-structures. The proposed technology can easily write simple micro-gratings creating the color and kinetic visual effects, but also the diffractive cryptograms, waveguide couplers, and other structures recently used in the field of optical security. A general beam shaping elements and special photonic micro-structures are another important applications which will be discussed in this paper.

  8. Fabrication of synthetic diffractive elements using advanced matrix laser lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škereň, M.; Svoboda, J.; Květoň, M.; Fiala, P.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we present a matrix laser writing device based on a demagnified projection of a micro-structure from a computer driven spatial light modulator. The device is capable of writing completely aperiodic micro-structures with resolution higher than 200 000 DPI. An optical system is combined with ultra high precision piezoelectric stages with an elementary step ~ 4 nm. The device operates in a normal environment, which significantly decreases the costs compared to competitive technologies. Simultaneously, large areas can be exposed up to 100 cm2. The capabilities of the constructed device will be demonstrated on particular elements fabricated for real applications. The optical document security is the first interesting field, where the synthetic image holograms are often combined with sophisticated aperiodic micro-structures. The proposed technology can easily write simple micro-gratings creating the color and kinetic visual effects, but also the diffractive cryptograms, waveguide couplers, and other structures recently used in the field of optical security. A general beam shaping elements and special photonic micro-structures are another important applications which will be discussed in this paper.

  9. 77 FR 32938 - Narrow Woven Ribbons With Woven Selvedge From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... ribbons subject to the order include all narrow woven fabrics, tapes, and labels that fall within this... the manufacture of typewriter or printer ribbons; (5) Narrow woven labels and apparel tapes, cut-to... 1994 U.S.C.C.A.N. 4040, 4198-99. Furthermore, ``affirmative evidence of bad faith on the part of a...

  10. Effect of fiber fabric orientation on the flexural monotonic and fatigue behavior of 2D woven ceramic matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, N.; Liaw, P.K.; Lara-Curzio, E.; Ferber, M.K.; Lowden, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of fiber fabric orientation, i.e., parallel to loading and perpendicular to the loading axis, on the monotonic and fatigue behavior of plain-weave fiber reinforced SiC matrix laminated composites was investigated. Two composite systems were studied: Nextel 312 (3M Corp.) reinforced SiC and Nicalon (Nippon Carbon Corp.) reinforced SiC, both fabricated by Forced Chemical Vapor Infiltration (FCVI). The behavior of both materials was investigated under monotonic and fatigue loading. Interlaminar and in-plane shear tests were conducted to further correlate shear properties with the effect of fabric orientation, with respect to the loading axis, on the orientation effects in bending. The underlying mechanisms, in monotonic and fatigue loading, were investigated through post-fracture examination using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  11. Self-healing woven glass fabric/epoxy composites with the healant consisting of micro-encapsulated epoxy and latent curing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Tao; Zhou Lin; Rong Minzhi; Zhang Mingqiu

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a study of self-healing woven glass fabric reinforced epoxy composites. The healing agent was a two-component one synthesized in the authors' laboratory, which consisted of epoxy-loaded urea-formaldehyde microcapsules as the polymerizable binder and CuBr 2 (2-methylimidazole) 4 (CuBr 2 (2-MeIm) 4 ) as the latent hardener. Both the microcapsules and the matching catalyst were pre-embedded and pre-dissolved in the composites' matrix, respectively. When the microcapsules are split by propagating cracks, the uncured epoxy can be released into the damaged areas and then consolidated under the catalysis of CuBr 2 (2-MeIm) 4 that was homogeneously distributed in the composites' matrix on a molecular scale. As a result, the cracked faces can be bonded together. The influence of the content of the self-healing agent on the composites' tensile properties, interlaminar fracture toughness and healing efficiency was evaluated. It was found that a healing efficiency over 70% relative to the fracture toughness of virgin composites was obtained in the case of 30 wt% epoxy-loaded microcapsules and 2 wt% latent hardener

  12. In-situ growth of high-performance all-solid-state electrode for flexible supercapacitors based on carbon woven fabric/ polyaniline/ graphene composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingxi; Zhang, Haiyan; Deng, Wentao; Zhang, Danfeng; Li, Na; Wu, Qibai; He, Chunhua

    2018-04-01

    For the development of wearable electronic devices, it is crucial to develop energy storage components combining high-capacity and flexibility. Herein, an all-solid-state supercapacitor is prepared through an in-situ "growth and wrapping" method. The electrode contains polyaniline deposited on a carbon woven fabric and wrapped with a graphene-based envelop. The hybrid electrode exhibits excellent mechanical and electrochemical performance. The optimized few layer graphene wrapping layer provides for a conductive network, which effectively enhances the cycling stability as 88.9% of the starting capacitance is maintained after 5000 charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, the assembled device delivers a high areal capacity (of 790 F cm-2) at the current density of 1 A cm-2, a high areal energy (28.21 uWh cm-2) at the power densities of 0.12 mW cm-2 and shows no significant decrease in the performance with a bending angle of 180°. This unique flexible supercapacitor thus exhibits great potential for wearable electronics.

  13. Modeling the effect of weave structure and fabric thread density on the barrier effectiveness of woven surgical gowns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maqsood, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Surgical gowns are the shielding cloths worn by the surgical team throughout a surgery to save them from blood pathogens of the patient being operated, and to avoid bacterial infections. Barrier effectiveness of a fabric depends upon the liquid penetration resistance and pathogen resistance of the

  14. Fabrication and Synthesis of Highly Ordered Nickel Cobalt Sulfide Nanowire-Grown Woven Kevlar Fiber/Reduced Graphene Oxide/Polyester Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Ankita; Deka, Biplab K; Kim, DoYoung; Roh, Hyung Doh; Park, Young-Bin; Park, Hyung Wook

    2017-10-18

    Well-aligned NiCo 2 S 4 nanowires, synthesized hydrothermally on the surface of woven Kevlar fiber (WKF), were used to fabricate composites with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) dispersed in polyester resin (PES) by means of vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding. The NiCo 2 S 4 nanowires were synthesized with three precursor concentrations. Nanowire growth was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Hierarchical and high growth density of the nanowires led to exceptional mechanical properties of the composites. Compared with bare WKF/PES, the tensile strength and absorbed impact energy were enhanced by 96.2% and 92.3%, respectively, for WKF/NiCo 2 S 4 /rGO (1.5%)/PES. The synergistic effect of NiCo 2 S 4 nanowires and rGO in the fabricated composites improved the electrical conductivity of insulating WKF/PES composites, reducing the resistance to ∼10 3 Ω. Joule heating performance depended strongly on the precursor concentration of the nanowires and the presence of rGO in the composite. A maximum surface temperature of 163 °C was obtained under low-voltage (5 V) application. The Joule heating performance of the composites was demonstrated in a surface deicing experiment; we observed that 17 g of ice melted from the surface of the composite in 14 min under an applied voltage of 5 V at -28 °C. The excellent performance of WKF/NiCo 2 S 4 /rGO/PES composites shows great potential for aerospace structural applications requiring outstanding mechanical properties and Joule heating capability for deicing of surfaces.

  15. In vitro hemocompatibility of sulfonated polypropylene non-woven fabric prepared via a facile γ-ray pre-irradiation grafting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Rong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Wu, Guozhong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Ye, Yin, E-mail: yeyin@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sulfonated PP{sub NWF} was successfully fabricated via γ-ray pre-irradiation-induced graft polymerization of SSS method with the aid of AAm. • Compared with the pristine PP{sub NWF}, the sulfonated PP{sub NWF} material presented outstanding hydrophilicity. • The sulfonated PP{sub NWF} exhibited good hemocompatibility. - Abstract: Sulfonated polypropylene non-woven fabric (PP{sub NWF}) was successfully prepared via γ-ray pre-irradiation-induced graft polymerization of sodium styrenesulfonate (SSS) and acrylamide (AAm). The effect of pre-irradiation dose, reaction temperature, reaction time and concentration of binary monomer on the degree of grafting (DG) was studied. The chemical structure of the original and modified PP{sub NWF} materials were investigated by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to confirm the successful introduction of sulfonated (−SO{sub 3}{sup −}) group. The wettability was examined via measurement of de-ionized water adsorption percentage, which demonstrated that the hydrophilicity of PP{sub NWF} was greatly enhanced after graft modification. A little amount of bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption and nearly no platelet adhesion on the surface of modified PP{sub NWF} and low hemolytic ratio of the modified PP{sub NWF} revealed that the sulfonated PP{sub NWF} exhibited good hemocompatibility. Besides, blood clotting time measurement indicated that the anticoagulant property of PP{sub NWF} was effectively enhanced via SSS modification. Consequently, the hydrophilicity, in vitro hemocompatibility and anticoagulant effect of PP{sub NWF} were significantly improved by γ-ray pre-irradiation-induced graft polymerization of SSS.

  16. Analysis of the temperature of the hot tool in the cut of woven fabric using infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Joao E.; Verderio, Leonardo A.; Gonzaga, Adilson; Ruffino, Rosalvo T.

    2001-03-01

    Textile manufacture occupies a prominence place in the national economy. By virtue of its importance researches have been made on the development of new materials, equipment and methods used in the production process. The cutting of textiles starts in the basic stage, to be followed within the process of the making of clothes and other articles. In the hot cutting of fabric, one of the variables of great importance in the control of the process is the contact temperature between the tool and the fabric. The work presents a technique for the measurement of the temperature based on the processing of infrared images. For this a system was developed composed of an infrared camera, a framegrabber PC board and software that analyzes the punctual temperature in the cut area enabling the operator to achieve the necessary control of the other variables involved in the process.

  17. Assessment and characterization of degradation effect for the varied degrees of ultra-violet radiation onto the collagen-bonded polypropylene non-woven fabric surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyan, Yu-Chang; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Klauser, Ruth; Wu, Ie-Der; Weng, Chih-Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to ultra-violet (UV)-C radiation is a frequently used method to prevent bacteria from invasion of blood-contact biomedical products. Potential damage induced by UV radiation to collagen is of concern due to the decay of bioactivity, considerably correlated with structural alterations. Our current investigation studies the collagen-bonded non-woven polypropylene (PP) fabric surface. In this experiment, antenna-coupling microwave plasma is utilized to activate PP fabric and then the sample is grafted with acrylic acid (AAc). Type III collagen is immobilized by using water soluble 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide as coupling agent. The collagen-bonded samples with sample temperature ca. 4 degrees C are then exposed to UV-254nm radiation for different time intervals. By using fourier-transformed infrared with attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), we examine the chemical structures of samples with different treatments. Coomassie brilliant blue G250 method is utilized to quantify the immobilized collagen on the PP fabric surfaces. Blood-clotting effects are evaluated by activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, and fibrinogen concentration tests. By means of cell counter and scanning electron microscopy we count red blood cells and platelets adhesion in the modified porous matrix. Our experimental results have demonstrated that with pAAc-grafting of ca. 173 microg cm(-2) and immobilized collagen of 80.5+/-4.7 microg cm(-2), for human plasma incubated samples of various intervals of UV-254 nm radiation, fibrinogen concentration decreases in human plasma, while platelets and red blood cells adhesions increase before UV radiation. However, the required time for thrombination shows significant change for UV radiation exposure of less than 20 h (alpha = 0.05). The decay of bioactivity for the UV-irradiated, collagen-bonded surfaces is thus evaluated. Surface analyses indicate that the decrease of

  18. Preparation of well-defined erythromycin imprinted non-woven fabrics via radiation-induced RAFT-mediated grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söylemez, Meshude Akbulut; Barsbay, Murat; Güven, Olgun

    2018-01-01

    Radiation-induced RAFT polymerization technique was applied to synthesize well-defined molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) of erythromycin (ERY). Methacrylic acid (MAA) was grafted onto porous polyethylene (PE)/polypropylene (PP) nonwoven fabrics, under γ-irradiation by employing 2-pheny-2-propyl benzodithioate as the RAFT agent and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the crosslinker. MAA/erythromycin ratios of 2/1, 4/1, 6/1 were tested to optimize the synthesis of MIPs. The highest binding capacity was encountered at a MAA/ERY ratio of 4/1. Non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) were also synthesized in the absence of ERY. The MIPs synthesized by RAFT method presented a better binding capacity compared to those prepared by conventional method where no RAFT agent was employed.

  19. antimicrobial properties of some natural and synthetic fabrics modified by radiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, R.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    natural and synthetic fabrics have been treated with different antimicrobial metal complexes under the effect of gamma radiation . in this regard, cotton, cotton/PET blend and PET were grafted with acrylic acid by gamma radiation and this grafted fabrics were complexed with Cu(ll),Ni(ll)and Co(ll) metal ions . the antimicrobial properties were evaluated by the measurement of tensile strength of fabrics after burring in a soil for one and two weeks as well as the effect of this treatment on the growth of certain bacteria and fungi incubated on a culture for 48 hours. the results showed that the highest protection to cotton, cotton/PET blend and PET fabrics by using Cu(ll) ion in the complexation process, where the order of protection by metals is Cu(ll) > Co(ll)> Ni(ll), moreover, the more grafted fabrics the more complexed fabrics with metal ions and is higher protection against microorganisms . the treatment with the metal ions has nearly no effect on the chemical and physical properties of the natural or the synthetic fabrics as indicated from the analysis by TGA, sem, ion exchange testing and wettability testing.

  20. Fabrication of Porous Materials from Natural/Synthetic Biopolymers and Their Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeni Gunathilake T.M. Sampath

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers and their applications have been widely studied in recent years. Replacing the oil based polymer materials with biopolymers in a sustainable manner might give not only a competitive advantage but, in addition, they possess unique properties which cannot be emulated by conventional polymers. This review covers the fabrication of porous materials from natural biopolymers (cellulose, chitosan, collagen, synthetic biopolymers (poly(lactic acid, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid and their composite materials. Properties of biopolymers strongly depend on the polymer structure and are of great importance when fabricating the polymer into intended applications. Biopolymers find a large spectrum of application in the medical field. Other fields such as packaging, technical, environmental, agricultural and food are also gaining importance. The introduction of porosity into a biomaterial broadens the scope of applications. There are many techniques used to fabricate porous polymers. Fabrication methods, including the basic and conventional techniques to the more recent ones, are reviewed. Advantages and limitations of each method are discussed in detail. Special emphasis is placed on the pore characteristics of biomaterials used for various applications. This review can aid in furthering our understanding of the fabrication methods and about controlling the porosity and microarchitecture of porous biopolymer materials.

  1. Fabrication of Porous Materials from Natural/Synthetic Biopolymers and Their Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Udeni Gunathilake T M; Ching, Yern Chee; Chuah, Cheng Hock; Sabariah, Johari J; Lin, Pai-Chen

    2016-12-07

    Biopolymers and their applications have been widely studied in recent years. Replacing the oil based polymer materials with biopolymers in a sustainable manner might give not only a competitive advantage but, in addition, they possess unique properties which cannot be emulated by conventional polymers. This review covers the fabrication of porous materials from natural biopolymers (cellulose, chitosan, collagen), synthetic biopolymers (poly(lactic acid), poly(lactic- co -glycolic acid)) and their composite materials. Properties of biopolymers strongly depend on the polymer structure and are of great importance when fabricating the polymer into intended applications. Biopolymers find a large spectrum of application in the medical field. Other fields such as packaging, technical, environmental, agricultural and food are also gaining importance. The introduction of porosity into a biomaterial broadens the scope of applications. There are many techniques used to fabricate porous polymers. Fabrication methods, including the basic and conventional techniques to the more recent ones, are reviewed. Advantages and limitations of each method are discussed in detail. Special emphasis is placed on the pore characteristics of biomaterials used for various applications. This review can aid in furthering our understanding of the fabrication methods and about controlling the porosity and microarchitecture of porous biopolymer materials.

  2. Dual-skinned polyamide/poly(vinylidene fluoride)/cellulose acetate membranes with embedded woven

    KAUST Repository

    Phuoc, Duong; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2016-01-01

    strength, (iii) a strong woven fabric, and (iv) fouling resistant porous cellulose acetate (CA) layer. The PA layer rejects solutes of the draw solution. The PVDF/woven fabric/CA (PVDF/CA) integrated layer performs as a mechanical support with unique

  3. Medical effects of poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) non-woven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, bamboo activated charcoal was mixed with acrylic resin in various proportions and deposited on poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) non-woven fabrics. A series of characterizations were carried out to estimate the performances of PET non-woven fabrics such as far infrared ray emission, heat retention, negative ...

  4. The Effect of Pre-Tension on Deformation Behaviour of Natural Fabric Reinforced Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulė BEKAMPIENĖ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the fiber-reinforced composites industry together with the promotion of environmental friendly production, synthetic materials are attempted to be replaced by renewable, biodegradable and recyclable materials. The most important challenge is to improve strength and durability of these materials. Matrix that supports the fiber-reinforcement in composite generally is brittle and deformation causes fragmentation of the matrix. Pre-tension of reinforcement is a well-known method to increase tensile strength of woven material. The current study develops the idea to use pre-tension of woven fabric in order to improve quality and strength properties of the obtained composite. Natural (cotton fiber and synthetic (glass fiber woven fabrics were investigated. The pressure forming operation was carried out in order to study clamping imposed strain variation across the surface of woven fabric. The uniaxial tension test of single-layer composite specimens with and without pre-tension was performed to study the effect of pre-tension on strength properties of composite. The results have shown that pre-tension imposed by clamping is an effective method to improve the quality of shaped composite parts (more smoothed contour is obtained and to increase the strength properties of composite reinforced by woven natural fabric. After pre-tension the tensile strength at break increased in 12 % in warp direction, in 58 % in weft direction and in 39 % in bias direction.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.1.250

  5. Woven hybrid composites: Tensile and flexural properties of oil palm-woven jute fibres based epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawaid, M. [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abdul Khalil, H.P.S., E-mail: akhalilhps@gmail.com [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abu Bakar, A. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} Woven hybrid composites show good tensile and flexural properties. {yields} Hybridization with 20% woven jute gives rise to sufficient modulus to composites. {yields} Layering pattern affect mechanical properties of hybrid composites. {yields} Statistical analysis shows that there is significant difference between composites. - Abstract: In this research, tensile and flexural performance of tri layer oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB)/woven jute (Jw) fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites subjected to layering pattern has been experimentally investigated. Sandwich composites were fabricated by hand lay-up technique in a mould and cured with 105 deg. C temperatures for 1 h by using hot press. Pure EFB and woven jute composites were also fabricate for comparison purpose. Results showed that tensile and flexural properties of pure EFB composite can be improved by hybridization with woven jute fibre as extreme woven jute fibre mat. It was found that tensile and flexural properties of hybrid composite is higher than that of EFB composite but less than woven jute composite. Statistical analysis of composites done by ANOVA-one way, it showed significant differences between the results obtained. The fracture surface morphology of the tensile samples of the hybrid composites was performed by using scanning electron microscopy.

  6. Woven hybrid composites: Tensile and flexural properties of oil palm-woven jute fibres based epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawaid, M.; Abdul Khalil, H.P.S.; Abu Bakar, A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Woven hybrid composites show good tensile and flexural properties. → Hybridization with 20% woven jute gives rise to sufficient modulus to composites. → Layering pattern affect mechanical properties of hybrid composites. → Statistical analysis shows that there is significant difference between composites. - Abstract: In this research, tensile and flexural performance of tri layer oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB)/woven jute (Jw) fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites subjected to layering pattern has been experimentally investigated. Sandwich composites were fabricated by hand lay-up technique in a mould and cured with 105 deg. C temperatures for 1 h by using hot press. Pure EFB and woven jute composites were also fabricate for comparison purpose. Results showed that tensile and flexural properties of pure EFB composite can be improved by hybridization with woven jute fibre as extreme woven jute fibre mat. It was found that tensile and flexural properties of hybrid composite is higher than that of EFB composite but less than woven jute composite. Statistical analysis of composites done by ANOVA-one way, it showed significant differences between the results obtained. The fracture surface morphology of the tensile samples of the hybrid composites was performed by using scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Biocompatibility of polypropylene non-woven fabric membrane via UV-induced graft polymerization of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Lingjie [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao Jie; Yang Huawei; Jin Jing; Li Xiaomeng [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Stagnaro, Paola [Istituto per Io Studio delle Macromolecole, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via de Marini 6, 16149 Genova (Italy); Yin Jinghua, E-mail: yinjh@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2011-10-15

    This work described the graft polymerization of a sulfonic acid terminated monomer, 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS), onto the surface of polypropylene non-woven (NWF PP) membrane by O{sub 2} plasma pretreatment and UV-induced photografting method. The chemical structure and composition of the modified surfaces were analyzed by FTIR-ATR and XPS, respectively. The wettability was investigated by water contact angle and equilibrium water adsorption. And the biocompatibility of the modified NWF PP membranes was evaluated by protein adsorption and platelet adhesion. It was found that the graft density increased with prolonging UV irradiation time and increasing AMPS concentration; the water contact angles of the membranes decreased from 124{sup o} to 26{sup o} with the increasing grafting density of poly(AMPS) from 0 to 884.2 {mu}g cm{sup -2}, while the equilibrium water adsorption raised from 5 wt% to 75 wt%; the protein absorption was effectively suppressed with the introduction of poly(AMPS) even at the low grafting density (132.4 {mu}g cm{sup -2}); the number of platelets adhering to the modified membrane was dramatically reduced when compared with that on its virgin surface. These results indicated that surface modification of NWF PP membrane with AMPS was a facile approach to construct biocompatible surface.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of mixed dye: Natural and synthetic organic dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richhariya, Geetam; Kumar, Anil

    2018-05-01

    Mixed dye from hibiscus sabdariffa and eosin Y was employed in the fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Nanostructured mesoporous film was prepared from the titanium dioxide (TiO2). The energy conversion efficiency of hibiscus, eosin Y and mixed dye was obtained as 0.41%, 1.53% and 2.02% respectively. Mixed DSSC has shown improvement in the performance of the cell as compared to hibiscus and eosin Y dye due to addition of synthetic organic dye. This illustrates the effect of synthetic organic dyes in performance enhancement of natural dyes. It has been credited to the improved absorption of light mainly in higher energy state (λ = 440-560 nm) when two dyes were employed simultaneously as was obvious from the absorption spectra of dyes adsorbed onto TiO2 electrode. The cell with TiO2 electrode sensitized by mixed dye gives short circuit current density (Jsc) = 4.01 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage (Voc) = 0.67 V, fill factor (FF) = 0.60 and energy conversion efficiency (η) of 2.02%.

  9. Development of a hybrid scaffold with synthetic biomaterials and hydrogel using solid freeform fabrication technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Jin-Hyung; Park, Min; Park, Jaesung; Cho, Dong-Woo; Kim, Jong Young

    2011-01-01

    Natural biomaterials such as hyaluronic acid, gelatin and collagen provide excellent environments for tissue regeneration. Furthermore, gel-state natural biomaterials are advantageous for encapsulating cells and growth factors. In cell printing technology, hydrogel which contains cells was printed directly to form three-dimensional (3D) structures for tissue or organ regeneration using various types of printers. However, maintaining the 3D shape of the printed structure, which is made only of the hydrogel, is very difficult due to its weak mechanical properties. In this study, we developed a hybrid scaffold consisting of synthetic biomaterials and natural hydrogel using a multi-head deposition system, which is useful in solid freeform fabrication technology. The hydrogel was intentionally infused into the space between the lines of a synthetic biomaterial-based scaffold. The cellular efficacy of the hybrid scaffold was validated using rat primary hepatocytes and a mouse pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cell line. In addition, the collagen hydrogel, which encapsulates cells, was dispensed and the viability of the cells observed. We demonstrated superior effects of the hybrid scaffold on cell adhesion and proliferation and showed the high viability of dispensed cells.

  10. Carbon nanotube woven textile photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Ahmed; Wang, Xuan; Mirri, Francesca; Tsentalovich, Dmitri E.; Fujimura, Naoki; Suzuki, Daichi; Soundarapandian, Karuppasamy P.; Kawano, Yukio; Pasquali, Matteo; Kono, Junichiro

    2018-01-01

    The increasing interest in mobile and wearable technology demands the enhancement of functionality of clothing through incorporation of sophisticated architectures of multifunctional materials. Flexible electronic and photonic devices based on organic materials have made impressive progress over the past decade, but higher performance, simpler fabrication, and most importantly, compatibility with woven technology are desired. Here we report on the development of a weaved, substrateless, and polarization-sensitive photodetector based on doping-engineered fibers of highly aligned carbon nanotubes. This room-temperature-operating, self-powered detector responds to radiation in an ultrabroad spectral range, from the ultraviolet to the terahertz, through the photothermoelectric effect, with a low noise-equivalent power (a few nW/Hz 1 /2) throughout the range and with a Z T -factor value that is twice as large as that of previously reported carbon nanotube-based photothermoelectric photodetectors. Particularly, we fabricated a ˜1 -m-long device consisting of tens of p+-p- junctions and weaved it into a shirt. This device demonstrated a collective photoresponse of the series-connected junctions under global illumination. The performance of the device did not show any sign of deterioration through 200 bending tests with a bending radius smaller than 100 μ m as well as standard washing and ironing cycles. This unconventional photodetector will find applications in wearable technology that require detection of electromagnetic radiation.

  11. Technological study of ring and compact spinning systems for the manufacturing of slub fancy yarn under multiple slub variations and its effect on woven fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, N.; Iftikhar, M.; Mahmood, T.; Arshad, M.

    2009-01-01

    Textile technologies are continuously evolving with the objects both of increasing productivity and reducing processing costs, and of creating new products or variants of existing ones. Fashion, in the widest sense of the word mean fulfillment of consumer demands, through the ages constitutes a fundamental and conditional element for the whole textile industry. Fancy yarns present deliberate, decorative continuous or programmed effects of colour and/or form they are used to create some variation in the aesthetic appearance of a fabric. The drafting process is deliberately interrupted through the effect yarn device to produce slubs in the final yarn. The present research study was aimed to evaluate the quality characteristics of slub fancy yarn by changing slub length, inter slub distance, slub thickness and twist multiplier (T.M) at ring and compact spinning systems. (author)

  12. 棉梭织物酶、碱氧短流程前处理工艺研究%Research on the short process pretreatment using enzyme and alkali oxygen for woven cotton fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟超; 邢建伟; 徐成书

    2016-01-01

    采用酶冷堆退浆、煮漂一步法对棉梭织物进行短流程前处理,并对处理后的棉织物进行性能分析,得到最优工艺条件:酶冷堆置过程中退浆酶WT8404g/L、JFC 2g/L,一步法汽蒸过程中精练剂XQC 6g/L、硅酸钠6g/L、氢氧化钠5g/L、过氧化氢(100%)9g/L.在此工艺条件下前处理的效果与传统前处理工艺效果接近,退浆率可达到93%以上,白度为84,毛效达到11cm/30min,该工艺相比传统两步法前处理工艺可省去多道工序,具有碱用量少、节能节水等优点.%The cooled reactors enzyme desizing,scouring and bleaching of one step method for cotton woven fabrics was subj ected for short process of pretreatment,and the properties of the treated cotton fabric were tested,the optimum process conditions were obtained:desizing enzyme WT840 4g/L and JFC 2g/L in the process of cooled reactors enzyme,scouring agent XQC 6g/L,sodium silicate 6g/L, sodium hydroxide 5g/L,hydrogen peroxide(100%)9g/L in the process of one step steaming.Under the conditions of this process,the effects of the cotton fabric treated were close to those of the tradi-tional pretreatment with desizing rate more than 95%,the whiteness higher than 84 and capillary effect is 11cm/30min.The new pretreatment process has the advantages of short procedures,lower us-age of alkali,energy and water saving compared to traditional two step pretreatment process.

  13. Fabrication and Performance of All-Solid-State Chloride Sensors in Synthetic Concrete Pore Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Deng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available One type of all-solid-state chloride sensor was fabricated using a MnO2 electrode and a Ag/AgCl electrode. The potentiometric response of the sensor to chloride in synthetic concrete pore solutions was systematically studied, and the polarization performance was also evaluated. The results show a good linear relationship between the potential reading of the sensor and the logarithm of chloride activity (concentration ranges from 0.05 to 5.0 M, and the potential value remains stable with increasing immersion time. The existence of K+, Ca2+, Na+ and SO42− ions have little influence on the potentiometric response of the sensor to chloride, but the pH has a significant influence on the potential value of the sensor at low chloride concentration. The potential reading of the sensor increases linearly with the solution temperature over the range from 5 to 45 °C. Meanwhile, an excellent polarization behavior is proven by galvanostatic and potentiodynamic tests. All of the results reveal that the developed sensor has a great potential for monitoring chloride ions in concrete environments.

  14. Bioinspired fabrication and characterization of a synthetic fish skin for the protection of soft materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Natasha; Vera, Marc; Szewciw, Lawrence J; Barthelat, Francois; Stoykovich, Mark P; Vernerey, Franck J

    2015-03-18

    The scaled skin of fish is a high-performance natural armor that represents a source of inspiration for novel engineering designs. In this paper, we present a biomimetic fish skin material, fabricated with a design and components that are simple, that achieves many of the advantageous attributes of natural materials, including the unique combination of flexibility and mechanical robustness. The bioinspired fish skin material is designed to replicate the structural, mechanical, and functional aspects of a natural teleost fish skin comprised of leptoid-like scales, similar to that of the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus. The man-made fish skin material consists of a low-modulus elastic mesh or "dermis" layer that holds rigid, plastic scales. The mechanics of the synthetic material is characterized under in-plane, bending, and indentation modes of deformation and is successfully described by theoretical deformation models that have been developed. This combined experimental and modeling approach elucidates the critical mechanisms by which the composite material achieves its unique properties and provides design rules that allow for the engineering of scaled skins. Such artificial scaled skins that are flexible, lightweight, transparent, and robust under mechanical deformation may thus have potential as thin protective coatings for soft materials.

  15. Fabrication and performance of all-solid-state chloride sensors in synthetic concrete pore solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaojian; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Yingzi; Deng, Hongwei

    2010-01-01

    One type of all-solid-state chloride sensor was fabricated using a MnO(2) electrode and a Ag/AgCl electrode. The potentiometric response of the sensor to chloride in synthetic concrete pore solutions was systematically studied, and the polarization performance was also evaluated. The results show a good linear relationship between the potential reading of the sensor and the logarithm of chloride activity (concentration ranges from 0.05 to 5.0 M), and the potential value remains stable with increasing immersion time. The existence of K(+), Ca(2+), Na(+) and SO(4) (2-) ions have little influence on the potentiometric response of the sensor to chloride, but the pH has a significant influence on the potential value of the sensor at low chloride concentration. The potential reading of the sensor increases linearly with the solution temperature over the range from 5 to 45 °C. Meanwhile, an excellent polarization behavior is proven by galvanostatic and potentiodynamic tests. All of the results reveal that the developed sensor has a great potential for monitoring chloride ions in concrete environments.

  16. Calibration of 3D Woven Preform Design Code for CMC Materials, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mechanical and thermal performance of CMC components benefit from low part count, integrally fabricated designs of 3D woven reinforcement. The advantages of these...

  17. 77 FR 47363 - Narrow Woven Ribbons With Woven Selvedge From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... fabrics, tapes, and labels that fall within this written description of the scope of the antidumping duty... of a kind used for the manufacture of typewriter or printer ribbons; (5) Narrow woven labels and..., ``affirmative evidence of bad faith on the part of a respondent is not required before the Department may make...

  18. Synthetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally materials have been associated with a series of physical properties that can be used as inputs to production and manufacturing. Recently we witnessed an interest in materials considered not only as ‘true matter’, but also as new breeds where geometry, texture, tooling and finish are able to provoke new sensations when they are applied to a substance. These artificial materials can be described as synthetic because they are the outcome of various qualities that are not necessarily true to the original matter, but they are the combination of two or more parts, whether by design or by natural processes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of architectural surfaces to produce effects through the invention of new breeds of artificial matter, using micro-scale details derived from Nature as an inspiration.

  19. Recent advancements in mechanical characterisation of 3D woven composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohamed Nasr; Soutis, Constantinos

    2017-12-01

    Three dimensional (3D) woven composites have attracted the interest of academia and industry thanks to their damage tolerance characteristics and automated fabric manufacturing. Although much research has been conducted to investigate their out-of-plane "through thickness" properties, still their in-plane properties are not fully understood and rely on extensive experimentation. To date, the literature lacks an inclusive summary of the mechanical characterisation for 3D woven composites. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the available research studies on 3D woven composites mechanical characterisation, with less emphasis on the out-of-plane response, but an in-depth review of the in-plane response "un-notched vs. notched". The paper highlights the knowledge gap in the literature of 3D woven composites, suggesting opportunities for future research in this field and a room for improvement in utilising Non-Destructive Techniques (NDT), such as Digital Image Correlation (DIC), Acoustic Emission (AE) and X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), for observing damage initiation and evolution in 3D woven composites that could be used to calibrate and evaluate analytical and numerical models.

  20. Effects of Weave Styles and Crimp Gradients on Damage Tolerance and Energy-Absorption Capacities of Woven Kevlar/Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Capacities of Woven Kevlar /Epoxy Composites Paul V. Cavallaro Ranges, Engineering, and Analysis Department NEWPORT Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division...the Kevlar woven fabrics and technical data and to Core Composites Inc. for fabricating the composite laminates. Reviewed and Approved: 1...Effects of Weave Styles and Crimp Gradients on Damage Tolerance and Energy-Absorption Capacities of Woven Kevlar /Epoxy Composites 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  1. Composite metal foil and ceramic fabric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Brent J.; Antoniak, Zen I.; Prater, John T.; DeSteese, John G.

    1992-01-01

    The invention comprises new materials useful in a wide variety of terrestrial and space applications. In one aspect, the invention comprises a flexible cloth-like material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of metallic foil. In another aspect, the invention includes a flexible fluid impermeable barrier comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric layer having metal wire woven therein. A metallic foil layer is incontinuously welded to the woven metal wire. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of an organic polymer. In still another aspect, the invention includes a rigid fabric structure comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric and a resinous support material which has been hardened as the direct result of exposure to ultraviolet light. Inventive methods for producing such material are also disclosed.

  2. UV-protection of Natural and Synthetic Fabrics by Surface Treatment under the effect of Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, AW.M.; Zohdy, M.H.; Ali, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic and natural fabrics were surface coated with gamma radiation curable novel formulations. These formulations were based on naturally occurring Alum individually and in binary mixture with ZnO beside different functional oligomers and monomers. The physical properties of the treated fabrics were evaluated in terms of ultraviolet protection, moisture regain, and water absorption. Also, the effect of coating formulations on the crystallinity was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) showed that the formulation containing 30% of Alum caused a significant UPF values (50+) according to standard rating over untreated fabrics. When ZnO was incorporated in the formulation, the UPF factor was increased by two folds. A decrease in the moisture regain and water absorption of fabrics was featured with ZnO, however, in case of Alum a decrease followed by an increase was observed. In conclusion, these novel coats could be taken as an nontoxic alternative UV-resist finishing agents for fabrics

  3. Water resistance and surface morphology of synthetic fabrics covered by polysiloxane/acrylate followed by electron beam irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    El-Naggar, A M; Mohammed, S S; Alam, E A

    2003-01-01

    Different synthetic fabrics were treated by electron beam surface coating with two formulations based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polystyrene (PS) or poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) oligomers. The water resistance properties were investigated in terms of the percentage of water repellency and absorption. Also, the surface coated fabrics were examined by scanning electron microscopy/microscope (SEM) connected to an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) unit to determine the percentage atomic contents of elements. The results showed that the adhesion of the polysiloxane formulation to the surface depends largely on the kind of acrylate oligomer and textile fabric as indicated by the EDX analysis for silicon. In this regard, PDMS/PS formulation is more compatible with polyester and nylon-6 fabrics than PDMS/PMMA one. However, it was found that PDMS/PMMA formulation is more compatible with cotton/polyester blend than PDMS/PS. The SEM micrographs give further supports to the EDX analysis. On the basis of the perce...

  4. Release of synthetic microplastic plastic fibres from domestic washing machines: Effects of fabric type and washing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napper, Imogen E; Thompson, Richard C

    2016-11-15

    Washing clothes made from synthetic materials has been identified as a potentially important source of microscopic fibres to the environment. This study examined the release of fibres from polyester, polyester-cotton blend and acrylic fabrics. These fabrics were laundered under various conditions of temperature, detergent and conditioner. Fibres from waste effluent were examined and the mass, abundance and fibre size compared between treatments. Average fibre size ranged between 11.9 and 17.7μm in diameter, and 5.0 and 7.8mm in length. Polyester-cotton fabric consistently shed significantly fewer fibres than either polyester or acrylic. However, fibre release varied according to wash treatment with various complex interactions. We estimate over 700,000 fibres could be released from an average 6kg wash load of acrylic fabric. As fibres have been reported in effluent from sewage treatment plants, our data indicates fibres released by washing of clothing could be an important source of microplastics to aquatic habitats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Debonding characteristics of adhesively bonded woven Kevlar composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, S.; Johnson, W. S.

    1988-01-01

    The fatigue damage mechanism of an adhesively bonded joint between fabric reinforced composite adherends was investigated with cracked-lap-shear specimens. Two bonded systems were studied: fabric Kevlar 49/5208 epoxy adherends bonded together with either EC 3445 or FM-300 adhesive. For each bonded system, two specimen geometries were tested. In all specimens tested, fatigue damage occurred in the form of cyclic debonding; however, the woven Kevlar specimens gave significantly slower debond growth rates and higher fracture toughness than previously found in the nonwoven adherend specimens. The surfaces for the woven adherends were not smooth; rather, they had regular crests (high spots) and troughs (low spots) due to the weave pattern. Radiographs of the specimens and examination of their failure surfaces revealed that fiber bridging occurred between the crests of the two adherends in the debonded region. The observed improvements in debond growth resistance and static fracture toughness are attributed to this bridging.

  6. Partial Replacement of Glass Fiber by Woven Kenaf in Hybrid Composites and its Effect on Monotonic and Fatigue Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaiman Jaffar Sharba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural–synthetic fiber hybrid composites offer a combination of high mechanical properties from the synthetic fibers and the advantages of renewable fibers to produce a material with highly specific and determined properties. In this study, plain-woven kenaf/glass reinforced unsaturated polyester (UP hybrid composites were fabricated using the hand lay-up method with a cold hydraulic press in a sandwich-configuration laminate. The glass was used as a shell with kenaf as a core, with an approximate total fiber content of 40%. Three glass/kenaf weight ratios percentages of (70/30% (H1, (55/45% (H2, and (30/70% (H3 were used to fabricate hybrid composites. Also pure glass/UP and kenaf/UP were fabricated for comparison purposes. Monotonic tests, namely tensile, compression, and flexural strengths of the composites, were performed. The morphological properties of tensile and compression failure of kenaf and hybrid composites were studied. In addition, uniaxial tensile fatigue life of hybrid composites were conducted and evaluated. The results revealed that the hybrid composite (H1 offered a good balance and the best static properties, but in tensile fatigue loading (H3 displayed low fatigue sensitivity when compared with the other hybrid composites.

  7. Smart DNA Fabrication Using Sound Waves: Applying Acoustic Dispensing Technologies to Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanigowska, Paulina; Shen, Yue; Zheng, Yijing; Rosser, Susan; Cai, Yizhi

    2016-02-01

    Acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) technology uses focused acoustic energy to transfer nanoliter-scale liquid droplets with high precision and accuracy. This noncontact, tipless, low-volume dispensing technology minimizes the possibility of cross-contamination and potentially reduces the costs of reagents and consumables. To date, acoustic dispensers have mainly been used in screening libraries of compounds. In this paper, we describe the first application of this powerful technology to the rapidly developing field of synthetic biology, for DNA synthesis and assembly at the nanoliter scale using a Labcyte Echo 550 acoustic dispenser. We were able to successfully downscale PCRs and the popular one-pot DNA assembly methods, Golden Gate and Gibson assemblies, from the microliter to the nanoliter scale with high assembly efficiency, which effectively cut the reagent cost by 20- to 100-fold. We envision that acoustic dispensing will become an instrumental technology in synthetic biology, in particular in the era of DNA foundries. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  8. Fabrication and mechanical characterization of biodegradable and synthetic polymeric films: Effect of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akter, Nousin; Khan, Ruhul A.; Salmieri, Stephane; Sharmin, Nusrat; Dussault, Dominic; Lacroix, Monique

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan (1 wt%, in 2% aqueous acetic acid solution) and starch (1 wt%, in deionised water) were dissolved and mixed in different proportions (20–80 wt% chitosan) then films were prepared by casting. Tensile strength and elongation at break of the 50% chitosan containing starch-based films were found to be 47 MPa and 16%, respectively. It was revealed that with the increase of chitosan in starch, the values of TS improved significantly. Monomer, 2-butane diol-diacrylate (BDDA) was added into the film forming solutions (50% starch-based), then casted films. The BDDA containing films were irradiated under gamma radiation (5–25 kGy) and it was found that strength of the films improved significantly. On the other hand, synthetic petroleum-based polymeric films (polycaprolactone, polyethylene and polypropylene) were prepared by compression moulding. Mechanical and barrier properties of the films were evaluated. The gamma irradiated (25 kGy) films showed higher strength and better barrier properties. - Highlights: ► Chitosan and starch-based biodegradable films were prepared by casting. ► With the increase of chitosan in starch, the strength of the films improved significantly. ► Monomer, 2-Butane diol-diacrylate was grafted with the films by gamma radiation. ► Mechanical properties of synthetic polymeric films improved by gamma radiation. ► The irradiated polymer films showed better water vapor barrier properties.

  9. Physical, Mechanical, and Morphological Properties of Woven Kenaf/Polymer Composites Produced Using a Vacuum Infusion Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhad D. Salman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to renewable issues, environmental concerns, and the financial problems of synthetic fibres, the development of high-performance engineering products made from natural resources is increasing all over the world. Lately, kenaf fibre has been used among many different types of natural resources in various shapes. Unidirectional long fibres or randomly oriented short fibre shapes are the most common type of kenaf fibres that have been investigated in previous works. This work characterises and evaluates the physical, mechanical, and morphological properties of plain woven kenaf fabric and its composites with three types of thermoset resin at 0°/90° and 45°/−45° orientation, in order to assess their suitability as lignocellulosic reinforced polymer composites. A vacuum infusion manufacturing technique was used to prepare the specimens with fibre weight content of 35% ± 2%. Eight specimens were prepared for each test, and five replications were adopted. A total of 78 samples were tested in this study. The results show that the composites with 0°/90° had the highest tensile, flexural strengths, and modulus. The morphological properties of composite samples were analysed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM images and these clearly demonstrated the better interfacial adhesion between the woven kenaf and the epoxy matrix.

  10. Tablet-woven and tabby-woven braids from the Czech late medieval archaeological findings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Březinová, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 23, - (2010), s. 47-51 ISSN 0860-0007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : textile fragments * tablet -woven braids * tabby-woven braids * late medieval Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  11. Fabrication and mechanical characterization of biodegradable and synthetic polymeric films: Effect of gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Nousin; Khan, Ruhul A.; Salmieri, Stephane; Sharmin, Nusrat; Dussault, Dominic; Lacroix, Monique

    2012-08-01

    Chitosan (1 wt%, in 2% aqueous acetic acid solution) and starch (1 wt%, in deionised water) were dissolved and mixed in different proportions (20-80 wt% chitosan) then films were prepared by casting. Tensile strength and elongation at break of the 50% chitosan containing starch-based films were found to be 47 MPa and 16%, respectively. It was revealed that with the increase of chitosan in starch, the values of TS improved significantly. Monomer, 2-butane diol-diacrylate (BDDA) was added into the film forming solutions (50% starch-based), then casted films. The BDDA containing films were irradiated under gamma radiation (5-25 kGy) and it was found that strength of the films improved significantly. On the other hand, synthetic petroleum-based polymeric films (polycaprolactone, polyethylene and polypropylene) were prepared by compression moulding. Mechanical and barrier properties of the films were evaluated. The gamma irradiated (25 kGy) films showed higher strength and better barrier properties.

  12. Towards reinforcement solutions for urban fibre/fabric waste using bio-based biodegradable resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Pramod; Hermes, Alina; Bapeer, Solaf; Luiken, Anton; Bouwhuis, Gerrit; Brinks, Ger

    2017-10-01

    The main research question is how to systematically define and characterize urban textile waste and how to effectively utilise it to produce reinforcement(s) with selected bio-based biodegradable resin(s). Several composite samples have been produced utilising predominantly natural and predominantly synthetic fibres by combining loose fibres with PLA, nonwoven fabric with PLA, woven fabric with PLA, two-layer composite & four-layer composite samples. Physio-chemical characterisations according to the established standards have been conducted. The present work is a step toward the circular economy and closing the loop in textile value chain.

  13. Woven type smart soft composite beam with in-plane shape retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Renzhe; Han, Min-Woo; Lee, Gil-Yong; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) wire embedded composites (SMAECs) are widely used as morphing structures in small-size and high-output systems. However, conventional SMAECs cannot keep deformed shapes without additional energy. In this paper, a new kind of smart structure named the woven type smart soft composite (SSC) beam is introduced, which is not only capable of morphing, but also maintaining its deformed shape without additional energy. The woven type SSC beam consists of two parts: woven wires and matrix. The selected woven wires are nitinol (Ni–Ti) SMA wires and glass fibers, while the matrix part is polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). In order to evaluate the performance of the woven type SSC beam in areas such as in-plane deformation, blocking force and repeatability, a beam-shape specimen is prepared of size 100 mm (length) × 8 mm (width) ×3 mm (thickness). The fabricated SSC beam achieved 21 mm deformation and 16 mm shape retention. Blocking force was measured using a dynamometer, and was about 60 mN. In the repeatability test, it recovered almost the same position when its cooling time was 90 s more. Consequently, the woven type SSC beam can be applied to bio-mimicking, soft morphing actuators, consuming less energy than traditional SMAECs. (paper)

  14. Pré-filtração em pedregulho e filtração lenta com areia, manta não tecida e carvão ativado para polimento de efluentes domésticos tratados em leitos cultivados Pré-filtration in boulder and slow sand filtration with non-woven synthetic layers and granulated vegetal coal to improve quality in wastewater treated by constructed wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. S. Paterniani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo comparar sistemas de filtragem, composto de pré-filtro de pedregulho seguido de filtro lento com o meio filtrante areia e no topo manta sintética não tecida e pré-filtro de pedregulho seguido de filtro lento com meio filtrante areia e carvão ativado granular e no topo manta sintética não tecida, para polimento de efluentes domésticos tratados em leitos cultivados, visando à aplicação na fertirrigação. Na comparação dos sistemas de filtragem, avaliou-se a eficiência de remoção dos parâmetros: sólidos em suspensão, turbidez, cor aparente, demanda química de oxigênio, oxigênio dissolvido, ferro, manganês, coliformes totais e E. coli. Os dois sistemas operavam 24 horas por dia, com a mesma taxa de aplicação, tratando uma vazão total final de 1,5 m³ dia-1, sendo que a taxa de aplicação para a unidade de pré-filtração era, em média, de 8,4 m³ m-2 dia-1 e para cada uma das unidades de filtração lenta era, em media, de 2,7 m³ m-2 dia-1. As unidades de pré-filtração e filtração lenta mostraram-se eficientes na redução das concentrações de sólidos suspensos, turbidez, cor aparente e DQO, como polimento de esgotos domésticos previamente tratados. O uso de carvão ativado granular, em combinação com areia, proporcionou ao filtro lento maior eficiência na remoção de sólidos suspensos, cor, turbidez, coliformes totais e E. Coli., sem com isso aumentar a perda de carga inicial. Existe a possibilidade de utilização dos efluentes para a prática da fertirrigação, sendo necessário o processo de desinfecção ou não, dependendo da cultura e o sistema de irrigação utilizado.The objective of this study was the comparison between two filtration systems, being one composed of a boulder pre-filter followed by a slow filter with sand as filtration media and a non-woven synthetic fabric in the upper part, and the other one composed of a boulder pre-filter followed by a

  15. Length-scales of Slab-induced Asthenospheric Deformation from Geodynamic Modeling, Mantle Deformation Fabric, and Synthetic Shear Wave Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadamec, M. A.; MacDougall, J.; Fischer, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    The viscosity structure of the Earth's interior is critically important, because it places a first order constraint on plate motion and mantle flow rates. Geodynamic models using a composite viscosity based on experimentally derived flow laws for olivine aggregates show that lateral viscosity variations emerge in the upper mantle due to the subduction dynamics. However, the length-scale of this transition is still not well understood. Two-dimensional numerical models of subduction are presented that investigate the effect of initial slab dip, maximum yield stress (slab strength), and viscosity formulation (Newtonian versus composite) on the emergent lateral viscosity variations in the upper-mantle and magnitude of slab-driven mantle flow velocity. Significant viscosity reductions occur in regions of large flow velocity gradients due to the weakening effect of the dislocation creep deformation mechanism. The dynamic reductions in asthenospheric viscosity (less than 1018 Pa s) occur within approximately 500 km from driving force of the slab, with peak flow velocities occurring in models with a lower yield stress (weaker slab) and higher stress exponent. This leads to a sharper definition of the rheological base of the lithosphere and implies lateral variability in tractions along the base of the lithosphere. As the dislocation creep mechanism also leads to mantle deformation fabric, we then examine the spatial variation in the LPO development in the asthenosphere and calculate synthetic shear wave splitting. The models show that olivine LPO fabric in the asthenosphere generally increases in alignment strength with increased proximity to the slab, but can be transient and spatially variable on small length scales. The vertical flow fields surrounding the slab tip can produce shear-wave splitting variations with back-azimuth that deviate from the predictions of uniform trench-normal anisotropy, a result that bears on the interpretation of complexity in shear

  16. BioWires: Conductive DNA Nanowires in a Computationally-Optimized, Synthetic Biological Platform for Nanoelectronic Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchioni, Simon; Toomey, Emily; Capece, Mark C.; Rothschild, Lynn; Wind, Shalom

    2017-01-01

    DNA is an ideal template for a biological nanowire-it has a linear structure several atoms thick; it possesses addressable nucleobase geometry that can be precisely defined; and it is massively scalable into branched networks. Until now, the drawback of DNA as a conducting nanowire been, simply put, its low conductance. To address this deficiency, we extensively characterize a chemical variant of canonical DNA that exploits the affinity of natural cytosine bases for silver ions. We successfully construct chains of single silver ions inside double-stranded DNA, confirm the basic dC-Ag+-dC bond geometry and kinetics, and show length-tunability dependent on mismatch distribution, ion availability and enzyme activity. An analysis of the absorbance spectra of natural DNA and silver-binding, poly-cytosine DNA demonstrates the heightened thermostability of the ion chain and its resistance to aqueous stresses such as precipitation, dialysis and forced reduction. These chemically critical traits lend themselves to an increase in electrical conductivity of over an order of magnitude for 11-base silver-paired duplexes over natural strands when assayed by STM break junction. We further construct and implement a genetic pathway in the E. coli bacterium for the biosynthesis of highly ionizable DNA sequences. Toward future circuits, we construct a model of transcription network architectures to determine the most efficient and robust connectivity for cell-based fabrication, and we perform sequence optimization with a genetic algorithm to identify oligonucleotides robust to changes in the base-pairing energy landscape. We propose that this system will serve as a synthetic biological fabrication platform for more complex DNA nanotechnology and nanoelectronics with applications to deep space and low resource environments.

  17. CREASING BEHAVIOR OF SOME WOVEN MATERIALS MADE FROM COMBED YARNS TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HRISTIAN Liliana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the behavior to creasing of some woven materials made from yarns type wool used for ready-made clothes. Factors like fibrous composition, properties of constituent fibers, wovens structure parameters, mechanical properties of warp and weft yarns and finishing treatments that influenced the recovery capacity from crease/folding were investigated experimentally through several tests which revealed their importance in the process. The creasing of woven materials made from combed yarns type wool used for ready-clothes is an undesired deformation effect with temporary or permanent character, which is caused by a composed strain of bending and compression during utilization, processing or maintenance. It is manifested by the appearance of wrinkles, folds or stripes on the surface of wovens materials, thus diminishing their qualitative appearance and also their practical value. Creasing is the result of irreversible changes created through the reciprocal sliding of structural fiber components when exposed to a bending strain. Creasing is specific to oriented structures with high crystallinity (cellulosic fibers. The sliding appears because of hydrogen bond breaking which can, however, reform easy in other positions conferring a permanent character to creasing.Functional apparel will be subjected to a wide range of end uses such that a garment will be affected by intern (fibres, yarn fineness warp/weft, fabric density, thickness, fabric count and external factors (external environment - exposure to sunlight, wind, rain, cold weather conditions, fabric/human body interaction. These factors affect the performance and behaviour of functional.

  18. Microfibrous {beta}-TCP/collagen scaffolds mimic woven bone in structure and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Shen; Zhang Xin; Cai Qing; Yang Xiaoping [Key Laboratory of Beijing City on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang Bo; Deng Xuliang, E-mail: yangxp@mail.buct.edu.c [Department of VIP Dental Service, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Woven bone, as the initial form of bone tissue, is always found in developing and repairing bone. It is thought of as a temporary scaffold for the deposition of osteogenic cells and the laying down of lamellar bone. Thus, we hypothesize that a matrix which resembles the architecture and components of woven bone can provide an osteoblastic microenvironment for bone cell growth and new bone formation. In this study, woven-bone-like beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP)/collagen scaffolds were fabricated by sol-gel electrospinning and impregnating methods. Optimization studies on sol-gel synthesis and electrospinning process were conducted respectively to prepare pure {beta}-TCP fibers with dimensions close to mineralized collagen fibrils in woven bone. The collagen-coating layer prepared by impregnation had an adhesive role that held the {beta}-TCP fibers together, and resulted in rapid degradation and matrix mineralization in in vitro tests. MG63 osteoblast-like cells seeded on the resultant scaffolds showed three-dimensional (3D) morphologies, and merged into multicellular layers after 7 days culture. Cytotoxicity test further revealed that extracts from the resultant scaffolds could promote the proliferation of MG63 cells. Therefore, the woven-bone-like matrix that we constructed favored the attachment and proliferation of MG63 cells in three dimensions. It has great potential ability to shorten the time of formation of new bone.

  19. Microfibrous β-TCP/collagen scaffolds mimic woven bone in structure and composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shen; Zhang Xin; Cai Qing; Yang Xiaoping; Wang Bo; Deng Xuliang

    2010-01-01

    Woven bone, as the initial form of bone tissue, is always found in developing and repairing bone. It is thought of as a temporary scaffold for the deposition of osteogenic cells and the laying down of lamellar bone. Thus, we hypothesize that a matrix which resembles the architecture and components of woven bone can provide an osteoblastic microenvironment for bone cell growth and new bone formation. In this study, woven-bone-like beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)/collagen scaffolds were fabricated by sol-gel electrospinning and impregnating methods. Optimization studies on sol-gel synthesis and electrospinning process were conducted respectively to prepare pure β-TCP fibers with dimensions close to mineralized collagen fibrils in woven bone. The collagen-coating layer prepared by impregnation had an adhesive role that held the β-TCP fibers together, and resulted in rapid degradation and matrix mineralization in in vitro tests. MG63 osteoblast-like cells seeded on the resultant scaffolds showed three-dimensional (3D) morphologies, and merged into multicellular layers after 7 days culture. Cytotoxicity test further revealed that extracts from the resultant scaffolds could promote the proliferation of MG63 cells. Therefore, the woven-bone-like matrix that we constructed favored the attachment and proliferation of MG63 cells in three dimensions. It has great potential ability to shorten the time of formation of new bone.

  20. Investigation of Circular Woven Composite Preforms for Composite Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amid Hooman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main traditional technique for commercial manufacturing of composite pipes is filament winding in which the winding angle and the discontinuity of the structure (caused by starting and ending points of the winding process are two important matters of concern. In the present study, circular woven fabric with its orthogonal net-shaped continuous structure was produced from polyester yarns. Fabric was wet with epoxy and hand lay-up was used to manufacture the composite pipes. Composite pipes were subjected to internal hydrostatic pressure and their burst strength was recorded. In addition, tensile strength of flat laminas was assessed in the warp and weft directions. We estimated and analysed the failure strength of composite pipes using Tresca’s failure criterion and Finite Element (FE modeling. The experimental burst strength was almost 23% more than the FE model and 77% more than the theoretical estimate.

  1. Basalt woven fiber reinforced vinylester composites: Flexural and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmisciano, Salvatore; Rosa, Igor Maria De; Sarasini, Fabrizio; Tamburrano, Alessio; Valente, Marco

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary comparative study of basalt and E-glass woven fabric reinforced composites was performed. The fabrics were characterized by the same weave pattern and the laminates tested by the same fiber volume fraction. Results of the flexural and interlaminar characterization are reported. Basalt fiber composites showed higher flexural modulus and apparent interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) in comparison with E-glass ones but also a lower flexural strength and similar electrical properties. With this fiber volume fraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the fractured surfaces enabled a better understanding both of the failure modes involved and of points of concern. Nevertheless, the results of this study seem promising in view of a full exploitation of basalt fibers as reinforcement in polymer matrix composites (PMCs).

  2. 75 FR 11908 - Narrow Woven Ribbons With Woven Selvedge From China and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ...)] Narrow Woven Ribbons With Woven Selvedge From China and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade...(b) of the Act (19 U.S.C. 1673d(b)) to determine whether an industry in the United States is materially injured or threatened with material injury, or the establishment of an industry in the United...

  3. 75 FR 53711 - Narrow Woven Ribbons With Woven Selvedge From China and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Woven Ribbons With Woven Selvedge From China and Taiwan Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... U.S.C. 1673d(b)) (the Act), that an industry in the United States is threatened with material injury... (19 U.S.C. 1673d(b)), that an industry in the United States is threatened with material injury by...

  4. 49 CFR 178.518 - Standards for woven plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for woven plastic bags. 178.518 Section... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.518 Standards for woven plastic bags. (a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags: (1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated...

  5. Effect of layering sequence and chemical treatment on the mechanical properties of woven kenaf–aramid hybrid laminated composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahaya, R.; Sapuan, S.M.; Jawaid, M.; Leman, Z.; Zainudin, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The mechanical properties of woven kenaf/Kevlar hybrid composites were analysed. • The layering sequences affect the mechanical properties of hybrid composites. • Treated kenaf improves the mechanical properties of hybrid composites. - Abstract: This work aims to evaluate the effect of layering sequence and chemical treatment on mechanical properties of woven kenaf–Kevlar composites. Woven kenaf–aramid hybrid laminated composites fabricated through hand lay-up techniques by arranging woven kenaf and Kevlar fabrics in different layering sequences and by using treated kenaf mat. To evaluate the effect of chemical treatment on hybrid composites, the woven kenaf mat was treated with 6% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) diluted solution and compared mechanical properties with untreated kenaf hybrid composites. Results shows that the tensile properties of hybrid composites improved in 3-layer composites compared to 4-layer composites. Hybrid composite with Kevlar as outer layers display a better mechanical properties as compared to other hybrid composites. Tensile and flexural properties of treated hybrid composites are better than non-treated hybrid composites. The fractured surface of hybrid composites was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. This study is a part of exploration of potential application of the hybrid composite in high velocity impact application

  6. 76 FR 21333 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Second Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ..., 75 FR 60076 (September 29, 2010). The review was initiated with respect to Zibo Aifudi Plastic... one or both sides of the fabric; laminated by any method either to an exterior ply of plastic film... weight. Laminated woven sacks are typically used for retail packaging of consumer goods such as pet foods...

  7. Non-Wovens as Sound Reducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belakova, D.; Seile, A.; Kukle, S.; Plamus, T.

    2018-04-01

    Within the present study, the effect of hemp (40 wt%) and polyactide (60 wt%), non-woven surface density, thickness and number of fibre web layers on the sound absorption coefficient and the sound transmission loss in the frequency range from 50 to 5000 Hz is analysed. The sound insulation properties of the experimental samples have been determined, compared to the ones in practical use, and the possible use of material has been defined. Non-woven materials are ideally suited for use in acoustic insulation products because the arrangement of fibres produces a porous material structure, which leads to a greater interaction between sound waves and fibre structure. Of all the tested samples (A, B and D), the non-woven variant B exceeded the surface density of sample A by 1.22 times and 1.15 times that of sample D. By placing non-wovens one above the other in 2 layers, it is possible to increase the absorption coefficient of the material, which depending on the frequency corresponds to C, D, and E sound absorption classes. Sample A demonstrates the best sound absorption of all the three samples in the frequency range from 250 to 2000 Hz. In the test frequency range from 50 to 5000 Hz, the sound transmission loss varies from 0.76 (Sample D at 63 Hz) to 3.90 (Sample B at 5000 Hz).

  8. Fique Fabric: A Promising Reinforcement for Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Neves Monteiro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A relatively unknown natural fiber extracted from the leaves of the fique plant, native of the South American Andes, has recently shown potential as reinforcement of polymer composites for engineering applications. Preliminary investigations indicated a promising substitute for synthetic fibers, competing with other well-known natural fibers. The fabric made from fique fibers have not yet been investigated as possible composite reinforcement. Therefore, in the present work a more thorough characterization of fique fabric as a reinforcement of composites with a polyester matrix was performed. Thermal mechanical properties of fique fabric composites were determined by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. The ballistic performance of plain woven fique fabric-reinforced polyester matrix composites was investigated as a second layer in a multilayered armor system (MAS. The results revealed a sensible improvement in thermal dynamic mechanical behavior. Both viscoelastic stiffness and glass transition temperature were increased with the amount of incorporated fique fabric. In terms of ballistic results, the fique fabric composites present a performance similar to that of the much stronger KevlarTM as an MAS second layer with the same thickness. A cost analysis indicated that armor vests with fique fabric composites as an MAS second layer would be 13 times less expensive than a similar creation made with Kevlar™.

  9. Damage in woven CFRP laminates subjected to low velocity impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, H; Abdel-Wahab, A A; Harland, A R; Silberschmidt, V V

    2012-01-01

    Carbon fabric-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites used in sports products can be exposed to different in-service conditions such as large dynamic bending deformations caused by impact loading. Composite materials subjected to such loads demonstrate various damage modes such as matrix cracking, delamination and, ultimately, fabric fracture. Damage evolution in these materials affects both their in-service properties and performance that can deteriorate with time. These processes need adequate means of analysis and investigation, the major approaches being experimental characterisation and non-destructive examination of internal damage in composite laminates. This research deals with a deformation behaviour and damage in woven composite laminates due to low-velocity dynamic out-of-plane bending. Experimental tests are carried out to characterise the behaviour of such laminates under large-deflection dynamic bending in un-notched specimens in Izod tests using a Resil Impactor. A series of low-velocity impact tests is carried out at various levels of impact energy to assess the energy absorbed and force-time response of CFRP laminates. X-ray micro computed tomography (micro-CT) is used to investigate material damage modes in the impacted specimens. X-ray tomographs revealed that through-thickness matrix cracking, inter-ply delamination and intra-ply delamination, such as tow debonding and fabric fracture, were the prominent damage modes.

  10. Numerical study of the heat transfer in wound woven wire matrix of a Stirling regenerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, S.C.; Barrutia, Harritz; Esnaola, Jon Ander; Tutar, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A correlation equation to characterize regenerator heat transfer is proposed. • Proposed correlation can be used as a effective tool to optimize the heat transfer. • Thermal efficiency can be maximized by optimizing Stirling regenerator heat transfer. • The wound woven wire matrix provides lower Nusselt numbers compared to stacked. • The developed correlation can be used for Reynolds number range from 4 to 400. - Abstract: Nusselt number correlation equations are numerically derived by characterizing the heat transfer phenomena through porous medium of both stacked and wound woven wire matrices of a Stirling engine regenerator over a specified range of Reynolds number, diameter and porosity. A finite volume method (FVM) based numerical approach is proposed and validated against well known experimentally obtained empirical correlations for a random stacking woven wire matrix, the most widely used due to fabrication issues, for Reynolds number up to 400. The results show that the numerically derived correlation equation corresponds well with the experimentally obtained correlations with less than 6% deviation with the exception of low Reynolds numbers. Once the numerical approach is validated, the study is further extended to characterize the heat transfer in a wound woven wire matrix model for a diameter range from 0.08 to 0.11 mm and a porosity range from 0.60 to 0.68 within the same Reynolds number range. Thus, the new correlation equations are numerically derived for different flow configurations of the Stirling engine regenerator. It is believed that the developed correlations can be applied with confidence as a cost effective solution to characterize and hence to optimize stacked and wound woven wire Stirling regenerator in the above specified ranges

  11. Woven fabric defects detection based on texture classification algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Salem, Y.; Nasri, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we have compared two famous methods in texture classification to solve the problem of recognition and classification of defects occurring in a textile manufacture. We have compared local binary patterns method with co-occurrence matrix. The classifier used is the support vector machines (SVM). The system has been tested using TILDA database. The results obtained are interesting and show that LBP is a good method for the problems of recognition and classifcation defects, it gives a good running time especially for the real time applications.

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of Locally Woven Polyester Fibre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , but were far lower than composites obtained using fibre such as glass. The density of the composite was low compared to glass fibre reinforced composite. The composite moulded at pressure of 388.132kN/m2has the best properties; tensile ...

  13. Investigation of Basalt Woven Fabrics for Military Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    investigates the use of basalt fibers in a composite along with SC-15 epoxy resin for ballistic protection. Basalt fibers are not known as a ballistic...material but rather as a structural one. Even though basalt fibers are not expected to outperform some of the higher ballistic performing materials...such as the aramid and polyethylene fibers ; however, due to the lower manufacturing costs, basalt fibers are an interesting alternative. The objective

  14. Ballistic Impact Resistance of Plain Woven Kenaf/Aramid Reinforced Polyvinyl Butyral Laminated Hybrid Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhad D. Salman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the helmet shell has been used to provide protection against head injuries and fatalities caused by ballistic threats. In this study, because of the high cost of aramid fibres and the necessity for environmentally friendly alternatives, a portion of aramid was replaced with plain woven kenaf fibre, with different arrangements and thicknesses, without jeopardising the requirements demanded by U.S. Army helmet specifications. Furthermore, novel helmets were produced and tested to reduce the dependency on the ballistic resistance components. Their use could lead to helmets that are less costly and more easily available than conventional helmet armour. The hybrid materials subjected to ballistic tests were composed of 19 layers and were fabricated by the hot press technique using different numbers and configurations of plain woven kenaf and aramid layers. In the case of ballistic performance tests, a positive effect was found for the hybridisation of kenaf and aramid laminated composites.

  15. Determining Effective Thermal Conductivity of Fabrics by Using Fractal Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fanglong; Li, Kejing

    2010-03-01

    In this article, a fractal effective thermal conductivity model for woven fabrics with multiple layers is developed. Structural models of yarn and plain woven fabric are derived based on the fractal characteristics of macro-pores (gap or channel) between the yarns and micro-pores inside the yarns. The fractal effective thermal conductivity model can be expressed as a function of the pore structure (fractal dimension) and architectural parameters of the woven fabric. Good agreement is found between the fractal model and the thermal conductivity measurements in the general porosity ranges. It is expected that the model will be helpful in the evaluation of thermal comfort for woven fabric in the whole range of porosity.

  16. ABSORBENCY CHARACTERISTICS OF PESHTAMALS: TRADITIONAL TURKISH WOVEN CLOTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KESKIN Reyhan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Absorbency of textiles is defined as the ability of taking in a fluid in the manner of a sponge. Absorbency is required for comfort properties in so me clothes such as sportswear and underwear clothing, for drying properties in napkins, towels and bathrobes, for health concerns in some medical textiles such as bandages, gauze and absorbent cotton, and for cleaning properties in washclothes and mops. In this study five different fabric samples (three woven 100% cotton fabrics A, B and P respectively at plain, twill, and peshtamal weaving patterns and two 100% cotton terry towels T1 and T2 were tested. The absorbency properties of the samples were evaluated according to the droplet test, sinking time test and wicking height tests (pottasium chromate test. Peshtamal samples showed better absorbency results than plain and twill weaves and lower but close results to towel samples according to the droplet test, sinking time test and wicking height tests. The absorbency properties of peshtamals showed results close to towel samples. The void content of peshtamals is higher than plain and twill samples but closer and lower than towel samples. The good absorbency results of peshtamals might be due to the void content of peshtamals which is higher than plain and twill samples but closer and lower than towel samples. Peshtamals which are good in absorbency and light in weight might be used widespreadly in daily life for their high absorbency, and on travel for weight saving purposes.

  17. Study of the internal confinement of concrete reinforced (in civil engineering) with woven reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, M.; Goumairi, O.; El Malik, A.

    2017-10-01

    Concrete is generally the most used material in the field of construction. Despite its extensive use in structures, it represents some drawbacks related to its properties including its low tensile strength and low ductility. To solve this problem, the use of steel reinforcement in concrete structures is possible. Another possibility is the introduction of different types of continuous fibre / staple in the concrete, such as steel fibres or synthetic fibres, to obtain ″Concretes bundles″. Many types of fibre concrete, which have been developed and for many of them, the gain provided by the fibre was rather low and no significant improvement in tensile strength was really reaching. By cons, the ductility was higher than that of ordinary concrete. The objective of this study is to examine concrete reinforcement by inserting reinforcements woven polyester. These are either woven bidirectional (2D) or three-dimensional woven (3D). So we will report the properties of each type of reinforcement and the influence of the method of weaving on the strength reinforcements and on the strength of concrete in which they are incorporated. Such influence should contribute to improving the sustainability and enhancement of reinforcement

  18. 78 FR 29703 - Narrow Woven Ribbons With Woven Selvedge From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-583-844] Narrow Woven Ribbons With... AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: The..., International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue NW...

  19. From mindtools to social mindtools: collaborative writing with Woven Stories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nuutinen, J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available . We present the concept of Woven Stories and use it as an example of an effective social mindtool. We also describe a case study in which Woven Stories software was used as an online debating forum. This case study reveals the potential inherent...

  20. The construction phase’s influence to the moving ability of cross-sections of woven structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inogamdjanov, D.; Daminov, A.; Kasimov, O.

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to work out bases to predict properties for single layer flat woven fabrics depending on changes of construction phases. A structural model of cross-section of single layered fabric is described based on the Pierce’s model. Form transformation of the yarn like straight, semi-arch and arch yarn is considered according to the alteration of yarn tension under the theory of Novikov. The value contributions to movement index of warp and weft yarn and their total moving ability in cross-sections at all structure phases of fabric are summarized.

  1. Structure and yarn sensor for fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, D.K.; Allgood, G.O.; Mooney, L.R.; Duncan, M.G.; Turner, J.C.; Treece, D.A.

    1998-10-20

    A structure and yarn sensor for fabric directly determines pick density in a fabric thereby allowing fabric length and velocity to be calculated from a count of the picks made by the sensor over known time intervals. The structure and yarn sensor is also capable of detecting full length woven defects and fabric. As a result, an inexpensive on-line pick (or course) density measurement can be performed which allows a loom or knitting machine to be adjusted by either manual or automatic means to maintain closer fiber density tolerances. Such a sensor apparatus dramatically reduces fabric production costs and significantly improves fabric consistency and quality for woven or knitted fabric. 13 figs.

  2. Improved Sound Absorption Performance of Nonwoven Fabric using Fabric Facing and Air Back Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ahmad Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the improvement methods to increase sound absorption performance of polyethylene based nonwoven fabric (PNF. The methods are placing a woven fabric in front of the sample as well as providing air cavity behind the sample. The samples were experimentally tested in an impedance tube based on ISO 10354-2:2001 whereby two microphones are used and the transfer matrix methods are employed. From the results, it can be seen that placing front woven fabric effectively increases sound absorption performance. Moreover, introducing air cavity gap behind the sample is also found to be more significant to increase sound absorption.

  3. 75 FR 41804 - Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Narrow Woven Ribbons with Woven...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... unaffiliated supplier informed the Department that it did not produce NWR but merely purchased and resold it... or set such as when packaged with other products, including but not limited to gift bags, gift boxes... ribbons with woven selvedge attached to and forming the handle of a gift bag; (7) cut-edge narrow woven...

  4. Dual-skinned polyamide/poly(vinylidene fluoride)/cellulose acetate membranes with embedded woven

    KAUST Repository

    Duong, Phuoc H.H.

    2016-08-31

    We propose multilayer membranes including (i) a thin selective polyamide (PA) layer prepared via interfacial polymerization, (ii) a poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) asymmetric porous support with high adhesion to the PA layer and high mechanical strength, (iii) a strong woven fabric, and (iv) fouling resistant porous cellulose acetate (CA) layer. The PA layer rejects solutes of the draw solution. The PVDF/woven fabric/CA (PVDF/CA) integrated layer performs as a mechanical support with unique properties for forward osmosis (FO) applications. It consists of a modified PVDF top layer suitable for the deposition of a PA layer and a highly hydrophilic bottom layer (CA) with a tunable pore size to minimize foulant deposition and intrusion onto and into the support. The experimental results using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model foulant show that the presence of the CA layer at the bottom of the FO membrane (PA/PVDF/CA) reduces 75% fouling propensity compared to the simple FO membrane made of PVDF, woven fabric and PA (PA/PVDF). Fouling tests with 2000 ppm oily feed faced the bottom of the FO membranes further indicate the superiority of the PA/PVDF/CA membrane compared to the PA/PVDF membrane. Moreover, the bottom CA layer can be adjusted with a flexible range of pore size, varied from sub-micron to sub-nanometer depending on the feed composition. The newly developed multilayer FO membrane has comparable performance to the state-of-the-art membrane with added tailored fouling resistance for specific wastewater feeds.

  5. A Mesoscopic Analytical Model to Predict the Onset of Wrinkling in Plain Woven Preforms under Bias Extension Shear Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hosseini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A mesoscopic analytical model of wrinkling of Plain-Woven Composite Preforms (PWCPs under the bias extension test is presented, based on a new instability analysis. The analysis is aimed to facilitate a better understanding of the nature of wrinkle formation in woven fabrics caused by large in-plane shear, while it accounts for the effect of fabric and process parameters on the onset of wrinkling. To this end, the mechanism of wrinkle formation in PWCPs in mesoscale is simplified and an equivalent structure composed of bars and different types of springs is proposed, mimicking the behavior of a representative PWCP element at the post-locking state. The parameters of this equivalent structure are derived based on geometric and mechanical characteristics of the PWCP. The principle of minimum total potential energy is employed to formluate the model, and experimental validation is carried out to reveal the effectiveness of the derived wrinkling prediction equation.

  6. Cooperative action of cellulase enzyme and carboxymethyl cellulose on cotton fabric cleanability from a topographical standpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvimontes, A.; Lant, N.J.; Dutschk, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the effect of cotton treatment with cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose on soil release of three different types of fabric: woven plain, woven twill and knitted were systematically studied. A recent study of the effect of a cleaning cellulase enzyme on cellulose films has proven

  7. Damage in woven CFRP laminates under impact loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, H.; Harland, A. R.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2012-08-01

    Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites used in sports products can be exposed to different in-service conditions such as large dynamic bending deformations caused by impact loading. Composite materials subjected to such loads demonstrate various damage modes such as matrix cracking, delamination and, ultimately, fabric fracture. Damage evolution affects both in-service properties and performance of CFRP that can deteriorate with time. These failure modes need adequate means of analysis and investigation, the major approaches being experimental characterisation and numerical simulations. This research deals with a deformation behaviour and damage in composite laminates due to dynamic bending. Experimental tests are carried out to characterise the behaviour of a woven CFRP material under large-deflection dynamic bending in impact tests carried out to obtain the force-time and absorbed energy profiles for CFRP laminates. Damage in the impacted laminates is analysed using optical microscopy. Numerical simulations are performed to study the deformation behaviour and damage in CFRP for cases of large-deflection bending based on three-dimensional finite-element models implemented in the commercial code Abaqus/Explicit. Multiple layers of bilinear cohesive-zone elements are employed to model the initiation and progression of inter-ply delamination observed in the microscopy studies. The obtained results of simulations show good agreement with experimental data.

  8. 3D ultrasound characterization of woven composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayong, Rostand B.; Mienczakowski, Martin J.; Smith, Robert A.

    2018-04-01

    Recent studies on the Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) of composites for the aerospace industry have led to an understanding of ultrasonic propagation in these materials [1]. Techniques for enhanced ultrasonic imaging of the internal structure of composite laminates containing unidirectional fibers have been proposed and tested in a laboratory environment. For the automotive industry, textile composites are often preferred and widely used. The reason for this is that these types of composites offer good mechanical performance, with resistance to delamination and reduced manufacturing costs. In this study, two models are developed and shown to be suitable to characterize the woven specimen. The first model is a 1D analytical model that makes simplified assumptions and the second is a 3D time-domain Finite Element (FE) model developed [2] for advanced understanding of the woven composite response to an ultrasonic excitation. For each of the proposed models, three parameters are defined and used to analyze the structure behavior. They are the instantaneous amplitude, instantaneous phase and instantaneous frequency. These parameters are employed to track the in-plane fiber orientation and the ply-interface location and for the sentencing of features. Three different specimens with the following weave type: 3D orthogonal, 2D plain and Multilayer stitching were considered and scanned (using a focused ultrasonic transducer) to validate the proposed models. As a preliminary study, the work only focuses on the Orthogonal weave specimen. The results obtained from experimental, analytical and FE modeling, B-scan and C-scan are compared, discussed and presented in terms of the above defined parameters.

  9. Plasma penetration depth and mechanical properties of atmospheric plasma-treated 3D aramid woven composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.; Yao, L.; Xue, J.; Zhao, D.; Lan, Y.; Qian, X.; Wang, C.X.; Qiu, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional aramid woven fabrics were treated with atmospheric pressure plasmas, on one side or both sides to determine the plasma penetration depth in the 3D fabrics and the influences on final composite mechanical properties. The properties of the fibers from different layers of the single side treated fabrics, including surface morphology, chemical composition, wettability and adhesion properties were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle measurement and microbond tests. Meanwhile, flexural properties of the composites reinforced with the fabrics untreated and treated on both sides were compared using three-point bending tests. The results showed that the fibers from the outer most surface layer of the fabric had a significant improvement in their surface roughness, chemical bonding, wettability and adhesion properties after plasma treatment; the treatment effect gradually diminished for the fibers in the inner layers. In the third layer, the fiber properties remained approximately the same to those of the control. In addition, three-point bending tests indicated that the 3D aramid composite had an increase of 11% in flexural strength and 12% in flexural modulus after the plasma treatment. These results indicate that composite mechanical properties can be improved by the direct fabric treatment instead of fiber treatment with plasmas if the fabric is less than four layers thick

  10. Evaluation on mechanical properties of woven aloevera and sisal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    behaviour of this composite is observed to be more effec- tive.5 The fibre .... been made to study the mechanical properties of woven aloevera and ... In each case, minimum of ... tions in automotive components, structures and consumer goods.

  11. Permeability measurements and modeling of topology-optimized metallic 3-D woven lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Longyu; Ha, Seunghyun; Sharp, Keith W.; Geltmacher, Andrew B.; Fonda, Richard W.; Kinsey, Alex H.; Zhang, Yong; Ryan, Stephen M.; Erdeniz, Dinc; Dunand, David C.; Hemker, Kevin J.; Guest, James K.; Weihs, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    Topology optimization was combined with a 3-D weaving technique to design and fabricate structures with optimized combinations of fluid permeability and mechanical stiffness. Two different microarchitected structures are considered: one is a “standard” weave in which all wires were included, while the other is termed an “optimized” weave as specific wires were removed to maximize the permeability of the resulting porous materials with only a limited reduction in stiffness. Permeability was measured and predicted for both structures that were 3-D woven with either Cu or Ni–20Cr wires. The as-woven wires in the Cu lattices were bonded at contact points using solder or braze while the Ni–20Cr wires were bonded at contact points using pack aluminization. Permeability was measured under laminar flow conditions in all three normal directions for unbonded and bonded samples and in the optimized structure it was found to increase between 200% and 600%, depending on direction, over the standard structures. Permeability was also predicted using finite-element modeling with as-fabricated wires positions that were identified with optical microscopy or X-ray tomography; the measurements and predictions show good agreement. Lastly, the normalized permeability values significantly exceed those found for stochastic, metallic foams and other periodic structures with a material volume fraction of over 30%

  12. Wear Behavior of Woven Roving Aramid / Epoxy Composite under Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad A. Khalid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Wear behavior studies of aramid woven roving /epoxy composite has been conducted. Sliding the material against smooth steel counter face under dry and  lubricated with oil conditions has been investigated. Powder of Silicon carbide has been mixed with the epoxy resin and tested also. The powder was mixed in a volumetric fraction of 10% with the epoxy resin. Four Laminates of six layers were fabricated by hand lay up  method. A pin on disc apparatus has been fabricated to conduct the sliding wear tests on specimens of (4 mm   4 mm   12 mm in size have been cut from the four laminates. The effect of sliding condition including dry, lubricated, dry with additives and lubricated with additives have been studied. Wear rate tests have been conducted at different sliding speeds and loads. Results show that the wear characteristics are influenced by the operating conditions and the construction of the composite material used. It was also found that the wear of aramid /epoxy composite onto the steel counter face were significantly reduced by using lubricant and additives but still took place.Keywords: Wear, Composite materials, Woven roving aramid, Epoxy, Additives, Lubricant.

  13. A comparative study on low-velocity impact response of fabric composite laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Diantang; Sun, Ying; Chen, Li; Pan, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine the low-velocity behavior of single-ply 3D orthogonal woven fabric composites. • Three-coordinate measuring device was used to acquire the 3D topographies. • Single-ply 3D orthogonal woven fabric composites show better impact performance. • Impact properties will increase if in-plane yarns and Z-yarns of single-ply 3D orthogonal woven fabric are optimized. - Abstract: Impact behaviors at low velocity of composite laminates reinforced with fabrics of different architectures are investigated. Unidirectional prepreg, 2D woven and 3D orthogonal fabrics, all formed of Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) filaments, were selected as reinforcements to form composite laminates using hot pressing technology. Low velocity impact tests were conducted using a drop-weight impact equipment at the energy level of 35 J. A three-coordinate measuring device was employed to determine the volume of plastic deformation and surface dent diameter. The results show that the composite laminates of single-ply 3D orthogonal woven fabric exhibit better energy absorbed capacity and impact damage resistance as compared to those of unidirectional and 2D plain-woven fabric

  14. Mechanical characterization of glass fiber (woven roving/chopped strand mat E-glass fiber) reinforced polyester composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, V. Vijaya; Srinivas, Kolla

    2017-07-01

    Polymer reinforced composites have been replacing most of the engineering material and their applications become more and more day by day. Polymer composites have been analyzing from past thirty five years for their betterment for adapting more applications. This paper aims at the mechanical properties of polyester reinforced with glass fiber composites. The glass fiber is reinforced with polyester in two forms viz Woven Rovings (WRG) and Chopped Strand Mat (CSMG) E-glass fibers. The composites are fabricated by hand lay-up technique and the composites are cut as per ASTM Standard sizes for corresponding tests like flexural, compression and impact tests, so that flexural strength, compression strength, impact strength and inter laminar shear stress(ILSS) of polymer matrix composites are analyzed. From the tests and further calculations, the polyester composites reinforced with Chopped Strand Mat glass fiber have shown better performance against flexural load, compression load and impact load than that of Woven Roving glass fiber.

  15. The Use of Decorative Styles of Woven Songket as a Source of Learning in the Course Textile Design and Decoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Budhyani I Dewa Ayu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of learning sources in the learning process greatly contributes to the achievement of its goal. The use of learning sources greatly affects the teaching and learning process. It is necessary to use different learning sources when creating a textile design in order to produce a quality product. The decorative style of woven songket can be used as one of the learning sources. The different decorative types of the woven songket contain aesthetic values. The decorative type of woven songket is a product of the crafter’s feeling, creativity, and intention inspired by the environment. The natural objects such as plants, animals, human beings, and geometric elements are stylized into the decorative forms. The decorative style used on the woven songket can be used as the learning source in order to create the decorative style in the course Textile Design and Decoration. There are several aesthetic elements which inspire where the decorative style is placed; they are composition, rhythm, balance, the harmonious layout of the decorative style, and the variation of the decorative style on the textile design. In general, the composition of the placement of the main object of the decorative style is more dominant on the piece of fabric. Rhythm and how the decorative style is composed are shown through the composition of the decorative motive forms such as how big and small they are, how high and low they are and how long and short they are. The ways in which the decorative motives and colors are entirely shown contribute to the harmony and placement of decorative style. The symmetric balance is used to create balance and avoid the impression of being biased. The placement of what the motives contain and how they are composed are used to determine the variation of the decorative style used. The placement of objects and the marginal decoration of the fabric also determine the variation used.

  16. Vacuum infusion method for woven carbon/Kevlar reinforced hybrid composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, N.; Majid, D. L.; Uda, N.; Zahari, R.; Yidris, N.

    2017-12-01

    The vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding (VaRTM) or Vacuum Infusion (VI) is one of the fabrication methods used for composite materials. Compared to other methods, this process costs lower than using prepregs because it does not need to use the autoclave to cure. Moreover, composites fabricated using this VI method exhibit superior mechanical properties than those made through hand layup process. In this study, the VI method is used in fabricating woven carbon/Kevlar fibre cloth with epoxy matrix. This paper reports the detailed methods on fabricating the hybrid composite using VI process and several precautions that need to be taken to avoid any damage to the properties of the composite material. The result highlights that the successfully fabricated composite has approximately 60% of fibres weight fraction. Since the composites produced by the VI process have a higher fibre percentage, this process should be considered for composites used in applications that are susceptible to the conditions where the fibres need to be the dominant element such as in tension loading.

  17. Tension-Compression Fatigue Behavior of Plain Woven Kenaf/Kevlar Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhad D. Salman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The applications of hybrid natural/synthetic reinforced polymer composites have been rapidly gaining market share in structural applications due to their remarkable characteristics and the fact that most of the components made of these materials are subjected to cyclic loading. Their fatigue properties have received a lot of attention because predicting their behavior is a challenge due to the effects of the synergies between the fibers. The purpose of this work is to characterize the tension, compression, and tensile-compression fatigue behavior of six layers of Kevlar hybridized with one layer of woven kenaf reinforced epoxy, at a 35% weight fraction. Fatigue tests were carried out and loaded cyclically at 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90% of their ultimate compressive stress. The results give a complete description for tensile and compression properties and could be used to predict fatigue-induced failure mechanisms.

  18. Modeling and characterization of through-the-thickness properties of 3D woven composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartranft, Dru; Pravizi-Majidi, Azar; Chou, Tsu-Wei

    1995-01-01

    The through-the-thickness properties of three-dimensionally (3D) woven carbon/epoxy composites have been studied. The investigation aimed at the evaluation and development of test methodologies for the property characterization in the thickness direction, and the establishment of fiber architectures were studied: layer-to-layer Angle Interlock, through-the-thickness Orthogonal woven preform with surface pile was also designed and manufactured for the fabrication of tensile test coupons with integrated grips. All the preforms were infiltrated by the resin transfer molding technique. The microstructures of the composites were characterized along the warp and fill (weft) directions to determine the degree of yarn undulations, yarn cross-sectional shapes, and microstructural dimensions. These parameters were correlated to the fiber architecture. Specimens were designed and tested for the direct measurement of the through-the-thickness tensile, compressive and shear properties of the composites. Design optimization was conducted through the analysis of the stress fields within the specimen coupled with experimental verification. The experimentally-derived elastic properties in the thickness direction compared well with analytical predictions obtained from a volume averaging model.

  19. Interlaminar fracture in woven carbon/epoxy laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo N.B. Reis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an experimental study developed to characterize the mode I and mode II fracture toughness of carbon/epoxy woven composites, using DCB and ENF tests, respectively. The laminates were manufactured using an epoxy resin and twelve woven balanced bi-directional layers of carbon fibres, all of them with the same orientation (0/90º. Significant instantaneous delaminations were observed particularly for the DCB specimen, which were responsible for an oscillatory behaviour of GI versus crack length. The maximum values obtained for GIC and GIIC were 281 and 1800 J/m2, respectively.

  20. Development of Seersucker Knitted Fabric for Better Comfort Properties and Aesthetic Appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maqsood, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Seersucker is a thin puckered woven fabric in which some threads bunched together, giving a wrinkled appearance in place. Conventionally seersucker fabric is produced on weaving machines with some special warp tensioning devices. The aim of this work was to develop knitted seersucker fabric on

  1. CEMCAN Software Enhanced for Predicting the Properties of Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Mital, Subodh K.; DiCarlo, James A.

    2000-01-01

    Major advancements are needed in current high-temperature materials to meet the requirements of future space and aeropropulsion structural components. Ceramic matrix composites (CMC's) are one class of materials that are being evaluated as candidate materials for many high-temperature applications. Past efforts to improve the performance of CMC's focused primarily on improving the properties of the fiber, interfacial coatings, and matrix constituents as individual phases. Design and analysis tools must take into consideration the complex geometries, microstructures, and fabrication processes involved in these composites and must allow the composite properties to be tailored for optimum performance. Major accomplishments during the past year include the development and inclusion of woven CMC micromechanics methodology into the CEMCAN (Ceramic Matrix Composites Analyzer) computer code. The code enables one to calibrate a consistent set of constituent properties as a function of temperature with the aid of experimentally measured data.

  2. Drop Weight Impact Studies of Woven Fibers Reinforced Modified Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Tijani ISA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Low velocity impact tests were conducted on modified unsaturated polyester reinforced with four different woven fabrics using hand-layup method to investigate the effect of fiber type and fiber combinations. The time-load curves were analysed and scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the surface of the impacted composite laminates. The results indicated that all the composites had ductility index (DI of above two for the test conducted at impact energy of 27J with the monolithic composite of Kevlar having the highest DI. The damage modes observed were mainly matrix cracks and fiber breakages. Hybridization of the fibers in the matrix was observed to minimize these damages.

  3. 78 FR 26614 - Narrow Woven Ribbon With Woven Selvedge From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-952] Narrow Woven Ribbon With...; 2011-2012 AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce... Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution...

  4. 75 FR 41808 - Narrow Woven Ribbons With Woven Selvedge From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Ribbon Company, Inc. (``Petitioner''); Yama; and Yangzhou Bestpak Gifts & Crafts Co., Ltd. (``Bestpak... liquid petroleum gas from the supplier to Yama's factory.\\10\\ \\10\\ See Final Analysis Memorandum for Yama... limited to gift bags, gift boxes and/ or other types of ribbon. Narrow woven ribbons subject to the...

  5. 75 FR 56982 - Narrow Woven Ribbons With Woven Selvedge From Taiwan and the People's Republic of China: Amended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ...: Margin Exporter or producer (percent) Taiwan Roung Shu Industry Corporation 4.37 All Others 4.37 Margin... Ribbons With Woven Selvedge From Taiwan and the People's Republic of China: Amended Antidumping Duty...: Notice of amended antidumping duty orders. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Holly Phelps (Taiwan), AD/CVD...

  6. Drip bloodstain appearance on inclined apparel fabrics: Effect of prior-laundering, fibre content and fabric structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Therese C; Carr, Debra J; Taylor, Michael C; Kieser, Jules A; Duncan, Warwick

    2016-09-01

    The interaction of blood and fabrics is currently a 'hot topic', since the understanding and interpretation of these stains is still in its infancy. A recent simplified perpendicular impact experimental programme considering bloodstains generated on fabrics laid the foundations for understanding more complex scenarios. Blood rarely impacts apparel fabrics perpendicular; therefore a systematic study was conducted to characterise the appearance of drip stains on inclined fabrics. The final drip stain appearance for 45° and 15° impact angles on torso apparel fabrics (100% cotton plain woven, 100% polyester plain woven, a blend of polyester and cotton plain woven and 100% cotton single jersey knit) that had been laundered for six, 26 and 52 cycles prior to testing was investigated. The relationship between drop parameters (height and volume), angle and the stain characteristics (parent stain area, axis 1 and 2 and number of satellite stains) for each fabric was examined using analysis of variance. The appearance of the drip stains on these fabrics was distorted, in comparison to drip stains on hard-smooth surface. Examining the parent stain allowed for classification of stains occurring at an angle, however the same could not be said for the satellite stains produced. All of the dried stains visible on the surface of the fabric were larger than just after the impacting event, indicating within fabric spreading of blood due to capillary force (wicking). The cotton-containing fabrics spread the blood within the fabrics in all directions along the stain's circumference, while spreading within the polyester plain woven fabric occurred in only the weft (width of the fabric) and warp (length) directions. Laundering affected the formation of bloodstain on the blend plain woven fabric at both impact angles, although not all characteristics were significantly affected for the three impact conditions considered. The bloodstain characteristics varied due to the fibre content

  7. Influence of locational states of submicron fibers added into matrix on mechanical properties of plain-woven Carbon Fiber Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumamoto Soichiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to show the influence of locational states of submicron fibers added into epoxy matrix on mechanical properties of modified plane-woven carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP. To change the locational states of submicron fibers, two kinds of fabrication processes were applied in preparing specimen by hand lay-up method. Submicron fibers were simply added into epoxy resin with ethanol after they were stirred by a dispersion process using homogenizer to be located far from the interface between reinforcement and matrix. In contrast, submicron fibers were attached onto the carbon fibers by injecting from a spray nozzle accompanying with ethanol to be located near the interface, after they were tentatively contained in ethanol. The plain-woven CFRP plates were fabricated by hand lay-up method and cured at 80 degree-C for 1 hour and then at 150 degree-C for 3 hours. After curing, the plain-woven CFRP plates were cut into the dimension of specimen. Tensile shear strength and Mode-II fracture toughness of CFRP were determined by tensile lap-shear test and End-notched flexure(ENF test, respectively. When submicron fibers were located far from the interface between carbon fibers and epoxy resin, tensile shear strength and Mode-II fracture toughness of CFRP were improved 30% and 18% compared with those of unmodified case. The improvement ratio in modified case was rather low (about few percentages in the case where submicron fibers were located near the interface. The result suggested that crack propagation should be prevented when submicron fibers were existed far from the interface due to the effective stress state around the crack tip.

  8. Tensile strength of woven yarn kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites

    OpenAIRE

    A.E. Ismail; M.A. Che Abdul Aziz

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the tensile strength of woven kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites. The as-received yarn kenaf fiber is weaved and then aligned into specific fiber orientations before it is hardened with polyester resin. The composite plates are shaped according to the standard geometry and uni-axially loaded in order to investigate the tensile responses. Two important parameters are studied such as fiber orientations and number of layers. According to the results, it is shown that...

  9. Mechanical properties of woven banana fibre reinforced epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapuan, S.M.; Leenie, A.; Harimi, M.; Beng, Y.K.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the experiments of tensile and flexural (three-point bending) tests were carried out using natural fibre with composite materials (Musaceae/epoxy). Three samples prepared from woven banana fibre composites of different geometries were used in this research. From the results obtained, it was found that the maximum value of stress in x-direction is 14.14 MN/m 2 , meanwhile the maximum value of stress in y-direction is 3.398 MN/m 2 . For the Young's modulus, the value of 0.976 GN/m 2 in x-direction and 0.863 GN/m 2 in y-direction were computed. As for the case of three-point bending (flexural), the maximum load applied is 36.25 N to get the deflection of woven banana fibre specimen beam of 0.5 mm. The maximum stress and Young's modulus in x-direction was recorded to be 26.181 MN/m 2 and 2.685 GN/m 2 , respectively. Statistical analysis using ANOVA-one way has showed that the differences of results obtained from those three samples are not significant, which confirm a very stable mechanical behaviour of the composites under different tests. This shows the importance of this product and allows many researchers to develop an adequate system for producing a good quality of woven banana fibre composite which maybe used for household utilities

  10. Experimental investigation of effects of stitching orientation on forming behaviors of 2D P-aramid multilayer woven preform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtew, Mulat Alubel; Boussu, François; Bruniaux, Pascal; Loghin, Carmen; Cristian, Irina; Chen, Yan; Wang, Lichuan

    2018-05-01

    In many textile applications stitching process is one of the widely used methods to join the multi-layer fabric plies not only due to its easy applicability and flexible production but also provide structural integrity throughout-the-thickness of materials. In this research, the influences of stitching pattern on various molding characteristics of multi-layer 2D para-aramid plain woven fabrics while deformation was investigated. The fabrics were made of high performance fiber with 930dtex yarn linear density and fabric areal density of 200gm/m2. First, different stitch pattern (orientation) was applied for joining the mentioned multi-layered fabrics keeping other stitching parameters such as stitch gap, stitch thread tension, stitch length, stitch type, stitch thread type etc. constant throughout the study. Then, a pneumatic based molding device with a low speed forming process specially designed for preforming of textile with a predefined hemispherical shape of punch. The result shows that stitching pattern is one of the parameter that influences the different molding behavior and should be consider while molding stitched multi-layer fabrics.

  11. Novel Bonding Process for CBW Protective Electrospun Fabric Laminates Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    thane Foam Knit Polyester Fabric Woven C otton Fabric Army C hemical Protective Uniform Polyacrylonitrile Electrospun Membrane Microporous PTFE...deposit more material per unit time, quickly building up an insulating layer beneath the nozzle tip. Again this pushes the fiber deposit outward to

  12. Flax fabric reinforced arylated soy protein composites: A brittle-matrix behaviour

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biocomposites were successfully prepared by the reinforcement of soy protein isolate (SPI) with different weight fractions of woven flax fabric. The flax-fabric-reinforced SPI-based composites were then arylated with 2,2-diphenyl-2-hydroxyethanoic...

  13. CREASING BEHAVIOR OF SOME WOVEN MATERIALS MADE FROM COMBED YARNS TYPE

    OpenAIRE

    HRISTIAN Liliana; BORDEIANU Demetra Lacramioara; OSTAFE Maria Magdalena; BŐHM-RÉVÉSZ Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    The paper analyses the behavior to creasing of some woven materials made from yarns type wool used for ready-made clothes. Factors like fibrous composition, properties of constituent fibers, wovens structure parameters, mechanical properties of warp and weft yarns and finishing treatments that influenced the recovery capacity from crease/folding were investigated experimentally through several tests which revealed their importance in the process. The creasing of woven materials made from c...

  14. The Electrical and Thermal Conductivity of Woven Pristine and Intercalated Graphite Fiber-Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, James R.; Vandenburg, Yvonne Yoder; Berkebile, Steven; Stueben, Heather; Balagadde, Frederick

    2002-01-01

    A series of woven fabric laminar composite plates and narrow strips were fabricated from a variety of pitch-based pristine and bromine intercalated graphite fibers in an attempt to determine the influence of the weave on the electrical and thermal conduction. It was found generally that these materials can be treated as if they are homogeneous plates. The rule of mixtures describes the resistivity of the composite fairly well if it is realized that only the component of the fibers normal to the equipotential surface will conduct current. When the composite is narrow with respect to the fiber weave, however, there is a marked angular dependence of the resistance which was well modeled by assuming that the current follows only along the fibers (and not across them in a transverse direction), and that the contact resistance among the fibers in the composite is negligible. The thermal conductivity of composites made from less conductive fibers more closely followed the rule of mixtures than that of the high conductivity fibers, though this is thought to be an artifact of the measurement technique. Electrical and thermal anisotropy could be induced in a particular region of the structure by weaving together high and low conductivity fibers in different directions, though this must be done throughout all of the layers of the structure as interlaminar conduction precludes having only the top layer carry the anisotropy. The anisotropy in the thermal conductivity is considerably less than either that predicted by the rule of mixtures or the electrical resistivity.

  15. Tensile and Compressive Properties of Woven Kenaf/Glass Sandwich Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaiman J. Sharba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monotonic (tensile and compression properties of woven kenaf/glass reinforced unsaturated polyester sandwich hybrid composites have been experimentally investigated. Five types of composites laminates were fabricated using a combination of hand lay-up and cold press techniques, postcured for two hours at 80°C and left for 48 hours at room temperature. The hybrid composites contained fixed six layers of glass as a shell, three on each side, whereas the number of core kenaf layers was changed in three stages to get S1, S2, and S3 hybrid composites. Composites specimens with pure glass and kenaf were also fabricated for comparison. It was found that one kenaf layer replaced about 20% of total fiber weight fraction of the composite; this leads to reducing the density of final hybrid composite by 13%. Besides, in mechanical properties perspective, there are less than 1% reduction in compression strength and 40% in tensile strength when compared to pure glass composite. Generally, the results revealed that the best performance was observed in S1, which showed a good balance of all mechanical properties determined in this work.

  16. Tensile Behavior Analysis on Different Structures of 3D Glass Woven Perform for Fibre Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Hussain Peerzada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three common 3D (Three Dimensional Glass woven structures were studied to analyze the tensile behavior. Each type of strand (Warp, weft and binder of 3D woven structure was studied in detail. Crimp percentage of those strands was measured by crimp meter. Standard size samples of each 3D woven structure were cut in warp and weft direction and were stretched by Instron Tensile testing computerized machine. Results reveal that hybrid possesses lowest crimp in core strands and higher strength in warp as well as weft direction. Layer to layer woven structure appeared with lower strength and higher strain value due to highest crimp percentage in core strands.

  17. Synthetic Cannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic cannabinoids which is a subgroup of cannabinoids are commonly used for recreational drug use throughout the whole world. Although both marijuana and synthetic cannabinoids stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2, studies have shown that synthetic cannabinoids are much more potent than marijuana. The longer use of synthetic cannabinoids can cause severe physical and psychological symptoms that might even result in death, similar to many known illicit drugs. Main treatment options mostly involve symptom management and supportive care. The aim of this article is to discuss clinical and pharmacological properties of the increasingly used synthetic cannabinoids. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 317-328

  18. Influence of Fibre Architecture on Impact Damage Tolerance in 3D Woven Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potluri, P.; Hogg, P.; Arshad, M.; Jetavat, D.; Jamshidi, P.

    2012-10-01

    3D woven composites, due to the presence of through-thickness fibre-bridging, have the potential to improve damage tolerance and at the same time to reduce the manufacturing costs. However, ability to withstand damage depends on weave topology as well as geometry of individual tows. There is an extensive literature on damage tolerance of 2D prepreg laminates but limited work is reported on the damage tolerance of 3D weaves. In view of the recent interest in 3D woven composites from aerospace as well as non-aerospace sectors, this paper aims to provide an understanding of the impact damage resistance as well as damage tolerance of 3D woven composites. Four different 3D woven architectures, orthogonal, angle interlocked, layer-to-layer and modified layer-to-layer structures, have been produced under identical weaving conditions. Two additional structures, Unidirectional (UD) cross-ply and 2D plain weave, have been developed for comparison with 3D weaves. All the four 3D woven laminates have similar order of magnitude of damage area and damage width, but significantly lower than UD and 2D woven laminates. Damage Resistance, calculated as impact energy per unit damage area, has been shown to be significantly higher for 3D woven laminates. Rate of change of CAI strength with impact energy appears to be similar for all four 3D woven laminates as well as UD laminate; 2D woven laminate has higher rate of degradation with respect to impact energy. Undamaged compression strength has been shown to be a function of average tow waviness angle. Additionally, 3D weaves exhibit a critical damage size; below this size there is no appreciable reduction in compression strength. 3D woven laminates have also exhibited a degree of plasticity during compression whereas UD laminates fail instantly. The experimental work reported in this paper forms a foundation for systematic development of computational models for 3D woven architectures for damage tolerance.

  19. Mechanical properties of woven banana fibre reinforced epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapuan, S.M. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)]. E-mail: sapuan@eng.upm.my; Leenie, A. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Harimi, M. [School of Engineering and Information Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia); Beng, Y.K. [School of Engineering and Information Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia)

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, the experiments of tensile and flexural (three-point bending) tests were carried out using natural fibre with composite materials (Musaceae/epoxy). Three samples prepared from woven banana fibre composites of different geometries were used in this research. From the results obtained, it was found that the maximum value of stress in x-direction is 14.14 MN/m{sup 2}, meanwhile the maximum value of stress in y-direction is 3.398 MN/m{sup 2}. For the Young's modulus, the value of 0.976 GN/m{sup 2} in x-direction and 0.863 GN/m{sup 2} in y-direction were computed. As for the case of three-point bending (flexural), the maximum load applied is 36.25 N to get the deflection of woven banana fibre specimen beam of 0.5 mm. The maximum stress and Young's modulus in x-direction was recorded to be 26.181 MN/m{sup 2} and 2.685 GN/m{sup 2}, respectively. Statistical analysis using ANOVA-one way has showed that the differences of results obtained from those three samples are not significant, which confirm a very stable mechanical behaviour of the composites under different tests. This shows the importance of this product and allows many researchers to develop an adequate system for producing a good quality of woven banana fibre composite which maybe used for household utilities.

  20. 75 FR 46911 - Certain Woven Electric Blankets from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... Blankets from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value... than fair value (``LTFV'') in the antidumping investigation of certain woven electric blankets (``woven... From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 75 FR 38459...

  1. Woven Coronary Artery Disease Successfully Managed with Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A New Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Alsancak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Woven coronary artery is relatively rare and can be complicated in both acute and chronic phases. A few case reports have been published until now. Herein we report a case with right woven coronary artery managed with drug-eluted stent implantation without complication.

  2. Comparative Study of the Properties of some Non-Woven Diapers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: The properties of locally made non-woven diapers were studied. Four locally made non-woven absorbent pads samples namely; Always ultra absorbent pad (sample A), Dr. Brown absorbent pad (sample B),. Everyday ultra thin normal absorbent pad (sample C), and Enjoy leto absorbent pad (sample D) were ...

  3. An Evaluation of 3D Woven Orthogonal Composites' Potential in the Automotive Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Dalia

    The automotive supply chain and its management can be a very complex process and comprises a long dynamic and complex network that consists of four primary segments: original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), first tier suppliers, sub tiers suppliers, and infrastructure suppliers. During the analysis of the current automotive industry it was identified that textile industry importance is considerable increasing as a part of the global automotive supply chain, because textile products are used for interior, exterior and even suspension parts and components. Automotive industry has an increasing demand for higher quality exterior panels with better functional properties and reduced weight. One of the main potentials for this demand is based on the three-dimensional woven composites technology innovations which can replace an existing technology. The new role of the textile industry could make important changes in the automotive supply chain industry, such as: changes in the size of the supply chain, the time to the market and the position of textile industry in the automotive supply chain structure. 3D composite materials from high performance fibers, such as glass and carbon, have been used for automotive applications in a limited way due to the low production rate and the lack of research and development. This research will contribute to the understanding of textile composites in transportation and the textile parameters that affect the performance characteristics of these materials. The research examines the performance characteristics of lighter and stronger 3D woven fabric composites made from fiberglass with the aim to improve fuel efficiency by reducing the total vehicle weight while maintaining safety standards. The performance characteristics of the 3D woven fabric composite can be designed by changing different construction parameters, such as picks density, pick roving linear density, arrangements of warp and z-yarns, and the number of warp and picks layers

  4. Mechanical Testing of Carbon Based Woven Thermal Protection Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, John; Agrawal, Parul; Arnold, James O.; Peterson, Keith; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2013-01-01

    Three Dimensional Woven thermal protection system (TPS) materials are one of the enabling technologies for mechanically deployable hypersonic decelerator systems. These materials have been shown capable of serving a dual purpose as TPS and as structural load bearing members during entry and descent operations. In order to ensure successful structural performance, it is important to characterize the mechanical properties of these materials prior to and post exposure to entry-like heating conditions. This research focuses on the changes in load bearing capacity of woven TPS materials after being subjected to arcjet simulations of entry heating. Preliminary testing of arcjet tested materials [1] has shown a mechanical degradation. However, their residual strength is significantly more than the requirements for a mission to Venus [2]. A systematic investigation at the macro and microstructural scales is reported here to explore the potential causes of this degradation. The effects of heating on the sizing (an epoxy resin coating used to reduce friction and wear during fiber handling) are discussed as one of the possible causes for the decrease in mechanical properties. This investigation also provides valuable guidelines for margin policies for future mechanically deployable entry systems.

  5. A woven 2D touchpad sensor and a 1D slide sensor using soft capacitor fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorgutsa, Stephan; Gu, Jian Feng; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2012-01-01

    Recently reported soft conductive-polymer-based capacitor fibers are used to build a fully woven 2D touchpad sensor and a 1D slide sensor. An individual capacitor fiber features a swiss-roll like structure having two dielectric and two conductive polymer films rolled together in a classic multilayer capacitor configuration. The soft fibers of sub-1 mm outer diameter are fabricated using a fiber drawing procedure from a macroscopic polymeric preform. An individual capacitor fiber is then demonstrated to act as a distributed sensor that allows the touch position to be determined by measuring the fiber’s AC response. In other words, a single fiber acts as a 1D slide sensor. Furthermore, we develop an electrical ladder network model to predict the distributed sensor properties of an individual fiber and show that this model describes the experimental measurements very well. Finally, a two-dimensional touchpad sensor is presented. The sensor is built by weaving a one-dimensional array of capacitor fibers in parallel to each other. The performance of the touchpad sensor is then characterized. (paper)

  6. Temperature Effects on Mechanical Properties of Woven Thermoplastic Composites for Secondary Aircraft Structure Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of temperature on the mechanical behavior of 8-H satin woven glass fabric/polyethylene sulfide (GF/PPS was investigated in this paper. Static-tensile tests were both conducted on notched and unnotched specimens at typical temperatures (ambient, 95°C and 125°C based on the glass transition temperatures (Tg of the neat resin and composite, their strength and moduli were obtained and compared. The damage patterns of failed specimens of notched and unnotched were examined with the aid of high-definition camera and stereomicroscope. The results of stress-strain relationships showed that the slight nonlinearity of the curves were observed for these two specimens, which was associated with the plastic deformation of localized resin. The damage patterns of notched and unnotched specimens at different temperatures proved that damage and plastic deformation were two simultaneous mechanisms and it was prominent in the notched. It was the overstress accommodation mechanism that led to a relative high strength rentention for the notched and a reduction of the hole sensitivity. The results obtained in this paper indicated that GF/PPS can be used as secondary aircraft structures at elevated temperatures higher than its Tg.

  7. Preparation of Non-Woven Fiber Mats by Mixture of PVC and Epoxidized Natural Rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Hariz Othman; Mahathir Mohamed; Dahlan Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Eletrospun non-woven fibre mats prepared from ENR modified PVC were successfully fabricated at ambient temperature by electro spinning method. Liquid epoxidized natural rubber (LENR) was used because it is easier to handle compared to dried ENR. PVC was mixed with LENR based on 3 different ratios (9:1, 8:2 and 7:3). The effect of ENR on electrospinnibality of PVC was investigated.The morphologies and thermal properties of the electro span fibre mats were characterized and assessed using scanning calorimetry (DSC). The polymer solution concentration 16 aut % formed a diameter of the fibres were mainly affected by the addition of natural rubber and weight ratio of the solution. The diameter of the fibres also decreased with increasing amount of LENR in the solution. Thermal degradation involved two-step degradation with the first degradation representing the dehydro chlorination of PVC to form polyene and followed by the decomposition of LENR and the polyene.Addition of LENR into the sample caused the T g of electro spun fibre mats of PVC/LENR to shift toward lower temperature. (author)

  8. Synthetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  9. Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2012-11-16

    Metabolic engineering emerged 20 years ago as the discipline occupied with the directed modification of metabolic pathways for the microbial synthesis of various products. As such, it deals with the engineering (design, construction, and optimization) of native as well as non-natural routes of product synthesis, aided in this task by the availability of synthetic DNA, the core enabling technology of synthetic biology. The two fields, however, only partially overlap in their interest in pathway engineering. While fabrication of biobricks, synthetic cells, genetic circuits, and nonlinear cell dynamics, along with pathway engineering, have occupied researchers in the field of synthetic biology, the sum total of these areas does not constitute a coherent definition of synthetic biology with a distinct intellectual foundation and well-defined areas of application. This paper reviews the origins of the two fields and advances two distinct paradigms for each of them: that of unit operations for metabolic engineering and electronic circuits for synthetic biology. In this context, metabolic engineering is about engineering cell factories for the biological manufacturing of chemical and pharmaceutical products, whereas the main focus of synthetic biology is fundamental biological research facilitated by the use of synthetic DNA and genetic circuits.

  10. Increasing Mechanical Properties of 2-D-Structured Electrospun Nylon 6 Non-Woven Fiber Mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Xiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tensile strength, Young’s modulus, and toughness of electrospun nylon 6 non-woven fiber mats were improved by increasing individual nanofiber strength and fiber–fiber load sharing. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs were used as reinforcement to increase the strength of the electrospun nylon 6 nanofibers. Young’s modulus, tensile strength, and toughness of the nylon 6 non-woven fiber mats electrospun from 20 wt % solutions increased 51%, 87%, and 136%, respectively, after incorporating 1 wt % CNTs into the nylon 6 nanofibers. Three methods were investigated to enhance fiber–fiber load sharing: increasing friction between fibers, thermal bonding, and solvent bonding. The addition of beaded nylon 6 nanofibers into the non-woven fiber mats to increase fiber-fiber friction resulted in a statistically significantly increase in Young’s modulus over comparable smooth non-woven fiber mats. After annealing, tensile strength, elongation, and toughness of the nylon 6 non-woven fiber mats electrospun from 20 wt % + 10 wt % solutions increased 26%, 28%, and 68% compared to those from 20 wt % solutions. Solvent bonding with formic acid vapor at room temperature for 30 min caused increases of 56%, 67%, and 39% in the Young’s modulus, tensile strength, and toughness of non-woven fiber mats, respectively. The increases attributed to increased individual nanofiber strength and solvent bonding synergistically resulted in the improvement of Young’s modulus of the electrospun nylon 6 non-woven fiber mats.

  11. Tensile strength of woven yarn kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Ismail

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the tensile strength of woven kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites. The as-received yarn kenaf fiber is weaved and then aligned into specific fiber orientations before it is hardened with polyester resin. The composite plates are shaped according to the standard geometry and uni-axially loaded in order to investigate the tensile responses. Two important parameters are studied such as fiber orientations and number of layers. According to the results, it is shown that fiber orientations greatly affected the ultimate tensile strength but it is not for modulus of elasticity for both types of layers. It is estimated that the reductions of both ultimate tensile strength and Young’s modulus are in the range of 27.7-30.9% and 2.4-3.7% respectively, if the inclined fibers are used with respect to the principal axis.

  12. Creep Burst Testing of a Woven Inflatable Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Molly M.; Valle, Gerard D.; James, George H.; Oliveras, Ovidio M.; Jones, Thomas C.; Doggett, William R.

    2015-01-01

    A woven Vectran inflatable module 88 inches in diameter and 10 feet long was tested at the NASA Johnson Space Center until failure from creep. The module was pressurized pneumatically to an internal pressure of 145 psig, and was held at pressure until burst. The external environment remained at standard atmospheric temperature and pressure. The module burst occurred after 49 minutes at the target pressure. The test article pressure and temperature were monitored, and video footage of the burst was captured at 60 FPS. Photogrammetry was used to obtain strain measurements of some of the webbing. Accelerometers on the test article measured the dynamic response. This paper discusses the test article, test setup, predictions, observations, photogrammetry technique and strain results, structural dynamics methods and quick-look results, and a comparison of the module level creep behavior to the strap level creep behavior.

  13. Fatigue damage mechanism and strength of woven laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, J.; Bathias, C.

    1993-01-01

    The apparent secant stiffness changes with the cyclic number for both unnotched and notched woven laminated specimens (two orthotropic and one quasi-isotropic) during tensile fatigue test at a fixed ratio of maximum fatigue load to UTS were observed. The observable damage initiation and evolution as a function of the cyclic number were directly measured at the notched specimen surface with a video-camera system. The fatigue strengths of the unnotched and notched specimens were determined. The results show that the normalized apparent secant stiffness change curves as a function of cyclic numbers can be divided into three stages. For the first and the second stages in notched specimens and for total life of unnotched specimens, the damage has not been evidently observed and certainly verified with the traditional experimental methods such as radiography and microscopy although many acoustic emission signals can be obtained. The last stage for the notched specimens (N/Nf>0.4, the secant stiffness decreases fast) corresponds to the initiation and evolution of the observable damages. The fatigue strength of these woven composite laminates is dominated by the third stage during which the observable damage develops along the specimen ligament until fracture. During the third stage, a critical dimension at the specimen ligament and a life threshold can be found beyond which a final catastrophic fracture will immediately occur. The quasi-isotropic laminate is of a fatigue strength lower than the two orthotropic laminates of which the fatigue strengths are approaching to each other. The fatigue life is also influenced by the stacking sequences. (orig.)

  14. Fabricated Elastin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Giselle C; Aghaei-Ghareh-Bolagh, Behnaz; Brackenreg, Edwin P; Hiob, Matti A; Lee, Pearl; Weiss, Anthony S

    2015-11-18

    The mechanical stability, elasticity, inherent bioactivity, and self-assembly properties of elastin make it a highly attractive candidate for the fabrication of versatile biomaterials. The ability to engineer specific peptide sequences derived from elastin allows the precise control of these physicochemical and organizational characteristics, and further broadens the diversity of elastin-based applications. Elastin and elastin-like peptides can also be modified or blended with other natural or synthetic moieties, including peptides, proteins, polysaccharides, and polymers, to augment existing capabilities or confer additional architectural and biofunctional features to compositionally pure materials. Elastin and elastin-based composites have been subjected to diverse fabrication processes, including heating, electrospinning, wet spinning, solvent casting, freeze-drying, and cross-linking, for the manufacture of particles, fibers, gels, tubes, sheets and films. The resulting materials can be tailored to possess specific strength, elasticity, morphology, topography, porosity, wettability, surface charge, and bioactivity. This extraordinary tunability of elastin-based constructs enables their use in a range of biomedical and tissue engineering applications such as targeted drug delivery, cell encapsulation, vascular repair, nerve regeneration, wound healing, and dermal, cartilage, bone, and dental replacement. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Synthetic Rutile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burastero, J.

    1975-01-01

    This work is about the laboratory scale investigation of the conditions in the rutile synthetic production from one me nita in Aguas Dulces reservoir. The iron mineral is chlorinated and volatilized selectively leaving a residue enriched in titanium dioxide which can be used as a substitute of rutile mineral

  16. Flame retardant treatments of PBI fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temin, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    Fabrics knitted or woven from polybenzimidazole (PBI) fibers were treated to reduce flammability in oxygen atmospheres, particularly that of 5 psia oxygen. Bromination to approximately 15% weight gain of such fabrics led to markedly lower burning rates; samples brominated to over 80% weight gain were self-extinguishing in 5 psia oxygen. The loss in tensile strength of fabrics due to bromination was negligible although shrinkage was observed. Free fibers showed negligible losses on bromination. Treatment of PBI fabric with organophosphorus compounds also achieved self-extinguishing character in 5 psia oxygen but the enhanced flameproofing was largely lost on leaching. Reaction with POCl3 in pyridine led to a permanent reduction in flammability.

  17. Study on drilling induced delamination of woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite using carbide drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaily, M.; Hassan, C. H. Che; Jaharah, A. G.; Azmi, H.; Afifah, M. A.; Khairusshima, M. K. Nor

    2018-04-01

    In this research study, it presents the influences of drilling parameters on the delamination factor during the drilling of woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite laminates when using the carbide drill bits. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of drilling parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate and drill sizes on the delamination produced when drilling woven kenaf reinforced epoxy composite using the non-coated carbide drill bits. The damage generated on the woven kenaf reinforced epoxy composite laminates were observed both at the entrance and exit surface during the drilling operation. The experiments were conducted according to the Box Behnken experimental designs. The results indicated that the drill diameter has a significant influence on the delamination when drilling the woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composites.

  18. Integration of Complex Geometry, 3D Woven Preforms via Innovative Stitching Technique, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thick, 3D woven carbon/phenolic composites offer potential improvement over legacy thermal protection systems (TPS) for re-entry vehicle heat shield applications....

  19. Plain-Woven, 600-Denier Kevlar KM2 Fabric Under Quasistatic, Uniaxial Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    respectively, along the direction of applied tensile loading, and Sfail and Efail denote the values corresponding to material failure. 2.2 Least...uniaxial tension along the fill direction. 7 Table 1. Failure strain and failure stress (strength) from each test. Test Efail Sfail (GPa) W1 0.122633...14539.8 7214.87 d (GPa) –4898.41 –10674.6 –33428.5 –14475.3 e –22.0527 –15.6910 –34.3400 –28.6378 f 465.297 476.711 2137.94 1266.84 Efail 0.132930

  20. Experimental characterisation of recycled (glass/tpu woven fabric) flake reinforced thermoplastic composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul Rasheed, Mohammed Iqbal; Rietman, Bert; Visser, Roy; Akkerman, Remko; Hoa, S.V.; Hubert, P.

    2013-01-01

    Recycling of continuously reinforced thermoplastic composites (TPC) has a substantial prospect at present and in future due to its increasing availability and rapidly growing application regime. This study focusses on the first steps in using TPC process scrap on a scale in which its maximum

  1. Low-velocity impact damage of woven fabric composites: Finite element simulation and experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.A.; Naderi, S.; Bushroa, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Low-velocity impact test on GFRP with different energy levels and thicknesses. • Using force–deflection curve to determine critical energy for penetration threshold. • Reflection of damage processes to different type of diagrams. • Significant influence of Initial energy and thickness on dynamic response of plates. • Good agreements between experimental and FEM models for the force history data. - Abstract: This paper addresses the response of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic laminates (GFRPs) under low-velocity impact. Experimental tests were performed according to ASTM: D5628 for different initial impact energy levels ranging from 9.8 J to 29.4 J and specimen thicknesses of 2, 3 and 4 mm. The impact damage process and contact stiffness were studied incrementally until a perforation phase of the layered compounds occurred, in line with a force–deflection diagram and imaging of impacted laminates. The influence that impact parameters such as velocity and initial energy had on deflection and damage of the test specimens was investigated. Finite Element Simulation (FES) was done using MSC. MARC® was additionally carried out to understand the impact mechanism and correlation between these parameters and the induced damage. The simulation and experimental results reached good accord regarding maximum contact force and contact time with insignificant amount of damage

  2. Bending Behavior of Plain-Woven Fabric Air Beams: Fluid-Structure Interaction Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavallaro, Paul V; Sadegh, Ali M; Quigley, Claudia J

    2006-01-01

    ... to inflation and bending events. The structural responses to these events were obtained using the ABAQUS/Explicit finite element solver for a range of pressures, including those considered to be typical in safe operations of air-inflated structures...

  3. Human DPSCs fabricate vascularized woven bone tissue: A new tool in bone tissue engineering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paino, F.; Noce, M.L.; Giuliani, A.; de Rosa, A.; Mazzoni, F.; Laino, L.; Amler, Evžen; Papaccio, G.; Desiderio, V.; Tirino, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 8 (2017), s. 699-713 ISSN 0143-5221 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : bone differentiation * bone regeneration * bone tissue engineering Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines OBOR OECD: Orthopaedics Impact factor: 4.936, year: 2016

  4. Nonlinear buckling of woven fabrics, part I: elastic and non-elastic cases

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anandjiwala, RD

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Anandjiwala_2006_d.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 10 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Anandjiwala_2006_d.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  5. Problems in the development of high-energy radiation processing of woven and knitted fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihme, B.; Maeder, E.; Mally, S.

    1983-01-01

    The modification of hygienic properties of garments made of polyamide and polyester planar structures has been investigated. The results underline the fact that radiation-induced modification aimed at increasing the serviceability of textile planar structures is a relatively complicated process of textile finishing resulting in the need of additional chemicals, facilities, manpower, and energy. (author)

  6. Sterility and property of norecoverable medical items from non-woven fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashmetov, M.Yu.; Ismatov, N.B.; Makhkamov, Sh.M.; Saidov, R.P.; Abdulmanov, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of present study is determination of the sterilization dose of surgery coat and sheet from spanbond-meltbond-spanbond material with minimum deviation of initial strength value. All seams of this surgery coat are sewed by dual insertion and soldered by ultrasonic solder for strenthening of the protective-barrier properties. It is established that after the radiation sterilization of disposable surgery coat at dose 20 kGy the breaking load of material lengthwise and width corresponds to permissible standards

  7. Cleanability Improvement of Cotton Fabrics Through Their Topographical Changes Due to the Conditioning with Cellulase Enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvimontes, A.; Lant, N.J.; Dutschk, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    In this study, topographical changes of woven cotton fabrics conditioned with a cellulase enzyme during several wash–dry cycles are systematically studied. A recent study of cellulase enzyme effect on cellulose films has proven that this substance selectively attacks amorphous regions of cellulose,

  8. Functionalization of fabrics with PANI/CuO nanoparticles by precipitation route for anti-bacterial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thampi, V. V. Anusha; Thanka Rajan, S.; Anupriya, K.; Subramanian, B., E-mail: subramanianb3@gmail.com, E-mail: bsmanian@cecri.res.in [CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute (India)

    2015-01-15

    The present work aims at developing copper oxide nanocrystals immobilized onto the fabrics for the improvement of antimicrobial activity. The CuO nanocrytstals were deposited onto woven fabrics and non-woven fabrics through chemical precipitation route. The samples were characterized by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, FE-SEM, and TEM. The presence of CuO on the surface of the fabrics was confirmed by EDAX. The CuO nanoparticles were found to have grown to a size of 50 nm with a monoclinic structure. The antibacterial activities were assessed for the coated CuO samples by the agar diffusion plate method followed by FE-SEM. To promote the slow release of Cu ions into the medium from the fabric matrix, the synthesized nanoparticles were immobilized in polyaniline polymer matrix before being coated onto the fabric samples, and the results are discussed.Graphical Abstract.

  9. Functionalization of fabrics with PANI/CuO nanoparticles by precipitation route for anti-bacterial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thampi, V. V. Anusha; Thanka Rajan, S.; Anupriya, K.; Subramanian, B.

    2015-01-01

    The present work aims at developing copper oxide nanocrystals immobilized onto the fabrics for the improvement of antimicrobial activity. The CuO nanocrytstals were deposited onto woven fabrics and non-woven fabrics through chemical precipitation route. The samples were characterized by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, FE-SEM, and TEM. The presence of CuO on the surface of the fabrics was confirmed by EDAX. The CuO nanoparticles were found to have grown to a size of 50 nm with a monoclinic structure. The antibacterial activities were assessed for the coated CuO samples by the agar diffusion plate method followed by FE-SEM. To promote the slow release of Cu ions into the medium from the fabric matrix, the synthesized nanoparticles were immobilized in polyaniline polymer matrix before being coated onto the fabric samples, and the results are discussed.Graphical Abstract

  10. Fabrication of a First Article Lightweight Composite Technology Demonstrator - Exospine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    core, (b) 0/90, and (c) ± 45 ply cuts of ACG-MTM 45-1/CF0526 prepreg fabric...Materials, University of Delaware (UD-CCM, Newark, DE) for providing the laminate design and materials used in this work. The authors would also like...onboard diagnostics. 2. Experimental 2.1 Materials Plain woven carbon fiber/epoxy prepreg and a low-density foam core were provided to ARL for the

  11. Anticoagulant and antimicrobial finishing of non-woven polypropylene textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degoutin, S; Jimenez, M; Casetta, M; Bellayer, S; Chai, F; Blanchemain, N; Neut, C; Kacem, I; Traisnel, M; Martel, B

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to prepare non-woven polypropylene (PP) textile functionalized with bioactive molecules in order to improve its anticoagulation and antibacterial properties. This paper describes the optimization of the grafting process of acrylic acid (AA) on low-pressure cold-plasma pre-activated PP, the characterization of the modified substrates and the effect of these modifications on the in vitro biological response towards cells. Then, the immobilization of gentamicin (aminoglycoside antibiotic) and heparin (anticoagulation agent) has been carried out on the grafted samples by either ionic interactions or covalent linkages. Their bioactivity has been investigated and related to the nature of their interactions with the substrate. For gentamicin-immobilized AA-grafted samples, an inhibition radius and a reduction of 99% of the adhesion of Escherichia coli have been observed when gentamicin was linked by ionic interactions, allowing the release of the antibiotic. By contrast, for heparin-immobilized AA-grafted PP samples, a strong increase of the anticoagulant effect up to 35 min has been highlighted when heparin was covalently bonded on the substrate, by contact with the blood drop. (paper)

  12. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  13. Synthetic Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Brooke; Yepes, Andres; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), also known under the brand names of "Spice," "K2," "herbal incense," "Cloud 9," "Mojo" and many others, are becoming a large public health concern due not only to their increasing use but also to their unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential. There are many types of SCBs, each having a unique binding affinity for cannabinoid receptors. Although both Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and SCBs stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), studies have shown that SCBs are associated with higher rates of toxicity and hospital admissions than is natural cannabis. This is likely due to SCBs being direct agonists of the cannabinoid receptors, whereas THC is a partial agonist. Furthermore, the different chemical structures of SCBs found in Spice or K2 may interact in unpredictable ways to elicit previously unknown, and the commercial products may have unknown contaminants. The largest group of users is men in their 20s who participate in polydrug use. The most common reported toxicities with SCB use based on studies using Texas Poison Control records are tachycardia, agitation and irritability, drowsiness, hallucinations, delusions, hypertension, nausea, confusion, dizziness, vertigo and chest pain. Acute kidney injury has also been strongly associated with SCB use. Treatment mostly involves symptom management and supportive care. More research is needed to identify which contaminants are typically found in synthetic marijuana and to understand the interactions between different SBCs to better predict adverse health outcomes.

  14. Discomfort due to skin humidity with different fabric textures and materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Rasmussen, Leif Winsnes; Mackeprang, Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the possible effects of material and texture of the inner clothing layer on human comfort. A highly hygroscopic material (cotton) and a material of low hygroscopicity (polyester) were tested. Also, it was tested whether fabric texture (knitted/woven) influenced the perceived...... due to humid skin or clothing for persons engaged in office work, wearing woven or knitted inner layers made of polyester or cotton. The model allows upper limits for air humidity to be determined for indoor environments. In the comfort zone of temperatures, the model predicts only a moderate...

  15. Light emitting fabric technologies for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordon, Serge; Cochrane, Cédric; Tylcz, Jean Baptiste; Betrouni, Nacim; Mortier, Laurent; Koncar, Vladan

    2015-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is considered to be a promising method for treating various types of cancer. A homogeneous and reproducible illumination during clinical PDT plays a determinant role in preventing under- or over-treatment. The development of flexible light sources would considerably improve the homogeneity of light delivery. The integration of optical fiber into flexible structures could offer an interesting alternative. This paper aims to describe different methods proposed to develop Side Emitting Optical Fibers (SEOF), and how these SEOF can be integrated in a flexible structure to improve light illumination of the skin during PDT. Four main techniques can be described: (i) light blanket integrating side-glowing optical fibers, (ii) light emitting panel composed of SEOF obtained by micro-perforations of the cladding, (iii) embroidery-based light emitting fabric, and (iv) woven-based light emitting fabric. Woven-based light emitting fabrics give the best performances: higher fluence rate, best homogeneity of light delivery, good flexibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural coloration of chitosan-cationized cotton fabric using photonic crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz, Gonul; Zille, Andrea; Seventekin, N.; Souto, A. Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. In this work, poly (styrene-methyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) P(St-MMA-AA) composite nanospheres were deposited onto chitosan-cationized woven cotton fabrics followed by a second layer of chitosan. The deposited photonic crystals (PCs) on the fabrics were evaluated for coating efficiency and resistance, chemical analysis and color variation by optical and SEM microscopy, ATR-FTIR, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and washing fastness. Chitosan deposition on cotton fab...

  17. Synthetic Brainbows

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Brainbow is a genetic engineering technique that randomly colorizes cells. Biological samples processed with this technique and imaged with confocal microscopy have distinctive colors for individual cells. Complex cellular structures can then be easily visualized. However, the complexity of the Brainbow technique limits its applications. In practice, most confocal microscopy scans use different florescence staining with typically at most three distinct cellular structures. These structures are often packed and obscure each other in rendered images making analysis difficult. In this paper, we leverage a process known as GPU framebuffer feedback loops to synthesize Brainbow-like images. In addition, we incorporate ID shuffing and Monte-Carlo sampling into our technique, so that it can be applied to single-channel confocal microscopy data. The synthesized Brainbow images are presented to domain experts with positive feedback. A user survey demonstrates that our synthetic Brainbow technique improves visualizations of volume data with complex structures for biologists.

  18. Synthetic Botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christian R; Pollak, Bernardo; Purswani, Nuri; Patron, Nicola; Haseloff, Jim

    2017-07-05

    Plants are attractive platforms for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. Plants' modular and plastic body plans, capacity for photosynthesis, extensive secondary metabolism, and agronomic systems for large-scale production make them ideal targets for genetic reprogramming. However, efforts in this area have been constrained by slow growth, long life cycles, the requirement for specialized facilities, a paucity of efficient tools for genetic manipulation, and the complexity of multicellularity. There is a need for better experimental and theoretical frameworks to understand the way genetic networks, cellular populations, and tissue-wide physical processes interact at different scales. We highlight new approaches to the DNA-based manipulation of plants and the use of advanced quantitative imaging techniques in simple plant models such as Marchantia polymorpha. These offer the prospects of improved understanding of plant dynamics and new approaches to rational engineering of plant traits. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  19. Woven TPS Enabling Missions Beyond Heritage Carbon Phenolic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Feldman, Jay D.

    2013-01-01

    NASAs Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) Game Changing Division recently funded an effort to advance a Woven TPS (WTPS) concept. WTPS is a new approach to producing TPS architectures that uses precisely engineered 3D weaving techniques to customize material characteristics needed to meet specific missions requirements for protecting space vehicles from the intense heating generated during atmospheric entry. Using WTPS, sustainable, scalable, mission-optimized TPS solutions can be achieved with relatively low life cycle costs compared with the high costs and long development schedules currently associated with material development and certification. WTPS leverages the mature state-of-the-art weaving technology that has evolved from the textile industry to design TPS materials with tailorable performance. Currently, missions anticipated encountering heat fluxes in the range of 1500 4000 Wcm2 and pressures greater than 1.5 atm are limited to using fully dense Carbon Phenolic. However, fully dense carbon phenolic is only mass efficient at higher heat fluxes g(reater than 4000 Wcm2), and current mission designs suffer this mass inefficiency for lack of an alternative mid-density TPS. WTPS not only bridges this mid-density TPS gap but also offers a replacement for carbon phenolic, which itself requires a significant and costly redevelopment effort to re-establish its capability for use in the high heat flux missions recently prioritized in the NRC Decadal survey, including probe missions to Venus, Saturn and Neptune. This presentation will overview the WTPS concept and present some results from initial testing completed comparing WTPS architectures to heritage carbon phenolic.

  20. Ballistic Impact Response of Woven Hybrid Coir/Kevlar Laminated Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azrin Hani A.R

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different laminated hybrid composites stacking configuration subjected to ballistic impact were investigated. The hybrid composites consist of woven coir (C and woven Kevlar (K layers laminated together. The samples of woven coir were prepared using handloom device. The composites were produced by stacking the laminated woven coir and Kevlar alternately with the presence of the binder. The samples were tested under ballistic impact with different stacking configuration. The results obtained had successfully achieved the National Institute of Justice (NIJ standard level IIA with energy absorption of 435.6 kJ and 412.2 kJ under the projectile speed of between 330 m/s and 321 m/s respectively. Samples that having Kevlar layer at the front face and woven coir layer as back face achieved partial penetration during projectile impact. This orientation is proven to have good impact energy absorption and able to stop projectile at the second panel of the composites.

  1. INFLUENCE OF FABRIC TIGHTNESS ON SPIRALITY OF WEFTKNITTED PLAIN COTTON FABRIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M. Mobarok Hossain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Global demand for knitted garments is growing at a faster rate than that of woven items.Currently around 50% of clothing needs in the developed countries is met by knit goods. So ensuring the required quality in a knitted fabric is a vital issue for the manufacturer. One of the major problems encountered in knitted fabric is spirality. It affects particularly single jersey fabric and presents a serious problem during garment confection and use. So controlling spirality is a basic requirement for producing quality knitted fabric. Though there are several factors that contribute to knitted fabric spirality, yarn twist and relative tightness of the fabric are said tobe the most significant ones. In this work the basic single jersey fabric, i.e. plain jersey cotton fabrics were produced by a Hosiery knitting machine and spirality values were observed for different yarn T.P.I. and tightness factor at relaxed state. It was found that tightness factor has a direct influence on knitted fabric spirality with a high degree of correlation. The work thus gives an idea to deal this problem by controlling the knitting parameters.

  2. Synthetic Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2017-01-01

    "Are we alone?" is one of the primary questions of astrobiology, and whose answer defines our significance in the universe. Unfortunately, this quest is hindered by the fact that we have only one confirmed example of life, that of earth. While this is enormously helpful in helping to define the minimum envelope for life, it strains credulity to imagine that life, if it arose multiple times, has not taken other routes. To help fill this gap, our lab has begun using synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - as an enabling technology. One theme, the "Hell Cell" project, focuses on creating artificial extremophiles in order to push the limits for Earth life, and to understand how difficult it is for life to evolve into extreme niches. In another project, we are re-evolving biotic functions using only the most thermodynamically stable amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids.

  3. Impact of Material and Architecture Model Parameters on the Failure of Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) via the Multiscale Generalized Method of Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuang C.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that failure of a material is a locally driven event. In the case of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), significant variations in the microstructure of the composite exist and their significance on both deformation and life response need to be assessed. Examples of these variations include changes in the fiber tow shape, tow shifting/nesting and voids within and between tows. In the present work, the effects of many of these architectural parameters and material scatter of woven ceramic composite properties at the macroscale (woven RUC) will be studied to assess their sensitivity. The recently developed Multiscale Generalized Method of Cells methodology is used to determine the overall deformation response, proportional elastic limit (first matrix cracking), and failure under tensile loading conditions. The macroscale responses investigated illustrate the effect of architectural and material parameters on a single RUC representing a five harness satin weave fabric. Results shows that the most critical architectural parameter is weave void shape and content with other parameters being less in severity. Variation of the matrix material properties was also studied to illustrate the influence of the material variability on the overall features of the composite stress-strain response.

  4. Dispenser printed electroluminescent lamps on textiles for smart fabric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Marc; Torah, Russel; Tudor, John

    2016-04-01

    Flexible electroluminescent (EL) lamps are fabricated onto woven textiles using a novel dispenser printing process. Dispenser printing utilizes pressurized air to deposit ink onto a substrate through a syringe and nozzle. This work demonstrates the first use of this technology to fabricate EL lamps. The luminance of the dispenser printed EL lamps is compared to screen-printed EL lamps, both printed on textile, and also commercial EL lamps on polyurethane film. The dispenser printed lamps are shown to have a 1.5 times higher luminance than the best performing commercially available lamp, and have a comparable performance to the screen-printed lamps.

  5. Moisture sorption and thermal characteristics of polyaramide blend fabrics

    OpenAIRE

    Genç, Gözde; Alp, Burcu; Balköse, Devrim; Ülkü, Semra; Cireli, Aysun

    2006-01-01

    Four types of fabrics woven from various polyaramid fibers of Nomex and Kevlar blends were characterized by morphology, XRD, elemental analysis, thermal analysis, and moisture adsorption isotherms. The blends consisted of Polybenzimidazole/ Kevlar blend (40% FBI and 60% Kevlar®), Nomex Delta A (blend of 60% Kevlar and 40% Nomex®), Nomex Delta T (blend of 75% Nomex, 23% Kevlar, and 2% P140 antistatic fiber), and Nomex III (fabric with a 95/5 blend of Nomex and Kevlar) containing 1% steel fiber...

  6. Dispenser printed electroluminescent lamps on textiles for smart fabric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vos, Marc; Torah, Russel; Tudor, John

    2016-01-01

    Flexible electroluminescent (EL) lamps are fabricated onto woven textiles using a novel dispenser printing process. Dispenser printing utilizes pressurized air to deposit ink onto a substrate through a syringe and nozzle. This work demonstrates the first use of this technology to fabricate EL lamps. The luminance of the dispenser printed EL lamps is compared to screen-printed EL lamps, both printed on textile, and also commercial EL lamps on polyurethane film. The dispenser printed lamps are shown to have a 1.5 times higher luminance than the best performing commercially available lamp, and have a comparable performance to the screen-printed lamps. (paper)

  7. Optimal determination of the elastic constants of woven 2D SiC/SiC composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouchtachi, A; Guerjouma, R El; Baboux, J C; Rouby, D; Bouami, D

    2004-01-01

    For homogeneous materials, the ultrasonic immersion method, associated with a numerical optimization process mostly based on Newton's algorithm, allows the determination of elastic constants for various synthetic and natural composite materials. Nevertheless, a principal limitation of the existing optimization procedure occurs when the considered material is at the limit of the homogeneous hypothesis. Such is the case of the woven bidirectional SiC matrix and SiC fibre composite material. In this study, we have developed two numerical methods for the determination of the elastic constants of the 2D SiC/SiC composite material (2D SiC/SiC). The first one is based on Newton's algorithm: the elastic constants are obtained by minimizing the square deviation between experimental and calculated velocities. The second method is based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. We show that these algorithms give the same results in the case of homogeneous anisotropic composite materials. For the 2D SiC/SiC composite material, the two methods, using the same measured velocities, give different sets of elastic constants. We then note that the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm enables a better convergence towards a global set of elastic constants in good agreement with the elastic properties, which can be measured using classical quasi-static methods

  8. Systematic investigation of drip stains on apparel fabrics: The effects of prior-laundering, fibre content and fabric structure on final stain appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Therese C; Taylor, Michael C; Kieser, Jules A; Carr, Debra J; Duncan, W

    2015-05-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis is the investigation of blood deposited at crime scenes and the interpretation of that pattern. The surface that the blood gets deposited onto could distort the appearance of the bloodstain. The interaction of blood and apparel fabrics is in its infancy, but the interaction of liquids and apparel fabrics has been well documented and investigated in the field of textile science (e.g. the processes of wetting and wicking of fluids on fibres, yarns and fabrics). A systematic study on the final appearance of drip stains on torso apparel fabrics (100% cotton plain woven, 100% polyester plain woven, blend of polyester and cotton plain woven and 100% cotton single jersey knit) that had been laundered for six, 26 and 52 cycles prior to testing was investigated in the paper. The relationship between drop velocity (1.66±0.50m/s, 4.07±0.03m/s, 5.34±0.18m/s) and the stain characteristics (parent stain area, axes 1 and 2 and number of satellite stains) for each fabric was examined using analysis of variance. The experimental design and effect of storing blood were investigated on a reference sample, which indicated that the day (up to five days) at which the drops were generated did not affect the bloodstain. The effect of prior-laundering (six, 26 and 52 laundering cycles), fibre content (cotton vs. polyester vs. blend) and fabric structure (plain woven vs. single jersey knit) on the final appearance of the bloodstain were investigated. Distortion in the bloodstains produced on non-laundered fabrics indicated the importance of laundering fabrics to remove finishing treatments before conducting bloodstain experiments. For laundered fabrics, both the cotton fabrics and the blend had a circular to oval stain appearance, while the polyester fabric had a circular appearance with evidence of spread along the warp and weft yarns, which resulted in square-like stains at the lowest drop velocity. A significant (pfibre content (pfibres/yarns, while for the

  9. Atomic layer deposition on polymer fibers and fabrics for multifunctional and electronic textiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozena, Alexandra H.; Oldham, Christopher J.; Parsons, Gregory N., E-mail: gnp@ncsu.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7905 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Textile materials, including woven cotton, polymer knit fabrics, and synthetic nonwoven fiber mats, are being explored as low-cost, flexible, and light-weight platforms for wearable electronic sensing, communication, energy generation, and storage. The natural porosity and high surface area in textiles is also useful for new applications in environmental protection, chemical decontamination, pharmaceutical and chemical manufacturing, catalytic support, tissue regeneration, and others. These applications raise opportunities for new chemistries, chemical processes, biological coupling, and nanodevice systems that can readily combine with textile manufacturing to create new “multifunctional” fabrics. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has a unique ability to form highly uniform and conformal thin films at low processing temperature on nonuniform high aspect ratio surfaces. Recent research shows how ALD can coat, modify, and otherwise improve polymer fibers and textiles by incorporating new materials for viable electronic and other multifunctional capabilities. This article provides a current overview of the understanding of ALD coating and modification of textiles, including current capabilities and outstanding problems, with the goal of providing a starting point for further research and advances in this field. After a brief introduction to textile materials and current textile treatment methods, the authors discuss unique properties of ALD-coated textiles, followed by a review of recent electronic and multifunctional textiles that use ALD coatings either as direct functional components or as critical nucleation layers for active materials integration. The article concludes with possible future directions for ALD on textiles, including the challenges in materials, manufacturing, and manufacturing integration that must be overcome for ALD to reach its full potential in electronic and other emerging multifunctional textile systems.

  10. Fabrication Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fabrication Facilities are a direct result of years of testing support. Through years of experience, the three fabrication facilities (Fort Hood, Fort Lewis, and...

  11. ROLE OF RESOURCE-BASED ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT TO INCREASE COMPETITIVENESS OF TRADITIONALLY WOVEN SARONG CREATIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakiyah Z.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to describe position of traditionally woven sarong creative industry in Donggala in business competition based on both internal aspects (strength and weakness and external ones (opportunity and threats, and role of resource-based entrepreneurship development to improve competitiveness of the traditionally woven sarong creative industry in Donggala. In order to meet the objectives, the study used SWOT and Moderating Regression Analysis (MRA. The findings showed that the strength of the Donggala woven sarong industry was the sarong had indigenous Central Sulawesi pattern, it was part of the rural society and was traditionally made. The weaknesses were the sarong pattern and design had yet been touched by modern technology, its color faded away easily during laundry and it was only sold in the local areas. The opportunities were the sarong may become alternative souvenir from Central Sulawesi and development of creative economy was widely discussed recently. The threat was there were various types and patterns of sarong in the market; and entrepreneurship was moderating variables between resource-based strategy and competitiveness of Donggala woven sarong creative industry; the level of significance was 0.001 and the R-Square was 0.803.

  12. 78 FR 12716 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Negative Final Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... visible, although, they are produced using only two inks and a screen. Petitioners contend that such graphics would normally be printed using three inks printed in register at three different print stations...-circumvention inquiry is laminated woven sacks produced with two ink colors printed in register and a screening...

  13. The effect of z-binding yarns on the electrical properties of 3D woven composites

    KAUST Repository

    Saleh, Mohamed Nasr; Yudhanto, Arief; Lubineau, Gilles; Soutis, Constantinos

    2017-01-01

    Electrical resistance monitoring (ERM) has been used to study the effect of the z-binding yarns on the initial electrical resistance (ER) and its change of three architectures of 3D woven carbon fibre composites namely (orthogonal “ORT”, layer

  14. A meso-scale model to study the compressive strength of woven carbon fiber reinforced plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schormans, J.M.J.; Remmers, J.J.C.; Wilson, W.; Deshpande, V.S.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling kink-band formation in woven composites using a detailed micro-model is numerically expensive. In order to reduce the computational resources, a method to homogenize fiber-tows is proposed which uses a rules of mixture approach. The method is tested by comparing the stiffness and

  15. Characterising the loading direction sensitivity of 3D woven composites: Effect of z-binder architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Saleh, Mohamed Nasr; Yudhanto, Arief; Potluri, Prasad; Lubineau, Gilles; Soutis, Constantinos

    2016-01-01

    Three different architectures of 3D carbon fibre woven composites (orthogonal, ORT; layer-to-layer, LTL; angle interlock, AI) were tested in quasi-static uniaxial tension. Mechanical tests (tensile in on-axis of warp and weft directions as well

  16. 78 FR 6069 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011... antidumping duty order on laminated woven sacks (``sacks'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The period of review (``POR'') is August 1, 2011, through July 31, 2012. The review covers one exporter of...

  17. Processing and Characterization of Liquid-Phase Sintered NiTi Woven Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdeniz, Dinc; Weidinger, Ryan P.; Sharp, Keith W.; Dunand, David C.

    2018-03-01

    Porous NiTi is of interest for bone implants because of its unique combination of biocompatibility (encouraging osseointegration), high strength (to prevent fracture), low stiffness (to reduce stress shielding), and shape memory or superelasticity (to deploy an implant). A promising method for creating NiTi structures with regular open channels is via 3D weaving of NiTi wires. This paper presents a processing method to bond woven NiTi wire structures at contact points between wires to achieve structural integrity: (i) a slurry consisting of a blend of NiTi and Nb powders is deposited on the surface of the NiTi wires after the weaving operation; (ii) the powders are melted to create a eutectic liquid phase which collects at contact points; and (iii) the liquid is solidified and binds the NiTi woven structures. The bonded NiTi wire structures exhibited lower transformation temperatures compared to the as-woven NiTi wires because of Nb diffusion into the NiTi wires. A bonded woven sample was deformed in bending and showed near-complete recovery up to 6% strain and recovered nearly half of the deformation up to 19% strain.

  18. Direct Cost of Reprocessing Cotton-woven Surgical Drapes: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Fexina Tomé

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Identify the direct cost of reprocessing double and single cotton-woven drapes of the surgical LAP package. METHOD A quantitative, exploratory and descriptive case study, performed at a teaching hospital. The direct cost of reprocessing cotton-woven surgical drapes was calculated by multiplying the time spent by professionals involved in reprocessing the unit with the direct cost of labor, adding to the cost of materials. The Brazilian currency (R$ originally used for the calculations was converted to US currency at the rate of US$0.42/R$. RESULTS The average total cost for surgical LAP package was US$9.72, with the predominance being in the cost of materials (US$8.70 or 89.65%. It is noteworthy that the average total cost of materials was mostly impacted by the cost of the cotton-woven drapes (US$7.99 or 91.90%. CONCLUSION The knowledge gained will subsidize discussions about replacing reusable cotton-woven surgical drapes for disposable ones, favoring arguments regarding the advantages and disadvantages of this possibility considering human resources, materials, as well as structural, environmental and financial resources.

  19. A living foundry for Synthetic Biological Materials: A synthetic biology roadmap to new advanced materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind A. Le Feuvre

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Society is on the cusp of harnessing recent advances in synthetic biology to discover new bio-based products and routes to their affordable and sustainable manufacture. This is no more evident than in the discovery and manufacture of Synthetic Biological Materials, where synthetic biology has the capacity to usher in a new Materials from Biology era that will revolutionise the discovery and manufacture of innovative synthetic biological materials. These will encompass novel, smart, functionalised and hybrid materials for diverse applications whose discovery and routes to bio-production will be stimulated by the fusion of new technologies positioned across physical, digital and biological spheres. This article, which developed from an international workshop held in Manchester, United Kingdom, in 2017 [1], sets out to identify opportunities in the new materials from biology era. It considers requirements, early understanding and foresight of the challenges faced in delivering a Discovery to Manufacturing Pipeline for synthetic biological materials using synthetic biology approaches. This challenge spans the complete production cycle from intelligent and predictive design, fabrication, evaluation and production of synthetic biological materials to new ways of bringing these products to market. Pathway opportunities are identified that will help foster expertise sharing and infrastructure development to accelerate the delivery of a new generation of synthetic biological materials and the leveraging of existing investments in synthetic biology and advanced materials research to achieve this goal. Keywords: Synthetic biology, Materials, Biological materials, Biomaterials, Advanced materials

  20. Nanofibrous Smart Fabrics from Twisted Yarns of Electrospun Piezopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Enlong; Xu, Zhe; Chur, Lucas K; Behroozfar, Ali; Baniasadi, Mahmoud; Moreno, Salvador; Huang, Jiacheng; Gilligan, Jules; Minary-Jolandan, Majid

    2017-07-19

    Smart textiles are envisioned to make a paradigm shift in wearable technologies to directly impart functionality into the fibers rather than integrating sensors and electronics onto conformal substrates or skin in wearable devices. Among smart materials, piezoelectric fabrics have not been widely reported, yet. Piezoelectric smart fabrics can be used for mechanical energy harvesting, for thermal energy harvesting through the pyroelectric effect, for ferroelectric applications, as pressure and force sensors, for motion detection, and for ultrasonic sensing. We report on mechanical and material properties of the plied nanofibrous piezoelectric yarns as a function of postprocessing conditions including thermal annealing and drawing (stretching). In addition, we used a continuous electrospinning setup to directly produce P(VDF-TrFE) nanofibers and convert them into twisted plied yarns, and demonstrated application of these plied yarns in woven piezoelectric fabrics. The results of this work can be an early step toward realization of piezoelectric smart fabrics.

  1. A biomimetic multilayer nanofiber fabric fabricated by electrospinning and textile technology from polylactic acid and Tussah silk fibroin as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Weili [Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Composites, Ministry of Education, Institute of Textile Composites, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Henan provincial key laboratory of functional textile materials, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Textile and Garment Industry, Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); He, Jianxin, E-mail: hejianxin771117@163.com [Henan provincial key laboratory of functional textile materials, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Textile and Garment Industry, Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Han, Qiming [Henan provincial key laboratory of functional textile materials, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Textile and Garment Industry, Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Sang, Feng [Department of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Treatment and Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou 450000 (China); Wang, Qian [Henan provincial key laboratory of functional textile materials, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Textile and Garment Industry, Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Chen, Li [Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Composites, Ministry of Education, Institute of Textile Composites, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Cui, Shizhong [Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Composites, Ministry of Education, Institute of Textile Composites, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Henan provincial key laboratory of functional textile materials, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Textile and Garment Industry, Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); and others

    2016-10-01

    To engineer bone tissue, a scaffold with good biological properties should be provided to approximate the hierarchical structure of collagen fibrils in natural bone. In this study, we fabricated a novel scaffold consisting of multilayer nanofiber fabrics (MLNFFs) by weaving nanofiber yarns of polylactic acid (PLA) and Tussah silk fibroin (TSF). The yarns were fabricated by electrospinning, and we found that spinnability, as well as the mechanical properties of the resulting scaffold, was determined by the ratio between polylactic acid and Tussah silk fibroin. In particular, a 9:1 mixture can be spun continuously into nanofiber yarns with narrow diameter distribution and good mechanical properties. Accordingly, woven scaffolds based on this mixture had excellent mechanical properties, with Young's modulus 417.65 MPa and tensile strength 180.36 MPa. For nonwoven scaffolds fabricated from the same materials, the Young's modulus and tensile strength were 2- and 4-fold lower, respectively. Woven scaffolds also supported adhesion and proliferation of mouse mesenchymal stem cells, and promoted biomineralization via alkaline phosphatase and mineral deposition. Finally, the scaffolds significantly enhanced the formation of new bone in damaged femoral condyle in rabbits. Thus, the scaffolds are potentially suitable for bone tissue engineering because of biomimetic architecture, excellent mechanical properties, and good biocompatibility. - Highlights: • A novel strategy to mimic the hierarchical collagen fibril in bone is proposed by electrospinning and conventional textile technology. • The tensile strength of the woven scaffold was nearly 4-fold larger than that of nonwoven mats. • The nanofiber woven scaffolds show excellent cytocompatibility and accelerate osteoblast differentiation. • The composite scaffold significantly enhanced formation of new bone in damaged condyles in rabbit femur.

  2. A biomimetic multilayer nanofiber fabric fabricated by electrospinning and textile technology from polylactic acid and Tussah silk fibroin as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Weili; He, Jianxin; Han, Qiming; Sang, Feng; Wang, Qian; Chen, Li; Cui, Shizhong

    2016-01-01

    To engineer bone tissue, a scaffold with good biological properties should be provided to approximate the hierarchical structure of collagen fibrils in natural bone. In this study, we fabricated a novel scaffold consisting of multilayer nanofiber fabrics (MLNFFs) by weaving nanofiber yarns of polylactic acid (PLA) and Tussah silk fibroin (TSF). The yarns were fabricated by electrospinning, and we found that spinnability, as well as the mechanical properties of the resulting scaffold, was determined by the ratio between polylactic acid and Tussah silk fibroin. In particular, a 9:1 mixture can be spun continuously into nanofiber yarns with narrow diameter distribution and good mechanical properties. Accordingly, woven scaffolds based on this mixture had excellent mechanical properties, with Young's modulus 417.65 MPa and tensile strength 180.36 MPa. For nonwoven scaffolds fabricated from the same materials, the Young's modulus and tensile strength were 2- and 4-fold lower, respectively. Woven scaffolds also supported adhesion and proliferation of mouse mesenchymal stem cells, and promoted biomineralization via alkaline phosphatase and mineral deposition. Finally, the scaffolds significantly enhanced the formation of new bone in damaged femoral condyle in rabbits. Thus, the scaffolds are potentially suitable for bone tissue engineering because of biomimetic architecture, excellent mechanical properties, and good biocompatibility. - Highlights: • A novel strategy to mimic the hierarchical collagen fibril in bone is proposed by electrospinning and conventional textile technology. • The tensile strength of the woven scaffold was nearly 4-fold larger than that of nonwoven mats. • The nanofiber woven scaffolds show excellent cytocompatibility and accelerate osteoblast differentiation. • The composite scaffold significantly enhanced formation of new bone in damaged condyles in rabbit femur.

  3. Modifying of Cotton Fabric Surface with Nano-ZnO Multilayer Films by Layer-by-Layer Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarıışık Merih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract ZnO nanoparticle–based multilayer nanocomposite films were fabricated on cationized woven cotton fabrics via layer-by-layer molecular self-assembly technique. For cationic surface charge, cotton fabrics were pretreated with 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (EP3MAC by pad-batch method. XPS and SEM were used to examine the deposited nano-ZnO multilayer films on the cotton fabrics. The nano-ZnO films deposited on cotton fabrics exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The results also showed that the coated fabrics with nano-ZnO multilayer films enhanced the protection of cotton fabrics from UV radiation. Physical tests (tensile strength of weft and warp yarns, air permeability and whiteness values were performed on the fabrics before and after the treatment with ZnO nanoparticles to evaluate the effect of layer-by-layer (LbL process on cotton fabrics properties.

  4. Single-Step Antimicrobial And Moisture Management Finishing Of Pc Fabric Using Zno Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Munir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Functionalization of textile fabrics with metal oxide nanoparticles can be used to add antibacterial and moisture management properties to them. Current work focuses on the development of these properties on polyester/cotton woven fabrics by treating them with zinc oxide nanoparticles for workwear and sportswear applications. Zinc oxide nanoparticles, prepared by sol-gel method, were applied on fabric samples, which were then tested for antibacterial and moisture management properties using standard test methods AATCC 147 with Staphylococcus aureus and AATCC 195, respectively. It was found that application of ZnO nanoparticles improved both these properties with smaller particle imparting larger effects on both of them.

  5. Synthetic biology, inspired by synthetic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, V; Nallani, M; Meier, W P; Sinner, E K

    2012-07-16

    The topic synthetic biology appears still as an 'empty basket to be filled'. However, there is already plenty of claims and visions, as well as convincing research strategies about the theme of synthetic biology. First of all, synthetic biology seems to be about the engineering of biology - about bottom-up and top-down approaches, compromising complexity versus stability of artificial architectures, relevant in biology. Synthetic biology accounts for heterogeneous approaches towards minimal and even artificial life, the engineering of biochemical pathways on the organismic level, the modelling of molecular processes and finally, the combination of synthetic with nature-derived materials and architectural concepts, such as a cellular membrane. Still, synthetic biology is a discipline, which embraces interdisciplinary attempts in order to have a profound, scientific base to enable the re-design of nature and to compose architectures and processes with man-made matter. We like to give an overview about the developments in the field of synthetic biology, regarding polymer-based analogs of cellular membranes and what questions can be answered by applying synthetic polymer science towards the smallest unit in life, namely a cell. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A living foundry for Synthetic Biological Materials: A synthetic biology roadmap to new advanced materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Feuvre, Rosalind A; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2018-06-01

    Society is on the cusp of harnessing recent advances in synthetic biology to discover new bio-based products and routes to their affordable and sustainable manufacture. This is no more evident than in the discovery and manufacture of Synthetic Biological Materials , where synthetic biology has the capacity to usher in a new Materials from Biology era that will revolutionise the discovery and manufacture of innovative synthetic biological materials. These will encompass novel, smart, functionalised and hybrid materials for diverse applications whose discovery and routes to bio-production will be stimulated by the fusion of new technologies positioned across physical, digital and biological spheres. This article, which developed from an international workshop held in Manchester, United Kingdom, in 2017 [1], sets out to identify opportunities in the new materials from biology era. It considers requirements, early understanding and foresight of the challenges faced in delivering a Discovery to Manufacturing Pipeline for synthetic biological materials using synthetic biology approaches. This challenge spans the complete production cycle from intelligent and predictive design, fabrication, evaluation and production of synthetic biological materials to new ways of bringing these products to market. Pathway opportunities are identified that will help foster expertise sharing and infrastructure development to accelerate the delivery of a new generation of synthetic biological materials and the leveraging of existing investments in synthetic biology and advanced materials research to achieve this goal.

  7. A comparison of woven versus nonwoven polypropylene (PP) and expanded versus condensed polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) on their intraperitoneal incorporation and adhesion formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, Dimitri Aristotle; Vichova, Barbora; Breza, Jan; Skipworth, James; Barker, Stephen

    2011-07-01

    To compare known and novel synthetic materials useful for incisional hernia repair and to test independently, whether they justify common perceptions related to their use. Four types of synthetic materials were implanted in to 12 pigs to compare incorporation histology and adhesion formation 90 d after placement. Woven polypropylene (WPP), nonwoven polypropylene (NWPP), expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE). and condensed polytetrafluoroethylene (cPTFE) were placed intraperitoneally (IP). Intraperitoneally, WPP became fully peritonealized, but generated thick and plentiful adhesions. NWPP became fully peritonealized and generated filmy and far less numerous adhesions. ePTFE formed some filmy adhesions and did not peritonealize. cPTFE and WPP became fully peritonealized. However, bowel became adherent on raised edges of cPTFE and WPP. We conclude that NWPP incorporates extremely well intraperitoneally, promotes few adhesions, and its use is likely to be suitable for hernia repair. cPTFE performs well and promotes few adhesions, but to minimize potentially serious complications, its edges must be secured around its entire circumference. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  10. INTEGRATED PROTECTIVE FABRIC SYSTEM (IPFS) PHASE III PROGRAM: AEROSOL PROTECTION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-16

    control. It consists of a woven nylon/cotton outer shell ripstop fabric with a durable water repellent finish (Quarpel) with a hung liner comprised of...challenge, most were made using DOP. The TSI 3160 is equipped with two TSI Model 3772 Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs). The Model 3772 CPC detects ...results were used to demonstrate that any penetration measured through the swatch materials was not attributed to leakage or erroneous system

  11. Comparison of Jacket Production Processes Designed by Fabric Materials and Leather

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Utkun; Ziynet Öndoğan

    2011-01-01

    Leather and leather products industry has shown a significant improvement in export area, as a result of intensive shuttle trades and demand that comes from crumbling Eastern Bloc countries in 1990's. This development has caused capacity increasing and thus makes large investments in this sector. Leather garment industry differs from woven or fabrics industry at various points. Differantation seems in raw materials features such as size, thickness, biological, chemical or physical homogenity....

  12. Precipitation Coating of Monazite on Woven Ceramic Fibers: 1. Feasibility (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    08 Aug 2006. Paper contains color . 14. ABSTRACT Monazite coatings were deposited on woven cloths and tows of NextelTM 610 fibers by heterogeneous...by dissolving concentrated phosphoric acid ( Fish - er Scientific Co., Pittsburgh, PA) or a combination of lantha- num nitrate (Aldrich Chemical Co...Boccaccini, P. Karapappas, J. M. Marijuan, and C. Kaya, ‘‘ TiO2 Coat- ings on Silicon Carbide Fiber Substrates by Electrophoretic Deposition,’’ J.Mater. Sci

  13. Long-term follow-up of aneurysms treated electively with woven stent-assisted coiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nicholas K; Chiu, Albert Hy; Cheung, Andrew K; Wenderoth, Jason D

    2017-12-15

    Preliminary short-term results for stent-assisted coil embolization (SACE) using woven/braided stents have been promising. However, evidence supporting mid- to long-term efficacy and durability is lacking. To report the long-term results for the durability of elective intracranial aneurysms treated with woven stents. Between May 2012 and May 2015, 98 consecutive patients with 103 aneurysms underwent elective woven SACE across three Australian neurovascular centres. All patients had immediate, 6- and 18-month clinical and radiological follow-up. Radiological assessment was performed with modified Raymond-Roy occlusion scores based on angiography results, while clinical assessment was based on the modified Rankin Scale. Six-month follow-up was available in 100 aneurysms, and an 18-month follow-up in 97 aneurysms. Total occlusion rates of 82% were achieved at inception, 82% at 6 months, and 90% at 18 months. Satisfactory occlusion with small neck remnants was present in 17% at inception, 16% at 6 months, and 9% at 18 months. Good neurological outcomes were achieved in 95% at 18 months. Intraprocedural thromboembolic events were recorded in 3% and delayed events in 1% (all in patients taking clopidogrel). Aneurysm recurrence occurred in one patient (1%). Technical complications occurred in 5%. The total complication rate was 10%. Woven SACE is safe, efficacious, and durable at long-term 18-month follow-up, with very low recurrence and re-treatment rates. Preliminary results appear better than those for traditional laser-cut stents. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Elastic properties of woven bone: effect of mineral content and collagen fibrils orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, J; Martínez-Reina, J

    2017-02-01

    Woven bone is a type of tissue that forms mainly during fracture healing or fetal bone development. Its microstructure can be modeled as a composite with a matrix of mineral (hydroxyapatite) and inclusions of collagen fibrils with a more or less random orientation. In the present study, its elastic properties were estimated as a function of composition (degree of mineralization) and fibril orientation. A self-consistent homogenization scheme considering randomness of inclusions' orientation was used for this purpose. Lacuno-canalicular porosity in the form of periodically distributed void inclusions was also considered. Assuming collagen fibrils to be uniformly oriented in all directions led to an isotropic tissue with a Young's modulus [Formula: see text] GPa, which is of the same order of magnitude as that of woven bone in fracture calluses. By contrast, assuming fibrils to have a preferential orientation resulted in a Young's modulus in the preferential direction of 9-16 GPa depending on the mineral content of the tissue. These results are consistent with experimental evidence for woven bone in foetuses, where collagen fibrils are aligned to a certain extent.

  15. Effect of stacking angles on mechanical properties and damage propagation of plain woven carbon fiber laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Weimin; Ao, Wenhong

    2018-03-01

    Damage propagation induced failure is a predominant damage mechanism. This study is aimed at assessing the damage state and damage propagation induced failure with different stacking angles, of woven carbon fiber/epoxy laminates subjected to quasi-static tensile and bending load. Different stages of damage processing and damage behavior under the bending load are investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The woven carbon fiber/epoxy laminates which are stacked at six different angles (0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°) with eight plies have been analyzed: [0]8, [15]8, [30]8, [45]8, [60]8, [75]8. Three-point bending test and quasi-static tensile test are used in validating the woven carbon fiber/epoxy laminates’ mechanical properties. Furthermore, the damage propagation and failure modes observed under flexural loading is correlated with flexural force and load-displacement behaviour respectively for the laminates. The experimental results have indicated that [45]8 laminate exhibits the best flexural performance in terms of energy absorption duo to its pseudo-ductile behaviour but the tensile strength and flexural strength drastically decreased compared to [0]8 laminate. Finally, SEM micrographs of specimens and fracture surfaces are used to reveal the different types of damage of the laminates with different stacking angles.

  16. 3D-WOVEN FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITE FOR CAD/CAM DENTAL APPLICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Richard; Liu, Perng-Ru

    2016-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D)-woven noncrimp fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) was tested for mechanical properties in the two principal directions of the main XY plane and compared to different Computer-Aided-Design/Computer-Aided-Machining (CAD/CAM) Dental Materials. The Dental Materials included ceramic with Vitablock Mark II®, ProCAD®, InCeram® Spinel, InCeram® Alumina and InCeram® Zirconia in addition to a resin-based 3M Corp. Paradigm® particulate-filled composite. Alternate material controls included Coors 300 Alumina Ceramic and a tungsten carbide 22% cobalt cermet. The 3D-woven FRC was vacuum assisted resin transfer molding processed as a one-depth-thickness ~19-mm preform with a vinyl-ester resin and cut into blocks similar to the commercial CAD/CAM Dental Materials. Mechanical test samples prepared for a flexural three-point span length of 10.0 mm were sectioned for minimum-depth cuts to compare machinability and fracture resistance between groups. 3D-woven FRC improved mechanical properties with significant statistical differences over all CAD/CAM Dental Materials and Coors Alumina Ceramic for flexural strength (p<0.001), resilience (p<0.05), work of fracture (p<0.001), strain energy release (p<0.05), critical stress intensity factor (p<0.001) and strain (p<0.001).

  17. The effect of z-binding yarns on the electrical properties of 3D woven composites

    KAUST Repository

    Saleh, Mohamed Nasr

    2017-09-28

    Electrical resistance monitoring (ERM) has been used to study the effect of the z-binding yarns on the initial electrical resistance (ER) and its change of three architectures of 3D woven carbon fibre composites namely (orthogonal “ORT”, layer-to-layer “LTL” and angle interlock “AI”) when tested in tension. Specimens are loaded in on-axis “warp” and off-axis “45°” directions. In-situ ERM is achieved using the four-probe technique. Monotonic and cyclic “load/unload” tests are performed to investigate the effect of piezo-resistivity and residual plasticity on resistance variation. The resistance increase for the off-axis loaded specimens (∼90%) is found to be higher than that of their on-axis counterparts (∼20%). In the case of cyclic testing, the resistance increase upon unloading is irreversible which suggests permanent damage presence not piezo-resistive effect. At the moment, it is difficult to obtain a direct correlation between resistance variation and damage in 3D woven composites due to the complexity of the conduction path along the three orthogonal directions, however this study demonstrates the potential of using ERM for damage detection in 3D woven carbon fibre-based composites and highlights the challenges that need to be overcome to establish ERM as a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technique for such material systems.

  18. Investigating the Potential of Using Off-Axis 3D Woven Composites in Composite Joints’ Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Saleh, Mohamed Nasr

    2016-09-26

    The effect of circular notch has been evaluated for three different architectures of three-dimensional (3D) carbon fibre woven composites (orthogonal, ORT; layer-to-layer, LTL; angle interlock, AI) through open-hole quasi-static tension and double-lap bearing strength tests in the off-axis (45°) direction. Damage characterisation is monitored using Digital Image correlation (DIC) for open-hole testing and X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) for double-lap bearing strength test. The off-axis notched 3D woven composites exhibits minor reduction (less than 10 %) of the notched strength compared to the un-notched strength. DIC strain contour clearly show stress/strain localisation regions around the hole periphery and stress/strain redistribution away from the whole due to the z-binder existence, especially for ORT architecture. Up to 50 % bearing strain, no significant difference in the bearing stress/bearing strain response is observed. However when ORT architecture was loaded up to failure, it demonstrates higher strain to failure (~140 %) followed by AI (~105 %) and lastly LTL (~85 %). X-ray CT scans reveal the effect of the z-binder architecture on damage evolution and delamination resistance. The study suggests that off-axis loaded 3D woven composites, especially ORT architecture, has a great potential of overcoming the current challenges facing composite laminates when used in composite joints’ applications. © 2016 The Author(s)

  19. Investigating the Potential of Using Off-Axis 3D Woven Composites in Composite Joints’ Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Saleh, Mohamed Nasr; Wang, Ying; Yudhanto, Arief; Joesbury, Adam; Potluri, Prasad; Lubineau, Gilles; Soutis, Constantinos

    2016-01-01

    The effect of circular notch has been evaluated for three different architectures of three-dimensional (3D) carbon fibre woven composites (orthogonal, ORT; layer-to-layer, LTL; angle interlock, AI) through open-hole quasi-static tension and double-lap bearing strength tests in the off-axis (45°) direction. Damage characterisation is monitored using Digital Image correlation (DIC) for open-hole testing and X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) for double-lap bearing strength test. The off-axis notched 3D woven composites exhibits minor reduction (less than 10 %) of the notched strength compared to the un-notched strength. DIC strain contour clearly show stress/strain localisation regions around the hole periphery and stress/strain redistribution away from the whole due to the z-binder existence, especially for ORT architecture. Up to 50 % bearing strain, no significant difference in the bearing stress/bearing strain response is observed. However when ORT architecture was loaded up to failure, it demonstrates higher strain to failure (~140 %) followed by AI (~105 %) and lastly LTL (~85 %). X-ray CT scans reveal the effect of the z-binder architecture on damage evolution and delamination resistance. The study suggests that off-axis loaded 3D woven composites, especially ORT architecture, has a great potential of overcoming the current challenges facing composite laminates when used in composite joints’ applications. © 2016 The Author(s)

  20. Characterising the loading direction sensitivity of 3D woven composites: Effect of z-binder architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Saleh, Mohamed Nasr

    2016-08-29

    Three different architectures of 3D carbon fibre woven composites (orthogonal, ORT; layer-to-layer, LTL; angle interlock, AI) were tested in quasi-static uniaxial tension. Mechanical tests (tensile in on-axis of warp and weft directions as well as 45 degrees off-axis) were carried out with the aim to study the loading direction sensitivity of these 3D woven composites. The z-binder architecture (the through-thickness reinforcement) has an effect on void content, directional fibre volume fraction, mechanical properties (on-axis and off-axis), failure mechanisms, energy absorption and fibre rotation angle in off-axis tested specimens. Out of all the examined architectures, 3D orthogonal woven composites (ORT) demonstrated a superior behaviour, especially when they were tested in 45 degrees off-axis direction, indicated by high strain to failure (similar to 23%) and high translaminar energy absorption (similar to 40 MJ/m(3)). The z-binder yarns in ORT architecture suppress the localised damage and allow larger fibre rotation during the fibre

  1. Fabrication of 2-3 YBa2Cu3O7-x/polymer composite with Tc above liquid nitrogen temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.M.; Safari, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on high T c superconducting oxide woven networks fabricated and used to form YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x /polymer composites showing a superconducting resistive transition above liquid nitrogen temperature. The ceramic network was produced by soaking biaxially woven carbon fabric in a solution containing the stoichiometric proportions of Y, Ba, and Cu. Decomposition of the infiltrated carbon fabric and reaction of the remaining oxides resulted in a ceramic replica of the original fabric. The fired networks had a strand diameter ∼100 μm and were embedded in a polymer matrix to produce 2--3 superconducting/polymer composites with a superconducting transition of ∼89 K. Linear shrinkage of the networks was constrained during firing, although the radial shrinkage of the superconducting strands occurred freely. XRD of the networks indicated the presence of BaCO 3 , CuO, and BaCuO 2 as impurity phases

  2. Theory and Examples of Mathematical Modeling for Fine Weave Pierced Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Yu-bo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical abstraction and three-dimensional modeling method of three-dimensional woven fabric structure was developed for the fine weave pierced fabric, taking parametric continuity splines as the track function of tow. Based on the significant parameters of fine weave pierced fabric measured by MicroCT, eight kinds of the three-dimensional digital models of the fabric structure were established with two kinds of tow sections and four kinds of tow trajectory characteristic functions. There is a good agreement between the three-dimensional digital models and real fabric by comparing their structures and porosities. This mathematical abstraction and three-dimensional modeling method can be applied in micro models for sub unit cell and macro models for macroscopic scale fabrics, with high adaptability.

  3. Vertically aligned TiO2 nanorods-woven carbon fiber for reinforcement of both mechanical and anti-wear properties in resin composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Jie; Zhang, Chao; Luo, Dan; Cui, Yali; Li, Hejun; Lu, Zhaoqing; Huang, Jianfeng

    2018-03-01

    A series of TiO2 nanorods were successfully grown on woven carbon fiber by hydrothermal method to reinforce the resin composite. The TiO2 nanorods improved the mechanical interlocking among woven carbon fibers and resin matrix, resulting in better fibers/resin interfacial bonding. Compared with desized-woven carbon fiber, the uniform TiO2 nanorods array resulted in an improvement of 84.3% and 73.9% in the tensile and flexural strength of the composite. However, the disorderly TiO2 nanorods on woven carbon fiber leaded to an insignificant promotion of the mechanical strength. The enhanced performance of well-proportioned TiO2 nanorods-woven carbon fiber was also reflected in the nearly 56% decrease of wear rate, comparing to traditional woven carbon fiber reinforced composite.

  4. The Effect of Temperature and Nanoclay on the Low Velocity and Ballistic Behavior of Woven Glass-Fiber Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrin, Lauren

    The objective of this research was to study the effect of nanoclay and temperature on the behavior of woven glass-fabric reinforced epoxy composite under low velocity and ballistic impacts. The materials used in manufacturing the composite were S2 (6181) glass-fibers, epoxy resin (EPON 828), hardener (Epikure 3230), nanoclay and Heloxy 61 modifier. The nanoclay addition was 0%, 1%, 3% and 5% by weight, with respect to the resin. All specimens were manufactured at the City College facilities using vacuum infusion. Tensile tests were conducted to characterize the material and obtain the Young's modulus, ultimate stress, failure strain, Poisson's ratio, shear modulus and shear strength and their variation with nanoclay percentage and temperature. The tests were conducted at room temperature (21°C/70°F), -54°C (-65°F), -20°C (-4°F), 49°C (120°F) and 71°C (160°F). Next composite specimens with 0%, 1%, 3% and 5% nanoclay by weight, with respect to the resin, were subjected to low velocity impact at the previously specified temperatures to determine dynamic force, displacement and energy correlations. The extent of damage was studied using the ultrasound technique. Then ballistic tests were conducted on the nanoclay infused specimens at room temperature to obtain the ballistic limit (V50) and the damage behavior of the composite. The dynamic finite element analysis (FEA) software LS-DYNA was used to model and simulate the results of low velocity impact tests. Good agreement was obtained between experimental and numerical (FEA) results. Analytical analyses were undertaken to compare the results from the tensile experiments. The finite element analysis (FEA) allowed for further analytical comparison of the results. The FEA platform used was LS-DYNA due to its proficient dynamic and damage capabilities in composite materials. The FEA was used to model and simulate the low velocity impacts and compare the results to experiments.

  5. Drop Impact on Textile Material: Effect of Fabric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romdhani Zouhaier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of impact of water drop on a surface in a spreading regime with no splashing. Three surfaces were studied: virgin glass, coating film and woven cotton fabric at different construction parameters. All experiments were carried out using water drop with the same free fall high. Digidrop with high-resolution camera is used to measure the different parameters characterising this phenomenon. Results show an important effect of the height of the free fall on the drop profile and the spreading behaviour. An important drop deformation at the surface impact was observed. Then, fabric construction as the weft count deeply affects the drop impact. For plain weave, an increase of weft count causes a decrease in penetration and increase in the spreading rate. The same result was obtained for coated fabric. Therefore, the impact energy was modified and the drop shape was affected, which directly influenced the spreading rate.

  6. The investigation on the structure, fabrication and applications of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Donghe

    By investigating the structure of graphene oxide (GO), the long-wavelength photoluminescence of GO is evidenced to be originated from the excimer formation between GO basal plane and oxidative debris (ODs) attached on the GO sheets. The thermally unstable ODs would induce micro-explosion of GO upon heating. A novel method is developed to supress the explosion and achieve simultaneous thermal reduction and nitrogen doping of graphene oxide in air. The high quality N-doped graphene demonstrate excellent electrocatalytic property in oxygen reduction reaction. Furthermore, an electronic textile material is fabricated by coating chemically reduced GO on a piece of non-woven fabric (GNWF). GNWF can be applied as wearable sensors to detect physiological signals of human body. This research work deepens the understanding on the structure and property of graphene based materials and provides a cost-effective fabrication method for large scale production of graphene, and hence facilitates the commercialization of graphene.

  7. Digital fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Winter 2012 (vol. 14 no. 3) issue of the Nexus Network Journal features seven original papers dedicated to the theme “Digital Fabrication”. Digital fabrication is changing architecture in fundamental ways in every phase, from concept to artifact. Projects growing out of research in digital fabrication are dependent on software that is entirely surface-oriented in its underlying mathematics. Decisions made during design, prototyping, fabrication and assembly rely on codes, scripts, parameters, operating systems and software, creating the need for teams with multidisciplinary expertise and different skills, from IT to architecture, design, material engineering, and mathematics, among others The papers grew out of a Lisbon symposium hosted by the ISCTE-Instituto Universitario de Lisboa entitled “Digital Fabrication – A State of the Art”. The issue is completed with four other research papers which address different mathematical instruments applied to architecture, including geometric tracing system...

  8. Microwave-synthesized freestanding iron-carbon nanotubes on polyester composites of woven Kevlar fibre and silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Ankita; Deka, Biplab K.; Kim, DoYoung; Kong, Kyungil; Park, Young-Bin; Park, Hyung Wook

    2017-01-01

    We synthesized Ag nanoparticle-decorated multilayered graphene nanosheets (Ag-graphene) from graphite nanoplatelets and silver nitrate through 90–100 s of microwave exposure, without the use of any mineral acids or harsh reducing agents. Fe nanoparticle-decorated carbon nanotubes (Fe-CNTs) were grown on polypyrrole (PPy) deposited on woven Kevlar fibre (WKF), using ferrocene as a catalyst, under microwave irradiation. Fe-CNTs grown on WKF and Ag-graphene dispersed in polyester resin (PES) were combined to fabricate Ag-graphene/Fe-CNT/PPy-coated WKF/PES composites by vacuum-assisted resin transfer moulding. The combined effect of Fe-CNTs and Ag-graphene in the resulting composites resulted in a remarkable enhancement of tensile properties (a 192.56% increase in strength and 100.64% increase in modulus) as well as impact resistance (a 116.33% increase). The electrical conductivity significantly increased for Ag-graphene/Fe-CNT/PPy-coated WKF/PES composites. The effectiveness of electromagnetic interference shielding, which relies strongly on the Ag-graphene content in the composites, was 25 times higher in Ag-graphene/Fe-CNT/PPy-coated WKF/PES than in neat WKF/PES composites. The current work offers a novel route for fabricating highly promising, cost effective WKF/PES composites through microwave-assisted synthesis of Fe-CNTs and Ag-graphene. PMID:28074877

  9. Microwave-synthesized freestanding iron-carbon nanotubes on polyester composites of woven Kevlar fibre and silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Ankita; Deka, Biplab K; Kim, DoYoung; Kong, Kyungil; Park, Young-Bin; Park, Hyung Wook

    2017-01-11

    We synthesized Ag nanoparticle-decorated multilayered graphene nanosheets (Ag-graphene) from graphite nanoplatelets and silver nitrate through 90-100 s of microwave exposure, without the use of any mineral acids or harsh reducing agents. Fe nanoparticle-decorated carbon nanotubes (Fe-CNTs) were grown on polypyrrole (PPy) deposited on woven Kevlar fibre (WKF), using ferrocene as a catalyst, under microwave irradiation. Fe-CNTs grown on WKF and Ag-graphene dispersed in polyester resin (PES) were combined to fabricate Ag-graphene/Fe-CNT/PPy-coated WKF/PES composites by vacuum-assisted resin transfer moulding. The combined effect of Fe-CNTs and Ag-graphene in the resulting composites resulted in a remarkable enhancement of tensile properties (a 192.56% increase in strength and 100.64% increase in modulus) as well as impact resistance (a 116.33% increase). The electrical conductivity significantly increased for Ag-graphene/Fe-CNT/PPy-coated WKF/PES composites. The effectiveness of electromagnetic interference shielding, which relies strongly on the Ag-graphene content in the composites, was 25 times higher in Ag-graphene/Fe-CNT/PPy-coated WKF/PES than in neat WKF/PES composites. The current work offers a novel route for fabricating highly promising, cost effective WKF/PES composites through microwave-assisted synthesis of Fe-CNTs and Ag-graphene.

  10. Microwave-synthesized freestanding iron-carbon nanotubes on polyester composites of woven Kevlar fibre and silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Ankita; Deka, Biplab K.; Kim, Doyoung; Kong, Kyungil; Park, Young-Bin; Park, Hyung Wook

    2017-01-01

    We synthesized Ag nanoparticle-decorated multilayered graphene nanosheets (Ag-graphene) from graphite nanoplatelets and silver nitrate through 90-100 s of microwave exposure, without the use of any mineral acids or harsh reducing agents. Fe nanoparticle-decorated carbon nanotubes (Fe-CNTs) were grown on polypyrrole (PPy) deposited on woven Kevlar fibre (WKF), using ferrocene as a catalyst, under microwave irradiation. Fe-CNTs grown on WKF and Ag-graphene dispersed in polyester resin (PES) were combined to fabricate Ag-graphene/Fe-CNT/PPy-coated WKF/PES composites by vacuum-assisted resin transfer moulding. The combined effect of Fe-CNTs and Ag-graphene in the resulting composites resulted in a remarkable enhancement of tensile properties (a 192.56% increase in strength and 100.64% increase in modulus) as well as impact resistance (a 116.33% increase). The electrical conductivity significantly increased for Ag-graphene/Fe-CNT/PPy-coated WKF/PES composites. The effectiveness of electromagnetic interference shielding, which relies strongly on the Ag-graphene content in the composites, was 25 times higher in Ag-graphene/Fe-CNT/PPy-coated WKF/PES than in neat WKF/PES composites. The current work offers a novel route for fabricating highly promising, cost effective WKF/PES composites through microwave-assisted synthesis of Fe-CNTs and Ag-graphene.

  11. High-Thermal-Conductivity Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibante, L. P. Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Heat management with common textiles such as nylon and spandex is hindered by the poor thermal conductivity from the skin surface to cooling surfaces. This innovation showed marked improvement in thermal conductivity of the individual fibers and tubing, as well as components assembled from them. The problem is centered on improving the heat removal of the liquid-cooled ventilation garments (LCVGs) used by astronauts. The current design uses an extensive network of water-cooling tubes that introduces bulkiness and discomfort, and increases fatigue. Range of motion and ease of movement are affected as well. The current technology is the same as developed during the Apollo program of the 1960s. Tubing material is hand-threaded through a spandex/nylon mesh layer, in a series of loops throughout the torso and limbs such that there is close, form-fitting contact with the user. Usually, there is a nylon liner layer to improve comfort. Circulating water is chilled by an external heat exchanger (sublimator). The purpose of this innovation is to produce new LCVG components with improved thermal conductivity. This was addressed using nanocomposite engineering incorporating high-thermalconductivity nanoscale fillers in the fabric and tubing components. Specifically, carbon nanotubes were added using normal processing methods such as thermoplastic melt mixing (compounding twin screw extruder) and downstream processing (fiber spinning, tubing extrusion). Fibers were produced as yarns and woven into fabric cloths. The application of isotropic nanofillers can be modeled using a modified Nielsen Model for conductive fillers in a matrix based on Einstein s viscosity model. This is a drop-in technology with no additional equipment needed. The loading is limited by the ability to maintain adequate dispersion. Undispersed materials will plug filtering screens in processing equipment. Generally, the viscosity increases were acceptable, and allowed the filled polymers to still be

  12. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  13. [From synthetic biology to synthetic humankind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvel, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an historical survey of the expression "synthetic biology" in order to identify its main philosophical components. The result of the analysis is then used to investigate the meaning of the notion of "synthetic man". It is shown that both notions share a common philosophical background that can be summed up by the short but meaningful assertion: "biology is technology". The analysis allows us to distinguish two notions that are often confused in transhumanist literature: the notion of synthetic man and the notion of renewed man. The consequences of this crucial distinction are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Pretreatment of Woven Jute FRP Composite and Its Use in Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams in Flexure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Sen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental awareness motivates researchers worldwide to perform studies of natural fibre reinforced polymer composites, as they come with many advantages and are primarily sustainable. The present study aims at evaluating the mechanical characteristics of natural woven jute fibre reinforced polymer (FRP composite subjected to three different pretreatments, alkali, benzyl chloride, and lastly heat treatment. It was concluded that heat treatment is one of the most suitable treatment methods for enhancing mechanical properties of jute FRP. Durability studies on Jute FRP pertaining to some common environmental conditions were also carried out such as effect of normal water and thermal aging on the tensile strength of jute FRP followed by fire flow test. The heat treated woven jute FRP composites were subsequently used for flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams in full and strip wrapping configurations. The study includes the effect of flexural strengthening provided by woven jute FRP, study of different failure modes, load deflection behavior, effect on the first crack load, and ultimate flexural strength of concrete beams strengthened using woven jute FRP subjected to bending loads. The study concludes that woven jute FRP is a suitable material which can be used for flexural upgradation of reinforced concrete beams.

  15. Simulation of Degraded Properties of 2D plain Woven C/SiC Composites under Preloading Oxidation Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xihui; Sun, Zhigang; Sun, Jianfen; Song, Yingdong

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a numerical model which incorporates the oxidation damage model and the finite element model of 2D plain woven composites is presented for simulation of the oxidation behaviors of 2D plain woven C/SiC composite under preloading oxidation atmosphere. The equal proportional reduction method is firstly proposed to calculate the residual moduli and strength of unidirectional C/SiC composite. The multi-scale method is developed to simulate the residual elastic moduli and strength of 2D plain woven C/SiC composite. The multi-scale method is able to accurately predict the residual elastic modulus and strength of the composite. Besides, the simulated residual elastic moduli and strength of 2D plain woven C/SiC composites under preloading oxidation atmosphere show good agreements with experimental results. Furthermore, the preload, oxidation time, temperature and fiber volume fractions of the composite are investigated to show their influences upon the residual elastic modulus and strength of 2D plain woven C/SiC composites.

  16. Comparison of Failure Modes in 2-D and 3-D Woven Carbon Phenolic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Grant A.; Stackpoole, Mairead; Feldman, Jay; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Braun, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center is developing Woven Thermal Protection System (WTPS) materials as a new class of heatshields for entry vehicles (Stackpoole). Currently, there are few options for ablative entry heatshield materials, none of which is ideally suited to the planetary probe missions currently of interest to NASA. While carbon phenolic was successfully used for the missions Pioneer Venus and Galileo (to Jupiter), the heritage constituents are no longer available. An alternate carbon phenolic would need to be qualified for probe missions, which is most efficient at heat fluxes greater than those currently of interest. Additional TPS materials such as Avcoat and PICA are not sufficiently robust for the heat fluxes required. As a result, there is a large TPS gap between the materials efficient at very high conditions (carbon phenolic) and those that are effective at low-moderate conditions (all others). Development of 3D Woven TPS is intended to fill this gap, targeting mid-density weaves that could with withstand mid-range heat fluxes between 1100 W/sq cm and 8000 W/sq cm (Venkatapathy (2012). Preliminary experimental studies have been performed to show the feasibility of WTPS as a future mid-range TPS material. One study performed in the mARC Jet Facility at NASA Ames Research Center characterized the performance of a 3D Woven TPS sample and compared it to 2D carbon phenolic samples at ply angles of 0deg, 23.5deg, and 90deg. Each sample contained similar compositions of phenolic and carbon fiber volume fractions for experimental consistency. The goal of this study was to compare the performance of the TPS materials by evaluating resulting recession and failure modes. After exposing both samples to similar heat flux and pressure conditions, the 2D carbon phenolic laminate was shown to experience significant delamination between layers and further pocketing underneath separated layers. The 3D Woven TPS sample did not experience the delamination or pocketing

  17. Present State of the Art of Composite Fabric Forming: Geometrical and Mechanical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherouat, Abel; Borouchaki, Houman

    2009-01-01

    Continuous fibre reinforced composites are now firmly established engineering materials for the manufacture of components in the automotive and aerospace industries. In this respect, composite fabrics provide flexibility in the design manufacture. The ability to define the ply shapes and material orientation has allowed engineers to optimize the composite properties of the parts. The formulation of new numerical models for the simulation of the composite forming processes must allow for reduction in the delay in manufacturing and an optimization of costs in an integrated design approach. We propose two approaches to simulate the deformation of woven fabrics: geometrical and mechanical approaches.

  18. Comparison of Jacket Production Processes Designed by Fabric Materials and Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Utkun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Leather and leather products industry has shown a significant improvement in export area, as a result of intensive shuttle trades and demand that comes from crumbling Eastern Bloc countries in 1990's. This development has caused capacity increasing and thus makes large investments in this sector. Leather garment industry differs from woven or fabrics industry at various points. Differantation seems in raw materials features such as size, thickness, biological, chemical or physical homogenity. Due to the natural structure, leather shows different attributes in different regions. This study examines the diversity of production processes of leather and fabric designed jacket.

  19. Experimental methods to characterize the woven composite prepreg behavior during the preforming process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weizhao; Ren, Huaqing; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Zixuan; Su, Lingxuan; Wang, Q Jane; Zeng, Danielle; Su, Xuming; Cao, Jian

    2016-09-19

    This paper reports several characterization methods of the properties of the uncured woven prepreg during the preforming process. The uniaxial tension, bias-extension, and bending tests are conducted to measure the in-plane properties of the material. The friction tests utilized to reveal the prepreg-prepreg and prepreg-forming tool interactions. All these tests are performed within the temperature range of the real manufacturing process. The results serve as the inputs to the numerical simulation for the product prediction and preforming process parameter optimization.

  20. Quick analytical separation of glucose and fructose with impregnated woven glass fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.C.

    1978-01-01

    (1) A wide separation of glucose and fructose was obtained in 30 min with simple, inexpensive equipment using polysilicic impregnated woven glass fiber and the solvent acetone-n-butanol-1 M H 3 BO 3 (50:40:10). (2) A calibration of a radiochromatogram scanner was performed for 11 C. (3) Three Rsub(F) values could be compared to provide positive chemical identification of [ 11 C]glucose and [ 11 C]fructose. (4) Radiochemical composition and approximate specific activity were determined from a small aliquot (1-4 μl). (Auth.)

  1. Influence of pyrolysis temperature on fracture response in SiOC based composites reinforced by basalt woven fabric

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chlup, Zdeněk; Černý, Martin; Strachota, Adam; Sucharda, Zbyněk; Halasová, Martina; Dlouhý, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 14 (2014), s. 3389-3398 ISSN 0955-2219 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP107/12/2445; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:67985891 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : Fracture behaviour * CMCs * Pyrolysis * Basalt fibre * Polysiloxane Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics; JI - Composite Materials (USMH-B); JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 2.947, year: 2014

  2. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  3. Analysis and modeling of delamination factor in drilling of woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy using Box Behnken experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaily, M.; Che Hassan, C. H.; Jaharah, A. G.; Afifah, M. A.; Nor Khairusshima, M. K.

    2018-01-01

    In this research study, it presents a comprehensive mathematical model for correlating the influences of drilling parameters on the delamination factor during the drilling of woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite laminates using the Box Behnken experimental design. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of drilling parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate and drill sizes on the delamination produced when drilling woven kenaf reinforced epoxy composite using the non-coated HSS drill bits. The damage generated on the woven kenaf reinforced epoxy composite laminates were observed both at the entrance and exit surface during the drilling operation. The experiments were conducted according to the Box Behnken experimental designs.

  4. Dynamic mechanical analysis and high strain-rate energy absorption characteristics of vertically aligned carbon nanotube reinforced woven fiber-glass composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dynamic mechanical behavior and energy absorption characteristics of nano-enhanced functionally graded composites, consisting of 3 layers of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) forests grown on woven fiber-glass (FG) layer and embedded within 10 layers of woven FG, with polyester (PE) and...

  5. The Pathology of Weaving and Production of the Hand-woven Carpets: Heriz Region Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Taravati Mahjoubi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The carpet, as one of the most precious achievement of people, is a culture. The world’s recognition of Iranian carpet and its glorification originates from endeavor of people who have integrated artistic verve with mysterious attractions of national culture and arts. This study is descriptive-analytic. The data were collected through field research method and direct communication with people and workshops of drawing, weaving, and dyeing. In fact, the assessment tools were taken to the field, and data collection was completed by questioning, interview, observation, and shooting. Then, they were used for derivation, classification, and analysis. SPSS software also used to analyze collected data. . According to the result of this study, regarding the latest forecasts for Iranian hand-woven carpet industry, carpet exports will increase in the future. Therefore, it is better to consider the weaving and marketing of the carpet as a luxury product in order to achieve the profits maintaining the incentive of production in all units involved in the hand-woven carpet’s production and also to reduce poor quality carpets available in the market.

  6. Three-Axis Distributed Fiber Optic Strain Measurement in 3D Woven Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, Matt; Klute, Sandra; Lally, Evan M.; Froggatt, Mark E.; Lowry, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent advancements in composite materials technologies have broken further from traditional designs and require advanced instrumentation and analysis capabilities. Success or failure is highly dependent on design analysis and manufacturing processes. By monitoring smart structures throughout manufacturing and service life, residual and operational stresses can be assessed and structural integrity maintained. Composite smart structures can be manufactured by integrating fiber optic sensors into existing composite materials processes such as ply layup, filament winding and three-dimensional weaving. In this work optical fiber was integrated into 3D woven composite parts at a commercial woven products manufacturing facility. The fiber was then used to monitor the structures during a VARTM manufacturing process, and subsequent static and dynamic testing. Low cost telecommunications-grade optical fiber acts as the sensor using a high resolution commercial Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR) system providing distributed strain measurement at spatial resolutions as low as 2mm. Strain measurements using the optical fiber sensors are correlated to resistive strain gage measurements during static structural loading. Keywords: fiber optic, distributed strain sensing, Rayleigh scatter, optical frequency domain reflectometry

  7. Synthetic Defects for Vibrothermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Jeremy; Holland, Stephen D.; Thompson, R. Bruce; Eisenmann, David J.

    2010-02-01

    Synthetic defects are an important tool used for characterizing the performance of nondestructive evaluation techniques. Viscous material-filled synthetic defects were developed for use in vibrothermography (also known as sonic IR) as a tool to improve inspection accuracy and reliability. This paper describes how the heat-generation response of these VMF synthetic defects is similar to the response of real defects. It also shows how VMF defects can be applied to improve inspection accuracy for complex industrial parts and presents a study of their application in an aircraft engine stator vane.

  8. Synthetic biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, Eric; Süel, Gürol M

    2013-01-01

    Despite their obvious relationship and overlap, the field of physics is blessed with many insightful laws, while such laws are sadly absent in biology. Here we aim to discuss how the rise of a more recent field known as synthetic biology may allow us to more directly test hypotheses regarding the possible design principles of natural biological networks and systems. In particular, this review focuses on synthetic gene regulatory networks engineered to perform specific functions or exhibit particular dynamic behaviors. Advances in synthetic biology may set the stage to uncover the relationship of potential biological principles to those developed in physics. (review article)

  9. Application of Super-Hydrophobic Coating for Enhanced Water Repellency of Ballistic Fabric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Barton [ORNL; Rajic, Slobodan [ORNL; Hunter, Scott Robert [ORNL

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate that a superhydrophobic coating technology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) increases the water repellency of ballistic fabric beyond that provided by existing water repellency treatments. This increased water repellency has the potential to provide durable ballistic fabric for body armor without adding significant weight to the armor or significant manufacturing cost. Specimens of greige and scoured ballistic fabric were treated with a superhydrophobic coating and their weights and degree of water repellency were compared to specimens of untreated fabric. Treatment of both greige and scoured ballistic fabrics yielded highly water repellent fabrics. Our measurements of the water droplet contact angles gave values of approximately 150 , near the lower limit of 160 for superhydrophobic surfaces. The coatings increased the fabric weights by approximately 6%, an amount that is many times less than the estimated weight increase in a conventional treatment of ballistic fabric. The treated fabrics retained a significant amount of water repellency following a basic abrasion test, with water droplet contact angles decreasing by 14 to 23 . Microscopic analysis of the coating applied to woven fabrics indicated that the coating adhered equally well to fibers of greige and scoured yarns. Future evaluation of the superhydrophobic water repellent treatment will involve the manufacture of shoot packs of treated fabric for ballistic testing and provide an analysis of manufacturing scale-up and cost-to-benefit considerations.

  10. Production of chitosan-based non-woven membranes using the electrospinning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakravan Lonbani, Mehdi

    Chitosan is a modified natural polymer mainly produced from chitin, one of the most abundant organic materials in the world. Highly porous chitosan mats present the specific physicochemical properties of the base material and also benefit from the physical characteristics of nanoporous membranes. Electrospinning is a novel technique developed long time ago and revisited recently that can generate polymeric fibers with nanometric size. The ultimate purpose of this work is to fabricate microporous non-woven chitosan membranes for wound healing dressings and heavy metal ion removal from drinking water. In this dissertation, two approaches have been utilized to prepare chitosan-based nanofibers; blending and co-axial electrospinning of chitosan solution with a readily electrospinnable solution, i.e. an aqueous solution of polyethylene oxide (PEO). Consequently, understanding the phase behavior and miscibility of aqueous acidic solutions of chitosan and PEO and their blends is of crucial importance, as any phase separation occurring during the electrospinning process greatly changes the morphology and physico-mechanical properties of the final products. First we employed the rheological approach on a well-known aqueous PEO solution to develop the experimental protocol. By comparing these critical points with that obtained from other experimental techniques, we showed that rheological measurements can sensitively detect early stages of phase separation. Subsequently the method was applied to 50 wt% aqueous acetic acid solutions of PEO, chitosan and their blends at different ratios. These solutions showed a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) phase diagram that is attributed to the existence of hydrogen bonds between active groups on chitosan and PEO backbone and the solvent. Critical decomposition temperatures for binodal and spinodal points were estimated from isochronal temperature sweep experiments. The obtained binodal temperatures confirmed that chitosan

  11. Models for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2007-11-06

    Synthetic biological engineering is emerging from biology as a distinct discipline based on quantification. The technologies propelling synthetic biology are not new, nor is the concept of designing novel biological molecules. What is new is the emphasis on system behavior. The objective is the design and construction of new biological devices and systems to deliver useful applications. Numerous synthetic gene circuits have been created in the past decade, including bistable switches, oscillators, and logic gates, and possible applications abound, including biofuels, detectors for biochemical and chemical weapons, disease diagnosis, and gene therapies. More than fifty years after the discovery of the molecular structure of DNA, molecular biology is mature enough for real quantification that is useful for biological engineering applications, similar to the revolution in modeling in chemistry in the 1950s. With the excitement that synthetic biology is generating, the engineering and biological science communities appear remarkably willing to cross disciplinary boundaries toward a common goal.

  12. Technical Assessment: Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Pfizer, Bausch & Lomb, Coca - Cola , and other Fortune 500 companies 8 Data estimated by the... financial prize for ideas to drive forward the production of a sensor relying on synthetic organisms that can detect exposure to 500 specific chemicals

  13. 78 FR 64472 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited First...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited First Sunset Review of the Antidumping Duty...'') initiated the first five-year (``sunset'') review of the antidumping duty order on laminated woven sacks from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as...

  14. 75 FR 81218 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the Second...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the Second Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... laminated woven sacks (``LWS'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') covering the period August 1, 2009, through July 31, 2010. This review covers imports of subject merchandise from one manufacturer...

  15. Shear behavior of thermoformed woven-textile thermoplastic prepregs: An analysis combining bias-extension test and X-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassoumi, M.; Rolland du Roscoat, S.; Casari, P.; Dumont, P. J. J.; Orgéas, L.; Jacquemin, F.

    2017-10-01

    Thermoforming allows the manufacture of structural parts for the automotive and aeronautical domains using long fiber thermoplastic prepregs with short cycle times. During this operation, several sheets of molten prepregs are stacked and subjected to large macroscale strains, mainly via in-plane shear, out-of-plane consolidation or dilatation, and bending of the fibrous reinforcement. These deformation modes and the related meso and microstructure evolutions are still poorly understood. However, they can drastically alter the end-use macroscale properties of fabricated parts. To better understand these phenomena, bias extension tests were performed using specimens made of several stacked layers of glass woven fabrics and polyamide matrix. The macroscale shear behavior of these prepregs was investigated at various temperatures. A multiscale analysis of deformed samples was performed using X-ray microtomography images of the deformed specimens acquired at two different spatial resolutions. The low-resolution images were used to analyze the deformation mechanisms and the structural characteristics of prepregs at the macroscale and bundle scales. It was possible to analyze the 3D shapes of deformed samples and, in particular, the spatial variations of their thickness so as to quantify the out-of-plane dilatancy or consolidation phenomena induced by the in-plane shear of prepregs. At a lower scale, the analysis of the high-resolution images showed that these mechanisms were accompanied by the growth of pores and the deformation of fiber bundles. The orientation of the fiber bundles and its through-thickness evolution were measured along the weft and warp directions in the deformed samples, allowing the relevance of geometrical models currently used to analyze bias extension tests to be discussed. Results can be used to enhance the current rheological models for the prediction of thermoforming of thermoplastic prepregs.

  16. An Integrated Computational Materials Engineering Method for Woven Carbon Fiber Composites Preforming Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weizhao; Ren, Huaqing; Wang, Zequn; Liu, Wing K.; Chen, Wei; Zeng, Danielle; Su, Xuming; Cao, Jian

    2016-10-19

    An integrated computational materials engineering method is proposed in this paper for analyzing the design and preforming process of woven carbon fiber composites. The goal is to reduce the cost and time needed for the mass production of structural composites. It integrates the simulation methods from the micro-scale to the macro-scale to capture the behavior of the composite material in the preforming process. In this way, the time consuming and high cost physical experiments and prototypes in the development of the manufacturing process can be circumvented. This method contains three parts: the micro-scale representative volume element (RVE) simulation to characterize the material; the metamodeling algorithm to generate the constitutive equations; and the macro-scale preforming simulation to predict the behavior of the composite material during forming. The results show the potential of this approach as a guidance to the design of composite materials and its manufacturing process.

  17. Vacuum Characterization of a Woven Carbon Fiber Cryosorber in Presence of $H_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Baglin, V; Garcin, T

    2004-01-01

    Some of the cold bores of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will operate at 4.5K. In these elements, the desorbed H2 pressure will rapidly reach the saturated vapour pressure, 3 orders of magnitude larger than the design pressure. Therefore, the use of cryosorbers is mandatory to provide the required pumping capacity and pumping speed. The behaviour of a woven carbon fiber to be potentially used as a cryosorber has been studied under H2 injection. The pumping speed and capacity measured in the range 6 to 30 K are described. Observations made with an electron microscope are shown. A proposed pumping mechanism and the implications for the LHC are discussed.

  18. Static and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Graphene Oxide-Incorporated Woven Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Nitai Chandra; Chhetri, Suman; Kim, Nam Hoon; Murmu, Naresh Chandra; Samanta, Pranab; Kuila, Tapas

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the synergistic effects of graphene oxide (GO) on the woven carbon fiber (CF)-reinforced epoxy composites. The GO nanofiller was incorporated into the epoxy resin with variations in the content, and the CF/epoxy composites were manufactured using a vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding process and then cured at 70 and 120 °C. An analysis of the mechanical properties of the GO (0.2 wt.%)/CF/epoxy composites showed an improvement in the tensile strength, Young's modulus, toughness, flexural strength and flexural modulus by 34, 20, 83, 55 and 31%, respectively, when compared to the CF/epoxy composite. The dynamic mechanical analysis of the composites exhibited an enhancement of 56, 114 and 22% in the storage modulus, loss modulus and damping capacity (tan δ), respectively, at its glass transition temperature. The fiber-matrix interaction was studied using a Cole-Cole plot analysis.

  19. Textile electrodes woven by carbon nanotube-graphene hybrid fibers for flexible electrochemical capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huhu; Dong, Zelin; Hu, Chuangang; Zhao, Yang; Hu, Yue; Qu, Liangti; Chen, Nan; Dai, Liming

    2013-04-21

    Functional graphene-based fibers are promising as new types of flexible building blocks for the construction of wearable architectures and devices. Unique one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2D graphene (CNT/G) hybrid fibers with a large surface area and high electrical conductivity have been achieved by pre-intercalating graphene fibers with Fe3O4 nanoparticles for subsequent CVD growth of CNTs. The CNT/G hybrid fibers can be further woven into textile electrodes for the construction of flexible supercapacitors with a high tolerance to the repeated bending cycles. Various other applications, such as catalysis, separation, and adsorption, can be envisioned for the CNT/G hybrid fibers.

  20. Strain Sharing Assessment in Woven Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanini, Roberto; Recupero, Antonino; De Domenico, Fabrizio; Freni, Fabrizio

    2016-09-22

    Embedded fiber Bragg grating sensors have been extensively used worldwide for health monitoring of smart structures. In civil engineering, they provide a powerful method for monitoring the performance of composite reinforcements used for concrete structure rehabilitation and retrofitting. This paper discusses the problem of investigating the strain transfer mechanism in composite strengthened concrete beams subjected to three-point bending tests. Fiber Bragg grating sensors were embedded both in the concrete tensioned surface and in the woven fiber reinforcement. It has been shown that, if interface decoupling occurs, strain in the concrete can be up to 3.8 times higher than that developed in the reinforcement. A zero friction slipping model was developed which fitted very well the experimental data.

  1. Mesoscopic Strains Maps in Woven Composite Laminas During Off-axis Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletto G.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanics of woven carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP composites is influenced by the complex architecture of the reinforcement phase. Computational (i.e. finite element based approaches have been used increasingly to model not only the global laminate stiffness, but also damage evolution and laminate strength. The modeling combines the identification of the architectural unit cell (UC, the selection of suitable constitutive models of the different phases, the creation of a fine discretization of the UC in finite elements, the application of an incremental solution procedure that solves iteratively for the stresses and strains in the UC, [1]. The experimental validation of computational models is carried out mainly at the macroscopical level, i.e. simulation of the macroscopic stress-strain curve. Damage, however, is a localized, straindependent phenomenon and therefore only accurate strain distribution within the UC (at the mesolevel can identify critical conditions in terms of damage location, extension and evolution. The validation of computational damage procedures is a key task and full-field optical strain analysis methods appear the ideal instrument. However, only limited examples of direct finte element method (FEM vs experimental strain correlation are found because of the limited sensitivity and spatial resolution of some techniques and the complexity and applicative difficulty of others. The aim of the present paper is to present the application of the digital image correlation (DIC technique, [2], to the full-field strain analysis at the mesoscopic level (i.e. within the UC of a woven CFRP lamina when the direction of loading forms an angle to the material direction. The material under consideration is a woven carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite. Orthogonal yarns, each made of of several thousand fibers, are woven according the twill-weave architecture is shown in Fig. 1a. Single-ply laminas were manufactured and tested to

  2. Studies of LENRA-Toughened PVC non-woven membranes prepared by electro spinning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan Mohd; Mahathir Mohamed; Khirul Hafiz mohd Yusof

    2010-01-01

    Lately research in use of so-called green chemicals draws strong interest from research community due to the climate change issues. Malaysia is in strong position to take this advantage because we are among the world biggest producers of natural rubber and palm oil - the two sources of important green renewable chemical feedstock in the near future. For the last couple of years we have shown how modified natural rubbers especially liquid natural rubber and its derivatives such as liquid epoxidized natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) could be used in various applications via among others sol-gel technique and radiation curing technology. This time around we will show another application on how non-woven membranes made from PVC can be prepared by electro spinning technique using radiation curable LENRA as toughener. The electro spinning technique has great potential in producing nano fiber materials to be used in various applications to ensure sustainable energy and environments for the future. (author)

  3. Synthetic Biology: Applications in the Food Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Ashish; Kumar, Ashwani; Aparna, S V; Mallappa, Rashmi H; Grover, Sunita; Batish, Virender Kumar

    2016-08-17

    Synthetic biology also termed as "genomic alchemy" represents a powerful area of science that is based on the convergence of biological sciences with systems engineering. It has been fittingly described as "moving from reading the genetic code to writing it" as it focuses on building, modeling, designing and fabricating novel biological systems using customized gene components that result in artificially created genetic circuitry. The scientifically compelling idea of the technological manipulation of life has been advocated since long time. Realization of this idea has gained momentum with development of high speed automation and the falling cost of gene sequencing and synthesis following the completion of the human genome project. Synthetic biology will certainly be instrumental in shaping the development of varying areas ranging from biomedicine, biopharmaceuticals, chemical production, food and dairy quality monitoring, packaging, and storage of food and dairy products, bioremediation and bioenergy production, etc. However, potential dangers of using synthetic life forms have to be acknowledged and adoption of policies by the scientific community to ensure safe practice while making important advancements in the ever expanding field of synthetic biology is to be fully supported and implemented.

  4. Comparative Study of 3-Dimensional Woven Joint Architectures for Composite Spacecraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Justin S.; Polis, Daniel L.; Segal, Kenneth N.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Mission Directorate initiated an Advanced Composite Technology (ACT) Project through the Exploration Technology Development Program in order to support the polymer composite needs for future heavy lift launch architectures. As an example, the large composite structural applications on Ares V inspired the evaluation of advanced joining technologies, specifically 3D woven composite joints, which could be applied to traditionally manufactured barrel segments. Implementation of these 3D woven joint technologies may offer enhancements in damage tolerance without sacrificing weight. However, baseline mechanical performance data is needed to properly analyze the joint stresses and subsequently design/down-select a preform architecture. Six different configurations were designed and prepared for this study; each consisting of a different combination of warp/fill fiber volume ratio and preform interlocking method (z-fiber, fully interlocked, or hybrid). Tensile testing was performed for this study with the enhancement of a dual camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system which provides the capability to measure full-field strains and three dimensional displacements of objects under load. As expected, the ratio of warp/fill fiber has a direct influence on strength and modulus, with higher values measured in the direction of higher fiber volume bias. When comparing the z-fiber weave to a fully interlocked weave with comparable fiber bias, the z-fiber weave demonstrated the best performance in two different comparisons. We report the measured tensile strengths and moduli for test coupons from the 6 different weave configurations under study.

  5. Analysis of Mechanical Properties of Fabrics of Different Raw Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aušra ADOMAITIENĖ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes dependence of mechanical properties (breaking force, elongation at break, static friction force and static friction coefficient on integrated fabric structure factor j and raw material density r, among the fabrics of different raw material (cotton, wool, polypropylene, polyester and polyacrylnitrile and woven in different conditions. The received results demonstrate that sometimes strong dependences exist (wool, polypropylene and polyacrylnitrile, whereas in some cases (cotton and polyester there is no correlation. It was also discovered that the breaking force and elongation at break in the direction of weft increase, when fabric structure becomes more rigid. In the meantime variations of the curves in the direction of warp are insignificant. Regarding static friction force and static friction coefficient (found in two cases, when fabrics were rubbing against leather and materials, it was discovered that consistency of the curves is irregular, i. e. they either increase or decrease, when integrated fabric structure factor j growth. It was also identified that some dependences are not strong and relationship between explored and analyzed factors does not exist. Variation of all these mechanical properties with respect to material density r enables to conclude that increase of material density r results in poor dependences or they are whatsoever non-existent.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.2.487

  6. Development of synthetic graphite resistive elements for sintering furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, C.; Rezende, Mirabel C.; Polidoro, H.A.; Otani, S.

    1987-01-01

    The synthetic graphites have been produced using lignin coke, natural graphite and phenolic resin. The bulk density, porosity, flexural strength and eletrical resistivity measurements have been performed on specimens at about 2400 0 C. The performance of these materials, as heating elements, was evaluated in a sintering furnace prototype. This paper reports the fabrication process and the experimental results. (Author) [pt

  7. Arrays of Synthetic Atoms: Nanocapacitor Batteries with Large Energy Density and Small Leak Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-28

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0169 TR-2017-0169 ARRAYS OF SYNTHETIC ATOMS: NANOCAPACITOR BATTERIES WITH LARGE ENERGY DENSITY AND SMALL LEAK...1-0247 Arrays of Synthetic Atoms: Nanocapacitor Batteries with Large Energy Density and Small Leak Currents 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...large dielectric strength to a nanoscale rechargeable battery . We fabricated arrays of one-, two- and three-dimensional synthetic atoms and comparison

  8. Enhanced impact properties of cementitious composites reinforced with pultruded flax/polymeric matrix fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdi El-Messiry

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced concrete (FRC has become increasingly applied in civil engineering in the last decades. Natural fiber fabric reinforced cement composites are considered to prevent damage resulting from an impact loading on the cementite plate. Flax woven fabric that has a high energy absorption capability was chosen. To increase the interfacial shear properties, the fabric was pultruded with different matrix properties that affect the strength and toughness of the pultruded fabric. In this study, three fabric structures are used to increase the anchoring of the cement in the fabric. The compressive strength and the impact energy were measured. The results revealed that pultruded fabric reinforced cement composite (PFRC absorbs much more impact energy. PFRC under impact loading has more micro cracks, while plain cement specimen shows brittle failure. The compressive test results of PFRC indicate that flax fiber fabric polymer enhanced compressive strength remarkably. Fiber reinforcement is a very effective in improving the impact resistance of PFRC. The study defines the influence factors that control the energy dissipation of the composite, which are the hardness of the polymer and the fabric cover factor. Significant correlation between impact energy and compressive strength was proved.

  9. What Are Synthetic Cannabinoids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... years, synthetic cannabinoid mixtures have been easy to buy in drug paraphernalia shops, novelty stores, gas stations, and over ... abuse, authorities have made it illegal to sell, buy, or possess some of ... use is that standard drug tests cannot easily detect many of the chemicals ...

  10. Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2008-01-01

    A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective is to im......A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective...... is to improve and obtain a more range independent lateral resolution compared to conventional dynamic receive focusing (DRF) without compromising frame rate. SASB is a two-stage procedure using two separate beamformers. First a set of Bmode image lines using a single focal point in both transmit and receive...... is stored. The second stage applies the focused image lines from the first stage as input data. The SASB method has been investigated using simulations in Field II and by off-line processing of data acquired with a commercial scanner. The performance of SASB with a static image object is compared with DRF...

  11. Building synthetic cellular organization

    OpenAIRE

    Polka, Jessica K.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    The elaborate spatial organization of cells enhances, restricts, and regulates protein–protein interactions. However, the biological significance of this organization has been difficult to study without ways of directly perturbing it. We highlight synthetic biology tools for engineering novel cellular organization, describing how they have been, and can be, used to advance cell biology.

  12. Towards a synthetic chloroplast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Agapakis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of eukaryotic cells is widely agreed to have proceeded through a series of endosymbiotic events between larger cells and proteobacteria or cyanobacteria, leading to the formation of mitochondria or chloroplasts, respectively. Engineered endosymbiotic relationships between different species of cells are a valuable tool for synthetic biology, where engineered pathways based on two species could take advantage of the unique abilities of each mutualistic partner.We explored the possibility of using the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 as a platform for studying evolutionary dynamics and for designing two-species synthetic biological systems. We observed that the cyanobacteria were relatively harmless to eukaryotic host cells compared to Escherichia coli when injected into the embryos of zebrafish, Danio rerio, or taken up by mammalian macrophages. In addition, when engineered with invasin from Yersinia pestis and listeriolysin O from Listeria monocytogenes, S. elongatus was able to invade cultured mammalian cells and divide inside macrophages.Our results show that it is possible to engineer photosynthetic bacteria to invade the cytoplasm of mammalian cells for further engineering and applications in synthetic biology. Engineered invasive but non-pathogenic or immunogenic photosynthetic bacteria have great potential as synthetic biological devices.

  13. Synthetic Metabolic Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Synthetic Metabolic Pathways: Methods and Protocols aims to ensure successful results in the further study...

  14. An Ethology of Urban Fabric(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2014-01-01

    The article explores a non-metaphorical understanding of urban fabric(s), shifting the attention from a bird’s eye perspective to the actual, textural manifestations of a variety of urban fabric(s) to be studied in their real, processual, ecological and ethological complexity within urban life. We...... effectuate this move by bringing into resonance a range of intersecting fields that all deal with urban fabric(s) in complementary ways (interaction design and urban design activism, fashion, cultural theory, philosophy, urban computing)....

  15. The thermal non-equilibrium porous media modelling for CFD study of woven wire matrix of a Stirling regenerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, S.C.; Barreno, I.; Tutar, M.; Esnaola, J.A.; Barrutia, H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A numerical procedure to derive porous media’s coefficients is proposed. • The local thermal non-equilibrium porous media model is more suitable for regenerators. • The regenerator temperature profiles can be better fitted to a logarithmic curve. • The wound woven wire matrix provides lower performance compared to stacked. • The numerical characterization methodology is useful for the multi-D Stirling engine models. - Abstract: Different numerical methods can be applied to the analysis of the flow through the Stirling engine regenerator. One growing approach is to model the regenerator as porous medium to simulate and design the full Stirling engine in three-dimensional (3-D) manner. In general, the friction resistance coefficients and heat transfer coefficient are experimentally obtained to describe the flow and thermal non-equilibrium through a porous medium. A finite volume method (FVM) based non-thermal equilibrium porous media modelling approach characterizing the fluid flow and heat transfer in a representative small detailed flow domain of the woven wire matrix is proposed here to obtain the porous media coefficients without further requirement of experimental studies. The results are considered to be equivalent to those obtained from the detailed woven wire matrix for the pressure drop and heat transfer. Once the equivalence between the models is verified, this approach is extended to model oscillating regeneration cycles through a full size regenerator porous media for two different woven wire matrix configurations of stacked and wound types. The results suggest that the numerical modelling approach proposed here can be applied with confidence to model the regenerator as a porous media in the multi-dimensional (multi-D) simulations of Stirling engines

  16. Modeling of an improved chemical vapor infiltration process for ceramic composites fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, N.H.; Chou, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    A quasi-steady-state approach is applied to model the pressure-driven, temperature-gradient chemical vapor infiltration (improved CVI process) for ceramic matrix composites fabrication. The deposited matrix in this study is SiC which is converted from the thermal decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane gas under excess hydrogen. A three-dimensional unit cell is adopted to simulate the spatial arrangements of reinforcements in discontinuous fiber mats and three-dimensionally woven fabrics. The objectives of this paper are to predict the temperature and density distributions in a fibrous preform during processing, the advancement of the solidified front, the total fabrication period, and the vapor inlet pressure variation for maintaining a constant flow rate

  17. Synthetic Electric Microbial Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-10

    domains and DNA-binding domains into a single protein for deregulation of down stream genes of have been favored [10]. Initially experiments with... Germany DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited.   Talk title: “Synthetic biology based microbial biosensors for the...toolbox” in Heidelberg, Germany Poster title: “Anaerobic whole cell microbial biosensors” Link: http://phdsymposium.embl.org/#home   September, 2014

  18. Fabric tensile strength as affected by different anti pilling agents at various concentration and ph levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusief, M.Q.; Mahmood, N.; Saleem, M.

    2013-01-01

    Pilling is a phenomenon that has a long cause trouble in textile industry. It is the formation of pills or knops on the surface of woven or knitted fabrics caused by friction and abrasion. If fabric has a pronounced tendency to pilling, their appearances suffer severely after a short period of use. The pilling of fabrics is a serious problem for the apparel industry. The use of anti pilling finishes is one of the best techniques to control the pilling of the fabric. In this method fabric is treated with special anti pilling agents to prevent pilling that promote adhesion of the fibres in the yarn or the fabric. This paper endeavors to optimize the application of different anti pilling agents at different concentration and pH levels on the Tensile Strength of P/C fabric for best results. The results exposed that different anti pilling finishes have significant effects on the Tensile Strength of fabric at different concentration level however different pH levels have no considerable effects. (author)

  19. Fabrication and Prototyping Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Fabrication and Prototyping Lab for composite structures provides a wide variety of fabrication capabilities critical to enabling hands-on research and...

  20. Paper-based synthetic gene networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardee, Keith; Green, Alexander A; Ferrante, Tom; Cameron, D Ewen; DaleyKeyser, Ajay; Yin, Peng; Collins, James J

    2014-11-06

    Synthetic gene networks have wide-ranging uses in reprogramming and rewiring organisms. To date, there has not been a way to harness the vast potential of these networks beyond the constraints of a laboratory or in vivo environment. Here, we present an in vitro paper-based platform that provides an alternate, versatile venue for synthetic biologists to operate and a much-needed medium for the safe deployment of engineered gene circuits beyond the lab. Commercially available cell-free systems are freeze dried onto paper, enabling the inexpensive, sterile, and abiotic distribution of synthetic-biology-based technologies for the clinic, global health, industry, research, and education. For field use, we create circuits with colorimetric outputs for detection by eye and fabricate a low-cost, electronic optical interface. We demonstrate this technology with small-molecule and RNA actuation of genetic switches, rapid prototyping of complex gene circuits, and programmable in vitro diagnostics, including glucose sensors and strain-specific Ebola virus sensors.

  1. Paper-based Synthetic Gene Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardee, Keith; Green, Alexander A.; Ferrante, Tom; Cameron, D. Ewen; DaleyKeyser, Ajay; Yin, Peng; Collins, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic gene networks have wide-ranging uses in reprogramming and rewiring organisms. To date, there has not been a way to harness the vast potential of these networks beyond the constraints of a laboratory or in vivo environment. Here, we present an in vitro paper-based platform that provides a new venue for synthetic biologists to operate, and a much-needed medium for the safe deployment of engineered gene circuits beyond the lab. Commercially available cell-free systems are freeze-dried onto paper, enabling the inexpensive, sterile and abiotic distribution of synthetic biology-based technologies for the clinic, global health, industry, research and education. For field use, we create circuits with colorimetric outputs for detection by eye, and fabricate a low-cost, electronic optical interface. We demonstrate this technology with small molecule and RNA actuation of genetic switches, rapid prototyping of complex gene circuits, and programmable in vitro diagnostics, including glucose sensors and strain-specific Ebola virus sensors. PMID:25417167

  2. Fabrication of recyclable superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Wook; Park, Eun Ji; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Il Hee; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Ju Hwan; Kim, Kwang-Dae; Kim, Young Dok

    2017-04-01

    Commercial cotton fabric was coated with SiO2 nanoparticles wrapped with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, and the resulting material surface showed a water contact angle greater than 160°. The superhydrophobic fabric showed resistance to water-soluble contaminants and maintained its original superhydrophobic properties with almost no alteration even after many times of absorption-washing cycles of oil. Moreover, superhydrophobic fabric can be used as a filter to separate oil from water. We demonstrated a simple method of fabrication of superhydrophobic fabric with potential interest for use in a variety of applications.

  3. Protozoa and metazoa relations to technological conditions of non-woven textile filters for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spychała, Marcin; Sowińska, Aleksandra; Starzyk, Justyna; Masłowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was a preliminary identification of basic groups of micro-organisms in the cross-sectional profile of geotextile filters for septic tank effluent (STE) treatment and their relations to technological conditions. Reactors with textile filters treating wastewater were investigated on a semi-technical scale. Filters were vertically situated and STE was filtered through them under hydrostatic pressure at a wastewater surface height of 7-20 cm. Filters were made of four layers of non-woven TS 20 geotextile of 0.9 mm thickness. Various groups of organisms were observed; the most abundant group comprised free-swimming and crawling ciliates, less abundant were stalked ciliates and the least numerous were nematodes. The individual counts of all groups of micro-organisms investigated during the study were variable according to time and space. The high abundance of Opercularia, a commonly observed genus of stalked ciliates, was related to the high efficiency of wastewater treatment and dissolved oxygen concentration of about 1.0 g/m3. Numbers of free-swimming and crawling ciliates had a tendency to decrease in relation to the depth of filter cross-sectional profile. The variability in counts of particular groups of organisms could be related to the local stress conditions. No correlation between identified organism count and total mass concentration in the cross-sectional filter profile was found.

  4. Periodic flow hydrodynamic resistance parameters for woven screen matrices at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrella, M. D.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    The regenerator is a critical component in all Stirling and Pulse Tube cryocoolers. It generally consists of a microporous metallic or rare-earth filler material contained within a cylindrical shell. Accurate modelling of the hydrodynamic and thermal behaviour of different regenerator materials is crucial to the successful design of cryogenic systems. Previous investigations have used experimental measurements at steady and periodic flow conditions in conjunction with pore-level CFD analysis to determine the pertinent hydrodynamic parameters, namely the Darcy permeability and Forchheimer coefficients. Due to the difficulty associated with experimental measurement at cryogenic temperatures, past investigations were mostly performed at ambient conditions and their results are assumed to be appropriate for cryogenic temperatures. In this study, a regenerator filled with woven screen matrices such as 400 mesh T316 stainless steel were assembled and experimentally tested under periodic helium flow at cryogenic temperatures. The mass flow and pressure drop data were analysed using CFD to determine the dimensionless friction factor, Darcy Permeability and Forchheimer coefficients. These results are compared to previous investigations at ambient temperature conditions, and the relevance of room-temperature models and correlations to cryogenic temperatures is critically assessed.

  5. Experimental Tensile Strength Analysis of Woven-Glass/Epoxy Composite Plates with Central Circular Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Bambang K.; Rofa, Bima K.

    2018-04-01

    The use of composite materials in aerospace engineering, as well as in maritime structure has increased significantly during the recent years. The extensive use of composite materials in industrial applications should make composite structural engineers and scientists more aware of the advantage and disadvantage of this material and provide them with necessary data and certification process. One of the problems in composite structures is the existence of hole. Hole can not be avoided in actual structures, since it may be the necessity of providing access for maintenance or due to impact damage. The presence of hole will weaken the structures. Therefore, in this paper, the effect of hole on the strength of glass-woven/epoxy composite will be discussed. Extensive tests have been carried out to study the effect of hole-diameter on the tensile strengths of these specimens. The results showed that the bigger the hole-diameter compared to the width of the specimens has weakened the structures further, as expected. Further study should be carried in the future to model it with the finite element and theoretical analysis precisely.

  6. Micro-mechanics based damage mechanics for 3D Orthogonal Woven Composites: Experiment and Numerical Modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Saleh, Mohamed Nasr

    2016-01-08

    Damage initiation and evolution of three-dimensional (3D) orthogonal woven carbon fibre composite (3DOWC) is investigated experimentally and numerically. Meso-scale homogenisation of the representative volume element (RVE) is utilised to predict the elastic properties, simulate damage initiation and evolution when loaded in tension. The effect of intra-yarns transverse cracking and shear diffused damage on the in-plane transverse modulus and shear modulus is investigated while one failure criterion is introduced to simulate the matrix damage. The proposed model is based on two major assumptions. First, the effect of the binder yarns, on the in-plane properties, is neglected, so the 3DOWC unit cell can be approximated as a (0o/90o) cross-ply laminate. Second, a micro-mechanics based damage approach is used at the meso-scale, so damage indicators can be correlated, explicitly, to the density of cracks within the material. Results from the simulated RVE are validated against experimental results along the warp (0o direction) and weft (90o direction). This approach paves the road for more predictive models as damage evolution laws are obtained from micro mechanical considerations and rely on few well-defined material parameters. This largely differs from classical damage mechanics approaches in which the evolution law is obtained by retrofitting experimental observations.

  7. Micro-mechanics based damage mechanics for 3D Orthogonal Woven Composites: Experiment and Numerical Modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Saleh, Mohamed Nasr; Lubineau, Gilles; Potluri, Prasad; Withers, Philip; Soutis, Constantinos

    2016-01-01

    Damage initiation and evolution of three-dimensional (3D) orthogonal woven carbon fibre composite (3DOWC) is investigated experimentally and numerically. Meso-scale homogenisation of the representative volume element (RVE) is utilised to predict the elastic properties, simulate damage initiation and evolution when loaded in tension. The effect of intra-yarns transverse cracking and shear diffused damage on the in-plane transverse modulus and shear modulus is investigated while one failure criterion is introduced to simulate the matrix damage. The proposed model is based on two major assumptions. First, the effect of the binder yarns, on the in-plane properties, is neglected, so the 3DOWC unit cell can be approximated as a (0o/90o) cross-ply laminate. Second, a micro-mechanics based damage approach is used at the meso-scale, so damage indicators can be correlated, explicitly, to the density of cracks within the material. Results from the simulated RVE are validated against experimental results along the warp (0o direction) and weft (90o direction). This approach paves the road for more predictive models as damage evolution laws are obtained from micro mechanical considerations and rely on few well-defined material parameters. This largely differs from classical damage mechanics approaches in which the evolution law is obtained by retrofitting experimental observations.

  8. Investigation of Effects of Material Architecture on the Elastic Response of a Woven Ceramic Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Bonacuse, Peter J.; Mital, Subodh K.

    2012-01-01

    To develop methods for quantifying the effects of the microstructural variations of woven ceramic matrix composites on the effective properties and response of the material, a research program has been undertaken which is described in this paper. In order to characterize and quantify the variations in the microstructure of a five harness satin weave, CVI SiC/SiC, composite material, specimens were serially sectioned and polished to capture images that detailed the fiber tows, matrix, and porosity. Open source quantitative image analysis tools were then used to isolate the constituents and collect relevant statistics such as within ply tow spacing. This information was then used to build two dimensional finite element models that approximated the observed section geometry. With the aid of geometrical models generated by the microstructural characterization process, finite element models were generated and analyses were performed to quantify the effects of the microstructure and its variation on the effective stiffness and areas of stress concentration of the material. The results indicated that the geometry and distribution of the porosity appear to have significant effects on the through-thickness modulus. Similarly, stress concentrations on the outer surface of the composite appear to correlate to regions where the transverse tows are separated by a critical amount.

  9. Mechanical Properties of Non-Woven Polyester Fibers and Polymer-Modified Bitumen Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Hadadi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Blown bitumen (110/10 was mixed with heavy vacuum slops (H.V.S, 60/70 penetration grade bitumen and recycled isotactic polypropylene (iPP at different levels. The resulting resins were used to impregnate non-woven poly(ethylene terephthalate fibers to form composites. The modulus and penetration grade of the resulting bituminous resins were determined. It was found that these bituminous resins drastically affect the modulus of the composites formed by low-Young’s modulus fibers such as polyesters. Consequently, interactions between resin and fibers and the correlation length of asphalthenes (in absence of iPP and interdiffused coalescence and segregated network of asphalthenes (in presence of iPP result in a non-linear behavior of composite’s modulus. The behavior of the composites with or without iPP is controlled by resin toughness and resin interactions with the fiber through the viscosity. Comparison of the experimental composite modulus data with the theoretical modulus data revealed that the Takayanangi’s model best predicts the behavior of these composites. The adjustment factors of this model were reported and proposed as an indication of fiber-resin interaction. It was also found that the modulus of fibers is affected by toughness, viscosity and the iPP content of the bituminous resin.

  10. Opportunities in plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Charis; Martin, Lisa; Bastow, Ruth

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging field uniting scientists from all disciplines with the aim of designing or re-designing biological processes. Initially, synthetic biology breakthroughs came from microbiology, chemistry, physics, computer science, materials science, mathematics, and engineering disciplines. A transition to multicellular systems is the next logical step for synthetic biologists and plants will provide an ideal platform for this new phase of research. This meeting report highlights some of the exciting plant synthetic biology projects, and tools and resources, presented and discussed at the 2013 GARNet workshop on plant synthetic biology.

  11. Ion exchange nonwoven fabric chemical filter. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Hideaki

    2000-01-01

    This report outlined the characteristics of EPIX filter and its complex with activated carbon to eliminate organic compounds from solvent. Elimination performance of this filter was determined using an ion chromatographic analyzer. EPIX filter showed high performance to eliminate trace amount of ionic compounds. The rate of elimination was both 99% or more for NH 3 and SO 2 in an early phase of filtration. Release of dust as well as impurities was significantly reduced by the use of EPIX filter. Gases once adsorbed on the filter were not released even at an elevated temperature of atmosphere. Combined use of non-woven fabrics was possible. For EPIX filter, there are three kinds; strong acid cation exchange filter and strong/weak basic anion filters. The weak basic anion filter has been applied to the conventional apparatus in wafer makers because the filter was very effective for selective boron trapping. When polyethyleneterephthalate was used as the base polymer, radical groups produced on the polymer were co-polymerized with monomer substances. The lifetime of filter was estimated on a base of gas concentration and wind velocity to determine the time to replace with a new one. Furthermore, the loss of pressure became less than a half when EPIX filter was used. (M.N.)

  12. Parallel fabrication of macroporous scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, Andrew; Grandhi, Taraka Sai Pavan; Godeshala, Sudhakar; Meldrum, Deirdre R; Rege, Kaushal

    2018-07-01

    Scaffolds generated from naturally occurring and synthetic polymers have been investigated in several applications because of their biocompatibility and tunable chemo-mechanical properties. Existing methods for generation of 3D polymeric scaffolds typically cannot be parallelized, suffer from low throughputs, and do not allow for quick and easy removal of the fragile structures that are formed. Current molds used in hydrogel and scaffold fabrication using solvent casting and porogen leaching are often single-use and do not facilitate 3D scaffold formation in parallel. Here, we describe a simple device and related approaches for the parallel fabrication of macroporous scaffolds. This approach was employed for the generation of macroporous and non-macroporous materials in parallel, in higher throughput and allowed for easy retrieval of these 3D scaffolds once formed. In addition, macroporous scaffolds with interconnected as well as non-interconnected pores were generated, and the versatility of this approach was employed for the generation of 3D scaffolds from diverse materials including an aminoglycoside-derived cationic hydrogel ("Amikagel"), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) or PLGA, and collagen. Macroporous scaffolds generated using the device were investigated for plasmid DNA binding and cell loading, indicating the use of this approach for developing materials for different applications in biotechnology. Our results demonstrate that the device-based approach is a simple technology for generating scaffolds in parallel, which can enhance the toolbox of current fabrication techniques. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The influence of FLiNaK salt impregnation on the mechanical properties of a 2D woven C/C composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dongsheng, E-mail: zhangdongsheng@sinap.ac.cn; Xia, Huihao; Yang, Xinmei, E-mail: yangxinmei@sinap.ac.cn; Feng, Shanglei; Song, Jinliang; Zhou, Xingtai

    2017-03-15

    Impregnating of molten LiF-NaF-KF salt (LiF-NaF-KF: 46.5–11.5-42 mol%, FLiNaK) into a 2D woven C/C composite was performed at 650 °C under different pressure. The weight gain and mechanical properties change of the 2D woven C/C composite after FLiNaK salt impregnation were measured. The FLiNaK salt distribution into the 2D woven C/C composite was observed by X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the weight gain of the 2D woven C/C composite increased with increasing impregnating pressure. In X-ray CT images, FLiNaK salt was distributed into the open pores and fissures among fiber bundles and neighboring plies. The interlaminar shear strength, compressive strength, and flexural strength of the 2D woven C/C composite increased with the increase of weight gain. The influence of FLiNaK salt impregnation on the mechanical properties was attributed to the coupling effect of re-densification of FLiNaK salt impregnation and residual stress formed in 2D woven C/C composite. - Highlights: • FLiNaK salt was distributed into the open pores and fissures among fiber bundles. • The mechanical properties of the 2D woven C/C composite increased with the increase of weight gain. • The influence of FLiNaK was attributed to the re-densification of FLiNaK salt and residual stress.

  14. Synthetic staggered architecture composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Abhishek; Tekalur, Srinivasan Arjun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Composite design inspired by nature. ► Tuning microstructure via changing ceramic content and aspect ratio. ► Experimental display of structure–property correlationship in synthetic composites. - Abstract: Structural biocomposites (for example, nacre in seashells, bone, etc.) are designed according to the functional role they are delegated for. For instance, bone is primarily designed for withstanding time-dependent loading (for example, withstanding stresses while running, jumping, accidental fall) and hence the microstructure is designed primarily from enhanced toughness and moderate stiffness point of view. On the contrary, seashells (which lie in the abyss of oceans) apart from providing defense to the organism (it is hosting) against predatory attacks, are subjected to static loading (for example, enormous hydrostatic pressure). Hence, emphasis on the shell structure evolution is directed primarily towards providing enhanced stiffness. In order to conform between stiffness and toughness, nature precisely employs a staggered arrangement of inorganic bricks in a biopolymer matrix (at its most elementary level of architecture). Aspect ratio and content of ceramic bricks are meticulously used by nature to synthesize composites having varying degrees of stiffness, strength and toughness. Such an amazing capability of structure–property correlationship has rarely been demonstrated in synthetic composites. Therefore, in order to better understand the mechanical behavior of synthetic staggered composites, the problem becomes two-pronged: (a) synthesize composites with varying brick size and contents and (b) experimental investigation of the material response. In this article, an attempt has been made to synthesize and characterize staggered ceramic–polymer composites having varying aspect ratio and ceramic content using freeze-casting technique. This will in-turn help us in custom-design manufacture of hybrid bio-inspired composite materials

  15. Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the use of synthetic aperture (SA) imaging in medical ultrasound. SA imaging is a radical break with today's commercial systems, where the image is acquired sequentially one image line at a time. This puts a strict limit on the frame rate and the possibility of acquiring...... a sufficient amount of data for high precision flow estimation. These constrictions can be lifted by employing SA imaging. Here data is acquired simultaneously from all directions over a number of emissions, and the full image can be reconstructed from this data. The talk will demonstrate the many benefits...

  16. Transition in synthetic jets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Kordík, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 187, NOV 2012 (2012), s. 105-117 ISSN 0924-4247 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA02020795; GA ČR(CZ) GPP101/12/P556; GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : turbulence * synthetic jet * transition * velocity spectra Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.841, year: 2012 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0924424712005031

  17. Polymorphous computing fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Christophe Czeslaw [Los Alamos, NM; Gokhale, Maya B [Los Alamos, NM; McCabe, Kevin Peter [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-01-18

    Fabric-based computing systems and methods are disclosed. A fabric-based computing system can include a polymorphous computing fabric that can be customized on a per application basis and a host processor in communication with said polymorphous computing fabric. The polymorphous computing fabric includes a cellular architecture that can be highly parameterized to enable a customized synthesis of fabric instances for a variety of enhanced application performances thereof. A global memory concept can also be included that provides the host processor random access to all variables and instructions associated with the polymorphous computing fabric.

  18. Development of superhydrophobic fabrics by surface fluorination and formation of CNT-induced roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Hee Shim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobictextile material having self-cleaning function was developed by employing carbon nanotubes (CNTs and water-repellent agents.Hydrophobic fabrics were prepared on 100% polyester woven fabrics withvarious yarn diameters and yarn types. The wetting behavior of fabrics withdifferent treatments was compared for: siloxanerepellent, fluorocarbon repellent, and CNT added fluorocarbon repellent. Drawn textured yarn (DTY fabrics exhibited higher contactangle (CA than filament yarn fabrics due to the larger surface roughness contributed by the textured yarn. Fabrics treated with fluorocarbon presentedlarger CA and lower shedding angle than those treated with siloxane,because of the lower surface energy of fluorocarbon repellent. Specimens madeof 50 denier DTY and treated with CNT-Teflon AF® showed the mostsuperhydrophobic characteristics in the study, producing the static contactangle>150° and the shedding angle<15°. CNT on fabric surface contributedto the nano-scale surface roughness to hold the air traps like papillae oflotus leaf, giving superhydrophobic characteristics.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.1.5762

  19. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project

    OpenAIRE

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D.; Mathews, Debra J. H.

    2015-01-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with...

  20. Analog synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpeshkar, R

    2014-03-28

    We analyse the pros and cons of analog versus digital computation in living cells. Our analysis is based on fundamental laws of noise in gene and protein expression, which set limits on the energy, time, space, molecular count and part-count resources needed to compute at a given level of precision. We conclude that analog computation is significantly more efficient in its use of resources than deterministic digital computation even at relatively high levels of precision in the cell. Based on this analysis, we conclude that synthetic biology must use analog, collective analog, probabilistic and hybrid analog-digital computational approaches; otherwise, even relatively simple synthetic computations in cells such as addition will exceed energy and molecular-count budgets. We present schematics for efficiently representing analog DNA-protein computation in cells. Analog electronic flow in subthreshold transistors and analog molecular flux in chemical reactions obey Boltzmann exponential laws of thermodynamics and are described by astoundingly similar logarithmic electrochemical potentials. Therefore, cytomorphic circuits can help to map circuit designs between electronic and biochemical domains. We review recent work that uses positive-feedback linearization circuits to architect wide-dynamic-range logarithmic analog computation in Escherichia coli using three transcription factors, nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient in parts than prior digital implementations.

  1. Synthetic lubricating oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Jurado, J

    1953-01-01

    A yellow solid petroleum paraffin d/sup 60/ 0.808, I number 3.5, average molecular weight 350, chlorinated and condensed with benzene, xylene, or naphthalene by the Friedel and Crafts reaction, in the presence of anhydrous AlCl/sub 3/ or activated Al, gave synthetic lubricating oils. Xylene was the preferred aromatic compound, naphthalene required the use of less completely chlorinated paraffin, benzene produced resins difficult to remove and gave darker oils with excessive green fluorescence. Activated Al rather than anhydrous AlCl/sub 3/ gave darker oils with higher viscosity and Conradson C values. Tar from the low-temperature distillation of lignite, used as a source of a paraffin fraction melting 40/sup 0/ to 48/sup 0/ (chlorinated to 26.5 percent Cl) and an aromatic fraction, 45 percent aromatic compounds by volume (mainly polysubstituted benzenes), I number 10, was converted to a similar synthetic lubricant with the following properties: Kinematic viscosity at 210/sup 0/ F., 50.4 centistokes; viscosity index, 92; Conradson C, 1.5 percent; solidification point, 9/sup 0/; S, 0.41 percent.

  2. Coloring of synthetic fluorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birsoy, R.

    1980-01-01

    A synthetic fluorite of the Harshaw Chemical Company is analyzed for rare earth elements, yttrium, and sodium. Samples of this fluorite are irradiated with X-rays, γ-rays, neutrons, electrons, protons, and α-particles at different energies, and their absorption spectra are analyzed. Analyzing the thermal bleaching of these radiation-coloured fluorites shows that both, impurities and radiation play a part in the coloration of synthetic fluorite. However, the main contribution comes from the radiation induced lattice defects. In the visible region spectra, the colour centre of the 5800 to 5900 A absorption band is probably mainly related with large aggregates of F-centres. The 5450 and the 5300 A absorption bands are mainly related to monovalent and divalent ion impurities and their association with lattice defects. The 3800 A absorption band seems to be related with F-centre aggregates. However, the contribution from the rare earth elements related complex color centres also plays some part for the production of this absorption band. These results indicate that the color centres of different origin can absorb light at the same wavelength. (author)

  3. Effect of internal woven roller shade and glazing on the energy and daylighting performances of an office building in the cold climate of Shillong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ramkishore; Lazarus, I.J.; Kishore, V.V.N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We simulated a number of glazing and interior roller shade alternatives. • Office room has been simulated for three window-to-wall ratios in a cold climate. • Daylighting and energy performances have been assessed for each alternative. • Maximum energy savings have been estimated in the office with a 30% glazed area. • Energy saving decreases for larger glazed area and fabric transmittance. - Abstract: The energy and visual performances of the façades are defined by many parameters including façade size, properties of glazings and shadings, and their arrangements as well as control strategies. In this study, a number of combinations of internal woven roller shades and four double glazings have been proposed and assessed in integrated manner in order to improve the energy efficiency and visual comfort in new or existing office buildings. Office rooms facing south, east, north and west have been simulated for cold climate, by varying glazed areas and proposed glazing and shading alternatives. Results have been calculated, compared and analyzed in terms of the energy consumptions, energy saving potentials, daylight autonomy, useful daylight illuminance and discomfort glare free time, for each of the combinations. Simulation results show that the choice of glazing and shading alternatives can have substantial impact on energy and visual performances of the office space. Regardless of façade orientation, the maximum energy saving is achieved for a window-to-wall ratio (WWR) of 30%. Saving potential decreases significantly for larger glazed area and for each façade orientation. For all façade orientations and glazed areas (except for 30% WWR in the north wall), a bare low-e coated double glazing (U = 1.616 W/m"2 K, SHGC = 0.209, τ_v = 0.301) is found to be the most energy efficient choice. For 30% north glazing, the energy efficiency can be maximized with a different bare low-e coated double glazing (U = 1.628 W/m"2 K, SHGC = 0.370, τ_v = 0

  4. Bacteria in non-woven textile filters for domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spychała, Marcin; Starzyk, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was preliminary identification of heterotrophic and ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) cell concentration in the cross-sectional profile of geotextile filters for wastewater treatment. Filters of thicknesses 3.6 and 7.2 mm, made of non-woven textile TS20, were supplied with septic tank effluent and intermittently dosed and filtered under hydrostatic pressure. The cumulative loads of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total solids were about 1.36 and 1.06 kg/cm2, respectively. The filters under analysis reached a relatively high removal efficiency for organic pollution 70-90% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and 60-85% for COD. The ammonia nitrogen removal efficiency level proved to be unstable (15-55%). Biomass samples for dry mass identification were taken from two regions: continuously flooded with wastewater and intermittently flooded with wastewater. The culturable heterotrophic bacteria were determined as colony-forming units (CFUs) on microbiological-selective media by means of the plate method. AOB and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were examined using the FISH technique. A relatively wide range of heterotrophic bacteria was observed from 7.4×10(5)/cm2 to 3.8×10(6)/cm2 in geotextile layers. The highest concentration of heterotrophic bacteria (3.8×10(6)/cm2) was observed in the first layer of the textile filter. AOB were identified occasionally--about 8-15% of all bacteria colonizing the last filter layer, but occasionally much higher concentrations and ammonia nitrogen efficiency were achieved. Bacteria oxidizing nitrite to nitrate were not observed. The relation of total and organic fraction of biomass to culturable heterotrophic bacteria was also found.

  5. ENCULTURATION AND GENDER IN WOVEN FABRICT INDUSTRY AT SUBDISTRICT OF SANGKARAGUNG, DISTRICT OF NEGARA, JEMBRANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Sukardja

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research reveals the process of enculturation and gender in the woven fabricindustry at Sangkaragung, district of Negara, Jembrana. The weaving tradition andenculturation process give the women at Sangkaragung a hope to change their ideology ingender and socio cultural construction. This study aims at discussing the factors makingthe women at Sangkaragung do weaving activities, the process of weaving enculturationand the development of gender taking place there, and the impacts and meaning of theweaving enculturation on their socio-cultural life.In analyzing the problems above, the theory of post-structuralism, the theory ofpractice, and the theory of social change were used. To find out the relevant data, aqualitative method was applied in which the data were collected by deep interviews,observation, and documentation.The result shows that the factors making the women do such activities are: mythson women and weaving activities; globalization and socio-cultural changes, and fulfillmentof daily needs. The process of weaving enculturation done through cultural transmissionand socialization in weaving results in acculturation and enculturation which then give adeeper understanding to the society of the pattern and system related to the weavingactivities. The weaving enculturation also causes some forms of changes at Sangkaragungsuch as work division between men and women. The weaving enculturation and thedevelopment of gender have affected the ways in which decisions are made in someaspects of life such as in the context of traditional and religious rituals, the expenditures forprimary family needs, health care, and children’s education. Although the women areacknowledged and appreciated that they have economically contributed to their families,full emancipation has not been given to them due to patriarchal, social and cultural systemswhich are still attached to the society.

  6. The Woven EndoBridge (WEB) as primary treatment for unruptured intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Sanne Bt; van Rooij, Willem Jan; Peluso, Jo P; Sluzewski, Menno

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The intrasaccular flow disruptor Woven EndoBridge (WEB) device is developed for the treatment of wide-necked aneurysms without supportive devices. We used the WEB as primary treatment for unruptured aneurysms suitable for the device, regardless of neck size. Methods Between February 2015 and June 2017, 59 aneurysms in 51 patients were selectively treated with the WEB. There were 15 men and 36 women with a mean age of 59 years. Mean aneurysm size was 7.0 mm (range 3-22 mm). Of 59 aneurysms, 45 (76%) had a wide neck defined as ≥4 mm or dome-neck ratio ≤1.5. No stents or supporting balloons were used. Results Initial WEB position was judged good in all 59 unruptured aneurysms. One patient with a basilar tip aneurysm had a late thrombotic posterior cerebral artery occlusion by protrusion of the WEB over the artery. There were no procedural ruptures. Overall complication rate was 2.0% (1 of 51, 95% CI 0.01-11.3%). Imaging follow-up was available in 55 of 59 aneurysms (93%). At 3 months, 41 of 57 aneurysms (72%) were completely occluded, 12 (21%) had a neck remnant and 4 (7%) were incompletely occluded. Conclusion WEB treatment is safe and effective in selected unruptured aneurysms suitable for the device, regardless of neck size or location. There was no need for supportive devices. Three-quarters of all unruptured small aneurysms could be treated with the WEB. In our opinion, the WEB is a valuable alternative to coils, especially in wide-necked aneurysms.

  7. Space Synthetic Biology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David; Roman, Monsi; Mansell, James (Matt)

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an effort to make genetic engineering more useful by standardizing sections of genetic code. By standardizing genetic components, biological engineering will become much more similar to traditional fields of engineering, in which well-defined components and subsystems are readily available in markets. Specifications of the behavior of those components and subsystems can be used to model a system which incorporates them. Then, the behavior of the novel system can be simulated and optimized. Finally, the components and subsystems can be purchased and assembled to create the optimized system, which most often will exhibit behavior similar to that indicated by the model. The Space Synthetic Biology project began in 2012 as a multi-Center effort. The purpose of this project was to harness Synthetic Biology principals to enable NASA's missions. A central target for application was to Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLS). Engineers from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) ECLS Systems Development Branch (ES62) were brought into the project to contribute expertise in operational ECLS systems. Project lead scientists chose to pursue the development of bioelectrochemical technologies to spacecraft life support. Therefore, the ECLS element of the project became essentially an effort to develop a bioelectrochemical ECLS subsystem. Bioelectrochemical systems exploit the ability of many microorganisms to drive their metabolisms by direct or indirect utilization of electrical potential gradients. Whereas many microorganisms are capable of deriving the energy required for the processes of interest (such as carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation) from sunlight, it is believed that subsystems utilizing electrotrophs will exhibit smaller mass, volume, and power requirements than those that derive their energy from sunlight. In the first 2 years of the project, MSFC personnel conducted modeling, simulation, and conceptual design efforts to assist the

  8. Current status of synthetic epikeratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K P; Hanna, K; Waring, G O; Gipson, I; Liu, Y; Gailitis, R P; Johnson-Wint, B; Green, K

    1991-01-01

    Many of the deficiencies with human tissue epikeratoplasty might be improved by the use of a suitable synthetic lenticule. Potential biomaterials for epikeratoplasty include collagen (types I, III, or IV), collagen-hydrogel copolymers, bioactive synthetics, and coated hydrogels. The biomaterial must be engineered to achieve strict specifications of optical clarity, support of epithelial migration and adhesion, permeability to solutes, and stability to corneal proteases. Attaching synthetic lenticules to the cornea without cutting Bowman's layer by adhesives, laser welding, or direct adhesion may also improve the efficacy of synthetic epikeratoplasty.

  9. Synthetic biology and occupational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir; Schulte, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy. A greater number and variety of workers will be exposed to commercial synthetic biology risks in the future, including risks to a variety of workers from the use of lentiviral vectors as gene transfer devices. There is a need to review and enhance current protection measures in the field of synthetic biology, whether in experimental laboratories where new advances are being researched, in health care settings where treatments using viral vectors as gene delivery systems are increasingly being used, or in the industrial bioeconomy. Enhanced worker protection measures should include increased injury and illness surveillance of the synthetic biology workforce; proactive risk assessment and management of synthetic biology products; research on the relative effectiveness of extrinsic and intrinsic biocontainment methods; specific safety guidance for synthetic biology industrial processes; determination of appropriate medical mitigation measures for lentiviral vector exposure incidents; and greater awareness and involvement in synthetic biology safety by the general occupational safety and health community as well as by government occupational safety and health research and regulatory agencies.

  10. Finding Hope in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, Tuija

    2017-04-01

    For some, synthetic biology represents great hope in offering possible solutions to many of the world's biggest problems, from hunger to sustainable development. Others remain fearful of the harmful uses, such as bioweapons, that synthetic biology can lend itself to, and most hold that issues of biosafety are of utmost importance. In this article, I will evaluate these points of view and conclude that although the biggest promises of synthetic biology are unlikely to become reality, and the probability of accidents is fairly substantial, synthetic biology could still be seen to benefit humanity by enhancing our ethical understanding and by offering a boost to world economy.

  11. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB...

  12. Life after the synthetic cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self-replicating ......Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self...

  13. Computational synthetic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bokowski, Jürgen

    1989-01-01

    Computational synthetic geometry deals with methods for realizing abstract geometric objects in concrete vector spaces. This research monograph considers a large class of problems from convexity and discrete geometry including constructing convex polytopes from simplicial complexes, vector geometries from incidence structures and hyperplane arrangements from oriented matroids. It turns out that algorithms for these constructions exist if and only if arbitrary polynomial equations are decidable with respect to the underlying field. Besides such complexity theorems a variety of symbolic algorithms are discussed, and the methods are applied to obtain new mathematical results on convex polytopes, projective configurations and the combinatorics of Grassmann varieties. Finally algebraic varieties characterizing matroids and oriented matroids are introduced providing a new basis for applying computer algebra methods in this field. The necessary background knowledge is reviewed briefly. The text is accessible to stud...

  14. Synthetic Aperture Compound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk

    and the limiting factor is the amount of memory IO resources available. An equally high demand for memory throughput is found in the computer gaming industry, where a large part of the processing takes place on the graphics processing unit (GPU). Using the GPU, a framework for synthetic aperture imaging......Medical ultrasound imaging is used for many purposes, e.g. for localizing and classifying cysts, lesions, and other processes. Almost any mass is first observed using B-mode imaging and later classified using e.g. color flow, strain, or attenuation imaging. It is therefore important that the B......-mode images have high contrast. Like all imaging modalities, ultrasound is subject to a number of inherent artifacts that compromise image quality. The most prominent artifact is the degradation by coherent wave interference, known as “speckle”, which gives a granular appearance to an otherwise homogeneous...

  15. Transionospheric synthetic aperture imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Gilman, Mikhail; Tsynkov, Semyon

    2017-01-01

    This landmark monograph presents the most recent mathematical developments in the analysis of ionospheric distortions of SAR images and offers innovative new strategies for their mitigation. As a prerequisite to addressing these topics, the book also discusses the radar ambiguity theory as it applies to synthetic aperture imaging and the propagation of radio waves through the ionospheric plasma, including the anisotropic and turbulent cases. In addition, it covers a host of related subjects, such as the mathematical modeling of extended radar targets (as opposed to point-wise targets) and the scattering of radio waves off those targets, as well as the theoretical analysis of the start-stop approximation, which is used routinely in SAR signal processing but often without proper justification. The mathematics in this volume is clean and rigorous – no assumptions are hidden or ambiguously stated. The resulting work is truly interdisciplinary, providing both a comprehensive and thorough exposition of the field,...

  16. Radioimmunoassay of synthetic steroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynaud, J -P; Bucourt, R; Salmon, J

    1975-12-01

    The sensitivity of a radioimmunoassay depends on the intrinsic association constant of the interaction between ligand and antibody. Its specificity depends on the position of the chain which forms the link with the antigen. Thus, an antibody specific of estradiol has been obtained by coupling estradiol to albumin via a chain at position 7. For synthetic steroids the structure of which is sufficiency different from that of natural hormones, the requirements for a sensitive assay method not involving chromatography are simply maximum affinity and positioning of the couple at a site which does not undergo metabolic attack. These criteria were used to develop assays for R 2858 and R 2453 which obviate the need to administer radioactive product in clinical pharmacology. Cross-reaction with structural analogs may be used to assay competitors. Thus, R 2323 antibody, highly specific for endogenous steroids, may be used to assay other trienes such as R 1697 (trenbolone) and R 2010 (norgestrienone).

  17. Synthetic fuels and fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillo, J A; Powell, J; Steinberg, M [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)

    1981-03-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. equal to 40-60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. equal to 50-70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long-term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  18. Synthetic fibers as an indicator of land application of sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubris, Kimberly Ann V.; Richards, Brian K.

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic fabric fibers have been proposed as indicators of past spreading of wastewater sludge. Synthetic fiber detectability was examined in sludges (dewatered, pelletized, composted, alkaline-stabilized) and in soils from experimental columns and field sites applied with those sludge products. Fibers (isolated by water extraction and examined using polarized light microscopy) were detectable in sludge products and in soil columns over 5 years after application, retaining characteristics observed in the applied sludge. Concentrations mirrored (within a factor of 2) predictions based on soil dilution. Fibers were detectable in field site soils up to 15 years after application, again retaining the characteristics seen in sludge products. Concentrations correlated with residual sludge metal concentration gradients in a well-characterized field site. Fibers found along preferential flow paths and/or in horizons largely below the mixed layer suggest some potential for translocation. Synthetic fibers were shown to be rapid and semi-quantitative indicators of past sludge application. - Synthetic fabric fibers present in wastewater sludge are a semi-quantitative long-term indicator of past sludge application in soils

  19. Radiation-chemical synthesis of polypropylene fabrics with sulfonic acid functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyun Kug; Park, Jung Soo; Han, Do Hung, E-mail: dhhan@yumail.ac.kr; Bondar, Iuliia, E-mail: juliavad@yahoo.co

    2011-04-01

    A sorption-active material carrying sulfonic acid groups was synthesized by the radiation-induced graft polymerization of styrene monomer onto the surface of non-woven polypropylene fabric, followed by sulfonation of the grafted polystyrene chains. The effect of the main experimental parameters (absorbed dose, monomer concentration, reaction time) on the styrene degree of grafting was investigated. The sulfonation process with 5% chlorosulfonic acid at room temperature was investigated in detail and the optimal sulfonation conditions for the samples with a medium degree of grafting (70-140%) were determined. Densities of 3.5-5 meq/g were obtained by applying those sorption-active PP fabrics with a sulfonic acid group.

  20. Biaxial Testing of High-Strength Fabric Improves Design of Inflatable Radar Domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.; Bartolotta, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    Large radar installations around the globe continuously watch the skies, unobtrusively providing security to the United States; these systems have been in active use for the past 50 years. Often situated in extreme environments, the radar dishes require shielding from the harsh elements. Air-inflated domes (over 100 ft in diameter) are one structure of choice for providing this essential protection. The radomes are constructed from highstrength fabric that is strong enough to withstand the inflation pressure, high winds, and other environmental loads, yet transparent to the microwave signal to allow precise radar mapping. This fabric is woven from glass fibers for high strength and embedded in a polytetrafluoroethylene resin matrix, akin to the nonstick coatings used on cookware.

  1. Imaging with Synthetic Aperture Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Massonnet, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Describing a field that has been transformed by the recent availability of data from a new generation of space and airborne systems, the authors offer a synthetic geometrical approach to the description of synthetic aperture radar, one that addresses physicists, radar specialists, as well as experts in image processing.  

  2. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps that lead to the

  3. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.D. Zegers (Netty)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractSynthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps

  4. The Ethics of Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    The dissertation analyses and discusses a number of ethical issues that have been raised in connection with the development of synthetic biology. Synthetic biology is a set of new techniques for DNA-level design and construction of living beings with useful properties. The dissertation especially...

  5. Synthetic biology of polyketide synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuzawa, Satoshi; Backman, Tyler W.H.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2018-01-01

    ). The modules are composed of enzymatic domains that share sequence and functional similarity across all known PKSs. We have used the nomenclature of synthetic biology to classify the enzymatic domains and modules as parts and devices, respectively, and have generated detailed lists of both. In addition, we...... realize the potential that synthetic biology approaches bring to this class of molecules....

  6. CFD Simulation and Experimental Analyses of a Copper Wire Woven Heat Exchanger Design to Improve Heat Transfer and Reduce the Size of Adsorption Beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John White

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The chief objective of this study is the proposal design and CFD simulation of a new compacted copper wire woven fin heat exchanger and silica gel adsorbent bed used as part of an adsorption refrigeration system. This type of heat exchanger design has a large surface area because of the wire woven fin design. It is estimated that this will help improve the coefficient of performance (COP of the adsorption phase and increase the heat transfer in this system arrangement. To study the heat transfer between the fins and porous adsorbent reactor bed, two experiments were carried out and matched to computational fluid dynamics (CFD results.

  7. Woven Hybrid Composites - Tensile and Flexural Properties of Jute Mat Fibres with Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, P.; Bupesh Raja, V. K.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Dhanasekaran, C.

    2017-03-01

    The jute mat fibers are fabricated with several layers of fiber with opposite orientation in addition with coconut shell powder and resins. In current trends, metallic components are replaced by natural fibers because of the inherent properties such as light in weight, easy to fabricate, less cost and easy availability. This material has high strength and withstands the load. In this investigation the plates are made without stitching the fiber. The result of tensile strength and flexural strength are compared with nano material (coconut shell powder).

  8. Synthetic quorum sensing in model microcapsule colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, Henry; Balazs, Anna C.

    2017-08-01

    Biological quorum sensing refers to the ability of cells to gauge their population density and collectively initiate a new behavior once a critical density is reached. Designing synthetic materials systems that exhibit quorum sensing-like behavior could enable the fabrication of devices with both self-recognition and self-regulating functionality. Herein, we develop models for a colony of synthetic microcapsules that communicate by producing and releasing signaling molecules. Production of the chemicals is regulated by a biomimetic negative feedback loop, the “repressilator” network. Through theory and simulation, we show that the chemical behavior of such capsules is sensitive to both the density and number of capsules in the colony. For example, decreasing the spacing between a fixed number of capsules can trigger a transition in chemical activity from the steady, repressed state to large-amplitude oscillations in chemical production. Alternatively, for a fixed density, an increase in the number of capsules in the colony can also promote a transition into the oscillatory state. This configuration-dependent behavior of the capsule colony exemplifies quorum-sensing behavior. Using our theoretical model, we predict the transitions from the steady state to oscillatory behavior as a function of the colony size and capsule density.

  9. Compartmentalization and Transport in Synthetic Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eSchmitt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nano-scale vesicles have become a popular tool in life sciences. Besides liposomes that are generated from phospholipids of natural origin, polymersomes fabricated of synthetic block copolymers enjoy increasing popularity, as they represent more versatile membrane building blocks that can be selected based on their specific physicochemical properties, like permeability, stability or chemical reactivity.In this review, we focus on the application of simple and nested artificial vesicles in synthetic biology. First, we provide an introduction into the utilization of multi-compartmented vesosomes as compartmentalized nano-scale bioreactors. In the bottom-up development of protocells from vesicular nano-reactors, the specific exchange of pathway intermediates across compartment boundaries represents a bottleneck for future studies. To date, most compartmented bioreactors rely on unspecific exchange of substrates and products. This is either based on changes in permeability of the coblock polymer shell by physicochemical triggers or by the incorporation of unspecific porin proteins into the vesicle membrane. Since the incorporation of membrane transport proteins into simple and nested artificial vesicles offers the potential for specific exchange of substances between subcompartments, it opens new vistas in the design of protocells. Therefore we devote the main part of the review to summarize the technical advances in the use of phospholipids and block copolymers for the reconstitution of membrane proteins.

  10. Effect of Reinforced Hybrid Palm Shells on Mechanical Properties of Polyurethane-Jute Woven/ Vinyl Ester Sandwich Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, T.S.; Nurul Ain Nanyan; Lan, D.N.U.; Leng, T.P.

    2014-01-01

    A natural fiber sandwich was constructed from palm shells/polyurethane core and jute woven/vinyl ester face sheets by the in-situ sandwich process (core and panel prepared simultaneously). The polyurethane sandwich core was reinforced by hybrid shell systems of dried palm shell (DPS) and palm kernel shell (PKS) (50P-50D, 25P-75D), and single shell system of PKS (100P) as well as 20 phr empty fruit bunch (EFB) based on hundred part of polyurethane. The sandwich face sheets are prepared by using two jute woven layers and impregnated by vinyl ester. Interlocking between DPS and polyurethane matrix was formed, which hence enhanced the mechanical properties. The interfacial adhesion between DPS, PKS, and EFB with the polyurethane binder played the important role to achieve high mechanical properties. It was found that hybrid shells exhibited high reinforcement for sandwich's performance resulting better compression (50P-50D) and flexural (25P-75D) properties. The single shell 100P showed only improvement on flexural modulus.The fracture surface morphology of sandwich under mechanical test was performed by using optical microscopy. (author)

  11. Covalent immobilization of lysozyme onto woven and knitted crimped polyethylene terephthalate grafts to minimize the adhesion of broad spectrum pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Meslmani, Bassam M.; Mahmoud, Gihan F.; Leichtweiß, Thomas; Strehlow, Boris; Sommer, Frank O.; Lohoff, Michael D.; Bakowsky, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Graft-associated infections entirely determine the short-term patency of polyethylene terephthalate PET cardiovascular graft. We attempted to enzymatically inhibit the initial bacterial adhesion to PET grafts using lysozyme. Lysozyme was covalently immobilized onto woven and knitted forms of crimped PET grafts by the end-point method. Our figures of merit revealed lysozyme immobilization yield of 15.7 μg/cm"2, as determined by the Bradford assay. The activity of immobilized lysozyme on woven and knitted PET manifested 58.4% and 55.87% using Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells, respectively. Noteworthy, the adhesion of vein catheter-isolated Staphylococcus epidermidis decreased by 6- to 8-folds and of Staphylococcus aureus by 11- to 12-folds, while the Gram-negative Escherichia coli showed only a decrease by 3- to 4-folds. The anti-adhesion efficiency was specific for bacterial cells and no significant effect was observed on adhesion and growth of L929 cells. In conclusion, immobilization of lysozyme onto PET grafts can inhibit the graft-associated infection. - Highlights: • Lysozyme was covalently immobilized on crimped polyethylene terephthalate (PET). • The activity of immobilized lysozyme was meaningfully reduced. • The maintained activity significantly declined the adhesion of Gram-positive stains. • The enzymatic anti-adhesion efficiency reported lesser extent against Gram-negative. • The anti-bacterial activity displayed no significant effect on cells compatibility.

  12. Covalent immobilization of lysozyme onto woven and knitted crimped polyethylene terephthalate grafts to minimize the adhesion of broad spectrum pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Meslmani, Bassam M., E-mail: almeslmanib@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, Marburg University, Ketzerbach 63, 35037 Marburg (Germany); Mahmoud, Gihan F., E-mail: mahmoudg@staff.uni-marburg.de [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, Marburg University, Ketzerbach 63, 35037 Marburg (Germany); Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, 11795 Cairo (Egypt); Leichtweiß, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.Leichtweiss@phys.Chemie.uni-giessen.de [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 58, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Strehlow, Boris, E-mail: strehlo4@staff.uni-marburg.de [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, Marburg University, Ketzerbach 63, 35037 Marburg (Germany); Sommer, Frank O., E-mail: sommerf@med.uni-marburg.de [Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hospital Hygiene, Marburg University, Hans Meerwein Str 2, 35032 Marburg (Germany); Lohoff, Michael D., E-mail: lohoff@med.uni-marburg.de [Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hospital Hygiene, Marburg University, Hans Meerwein Str 2, 35032 Marburg (Germany); Bakowsky, Udo, E-mail: ubakowsky@aol.com [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, Marburg University, Ketzerbach 63, 35037 Marburg (Germany)

    2016-01-01

    Graft-associated infections entirely determine the short-term patency of polyethylene terephthalate PET cardiovascular graft. We attempted to enzymatically inhibit the initial bacterial adhesion to PET grafts using lysozyme. Lysozyme was covalently immobilized onto woven and knitted forms of crimped PET grafts by the end-point method. Our figures of merit revealed lysozyme immobilization yield of 15.7 μg/cm{sup 2}, as determined by the Bradford assay. The activity of immobilized lysozyme on woven and knitted PET manifested 58.4% and 55.87% using Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells, respectively. Noteworthy, the adhesion of vein catheter-isolated Staphylococcus epidermidis decreased by 6- to 8-folds and of Staphylococcus aureus by 11- to 12-folds, while the Gram-negative Escherichia coli showed only a decrease by 3- to 4-folds. The anti-adhesion efficiency was specific for bacterial cells and no significant effect was observed on adhesion and growth of L929 cells. In conclusion, immobilization of lysozyme onto PET grafts can inhibit the graft-associated infection. - Highlights: • Lysozyme was covalently immobilized on crimped polyethylene terephthalate (PET). • The activity of immobilized lysozyme was meaningfully reduced. • The maintained activity significantly declined the adhesion of Gram-positive stains. • The enzymatic anti-adhesion efficiency reported lesser extent against Gram-negative. • The anti-bacterial activity displayed no significant effect on cells compatibility.

  13. Computing with synthetic protocells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbet, Alexis; Molina, Franck; Amar, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    In this article we present a new kind of computing device that uses biochemical reactions networks as building blocks to implement logic gates. The architecture of a computing machine relies on these generic and composable building blocks, computation units, that can be used in multiple instances to perform complex boolean functions. Standard logical operations are implemented by biochemical networks, encapsulated and insulated within synthetic vesicles called protocells. These protocells are capable of exchanging energy and information with each other through transmembrane electron transfer. In the paradigm of computation we propose, protoputing, a machine can solve only one problem and therefore has to be built specifically. Thus, the programming phase in the standard computing paradigm is represented in our approach by the set of assembly instructions (specific attachments) that directs the wiring of the protocells that constitute the machine itself. To demonstrate the computing power of protocellular machines, we apply it to solve a NP-complete problem, known to be very demanding in computing power, the 3-SAT problem. We show how to program the assembly of a machine that can verify the satisfiability of a given boolean formula. Then we show how to use the massive parallelism of these machines to verify in less than 20 min all the valuations of the input variables and output a fluorescent signal when the formula is satisfiable or no signal at all otherwise.

  14. Heat Release Property and Fire Performance of the Nomex/Cotton Blend Fabric Treated with a Nonformaldehyde Organophosphorus System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Q. Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Blending Nomex® with cotton improves its affordability and serviceability. Because cotton is a highly flammable fiber, Nomex®/cotton blend fabrics containing more than 20% cotton require flame-retardant treatment. In this research, combination of a hydroxyl functional organophosphorus oligmer (HFPO and 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA was used for flame retardant finishing of the 65/35 Nomex®/cotton blend woven fabric. The system contains HFPO as a flame retardant, BTCA as a bonding agent, and triethenolamine (TEA as a reactive additive used to enhance the performance of HFPO/BTCA. Addition of TEA improves the hydrolysis resistance of the HFPO/BTCA crosslinked polymeric network on the blend fabric. Additionally, TEA enhances HFPO’s flame retardant performance by reducing formation of calcium salts and also by providing synergistic nitrogen to the treated blend fabric. The Nomex®/cotton blend fabric treated with the HFPO/BTCA/TEA system shows high flame resistance and high laundering durability at a relatively low HFPO concentration of 8% (w/w. The heat release properties of the treated Nomex®/cotton blend fabric were measured using microscale combustion calorimetry. The functions of BTCA; HFPO and TEA on the Nomex®/cotton blend fabric were elucidated based on the heat release properties, char formation, and fire performance of the treated blend fabric.

  15. Synthetic Biology and Personalized Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology, application of synthetic chemistry to biology, is a broad term that covers the engineering of biological systems with structures and functions not found in nature to process information, manipulate chemicals, produce energy, maintain cell environment and enhance human health. Synthetic biology devices contribute not only to improve our understanding of disease mechanisms, but also provide novel diagnostic tools. Methods based on synthetic biology enable the design of novel strategies for the treatment of cancer, immune diseases metabolic disorders and infectious diseases as well as the production of cheap drugs. The potential of synthetic genome, using an expanded genetic code that is designed for specific drug synthesis as well as delivery and activation of the drug in vivo by a pathological signal, was already pointed out during a lecture delivered at Kuwait University in 2005. Of two approaches to synthetic biology, top-down and bottom-up, the latter is more relevant to the development of personalized medicines as it provides more flexibility in constructing a partially synthetic cell from basic building blocks for a desired task. PMID:22907209

  16. Synthetic Biology: Advancing Biological Frontiers by Building Synthetic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yvonne Yu-Hsuan; Galloway, Kate E; Smolke, Christina D

    2012-01-01

    Advances in synthetic biology are contributing to diverse research areas, from basic biology to biomanufacturing and disease therapy. We discuss the theoretical foundation, applications, and potential of this emerging field.

  17. Protective articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardley, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    This patent specification describes an article affording protection against radiation, and especially against X-rays comprising at least one flexible layer of lead filled material in an envelope of, or sandwiched between two layers of a knitted, woven or non-woven fabric preferably of synthetic fibrous material, carrying on its outer surface a coating of flexible polyurethane. The outer fabric provides a resilient, extremely tough and cut resistant covering for the relatively soft lead filled material. (author)

  18. Comparison of natural and synthetic diamond X-ray detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansley, S P; Betzel, G T; Metcalfe, P; Reinisch, L; Meyer, J

    2010-12-01

    Diamond detectors are particularly well suited for dosimetry applications in radiotherapy for reasons including near-tissue equivalence and high-spatial resolution resulting from small sensitive volumes. However, these detectors have not become commonplace due to high cost and poor availability arising from the need for high-quality diamond. We have fabricated relatively cheap detectors from commercially-available synthetic diamond fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. Here, we present a comparison of one of these detectors with the only commercially-available diamond-based detector (which uses a natural diamond crystal). Parameters such as the energy dependence and linearity of charge with dose were investigated at orthovoltage energies (50-250 kV), and dose-rate dependence of charge at linear accelerator energy (6 MV). The energy dependence of a synthetic diamond detector was similar to that of the natural diamond detector, albeit with slightly less variation across the energy range. Both detectors displayed a linear response with dose (at 100 kV) over the limited dose range used. The sensitivity of the synthetic diamond detector was 302 nC/Gy, compared to 294 nC/Gy measured for the natural diamond detector; however, this was obtained with a bias of 246.50 V compared to a bias of 61.75 V used for the natural diamond detector. The natural diamond detector exhibited a greater dependency on dose-rate than the synthetic diamond detector. Overall, the synthetic diamond detector performed well in comparison to the natural diamond detector.

  19. Approaches to chemical synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarabelli, Cristiano; Stano, Pasquale; Anella, Fabrizio; Carrara, Paolo; Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2012-07-16

    Synthetic biology is first represented in terms of two complementary aspects, the bio-engineering one, based on the genetic manipulation of extant microbial forms in order to obtain forms of life which do not exist in nature; and the chemical synthetic biology, an approach mostly based on chemical manipulation for the laboratory synthesis of biological structures that do not exist in nature. The paper is mostly devoted to shortly review chemical synthetic biology projects currently carried out in our laboratory. In particular, we describe: the minimal cell project, then the "Never Born Proteins" and lastly the Never Born RNAs. We describe and critically analyze the main results, emphasizing the possible relevance of chemical synthetic biology for the progress in basic science and biotechnology. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthetic Biology for Specialty Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Kelly A; Alper, Hal S

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we address recent advances in the field of synthetic biology and describe how those tools have been applied to produce a wide variety of chemicals in microorganisms. Here we classify the expansion of the synthetic biology toolbox into three different categories based on their primary function in strain engineering-for design, for construction, and for optimization. Next, focusing on recent years, we look at how chemicals have been produced using these new synthetic biology tools. Advances in producing fuels are briefly described, followed by a more thorough treatment of commodity chemicals, specialty chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. Throughout this review, an emphasis is placed on how synthetic biology tools are applied to strain engineering. Finally, we discuss organism and host strain diversity and provide a future outlook in the field.

  1. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  2. Adaptive Synthetic Forces: Situation Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Randall

    2001-01-01

    ...: perception, comprehension, and prediction. Building on these ideas, we developed techniques for improving the situation awareness in synthetic helicopter pilots for the ModSAF military simulation by giving them more human-like perception...

  3. Programming languages for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, P; Naveen, F; Rao, Chanchala Uma Maheswara; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2010-12-01

    In the backdrop of accelerated efforts for creating synthetic organisms, the nature and scope of an ideal programming language for scripting synthetic organism in-silico has been receiving increasing attention. A few programming languages for synthetic biology capable of defining, constructing, networking, editing and delivering genome scale models of cellular processes have been recently attempted. All these represent important points in a spectrum of possibilities. This paper introduces Kera, a state of the art programming language for synthetic biology which is arguably ahead of similar languages or tools such as GEC, Antimony and GenoCAD. Kera is a full-fledged object oriented programming language which is tempered by biopart rule library named Samhita which captures the knowledge regarding the interaction of genome components and catalytic molecules. Prominent feature of the language are demonstrated through a toy example and the road map for the future development of Kera is also presented.

  4. Direct characterization of cotton fabrics treated with di-epoxide by nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Min; Chéry, Joronia; Keresztes, Ivan; Zax, David B; Frey, Margaret W

    2017-10-15

    A non-acid-based, di-functional epoxide, neopentyl glycol diglycidyl ether (NPGDGE), was used to modify cotton fabrics. Direct characterization of the modified cotton was conducted by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) without grinding the fabric into a fine powder. NaOH and MgBr 2 were compared in catalyzing the reaction between the epoxide groups of NPGDGE and the hydroxyl groups of cellulose. Possible reaction routes were discussed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that while the MgBr 2 -catalyzed reaction resulted in self-polymerization of NPGDGE, the NaOH-catalyzed reaction did not. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that at high NaOH concentration cellulose restructures from allomorph I to II. NMR studies verified the incorporation of NPGDGE into cotton fabrics with a clear NMR signal, and confirmed that at higher NaOH concentration the efficiency of grafting of NPGDGE was increased. This demonstrates that use of solid state NMR directly on woven fabric samples can simultaneously characterize chemical modification and crystalline polymorph of cotton. No loss of tensile strength was observed for cotton fabrics modified with NPGDGE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of fabric mounting method and backing material on bloodstain patterns of drip stains on textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J Y M; Michielsen, S

    2016-05-01

    Textiles may provide valuable bloodstain evidence to help piece together events or activities at violent crime scenes. However, in spite of over 75 years of research, there are still difficulties encountered in many cases in the interpretation and identification of bloodstains on textiles. In this study, we dripped porcine blood onto three types of fabric (plain woven, single jersey knit, and denim) that are supported in four different ways (hard, taut, loose, and semi-hard, i.e., fabric laid on denim). These four mounting methods represent different ways in which a textile may be present when blood from a violent act lands on it. This study investigates how the fabric mounting method and backing material affect the appearance of drip stains on textiles. We found that bloodstain patterns formed on fabric lying flat on a hard surface were very different from when the same fabric was suspended loosely. We also found that bloodstains formed on the technical back of single jersey knit were vastly different from those on the technical face. Interestingly, some drip stains showed blood passing through the textile and leaving a stain behind it that resembled insect stains. By observing, recording, and describing how a blood stained textile is found or presented at the scene, the analyst may be able to better understand bloodstains and bloodstain patterns on textiles, which could be useful to confirm or refute a witness's account of how blood came to be where it was found after a bloodshed event.

  6. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF THE SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS FOR PES/STAINLESS STEEL FABRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU Ion Razvan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Textile screens for electromagnetic radiation represent a modern solution, due to their flexibility, lightweight and good mechanical resistance. Electromagnetic shielding is a must in various applications, while strict regulations are set for electromagnetic compatibility. Conductive fabrics are widely used for electronic equipment covers, RF suits or EMI protection tents. This paper aims to investigate the shielding effectiveness of conductive woven fabrics with stainless steel yarns at different weft distances [2,3,4,5 mm]. These conductive fabrics were investigated for their physical-mechanical properties (mass per surface unit, density on warp and weft direction and thickness, within the INCDTP accredited laboratories. The conductive fabrics as well as combinations thereof where tested for their shielding effectiveness accordingly to the standard ASTM ES 07, within the EMC laboratories of ICPE-CA. A signal generator, an amplifier, a TEM Cell and a spectrum analyser were used were used for this purpose. Graphs in logarithmic scale were issued for the shielding effectiveness analysis. Moreover, an experimental factorial plan was conceived for obtaining a mathematical model for the studied fabrics in relation to the weft distance between the conductive yarns. The coefficients of the mathematical model were obtained through the least squares regression method in Excel, while the response curve was designed in Matlab. The response curve enables the computation of intermediate values of the shielding effectiveness in relation to the distance between conductive yarns.

  7. Fabric based supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, S; Tudor, M J; Beeby, S P; Owen, J R

    2013-01-01

    Flexible supercapacitors with electrodes coated on inexpensive fabrics by the dipping technique. This paper present details of the design, fabrication and characterisation of fabric supercapacitor. The sandwich structured supercapacitors can achieve specific capacitances of 11.1F/g, area capacitance 105 mF.cm −2 and maintain 95% of the initial capacitance after cycling the device for more than 15000 times

  8. Low-cost and large-scale flexible SERS-cotton fabric as a wipe substrate for surface trace analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanmin; Ge, Fengyan; Guang, Shanyi; Cai, Zaisheng

    2018-04-01

    The large-scale surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) cotton fabrics were fabricated based on traditional woven ones using a dyeing-like method of vat dyes, where silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were in-situ synthesized by 'dipping-reducing-drying' process. By controlling the concentration of AgNO3 solution, the optimal SERS cotton fabric was obtained, which had a homogeneous close packing of Ag NPs. The SERS cotton fabric was employed to detect p-Aminothiophenol (PATP). It was found that the new fabric possessed excellent reproducibility (about 20%), long-term stability (about 57 days) and high SERS sensitivity with a detected concentration as low as 10-12 M. Furthermore, owing to the excellent mechanical flexibility and good absorption ability, the SERS cotton fabric was employed to detect carbaryl on the surface of an apple by simply swabbing, which showed great potential in fast trace analysis. More importantly, this study may realize large-scale production with low cost by a traditional cotton fabric.

  9. HgI2 detector fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M.; Perez, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to describe the steps followed to fabricate an ionizing radiation detector based on synthetic mercuric iodide monocrystal layers. Firstly, the crystalline orientation method has been describe, which is needed before the layer cutting perpendicularly to the (001) crystallographic. It is also defined the proceeding to crystal face finishing by a mechanical polishing and subsequent chemical etching. then, the metal electrode deposition and the view connection has been explained. Finally, the technique followed to encapsulate the detector with a polymeric thin film deposition has been described. (Author) 10 refs

  10. HgI2 detector fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M.; Perez, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to describe the steps followed to fabricate an ionizing radiation detector based on synthetic mercuric iodide monocrystal layers. Firstly, the crystalline orientation method has been describe, which is needed before the layer cutting perpendicullarly to the (001) crystallographyc. It is also defined the proceeding to crystal face finishing by a mechanical polishing and subsequent chemical etching. Then, the metal electrode deposition and the wire connection has been explained. Finally, the technique followed to encapsulate the detector with a polimeric thin film deposition has been described

  11. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D; Mathews, Debra J H

    2015-08-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) PROJECT is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with this field of research and operate under a common set of principles. In this commentary, we survey the current ethics and regulatory landscape of synthetic biology and present the Sc2.0 Statement of Ethics and Governance to which all members of the project adhere. This statement focuses on four aspects of the Sc2.0 PROJECT: societal benefit, intellectual property, safety, and self-governance. We propose that such project-level agreements are an important, valuable, and flexible model of self-regulation for similar global, large-scale synthetic biology projects in order to maximize the benefits and minimize potential harms. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  12. Experimental Analysis of the Influence of Drill Point Angle and Wear on the Drilling of Woven CFRPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Feito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effect of the drill geometry on the drilling of woven Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer composite (CFRPs. Although different geometrical effects can be considered in drilling CFRPs, the present work focuses on the influence of point angle and wear because they are the important factors influencing hole quality and machining forces. Surface quality was evaluated in terms of delamination and superficial defects. Three different point angles were tested representative of the geometries commonly used in the industry. Two wear modes were considered, being representative of the wear patterns commonly observed when drilling CFRPs: flank wear and honed cutting edge. It was found that the crossed influence of the point angle and wear were significant to the thrust force. Delamination at the hole entry and exit showed opposite trends with the change of geometry. Also, cutting parameters were checked showing the feed’s dominant influence on surface damage.

  13. Preparation and characterization of thermal-responsive non-woven poly (propylene) materials grafted with N-isopropylacrylamide/β-cyclodextrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amiri, Setareh; Zadhoush, Ali; Mallakpour, Shadpour

    2013-01-01

    A temperature-sensitive hydrogel was successfully grafted on the surface of non-woven poly(propylene) materials. This was carried out by the application of unmodified β-cyclodextrin and N-isopropylacrylamide monomer in order to develop new functional hydrogels for textile science and technology......(N-isopropylacrylamide) and β-cyclodextrin components on the surface of the textile. Unmodified β-cyclodextrin content was estimated by the use of elemental analysis to be 97 µg/cm2. The water uptake measurements and differential scanning calorimetry analyses showed that the hydrogel maintained its temperature...... of smart textiles which possess the temperature-sensitive property of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and the ability of inclusion complex formation with guest molecules due to the presence of unmodified β-cyclodextrin in the hydrogel network....

  14. A study on damage and fatigue characteristics of plain woven carbon fiber reinforced composite material(I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Soo; Kim, Sang Tae

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics of damage and fatigue subjected to tensile fatigue loading in plain woven carbon fiber reinforced composite material were studied. Constant amplitude load of 90% stress of notch strength was applied to each specimen, which had different initial notch length, and crack dectectvie compliance curve was determined form load-displacement data. The effective crack length(a eff ) was obtained form this compliance curve and the effective crack growth could be divided to three-steps and explained separately. After cycling the shape of fatigue crack was observed by S.E.M.. Change of elastic modulus(E N ) during fatigue cycle was explained by repeated sudden-death medel. The material constant determined by Jen-Hsu model was more useful to evaluate damage than Wang-Chim model. (Author)

  15. “You’re such a good friend”: A woven autoethnographic narrative discussion of disability and friendship in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Anthony Castrodale

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors discuss friendship as a method of qualitative inquiry. After defining friendship and positing it as a kind of fieldwork, the methodological foundations of friendship as method are established (Tillmann-Healy, 2003. The purpose of this narrative woven autoethnographic study is to examine the role of friendship in describing disabling physical and attitudinal access barriers in a university setting. Friendship represents a critical analytic lens through which disabled/nondisabled individuals alike may examine their positions, understandings, regimes of practices, and particular knowledges. Friends —Mark and Dan — discuss their experiences of disablement and reflections on dis/ability. The authors draw from their experiences of friendship and disability in higher education and their allied identities to discuss and examine questions of access, disclosure, and inclusion.

  16. Meeting Report: Synthetic Biology Jamboree for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology (the name is derived from an analogy to synthetic chemistry) has recognized itself as a "field" only since about 2002. Synthetic biology has gotten some high-profile attention recently, but most people are not aware the field even exists. Synthetic biologists apply engineering principles to genomic circuits to…

  17. Fabrication, functionalization, and application of electrospun biopolymer nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegel, Christina; Arecchi, Alessandra; Arrechi, Alessandra; Kit, Kevin; McClements, D J; Weiss, Jochen

    2008-09-01

    The use of novel nanostructured materials has attracted considerable interest in the food industry for their utilization as highly functional ingredients, high-performance packaging materials, processing aids, and food quality and safety sensors. Most previous application interest has focused on the development of nanoparticles. However, more recently, the ability to produce non-woven mats composed of nanofibers that can be used in food applications is beginning to be investigated. Electrospinning is a novel fabrication technique that can be used to produce fibers with diameters below 100 nm from (bio-) polymer solutions. These nanofibers have been shown to possess unique properties that distinguish them from non-woven fibers produced by other methods, e.g., melt-blowing. This is because first the process involved results in a high orientation of polymers within the fibers that leads to mechanically superior properties, e.g., increased tensile strengths. Second, during the spinning of the fibers from polymer solutions, the solvent is rapidly evaporated allowing the production of fibers composed of polymer blends that would typically phase separate if spun with other processes. Third, the small dimensions of the fibers lead to very high specific surface areas. Because of this the fiber properties may be greatly influenced by surface properties giving rise to fiber functionalities not found in fibers of larger sizes. For food applications, the fibers may find uses as ingredients if they are composed solely of edible polymers and GRAS ingredients, (e.g., fibers could contain functional ingredients such as nutraceuticals, antioxidants, antimicrobials, and flavors), as active packaging materials or as processing aids (e.g., catalytic reactors, membranes, filters (Lala et al., 2007), and sensors (Manesh et al., 2007; Ren et al., 2006; Sawicka et al., 2005). This review is therefore intended to introduce interested food and agricultural scientists to the concept of nano

  18. Fabrics in Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise

    2007-01-01

    sensing of fabrics in function. It is proposed that tactile and visual sensing of fabrics is a way to investigate and express emotional utility values. The further purpose is to use experiments with repertory grid models as part of the mapping of the entire research project and also as a basis...

  19. Fabricating architectural volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feringa, Jelle; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2015-01-01

    The 2011 edition of Fabricate inspired a number of collaborations, this article seeks to highlight three of these. There is a common thread amongst the projects presented: sharing the ambition to close the rift between design and fabrication while incorporating structural design aspects early on...

  20. Smart Fabrics Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cory; Potter, Elliott; Potter, Elliott; McCabe, Mary; Baggerman, Clint

    2010-01-01

    Advances in Smart Fabrics technology are enabling an exciting array of new applications for NASA exploration missions, the biomedical community, and consumer electronics. This report summarizes the findings of a brief investigation into the state of the art and potential applications of smart fabrics to address challenges in human spaceflight.

  1. Synthetic biology, metaphors and responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Carmen; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2017-08-29

    Metaphors are not just decorative rhetorical devices that make speech pretty. They are fundamental tools for thinking about the world and acting on the world. The language we use to make a better world matters; words matter; metaphors matter. Words have consequences - ethical, social and legal ones, as well as political and economic ones. They need to be used 'responsibly'. They also need to be studied carefully - this is what we want to do through this editorial and the related thematic collection. In the context of synthetic biology, natural and social scientists have become increasingly interested in metaphors, a wave of interest that we want to exploit and amplify. We want to build on emerging articles and books on synthetic biology, metaphors of life and the ethical and moral implications of such metaphors. This editorial provides a brief introduction to synthetic biology and responsible innovation, as well as a comprehensive review of literature on the social, cultural and ethical impacts of metaphor use in genomics and synthetic biology. Our aim is to stimulate an interdisciplinary and international discussion on the impact that metaphors can have on science, policy and publics in the context of synthetic biology.

  2. Content metamorphosis in synthetic holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desbiens, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    A synthetic hologram is an optical system made of hundreds of images amalgamated in a structure of holographic cells. Each of these images represents a point of view on a three-dimensional space which makes us consider synthetic holography as a multiple points of view perspective system. In the composition of a computer graphics scene for a synthetic hologram, the field of view of the holographic image can be divided into several viewing zones. We can attribute these divisions to any object or image feature independently and operate different transformations on image content. In computer generated holography, we tend to consider content variations as a continuous animation much like a short movie. However, by composing sequential variations of image features in relation with spatial divisions, we can build new narrative forms distinct from linear cinematographic narration. When observers move freely and change their viewing positions, they travel from one field of view division to another. In synthetic holography, metamorphoses of image content are within the observer's path. In all imaging Medias, the transformation of image features in synchronisation with the observer's position is a rare occurrence. However, this is a predominant characteristic of synthetic holography. This paper describes some of my experimental works in the development of metamorphic holographic images.

  3. Control theory meets synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Domitilla; Dy, Aaron J; Qian, Yili

    2016-07-01

    The past several years have witnessed an increased presence of control theoretic concepts in synthetic biology. This review presents an organized summary of how these control design concepts have been applied to tackle a variety of problems faced when building synthetic biomolecular circuits in living cells. In particular, we describe success stories that demonstrate how simple or more elaborate control design methods can be used to make the behaviour of synthetic genetic circuits within a single cell or across a cell population more reliable, predictable and robust to perturbations. The description especially highlights technical challenges that uniquely arise from the need to implement control designs within a new hardware setting, along with implemented or proposed solutions. Some engineering solutions employing complex feedback control schemes are also described, which, however, still require a deeper theoretical analysis of stability, performance and robustness properties. Overall, this paper should help synthetic biologists become familiar with feedback control concepts as they can be used in their application area. At the same time, it should provide some domain knowledge to control theorists who wish to enter the rising and exciting field of synthetic biology. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Optics fabrication technical challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabassier, G.; Ferriou, N.; Lavastre, E.; Maunier, C.; Neauport, J.; Taroux, D.; Balla, D.; Fornerod, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Before the production of all the LMJ (MEGAJOULE laser) optics, the CEA had to proceed with the fabrication of about 300 large optics for the LIL (laser integration line) laser. Thanks to a fruitful collaboration with high-tech optics companies in Europe, this challenge has been successfully hit. In order to achieve the very tight requirements for cleanliness, laser damage threshold and all the other high demanding fabrication specifications, it has been necessary to develop and to set completely new fabrication process going and to build special outsize fabrication equipment. Through a couple of examples, this paper gives an overview of the work which has been done and shows some of the results which have been obtained: continuous laser glass melting, fabrication of the laser slabs, rapid-growth KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) technology, large diffractive transmission gratings engraving and characterization. (authors)

  5. Attachment evaluation of embryonic stem cells on a pau-coated non-woven fabric: a potential source for bioartificial assist devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Soto Gutiérrez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Las células embrionicas han sido estudiadas recientemente como un recurso atractivo para la construcción de órganos artificiales. La proliferación y subsiguiente diferenciación de las células embrionicas dentro de los mismos dispositivos artificiales deben ser consideras. Recientemente, hemos desarrollado un hígado bioartificial usando una tela sintética con fibras huecas recubiertas con un poliaminouretano, el cual facilita la atracción celular dentro del dispositivo hepático. En esta ocasión hemos evaluado la capacidad de atracción celular de las células embrionicas y de cuerpos embrionicos así como la funcionalidad de hepatocitos derivados de células embrionicas de raton en la fibra sintetica. Para diferenciar un gran numero de hepatocitos derivados de las celulas embrionicas, nosotros formamos cuerpos embrionicos y los expusimos al factor 2 de creciemiento de los fibrobastos y a la forma sintetica del factor de crecimiento de los hepatocitos asi como dimetilsulfoxido y dexametasona. La adherencia celular y morfología sobre la fibra sintetica fue evaluada regularmente usando microscopio electronico (SEM. Para evaluar la diferenciación celular examinamos la expresión del gen de la albúmina. Para probar la función de los hepatocitos derivados in Vitro, nosotros evaluamos la capacidad de metabolizar amonio y lidocaina, encontramos que las células cultivadas sobre la fibra sintética expresan y secretan mayores cantidades de albúmina y metabolizan significativamente mejor que los controles. En este trabajo de investigación hemos demostrado que existe una adecuada atracción de las células embrionicas de ratón cultivadas sobre la fibra sintética y que también son capaces de diferenciarse en hepatocitos funcionales. Por esta razón, el cultivo y subsiguiente diferenciación de las células embrionicas sobre la fibra sintética podría ser útil en el desarrollo de biosoportes para la construcción de hígados bio artificiales y un nuevo modelo de cultivo para el estudio in Vitro de nuevos medicamentos

  6. Microfluidic Technologies for Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kuk Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic technologies have shown powerful abilities for reducing cost, time, and labor, and at the same time, for increasing accuracy, throughput, and performance in the analysis of biological and biochemical samples compared with the conventional, macroscale instruments. Synthetic biology is an emerging field of biology and has drawn much attraction due to its potential to create novel, functional biological parts and systems for special purposes. Since it is believed that the development of synthetic biology can be accelerated through the use of microfluidic technology, in this review work we focus our discussion on the latest microfluidic technologies that can provide unprecedented means in synthetic biology for dynamic profiling of gene expression/regulation with high resolution, highly sensitive on-chip and off-chip detection of metabolites, and whole-cell analysis.

  7. Synthetic neurosteroids on brain protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurosteroids, like allopregnanolone and pregnanolone, are endogenous regulators of neuronal excitability. Inside the brain, they are highly selective and potent modulators of GABA A receptor activity. Their anticonvulsant, anesthetics and anxiolytic properties are useful for the treatments of several neurological and psychiatric disorders via reducing the risks of side effects obtained with the commercial drugs. The principal disadvantages of endogenous neurosteroids administration are their rapid metabolism and their low oral bioavailability. Synthetic steroids analogues with major stability or endogenous neurosteroids stimulation synthesis might constitute promising novel strategies for the treatment of several disorders. Numerous studies indicate that the 3α-hydroxyl configuration is the key for binding and activity, but modifications in the steroid nucleus may emphasize different pharmacophores. So far, several synthetic steroids have been developed with successful neurosteroid-like effects. In this work, we summarize the properties of various synthetic steroids probed in trials throughout the analysis of several neurosteroids-like actions.

  8. Synthetic biology as red herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Beth

    2013-12-01

    It has become commonplace to say that with the advent of technologies like synthetic biology the line between artifacts and living organisms, policed by metaphysicians since antiquity, is beginning to blur. But that line began to blur 10,000 years ago when plants and animals were first domesticated; and has been thoroughly blurred at least since agriculture became the dominant human subsistence pattern many millennia ago. Synthetic biology is ultimately only a late and unexceptional offshoot of this prehistoric development. From this perspective, then, synthetic biology is a red herring, distracting us from more thorough philosophical consideration of the most truly revolutionary human practice-agriculture. In the first section of this paper I will make this case with regard to ontology, arguing that synthetic biology crosses no ontological lines that were not crossed already in the Neolithic. In the second section I will construct a parallel case with regard to cognition, arguing that synthetic biology as biological engineering represents no cognitive advance over what was required for domestication and the new agricultural subsistence pattern it grounds. In the final section I will make the case with regard to human existence, arguing that synthetic biology, even if wildly successful, is not in a position to cause significant existential change in what it is to be human over and above the massive existential change caused by the transition to agriculture. I conclude that a longer historical perspective casts new light on some important issues in philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. US Competitiveness in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronvall, Gigi Kwik

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technical field that aims to make biology easier to engineer; the field has applications in strategically important sectors for the US economy. While the United States currently leads in synthetic biology R&D, other nations are heavily investing in order to boost their economies, which will inevitably diminish the US leadership position. This outcome is not entirely negative--additional investments will expand markets--but it is critical that the US government take steps to remain competitive: There are applications from which the US population and economy may benefit; there are specific applications with importance for national defense; and US technical leadership will ensure that US experts have a leading role in synthetic biology governance, regulation, and oversight. Measures to increase competitiveness in S&T generally are broadly applicable for synthetic biology and should be pursued. However, the US government will also need to take action on fundamental issues that will affect the field's development, such as countering anti-GMO (genetically modified organism) sentiments and anti-GMO legislation. The United States should maintain its regulatory approach so that it is the product that is regulated, not the method used to create a product. At the same time, the United States needs to ensure that the regulatory framework is updated so that synthetic biology products do not fall into regulatory gaps. Finally, the United States needs to pay close attention to how synthetic biology applications may be governed internationally, such as through the Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity, so that beneficial applications may be realized.

  10. Immobilization of lysozyme on cotton fabrics; synthesis, characterization, and activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncontrolled hemorrhage is the leading cause of death on the battlefield and second leading cause of death in civilian trauma. Recent animal testing using a lethal arterial injury model compared a variety of woven and non woven products with granular products, and found only one product (WoundStat) ...

  11. Synthetic Phage for Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling structural organization and signaling motif display is of great importance to design the functional tissue regenerating materials. Synthetic phage, genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage has been recently introduced as novel tissue regeneration materials to display a high density of cell-signaling peptides on their major coat proteins for tissue regeneration purposes. Structural advantages of their long-rod shape and monodispersity can be taken together to construct nanofibrous scaffolds which support cell proliferation and differentiation as well as direct orientation of their growth in two or three dimensions. This review demonstrated how functional synthetic phage is designed and subsequently utilized for tissue regeneration that offers potential cell therapy.

  12. Synthetic biology and its promises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel De Cózar Escalante

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology is a new science and emerging technology, or rather a technoscience, which converges with others such as nanotechnology, information technology, robotics, artificial intelligence and neuroscience. All have common features that could have highly concerning social and environmental impacts. With its ambitious goals of controlling complexity, redesigning and creating new living entities, synthetic biology perfectly exemplifies the new bioeconomic reality. This requires expanding the focus of the discussion beyond the limited comparative analysis of risks and benefits, to address uncertainties, reassign responsibilities and initiate a thorough social assessment of what is at stake.

  13. Structural coloration of chitosan coated cellulose fabrics by electrostatic self-assembled poly (styrene-methyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Gönül; Zille, Andrea; Seventekin, Necdet; Souto, Antonio P

    2018-08-01

    The structural coloration of a chitosan-coated woven cotton fabric obtained by glutaraldehyde-stabilized deposition of electrostatic self-assembled monodisperse and spherically uniform (250 nm) poly (styrene-methyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) photonic crystal nanospheres (P(St-MMA-AA)) was investigated. Bright iridescent coatings displaying different colors in function of the viewing angle were obtained. The SEM, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, TGA, DSC and FTIR analyses confirm the presence of structural color and the glutaraldehyde and chitosan ability to provide durable chemical bonding between cotton fabric and photonic crystal (PCs) coating with the highest degradation temperature and the lowest enthalpy. The coatings are characterized by a mixture of face-centered cubic and hexagonal close-packed arrays alternating random packing regions. For the first time a cost-efficient structural coloration with high washing and light fastness using self-assembled P(St-MMA-AA) photonic crystals was successfully developed onto woven cotton fabric using chitosan and/or glutaraldehyde as stabilizing agent opening new strategies for the development of dye-free coloration of textiles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. New polymorphous computing fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolinski, Christophe; Gokhale, Maya; McCabe, Kevin P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a new polymorphous computing Fabric well suited to DSP and Image Processing and describes its implementation on a Configurable System on a Chip (CSOC). The architecture is highly parameterized and enables customization of the synthesized Fabric to achieve high performance for a specific class of application. For this reason it can be considered to be a generic model for hardware accelerator synthesis from a high level specification. Another important innovation is the Fabric uses a global memory concept, which gives the host processor random access to all the variables and instructions on the Fabric. The Fabric supports different computing models including MIMD, SPMD and systolic flow and permits dynamic reconfiguration. We present a specific implementation of a bank of FIR filters on a Fabric composed of 52 cells on the Altera Excalibur ARM running at 33 MHz. The theoretical performance of this Fabric is 1.8 GMACh. For the FIR application we obtain 1.6 GMAC/s real performance. Some automatic tools have been developed like the tool to provide a host access utility and assembler.

  15. Application of eco-friendly antimicrobial finish butea monosperma leaves on fabric properties of polyester and cotton/polyester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaf, S.; Saeed, M.; Kalsoom, S.; Saeed, M.

    2017-01-01

    The study was aimed to check the effect of eco-friendly antimicrobial finish on 100% polyester and 50/50 cotton/polyester woven fabrics. The leaves' extract of Butea monosperma was used as an eco-friendly antimicrobial finish. The fabric was first desized, scoured, bleached and washed then antimicrobial finish was applied by using pad dry cure method. The aesthetic, comfort and mechanical fabrics properties were checked before and after applying antimicrobial finish. Under aesthetic property stiffness and smoothness appearance was checked, under comfort related property absorbency and air permeability was checked and under mechanical property tear and tensile strength was checked. The antimicrobial finish was checked by using ASTEM E2149 Shake Flask method. The AATCC and ISO standard testing methods were used for checking fabric properties. One way ANOVA statistical test was applied for analysis of results. Antimicrobial finish has increased aesthetic (stiffness, smoothness appearance), comfort (absorbency, air permeability) and mechanical (tensile and tear strengths) properties of polyester and cotton/polyester fabrics. The antimicrobial finish was effective on both 100% polyester and 50/50 cotton/polyester fabrics up to 25 washes. This study is beneficial to medical industry, paramedical staff, sports wears, home furnishing as well as common people. (author)

  16. COLOR STABILITY OF NATURALLY DYED DENIM FABRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUBTIRICA Adriana-Ioana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The desire to colour textiles is as old as spinning and weaving. Natural dyes have been used since thousands of years for their long endurance, soft and elegant colours. But the invention of synthetic dyes has limited the application of natural dyes. The health hazards associated with the use of synthetic dyes and also the increased environmental awareness have revived the use of natural dyes during the recent years. The major performance characteristic of a dye is its ability to maintain the colour in normal use and is known as colorfastness. The study provides information regarding colour fastness properties of naturally dyed denim fabrics. Three vegetable materials were used for dyeing denim fabrics: Punica granatum (bark powder, Indigofera tinctoria (leave powder and Juglans regia (walnut dried shells. The results of the study indicated that using Walnut shells and Punica granatum deeper and more stable shades of colors are obtained in comparison with Indigofera Tinctoria dyed denim samples. All samples highlight a change in color in the sense of fading which has occurred to the highest extent when exposed to artificial light and washing. When tested against water, alkaline and acid perspiration, it is noticed that better results are obtained, and color change appear in a smaller extent.

  17. Laser surface modification of electrically conductive fabrics: Material performance improvement and design effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunakova, Veronika; Hrubosova, Zuzana; Tunak, Maros; Kasparova, Marie; Mullerova, Jana

    2018-01-01

    Development of lightweight flexible materials for electromagnetic interference shielding has obtained increased attention in recent years particularly for clothing, textiles in-house use and technical applications especially in areas of aircraft, aerospace, automobiles and flexible electronics such as portable electronics and wearable devices. There are many references in the literature concerning development and investigation of electromagnetic shielding lightweight flexible materials especially textile based with different electrically conductive additives. However, only little attention is paid to designing and enhancing the properties of these special fabrics by textile finishing processes. Laser technology applied as a physical treatment method is becoming very popular and can be used in different applications to make improvement and even overcome drawbacks of some of the traditional processes. The main purpose of this study is firstly to analyze the possibilities of transferring design onto the surface of electrically conductive fabrics by laser beam and secondly to study of effect of surface modification degree on performance of conductive fabric including electromagnetic shielding ability and mechanical properties. Woven fabric made of yarns containing 10% of extremely thin stainless steel fiber was used as a conductive substrate.

  18. Structural coloration of chitosan-cationized cotton fabric using photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, G.; Zille, A.; Seventekin, N.; Souto, A. P.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, poly (styrene-methyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) P(St-MMA-AA) composite nanospheres were deposited onto chitosan-cationized woven cotton fabrics followed by a second layer of chitosan. The deposited photonic crystals (PCs) on the fabrics were evaluated for coating efficiency and resistance, chemical analysis and color variation by optical and SEM microscopy, ATR-FTIR, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and washing fastness. Chitosan deposition on cotton fabric provided cationic groups on the fiber surface promoting electrostatic interaction with photonic crystals. SEM images of the washed samples indicate that the PCs are firmly coated on the cotton surface only in the chitosan treated sample. The photonic nanospheres show an average diameter of 280 nm and display a face-centered cubic closepacking structure with an average thickness of 10 μm. A further chitosan post-treatment enhances color yield of the samples due to the chitosan transparent covering layer that induce bright reflections where the angles of incidence and reflection are the same. After washing, no photonic crystal can be detected on control fabric surface. However, the sample that received a chitosan post-treatment showed a good washing fastness maintaining a reasonable degree of iridescence. Chitosan fills the spaces between the polymer spheres in the matrix stabilizing the photonic structure. Sizeable variations in lattice spacing will allow color variations using more flexible non-close-packed photonic crystal arrays in chitosan hydrogels matrices.

  19. Fabrication and characterisation of fabric supercapacitor

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Fabric supercapacitor is a flexible electrochemical device for energy storage application. It is designed to power up flexible electronic systems used for, for example, information sensing, data computation and communication. The development of a flexible supercapacitor is important for e-textiles since supercapacitor can achieve higher energy density than a standard parallel plate capacitor and a larger power density compared with a battery. This research area is currently facing barriers on...

  20. Where Synthetic Biology Meets ET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. And what about the limits for life? Can we create organisms that expand the envelope for life? In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

  1. Stereoscopy in cinematographic synthetic imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Jonathan; Parent, Rick

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we present experiments and results pertaining to the perception of depth in stereoscopic viewing of synthetic imagery. In computer animation, typical synthetic imagery is highly textured and uses stylized illumination of abstracted material models by abstracted light source models. While there have been numerous studies concerning stereoscopic capabilities, conventions for staging and cinematography in stereoscopic movies have not yet been well-established. Our long-term goal is to measure the effectiveness of various cinematography techniques on the human visual system in a theatrical viewing environment. We would like to identify the elements of stereoscopic cinema that are important in terms of enhancing the viewer's understanding of a scene as well as providing guidelines for the cinematographer relating to storytelling. In these experiments we isolated stereoscopic effects by eliminating as many other visual cues as is reasonable. In particular, we aim to empirically determine what types of movement in synthetic imagery affect the perceptual depth sensing capabilities of our viewers. Using synthetic imagery, we created several viewing scenarios in which the viewer is asked to locate a target object's depth in a simple environment. The scenarios were specifically designed to compare the effectiveness of stereo viewing, camera movement, and object motion in aiding depth perception. Data were collected showing the error between the choice of the user and the actual depth value, and patterns were identified that relate the test variables to the viewer's perceptual depth accuracy in our theatrical viewing environment.

  2. Synthetic biology meets tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jamie A; Cachat, Elise

    2016-06-15

    Classical tissue engineering is aimed mainly at producing anatomically and physiologically realistic replacements for normal human tissues. It is done either by encouraging cellular colonization of manufactured matrices or cellular recolonization of decellularized natural extracellular matrices from donor organs, or by allowing cells to self-organize into organs as they do during fetal life. For repair of normal bodies, this will be adequate but there are reasons for making unusual, non-evolved tissues (repair of unusual bodies, interface to electromechanical prostheses, incorporating living cells into life-support machines). Synthetic biology is aimed mainly at engineering cells so that they can perform custom functions: applying synthetic biological approaches to tissue engineering may be one way of engineering custom structures. In this article, we outline the 'embryological cycle' of patterning, differentiation and morphogenesis and review progress that has been made in constructing synthetic biological systems to reproduce these processes in new ways. The state-of-the-art remains a long way from making truly synthetic tissues, but there are now at least foundations for future work. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  3. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H; Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E; Katayama, S; Koyano, M

    2010-01-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO 4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO 2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  4. Assessment of synthetic image fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kevin D.; Moorhead, Ian R.; Gilmore, Marilyn A.; Watson, Graham H.; Thomson, Mitch; Yates, T.; Troscianko, Tomasz; Tolhurst, David J.

    2000-07-01

    Computer generated imagery is increasingly used for a wide variety of purposes ranging from computer games to flight simulators to camouflage and sensor assessment. The fidelity required for this imagery is dependent on the anticipated use - for example when used for camouflage design it must be physically correct spectrally and spatially. The rendering techniques used will also depend upon the waveband being simulated, spatial resolution of the sensor and the required frame rate. Rendering of natural outdoor scenes is particularly demanding, because of the statistical variation in materials and illumination, atmospheric effects and the complex geometric structures of objects such as trees. The accuracy of the simulated imagery has tended to be assessed subjectively in the past. First and second order statistics do not capture many of the essential characteristics of natural scenes. Direct pixel comparison would impose an unachievable demand on the synthetic imagery. For many applications, such as camouflage design, it is important that nay metrics used will work in both visible and infrared wavebands. We are investigating a variety of different methods of comparing real and synthetic imagery and comparing synthetic imagery rendered to different levels of fidelity. These techniques will include neural networks (ICA), higher order statistics and models of human contrast perception. This paper will present an overview of the analyses we have carried out and some initial results along with some preliminary conclusions regarding the fidelity of synthetic imagery.

  5. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, A.; Okuno, M.; Okudera, H.; Mashimo, T.; Omurzak, E.; Katayama, S.; Koyano, M.

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  6. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H [Department of Earth Sciences, Kanazawa University Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan); Katayama, S; Koyano, M, E-mail: okuno@kenroku.kanazawa-u.ac.j [JAIST, Nomi, Ishikawa, 923-1297 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO{sub 4} tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO{sub 2} glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  7. Methods for preparing synthetic freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E J; Davison, W; Hamilton-Taylor, J

    2002-03-01

    Synthetic solutions that emulate the major ion compositions of natural waters are useful in experiments aimed at understanding biogeochemical processes. Standard recipes exist for preparing synthetic analogues of seawater, with its relatively constant composition, but, due to the diversity of freshwaters, a range of compositions and recipes is required. Generic protocols are developed for preparing synthetic freshwaters of any desired composition. The major problems encountered in preparing hard and soft waters include dissolving sparingly soluble calcium carbonate, ensuring that the ionic components of each concentrated stock solution cannot form an insoluble salt and dealing with the supersaturation of calcium carbonate in many hard waters. For acidic waters the poor solubility of aluminium salts requires attention. These problems are overcome by preparing concentrated stock solutions according to carefully designed reaction paths that were tested using a combination of experiment and equilibrium modeling. These stock solutions must then be added in a prescribed order to prepare a final solution that is brought into equilibrium with the atmosphere. The example calculations for preparing hard, soft and acidic freshwater surrogates with major ion compositions the same as published analyses, are presented in a generalized fashion that should allow preparation of any synthetic freshwater according to its known analysis.

  8. Comparative performance evaluation of conventional and ultrasonic assisted bleaching of cotton fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, A.; Ashraf, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Conventional bleaching process is an important and quality influencing process for textile wet processors. However, the process requires high energy consumption, and is slow and time consuming. In the present research work, cotton woven fabric was bleached with different bleaching agents using conventional and ultrasonic assisted techniques. After bleaching whiteness index, weight loss and tensile strength of samples were measured and compared statistically. The results showed that ultrasonic energy intensifies the diffusion of chemicals and increases the production of hydroxyl radicals which catalyze the bleaching process. Ultrasonic assisted bleaching proved to be a novel technique that can produce better results than conventional bleaching process even at low temperature and in less time. (author)

  9. Impact behavior of basalt/epoxy composite: Comparison between flat and twill fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, I.; Ricciardi, M. R.; Antonucci, V.; Langella, A.; Lopresto, V.

    2018-05-01

    Two types of basalt fibre reinforced epoxy laminates were realized by overlapping flat and twill woven basalt fabrics by resin infusion. Rectangular specimens, cut from the panels were impacted at penetration and at increasing energy values, to investigate the damage onset and propagation. A non-destructive technique, Ultrasound testing (UT), was adopted to investigate the internal damage. Despite the difficulties to obtain information by UT method due to the high amount of signal absorbed, the technique, properly calibrated, proved to be very useful in providing information about the presence, the shape and the extent of the delaminations. The results were compared at the aim to investigate the effect of the fiber architecture (textile). The experimental results indicate a similar impact behavior between basalt flat and twill composites but in the case of the twill a minor delaminated area was detected, even if a higher absorbed energy was recorded

  10. Junction and circuit fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackel, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Great strides have been made in Josephson junction fabrication in the four years since the first IC SQUID meeting. Advances in lithography have allowed the production of devices with planar dimensions as small as a few hundred angstroms. Improved technology has provided ultra-high sensitivity SQUIDS, high-efficiency low-noise mixers, and complex integrated circuits. This review highlights some of the new fabrication procedures. The review consists of three parts. Part 1 is a short summary of the requirements on junctions for various applications. Part 2 reviews intergrated circuit fabrication, including tunnel junction logic circuits made at IBM and Bell Labs, and microbridge radiation sources made at SUNY at Stony Brook. Part 3 describes new junction fabrication techniques, the major emphasis of this review. This part includes a discussion of small oxide-barrier tunnel junctions, semiconductor barrier junctions, and microbridge junctions. Part 3 concludes by considering very fine lithography and limitations to miniaturization. (orig.)

  11. Construction, fabrication, and installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This standard specifies the construction, fabrication, and installation requirements that apply to concrete containment structures of a containment system designated as class containment components, parts and appurtenances for nuclear power plants

  12. Experimental Fabrication Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides aviation fabrication support to special operations aircraft residing at Fort Eustis and other bases in the United States. Support is also provided to AATD...

  13. Alloy Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Alloy Fabrication Facility in Albany, OR, researchers conduct DOE research projects to produce new alloys suited to a variety of applications, from gas...

  14. Protease-sensitive synthetic prions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Colby

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prions arise when the cellular prion protein (PrP(C undergoes a self-propagating conformational change; the resulting infectious conformer is designated PrP(Sc. Frequently, PrP(Sc is protease-resistant but protease-sensitive (s prions have been isolated in humans and other animals. We report here that protease-sensitive, synthetic prions were generated in vitro during polymerization of recombinant (rec PrP into amyloid fibers. In 22 independent experiments, recPrP amyloid preparations, but not recPrP monomers or oligomers, transmitted disease to transgenic mice (n = 164, denoted Tg9949 mice, that overexpress N-terminally truncated PrP. Tg9949 control mice (n = 174 did not spontaneously generate prions although they were prone to late-onset spontaneous neurological dysfunction. When synthetic prion isolates from infected Tg9949 mice were serially transmitted in the same line of mice, they exhibited sPrP(Sc and caused neurodegeneration. Interestingly, these protease-sensitive prions did not shorten the life span of Tg9949 mice despite causing extensive neurodegeneration. We inoculated three synthetic prion isolates into Tg4053 mice that overexpress full-length PrP; Tg4053 mice are not prone to developing spontaneous neurological dysfunction. The synthetic prion isolates caused disease in 600-750 days in Tg4053 mice, which exhibited sPrP(Sc. These novel synthetic prions demonstrate that conformational changes in wild-type PrP can produce mouse prions composed exclusively of sPrP(Sc.

  15. Modeling the Monotonic and Cyclic Tensile Stress-Strain Behavior of 2D and 2.5D Woven C/SiC Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L. B.

    2018-05-01

    The deformation of 2D and 2.5 C/SiC woven ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) in monotonic and cyclic loadings has been investigated. Statistical matrix multicracking and fiber failure models and the fracture mechanics interface debonding approach are used to determine the spacing of matrix cracks, the debonded length of interface, and the fraction of broken fibers. The effects of fiber volume fraction and fiber Weibull modulus on the damage evolution in the composites and on their tensile stress-strain curves are analyzed. When matrix multicracking and fiber/matrix interface debonding occur, the fiber slippage relative to the matrix in the debonded interface region of the 0° warp yarns is the main reason for the emergance of stress-strain hysteresis loops for 2D and 2.5D woven CMCs. A model of these loops is developed, and histeresis loops for the composites in cyclic loadings/unloadings are predicted.

  16. Fabricating nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Activities of the Nuclear Engineering Division of Vickers Ltd., particularly fabrication of long slim tubular components for power reactors and the construction of irradiation loops and rigs, are outlined. The processes include hydraulic forming for fabrication of various types of tubes and outer cases of fuel transfer buckets, various specialised welding operations including some applications of the TIG process, and induction brazing of specialised assemblies. (U.K.)

  17. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, Stephen [EWI, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  18. Organic nanowire hierarchy over fabric platform for flexible cold cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Soumen; Narayan Maiti, Uday; Pal, Shreyasi; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Organic charge transfer (CT) complexes initiated a growing interest in modern electronic devices owing to their easy processability and unique characteristics. In this work, three-dimensional field emitters comprising metal-organic charge transfer complex nanostructures of AgTCNQ and CuTCNQ (TCNQ, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane) over flexible fabric substrate are realized. Deliberate control over the reaction parameter during organic solid phase reaction leads to modification in structural parameters of the nanowires (i.e. length, diameter) as well as their arrangement atop the carbon fibers. The optimized arrays of AgTCNQ and CuTCNQ nanowires exhibit excellent field electron emission performance with very low turn-on (1.72 and 2.56 V μm-1) and threshold fields (4.21 and 6.33 V μm-1) respectively, which are comparable to those of the best organic field emitters reported to date. The underlying conducting carbon cloth with special woven-like geometry not only offers a flexible platform for nanowire growth, but also provides an additional field enhancement to ease the electron emission.

  19. Organic nanowire hierarchy over fabric platform for flexible cold cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, Soumen; Pal, Shreyasi; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar; Maiti, Uday Narayan

    2013-01-01

    Organic charge transfer (CT) complexes initiated a growing interest in modern electronic devices owing to their easy processability and unique characteristics. In this work, three-dimensional field emitters comprising metal–organic charge transfer complex nanostructures of AgTCNQ and CuTCNQ (TCNQ, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane) over flexible fabric substrate are realized. Deliberate control over the reaction parameter during organic solid phase reaction leads to modification in structural parameters of the nanowires (i.e. length, diameter) as well as their arrangement atop the carbon fibers. The optimized arrays of AgTCNQ and CuTCNQ nanowires exhibit excellent field electron emission performance with very low turn-on (1.72 and 2.56 V μm −1 ) and threshold fields (4.21 and 6.33 V μm −1 ) respectively, which are comparable to those of the best organic field emitters reported to date. The underlying conducting carbon cloth with special woven-like geometry not only offers a flexible platform for nanowire growth, but also provides an additional field enhancement to ease the electron emission. (paper)

  20. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Damage in Woven GFRP Composites Under Large-deflection Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Himayat; Harland, Andy R.; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.

    2012-10-01

    Textile-reinforced composites such as glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) used in sports products can be exposed to different in-service conditions such as large bending deformation and multiple impacts. Such loading conditions cause high local stresses and strains, which result in multiple modes of damage and fracture in composite laminates due to their inherent heterogeneity and non-trivial microstructure. In this paper, various damage modes in GFRP laminates are studied using experimental material characterisation, non-destructive micro-structural damage evaluation and numerical simulations. Experimental tests are carried out to characterise the behaviour of these materials under large-deflection bending. To obtain in-plane shear properties of laminates, tensile tests are performed using a full-field strain-measurement digital image correlation technique. X-ray micro computed tomography (Micro CT) is used to investigate internal material damage modes - delamination and cracking. Two-dimensional finite element (FE) models are implemented in the commercial code Abaqus to study the deformation behaviour and damage in GFRP. In these models, multiple layers of bilinear cohesive-zone elements are employed to study the onset and progression of inter-ply delamination and intra-ply fabric fracture of composite laminate, based on the X-ray Micro CT study. The developed numerical models are capable to simulate these features with their mechanisms as well as subsequent mode coupling observed in tests and Micro CT scanning. The obtained results of simulations are in agreement with experimental data.

  1. Electronic emission and electron spin resonance of irradiated clothes: (cottons, synthetic clothes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ajouz Rima, H.

    1984-10-01

    This thesis is devoted to a new method of dosimetry applicable to accidental irradiations. It is based on the use of cotton and synthetic fabric clothes as detectors. It enables absorbed doses and body dose distributions to be estimated after an accidental irradiation. A bibliography on textile fibres used for clothing is presented in the first chapter: origin, structure, industrial treatments, effects of heat, light, ionizing radiations. In the second chapter, electronic emission generated by double stimulation (thermal and optic) is described. This phenomenon reveals changes in the surface state of cotton. Exo-emission was chosen because of its high sensitivity in dosimetry. The third chapter is devoted to the application of electron paramagnetic resonance to the dosimetry of irradiated fabrics. After a brief description of the spectrometer used, the results obtained with commercial cotton fabrics and with a special fabric realized by the Institut Textile de France are described some of these fabrics were subjected to special treatments either before or after irradiation. Synthetic fabrics (polyesters and polypropylene) have also been studied. (author)

  2. Improved Fabrication of Ceramic Matrix Composite/Foam Core Integrated Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    2009-01-01

    The use of hybridized carbon/silicon carbide (C/SiC) fabric to reinforce ceramic matrix composite face sheets and the integration of such face sheets with a foam core creates a sandwich structure capable of withstanding high-heatflux environments (150 W/cm2) in which the core provides a temperature drop of 1,000 C between the surface and the back face without cracking or delamination of the structure. The composite face sheet exhibits a bilinear response, which results from the SiC matrix not being cracked on fabrication. In addition, the structure exhibits damage tolerance under impact with projectiles, showing no penetration to the back face sheet. These attributes make the composite ideal for leading edge structures and control surfaces in aerospace vehicles, as well as for acreage thermal protection systems and in high-temperature, lightweight stiffened structures. By tailoring the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of a carbon fiber containing ceramic matrix composite (CMC) face sheet to match that of a ceramic foam core, the face sheet and the core can be integrally fabricated without any delamination. Carbon and SiC are woven together in the reinforcing fabric. Integral densification of the CMC and the foam core is accomplished with chemical vapor deposition, eliminating the need for bond-line adhesive. This means there is no need to separately fabricate the core and the face sheet, or to bond the two elements together, risking edge delamination during use. Fibers of two or more types are woven together on a loom. The carbon and ceramic fibers are pulled into the same pick location during the weaving process. Tow spacing may be varied to accommodate the increased volume of the combined fiber tows while maintaining a target fiber volume fraction in the composite. Foam pore size, strut thickness, and ratio of face sheet to core thickness can be used to tailor thermal and mechanical properties. The anticipated CTE for the hybridized composite is managed by

  3. Catalysts for synthetic liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, L.A.; Turney, T.W.

    1987-12-01

    Fischer-Tropsch catalysts have been designed, characterized and tested for the selective production of hydrocarbons suitable as synthetic liquid transport fuels from synthesis gas (i.e., by the reduction of carbon monoxide with hydrogen). It was found that hydrocarbons in the middle distillate range, or suitable for conversion to that range, could be produced over several of the new catalyst systems. The various catalysts examined included: (1) synthetic cobalt clays, mainly cobalt chlorites; (2) cobalt hydrotalcites; (3) ruthenium metal supported on rare earth oxides of high surface area; and (4) a novel promoted cobalt catalyst. Active and selective catalysts have been obtained, in each category. With the exception of the clays, reproducibility of catalyst performance has been good. Catalysts in groups 2 and 4 have exhibited very high activity, with long lifetimes and easy regeneration.

  4. Design Automation in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Evan; Madsen, Curtis; Roehner, Nicholas; Densmore, Douglas

    2017-04-03

    Design automation refers to a category of software tools for designing systems that work together in a workflow for designing, building, testing, and analyzing systems with a target behavior. In synthetic biology, these tools are called bio-design automation (BDA) tools. In this review, we discuss the BDA tools areas-specify, design, build, test, and learn-and introduce the existing software tools designed to solve problems in these areas. We then detail the functionality of some of these tools and show how they can be used together to create the desired behavior of two types of modern synthetic genetic regulatory networks. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  5. Synthetic biology character and impact

    CERN Document Server

    Pade, Christian; Wigger, Henning; Gleich, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is already an object of intensive debate. However, to a great extent the discussion to date has been concerned with fundamental ethical, religious and philosophical questions. By contrast, based on an investigation of the field’s scientific and technological character, this book focuses on new functionalities provided by synthetic biology and explores the associated opportunities and risks. Following an introduction to the subject and a discussion of the most central paradigms and methodologies, the book provides an overview of the structure of this field of science and technology. It informs the reader about the current stage of development, as well as topical problems and potential opportunities in important fields of application. But not only the science itself is in focus. In order to investigate its broader impact, ecological as well as ethical implications will be considered, paving the way for a discussion of responsibilities in the context of a field at a transitional crossroads be...

  6. Synthetic greenhouse gases under control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horisberger, B.; Karlaganis, G.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses new Swiss regulations on the use of synthetic materials that posses a considerable greenhouse-warming potential. Synthetic materials such as hydro-chlorofluorocarbons HCFCs, perfluoride-hydrocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride have, in recent years, replaced chlorofluorocarbons CFCs, which were banned on account of their ozone depletion characteristics. The use of these persistent substances is now being limited to applications where more environment-friendly alternatives are not available. The measures decreed in the legislation, which include a general ban on HCFCs as of 2004 and a ban on the export of installations and equipment that use ozone-depleting refrigerants are described. Details on the legislation's effects on the Swiss refrigeration industry are listed and discussed

  7. Synthetic LDL as targeted drug delivery vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Trudy M [Berkeley, CA; Nikanjam, Mina [Richmond, CA

    2012-08-28

    The present invention provides a synthetic LDL nanoparticle comprising a lipid moiety and a synthetic chimeric peptide so as to be capable of binding the LDL receptor. The synthetic LDL nanoparticle of the present invention is capable of incorporating and targeting therapeutics to cells expressing the LDL receptor for diseases associated with the expression of the LDL receptor such as central nervous system diseases. The invention further provides methods of using such synthetic LDL nanoparticles.

  8. Vibrational spectrum of synthetic carnotite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, E J; Botto, I L [La Plata Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas

    1976-05-01

    The infrared and laser-Raman spectra of synthetic carnotite, K/sub 2/((UO/sub 2/)/sub 2/V/sub 2/O/sub 8/), are reported and discussed. Force constants for the terminal V-O bonds as well as for the UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ ions are evaluated. From the spectroscopic data, a U-O bond length of 1.81 A is estimated for the uranyl ion in this compound.

  9. Designer Drugs: A Synthetic Catastrophe

    OpenAIRE

    Fratantonio, James; Andrade, Lawrence; Febo, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic stimulants can cause hallucinations, aggressive behaviors, death and are sometimes legal. These substances are sold as plant food and bath salts that are "Not for Human Consumption", therefore skirting the 1986 Federal Analogue Act and giving a false pretense of safety. Studies have proved that these substances are toxic, have a high abuse potential, and are becoming extremely prevalent in the United States. This creates a dilemma for law enforcement agents, hospitals, and substance...

  10. Residual Tensile Property of Plain Woven Jute Fiber/Poly(Lactic Acid Green Composites during Thermal Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Katogi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the residual tensile properties of plain woven jute fiber reinforced poly(lactic acid (PLA during thermal cycling. Temperature ranges of thermal cycling tests were 35–45 °C and 35–55 °C. The maximum number of cycles was 103 cycles. The quasi-static tensile tests of jute fiber, PLA, and composite were conducted after thermal cycling tests. Thermal mechanical analyses of jute fiber and PLA were conducted after thermal cycling tests. Results led to the following conclusions. For temperatures of 35–45 °C, tensile strength of composite at 103 cycles decreased 10% compared to that of composite at 0 cycles. For temperatures of 35–55 °C, tensile strength and Young’s modulus of composite at 103 cycles decreased 15% and 10%, respectively, compared to that of composite at 0 cycles. Tensile properties and the coefficient of linear expansion of PLA and jute fiber remained almost unchanged after thermal cycling tests. From observation of a fracture surface, the length of fiber pull out in the fracture surface of composite at 103 cycles was longer than that of composite at 0 cycles. Therefore, tensile properties of the composite during thermal cycling were decreased, probably because of the decrease of interfacial adhesion between the fiber and resin.

  11. Identification of a set of macroscopic elastic parameters in a 3D woven composite: Uncertainty analysis and regularization

    KAUST Repository

    Gras, Renaud

    2015-03-01

    Performing a single but complex mechanical test on small structures rather than on coupons to probe multiple strain states/histories for identification purposes is nowadays possible thanks to full-field measurements. The aim is to identify many parameters thanks to the heterogeneity of mechanical fields. Such an approach is followed herein, focusing on a blade root made of 3D woven composite. The performed test, which is analyzed using global Digital Image Correlation (DIC), provides heterogeneous kinematic fields due to the particular shape of the sample. This displacement field is further processed to identify the four in-plane material parameters of the macroscopic equivalent orthotropic behavior. The key point, which may limit the ability to draw reliable conclusions, is the presence of acquisition noise in the original images that has to be tracked along the DIC/identification processing to provide uncertainties on the identified parameters. A further regularization based on a priori knowledge is finally introduced to compensate for possible lack of experimental information needed for completing the identification.

  12. Residual Tensile Property of Plain Woven Jute Fiber/Poly(Lactic Acid) Green Composites during Thermal Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katogi, Hideaki; Takemura, Kenichi; Akiyama, Motoki

    2016-07-14

    This study investigated the residual tensile properties of plain woven jute fiber reinforced poly(lactic acid) (PLA) during thermal cycling. Temperature ranges of thermal cycling tests were 35-45 °C and 35-55 °C. The maximum number of cycles was 10³ cycles. The quasi-static tensile tests of jute fiber, PLA, and composite were conducted after thermal cycling tests. Thermal mechanical analyses of jute fiber and PLA were conducted after thermal cycling tests. Results led to the following conclusions. For temperatures of 35-45 °C, tensile strength of composite at 10³ cycles decreased 10% compared to that of composite at 0 cycles. For temperatures of 35-55 °C, tensile strength and Young's modulus of composite at 10³ cycles decreased 15% and 10%, respectively, compared to that of composite at 0 cycles. Tensile properties and the coefficient of linear expansion of PLA and jute fiber remained almost unchanged after thermal cycling tests. From observation of a fracture surface, the length of fiber pull out in the fracture surface of composite at 10³ cycles was longer than that of composite at 0 cycles. Therefore, tensile properties of the composite during thermal cycling were decreased, probably because of the decrease of interfacial adhesion between the fiber and resin.

  13. 3D Orthogonal Woven Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Effective Biomechanical Energy Harvesting and as Self-Powered Active Motion Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kai; Deng, Jianan; Zi, Yunlong; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Xu, Cheng; Zou, Haiyang; Ding, Wenbo; Dai, Yejing; Gu, Bohong; Sun, Baozhong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-10-01

    The development of wearable and large-area energy-harvesting textiles has received intensive attention due to their promising applications in next-generation wearable functional electronics. However, the limited power outputs of conventional textiles have largely hindered their development. Here, in combination with the stainless steel/polyester fiber blended yarn, the polydimethylsiloxane-coated energy-harvesting yarn, and nonconductive binding yarn, a high-power-output textile triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) with 3D orthogonal woven structure is developed for effective biomechanical energy harvesting and active motion signal tracking. Based on the advanced 3D structural design, the maximum peak power density of 3D textile can reach 263.36 mW m -2 under the tapping frequency of 3 Hz, which is several times more than that of conventional 2D textile TENGs. Besides, its collected power is capable of lighting up a warning indicator, sustainably charging a commercial capacitor, and powering a smart watch. The 3D textile TENG can also be used as a self-powered active motion sensor to constantly monitor the movement signals of human body. Furthermore, a smart dancing blanket is designed to simultaneously convert biomechanical energy and perceive body movement. This work provides a new direction for multifunctional self-powered textiles with potential applications in wearable electronics, home security, and personalized healthcare. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Ultrahigh-Energy Density Lithium-Ion Cable Battery Based on the Carbon-Nanotube Woven Macrofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziping; Liu, Kaixi; Lv, Chao; Zhong, Shengwen; Wang, Qinghui; Liu, Ting; Liu, Xianbin; Yin, Yanhong; Hu, Yingyan; Wei, Di; Liu, Zhongfan

    2018-05-01

    Moore's law predicts the performance of integrated circuit doubles every two years, lasting for more than five decades. However, the improvements of the performance of energy density in batteries lag far behind that. In addition, the poor flexibility, insufficient-energy density, and complexity of incorporation into wearable electronics remain considerable challenges for current battery technology. Herein, a lithium-ion cable battery is invented, which is insensitive to deformation due to its use of carbon nanotube (CNT) woven macrofilms as the charge collectors. An ultrahigh-tap density of 10 mg cm -2 of the electrodes can be obtained, which leads to an extremely high-energy density of 215 mWh cm -3 . The value is approximately seven times than that of the highest performance reported previously. In addition, the battery displays very stable rate performance and lower internal resistance than conventional lithium-ion batteries using metal charge collectors. Moreover, it demonstrates excellent convenience for connecting electronics as a new strategy is applied, in which both electrodes can be integrated into one end by a CNT macrorope. Such an ultrahigh-energy density lithium-ion cable battery provides a feasible way to power wearable electronics with commercial viability. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Non-woven Textile Materials from Waste Fibers for Cleanup of Waters Polluted with Petroleum and Oil Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neznakomova, Margarita; Boteva, Silvena; Tzankov, Luben; Elhag, Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of using non-woven materials (NWM) from waste fibers for oil spill cleanup and their subsequent recovery. Manufacture of textile and readymade products generates a significant amount of solid waste. A major part of it is deposited in landfills or disposed of uncontrollably. This slowly degradable waste causes environmental problems. In the present study are used two types of NWM obtained by methods where waste fibers are utilized. Thus, real textile products are produced (blankets) with which spills are covered and removed by adsorption. These products are produced by two methods: the strengthening of the covering from recovered fibers is made by entanglement when needles of special design pass through layers (needle-punching) or by stitching with thread (technology Maliwatt). Regardless of the random nature of the fiber mixture, the investigated products are good adsorbents of petroleum products. The nature of their structure (a significant void volume and developed surface) leads to a rapid recovery of the spilled petroleum products without sinking of the fiber layer for the sampled times. The used NWM can be burned under special conditions.

  16. The woven fiber organic electrochemical transistors based on polypyrrole nanowires/reduced graphene oxide composites for glucose sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuedan; Qing, Xing; Zhou, Quan; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Qiongzhen; Liu, Ke; Wang, Wenwen; Li, Mufang; Lu, Zhentan; Chen, Yuanli; Wang, Dong

    2017-09-15

    Novel woven fiber organic electrochemical transistors based on polypyrrole (PPy) nanowires and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been prepared. SEM revealed that the introduction of rGO nanosheets could induce the growth and increase the amount of PPy nanowires. Moreover, it could enhance the electrical performance of fiber transistors. The hybrid transistors showed high on/off ratio of 10 2 , fast switch speed, and long cycling stability. The glucose sensors based on the fiber organic electrochemical transistors have also been investigated, which exhibited outstanding sensitivity, as high as 0.773 NCR/decade, with a response time as fast as 0.5s, a linear range of 1nM to 5μM, a low detection concentration as well as good repeatability. In addition, the glucose could be selectively detected in the presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid interferences. The reliability of the proposed glucose sensor was evaluated in real samples of rabbit blood. All the results indicate that the novel fiber transistors pave the way for portable and wearable electronics devices, which have a promising future for healthcare and biological applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fatigue of a 3D Orthogonal Non-crimp Woven Polymer Matrix Composite at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, M. P.; Ruggles-Wrenn, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    Tension-tension fatigue behavior of two polymer matrix composites (PMCs) was studied at elevated temperature. The two PMCs consist of the NRPE polyimide matrix reinforced with carbon fibers, but have different fiber architectures: the 3D PMC is a singly-ply non-crimp 3D orthogonal weave composite and the 2D PMC, a laminated composite reinforced with 15 plies of an eight harness satin weave (8HSW) fabric. In order to assess the performance and suitability of the two composites for use in aerospace components designed to contain high-temperature environments, mechanical tests were performed under temperature conditions simulating the actual operating conditions. In all elevated temperature tests performed in this work, one side of the test specimen was at 329 °C while the other side was open to ambient laboratory air. The tensile stress-strain behavior of the two composites was investigated and the tensile properties measured for both on-axis (0/90) and off-axis (±45) fiber orientations. Elevated temperature had little effect on the on-axis tensile properties of the two composites. The off-axis tensile strength of both PMCs decreased slightly at elevated temperature. Tension-tension fatigue tests were conducted at elevated temperature at a frequency of 1.0 Hz with a ratio of minimum stress to maximum stress of R = 0.05. Fatigue run-out was defined as 2 × 105 cycles. Both strain accumulation and modulus evolution during cycling were analyzed for each fatigue test. The laminated 2D PMC exhibited better fatigue resistance than the 3D composite. Specimens that achieved fatigue run-out were subjected to tensile tests to failure to characterize the retained tensile properties. Post-test examination under optical microscope revealed severe delamination in the laminated 2D PMC. The non-crimp 3D orthogonal weave composite offered improved delamination resistance.

  18. Hydrogen speciation in synthetic quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, R.D.; Kirby, S.H.; Rossman, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The dominant hydrogen impurity in synthetic quartz is molecular H2O. H-OH groups also occur, but there is no direct evidence for the hydrolysis of Si-O-Si bonds to yield Si-OH HO-Si groups. Molecular H2O concentrations in the synthetic quartz crystals studied range from less than 10 to 3,300 ppm (H/Si), and decrease smoothly by up to an order of magnitude with distance away from the seed. OH- concentrations range from 96 to 715 ppm, and rise smoothly with distance away from the seed by up to a factor of three. The observed OH- is probably all associated with cationic impurities, as in natural quartz. Molecular H2O is the dominant initial hydrogen impurity in weak quartz. The hydrolytic weakening of quartz may be caused by the transformation H2O + Si-O-Si ??? 2SiOH, but this may be a transitory change with the SiOH groups recombining to form H2O, and the average SiOH concentration remaining very low. Synthetic quartz is strengthened when the H2O is accumulated into fluid inclusions and cannot react with the quartz framework. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Characterization of synthetic peptides by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhala, Bala Krishna; Mirza, Osman Asghar; Højrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is well suited for analysis of the identity and purity of synthetic peptides. The sequence of a synthetic peptide is most often known, so the analysis is mainly used to confirm the identity and purity of the peptide. Here, simple procedures are described for MALDI......-TOF-MS and LC-MS of synthetic peptides....

  20. Synthetic cation-selective nanotube: permeant cations chaperoned by anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilder, Tamsyn A; Gordon, Dan; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2011-01-28

    The ability to design ion-selective, synthetic nanotubes which mimic biological ion channels may have significant implications for the future treatment of bacteria, diseases, and as ultrasensitive biosensors. We present the design of a synthetic nanotube made from carbon atoms that selectively allows monovalent cations to move across and rejects all anions. The cation-selective nanotube mimics some of the salient properties of biological ion channels. Before practical nanodevices are successfully fabricated it is vital that proof-of-concept computational studies are performed. With this in mind we use molecular and stochastic dynamics simulations to characterize the dynamics of ion permeation across a single-walled (10, 10), 36 Å long, carbon nanotube terminated with carboxylic acid with an effective radius of 5.08 Å. Although cations encounter a high energy barrier of 7 kT, its height is drastically reduced by a chloride ion in the nanotube. The presence of a chloride ion near the pore entrance thus enables a cation to enter the pore and, once in the pore, it is chaperoned by the resident counterion across the narrow pore. The moment the chaperoned cation transits the pore, the counterion moves back to the entrance to ferry another ion. The synthetic nanotube has a high sodium conductance of 124 pS and shows linear current-voltage and current-concentration profiles. The cation-anion selectivity ratio ranges from 8 to 25, depending on the ionic concentrations in the reservoirs.

  1. Understanding core conductor fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D E

    2011-01-01

    ESD Association standard test method ANSI/ESD STM2.1 - Garments (STM2.1), provides electrical resistance test procedures that are applicable for materials and garments that have surface conductive or surface dissipative properties. As has been reported in other papers over the past several years 1 fabrics are now used in many industries for electrostatic control purposes that do not have surface conductive properties and therefore cannot be evaluated using the procedures in STM2.1 2 . A study was conducted to compare surface conductive fabrics with samples of core conductor fibre based fabrics in order to determine differences and similarities with regards to various electrostatic properties. This work will be used to establish a new work item proposal within WG-2, Garments, in the ESD Association Standards Committee in the USA.

  2. Fabrication of multilayer nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Jasveer, E-mail: kaurjasveer89@gmail.com; Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder [Department of Physics, Punjabi University Patiala, 147002, Punjab (India); Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder, E-mail: raminder-k-saini@yahoo.com [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Punjabi University Patiala, 147002, Punjab (India)

    2016-05-06

    Multilayer nanowires were fabricated by potentiostate ectrodeposition template synthesis method into the pores of polycarbonate membrane. In present work layer by layer deposition of two different metals Ni and Cu in polycarbonate membrane having pore size of 600 nm were carried out. It is found that the growth of nanowires is not constant, it varies with deposition time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the morphology of fabricated multilayer nanowires. An energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results confirm the composition of multilayer nanowires. The result shows that multilayer nanowires formed is dense.

  3. MOX Fabrication Isolation Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric L. Shaber; Bradley J Schrader

    2005-08-01

    This document provides a technical position on the preferred level of isolation to fabricate demonstration quantities of mixed oxide transmutation fuels. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative should design and construct automated glovebox fabrication lines for this purpose. This level of isolation adequately protects the health and safety of workers and the general public for all mixed oxide (and other transmutation fuel) manufacturing efforts while retaining flexibility, allowing parallel development and setup, and minimizing capital expense. The basis regulations, issues, and advantages/disadvantages of five potential forms of isolation are summarized here as justification for selection of the preferred technical position.

  4. Fabrication of multilayer nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Jasveer; Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder; Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer nanowires were fabricated by potentiostate ectrodeposition template synthesis method into the pores of polycarbonate membrane. In present work layer by layer deposition of two different metals Ni and Cu in polycarbonate membrane having pore size of 600 nm were carried out. It is found that the growth of nanowires is not constant, it varies with deposition time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the morphology of fabricated multilayer nanowires. An energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results confirm the composition of multilayer nanowires. The result shows that multilayer nanowires formed is dense.

  5. The development of nonwoven fabric and agricultural bed soil using kapok fiber for industrial usages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jin Hong; Lee, Seung Sik

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this project is the development of nonwoven fabric using natural kapok fiber and synthetic fiber for industrial usages and the development of manufacturing techniques for nursery bed soil using kapok fiber. Research scopes include the development of agricultural bed soil using kapok fiber and nonwoven fabric using kapok fiber. Main results are as follow; the physico-chemical characterization of kapok fiber (water holding capacity, bulk density, water retention curve, viscoelastic measurement, oil adsorption capacity, analysis of essential elements, measurement of anion and cation); the physico-chemical characterization of kapok bed soil; the evidence experiment of kapok bed soil; the optimum content of kapok fiber and synthetic fiber for nonwoven fabric; establishment of the optimum radiation dose for manufacturing kapok nonwoven fabric

  6. Quasi-static axial crushes on woven jute/polyester AA6063T52 composite tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A.; Ismail, AE

    2018-04-01

    Quasi-static axial loading have been studied in this paper to determine the behaviour of jute/polyester wrapped on aluminium alloy 6063T52. The filler material also was include into crush box specimen, which is polyurethane (PU) and polystyrene (PE) rigid foam at ranging 40 and 45 kg/m3 densities. All specimen profile was fabricated using hand layup techniques and the length of each specimen were fixed at 100 mm as well as diameter and width of the tube at 50.8 mm. The two types of tubular cross-section were studied of round and square thin-walled profiles and the angle of fibre at 450 were analysed for four layers. Thin walled of aluminium was 1.9 mm and end frontal of each specimen of composite were chamfered at 450 to prevent catastrophic failure mode. The specific absorbed energy (SEA) and crush force efficiency (CFE) were analyses for each specimen to see the behaviour on jute/polyester wrapped on metallic structure can give influence the energy management for automotive application. Result show that the four layers’ jute/polyester with filler material show significant value in term of specific absorbed energy compared empty and polyurethane profiles higher 26.66% for empty and 15.19% compared to polyurethane profiles. It has been found that the thin walled square profile of the jute/polyester tubes with polystyrene foam-filled is found higher respectively 27.42% to 13.13% than empty and polyurethane (PU) foam tubes. An introduce filler material onto thin walled composite profiles gave major advantage increases the mean axial load of 31.87% from 32.94 kN to 48.35 kN from empty to polystyrene thin walled round jute/polyester profiles and 31.7% from 23.11 KN to 33.84 kN from empty to polystyrene thin walled square jute/polyester profiles. Failure mechanisms of the axially loaded composite tubes were also observed and discussed.

  7. Fabricating superhydrophobic polymer surfaces with excellent abrasion resistance by a simple lamination templating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian Feng; Mondal, Bikash; Lyons, Alan M

    2011-09-01

    Fabricating robust superhydrophobic surfaces for commercial applications is challenging as the fine-scale surface features, necessary to achieve superhydrophobicity, are susceptible to mechanical damage. Herein, we report a simple and inexpensive lamination templating method to create superhydrophobic polymer surfaces with excellent abrasion resistance and water pressure stability. To fabricate the surfaces, polyethylene films were laminated against woven wire mesh templates. After cooling, the mesh was peeled from the polymer creating a 3D array of ordered polymer microposts on the polymer surface. The resulting texture is monolithic with the polymer film and requires no chemical modification to exhibit superhydrophobicity. By controlling lamination parameters and mesh dimensions, polyethylene surfaces were fabricated that exhibit static contact angles of 160° and slip angles of 5°. Chemical and mechanical stability was evaluated using an array of manual tests as well as a standard reciprocating abraser test. Surfaces remained superhydrophobic after more than 5500 abrasion cycles at a pressure of 32.0 kPa. In addition, the surface remains dry after immersing into water for 5 h at 55 kPa. This method is environmental friendly, as it employs no solvents or harsh chemicals and may provide an economically viable path to manufacture large areas of mechanically robust superhydrophobic surfaces from inexpensive polymers and reusable templates.

  8. S-Layer Based Bio-Imprinting - Synthetic S-Layer Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-09

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0161 S-Layer Based Bio- Imprinting - Synthetic S-Layer Polymers Dietmar Pum ZENTRUM FUER NANOBIOTECHNOLOGIE Final Report 07/09...COVERED (From - To)      01-06-2012 to 31-05-2015 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE S-Layer Based Bio- Imprinting - Synthetic S-Layer Polymers 5a.  CONTRACT...technology for the fabrication of nano patterned thin film imprints by using functional S-layer protein arrays as templates. The unique feature of

  9. Recent Advances in Cell Electrospining of Natural and Synthetic Nanofibers for Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Reza; Aval, Sedigheh Fekri; Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Younes; Nejati-Koshki, Kazem; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2018-01-22

    The progression of nanotechnology provides opportunities to manipulate synthetic and natural materials to mimic the natural structure for tissue engineering applications. The electrospinning technique applies electrostatic principle to fabricate electrospun nanofibers. Nanofiber scaffolds are precisely similar to the native extracellular matrix (ECM) and support cell proliferation, adhesion, tendency to preserve their phenotypic shape and directed growth according to the nanofiber direction. This study reviewed both the natural and synthetic type of nanofibers and described the different properties used to trigger certain process in the tissue development. Also, the potential applications of electrospun scaffolds for regenerative medicine were summarized. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Integrating biological redesign: where synthetic biology came from and where it needs to go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Jeffrey C; Collins, James J; Keasling, Jay D; Silver, Pamela A

    2014-03-27

    Synthetic biology seeks to extend approaches from engineering and computation to redesign of biology, with goals such as generating new chemicals, improving human health, and addressing environmental issues. Early on, several guiding principles of synthetic biology were articulated, including design according to specification, separation of design from fabrication, use of standardized biological parts and organisms, and abstraction. We review the utility of these principles over the past decade in light of the field's accomplishments in building complex systems based on microbial transcription and metabolism and describe the progress in mammalian cell engineering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Canadian refiner's perspective of synthetic crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, T.L.; McIntosh, A.P.; Rasmussen

    1997-01-01

    Some of the factors affecting a refiner's choice of crude oil include refinery hardware, particularly gas oil crackers, products slate and product specifications, crude availability, relative crude price and crude quality. An overview of synthetic crude, the use of synthetic crude combined with other crudes and a comparison of synthetic crude with conventional crude oil was given. The two main users of synthetic crude are basically two groups of refiners, those large groups who use synthetic crude combined with other crudes, and a smaller group who run synthetic crude on specially designed units as a sole feed. The effects of changes in fuel legislation were reviewed. It was predicted that the changes will have a mixed impact on the value of synthetic crude, but low sulphur diesel regulations and gasoline sulphur regulations will make current synthetic crudes attractive. The big future change with a negative impact will be diesel cetane increases to reduce engine emissions. This will reduce synthetic crude attractiveness due to distillate yields and quality and high gas oil yields. Similarly, any legislation limiting aromatics in diesel fuel will also make synthetic crudes less attractive. Problems experienced by refiners with hardware dedicated to synthetic crude (salt, naphthenic acid, fouling, quality variations) were also reviewed. 3 tabs

  12. Synthetic biology: Emerging bioengineering in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhandono, Sony

    2017-05-01

    The development of synthetic biology will shape the new era of science and technology. It is an emerging bioengineering technique involving genetic engineering which can alter the phenotype and behavior of the cell or the new product. Synthetic biology may produce biomaterials, drugs, vaccines, biosensors, and even a recombinant secondary metabolite used in herbal and complementary medicine, such as artemisinin, a malaria drug which is usually extracted from the plant Artemisia annua. The power of synthetic biology has encouraged scientists in Indonesia, and is still in early development. This paper also covers some research from an Indonesian research institute in synthetic biology such as observing the production of bio surfactants and the enhanced production of artemisinin using a transient expression system. Synthetic biology development in Indonesia may also be related to the iGEM competition, a large synthetic biology research competition which was attended by several universities in Indonesia. The application of synthetic biology for drug discovery will be discussed.

  13. Printability of Synthetic Papers by Electrophotography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozália Szentgyörgyvölgyi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the printability of synthetic papers by the electrophotography technique. Prints of cmyk colour fields from 20% to 100% raster tone values were printed on three types of synthetic papers (one film synthetic paper and two fiber synthetic papers. The investigation of the appearance included densitometric measurement of the cmyk prints. The results have shown differences in the optical density and optical tone value between cmyk prints made on various synthetic papers. The highest optical density and the increase of the optical tone value were observed on the film synthetic paper, where cmyk prints were more saturated. The highest abrasion resistance of cmyk prints was obtained from the fibre synthetic paper.

  14. Ballistic Performance of Mallow and Jute Natural Fabrics Reinforced Epoxy Composites in Multilayered Armor

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Lucio Fabio Cassiano; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Gomes, Alaelson Vieira; Marçal, Rubens Lincoln Santana Blazutti; Lima Júnior, Édio Pereira; Margem, Jean Igor

    2017-01-01

    Natural fiber reinforced polymer composites have recently been investigated as a component of multilayered armor system (MAS). These composites were found to present advantages when replacing conventional high strength synthetic aramid fabric laminate composite (KevlarTM, with same thickness, as MAS second layer. Continuous and loose natural fibers were up to now mostly used to reinforce these ballistic composites. Only two natural fabrics reinforced polymer composite were so far used with sa...

  15. A methodology for determining fabrication flaws in a reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, G.J.; Doctor, S.R.; Simonen, F.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a program with the major objective of estimating the rate of occurrence of fabrication flaws in US light-water reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). In this study, RPV mate4rial was examined using the Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique for Ultrasonic Testing (SAFT-UT) to detect and characterize flaws created during fabrication. The inspection data obtained in this program has been analyzed to address the rates of flaw occurrence

  16. Text-Fabric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Text-Fabric is a Python3 package for Text plus Annotations. It provides a data model, a text file format, and a binary format for (ancient) text plus (linguistic) annotations. The emphasis of this all is on: data processing; sharing data; and contributing modules. A defining characteristic is that

  17. PIGMI mechanical fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, V.E.

    1976-01-01

    A prime goal of the mechanical design effort associated with the PIGMI (Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations) program is to investigate new materials and fabrication techniques in an effort to obtain increased machine efficiency and reliability at a reasonable cost. The following discussion deals with the modeling program that LASL is pursuing for 450-MHz and 1350-MHz PIGMI development. (author)

  18. Micromechanical Structures Fabrication; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajic, S

    2001-01-01

    Work in materials other than silicon for MEMS applications has typically been restricted to metals and metal oxides instead of more ''exotic'' semiconductors. However, group III-V and II-VI semiconductors form a very important and versatile collection of material and electronic parameters available to the MEMS and MOEMS designer. With these materials, not only are the traditional mechanical material variables (thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, Young's modulus, etc.) available, but also chemical constituents can be varied in ternary and quaternary materials. This flexibility can be extremely important for both friction and chemical compatibility issues for MEMS. In addition, the ability to continually vary the bandgap energy can be particularly useful for many electronics and infrared detection applications. However, there are two major obstacles associated with alternate semiconductor material MEMS. The first issue is the actual fabrication of non-silicon micro-devices and the second impediment is communicating with these novel devices. We have implemented an essentially material independent fabrication method that is amenable to most group III-V and II-VI semiconductors. This technique uses a combination of non-traditional direct write precision fabrication processes such as diamond turning, ion milling, laser ablation, etc. This type of deterministic fabrication approach lends itself to an almost trivial assembly process. We also implemented a mechanical, electrical, and optical self-aligning hybridization technique for these alternate-material MEMS substrates

  19. Fabrication activity for nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Chung, Il-Sug; Carletti, Luca

    We present the fabrication and characterization of new structures and materials to be used in nanophotonics. The first structure presented is a fractal metallic metasurface designed to be used as a high-sensitivity sensor for 810nm wavelength. A second structure is a high index contrast grating...

  20. Synthetic Aperture Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando

    The main objective of this project was to continue the development of a synthetic aperture vector flow estimator. This type of estimator is capable of overcoming two of the major limitations in conventional ultrasound systems: 1) the inability to scan large region of interest with high temporal......, this thesis showed that novel information can be obtained with vector velocity methods providing quantitative estimates of blood flow and insight into the complexity of the hemodynamics dynamics. This could give the clinician a new tool in assessment and treatment of a broad range of diseases....