WorldWideScience

Sample records for worsening congestive heart

  1. Hypertonic Saline in Conjunction with High-Dose Furosemide Improves Dose-Response Curves in Worsening Refractory Congestive Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterna, Salvatore; Di Gaudio, Francesca; La Rocca, Vincenzo; Balistreri, Fabio; Greco, Massimiliano; Torres, Daniele; Lupo, Umberto; Rizzo, Giuseppina; di Pasquale, Pietro; Indelicato, Sergio; Cuttitta, Francesco; Butler, Javed; Parrinello, Gaspare

    2015-10-01

    Diuretic responsiveness in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) is better assessed by urine production per unit diuretic dose than by the absolute urine output or diuretic dose. Diuretic resistance arises over time when the plateau rate of sodium and water excretion is reached prior to optimal fluid elimination and may be overcome when hypertonic saline solution (HSS) is added to high doses of furosemide. Forty-two consecutively hospitalized patients with refractory CHF were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to furosemide doses (125 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg) so that all patients received intravenous furosemide diluted in 150 ml of normal saline (0.9%) in the first step (0-24 h) and the same furosemide dose diluted in 150 ml of HSS (1.4%) in the next step (24-48 h) as to obtain 3 groups as follows: Fourteen patients receiving 125 mg (group 1), fourteen patients receiving 250 mg (group 2), and fourteen patients receiving 500 mg (group 3) of furosemide. Urine samples of all patients were collected at 30, 60, and 90 min, and 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 24 h after infusion. Diuresis, sodium excretion, osmolality, and furosemide concentration were evaluated for each urine sample. After randomization, 40 patients completed the study. Two patients, one in group 2 and one in group 3 dropped out. Patients in group 1 (125 mg furosemide) had a mean age of 77 ± 17 years, 43% were male, 6 (43%) had heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and 64% were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV; the mean age of patients in group 2 (250 mg furosemide) was 80 ± 8.1 years, 15% were male, 5 (38%) had HFpEF, and 84% were in NYHA class IV; and the mean age of patients in group 3 (500 mg furosemide) was 73 ± 12 years, 54% were male, 6 (46%) had HFpEF, and 69% were in NYHA class IV. HSS added to furosemide increased total urine output, sodium excretion, urinary osmolality, and furosemide urine delivery in all patients and at all time points. The percentage increase was 18,14, and

  2. Focus on renal congestion in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Baris; Ortiz, Alberto; Covic, Adrian; Solak, Yalcin; Goldsmith, David; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    Hospitalizations due to heart failure are increasing steadily despite advances in medicine. Patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure have high mortality in hospital and within the months following discharge. Kidney dysfunction is associated with adverse outcomes in heart failure patients. Recent evidence suggests that both deterioration in kidney function and renal congestion are important prognostic factors in heart failure. Kidney congestion in heart failure results from low cardiac output (forward failure), tubuloglomerular feedback, increased intra-abdominal pressure or increased venous pressure. Regardless of the cause, renal congestion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in heart failure. The impact on outcomes of renal decongestion strategies that do not compromise renal function should be explored in heart failure. These studies require novel diagnostic markers that identify early renal damage and renal congestion and allow monitoring of treatment responses in order to avoid severe worsening of renal function. In addition, there is an unmet need regarding evidence-based therapeutic management of renal congestion and worsening renal function. In the present review, we summarize the mechanisms, diagnosis, outcomes, prognostic markers and treatment options of renal congestion in heart failure.

  3. Bisoprolol for congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J.; Gustafsson, F.

    2008-01-01

    Background: beta-Blockers are a cornerstone in the treatment of systolic heart failure treatment, but not all beta-blockers are effective or in this setting. Objective: To define the role of bisoprolol, a highly selective beta(1)-antagonist in congestive heart failure due to systolic dysfunction....... Methods: Using the keywords 'bisoprolol' and 'heart failure' PubMed and BIOSIS databases were searched for information regarding pharmacology and relevant randomised clinical trials. Supplementary publications were acquired by scrutinising reference lists of relevant papers. Additional information...... was obtained from the FDA website. Conclusion: Bisoprolol is an effective and well-tolerated first-line beta-blocker for patients with systolic heart failure. The knowledge is primarily based on study patients with moderate-to-severe heart failure from the three CIBIS trials Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2...

  4. Current management of congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druck, M N

    1987-04-01

    The author describes the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure and outlines treatment based on the mechanism and hemodynamics of heart failure. He discusses vasodilator therapy, ACE inhibitors in heart failure, and initiation of treatment. The paper concludes with a short discussion of methods of treating refractory heart failure.

  5. Current Management of Congestive Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Druck, Maurice N.

    1987-01-01

    The author describes the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure and outlines treatment based on the mechanism and hemodynamics of heart failure. He discusses vasodilator therapy, ACE inhibitors in heart failure, and initiation of treatment. The paper concludes with a short discussion of methods of treating refractory heart failure.

  6. Management of congestive heart failure (CHF): a case report on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A case report on the management of Congestive Heart Failure is presented with emphasis on the use of DIGOXIN. Keywords: Congestive heart failure, Failing heart syndrome, Digoxin, Digoxin Toxicity ...

  7. Tolvaptan for the treatment of hyponatremia and congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, Cesare; Zimmer, Christopher A; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2006-11-01

    Tolvaptan is an oral, once-daily nonpeptide arginine vasopressin V(2)-receptor antagonist under development for the treatment of hyponatremia and congestive heart failure. In Phase II clinical trials, tolvaptan, in addition to standard therapy, increased fluid loss, resulting in decreased body weight and improved edema and serum sodium without affecting blood pressure, heart rate or renal function in patients with heart failure. The compound appeared to be well tolerated and dose-dependent adverse events were generally realated to its pharmacological activity, such as thirst and dry mouth. In patients with hyponatremia, tolvaptan appears to be more effective than fluid restriction at improving sodium levels without an increase in adverse events. An international Phase III outcome study; Efficacy of Vasopressin antagonism in hEaRt failurE outcome Study with Tolvaptan (EVEREST), evaluating the long-term efficacy and safety of tolvaptan in patients hospitalized with worsening heart failure, is currently ongoing.

  8. CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE: EXPERIMENTAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Francesco Corno

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION.Surgically induced, combined volume and pressure overload has been used in rabbits to create a simplified and reproducible model of acute left ventricular (LV failure.MATERIALS AND METHODS.New Zealand white male rabbits (n=24, mean weight 3.1±0.2kg were randomly assigned to either the Control group (n=10 or to the Heart Failure group (HF, n=14. Animals in the Control group underwent sham procedures. Animals in the HF group underwent procedures to induce LV volume overload by inducing severe aortic valve regurgitation with aortic cusp disruption and pressure overload using an occlusive silver clip positioned around the pre-renal abdominal aorta.RESULTS.Following Procedure-1 (volume overload echocardiography confirmed severe aortic regurgitation in all animals in the HF group, with increased mean pulse pressure difference from 18±3mmHg to 38±3mmHg (P

  9. Xamoterol in severe congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tangø, M; Lyngborg, K; Mehlsen, J

    1992-01-01

    Twelve patients in severe congestive heart failure were given placebo, 100 mg xamoterol (Corwin) twice daily and 200 mg xamoterol twice daily, respectively, in 3 two-week periods in a double-blind randomised study. At the end of each treatment period the patients were evaluated. No differences were...... found between placebo and xamoterol in the following parameters: New York Heart Association function group index, heart volume, body weight, exercise duration on bicycle and treadmill, heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressure at rest. However, during exercise we found significantly lower...... heart rate and rate-pressure product during xamoterol treatment. This reduction is probably indicating occupation of beta-adrenoreceptors with concomitant reduced oxygen consumption during exercise....

  10. [Usefulness of enalapril in congestive heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, J; Necoechea, J C; Navarro, J

    1987-01-01

    The usefulness of vasodilating agents in congestive heart failure depends on their ability to diminish left ventricular afterload; this effect does not necessarily persist with long-term treatment. The present study reports the clinical response of 16 patients in heart failure; the trial was double blind with enalapril and/or placebo during 24 weeks. Diagnoses were dilated cardiomyopathy in six, rheumatic heart disease in five, ischemic heart disease in four und hypertensive heart disease in one. Two patients on enalapril died of non cardiac causes and one was withdrawn from the study due to pregnancy. In those patients treated with enalapril the NYHA functional class improved from 2.9/0.8 to 1.1/0.4 (p less than 0.001), and the effort capacity increased from 545/171 to 888/160 seconds (p less than 0.01). Left ventricular systolic function evaluated by echocardiogram and Tc 99 m ventriculogram, radiologic size of the heart and echocardiographic left ventricular diameters showed no significant changes. There were no adverse clinical effects nor laboratory abnormalities. It is concluded that in this study, enalapril produced sustained clinical improvement in patients with heart failure and it was well tolerated during long-term treatment.

  11. Stem Cell Therapy for Congestive Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunduz E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHeart failure is a major cardiovascular health problem. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of congestive heart failure (CHF [1]. Cardiac transplantation remains the most effective long-term treatment option, however is limited primarily by donor availability, rejection and infections. Mechanical circulatory support has its own indications and limitations [2]. Therefore, there is a need to develop more effective therapeutic strategies.Recently, regenerative medicine has received considerable scientific attention in the cardiovascular arena. We report here our experience demonstrating the beneficial effects of cardiac stem cell therapy on left ventricular functions in a patient with Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL who developed CHF due to ischemic heart disease during the course of lymphoma treatment. Case reportA 58-year-old male with relapsed HL was referred to our bone marrow transplantation unit in October 2009. He was given 8 courses of combination chemotherapy with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine, and dacarbazine (ABVD between June 2008 and February 2009 and achieved complete remission. However, his disease relapsed 3 months after completing the last cycle of ABVD and he was decided to be treated with DHAP (cisplatin, cytarabine, dexamethasone followed autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT. After the completion of first course of DHAP regimen, he developed acute myocardial infarction (AMI and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG was performed. After his cardiac function stabilized, 3 additional courses of DHAP were given and he was referred to our centre for consideration of autologous SCT. Computed tomography scans obtained after chemotherapy confirmed complete remission. Stem cells were collected from peripheral blood after mobilization with 10 µg/kg/day granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF subcutaneously. Collection was started on the fifth day of G-CSF and performed for 3 consecutive days. Flow cytometric

  12. Update on digoxin therapy in congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, S A; Movahed, A

    2000-07-15

    Congestive heart failure is a progressive disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, the incidence and prevalence of congestive heart failure have increased in recent years. Contributing factors include increased survival in patients with coronary artery disease (especially myocardial infarction), an aging population and significant advances in the control of other potentially lethal diseases. New and existing agents, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta blockers and, more recently, spironolactone, are being used increasingly to prolong life in patients with heart failure. Although digoxin has been used to treat heart failure for more than 200 years, its role in patients with congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is still debatable. Over the past decade, digoxin has received renewed attention because of recognition of its neurohormonal effect and the successful use of lower dosages. In recent trials, digoxin has been shown to reduce morbidity associated with congestive heart failure but to have no demonstrable effect on survival. The goal of digoxin therapy in patients with congestive heart failure is to improve quality of life by reducing symptoms and preventing hospitalizations.

  13. Case of congestive heart failure induced by therapeutic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushigami, Motohiko; Suruda, Hidetoshi; Mizukoshi, Masato; Umemoto, Masaaki; Fujiwara, Setsuko; Yamamoto, Katsuhiro; Ueno, Yuji; Nishio, Ichiro; Masuyama, Yoshiaki

    1985-02-01

    Valvular insufficiency in radiation-induced heart disease is very rare. We described a patient, 53 years old woman, who developed congestive heart failure 2.5 years later following radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma. The findings on examinations including cardiac catheterization revealed pericarditis with effusion, mitral and tricuspid valve insufficiency and pulmonary infarction. (author).

  14. Involvement of systemic venous congestion in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Gracia, J; Sánchez Marteles, M; Pérez Calvo, J I

    2017-04-01

    Systemic venous congestion has gained significant importance in the interpretation of the pathophysiology of acute heart failure, especially in the development of renal function impairment during exacerbations. In this study, we review the concept, clinical characterisation and identification of venous congestion. We update current knowledge on its importance in the pathophysiology of acute heart failure and its involvement in the prognosis. We pay special attention to the relationship between abdominal congestion, the pulmonary interstitium as filtering membrane, inflammatory phenomena and renal function impairment in acute heart failure. Lastly, we review decongestion as a new therapeutic objective and the measures available for its assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  15. Dronedarone in patients with congestive heart failure: insights from ATHENA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohnloser, Stefan H; Crijns, Harry J G M; van Eickels, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Dronedarone is a new multichannel blocking antiarrhythmic drug for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). In patients with recently decompensated congestive heart failure (CHF) and depressed LV function, the drug was associated with excess mortality compared with a placebo group. The present study...

  16. Dronedarone in patients with congestive heart failure: insights from ATHENA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohnloser, Stefan H; Crijns, Harry J G M; van Eickels, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Dronedarone is a new multichannel blocking antiarrhythmic drug for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). In patients with recently decompensated congestive heart failure (CHF) and depressed LV function, the drug was associated with excess mortality compared with a placebo group. The present stud...

  17. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF IBOPAMINE IN CONGESTIVE-HEART-FAILURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANVELDHUISEN, DJ; GIRBES, ARJ; CRIJNS, HJ; SMIT, AJ; DEGRAEFF, PA; LIE, KI

    1990-01-01

    1 Ibopamine is a new orally active inodilator, which is developed for the treatment of congestive heart failure (CHF). We treated 13 patients with moderate to severe CHF already on maximal conventional medication with ibopamine and studied its effects on haemodynamic parameters, exercise capacity,

  18. Hemostatic biomarkers in dogs with chronic congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Inge; Falk, Torkel; Tidholm, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Background: Chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) in humans is associated with abnormal hemostasis, and abnormalities in hemostatic biomarkers carry a poor prognosis. Alterations in hemostatic pathways can be involved in the pathogenesis of CHF in dogs, and microthrombosis in the myocardium coul...

  19. Recognizing the Symptoms of Worsening Heart Valve Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be hard to separate our habits from the mechanics of our hearts, which is one important reason ... About Heart Valves • Heart Valve Problems and Causes • Risks, Signs and Symptoms Introduction Understanding Symptoms Recognizing Symptoms ...

  20. Significantly Elevated Liver Alkaline Phosphatase in Congestive Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamban, Leonid; Patel, Brijesh; Williams, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Congestive hepatopathy can have a mildly elevated liver profile, which should normalize with appropriate therapy. Liver specific alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in decompensated heart failure (HF) can be mildly elevated. The levels exceeding beyond the expected rise should be a concern and lead to further investigation. The literature reports insubstantial number of cases regarding significantly elevated levels of ALP and congestive hepatopathy. We report a case of a 45-year-old female with known history of severe cardiomyopathy that had persistently elevated levels of ALP. The extensive workup was negative for any specific pathology. The liver biopsy was consistent with congestive hepatopathy. The patient's ALP levels decreased with aggressive diuretic therapy but still remained elevated.

  1. A perspective on diuretic resistance in chronic congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Niel; Madanieh, Raef; Alkan, Mehmet; Dogar, Muhammad U; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-10-01

    Chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) is a complex disorder characterized by inability of the heart to keep up the demands on it, followed by the progressive pump failure and fluid accumulation. Although the loop diuretics are widely used in heart failure (HF) patients, both pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic alterations are thought to be responsible for diuretic resistance in these patients. Strategies to overcome diuretic resistance include sodium intake restriction, changes in diuretic dose and route of administration and sequential nephron diuretic therapy. In this review, we discuss the definition, prevalence, mechanism of development and management strategies of diuretic resistance in HF patients.

  2. Water and sodium in heart failure: a spotlight on congestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Gaspare; Greene, Stephen J; Torres, Daniele; Alderman, Michael; Bonventre, Joseph Vincent; Di Pasquale, Pietro; Gargani, Luna; Nohria, Anju; Fonarow, Gregg C; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Butler, Javed; Paterna, Salvatore; Stevenson, Lynne Warner; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Despite all available therapies, the rates of hospitalization and death from heart failure (HF) remain unacceptably high. The most common reasons for hospital admission are symptoms related to congestion. During hospitalization, most patients respond well to standard therapy and are discharged with significantly improved symptoms. Post-discharge, many patients receive diligent and frequent follow-up. However, rehospitalization rates remain high. One potential explanation is a persistent failure by clinicians to adequately manage congestion in the outpatient setting. The failure to successfully manage these patients post-discharge may represent an unmet need to improve the way congestion is both recognized and treated. A primary aim of future HF management may be to improve clinical surveillance to prevent and manage chronic fluid overload while simultaneously maximizing the use of evidence-based therapies with proven long-term benefit. Improvement in cardiac function is the ultimate goal and maintenance of a "dry" clinical profile is important to prevent hospital admission and improve prognosis. This paper focuses on methods for monitoring congestion, and strategies for water and sodium management in the context of the complex interplay between the cardiac and renal systems. A rationale for improving recognition and treatment of congestion is also proposed.

  3. Congestive heart failure detection using random forest classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetic, Zerina; Subasi, Abdulhamit

    2016-07-01

    Automatic electrocardiogram (ECG) heartbeat classification is substantial for diagnosing heart failure. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of machine learning methods in creating the model which classifies normal and congestive heart failure (CHF) on the long-term ECG time series. The study was performed in two phases: feature extraction and classification phase. In feature extraction phase, autoregressive (AR) Burg method is applied for extracting features. In classification phase, five different classifiers are examined namely, C4.5 decision tree, k-nearest neighbor, support vector machine, artificial neural networks and random forest classifier. The ECG signals were acquired from BIDMC Congestive Heart Failure and PTB Diagnostic ECG databases and classified by applying various experiments. The experimental results are evaluated in several statistical measures (sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, F-measure and ROC curve) and showed that the random forest method gives 100% classification accuracy. Impressive performance of random forest method proves that it plays significant role in detecting congestive heart failure (CHF) and can be valuable in expressing knowledge useful in medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hypopituitarism presenting as congestive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Giri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheehan's syndrome (SS develops as a result of ischemic pituitary necrosis due to severe postpartum hemorrhage and is characterized by various degrees of hypopituitarism. Although the occurrence of SS is now rare, it should still be considered in any woman with a history of peripartum hemorrhage who develops manifestations of pituitary hormone deficiency any time following the event. Appropriate hormone replacement therapy results in marked clinical improvement. We present an unusual case of SS in a young lady who continued to have normal menstruation after the index event, had two spontaneous pregnancies, and was diagnosed only 11 years later when she presented to us with acute heart failure.

  5. Nocturnal oxyhemoglobin desaturation during sleep in congestive heart failure patients

    OpenAIRE

    Urbano, Jéssica Julioti; Uchiyama, Lilian Nanami; Silva, Anderson Soares; Peixoto, Roger André Oliveira; Nacif, Sergio Roberto; de Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Sleep breathing disorders occur in 45% of patients with heart failure, with 36%-50% manifesting Cheyne-Stokes respiration with central sleep apnea and 12% exhibiting obstructive sleep apnea. Several studies have shown that sleep pathophysiology may negatively affect the cardiovascular system and that cardiac dysfunction alters sleep and respiration. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine oxyhemoglobin desaturation during sleep in patients with congestive he...

  6. [Sleep-breathing disordered in stable chronic congestive heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, K; Jiang, Y; Yang, J

    2001-09-01

    To determine the prevalence and effect of sleep-disordered breathing in patients with stable, optimally treated chronic congestive heart failure. Patients with stable, optimally treated chronic congestive heart failure were monitored by polysomnography (Polywin 1000, Respironics Inc.). Patients were divided into two groups. Group I (n = 21) had a rate of apnea and hypopnea (apnea-hypopnea index) of 15 or less episodes per hour; group II (n = 15) had a rate of more than 15 episodes per hour. In group II, the rate varied from 16.8 to 78.8 episodes per hour 42.6 +/- 15.5, in which the obstructive apnea-hypopnea index was 11.1 +/- 8.4 and the central AHI was 31.5 +/- 9.6. Group II had significantly more arousals (36.8 +/- 21.3 compared with 19.4 +/- 11.2 in group I) that were directly attributable to episodes of apnea and hypopnea, lower arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation during sleep [(76.7 +/- 4.6)% compared with (86.5 +/- 2.8)%] and lower left ventricular ejection fraction [(24.2 +/- 8.8)% compared with (31.5 +/- 10.6)%]. The prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing (mainly periodic respiration or Cheyne-Stokes respiration with central sleep apnea) is high in patients with stable chronic congestive heart failure. The sleep-disordered breathing episodes are associated with severe nocturnal arterial blood oxyhemoglobin desaturation and excessive arousals. Severe untreated sleep-disordered breathing may affect left ventricular function and could contribute to death in patients with congestive heart failure.

  7. Patient Specific Congestive Heart Failure Detection From Raw ECG signal

    OpenAIRE

    Yakup Kutlu; Apdullah Yayık; Esen Yıldırım; Mustafa Yeniad; Serdar Yıldırım

    2016-01-01

    In this study; in order to diagnose congestive heart failure (CHF) patients, non-linear second-order difference plot (SODP) obtained from raw 256 Hz sampled frequency and windowed record with different time of ECG records are used. All of the data rows are labelled with their belongings to classify much more realistically. SODPs are divided into different radius of quadrant regions and numbers of the points fall in the quadrants are computed in order to extract feature vectors. Fisher's linea...

  8. management of congestive heart failure (chf): a case report on digoxin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olaleye

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) can be defined as a clinical syndrome that is characterized by congestion of both the pulmonary and systemic circulation. Despite many controversies of the term congestive heart failure (CHF), it was not until recently that the term was established to be appropriate as almost all patients ...

  9. Continuous ultrafiltration for congestive heart failure: the CUORE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenzi, Giancarlo; Muratori, Manuela; Cosentino, Eugenio R; Rinaldi, Elisa R; Donghi, Valeria; Milazzo, Valentina; Ferramosca, Emiliana; Borghi, Claudio; Santoro, Antonio; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Background: There are limited data comparing ultrafiltration with standard medical therapy as first-line treatment in patients with severe congestive heart failure (HF). We compared ultrafiltration and conventional therapy in patients hospitalized for HF and overt fluid overload.Methods and Results: Fifty-six patients with congestive HF were randomized to receive standard medical therapy (control group; n = 29) or ultrafiltration (ultrafiltration group; = 27). The primary endpoint of the study was rehospitalizations for congestive HF during a 1-year follow-up. Despite similar body weight reduction at hospital discharge in the 2 groups (7.5 ± 4.5 and 7.9 ± 5.0 kg, respectively;P = .75), a lower incidence of rehospitalizations for HF was observed in the ultrafiltration-treated patients during the following year (hazard ratio 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.48; P = .002).Ultrafiltration-induced benefit was associated with a more stable renal function, unchanged furosemide dose, and lower B-type natriuretic peptide levels. At 1 year, 7 deaths (30%) occurred in the ultrafiltration group and 11 (44%) in the control group (P = .33).Conclusions: In HF patients with severe fluid overload, first-line treatment with ultrafiltration is associated with a prolonged clinical stabilization and a greater freedom from rehospitalization for congestive HF.

  10. Ultrafiltration for congestive heart failure: the past and the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenzi, Giancarlo; Kazory, Amir; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe

    2015-01-08

    To provide an overview on the most recent evidence for the use of extracorporeal and peritoneal ultrafiltration in heart failure, focusing on the major publications from the last few years. There have been several studies investigating the possible use of extracorporeal and peritoneal ultrafiltration in the management of acute and chronic heart failure. These trials have investigated the potential benefits and advantages of ultrafiltration over conventional medical therapy, in terms of clinical outcomes. Although ultrafiltration remains an extremely appealing therapeutic option for patients with heart failure and congestion, with several theoretical beneficial effects, some of the most recent studies have reported inconsistent findings. Differences in the selection of the study population, heterogeneity of the indications for use of ultrafiltration, variation in the ultrafiltration protocols, and high variability in the pharmacologic therapy used for the control group could explain some of these conflicting findings.

  11. Amiodarone in patients with congestive heart failure and asymptomatic ventricular arrhythmia. Survival Trial of Antiarrhythmic Therapy in Congestive Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S N; Fletcher, R D; Fisher, S G; Singh, B N; Lewis, H D; Deedwania, P C; Massie, B M; Colling, C; Lazzeri, D

    1995-07-13

    Asymptomatic ventricular arrhythmias in patients with congestive heart failure are associated with increased rates of overall mortality and sudden death. Amiodarone is now used widely to prevent ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. We conducted a trial to determine whether amiodarone can reduce overall mortality in patients with congestive heart failure and asymptomatic ventricular arrhythmias. We used a double-blind, placebo-controlled protocol in which 674 patients with symptoms of congestive heart failure, cardiac enlargement, 10 or more premature ventricular contractions per hour, and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 40 percent or less were randomly assigned to receive amiodarone (336 patients) or placebo (338 patients). The primary end point was overall mortality, and the median follow-up was 45 months (range, 0 to 54). There was no significant difference in overall mortality between the two treatment groups (P = 0.6). The two-year actuarial survival rate was 69.4 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 64.2 to 74.6) for the patients in the amiodarone group and 70.8 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 65.7 to 75.9) for those in the placebo group. At two years, the rate of sudden death was 15 percent in the amiodarone group and 19 percent in the placebo group (P = 0.43). There was a trend toward a reduction in overall mortality among the patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy who received amiodarone (P = 0.07). Amiodarone was significantly more effective in suppressing ventricular arrhythmias and increased the left ventricular ejection fraction by 42 percent at two years. Although amiodarone was effective in suppressing ventricular arrhythmias and improving ventricular function, it did not reduce the incidence of sudden death or prolong survival among patients with heart failure, except for a trend toward reduced mortality among those with nonischemic cardiomyopathy.

  12. Collaborative development of a clinical pathway for congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balesky, J R; Provenzano, L M

    1995-01-01

    Bon Secours Hospital, a 304-bed community hospital in Grosse Pointe, MI, decided to target high-volume and high-cost DRGs for clinical process improvement. Working collaboratively with members of the medical staff, the cardiac team set out to improve outcomes by reducing the non-value-added costs and the variations in the treatment of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). A comprehensive program of care for these patients, that included the full continuum of care, from prevention to maintenance, is being developed, using a clinical pathway to manage the acute phase of treatment.

  13. Prognostic value of Holter monitoring in congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Zareba, Wojciech; de Luna, Antoni Bayes

    2008-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is an increasingly widespread, costly and deadly disease, frequently named as epidemics of the 21 century. Despite advancement in modern treatment, mortality rate in CHF patients remains high. Therefore, risk stratification in patients with CHF remains one of the major challenges of contemporary cardiology. Electrocardiographic parameters based on ambulatory Holter monitoring have been documented to be independent risk predictors of total mortality and progression of heart failure. Recent years brought an increased interest in evaluation of dynamic Holter-derived ECG markers reflecting changes in heart rate and ventricular repolarization behavior. It is widely accepted that structural changes reflecting myocardial substrate are better identified by means of imaging techniques, Holter monitoring on the other hand provides complementary information on myocardial vulnerability and autonomic nervous system. Therefore, combining the electrocardiographic stratification with assessment of myocardial substrate may provide the complex insight into interplay between factors contributing to death. The present article reviews the literature data on the prognostic role of various Holter-based ECG parameters, with special emphasis to dynamic ECG risk markers--heart rate variability, heart rate turbulence, repolarization dynamics and variability--in predicting mortality, as well as different modes of death in patients with CHF.

  14. When the heart kills the liver: acute liver failure in congestive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saner FH

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Congestive heart failure as a cause of acute liver failure is rarely documented with only a few cases. Although the pathophysiology is poorly understood, there is rising evidence, that low cardiac output with consecutive reduction in hepatic blood flow is a main causing factor, rather than hypotension. In the setting of acute liver failure due to congestive heart failure, clinical signs of the latter can be absent, which requires an appropriate diagnostic approach. As a reference center for acute liver failure and liver transplantation we recorded from May 2003 to December 2007 202 admissions with the primary diagnoses acute liver failure. 13/202 was due to congestive heart failure, which was associated with a mortality rate of 54%. Leading cause of death was the underlying heart failure. Asparagine transaminase (AST, bilirubin, and international normalized ratio (INR did not differ significantly in surviving and deceased patients at admission. Despite both groups had signs of cardiogenic shock, the cardiac index (CI was significantly higher in the survival group on admission as compared with non-survivors (2.1 L/min/m2 vs. 1.6 L/min/m2, p = 0.04. Central venous - and pulmonary wedge pressure did not differ significantly. Remarkable improvement of liver function was recorded in the group, who recovered from cardiogenic shock. In conclusion, patients with acute liver failure require an appropriate diagnostic approach. Congestive heart failure should always be considered as a possible cause of acute liver failure.

  15. Chronic kidney disease and worsening renal function in acute heart failure: different phenotypes with similar prognostic impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzuoli, Alberto; Lombardi, Carlo; Ruocco, Gaetano; Padeletti, Margherita; Nuti, Ranuccio; Metra, Marco; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-12-01

    Nearly a third of patients with acute heart failure experience concomitant renal dysfunction. This condition is often associated with increased costs of care, length of hospitalisation and high mortality. Although the clinical impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been well established, the exact clinical significance of worsening renal function (WRF) during the acute and post-hospitalisation phases is not completely understood. Therefore, it is still unclear which of the common laboratory markers are able to identify WRF at an early stage. Recent studies comparing CKD with WRF showed contradictory results; this could depend on a different WRF definition, clinical characteristics, haemodynamic disorders and the presence of prior renal dysfunction in the population enrolled. The current definition of acute cardiorenal syndrome focuses on both the heart and kidney but it lacks precise laboratory marker cut-offs and a specific diagnostic approach. WRF and CKD could represent different pathophysiological mechanisms in the setting of acute heart failure; the traditional view includes reduced cardiac output with systemic and renal vasoconstriction. Nevertheless, it has become a mixed model that encompasses both forward and backward haemodynamic dysfunction. Increased central venous pressure, renal congestion with tubular obliteration, tubulo-glomerular feedback and increased abdominal pressure are all potential additional contributors. The impact of WRF on patients who experience preserved renal function and individuals affected with CKD is currently unknown. Therefore it is extremely important to understand the origins, the clinical significance and the prognostic impact of WRF on CKD. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  16. Worsening renal function in heart failure: the need for a consensus definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerin, Noella J; Newton, Phillip J; Macdonald, Peter S; Leung, Dominic Y C; Sibbritt, David; Spicer, Stephen Timothy; Johnson, Kay; Krum, Henry; Davidson, Patricia M

    2014-07-01

    Acute decompensated heart failure is a common cause of hospitalisation. This is a period of vulnerability both in altered pathophysiology and also the potential for iatrogenesis due to therapeutic interventions. Renal dysfunction is often associated with heart failure and portends adverse outcomes. Identifying heart failure patients at risk of renal dysfunction is important in preventing progression to chronic kidney disease or worsening renal function, informing adjustment to medication management and potentially preventing adverse events. However, there is no working or consensus definition in international heart failure management guidelines for worsening renal function. In addition, there appears to be no concordance or adaptation of chronic kidney disease guidelines by heart failure guideline development groups for the monitoring of chronic kidney disease in heart failure. Our aim is to encourage the debate for an agreed definition given the prognostic impact of worsening renal function in heart failure. We present the case for the uptake of the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria for acute kidney injury with some minor alterations. This has the potential to inform study design and meta-analysis thereby building the knowledgebase for guideline development. Definition consensus supports data element, clinical registry and electronic algorithm innovation as instruments for quality improvement and clinical research for better patient outcomes. In addition, we recommend all community managed heart failure patients have their baseline renal function classified and routinely monitored in accordance with established renal guidelines to help identify those at increased risk for worsening renal function or progression to chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Patient Specific Congestive Heart Failure Detection From Raw ECG signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Kutlu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study; in order to diagnose congestive heart failure (CHF patients, non-linear second-order difference plot (SODP obtained from raw 256 Hz sampled frequency and windowed record with different time of ECG records are used. All of the data rows are labelled with their belongings to classify much more realistically. SODPs are divided into different radius of quadrant regions and numbers of the points fall in the quadrants are computed in order to extract feature vectors. Fisher's linear discriminant, Naive Bayes, Radial basis function, and artificial neural network are used as classifier. The results are considered in two step validation methods as general k-fold cross-validation and patient based cross-validation. As a result, it is shown that using neural network classifier with features obtained from SODP, the constructed system could distinguish normal and CHF patients with 100% accuracy rate.

  18. Problems of rapid digitalization in severe congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, K O; Assmann, I; Fiehring, H

    1980-02-01

    The pharmacodynamic effects (changes of systolic time intervals, STI, reaction of pulmonary arterial pressure) of digitoxin were studied in 7 patients with severe congestive heart failure in comparison with the corresponding plasma level. STI indicated glycoside-dependent changes, i.e. shortening of LVETc and QS2c and normalization of prolonged PEPc, while ICT shortening was less observed. In 2 patients with cor pulmonale a pulmonary oedema occurred accompanied with prolonged LVETc. During the early period of glycoside-dependent recompensation no significant correlation between STI shortening and glycoside plasma level was observed. Because of the retarded normalization of the haemodynamics of the pulmonary circulation and because of possible side-effects, rapid digitalization has to be reconsidered.

  19. Complexity in congestive heart failure: A time-frequency approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Santo; Palit, Sanjay K; Mukherjee, Sayan; Ariffin, M R K; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2016-03-01

    Reconstruction of phase space is an effective method to quantify the dynamics of a signal or a time series. Various phase space reconstruction techniques have been investigated. However, there are some issues on the optimal reconstructions and the best possible choice of the reconstruction parameters. This research introduces the idea of gradient cross recurrence (GCR) and mean gradient cross recurrence density which shows that reconstructions in time frequency domain preserve more information about the dynamics than the optimal reconstructions in time domain. This analysis is further extended to ECG signals of normal and congestive heart failure patients. By using another newly introduced measure-gradient cross recurrence period density entropy, two classes of aforesaid ECG signals can be classified with a proper threshold. This analysis can be applied to quantifying and distinguishing biomedical and other nonlinear signals.

  20. Congestive Heart Failure Cardiopoietic Regenerative Therapy (CHART-1) trial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartunek, Jozef; Davison, Beth; Sherman, Warren; Povsic, Thomas; Henry, Timothy D; Gersh, Bernard; Metra, Marco; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Hajjar, Roger; Behfar, Atta; Homsy, Christian; Cotter, Gad; Wijns, William; Tendera, Michal; Terzic, Andre

    2016-02-01

    Cardiopoiesis is a conditioning programme that aims to upgrade the cardioregenerative aptitude of patient-derived stem cells through lineage specification. Cardiopoietic stem cells tested initially for feasibility and safety exhibited signs of clinical benefit in patients with ischaemic heart failure (HF) warranting definitive evaluation. Accordingly, CHART-1 is designed as a large randomized, sham-controlled multicentre study aimed to validate cardiopoietic stem cell therapy. Patients (n = 240) with chronic HF secondary to ischaemic heart disease, reduced LVEF (Heart Failure Questionnaire score, 6 min walk test, LV end-systolic volume, and LVEF at 9 months. The secondary efficacy endpoint is the time to cardiovascular death or worsening HF at 12 months. Safety endpoints include mortality, readmissions, aborted sudden deaths, and serious adverse events at 12 and 24 months. The CHART-1 clinical trial is powered to examine the therapeutic impact of lineage-directed stem cells as a strategy to achieve cardiac regeneration in HF populations. On completion, CHART-1 will offer a definitive evaluation of the efficacy and safety of cardiopoietic stem cells in the treatment of chronic ischaemic HF. NCT01768702. © 2015 The Authors European Journal of Heart Failure © 2015 European Society of Cardiology.

  1. Congestive heart failure and cognitive functioning amongst older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Osvaldo P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Congestive heart failure is associated with decline in quality of life and, possibly, cognitive functions such as memory and attention. AIMS: The present study was designed to investigate the presence of cognitive impairment amongst patients with congestive heart failure (CHF. We hypothesised that CHF patients would have lower scores than elderly controls on general measures of cognitive functioning. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined a sample of 50 consecutive patients admitted to hospital with CHF functional class III/IV and a convenience sample of 30 older adults assessed at the outpatient service of geriatric medicine of a teaching hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. All subjects were interviewed with the Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly (CAMDEX, as well as the neuropsychological battery of the CAMDEX (CAMCOG, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Trail Making A and B, Digit Span, Digit Symbol, and Letter Cancellation Test. All CHF patients had left ventricular ejection fraction (EF below 45% and all controls above 65%. The cognitive performance of CHF patients was significantly worse than controls for all cognitive assessments. Twenty-seven of 50 CHF patients had a MMSE total score lower than 24, compared with only 10/30 controls (p=0.073. Similarly, 36/49 and 9/30 CHF subjects and controls respectively had CAMCOG scores below 80 (p<0.001. Cognitive scores were significantly associated with EF, which was the most robust predictor of cognitive impairment according to the CAMCOG in a logistic regression model. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that CHF is associated with significant levels of cognitive impairment and show that mental performance is, at least partly, a consequence of EF. Physicians should be prepared to assess the mental state of patients, as poor cognitive functioning may interfere with treatment compliance and management plan.

  2. Congestive heart failure in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poskurica Mileta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disorders are the most frequent cause of death (46-60% among patients with advanced chronic renal failure (CRF, and on dialysis treatment. Uremic cardiomyopathy is the basic pathophysiologic substrate, whereas ischemic heart disease (IHD and anemia are the most important contributing factors. Associated with well-know risk factors and specific disorders for terminal kidney failure and dialysis, the aforementioned factors instigate congestive heart failure (CHF. Suspected CHF is based on the anamnesis, clinical examination and ECG, while it is confirmed and defined more precisely on the basis of echocardiography and radiology examination. Biohumoral data (BNP, NT-proBNP are not sufficiently reliable because of specific volemic fluctuation and reduced natural clearance. Therapy approach is similar to the one for the general population: ACEI, ARBs, β-blockers, inotropic drugs and diuretics. Hypervolemia and most of the related symptoms can be kept under control effectively by the isolated or ultrafiltation, in conjunction with dialysis, during the standard bicarbonate hemodialysis or hemodiafiltration. In the same respect peritoneal dialysis is efficient for the control of hypervolemia symptoms, mainly during the first years of its application and in case of the lower NYHA class (II°/III°. In general, heart support therapy, surgical interventions of the myocardium and valve replacement are rarely used in patients on dialysis, whereas revascularization procedures are beneficial for associated IHD. In selected cases the application of cardiac resynchronization and/or implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator are advisable.

  3. Efficacy of peritoneal ultrafiltration in the treatment of refractory congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jose E; Ortega, Teresa; Rodríguez, Carmen; Díaz-Molina, Beatriz; Martín, Maria; Garcia-Cueto, Carmen; Vidau, Pedro; Gago, Emilio; Ortega, Francisco

    2010-02-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major health problem in developed countries. HF is a progressive, lethal disorder, even with adequate treatment. There exists a vicious circle in the pathophysiology of HF that perpetuates and magnifies the problem. Concomitant fluid accumulation may worsen the congestive HF, it is responsible for numerous hospitalizations and it is an important cause of mortality. In this situation, any means of fluid removal may aid in the management of these patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in the treatment of refractory HF in terms of functional status, hospitalization and mortality. We also determined the improvement in health-related quality of life with the use of PD, and examined the economic consequences of its use. We conducted a single centre, prospective, non-randomized study involving patients showing symptoms and signs of congestive HF refractory to maximum tolerable drug treatment. All of them were treated with PD. We analysed physical and biochemical determinations, functional status (according to the NYHA classification) and echocardiogram parameters. Also, to determine the efficacy of the technique we compared the perceived state of health (measured by the EQ5D) to PD patients respect to those reported with conservative therapies. Finally, we carried out a cost-utility evaluation measured by the incremental cost-utility ratio between these two options. Seventeen patients (65% men, 64 +/- 9 years) were included in the study, and 12 were still undergoing PD treatment at the end of the follow-up period (15 +/- 9 months). All patients improved their NYHA functional status (65% two classes; the rest, one; P cost-effective compared with the conservative therapy. We demonstrate that congestive HF programmes should consider offering PD in hope of seeing better functional status, reduced morbidity and mortality, better quality of life as well as reduced health care costs.

  4. Association between matrix metalloproteinase‐9 and worsening heart failure events in patients with chronic heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Tetsuji; Mitsuke, Yasuhiko; Amaya, Naoki; Kaseno, Kenichi; Ishida, Kentaro; Fukuoka, Yoshitomo; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Tama, Naoki; Yamazaki, Taketoshi; Lee, Jong‐Dae; Tada, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) is up‐regulated during heart failure (HF) and influences ventricular remodeling. We hypothesized that disparity between MMP‐9 and tissue inhibitors of MMP‐1 (TIMP‐1) results in clinical manifestations and is related to prognostic risk in patients with chronic HF. Methods and results Plasma levels of MMP‐9, TIMP‐1, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured in 173 patients with chronic HF. Combined endpoints of worsening HF events were assessed during follow‐up (median 109 months). MMP‐9 and TIMP‐1 levels and the MMP‐9/TIMP‐1 ratio increased with increasing severity of the New York Heart Association class (P for trend = 0.003, 0.011, and 0.005, respectively). Patients with HF events (n = 35) had significantly higher MMP‐9 than those without HF events (P = 0.004). Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated a higher probability of HF events with high MMP‐9 values (>23.2 ng/mL; P = 0.005). A multivariate Cox proportional hazard model showed that high MMP‐9 values were an independent predictor of HF events (hazard ratio, 3.73; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–13.46; P = 0.043). In patients with lower BNP levels (≤210 pg/mL), the adjusted hazard ratio for HF events was 3.63 (95% CI, 1.20–11.02; P = 0.023) among patients with high MMP‐9 values compared with patients with low BNP and low MMP‐9 values. Conclusions MMP‐9 and TIMP‐1 levels correlate with the severity of chronic HF. MMP‐9 is a strong predictor of HF events, suggesting that a disparity between MMP‐9 and TIMP‐1 levels and increased MMP‐9 levels may help predict HF events. PMID:28772055

  5. Visibility graph analysis of heart rate time series and bio-marker of congestive heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, Anirban; Bhaduri, Susmita; Ghosh, Dipak

    2017-09-01

    Study of RR interval time series for Congestive Heart Failure had been an area of study with different methods including non-linear methods. In this article the cardiac dynamics of heart beat are explored in the light of complex network analysis, viz. visibility graph method. Heart beat (RR Interval) time series data taken from Physionet database [46, 47] belonging to two groups of subjects, diseased (congestive heart failure) (29 in number) and normal (54 in number) are analyzed with the technique. The overall results show that a quantitative parameter can significantly differentiate between the diseased subjects and the normal subjects as well as different stages of the disease. Further, the data when split into periods of around 1 hour each and analyzed separately, also shows the same consistent differences. This quantitative parameter obtained using the visibility graph analysis thereby can be used as a potential bio-marker as well as a subsequent alarm generation mechanism for predicting the onset of Congestive Heart Failure.

  6. Plasma Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin and Predicting Clinically Relevant Worsening Renal Function in Acute Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damman, Kevin; Valente, Mattia A E; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Cleland, John G F; O'Connor, Christopher M; Metra, Marco; Ponikowski, Piotr; Cotter, Gad; Davison, Beth; Givertz, Michael M; Bloomfield, Daniel M; Hillege, Hans L; Voors, Adriaan A

    2017-07-08

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) to predict clinically relevant worsening renal function (WRF) in acute heart failure (AHF). Plasma NGAL and serum creatinine changes during the first 4 days of admission were investigated in 1447 patients hospitalized for AHF and enrolled in the Placebo-Controlled Randomized Study of the Selective A₁Adenosine Receptor Antagonist Rolofylline for Patients Hospitalized with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure and Volume Overload to Assess Treatment Effect on Congestion and Renal Function (PROTECT) study. WRF was defined as serum creatinine rise ≥ 0.3 mg/dL through day 4. Biomarker patterns were described using linear mixed models. WRF developed in 325 patients (22%). Plasma NGAL did not rise earlier than creatinine in patients with WRF. After multivariable adjustment, baseline plasma NGAL, but not creatinine, predicted WRF. AUCs for WRF prediction were modest (renal or cardiovascular rehospitalization by 60 days than patients with WRF and a low baseline plasma NGAL (p for interaction = 0.024). A rise in plasma NGAL after baseline was associated with a worse outcome in patients with WRF, but not in patients without WRF ( p = 0.007). On the basis of these results, plasma NGAL does not provide additional, clinically relevant information about the occurrence of WRF in patients with AHF.

  7. Transient and persistent worsening renal function during hospitalization for acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Arun; Greiner, Melissa A; Sharma, Puza P; DeVore, Adam D; Johnson, Katherine Waltman; Fonarow, Gregg C; Curtis, Lesley H; Hernandez, Adrian F

    2014-12-01

    Transient and persistent worsening renal function (WRF) may be associated with different risks during hospitalization for acute heart failure. We compared outcomes of patients hospitalized for acute heart failure with transient, persistent, or no WRF. We identified patients 65 years or older hospitalized with acute heart failure from a clinical registry linked to Medicare claims data. We defined WRF as an increase in serum creatinine of ≥ 0.3 mg/dL after admission. We further classified patients with WRF by the difference between admission and last recorded serum creatinine levels into transient WRF (acute heart failure were associated with higher adjusted risks for 90-day all-cause postadmission mortality. Patients with persistent WRF had worse outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Congestive heart failure in children with pneumonia and respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimdet, Kachaporn; Techakehakij, Win

    2017-03-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is one of the most common cardiac complications of pneumonia in adulthood leading to increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Little is known, however, of CHF and pneumonia in children. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the characteristics and factors associated with CHF in under-5 children with pneumonia and respiratory failure. A retrospective cohort was conducted in hospitalized patients aged 2-59 months with community-acquired pneumonia and respiratory failure from June 2011 to June 2014 at Suratthani Hospital, Thailand. The characteristics, therapeutic strategy, and clinical outcomes of CHF were reviewed. Baseline characteristics and basic laboratory investigations on admission were compared between the CHF and non-CHF groups. Of 135 patients, 14 (10%) had CHF. Compared with patients without CHF, the CHF group had prolonged intubation and hospital stay and high rates of associated complications such as ventilator-associated pneumonia, sepsis, shock, and 30 day mortality. CHF was significantly associated with certain characteristics, including male sex and bacterial pneumonia. Pneumonia with respiratory failure is associated with CHF even in healthy children without cardiac risks. The awareness and early recognition of CHF, particularly in male, and bacterial pneumonia, is important in order to provide immediate treatment to reduce complications. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. Breathing disorders in congestive heart failure: gender, etiology and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB and Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR while awake as well as mortality. Eighty-nine consecutive outpatients (29 females with congestive heart failure (CHF; left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEF 5 and >15, respectively. CHF etiologies were similar according to the prevalence of SDB and sleep pattern. Males and females were similar in age, body mass index, and LVEF. Males presented more SDB (P = 0.01, higher apnea-hypopnea index (P = 0.04, more light sleep (stages 1 and 2; P < 0.05, and less deep sleep (P < 0.001 than females. During follow-up (25 ± 10 months, 27% of the population died. Non-survivors had lower LVEF (P = 0.01, worse New York Heart Association (NYHA functional classification (P = 0.03, and higher CSR while awake (P < 0.001 than survivors. As determined by Cox proportional model, NYHA class IV (RR = 3.95, 95%CI = 1.37-11.38, P = 0.011 and CSR while awake with a marginal significance (RR = 2.96, 95%CI = 0.94-9.33, P = 0.064 were associated with mortality. In conclusion, the prevalence of SDB and sleep pattern of patients with Chagas' disease were similar to that of patients with CHF due to other etiologies. Males presented more frequent and more severe SDB and worse sleep quality than females. The presence of CSR while awake, but not during sleep, may be associated with a poor prognosis in patients with CHF.

  10. Prevention of relapse in patients with congestive heart failure: the role of precipitating factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Feenstra; D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); F.A.M. Jonkman (Fokke); A.W. Hoes (Arno); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractRelapse of congestive heart failure (CHF) frequently occurs and has serious consequences in terms of morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure. Many studies have investigated the aetiological and prognostic factors of CHF, but there are only

  11. Impaired isotonic contractility and structural abnormalities in the diaphragm of congestive heart failure rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, H.W.H. van; Heijden, H.F.M. van der; Hafmans, T.G.M.; Ennen, L.; Heunks, L.M.A.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Metabolic alterations and decreased isometric force generation have been demonstrated in different animal models for congestive heart failure (CHF). However, as few morphological examinations have been performed on the CHF diaphragm, it is unknown if structural abnormalities comprise a

  12. A NEW APPROACH TO DETECT CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE USING DETRENDED FLUCTUATION ANALYSIS OF ELECTROCARDIOGRAM SIGNALS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CHANDRAKAR KAMATH

    2015-01-01

    ... (ECG) signals and thereby discriminate between normal and congestive heart failure (CHF) subjects. The DFA-1 calculations were performed on normal and CHF short-term ECG segments, of the order of 20 seconds duration...

  13. Effects of tolvaptan on congestive heart failure complicated with chylothorax in a neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nikiko; Sugiura, Tokio; Nagasaki, Rika; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Ito, Koichi; Kato, Takenori; Inukai, Sachiko; Saitoh, Shinji

    2015-10-01

    Tolvaptan is an oral vasopressin type 2 receptor antagonist that can be used for heart failure patients with hyponatremia or symptomatic congestion. Although the effects of tolvaptan in adults have been well documented, only limited information is available in children. The case of a neonate with congestive heart failure complicated with chylothorax after palliative surgery for transposition of the great arteries treated with tolvaptan is reported. Slow up-titration to 0.1 mg/kg successfully increased urine output and improved refractory congestive heart failure without hypernatremia. Subsequently, bodyweight and chylothorax decreased gradually. Moreover, the use of tolvaptan reduced the dosage of furosemide. Tolvaptan could be an alternative drug for neonates with congestive heart failure. Further large studies are needed to confirm the efficacy and identify the appropriate dose of tolvaptan in neonates. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  14. Heart Conditions and Pregnancy: Know the Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood volume increases, congestive heart failure can worsen. Congenital heart defect If you were born with a heart problem, your baby has a greater risk of developing some type of heart defect, too. You might also be ...

  15. Digoxin: A systematic review in atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure and post myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgadamo, Sebastiano; Charnigo, Richard; Darrat, Yousef; Morales, Gustavo; Elayi, Claude S

    2015-11-26

    To review digoxin use in systolic congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and after myocardial infarction. A comprehensive PubMed search was performed using the key words "digoxin and congestive heart failure", "digoxin and atrial fibrillation", "digoxin, atrial fibrillation and systolic congestive heart failure", and "digoxin and myocardial infarction". Only articles written in English were included in this study. We retained studies originating from randomized controlled trials, registries and included at least 500 patients. The studies included patients with atrial fibrillation or heart failure or myocardial infarction and had a significant proportion of patients (at least 5%) on digoxin. A table reviewing the different hazard ratios was developed based on the articles selected. Our primary endpoint was the overall mortality in the patients on digoxin vs those without digoxin, among patients with atrial fibrillation and also among patients with atrial fibrillation and systolic heart failure. We reviewed the most recent international guidelines to discuss current recommendations. A total of 18 studies were found that evaluated digoxin and overall mortality in different clinical settings including systolic congestive heart failure and normal sinus rhythm (n = 5), atrial fibrillation with and without systolic congestive heart failure (n = 9), and myocardial infarction (n = 4). Overall, patients with systolic congestive heart failure with normal sinus rhythm, digoxin appears to have a neutral effect on mortality especially if close digoxin level monitoring is employed. However, most of the observational studies evaluating digoxin use in atrial fibrillation without systolic congestive heart failure showed an increase in overall mortality when taking digoxin. In the studies evaluated in this systematic review, the data among patients with atrial fibrillation and systolic congestive heart failure, as well as post myocardial infarction were more controversial

  16. Dronedarone in patients with congestive heart failure: insights from ATHENA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohnloser, Stefan H; Crijns, Harry J G M; van Eickels, Martin; Gaudin, Christophe; Page, Richard L; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Connolly, Stuart J

    2010-07-01

    Dronedarone is a new multichannel blocking antiarrhythmic drug for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). In patients with recently decompensated congestive heart failure (CHF) and depressed LV function, the drug was associated with excess mortality compared with a placebo group. The present study aimed to analyse in detail the effects of dronedarone on mortality and morbidity in AF patients CHF. We performed a post hoc analysis of ATHENA, a large placebo-controlled outcome trial in 4628 patients with paroxysmal or persistent AF, to evaluate the relationship between clinical outcomes and dronedarone therapy in patients with stable CHF. The primary outcome was time to first cardiovascular (CV) hospitalization or death. There were 209 patients with NYHA class II/III CHF and a left ventricular ejection fraction < or =0.40 at baseline (114 placebo, 95 dronedarone patients). A primary outcome event occurred in 59/114 placebo patients compared with 42/95 dronedarone patients [hazard ratio (HR) 0.78, 95% CI = 0.52-1.16]. Twenty of 114 placebo patients and 12/95 dronedarone patients died during the study (HR 0.71, 95% CI = 0.34-1.44). Fifty-four placebo and 42 dronedarone patients were hospitalized for an intermittent episode of NYHA class IV CHF (HR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.52-1.17). In this post-hoc analysis of ATHENA patients with AF and stable CHF, dronedarone did not increase mortality and showed a reduction of CV hospitalization or death similar to the overall population. However, in the light of the ANtiarrhythmic trial with DROnedarone in Moderate to severe CHF Evaluating morbidity DecreAse study, dronedarone should be contraindicated in patients with NYHA class IV or unstable NYHA classes II and III CHF.

  17. Left lateral decubitus position on patients with atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Ramasamy, Mouli

    2017-04-01

    Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is a cardiovascular disease that affects about 5.7 million people in the US. The most prevalent comorbidity to CHF is Atrial Fibrillation (AF). These two pathologies present in a mutually worsening manner in that patients diagnosed with CHF are more likely to develop AF and patients who are diagnosed with AF are more likely to develop CHF. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms have been studied for several years and the most recent efforts are in the cellular and molecular basis. In this paper, we focus on manifestation of CHF and AF symptoms as influenced by the posture assumed by a patient. We consider three postures - Left lateral decubitus, right lateral decubitus and supine. We review the clinical evidence gathered thus far relating enhanced sympathetic activity to the left lateral decubitus and supine positions with equivalent evidence on the enhanced vagal activity when the right lateral decubitus posture is assumed. We conclude with a compilation of all the hypotheses on the mechanism by which the right lateral decubitus posture alleviates the symptoms of CHF and AF, and future avenues for investigation.

  18. Congestive heart failure in subjects with thyrotoxicosis in a black community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R C Anakwue, B J C Onwubere

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available R C Anakwue, B J C Onwubere, B C Anisiuba, V O Ikeh, A Mbah, S O IkeDepartment of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Enugu CampusIntroduction: Thyroid hormone has profound effects on a number of metabolic processes in virtually all tissues but the cardiovascular manifestations are prominent usually creating a hyperdynamic circulatory state. Thyrotoxicosis is not a common cause of congestive heart failure among black communities.Objectives: To determine the hospital prevalence, clinical characteristics and echocardiographic findings in patients with thyrotoxicosis who present with congestive heart failure (CCF in the eastern part of Nigeria.Subjects and methods: A total of 50 subjects aged 15 years and above who were diagnosed as thyrotoxic following clinical and thyroid function tests were consecutively recruited. Fifty age- and sex-matched controls with no clinical or biochemical evidence of thyrotoxicosis and no comorbidities were used as controls. Two-dimensional echocardiography was carried out on all the subjects. CCF was determined clinically and echocardiographically.Results: Eight patients (5 females and 3 males out of a total of 50 thyrotoxic patients presented with congestive heart failure.Conclusion: The study revealed that congestive heart failure can occur in thyrotoxicosis in spite of the associated hyperdynamic condition. The underlying mechanism may include direct damage by autoimmune myocarditis, congestive circulation secondary to excess sodium, and fluid retention.Keywords: thyrotoxicosis, congestive heart failure, echocardiography, black community

  19. CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE IN DOGS IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED PLATELET LEUKOCYTE AGGREGATION MEASURED BY FLOW CYTOMETRY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Inge; Andreasen, Susanne SH; Olsen, Lisbeth Høier

    2010-01-01

    , platelet activation markers have not been investigated in dogs with clinical signs of heart disease. We hypothesized that platelet surface activation markers are higher in dogs with CHF compared to age-matched controls without clinical signs of heart failure. Dogs with compensated congestive heart failure......CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE IN DOGS IS ASSOCIATED WITH ENHANCED PLATELET-LEUKOCYTE AGGREGATES - A MARKER FOR PLATELET ACTIVATION. I Tarnow1, LH Olsen2, SHS Andreasen2, SG Moesgaard2, CE Rasmussen2, AT Kristensen1, T Falk2. 1Departments of Small Animal Clinical Sciences and 2Animal and Veterinary Basic...... Sciences, Faculty of Life Science, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) in humans is associated with abnormal hemostasis, and changes in hemostatic biomarkers carry a poor prognosis. CHF in dogs has been associated with plasma markers of hypercoagulability, however...

  20. MicroRNAs relate to early worsening of renal function in patients with acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Noemi; ter Maaten, Jozine M; Ovchinnikova, Ekaterina S; Vegter, Eline L; Valente, Mattia A E; van der Meer, Peter; de Boer, Rudolf A; van der Harst, Pim; Schmitter, Daniela; Metra, Marco; O'Connor, Christopher M; Ponikowski, Piotr; Teerlink, John R; Cotter, Gad; Davison, Beth; Cleland, John G; Givertz, Michael M; Bloomfield, Daniel M; Dittrich, Howard C; Pinto, Yigal M; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Hillege, Hans L; Berezikov, Eugene; Voors, Adriaan A

    2016-01-15

    Deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) may be involved in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF) and renal disease. Our aim is to describe miRNA levels related to early worsening renal function in acute HF patients. We studied the association between 12 circulating miRNAs and Worsening Renal Function (WRF; defined as an increase in the serum creatinine level of 0.3mg per deciliter or more from admission to day 3), absolute change in creatinine and Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) from admission to day 3 in 98 patients hospitalized for acute HF. At baseline, circulating levels of all miRNAs were lower in patients with WRF, with statistically significant decreased levels of miR-199a-3p, miR-423-3p, and miR-let-7i-5p (p-valueacute HF were consistently lower in patients who developed worsening of renal function. MiR-199a-3p was the best predictor of WRF in these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Patients with worsening chronic heart failure who present to a hospital emergency department require hospital care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafazand Masoud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic heart failure (CHF is a major public health problem characterised by progressive deterioration with disabling symptoms and frequent hospital admissions. To influence hospitalisation rates it is crucial to identify precipitating factors. To characterise patients with CHF who seek an emergency department (ED because of worsening symptoms and signs and to explore the reasons why they are admitted to hospital. Method Patients (n = 2,648 seeking care for dyspnoea were identified at the ED, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra. Out of 2,648 patients, 1,127 had a previous diagnosis of CHF, and of these, 786 were included in the present study with at least one sign and one symptom of worsening CHF. Results Although several of the patients wanted to go home after acute treatment in the ED, only 2% could be sent home. These patients were enrolled in an interventional study, which evaluated the acute care at home compared to the conventional, in hospital care. The remaining patients were admitted to hospital because of serious condition, including pneumonia/respiratory disease, myocardial infarction, pulmonary oedema, anaemia, the need to monitor cardiac rhythm, pathological blood chemistry and difficulties to communicate. Conclusion The vast majority of patients with worsening CHF seeking the ED required hospital care, predominantly because of co-morbidities. Patients with CHF with symptomatic deterioration may be admitted to hospital without additional emergency room investigations.

  2. ACE inhibitors and calcium antagonists in the treatment of congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J F

    1995-01-01

    The increased mortality after myocardial infarction is related to the risk of reinfarction, sudden death, and the development and progression of heart failure; in congestive heart failure it is due to the progression of heart failure and sudden death. ACE inhibitors have been proven to prevent...... cardiovascular events, especially the progression of heart failure, in postinfarct patients with reduced ejection fraction and heart failure in the SAVE and AIRE trials. In patients with congestive heart failure, ACE inhibitor treatment has prevented cardiovascular death and reduced morbidity due to progressive...... by prevention of reinfarction and sudden death. Combination treatment with both verapamil, which has pronounced antiischemic properties and prevents sudden death and reinfarction, and an ACE inhibitor, which prevents the progression of heart failure, is a possibility for future cardiovascular therapy...

  3. Integrative Assessment of Congestion in Heart Failure Throughout the Patient Journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girerd, Nicolas; Seronde, Marie-France; Coiro, Stefano; Chouihed, Tahar; Bilbault, Pascal; Braun, François; Kenizou, David; Maillier, Bruno; Nazeyrollas, Pierre; Roul, Gérard; Fillieux, Ludivine; Abraham, William T; Januzzi, James; Sebbag, Laurent; Zannad, Faiez; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Rossignol, Patrick

    2017-12-06

    Congestion is one of the main predictors of poor patient outcome in patients with heart failure. However, congestion is difficult to assess, especially when symptoms are mild. Although numerous clinical scores, imaging tools, and biological tests are available to assist physicians in ascertaining and quantifying congestion, not all are appropriate for use in all stages of patient management. In recent years, multidisciplinary management in the community has become increasingly important to prevent heart failure hospitalizations. Electronic alert systems and communication platforms are emerging that could be used to facilitate patient home monitoring that identifies congestion from heart failure decompensation at an earlier stage. This paper describes the role of congestion detection methods at key stages of patient care: pre-admission, admission to the emergency department, in-hospital management, and lastly, discharge and continued monitoring in the community. The multidisciplinary working group, which consisted of cardiologists, emergency physicians, and a nephrologist with both clinical and research backgrounds, reviewed the current literature regarding the various scores, tools, and tests to detect and quantify congestion. This paper describes the role of each tool at key stages of patient care and discusses the advantages of telemedicine as a means of providing true integrated patient care. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Recompensation of Heart and Kidney Function after Treatment with Peritoneal Dialysis in a Case of Congestive Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars P. Kihm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 57-year-old woman suffering from congestive heart failure. Due to refractory congestions despite optimised medical treatment, the patient was listed for heart transplantation and peritoneal dialysis was initiated. Peritoneal dialysis led to a significant weight loss, reduction of hyperhydration and extracellular water obtained by bioimpedance measurement, and a significant improvement in clinical and echocardiographic examination. Furthermore, residual kidney function increased during the long-term followup, and subsequently peritoneal dialysis was ceased. Pulmonary artery pressure and left ventricular ejection fraction remained stable and the patient did well. This case demonstrates the possibility of treating hyperhydration due to congestive heart failure with peritoneal dialysis resulting in recompensation of both heart and kidney functions.

  5. Dofetilide in patients with congestive heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction: safety aspects and effect on atrial fibrillation. The Danish Investigators of Arrhythmia and Mortality on Dofetilide (DIAMOND) Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, M; Torp-Pedersen, C T; Køber, L

    2002-01-01

    and reduced left ventricular systolic function were randomized to receive either placebo or a new class III antiarrhythmic drug, dofetilide. The dose of dofetilide was adjusted according to the presence of atrial fibrillation, the length of the QT interval, and renal function. Patients were continuously......INTRODUCTION. Atrial fibrillation is a frequent cause of worsening of symptoms in patients with congestive heart failure. The drugs currently available for maintenance of sinus rhythm all have major side effects. METHODS. In 34 Danish coronary care units, 1518 patients with congestive heart failure...

  6. Inflammatory Biomarkers in Refractory Congestive Heart Failure Patients Treated with Peritoneal Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Kunin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proinflammatory cytokines play a pathogenic role in congestive heart failure. In this study, the effect of peritoneal dialysis treatment on inflammatory cytokines levels in refractory congestive heart failure patients was investigated. During the treatment, the patients reached a well-tolerated edema-free state and demonstrated significant improvement in NYHA functional class. Brain natriuretic peptide decreased significantly after 3 months of treatment and remained stable at 6 months. C-reactive protein, a plasma marker of inflammation, decreased significantly following the treatment. Circulating inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 decreased significantly after 3 months of peritoneal dialysis treatment and remained low at 6 months. The reduction in circulating inflammatory cytokines levels may be partly responsible for the efficacy of peritoneal dialysis for refractory congestive heart failure.

  7. Outcome in acute heart failure: prognostic value of acute kidney injury and worsening renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra, Gregory; Garin, Nicolas; Stirnemann, Jérôme; Jannot, Anne-Sophie; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Perrier, Arnaud; Carballo, Sebastian

    2015-05-01

    The prognostic value of worsening renal function (WRF) in acute heart failure is debated. Moreover, it is not clear if the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in this context is detrimental. In a retrospective cohort study of 646 patients hospitalized for acute heart failure, the risk of death or readmission associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) present at admission, WRF during the 1st 7 days, and up-titration of ACEI/ARB were analyzed in a Cox proportional hazards model. AKI, WRF, hemoglobin concentration, ACEI/ARB up-titration, and use of loop diuretics before admission were significantly associated with the primary outcome in univariate analysis. In a multivariate model, the association remained significant for AKI (hazard ratio [HR] 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.47; P = .0002), WRF (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.06-1.45; P = .0059), and ACEI/ARB up-titration (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.97; P = .026). There was no excess mortality in patients with ACEI/ARB up-titration despite WRF. Both AKI and WRF are strongly associated with poor outcome in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure. ACEI/ARB up-titration seems to be protective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Heart rate turbulence predicts all-cause mortality and sudden death in congestive heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Zareba, Wojciech; Vazquez, Rafael; Vallverdu, Montserrat; Gonzalez-Juanatey, Jose R; Valdes, Mariano; Almendral, Jesus; Cinca, Juan; Caminal, Pere; de Luna, Antoni Bayes

    2008-08-01

    Abnormal heart rate turbulence (HRT) has been documented as a strong predictor of total mortality and sudden death in postinfarction patients, but data in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of HRT for predicting mortality in CHF patients in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II-III. In 651 CHF patients with sinus rhythm enrolled into the MUSIC (Muerte Subita en Insuficiencia Cardiaca) study, the standard HRT parameters turbulence onset (TO) and slope (TS), as well as HRT categories, were assessed for predicting total mortality and sudden death. HRT was analyzable in 607 patients, mean age 63 years (434 male), 50% of ischemic etiology. During a median follow up of 44 months, 129 patients died, 52 from sudden death. Abnormal TS and HRT category 2 (HRT2) were independently associated with increased all-cause mortality (HR: 2.10, CI: 1.41 to 3.12, P 120 ms. HRT is a potent risk predictor for both heart failure and arrhythmic death in patients with class II and III CHF.

  9. Hyponatraemia and congestive heart failure refractory to diuretic treatment. Utility of tolvaptan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pose, A; Almenar, L; Manzano, L; Gavira, J J; López Granados, A; Delgado, J; Aramburu, O; Arévalo, J C; Méndez, M; Comín, J; Manito, N

    2017-10-01

    Heart failure (HF) is currently one of the most significant healthcare problems in Spain and has a continuously increasing prevalence. Advances in our understanding of the various biological responses that promote cardiac remodelling and pulmonary venous congestion constitute the basis of current treatment. This article, prepared by members of the HF groups of the Spanish Society of Cardiology and the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine, discusses the current therapeutic strategies for patients with congestion refractory to diuretic treatment. The article includes our clinical experience with the use of tolvaptan as an additional treatment for congestion associated with hyponatraemia. To this end, we propose an algorithm for the use of tolvaptan in patients with congestive HF, natraemia <130mEq/l and poor response to conventional diuretic treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  10. Laparoscopy is safe among patients with congestive heart failure undergoing general surgery procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speicher, Paul J; Ganapathi, Asvin M; Englum, Brian R; Vaslef, Steven N

    2014-08-01

    Over the past 2 decades, laparoscopy has been established as a superior technique in many general surgery procedures. Few studies, however, have examined the impact of the use of a laparoscopic approach in patients with symptomatic congestive heart failure (CHF). Because pneumoperitoneum has known effects on cardiopulmonary physiology, patients with CHF may be at increased risk. This study examines current trends in approaches to patients with CHF and effects on perioperative outcomes. The 2005-2011 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant User File was used to identify patients who underwent the following general surgery procedures: Appendectomy, segmental colectomy, small bowel resection, ventral hernia repair, and splenectomy. Included for analysis were those with newly diagnosed CHF or chronic CHF with new signs or symptoms. Trends of use of laparoscopy were assessed across procedure types. The primary endpoint was 30-day mortality. The independent effect of laparoscopy in CHF was estimated with a multiple logistic regression model. A total of 265,198 patients were included for analysis, of whom 2,219 were identified as having new or recently worsened CHF. Of these patients, there were 1,300 (58.6%) colectomies, 486 (21.9%) small bowel resections, 216 (9.7%) ventral hernia repairs, 141 (6.4%) appendectomies, and 76 (3.4%) splenectomies. Laparoscopy was used less frequently in patients with CHF compared with their non-CHF counterparts, particularly for nonelective procedures. Baseline characteristics were similar for laparoscopy versus open procedures with the notable exception of urgent/emergent case status (36.4% vs 71.3%; P surgery procedures, particularly in urgent/emergent cases. Despite these patterns and apparent preferences, laparoscopy seems to offer a safe alternative in appropriately selected patients. Because morbidity and mortality were considerable regardless of approach, further understanding of appropriate management in this

  11. Evaluation of telehealth service for patients with congestive heart failure in the north of Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Golovner, Michal; Marcus, Ohad; Dayan, Mordechai; Sade, Zipi; Iktelat, Adel; Rothman, Johanna; Oppenheimer, Yoel

    2016-04-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the impact of a telehealth service on re-hospitalization of patients with congestive heart failure at New York Heart Association II-IV. The telehealth service for congestive heart failure patients was designed to follow the patients after their daily weighing and to provide a response in cases of non-compliance or deviation from baseline weight. A weighing scale was installed in the patient's house together with a communication module connected to the telemedicine control centre through a telephone line. The control centre is staffed by skilled nurses whose responses to patients are guided by programmed algorithm. Over a year, we evaluated the changes in the frequency of hospital admission and of primary care visits, and quality of life of 141 individuals who were eligible for the telehealth service for congestive heart failure. A decline was noted in the average number of hospitalizations per patient (from 4.7 to 2.6, p Failure Questionnaire). During the year of use in telehealth service for congestive heart failure parameters of hospitalization were improved, together with parameters of quality of life. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  12. Ultrafiltration versus usual care for hospitalized patients with heart failure: the Relief for Acutely Fluid-Overloaded Patients With Decompensated Congestive Heart Failure (RAPID-CHF) trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bart, Bradley A; Boyle, Andrew; Bank, Alan J; Anand, Inder; Olivari, Maria Teresa; Kraemer, Mark; Mackedanz, Shari; Sobotka, Paul A; Schollmeyer, Mike; Goldsmith, Steven R

    2005-01-01

    ...) in patients admitted with decompensated congestive heart failure (CHF). Ultrafiltration for CHF is usually reserved for patients with renal failure or those unresponsive to pharmacologic management...

  13. Heart rate variability is differentially altered in multiple sclerosis: implications for acute, worsening and progressive disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Valeria; Rocchi, Camilla; Motta, Caterina; Lauretti, Benedetta; Perugini, Jacopo; Brambilla, Laura; Pareja-Gutierrez, Lorena; Camera, Giorgia; Barbieri, Francesca Romana; Marfia, Girolama A; Centonze, Diego; Rossi, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Sympathovagal imbalance has been associated with poor prognosis in chronic diseases, but there is conflicting evidence in multiple sclerosis. The objective of this study was to investigate the autonomic nervous system dysfunction correlation with inflammation and progression in multiple sclerosis. Heart rate variability was analysed in 120 multiple sclerosis patients and 60 healthy controls during supine rest and head-up tilt test; the normalised units of low frequency and high frequency power were considered to assess sympathetic and vagal components, respectively. Correlation analyses with clinical and radiological markers of disease activity and progression were performed. Sympathetic dysfunction was closely related to the progression of disability in multiple sclerosis: progressive patients showed altered heart rate variability with respect to healthy controls and relapsing-remitting patients, with higher rest low frequency power and lacking the expected low frequency power increase during the head-up tilt test. In relapsing-remitting patients, disease activity, even subclinical, was associated with lower rest low frequency power, whereas stable relapsing-remitting patients did not differ from healthy controls. Less sympathetic reactivity and higher low frequency power at rest were associated with incomplete recovery from relapse. Autonomic balance appears to be intimately linked with both the inflammatory activity of multiple sclerosis, which is featured by an overall hypoactivity of the sympathetic nervous system, and its compensatory plastic processes, which appear inefficient in case of worsening and progressive multiple sclerosis.

  14. Loss of lag-response curvilinearity of indices of heart rate variability in congestive heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakre, Tushar P; Smith, Michael L

    2006-01-01

    Background Heart rate variability (HRV) is known to be impaired in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Time-domain analysis of ECG signals traditionally relies heavily on linear indices of an essentially non-linear phenomenon. Poincaré plots are commonly used to study non-linear behavior of physiologic signals. Lagged Poincaré plots incorporate autocovariance information and analysis of Poincaré plots for various lags can provide interesting insights into the autonomic control of the heart. Methods Using Poincaré plot analysis, we assessed whether the relation of the lag between heart beats and HRV is altered in CHF. We studied the influence of lag on estimates of Poincaré plot indices for various lengths of beat sequence in a public domain data set (PhysioNet) of 29 subjects with CHF and 54 subjects with normal sinus rhythm. Results A curvilinear association was observed between lag and Poincaré plot indices (SD1, SD2, SDLD and SD1/SD2 ratio) in normal subjects even for a small sequence of 50 beats (p value for quadratic term 3 × 10-5, 0.002, 3.5 × 10-5 and 0.0003, respectively). This curvilinearity was lost in patients with CHF even after exploring sequences up to 50,000 beats (p values for quadratic term > 0.5). Conclusion Since lagged Poincaré plots incorporate autocovariance information, these analyses provide insights into the autonomic control of heart rate that is influenced by the non-linearity of the signal. The differences in lag-response in CHF patients and normal subjects exist even in the face of the treatment received by the CHF patients. PMID:16768800

  15. Loss of lag-response curvilinearity of indices of heart rate variability in congestive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Michael L

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart rate variability (HRV is known to be impaired in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF. Time-domain analysis of ECG signals traditionally relies heavily on linear indices of an essentially non-linear phenomenon. Poincaré plots are commonly used to study non-linear behavior of physiologic signals. Lagged Poincaré plots incorporate autocovariance information and analysis of Poincaré plots for various lags can provide interesting insights into the autonomic control of the heart. Methods Using Poincaré plot analysis, we assessed whether the relation of the lag between heart beats and HRV is altered in CHF. We studied the influence of lag on estimates of Poincaré plot indices for various lengths of beat sequence in a public domain data set (PhysioNet of 29 subjects with CHF and 54 subjects with normal sinus rhythm. Results A curvilinear association was observed between lag and Poincaré plot indices (SD1, SD2, SDLD and SD1/SD2 ratio in normal subjects even for a small sequence of 50 beats (p value for quadratic term 3 × 10-5, 0.002, 3.5 × 10-5 and 0.0003, respectively. This curvilinearity was lost in patients with CHF even after exploring sequences up to 50,000 beats (p values for quadratic term > 0.5. Conclusion Since lagged Poincaré plots incorporate autocovariance information, these analyses provide insights into the autonomic control of heart rate that is influenced by the non-linearity of the signal. The differences in lag-response in CHF patients and normal subjects exist even in the face of the treatment received by the CHF patients.

  16. Longstanding atrial fibrillation causes depletion of atrial natriuretic peptide in patients with advanced congestive heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, MP; de Kam, PJ; Boomsma, F; Crijns, HJGM; van Veldhuisen, DJ

    Background: Congestive heart failure (CHF) is characterized by neurohormonal activation, including increased plasma concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and N-terminal ANP (N-ANP). Onset of atrial fibrillation (AF) further increases these peptides, but it may be hypothesized that

  17. The Impact of Family Functioning on Caregiver Burden among Caregivers of Veterans with Congestive Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Crystal Dea

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 76 family caregivers of older veterans with congestive heart failure utilized the McMaster model of family functioning to examine the impact of family functioning variables (problem solving, communication, roles, affective responsiveness, and affective involvement) on caregiver burden dimensions (relationship burden,…

  18. Diaphragm single-fiber weakness and loss of myosin in congestive heart failure rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, H.W.H. van; Heijden, H.F.M. van der; Ottenheijm, C.A.C.; Heunks, L.M.A.; Pigmans, C.J.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Brouwer, R.M.H.J.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.

    2007-01-01

    Diaphragm weakness commonly occurs in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and is an independent predictor of mortality. However, the pathophysiology of diaphragm weakness is poorly understood. We hypothesized that CHF induces diaphragm weakness at the single-fiber level by decreasing myosin

  19. Bed rest and increased diuretic treatment in chronic congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, U; Aldershvile, J; Ring-Larsen, H

    1985-01-01

    To elucidate the effect of bed rest used as an adjunct to increased diuretic treatment, twelve patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) had a 50% increase in loop diuretic dosage and were allocated to either continuous bed rest or bed rest during nights only. The 24-hour bed rest group...... is a reasonable adjunct to diuretic treatment in patients with CHF....

  20. Volume control in treatment-resistant congestive heart failure : role for peritoneal dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekman, K. E.; Sinkeler, S. J.; Waanders, F.; Bartels, G. L.; Navis, G.; Janssen, W. M. T.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic congestive heart failure (HF) has a rising prevalence and increasing impact on health care systems. Current treatment consists of diuretics, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers, and restriction of salt and fluids. This strategy is often hampered by a drop in effective circulating

  1. Iron deficiency in patients with congestive heart failure: A medical practice that requires greater attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Belmar Vega

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: Congestive heart failure is very frequently associated with anaemia, iron deficiency and renal failure. Despite the fact that correcting iron deficiency is known to improve symptoms, testing of iron parameters in patients admitted with CHF is not performed as often as it should be.

  2. Phlegmonous enteritis in a patient with congestive heart failure and colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namkung, Sook; Yoo, Yoon Sik; Hwang, Im Kyung; Kim, Bong Soo; Bae, Sang Hoon; Choi, Young Hee [Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    Phlegmonous enteritis is a rare infective inflammatory disease of the intestine, predominantly involving the submucosal layer. It is difficult to diagnose and often fatal. Its association with alcoholism and various liver diseases, although rarely reported, is well documented. We report a case of phlegmonous enteritis in a male patient with congestive heart failure and colon cancer, and describe the ultrasonographic and CT findings.

  3. Effect of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy on Inflammation in Congestive Heart Failure: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappegård, K T; Bjørnstad, H; Mollnes, T E; Hovland, A

    2015-09-01

    Congestive heart failure is associated with increased levels of several inflammatory mediators, and animal studies have shown that infusion of a number of cytokines can induce heart failure. However, several drugs with proven efficacy in heart failure have failed to affect inflammatory mediators, and anti-inflammatory therapy in heart failure patients has thus far been disappointing. Hence, to what extent heart failure is caused by or responsible for the increased inflammatory burden in the patient is still unclear. Over the past couple of decades, resynchronization therapy with a biventricular pacemaker has emerged as an effective treatment in a subset of heart failure patients, reducing both morbidity and mortality. Such treatment has also been shown to affect the inflammation associated with heart failure. In this study, we review recent data on the association between heart failure and inflammation, and in particular how resynchronization therapy can affect the inflammatory process. © 2015 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  4. Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation in Neonates Presenting With Congestive Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andjenie Madhuban MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a neonate presenting with signs of a congenital cardiac disease. Echocardiography showed a structural normal heart, right-to-left ductal flow, a dilated superior caval vein, and reversed diastolic flow in the proximal descending aorta. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a vein of Galen arteriovenous malformation. This highlights the importance of considering an intracranial cause in the differential diagnosis of neonatal congestive heart failure.

  5. Prognostic value of residual pulmonary congestion at discharge assessed by lung ultrasound imaging in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiro, Stefano; Rossignol, Patrick; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Carluccio, Erberto; Alunni, Gianfranco; Murrone, Adriano; Tritto, Isabella; Zannad, Faiez; Girerd, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Residual pulmonary congestion at discharge is associated with poor prognosis in heart failure (HF), but its quantification through physical examination is challenging. Ultrasound imaging of lung comets (B-lines) could improve congestion evaluation. The aim of this study was to assess the short-term prognostic value of B-lines after discharge from HF hospitalisation compared with other indices of haemodynamic congestion (BNP, E/e', and inferior vena cava diameter) or clinical status (NYHA class). Sixty consecutive HF inpatients underwent clinical examination, echocardiography, and lung ultrasound at discharge, independently of, and in addition to routine management by the attending physicians. The median B-line count was 8.5 (5-34). Three-month event-free survival for the primary endpoint (all-cause death or HF hospitalisation) was 27 ± 10% in patients with ≥30 B-lines and 88 ± 5% in those with pulmonary congestion at discharge, as assessed by a B-line count ≥30, is a strong predictor of outcome. Lung ultrasonography may represent a useful tool to identify and monitor congestion and optimize therapy during and/or after hospitalisation for HF, which should be further validated in multicentre studies. © 2015 The Authors European Journal of Heart Failure © 2015 European Society of Cardiology.

  6. Benefits of prolonged angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, T D

    1991-01-01

    Normal individuals have time-dependent variations in cardiovascular function, most of which are circadian (once daily). They include changes in heart rate, systemic arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, blood volume, and viscosity. There are also changes in neuroendocrine function, including the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems and the renin-angiotensin system. These variations have important consequences for the heart, since haemodynamic and neuroendocrine alterations determine cardiac work load; heart rate, blood pressure, and sympathetic nervous system activity are highest during the waking hours and lowest during sleep. Cardiovascular mortality and morbidity are associated with these changes. Patients with congestive heart failure undergo changes in neurohumoral cardiovascular regulation that increase the work load of the heart as a result of increases in heart rate and peripheral vascular resistance. Moreover, a normal circadian variation is lost, causing blood pressure and heart rate to remain increased at night, depriving the heart of a period of rest. In addition, these patients have an ability to increase blood flow to exercising skeletal muscle, limiting exercise tolerance, as well as the consequences of elevated ventricular filling pressures. These time-dependent variations in the pathophysiological processes of congestive heart failure have implications for pharmacological therapy. In particular, vasodilator therapy should be administered to provide optimal unloading of the heart throughout the day. Vasodilator therapy should also provide antagonism to those factors that limit blood flow to working skeletal muscle, so that the physical ability is not intermittently compromised during the trough effect of the drug. Criteria for establishing the efficacy of drugs for the treatment of congestive heart failure should include an analysis of peak and trough effects.

  7. Telehealth Protocol to Prevent Readmission Among High-Risk Patients With Congestive Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Daniel; McCall, Janice D; Primack, Brian A

    2017-11-01

    Congestive heart failure is the leading cause of hospital readmissions. We aimed to assess adherence to and effectiveness of a telehealth protocol designed to prevent hospital admissions for congestive heart failure. We recruited a random sample of 50 patients with congestive heart failure (mean age 61 years) from a managed care organization. We developed a telehealth platform allowing for daily, real-time reporting of health status and video conferencing. We defined adherence as the percentage of days on which the patient completed the daily check-in protocol. To assess efficacy, we compared admission and readmission rates between the 6-month intervention period and the prior 6 months. Primary outcomes were admissions and readmissions due to congestive heart failure, and secondary outcomes were admissions and readmissions due to any cause. Forty-eight patients (96%) completed the protocol. Approximately half (46%) were at high risk for readmission according to standardized measures. Median 120-day adherence was 96% (interquartile range, 92%-98%), and adherence did not significantly differ across sex, race, age, living situation, depression, cognitive ability, or risk for readmission. Approximately equal proportions of patients were admitted for all causes during the 6-month intervention period versus the comparison period (37% vs 43%; P = .32). Half as many patients were admitted for congestive heart failure during the 6-month intervention period compared with the comparison period (12% vs 25%; P = .11). Adherence to this telehealth protocol was excellent and consistent, even among high-risk patients. Future research should test the protocol using a more rigorous randomized design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Performance of Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in the Detection of Congestive Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Fausto; Barros, Allan Kardec; Ohnishi, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a cardiac disease associated with the decreasing capacity of the cardiac output. It has been shown that the CHF is the main cause of the cardiac death around the world. Some works proposed to discriminate CHF subjects from healthy subjects using either electrocardiogram (ECG) or heart rate variability (HRV) from long-term recordings. In this work, we propose an alternative framework to discriminate CHF from healthy subjects by using HRV short-term intervals based on 256 RR continuous samples. Our framework uses a matching pursuit algorithm based on Gabor functions. From the selected Gabor functions, we derived a set of features that are inputted into a hybrid framework which uses a genetic algorithm and k-nearest neighbour classifier to select a subset of features that has the best classification performance. The performance of the framework is analyzed using both Fantasia and CHF database from Physionet archives which are, respectively, composed of 40 healthy volunteers and 29 subjects. From a set of nonstandard 16 features, the proposed framework reaches an overall accuracy of 100% with five features. Our results suggest that the application of hybrid frameworks whose classifier algorithms are based on genetic algorithms has outperformed well-known classifier methods.

  9. The Performance of Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in the Detection of Congestive Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Lucena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Congestive heart failure (CHF is a cardiac disease associated with the decreasing capacity of the cardiac output. It has been shown that the CHF is the main cause of the cardiac death around the world. Some works proposed to discriminate CHF subjects from healthy subjects using either electrocardiogram (ECG or heart rate variability (HRV from long-term recordings. In this work, we propose an alternative framework to discriminate CHF from healthy subjects by using HRV short-term intervals based on 256 RR continuous samples. Our framework uses a matching pursuit algorithm based on Gabor functions. From the selected Gabor functions, we derived a set of features that are inputted into a hybrid framework which uses a genetic algorithm and k-nearest neighbour classifier to select a subset of features that has the best classification performance. The performance of the framework is analyzed using both Fantasia and CHF database from Physionet archives which are, respectively, composed of 40 healthy volunteers and 29 subjects. From a set of nonstandard 16 features, the proposed framework reaches an overall accuracy of 100% with five features. Our results suggest that the application of hybrid frameworks whose classifier algorithms are based on genetic algorithms has outperformed well-known classifier methods.

  10. Transvenous biventricular pacing in a child after congenital heart surgery as an alternative therapy for congestive heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Nico A.; Bax, Jeroen J.; Ottenkamp, Jaap; Schalij, Martin J.

    2003-01-01

    Transvenous Biventricular Pacing in Children. Cardiac resynchronization therapy improves short-term and long-term hemodynamics in adult patients with congestive heart failure and left bundle branch block. We describe the feasibility of transvenous biventricular pacemaker implantation in a 6-year-old

  11. Volume control in treatment-resistant congestive heart failure: role for peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekman, K E; Sinkeler, S J; Waanders, F; Bartels, G L; Navis, G; Janssen, W M T

    2014-11-01

    Chronic congestive heart failure (HF) has a rising prevalence and increasing impact on health care systems. Current treatment consists of diuretics, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers, and restriction of salt and fluids. This strategy is often hampered by a drop in effective circulating volume and hence renal perfusion and function, triggering harmful counter regulatory mechanisms. Slow ultrafiltration by peritoneal dialysis (PD) might be an effective treatment strategy to relieve fluid overload without compromising cardiac output and thereby renal function. In this review, we discuss the (patho)physiological mechanisms of the cardiorenal interaction and the current literature on PD strategies in congestive HF.

  12. Importance of congestive heart failure and interaction of congestive heart failure and left ventricular systolic function on prognosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køber, L; Torp-Pedersen, C; Pedersen, O D

    1996-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) systolic function and congestive heart failure (CHF) are important predictors of long-term mortality after acute myocardial infarction. The importance of transient CHF and the interaction of CHF and LV function on prognosis has not been studied in detail previously. In the T......Left ventricular (LV) systolic function and congestive heart failure (CHF) are important predictors of long-term mortality after acute myocardial infarction. The importance of transient CHF and the interaction of CHF and LV function on prognosis has not been studied in detail previously......-term mortality, separate analyses were performed in patients with different levels of LV function. Risk ratio (95% confidence intervals [CI]) were determined from proportional hazard models subgrouped by wall motion index or CHF adjusted for age and gender. Heart failure was separated into transient...... or persistent. Wall motion index and CHF are correlated. Furthermore, there is an interaction between wall motion index and CHF. The prognostic importance of wall motion index depends on whether patients have CHF or not: the risk ratio associated with decreasing 1 wall motion index unit is 3.0 (2.6 to 3...

  13. pneumonia complicated by congestive heart failure in nigerian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-10

    Oct 10, 2012 ... W. E. SADOH and W. O. OSAROGIAGBON. ABSTRACT. Objective: To evaluate heart failure in patients with pneumonia. .... with suggestive history and in children of mothers with positive HIV infection status. .... children with pneumonia only was 13,100. ± 6900 (range 4800 – 29,000) cell/u3 was lower than.

  14. Worsening renal function definition is insufficient for evaluating acute renal failure in acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakabe, Akihiro; Hata, Noritake; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Okazaki, Hirotake; Matsushita, Masato; Shibata, Yusaku; Nishigoori, Suguru; Uchiyama, Saori; Asai, Kuniya; Shimizu, Wataru

    2018-02-01

    Whether or not the definition of a worsening renal function (WRF) is adequate for the evaluation of acute renal failure in patients with acute heart failure is unclear. One thousand and eighty-three patients with acute heart failure were analysed. A WRF, indicated by a change in serum creatinine ≥0.3 mg/mL during the first 5 days, occurred in 360 patients while no-WRF, indicated by a change Acute kidney injury (AKI) upon admission was defined based on the ratio of the serum creatinine value recorded on admission to the baseline creatinine value and placed into groups based on the degree of AKI: no-AKI (n = 751), Class R (risk; n = 193), Class I (injury; n = 41), or Class F (failure; n = 98). The patients were assigned to another set of four groups: no-WRF/no-AKI (n = 512), no-WRF/AKI (n = 211), WRF/no-AKI (n = 239), and WRF/AKI (n = 121). A multivariate logistic regression model found that no-WRF/AKI and WRF/AKI were independently associated with 365 day mortality (hazard ratio: 1.916; 95% confidence interval: 1.234-2.974 and hazard ratio: 3.622; 95% confidence interval: 2.332-5.624). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that the rate of any-cause death during 1 year was significantly poorer in the no-WRF/AKI and WRF/AKI groups than in the WRF/no-AKI and no-WRF/no-AKI groups and in Class I and Class F than in Class R and the no-AKI group. The presence of AKI on admission, especially Class I and Class F status, is associated with a poor prognosis despite the lack of a WRF within the first 5 days. The prognostic ability of AKI on admission may be superior to WRF within the first 5 days. © 2018 The Authors. ESC Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  15. Prevalence of Anemia in Children with Congestive Heart Failure due to Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goetz Christoph Mueller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Anemia is prevalent in adult heart failure patients and appears to be an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this work is to determine the prevalence of anemia in children with heart failure from dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM and to evaluate its influence on morbidity and mortality. Methods. A homogenous group of 58 children with congestive heart failure from DCM was evaluated for heart failure symptoms, appearance of anemia, hospitalization, age of first clinical appearance, necessity of transfusion, and death during medical attendance. Anemic and nonanemic patients were analyzed for differences in age distribution, morbidity, and mortality. Results. Anemia was present in 64% of DCM patients. Hospitalization secondary to heart failure was significantly elevated in heart failure patients with anemia (mean versus days per year, . However, mortality was not elevated. Significant relations of age and prevalence of anemia or age and severity of anemia did not appear. Conclusion. Anemia is prevalent in pediatric patients with congestive heart failure from DCM and appears in all age classes. Hospitalization as a surrogate of morbidity is elevated in heart failure patients developing anemia, but mortality risk did not increase.

  16. Cardiac Dysfunction, Congestion and Loop Diuretics: their Relationship to Prognosis in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicori, Pierpaolo; Cleland, John G F; Zhang, Jufen; Kallvikbacka-Bennett, Anna; Urbinati, Alessia; Shah, Parin; Kazmi, Syed; Clark, Andrew L

    2016-12-01

    Diuretics are the mainstay of treatment for congestion but concerns exist that they adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether the relationship between loop diuretic use and outcome is explained by the underlying severity of congestion amongst patients referred with suspected heart failure. Of 1190 patients, 712 had a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤50 %, 267 had LVEF >50 % with raised plasma NTproBNP (>400 ng/L) and 211 had LVEF >50 % with NTproBNP ≤400 ng/L; respectively, 72 %, 68 % and 37 % of these groups were treated with loop diuretics including 28 %, 29 % and 10 % in doses ≥80 mg furosemide equivalent/day. Compared to patients with cardiac dysfunction (either LVEF ≤50 % or NT-proBNP >400 ng/L) but not taking a loop diuretic, those taking a loop diuretic were older and had more clinical evidence of congestion, renal dysfunction, anaemia and hyponatraemia. During a median follow-up of 934 (IQR: 513-1425) days, 450 patients were hospitalized for HF or died. Patients prescribed loop diuretics had a worse outcome. However, in multi-variable models, clinical, echocardiographic (inferior vena cava diameter), and biochemical (NTproBNP) measures of congestion were strongly associated with an adverse outcome but not the use, or dose, of loop diuretics. Prescription of loop diuretics identifies patients with more advanced features of heart failure and congestion, which may account for their worse prognosis. Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between loop diuretic agents and outcome; imaging and biochemical measures of congestion might be better guides to diuretic dose than symptoms or clinical signs.

  17. Visceral Congestion in Heart Failure: Right Ventricular Dysfunction, Splanchnic Hemodynamics, and the Intestinal Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsinelli, Vincenzo B; Sinha, Arjun; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2017-12-01

    Visceral venous congestion of the gut may play a key role in the pathogenesis of right-sided heart failure (HF) and cardiorenal syndromes. Here, we review the role of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, visceral congestion, splanchnic hemodynamics, and the intestinal microenvironment in the setting of right-sided HF. We review recent literature on this topic, outline possible mechanisms of disease pathogenesis, and discuss potential therapeutics. There are several mechanisms linking RV-gut interactions via visceral venous congestion which could result in (1) hypoxia and acidosis in enterocytes, which may lead to enhanced sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3) expression with increased sodium and fluid retention; (2) decreased luminal pH in the intestines, which could lead to alteration of the gut microbiome which could increase gut permeability and inflammation; (3) alteration of renal hemodynamics with triggering of the cardiorenal syndrome; and (4) altered phosphate metabolism resulting in increased pulmonary artery stiffening, thereby increasing RV afterload. A wide variety of therapeutic interventions that act on the RV, pulmonary vasculature, intestinal microenvironment, and the kidney could alter these pathways and should be tested in patients with right-sided HF. The RV-gut axis is an important aspect of HF pathogenesis that deserves more attention. Modulation of the pathways interconnecting the right heart, visceral congestion, and the intestinal microenvironment could be a novel avenue of intervention for right-sided HF.

  18. Hospitalization for Recently Diagnosed Versus Worsening Chronic Heart Failure: From the ASCEND-HF Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Stephen J; Hernandez, Adrian F; Dunning, Allison; Ambrosy, Andrew P; Armstrong, Paul W; Butler, Javed; Cerbin, Lukasz P; Coles, Adrian; Ezekowitz, Justin A; Metra, Marco; Starling, Randall C; Teerlink, John R; Voors, Adriaan A; O'Connor, Christopher M; Mentz, Robert J

    2017-06-27

    age, race, prior ischemic heart disease, or ejection fraction (all interactions, p ≥ 0.23). In this acute HF trial, patient profile differed according to duration of the HF diagnosis. A diagnosis of HF for ≤1 month before hospitalization was independently associated with greater early dyspnea relief and improved post-discharge survival compared to patients with chronic HF diagnoses. The distinction between de novo or recently diagnosed HF and worsening chronic HF should be considered in the design of future acute HF trials. (A Study Testing the Effectiveness of Nesiritide in Patients With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure; NCT00475852). Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment of severe metabolic alkalosis in a patient with congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Aldo J; Alpern, Robert J

    2013-05-01

    Metabolic alkalosis, isolated or in combination with another abnormality, is the most common acid-base disorder in patients with congestive heart failure. In most cases, it is a result of diuretic therapy, which causes activation of the renin-angiotensin system, chloride depletion, increased distal sodium delivery, hypokalemia, and increased urine acidification, all of which contribute to bicarbonate retention. In addition, the disease state itself results in neurohormonal activation (renin-angiotensin system, sympathetic nervous system, and endothelin) that further amplifies the tendency toward alkalosis. Treatment of metabolic alkalosis is based on the elimination of generation and maintenance factors, chloride and potassium repletion, enhancement of renal bicarbonate excretion (such as acetazolamide), direct titration of the base excess (hydrochloric acid), or, if accompanied by kidney failure, low-bicarbonate dialysis. In congestive heart failure, appropriate management of circulatory failure and use of an aldosterone antagonist in the diuretic regimen are integral to treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Can antiarrhythmic drugs save lives in patients with congestive heart failure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brendorp, Bente; Pedersen, Ole Dyg; Elming, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Although arrhythmic death is a common cause of death in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), numerous trials involving prophylactic antiarrhythmic drug treatment have yielded few gains. To date, only beta-blockers have shown a distinct mortality-reducing effect and despite the antiarryth......Although arrhythmic death is a common cause of death in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), numerous trials involving prophylactic antiarrhythmic drug treatment have yielded few gains. To date, only beta-blockers have shown a distinct mortality-reducing effect and despite...... to obtain sinus rhythm. This paper outlines the results of the large clinical trials dealing with antiarrhythmic drug treatment in CHF patients with or without atrial fibrillation and certain subgroup analysis and future treatment possibilities are discussed....

  1. Plasma immunoreactive neuropeptide Y in congestive heart failure at rest and during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, B K; Husum, D; Videbaek, R

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study described here was to study plasma immunoreactive Neuropeptide Y (NPY) at rest and during exercise in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and in healthy subjects. Thirty-five patients, mean age 64 years, with CHF in optimal treatment and with a mean ejection...... fraction of 32%, were studied at rest and during exercise. Twelve age and sex matched healthy subjects were compared for resting values. Another nine healthy subjects were studied at rest and during exercise at a constant low load of 75W and at a high load defined as 80% of their individual maximal...... capacity. In patients with congestive heart failure mean plasma immunoreactive NPY at rest was 10.3 pmol l-1 and was not significantly different from the control group. No differences between patients with slight and severe CHF were found and there was no correlation between plasma immunoreactive NPY...

  2. Cardiomyopathy and right-sided congestive heart failure in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, S Emmanuelle; Rapoport, Gregg; Williams, Jamie; Brainard, Benjamin; Driskell, Elizabeth; Uhl, Elizabeth; Crochik, Sonia; Divers, Stephen J

    2011-03-01

    A 15-year-old female red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was evaluated because of dyspnea, anorexia, and coelomic distension. Diagnostic imaging results confirmed severe coelomic effusion and revealed a markedly dilated right ventricle. The diagnosis was right-sided congestive heart failure. Results of measurements of vitamin E, selenium, lead, zinc, and cardiac troponin levels were normal or nondiagnostic. The hawk was treated with furosemide, antifungal and antimicrobial agents, and supplemental fluids and oxygen, but euthanasia was elected because of the poor prognosis and the practical difficulties associated with intensive case management. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure in a captive red-tailed hawk.

  3. Simple platelet markers: Mean platelet volume and congestive heart failure coexistent with periodontal disease. Pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniuk, Maciej R; Bartoszewicz, Zbigniew; Dudzik-Niewiadomska, Iwona; Pilecki, Tomasz; Górska, Renata; Filipiak, Krzysztof J

    2017-07-17

    Conducted pilot study concerning mean platelet volume parameter among patients suffering from congestive heart failure and periodontal disease. Examination of dynamic changes of platelet and periodontal markers in group of 50 patients before and an average of 6 months subsequent to professional periodontal treatment. Both platelet and periodontal parameters decreased after periodontal treatment, what is more, the decrease of mean platelet volume (MPV) value due to periodontal disease/mm improvement was shown to be statistically significant (p = 0.05). Improvement of periodontal status may influence decrease of MPV value andincrease of congestive heart failure treatment efficacy and effect patient comfort. It is a new, not frequently used pattern of chronic disease treatment optimalization.

  4. A NEW APPROACH TO DETECT CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE USING DETRENDED FLUCTUATION ANALYSIS OF ELECTROCARDIOGRAM SIGNALS

    OpenAIRE

    CHANDRAKAR KAMATH

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate how far the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) approach helps to characterize the short-term and intermediate-term fractal correlations in the raw electrocardiogram (ECG) signals and thereby discriminate between normal and congestive heart failure (CHF) subjects. The DFA-1 calculations were performed on normal and CHF short-term ECG segments, of the order of 20 seconds duration. Differences were found in shortterm and intermediate-term correlation pro...

  5. RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY AND SECONDARY CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE IN A MCDOWELL'S CARPET PYTHON (MORELIA SPILOTA MCDOWELLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilliger, Lionel; Chetboul, Valérie; Damoiseaux, Cécile; Nicolier, Alexandra

    2016-12-01

    Echocardiography is an established and noninvasive diagnostic tool used in herpetologic cardiology. Various cardiac lesions have been previously described in reptiles with the exception of restrictive cardiomyopathy. In this case report, restrictive cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure associated with left atrial and sinus venosus dilation were diagnosed in a 2-yr-old captive lethargic McDowell's carpet python ( Morelia spilota mcdowelli), based on echocardiographic, Doppler, and histopathologic examinations. This cardiomyopathy was also associated with thrombosis within the sinus venosus.

  6. Impact of Injectable Furosemide Hospital Shortage on Congestive Heart Failure Outcomes: A Time Series Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Vivian S; Nash, Danielle M; McArthur, Eric; Jain, Arsh K; Garg, Amit X; Juurlink, David N; Weir, Matthew A

    2017-11-01

    Beginning in February 2012, there was a shortage of injectable furosemide in the province of Ontario, Canada. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of the furosemide shortage on heart failure outcomes in Ontario, Canada. We determined which hospitals experienced a shortage of injectable furosemide using an online survey. We then used health administrative data to identify all patients who presented to those hospitals with congestive heart failure. Using 40 months of data from before the shortage, we determined the proportion of patients with heart failure expected to die each month. We then used time series analysis to forecast the 30-day mortality rate during the shortage period and compared it with the observed rate. Secondary outcomes included length of hospital stay, transfer to an intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation during the hospital stay, and risk of 30-day readmission for heart failure. Survey results were obtained for 82% of hospitals, 28 of which experienced a severe shortage of injectable furosemide in the year 2012. The 30-day mortality among patients presenting to these hospitals with congestive heart failure before the shortage period was 11.2%. We forecasted a mortality rate of 11.3% (95% confidence interval, 8.2-14.4) for the shortage period, which was not significantly different from the observed rate of 10.9%. Similarly, we found no significant effect of the shortage on secondary outcomes. A severe shortage of injectable furosemide did not increase the risk of adverse outcomes among patients who presented to the hospital with congestive heart failure. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Arteriosclerotic changes in the myocardium, lung, and kidney in dogs with chronic congestive heart failure and myxomatous mitral valve disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Bo Torkel; Jönsson, Lennart; Olsen, Lisbeth Høier

    2006-01-01

    and pulmonary artery. Results: Dogs with congestive heart failure had significantly more arterial narrowing in the left ventricle (Pthickening in the pulmonary artery (P=.04); and fibrosis in the left ventricle (P..., they did not have more plaque formation or intimal-medial thickening in the aorta than controls. There was significantly more arterial narrowing in papillary muscles than in all other locations in dogs with congestive heart failure (P

  8. Treatment Failure With Rhythm and Rate Control Strategies in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Congestive Heart Failure: An AF-CHF Substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrda, Katia; Roy, Denis; Leduc, Hugues; Talajic, Mario; Stevenson, Lynne Warner; Guerra, Peter G; Andrade, Jason; Dubuc, Marc; Macle, Laurent; Thibault, Bernard; Rivard, Lena; Khairy, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Rate and rhythm control strategies for atrial fibrillation (AF) are not always effective or well tolerated in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). We assessed reasons for treatment failure, associated characteristics, and effects on survival. A total of 1,376 patients enrolled in the AF-CHF trial were followed for 37  ±  19 months, 206 (15.0%) of whom failed initial therapy leading to crossover. Rhythm control was abandoned more frequently than rate control (21.0% vs. 9.1%, P CHF. The most common reasons for treatment failure are inefficacy for rhythm control and worsening heart failure for rate control. Changing strategies does not impact survival. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Multifractal properties of ECG patterns of patients suffering from congestive heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Srimonti

    2010-12-01

    The multifractal properties of two-channel ECG patterns of patients suffering from severe congestive heart failure (New York Heart Association (NYHA) classes III-IV) are studied and are compared with those for normal healthy people using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis methodology. Ivanov et al (1999 Nature 399 461) have studied the multifractality of human heart rate dynamics using the wavelet transformation modulus maxima (WTMM) methodology. But it has been observed by several scientists that multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) works better than the WTMM method in the detection of monofractal and multifractal characteristics of the data. Galaska et al (2008 Ann. Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 13 155) have observed that MFDFA is more sensitive compared to the WTMM method in the differentiation between multifractal properties of the heart rate in healthy subjects and patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. In the present work the variation of two parameters of the multifractal spectrum—its width W (related to the degree of multifractality) and the value of the Hölder exponent α0—for the healthy and congestive heart failure patients is studied. α0 is a measure of the degree of correlation. The degree of multifractality varies appreciably (85-90% C.L.) for the normal and the CHF sets for channel I. For channel II no significant change in the values is observed. The degree of correlation is found to be comparatively high for the normal healthy people compared to those suffering from CHF.

  10. A history of arterial hypertension does not affect mortality in patients hospitalised with congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, F; Torp-Pedersen, C; Seibaek, M

    2006-01-01

    not alter this result (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.17, p = 0.06). The hazard ratio was similar in patients with and without a history of ischaemic heart disease. Hence, a specific effect of hypertension in the group of patients with CHF with ischaemic heart disease, as suggested in earlier studies, could......OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the importance of a history of hypertension on long-term mortality in a large cohort of patients hospitalised with congestive heart failure (CHF). DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of 5491 consecutive patients, of whom 24% had a history of hypertension. 60% of the patients had...... non-systolic CHF, and 57% had ischaemic heart disease. SETTING: 38 primary, secondary and tertiary hospitals in Denmark. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total mortality 5-8 years after inclusion in the registry. RESULTS: Female sex and preserved left ventricular systolic function was more common among patients...

  11. Prognostic implication of physical signs of congestion in acute heart failure patients and its association with steady-state biomarker levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayoko Negi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Congestive physical findings such as pulmonary rales and third heart sound (S3 are hallmarks of acute heart failure (AHF. However, their role in outcome prediction remains unclear. We sought to investigate the association between congestive physical findings upon admission, steady-state biomarkers at the time of discharge, and long-term outcomes in AHF patients. METHODS: We analyzed the data of 133 consecutive AHF patients with an established diagnosis of ischemic or non-ischemic (dilated or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, admitted to a single-center university hospital between 2006 and 2010. The treating physician prospectively recorded major symptoms and congestive physical findings of AHF: paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, orthopnea, pulmonary rales, jugular venous distension (JVD, S3, and edema. The primary endpoint was defined as rehospitalization for HF. RESULTS: Majority (63.9% of the patients had non-ischemic etiology and, at the time of admission, S3 was seen in 69.9% of the patients, JVD in 54.1%, and pulmonary rales in 43.6%. The mean follow-up period was 726 ± 31 days. Patients with pulmonary rales (p < 0.001 and S3 (p  =  0.011 had worse readmission rates than those without these findings; the presence of these findings was also associated with elevated troponin T (TnT levels at the time of discharge (odds ratio [OR] 2.8; p  =  0.02 and OR 2.6; p  =  0.05, respectively. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary rales and S3 were associated with inferior readmission rates and elevated TnT levels on discharge. The worsening of the readmission rate owing to congestive physical findings may be a consequence of on-going myocardial injury.

  12. Histopathological Changes in the Kidney following Congestive Heart Failure by Volume Overload in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddin B. Aboryag

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study investigated histopathological changes and apoptotic factors that may be involved in the renal damage caused by congestive heart failure in a rat model of infrarenal aortocaval fistula (ACF. Methods. Heart failure was induced using a modified approach of ACF in male Wistar rats. Sham-operated controls and ACF rats were characterized by their morphometric and hemodynamic parameters and investigated for their histopathological, ultrastructural, and apoptotic factor changes in the kidney. Results. ACF-induced heart failure is associated with histopathological signs of congestion and glomerular and tubular atrophy, as well as nuclear and cellular degeneration in the kidney. In parallel, overexpression of proapoptotic Bax protein, release of cytochrome C from the outer mitochondrial membrane into cell cytoplasm, and nuclear transfer of activated caspase 3 indicate apoptotic events. This was confirmed by electron microscopic findings of apoptotic signs in the kidney such as swollen mitochondria and degenerated nuclei in renal tubular cells. Conclusions. This study provides morphological evidence of renal injury during heart failure which may be due to caspase-mediated apoptosis via overexpression of proapoptotic Bax protein, subsequent mitochondrial cytochrome C release, and final nuclear transfer of activated caspase 3, supporting the notion of a cardiorenal syndrome.

  13. Pathological alterations in liver injury following congestive heart failure induced by volume overload in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shaqura

    Full Text Available Heart failure has emerged as a disease with significant public health implications. Following progression of heart failure, heart and liver dysfunction are frequently combined in hospitalized patients leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Here, we investigated the underlying pathological alterations in liver injury following heart failure. Heart failure was induced using a modified infrarenal aortocaval fistula (ACF in male Wistar rats. Sham operated and ACF rats were compared for their morphometric and hemodynamic data, for histopathological and ultrastructural changes in the liver as well as differences in the expression of apoptotic factors. ACF-induced heart failure is associated with light microscopic signs of apparent congestion of blood vessels, increased apoptosis and breakdown of hepatocytes and inflammatory cell inifltration were observed. The glycogen content depletion associated with the increased hepatic fibrosis, lipid globule formation was observed in ACF rats. Moreover, cytoplasmic organelles are no longer distinguishable in many ACF hepatocytes with degenerated fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, shrunken mitochondria and heavy cytoplasm vacuolization. ACF is associated with the upregulation of the hepatic TUNEL-positive cells and proapoptotic factor Bax protein concomitant with the mitochondrial leakage of cytochrome C into the cell cytoplasm and the transfer of activated caspase 3 from the cytoplasm into the nucleus indicating intrinsic apoptotic events. Taken together, the results demonstrate that ACF-induced congestive heart failure causes liver injury which results in hepatocellular apoptotic cell death mediated by the intrinsic pathway of mitochondrial cytochrome C leakage and subsequent transfer of activated caspase 3 into to the nucleus to initiate overt DNA fragmentation and cell death.

  14. Pharmacogenetic Risk Stratification in Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor-Treated Patients with Congestive Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelveg-Kristensen, Karl Emil; Busk Madsen, Majbritt; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence for pharmacogenetic risk stratification of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) treatment is limited. Therefore, in a cohort of ACEI-treated patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), we investigated the predictive value of two pharmacogenetic scores...... that previously were found to predict ACEI efficacy in patients with ischemic heart disease and hypertension, respectively. Score A combined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the angiotensin II receptor type 1 gene (rs275651 and rs5182) and the bradykinin receptor B1 gene (rs12050217). Score B combined...... SNPs of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (rs4343) and ABO blood group genes (rs495828 and rs8176746). METHODS: Danish patients with CHF enrolled in the previously reported Echocardiography and Heart Outcome Study were included. Subjects were genotyped and categorized according to pharmacogenetic...

  15. Effect of Vericiguat, a Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulator, on Natriuretic Peptide Levels in Patients With Worsening Chronic Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gheorghiade, Mihai; Greene, Stephen J; Butler, Javed

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Worsening chronic heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem. OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal dose and tolerability of vericiguat, a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, in patients with worsening chronic HF and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). DESIGN, ...

  16. The economic impact of Medicare Part D on congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall, Timothy M; Blanchard, Tericke D; Gallo, Paul D; Semilla, April P

    2013-05-01

    Medicare Part D has had important implications for patient outcomes and treatment costs among beneficiaries with congestive heart failure (CHF). This study finds that improved medication adherence associated with expansion of drug coverage under Part D led to nearly $2.6 billion in reductions in medical expenditures annually among beneficiaries diagnosed with CHF and without prior comprehensive drug coverage, of which over $2.3 billion was savings to Medicare. Further improvements in adherence could potentially save Medicare another $1.9 billion annually, generating upwards of $22.4 billion in federal savings over 10 years.

  17. Renal and cardiac function during alpha1-beta-blockade in congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, M; Davidsen, U; Stokholm, K H

    2002-01-01

    The kidney and the neurohormonal systems are essential in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure (CHF) and the physiologic response. Routine treatment of moderate to severe CHF consists of diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and beta-blockade. The need for control...... of renal function during initiation of ACE-inhibition in patients with CHF is well known. The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementation by a combined alpha1-beta-blockade to diuretics and ACE-inhibition might improve cardiac function without reducing renal function....

  18. Right?Sided Congestive Heart Failure in North American Feedlot Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Neary, J.M.; Booker, C.W.; Wildman, B.K.; Morley, P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Anecdotal reports suggest the incidence of right?sided congestive heart failure (RHF) in feedlot cattle is increasing; however, the rate of occurrence and risk factors are largely unknown. Objective The purposes of this study were to evaluate the risk of RHF over time and among feedlots, to characterize some of the risk factors for RHF, and to investigate how risk factors may affect the timing of RHF occurrence. Animals The population at risk consisted of 1.56 million cattle that w...

  19. Prognostic Impact of BNP Variations in Patients Admitted for Acute Decompensated Heart Failure with In-Hospital Worsening Renal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolfo, D; Stenner, E; Merlo, M; Porto, A G; Moras, C; Barbati, G; Aleksova, A; Buiatti, A; Sinagra, G

    2017-03-01

    The significance of worsening renal function (WRF) in patients admitted for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is still controversial. We hypothesised that changes in brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) might identify patients with optimal diuretic responsiveness resulting in transient WRF, not negatively affecting the prognosis. Our aim was to verify if in-hospital trends of BNP might be helpful in the stratification of patients with WRF after treatment for ADHF. 122 consecutive patients admitted for ADHF were enrolled. Brain natriuretic peptide and eGFR were evaluated at admission and discharge. A 20% relative decrease in eGFR defined WRF, whereas a BNP reduction ≥40% was considered significant. The primary combined endpoint was death/urgent heart transplantation and re-hospitalisation for ADHF. Worsening renal function occurred in 23% of patients without differences in outcome between patients with and without WRF (43% vs. 45%, p=0.597). A significant reduction in BNP levels over the hospitalisation occurred in 59% of the overall population and in 71% of patients with WRF. At a median follow-up of 13.0 (IQR 6-36) months, WRF patients with ≥40% BNP reduction had a lower rate of death/urgent heart transplantation/re-hospitalisation compared to WRF patients without BNP reduction (30% and 75%, respectively; p=0.007). Favourable BNP trend was the strongest variable in predicting the outcome in WRF patients (HR 0.222, 95% CI 0.066-0.753, p=0.016). Worsening renal function does not affect the prognosis of ADHF and, when associated with a significant BNP reduction, identifies patients with adequate decongestion at discharge and favourable outcome. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Administration of tolvaptan with reduction of loop diuretics ameliorates congestion with improving renal dysfunction in patients with congestive heart failure and renal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanatani, Akihisa; Shibata, Atsushi; Kitada, Ryouko; Iwata, Shinichi; Matsumura, Yoshiki; Doi, Atsushi; Sugioka, Kenichi; Takagi, Masahiko; Yoshiyama, Minoru

    2017-03-01

    In patients with congestive heart failure and renal dysfunction, high dose of diuretics are necessary to improve congestion, which may progress to renal dysfunction. We examined the efficacy of tolvaptan with reduction of loop diuretics to improve renal function in patients with congestive heart failure and renal dysfunction. We conducted a multicenter, prospective, randomized study in 44 patients with congestive heart failure and renal dysfunction (serum creatinine concentration ≥1.1 mg/dl) treated with conventional diuretics. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: tolvaptan (15 mg) with a fixed dose of diuretics or with reducing to a half-dose of diuretics for 7-14 consecutive days. We examined the change of urine volume, body weight, serum creatinine and electrolyte concentrations in each group. Both groups demonstrated significant urine volume increase (724 ± 176 ml/day in the fixed-dose group and 736 ± 114 ml/day in the half-dose group) and body weight reduction (1.6 ± 1.5 kg and 1.6 ± 1.9 kg, respectively) from baseline, with no differences between the two groups. Serum creatinine concentration was significantly increased in the fixed-dose group (from 1.60 ± 0.47 to 1.74 ± 0.66 mg/dl, p = 0.03) and decreased in the half-dose group (from 1.98 ± 0.91 to 1.91 ± 0.97 mg/dl, p = 0.10). So the mean changes in serum creatinine concentration from baseline significantly differed between the two groups (0.14 ± 0.08 mg/dl in the fixed-dose group and -0.07 ± 0.19 mg/dl in the half-dose group, p = 0.006). The administration of tolvaptan with reduction of loop diuretics was clinically effective to ameliorate congestion with improving renal function in patients with congestive heart failure and renal dysfunction.

  1. Worsening heart failure during hospitalization for acute heart failure: Insights from the Acute Study of Clinical Effectiveness of Nesiritide in Decompensated Heart Failure (ASCEND-HF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jacob P; Mentz, Robert J; Hasselblad, Vic; Ezekowitz, Justin A; Armstrong, Paul W; Zannad, Faiez; Felker, G Michael; Califf, Robert M; O'Connor, Christopher M; Hernandez, Adrian F

    2015-08-01

    Despite initial in-hospital treatment of acute heart failure (HF), some patients experience worsening HF (WHF). There are limited data about the outcomes and characteristics of patients who experience in-hospital WHF. We assessed the characteristics and outcomes of patients with and without WHF in the ASCEND-HF trial. Worsening HF was defined as at least 1 symptom or sign of new, persistent, or WHF requiring additional intravenous inotropic/vasodilator or mechanical therapy during index hospitalization. We assessed the relationship between WHF and 30-day mortality, 30-day mortality or HF hospitalization, and 180-day mortality. We also assessed whether there was a differential association between early (days 1-3) vs late (day ≥4) WHF and outcomes. Of 7,141 patients with acute HF, 354 (5%) experienced WHF. Patients with WHF were more often male and had a history of atrial fibrillation or diabetes, lower blood pressure, and higher creatinine. After risk adjustment, WHF was associated with increased 30-day mortality (odds ratio 13.37, 95% CI 9.85-18.14), 30-day mortality or HF rehospitalization (odds ratio 6.78, 95% CI 5.25-8.76), and 180-day mortality (hazard ratio 3.90, 95% CI 3.14-4.86) (all P values HF during index hospitalization was associated with worse 30- and 180-day outcomes. Worsening HF may represent an important patient-centered outcome in acute HF and a focus of future treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Congestive heart failure in 6 African grey parrots (Psittacus e erithacus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-Sallés, C; Soto, S; Garner, M M; Montesinos, A; Ardiaca, M

    2011-05-01

    Six African grey parrots (Psittacus e erithacus) were diagnosed with cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure based on gross and microscopic findings. Ages ranged from 15 days to 8 years, and 5 of 6 parrots were either neonates or juveniles at the time of diagnosis. Two neonates and 2 juveniles came from the same breeding aviary; the 2 juveniles were born to the same breeding pair. The 2 other parrots were kept as pets. Clinical signs included distention of the coelomic cavity (4 of 6), rales (3 of 6), weakness (4 of 6), bradyarrhythmia (1 of 6), growth retardation (1 of 6), crop stasis (1 of 6), and regurgitation (1 of 6). Three parrots were euthanized and 3 died. Gross findings included cardiomegaly due to biventricular, right-, or left-sided cardiomyopathy (6 of 6); coelomic effusion (6 of 6); whitish or yellow foci in the liver (6 of 6); atrophy of the liver (particularly, the left lobe; 5 of 6); reddened or grey lungs (5 of 6); subcutaneous edema (2 of 6); hydropericardium (1 of 6); and bilateral thyroid gland enlargement (1 of 6). Relevant microscopic findings included passive hepatic congestion (6 of 6) and pulmonary congestion (2 of 6), lymphocytic thyroiditis (2 of 6), and diffuse thyroid follicular hyperplasia (2 of 6). Microscopically, the heart was unremarkable (2 of 6) or had mild lymphocytic myocarditis (2 of 6), mild multifocal cytoplasmic vacuolation of cardiomyocytes (2 of 6), mild lymphocytic myocardial (Purkinje cell) ganglioneuritis (1 of 6), and mild multifocal interstitial fibrosis and nuclear hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes (1 of 6). One parrot had concurrent proventricular dilatation disease (systemic ganglioneuritis). The cause of cardiomyopathy in these parrots was not determined.

  3. Study the mechanical pulmonary changes in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) by impulse oscillometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourizadeh, Mohammad; Ghelich, Yunose; Amin, Ahmad; Eidani, Esmaeel; Gholampoor, Yousef; Asadmoghadam, Mahsa; Asadinia, Najme

    2013-06-01

    Heart failure is one of the most leading cause of death worldwide, but the mechanical characteristics of the pulmonary system in these patients have not been studied enough. The aim of this study was to measure mechanical pulmonary changes in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) by using impulse oscillometry (IOS), which can obtain data by simpler means and independently from respiratory muscle strength. We assessed 24 CHF patients and 24 controls by spirometry and IOS using the Jaeger IOS system. IOS measures central and peripheral airway resistances (R20, R5) and central and peripheral reactances (X20, X5) using sound waves with different frequencies, which superimposed on the patients respiratory tidal volume and then records reflects. P value CHF patients can be assessed by IOS more comfortable than by spirometry. IOS can reliably measure peripheral airway resistance in this group of patients.

  4. Dual chamber pacing with optimal AV delay in congestive heart failure: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capucci, A; Romano, S; Puglisi, A; Santini, M; Pagani, M; Cazzin, R; Zanuttini, D; Mangiameli, S; Moracchini, P V; Neri, R; De Ciuceis, P; Circo, A; Cavaglià, S; De Seta, F

    1999-07-01

    A prospective randomized trial was set up to evaluate contractile parameters and quality of life in patients with congestive heart failure. We describe the results from 38 patients in sinus rhythm and with chronic heart failure due to congestive cardiomyopathy, prospectively randomized to optimal medical therapy (Group 1, 19 patients) or optimal medical therapy plus dual chamber pacemaker programmed to optimal AV delay (Group 2, 19 patients). At a 6 month follow-up, 7/19 patients in Group 1 had died compared with 5/19 patients in Group 2. During follow-up, there were few significant changes in evaluated parameters except for mitral regurgitation time, which was prolonged in Group 1 and shortened in Group 2. The systolic left ventricular diameter shortened significantly only in Group 2. An energy and activity questionnaire showed that the effect of DDD pacing in the latter patient population was beneficial. From these results we may conclude that at the 6 month follow-up DDD pacing with echo-optimized AV interval programming can improve quality of life without affecting survival.

  5. Associations between cardiac pathology and clinical, echocardiographic and electrocardiographic findings in dogs with chronic congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Bo Torkel; Jönsson, Lennart; Olsen, Lisbeth Høier

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate defined pathological features with clinical findings in dogs with naturally occurring congestive heart failure (CHF). Fifty-eight dogs with CHF were examined clinically and using echocardiography and electrocardiography. Detailed cardiac post-mortem ex......The objective of this study was to correlate defined pathological features with clinical findings in dogs with naturally occurring congestive heart failure (CHF). Fifty-eight dogs with CHF were examined clinically and using echocardiography and electrocardiography. Detailed cardiac post...

  6. Prolonged signal-averaged P wave duration as a prognostic marker for morbidity and mortality in patients with congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixen, Ulrik; Wallevik, Laura; Hansen, Maja

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the prognostic roles of prolonged signal-averaged P wave duration (SAPWD), raised levels of natriuretic peptides, and clinical characteristics in patients with stable congestive heart failure (CHF).......To evaluate the prognostic roles of prolonged signal-averaged P wave duration (SAPWD), raised levels of natriuretic peptides, and clinical characteristics in patients with stable congestive heart failure (CHF)....

  7. Mechanical analysis of congestive heart failure caused by bundle branch block based on an electromechanical canine heart model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Jianhong; Xia, Ling; Zhang, Yu; Shou, Guofa; Wei, Qing; Liu, Feng; Crozier, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    understanding of the mechanical implications of congestive heart failure (CHF) caused by BBB.

  8. A NEW APPROACH TO DETECT CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE USING DETRENDED FLUCTUATION ANALYSIS OF ELECTROCARDIOGRAM SIGNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANDRAKAR KAMATH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate how far the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA approach helps to characterize the short-term and intermediate-term fractal correlations in the raw electrocardiogram (ECG signals and thereby discriminate between normal and congestive heart failure (CHF subjects. The DFA-1 calculations were performed on normal and CHF short-term ECG segments, of the order of 20 seconds duration. Differences were found in shortterm and intermediate-term correlation properties and the corresponding scaling exponents of the two groups (normal and CHF. The statistical analyses show that short-term fractal scaling exponent alone is sufficient to distinguish between normal and CHF subjects. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC analysis confirms the robustness of this new approach and exhibits an average accuracy that exceeds 98.2%, average sensitivity of about 98.4%, positive predictivity of 98.00%, and average specificity of 98.00%.

  9. A Pattern Recognition Technique Based on Wavelet Decomposition for Identification of Patients With Congestive Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulnasir Hossen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A pattern recognition technique based on approximate estimation of power spectral densities (PSD of sub-bands resulted from wavelet decomposition of R-R interval (RRI data for identification of patients with Congestive Heart Failure (CHF is investigated. Both trial and test data used in this work are drawn from MIT databases. Two standard patterns of the base-2 logarithmic values of the reciprocal of the probability measure of the approximated PSD of CHF patients and normal subjects are derived by averaging all corresponding values of all sub-bands of 12 CHF data and 12 normal subjects in the trial set. The computed pattern of each data under test is then compared band-by-band with both standard patterns of CHF and normal subjects to find the closest pattern. The new technique resulted in an identification accuracy of about 90% by applying it on the test data.

  10. [Digoxin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in the treatment of chronic congestive heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thery, C

    1994-01-01

    Several controlled studies with the best methodology had showed that digoxin improves the symptoms of patients with chronic heart failure and sinus rhythm, whose ventricular systolic function is impaired. The Proved and Radiance studies show that in patients receiving diuretics and digoxin, or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, diuretics and digoxin, the withdrawal of digoxin results in clinical deterioration and worsening of exercise tolerance. In addition to an inotropic action, digitalis exerts effects in the neurocardiovascular axis, produces reduction in plasma norepinephrine, renin, aldosterone, vasopressin activity and restores a more normal sympathetic-parasympathetic autonomic balance and baroreceptor function. ACE inhibitors reduce mortality, improve symptoms and exercise tolerance in patients with chronic heart failure in class IV (Consensus I trial), in class II and III (SOLVD, treatment trial) and prevent the development of heart failure in asymptomatic patients with ejection fraction myocardial infarction they reduce mortality, severe heart failure, re-hospitalization, and induce an unexpected reduction of recurrent myocardial infarction (SAVE trial). However, the early administration, within 2 hours after the onset of chest pain, of ACE inhibitors by intravenous infusion, does not improve survival; the hypotension may be responsible of increased mortality (Consensus II trial).

  11. Comparison of the acute hemodynamic effects of ibopamine and dopamine in chronic congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannia, L; Ibba, G V; Castellaccio, M; Dore, L

    1986-02-01

    The acute hemodynamic effects of ibopamine (SB-7505), the 3,4-diisobutyryl ester of N-methyldopamine which can be administered orally, were compared with those of dopamine. Ten male patients aged 54 years on average, with chronic congestive heart failure in NYHA (New York Heart Association) classes II-IV were studied. Eight of them were suffering from idiopathic congestive cardiomyopathy and two from ischemic cardiopathy. Baseline hemodynamic parameters were recorded within 24 h after withdrawal of previous treatment, the patients being kept on digitalis only. The investigation was carried out for a period of 3 days running. On day 1 of treatment one group of 5 patients were given dopamine at increasing doses of 2, 4 and 6 micrograms/kg/min. Their hemodynamic parameters were assessed 15 min after each dose and 15 and 60 min after withdrawal of the drug. Ibopamine was then administered orally in single doses of 50 mg on day 2 and 100 mg on day 3. The hemodynamic parameters were evaluated at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 360 and 480 min after administration. On day 1, another group of 5 patients were given 50 mg ibopamine, on day 2, 100 mg ibopamine and on day 3, dopamine. Hemodynamic data in this group of patients were evaluated at the same times mentioned above. The hemodynamic effects of ibopamine 100 mg are very similar to those obtained with 4 micrograms/kg/min dopamine. Indeed, the effects of both drugs on the cardiac index, right atrial pressure, peripheral and pulmonary vascular resistance do not differ significantly from each other.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Good response to tolvaptan shortens hospitalization in patients with congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogure, Tomohito; Jujo, Kentaro; Hamada, Kazuyuki; Saito, Katsumi; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa

    2017-11-11

    Tolvaptan has been gradually spread to use as a potent diuretic for congestive heart failure in the limited country. However, the response to this aquaretic drug still is unpredictable. A total of 92 patients urgently hospitalized due to congestive heart failure and treated with tolvaptan in addition to standard treatment was retrospectively analyzed. Responder of tolvaptan treatment was defined as a patient with peak negative fluid balance greater than 500 mL/day, and clinical profiles were compared between 76 responders and 16 non-responders. Responders started to increase daily urine volume (UV) from Day 1 through Day 3. In contrast, non-responders showed no significant increase in daily UV from the baseline up to Day 5. Time between admission and tolvaptan administration was shorter in responders, even without statistical significance (3.3 vs. 4.6 days, p = 0.053). Multivariate analysis revealed that blood urea nitrogen (BUN) [cutoff: 34 mg/dL, odds ratio (OR) 9.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42-57.3, p tolvaptan responsiveness. It suggests that renal perfusion may affect tolvaptan-induced UV. Finally, durations of stay in intensive care unit and total hospitalization were significantly shorter in responders (median: 6.0 vs. 13.0 days, p = 0.022; 15.0 vs. 25.0 days, p = 0.016, respectively). Responders of tolvaptan have lower BUN and renin activity at baseline, and shorten hospitalization period. Trial Registration The study was registered at University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) with the identifier UMIN000023594. https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000024988.

  13. Macro- and micronutrients in patients with congestive heart failure, particularly African-Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin P Newman

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Kevin P Newman1, Syamal K Bhattacharya1,2, Ahmad Munir1, Richard C Davis1, Judith E Soberman1, Kodangudi B Ramanathan11Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USA 2Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USAAbstract: Not all patients with heart failure, defined as a reduced ejection fraction, will have an activation of the RAAS, salt and water retention, or the congestive heart failure (CHF syndrome. Beyond this cardiorenal perspective, CHF is accompanied by a systemic illness that includes oxidative stress, a proinflammatory phenotype, and a wasting of soft tissues and bone. A dyshomeostasis of calcium, magnesium, zinc, selenium, and vitamin D contribute to the appearance of oxidative stress and to compromised endogenous defenses that combat it. A propensity for hypovitaminosis D, given that melanin is a natural sunscreen, and for secondary hyperparathyroidism in African-Americans make them more susceptible to these systemic manifestations of CHF—a situation which is further threatened by the calcium and magnesium wasting that accompanies the secondary aldosteronism of CHF and the use of loop diuretics.Keywords: African-Americans, heart failure, calcium, magnesium, zinc, selenium

  14. Prevalence of anemia in a Hispanic population with decompensated congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río-Santiago, Valentín; Santiago-Trinidad, Ricardo; Espinell-González, Nelson; Valentín-Nieves, Julio; Giugliano, Robert P; Rodriguez-Ospina, Luis; Vicenty-Rivera, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Anemia in patients with heart failure (HF is a frequent event, commonly associated with worse prognosis. Despite the high incidence and adverse outcomes associated with anemia no studies have been conducted amongst Hispanics with HF. The study aims to determine the prevalence, predictors and outcomes of anemia in Hispanics admitted to Veteran Affairs Caribbean Healthcare System with diagnosis of Decompensated Congestive Heart Failure (D-CHF). Retrospective review of 617 patient medical charts that had been previously discharged with a diagnosis of HF as per International Classification of Diseases-9 code. The clinical, demographic, laboratory and echocardiographic data was assessed for a total of 148 male patient electronic medical records that met the study inclusion criteria. The re-hospitalization and mortality rates were determined from the admission date until April 2010. The burden of anemia with HF is substantial, with anemia present in 68.2% of patients. Anemia was associated with hypoalbuminemia, higher New York Heart Association classification, elevated pro-BNP level at discharge, renal insufficiency and diastolic dysfunction, all of which demonstrated statistical significance. Anemia had 2.18 and 2.95 times likelihood of any-cause mortality (p = 0.003) and cardiovascular deaths (p = 0.02) when compared with HF patients without anemia. Anemia is a very frequent and serious finding in patients with D-CHF. The study reveals a higher prevalence of anemia in HF patients among Hispanics in comparison with formerly reported studies covering non-Hispanic populations.

  15. INSUFICIENCIA CARDÍACA CONGESTIVA O COR PULMONALE Congestive heart failure or Cor Pulmonale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Ernesto Amarís Peña

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La insuficiencia cardíaca es una de las principales causas de muerte cardiovascular y se presenta como consecuencia, en más del 70 por ciento de los casos, de las dos enfermedades cardiovasculares de mayor prevalencia: la hipertensión arterial y la enfermedad coronaria. La disnea y el edema en los miembros inferiores son los dos criterios más usados para el diagnóstico de insuficiencia cardíaca congestiva y estos son, justamente, las principales manifestaciones de los pacientes con Cor Pulmonale. Este documento propone algunos criterios para el diagnóstico diferencial de las dos entidades.Heart failure is one of the most important causes of cardiovascular death, as consequence of arterial hypertension or coronary heart disease. Dyspnea and legs edema are the commonest symptoms of congestive heart failure, but there are important symptoms in Cor Pulmonale, too. This paper propose some distinctive clues to differential diagnosis.

  16. Vasodilator effects of nebivolol in a rat model of hypertension and a rabbit model of congestive heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Annemieke A.; Mathy, Marie-Jeanne; van Zwieten, Pieter A.; Peters, Stephan L. M.

    2007-01-01

    Both hypertension and congestive heart failure are characterized by a reduced vasodilatory capacity. In both conditions, the impairment of endothelial function is mainly the result of a reduced nitric oxide availability. The highly beta1-selective third-generation adrenoceptor blocker nebivolol

  17. Sudden cardiovascular death following myocardial infarction: the importance of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Steen Zabell; Ottesen, Michael M; Rask-Madsen, Christian

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To study the prognostic information of congestive heart failure (CHF) and left ventricular systolic dysfunction regarding sudden and non-sudden cardiovascular death (SCD and non-SCD) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI), as this may indicate the potential benefit of impla...

  18. Functional decline after congestive heart failure and acute myocardial infarction and the impact of psychological attributes. A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, GIJM; Sanderman, R; Miedema, [No Value; Meyboom-de Jong, B; Ormel, J; Miedema, I.

    This article examines the influence of three pre-morbidly assessed psychological attributes (i.e. neuroticism, mastery and self-efficacy expectancies) on functional decline after congestive heart failure (CHF; n = 134) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI; n = 79) in late middle-aged and older

  19. Association between glycated haemoglobin and the risk of congestive heart failure in diabetes mellitus : systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erqou, Sebhat; Lee, Chee-Tin Christine; Suffoletto, Matthew; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; van Melle, Joost P.; Adler, Amanda I.

    Clinical trials to date have not provided definitive evidence regarding the effects of glucose lowering on the incidence of congestive heart failure (CHF). We synthesized available prospective epidemiological data on the association between glycaemia measured by haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) and

  20. Use of Wavelet Transform to Detect Compensated and Decompensated Stages in the Congestive Heart Failure Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha Sharma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research work is aimed at improving health care, reducing cost, and the occurrence of emergency hospitalization in patients with Congestive Heart Failure (CHF by analyzing heart and lung sounds to distinguish between the compensated and decompensated states. Compensated state defines stable state of the patient but with lack of retention of fluids in lungs, whereas decompensated state leads to unstable state of the patient with lots of fluid retention in the lungs, where the patient needs medication. Acoustic signals from the heart and the lung were analyzed using wavelet transforms to measure changes in the CHF patient’s status from the decompensated to compensated and vice versa. Measurements were taken on CHF patients diagnosed to be in compensated and decompensated states by using a digital stethoscope and electrocardiogram (ECG in order to monitor their progress in the management of their disease. Analysis of acoustic signals of the heart due to the opening and closing of heart valves as well as the acoustic signals of the lungs due to respiration and the ECG signals are presented. Fourier, short-time Fourier, and wavelet transforms are evaluated to determine the best method to detect shifts in the status of a CHF patient. The power spectra obtained through the Fourier transform produced results that differentiate the signals from healthy people and CHF patients, while the short-time Fourier transform (STFT technique did not provide the desired results. The most promising results were obtained by using wavelet analysis. Wavelet transforms provide better resolution, in time, for higher frequencies, and a better resolution, in frequency, for lower frequencies.

  1. Prognostic value of QT/RR slope in predicting mortality in patients with congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Zareba, Wojciech; Vazquez, Rafael; Almendral, Jesus; Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Fiol, Miquel; Valdes, Mariano; Macaya, Carlos; Gonzalez-Juanatey, Jose R; Cinca, Juan; Bayes de Luna, Antoni

    2008-10-01

    Repolarization dynamics, reflecting adaptation of QT to changing heart rate, is considered a marker of unfavorable prognosis in patients with heart diseases. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of QT/RR slope in predicting total mortality (TM) and sudden death (SD) in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). In 651 sinus rhythm patients with CHF in NYHA class II-III enrolled in the MUSIC study, 24-hour Holter monitoring was performed at enrollment to assess slope of the QTa/RR (QT apex) and QTe/RR (QTend) during the entire 24-hour Holter recording and separately during day and night periods. Patients were followed for a median of 44 months, with the primary endpoint defined as TM and the secondary as SD. Analysis of repolarization dynamics was feasible in 542 patients (407M), mean age 63 years, 83% in NYHA class II, 49% with ischemic cardiomyopathy, with mean LVEF 37%. Mean value of QTa/RR slope was 0.172 and QTe/RR was 0.193. During the 44-month follow-up there were 119 deaths including 47 SD. Nonsurvivors were characterized by steeper QT/RR slopes. Increased QT/RR slopes during the daytime (>0.20 for QTa and >0.22 for QTe) were independently associated with increased TM in multivariate analysis after adjustment for clinical covariates with respective hazard ratios 1.57 and 1.58, P = 0.002. None of the dynamic repolarization parameters was associated with increased risk of SD in the entire population. Abnormal repolarization dynamics reflected as increased daytime QT/RR slopes is an independent risk stratifier of all-cause mortality in patients with chronic heart failure.

  2. Baseline albumin is associated with worsening renal function in patients with acute decompensated heart failure receiving continuous infusion loop diuretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Megan M; Dorsch, Michael P; Kim, Susie; Aaronson, Keith D; Koelling, Todd M; Bleske, Barry E

    2013-06-01

    To identify baseline predictors of worsening renal function (WRF) in an acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) patient population receiving continuous infusion loop diuretics. Retrospective observational analysis. Academic tertiary medical center. A total of 177 patients with ADHF receiving continuous infusion loop diuretics from January 2006 through June 2009. The mean patient age was 61 years, 63% were male, ~45% were classified as New York Heart Association functional class III, and the median length of loop diuretic infusion was 4 days. Forty-eight patients (27%) developed WRF, and 34 patients (19%) died during hospitalization. Cox regression time-to-event analysis was used to determine the time to WRF based on different demographic and clinical variables. Baseline serum albumin 3 g/dl or less was the only significant predictor of WRF (hazard ratio [HR] 2.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.60-5.16, p=0.0004), which remained significant despite adjustments for other covariates. Serum albumin 3 g/dl or less is a practical baseline characteristic associated with the development of WRF in patients with ADHF receiving continuous infusion loop diuretics. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  3. Serum Uric Acid level in the severity of Congestive Heart Failure (CHF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adnan; Shah, Mohammad Hassan; Khan, Sarbiland; Shamim, Umama; Arshad, Sanan

    2017-01-01

    It has been observed that in a clinical condition like hypoxemia there is an increase in the serum Uric acid level. The objective of our study was to find out the relationship between serum uric acid levels in the severity of Heart failure. We analyze 285 patients with a diagnosis of Congestive heart failure admitted in Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar from March 1(st) to August 2016. Age group of patients was 17- 67 years. New York Health Association (NYHA) scoring were used to access the severity of Congestive Heart Failure. Serum UA level >7.0 mg/dl was considered high. Total 285 patients with CHF were analyzed with a mean age of 54±2.8 years in which males were 65.96% and 34.03% were female. 40% were in class II of New York Health Association (NYHA), 32.63% in class III and 25.61% in class IV and 1.75% were in class I. Out of 285, 59.29% met the definition of hyperuricemia. In which 83.43% were male and 16.57% were female. Most of the Hyperuricemic patients 62.13% were in age group of 51- 60 years, with a mean age of 57±4.5 years. We found a significant correlation between uric acid level and BNP (p= CHF patients were in NYHA III and NYHA IV whose SUA was above 8 mg/dl as compared to 31.57% Hyperuricemic CHF patients whose SUA was below 8 mg/dl. High serum Uric acid was observed in 59.29% of patients with CHF. The observed significant correlation between UA level and some established prognostic markers in these patients may indicate that serum UA could provide additional prognostic information in this population. SUA as a marker can be measured anywhere at a low cost to help identify high-risk patients with CHF. Lowing uric acid is expected to be a new approach for prevention and therapy of HF.

  4. Prognosis of emergency room stabilization of decompensated congestive heart failure with high dose lasix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboob Pouraghaei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Congestive heart failure (CHF has become one of the most important health care problems in western countries. This article focuses on the outpatient diagnosis and management of heart failure. We want to compare the outcome of patients who were treated with high dose diuretics in the emergency department (ED without admission with patients who were admitted to hospital for standard treatment. Methods: This was a randomized prospective clinical trial study. The patients who came to the ED from March 20, 2008 up to August 20, 2008 were divided into two groups randomly. The length of ED stay in the experimental group was documented. Also, readmission and mortality in 6 months and satisfaction in both groups were taken into consideration. All data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0. Results: In experimental group, the rate of recurrent admission, expiration, discharge, clinic visit, and clinic admission was 8%, 4%, 29%, 18%, and 0% respectively. On the other hand, in control group it was 16%, 40%, 18%, 22%, and 2% respectively. Additionally, there was a significant difference between these groups (P = 0.00. Conclusion: This study is the first regional prospective trial to comprehensively examine the therapeutic management in patients with CHF. This study, comparing the high dose diuretic efficacy in the decreasing of hospital stay and readmission; and decreasing mortality rate with routine therapy, showed that there was a significant difference between these two strategies in the mortality rate, readmission, and length of hospital stay (P = 0.00.

  5. Optimal timing in screening patients with congestive heart failure and healthy subjects during circadian observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Tai-Lang; Chang, Ben; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2011-02-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a major medical challenge in developed countries. In order to screen patients with CHF and healthy subjects during circadian observation, accurate judgment and fast response are imperative. In this study, optimal timing during circadian observation via the heart rate variability (HRV) was sought. We tested 29 CHF patients and 54 healthy subjects in the control group from the interbeat interval databases of PhysioBank. By invoking the α1 parameter in detrended fluctuation analysis of HRV, we found that it could be used as an indicator to screen the patients with CHF and subjects in normal sinus rhythm (NSR) under Kruskal-Wallis test. By invoking Fano factor, the optimal timing to screen CHF patients and healthy subjects was found to be from 7 PM to 9 PM during the circadian observation. In addition, this result is robust in a sense that the same result can be achieved by using different ECG recording lengths of 2, 5, 10, … , and 120 min, respectively. Furthermore, a support vector machine was employed to classify CHF and NSR with α1 parameter of a moving half-hour ECG recordings via leave-one-out cross validation. The results showed that the superlative screening performance was obtained in the 7 pm-9 pm period during circadian observation. It is believed that this result of optimal timing will be helpful in the non-invasive monitoring and screening of CHF patients and healthy subjects in the clinical practice.

  6. Maximal exercise tolerance in chronic congestive heart failure. Relationship to resting left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carell, E S; Murali, S; Schulman, D S; Estrada-Quintero, T; Uretsky, B F

    1994-12-01

    The relationship between maximal exercise tolerance and resting radionuclide indexes of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function were evaluated in 20 ischemic and 44 idiopathic cardiomyopathy patients with New York Heart Association class 2-4 chronic congestive heart failure. Left ventricular ejection fraction, peak systolic ejection rate, peak diastolic filling rate, time to peak filling from end-systolic volume, and fractional filling in early diastole were measured from the radionuclide ventriculogram. All patients underwent symptom-limited exercise testing with on-line measurement of oxygen consumption. In the ischemic group, all of the radionuclide indexes correlated poorly with maximal exercise oxygen consumption (VO2max) except the peak systolic ejection rate which correlated modestly (r = 0.58, p 14 mL/kg/min). In the idiopathic group, none of the radionuclide indexes correlated well with VO2max; and all indexes were similar in patients with and without marked exercise intolerance. These data suggest that (1) resting left ventricular ejection fraction poorly predicts maximal exercise capacity in both ischemic and idiopathic cardiomyopathy and (2) resting peak systolic ejection rate, peak diastolic filling rate, and fractional filling in early diastole may predict exercise tolerance in ischemic but not idiopathic cardiomyopathy.

  7. Intrathoracic impedance vs daily weight monitoring for predicting worsening heart failure events: results of the Fluid Accumulation Status Trial (FAST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, William T; Compton, Steven; Haas, Garrie; Foreman, Blair; Canby, Robert C; Fishel, Robert; McRae, Scott; Toledo, Gloria B; Sarkar, Shantanu; Hettrick, Douglas A

    2011-01-01

    The relative sensitivity and unexplained detection rate of changes in intrathoracic impedance has not been compared with standard heart failure (HF) monitoring using daily weight changes. The Fluid Accumulation Status Trial (FAST) prospectively followed 156 HF patients with implanted cardioverter-defibrillator or cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator devices modified to record daily changes in intrathoracic impedance in a blinded fashion for 537±312 days. Daily impedance changes were used to calculate a fluid index that could be compared with a prespecified threshold. True positives were defined as adjudicated episodes of worsening HF occurring within 30 days of a fluid index above threshold or an acute weight gain. Unexplained detections were defined as threshold crossings or acute weight gains not associated with worsening HF. Impedance measurements were performed on >99% of follow-up days, compared with only 76% of days for weight measurements. Sixty-five HF events occurred during follow-up (0.32/patient-year). Forty HF events were detected by impedance but not weight, whereas 5 were detected by weight but not impedance. Sensitivity was greater (76% vs 23%; P<.0001) and unexplained detection rate was lower (1.9 vs 4.3/patient-year; P<.0001) for intrathoracic impedance monitoring at the threshold of 60Ω days compared with acute weight increases of 3 lbs in 1 day or 5 lbs in 3 days and also over a wide range of fluid index and weight thresholds. The sensitivity and unexplained detection rate of intrathoracic impedance monitoring was superior to that seen for acute weight changes. Intrathoracic impedance monitoring represents a useful adjunctive clinical tool for managing HF in patients with implanted devices. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Current treatments and novel pharmacologic treatments for hyponatremia in congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Steven R

    2005-05-02

    Hyponatremia in congestive heart failure (CHF) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, underlining the importance of adequate assessment and treatment of this electrolyte imbalance in patients with CHF. Current treatment options for hyponatremia in CHF include hypertonic saline solution, loop diuretics, fluid restriction, and other pharmacologic agents, such as demeclocycline, lithium carbonate, and urea. Hypertonic saline solution must be administered with extreme caution because excessively slow or rapid sodium correction can lead to severe neurologic adverse effects. Loop diuretics are useful for reducing the water retention caused by CHF. However, the potent diuresis induced by agents such as furosemide results in loss of sodium and other essential electrolytes, which may exacerbate hyponatremia. Fluid restriction is only moderately effective and often difficult to implement in the hospital setting. Agents such as demeclocycline and lithium have potentially serious renal and cardiovascular side effects. The arginine vasopressin (AVP) receptor antagonists are a promising new class of aquaretic agents that increase free-water excretion while maintaining levels of sodium and other essential electrolytes. Tolvaptan (OPC-41061), lixivaptan (VPA-985), and conivaptan (YM-087) are currently under development for the treatment of hyponatremia. Although tolvaptan and lixivaptan are selective for the vasopressin-2 (V(2)) receptor responsible for the antidiuretic actions of AVP, conivaptan demonstrates activity at both the V(2) receptor and the V(1a) receptor responsible for the vasoconstricting properties of AVP. This dual receptor activity may be particularly useful in patients with CHF. These patients may benefit from the increased cardiac output, reduced total peripheral resistance, and reduced mean arterial blood pressure that results from V(1a) receptor blockade as well as the reduced congestion, reduced cardiac preload, and increased sodium

  9. Effect of furosemide oral solution versus furosemide tablets on diuresis and electrolytes in patients with moderate congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, N; Golik, A; Dishi, V; Zaidenstein, R; Weissgarten, J; Averbukh, Z; Modai, D

    1996-01-01

    Oral furosemide solution was claimed to produce a greater diuretic response than furosemide tablets in patients with congestive heart failure. The aim of this study was to assess this observation and to further investigate the effects on the electrolyte balance. We compared the effects of oral furosemide in tablets versus oral furosemide solution on serum levels as well as on 4- and cumulative 24-hour urinary volume and sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and zinc excretions in 10 patients with moderate congestive heart failure due to ischemic heart disease. Oral furosemide (40-80 mg) was given at the usual once-daily dosage. No change in serum electrolyte levels has been found. All urinary parameters, except zinc, were significantly greater during the first 4 h following oral solution as compared with tablets (volume p electrolytes remained within normal limits at 4 and 24 h.

  10. Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary tumor presenting with congestive heart failure and good response to dopaminergic agonist cabergoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsi Kao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthyroidism is an important inducing factor in patients with atrial fibrillation, and may trigger heart failure. Thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH-secreting pituitary tumors are rare causes of hyperthyroidism. Here, we report a 66-year-old man with a pituitary TSH-secreting tumor who presented with hyperthyroidism and congestive heart failure. Endonasal trans-sphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy was performed. After the operation, the symptoms of hyperthyroidism and congestive heart failure were relieved, associated with normalization of thyroid function tests. Unfortunately, hand tremor and progressively elevated free T4 and TSH concentrations recurred 5 months after surgery. A dopaminergic agonist, cabergoline was administered and euthyroidism was restored for at least 11 months.

  11. Empagliflozin Prevents Worsening of Cardiac Function in an Experimental Model of Pressure Overload-Induced Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikole J. Byrne, BSc

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine whether the sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin improved heart failure (HF outcomes in nondiabetic mice. The EMPA-REG OUTCOME (Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients trial demonstrated that empagliflozin markedly prevented HF and cardiovascular death in subjects with diabetes. However, despite ongoing clinical trials in HF patients without type 2 diabetes, there are no objective and translational data to support an effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiac structure and function, particularly in the absence of diabetes and in the setting of established HF. Male C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to either sham or transverse aortic constriction surgery to induce HF. Following surgery, mice that progressed to HF received either vehicle or empagliflozin for 2 weeks. Cardiac function was then assessed in vivo using echocardiography and ex vivo using isolated working hearts. Although vehicle-treated HF mice experienced a progressive worsening of cardiac function over the 2-week treatment period, this decline was blunted in empagliflozin-treated HF mice. Treatment allocation to empagliflozin resulted in an improvement in cardiac systolic function, with no significant changes in cardiac remodeling or diastolic dysfunction. Moreover, isolated hearts from HF mice treated with empagliflozin displayed significantly improved ex vivo cardiac function compared to those in vehicle-treated controls. Empagliflozin treatment of nondiabetic mice with established HF blunts the decline in cardiac function both in vivo and ex vivo, independent of diabetes. These data provide important basic and translational clues to support the evaluation of SGLT2 inhibitors as a treatment strategy in a broad range of patients with established HF.

  12. Blood urea nitrogen to creatinine ratio is associated with congestion and mortality in heart failure patients with renal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Gaspare; Torres, Daniele; Testani, Jeffrey M; Almasio, Piero Luigi; Bellanca, Michele; Pizzo, Giuseppina; Cuttitta, Francesco; Pinto, Antonio; Butler, Javed; Paterna, Salvatore

    2015-12-01

    Renal dysfunction (RD) and venous congestion are related and common in heart failure (HF). Studies suggest that venous congestion may be the primary driver of RD in HF. In this study, we sought to investigate retrospectively the relationship between common measures of renal function with caval congestion and mortality among outpatients with HF and RD. We reviewed data from 103 HF outpatients (45 males, mean age 74 years, ejection fraction 41.8 ± 11.6 %) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 25.5 (adjusted OR 2.98, p 0.015) and eGFR ≤ 45.8 (adjusted OR 5.38, p 0.002) identify patients at risk for caval congestion; a BUN/Cr > 23.7 was the best predictor of impaired collapsibility (adjusted OR 4.41, p 0.001). a BUN/Cr > 25.5 (HR 2.19, 95 % CI 1.21-3.94, p < 0.001) and NYHA class 3 (HR 2.91, 95 % CI 1.60-5.31, p < 0.0005) were independent risk factors associated with all-cause death during a median follow-up of 31 months. In outpatients with HF and RD, a higher BUN/Cr and lower eGFR are reliable renal biomarkers for caval congestion. The BUN/Cr is associated with long-term mortality and may help to stratify HF severity.

  13. Prognostic value of echocardiography in 190 patients with chronic congestive heart failure. A comparison with New York Heart Association functional classes and radionuclide ventriculography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, B K; Videbaek, R; Stokholm, H

    1996-01-01

    Survival in 190 consecutive patients with congestive heart failure, discharged from a general hospital, was studied. Sixteen patients were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I, 87 in II, 83 in III and 4 in IV. Median left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) from radionuclide ventriculogr......Survival in 190 consecutive patients with congestive heart failure, discharged from a general hospital, was studied. Sixteen patients were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I, 87 in II, 83 in III and 4 in IV. Median left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) from radionuclide...... ventriculography was 0.30 (range 0.06-0.74). Two-year survival was 68%. Wall motion index was the only echocardiographic variable with significant, independent, prognostic information on survival. The 2-year survival in NYHA classes I and II was 90.7% for wall motion index > or = 1.3, and 78.6% when

  14. Survival advantage of hemodialysis relative to peritoneal dialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sens, Florence; Schott-Pethelaz, Anne-Marie; Labeeuw, Michel; Colin, Cyrille; Villar, Emmanuel

    2011-11-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been proposed as a therapeutic option for patients with end-stage renal disease and associated congestive heart failure (CHF). Here, we compare mortality risks in these patients by dialysis modality by including all patients who started planned chronic dialysis with associated congestive heart failure and were prospectively enrolled in the French REIN Registry. Survival was compared between 933 PD and 3468 hemodialysis (HD) patients using a Kaplan-Meier model, Cox regression, and propensity score analysis. The patients were followed from their first dialysis session and stratified by modality at day 90 or last modality if death occurred prior. There was a significant difference in the median survival time of 20.4 months in the PD group and 36.7 months in the HD group (hazard ratio, 1.55). After correction for confounders, the adjusted hazard ratio for death in PD compared to the HD patients remained significant at 1.48. Subgroup analyses showed that the results were not changed with regard to the New York Heart Association stage, age strata, or estimated glomerular filtration rate strata at first renal replacement therapy. The use of propensity score did not change results (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.55). Thus, mortality risk was higher with PD than with HD among incident patients with end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure. These results may help guide clinical decisions and also highlight the need for randomized clinical trials.

  15. A randomized controlled study of finerenone vs. eplerenone in patients with worsening chronic heart failure and diabetes mellitus and/or chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippatos, Gerasimos; Anker, Stefan D; Böhm, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aims To evaluate oral doses of the non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist finerenone given for 90 days in patients with worsening heart failure and reduced ejection fraction and chronic kidney disease and/or diabetes mellitus. Methods and results Miner Alocorticoid Receptor antagonist...

  16. A systematic review of in-hospital worsening heart failure as an endpoint in clinical investigations of therapy for acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Cândida; Maggioni, Aldo Pietro; Marques, Filipa; Araújo, Inês; Brás, Daniel; Langdon, Ronald B; Lombardi, Carlo; Bettencourt, Paulo

    2018-01-01

    In-hospital worsening heart failure (WHF) occurs frequently in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF) and has strongly negative prognostic associations. It may be a useful endpoint in studies of AHF management but important questions remain regarding optimization of its definition and variability in its incidence. Our objective was to survey the full extent of clinical interest in WHF and assess the impact of baseline variables and trial design on outcomes. PubMed, Embase, and BIOSIS were searched systematically for clinical studies that had in-hospital WHF as an endpoint. Differences in definitions of in-hospital WHF were reviewed for their potential impact on observed incidence of WHF and its associations with post-discharge outcomes. The search identified 35 publications representing 13 interventional trials, 3 observational studies, several different classes of therapeutic agent, and 78,752 patients overall. Incidence of in-hospital WHF varied greatly-from 4.2% to 37%. Concerning the impact of differences in the way in which WHF was defined, two important factors were physician determination of worsening and whether intensification of diuretic therapy alone was defined as a WHF event. Patients having in-hospital WHF were at substantially greater risk for death and longer length of stay during index hospitalizations, all-cause and heart-failure rehospitalization, cardiovascular complications, renal failure, all-cause death, cardiovascular death, and higher healthcare costs post-discharge. There is diverse interest in selecting in-hospital WHF as an endpoint in clinical trials. Differences in reported incidence are complexly related to differences in the way in which WHF is defined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Beta blocker use in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and systolic heart failure does not worsen glycaemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Bryan; Kearney, Leighton G; Hare, David L; Ord, Michelle; Burrell, Louise M; Srivastava, Piyush M

    2012-02-14

    The prognostic benefits of beta-blockers (BB) in patients with systolic heart failure (SHF) are known but despite this, in patients with diabetes they are underutilized. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of beta-blockers (BB) on glycaemic control in patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) and systolic heart failure (SHF) stratified to beta-1 selective (Bisoprolol) vs. nonselective BB (Carvedilol). This observational, cohort study was conducted in patients with T2DM and SHF attending an Australian tertiary teaching hospital's heart failure services. The primary endpoint was glycaemic control measured by glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at initiation and top dose of BB. Secondary endpoints included microalbuminuria, changes in lipid profile and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). 125 patients were assessed. Both groups were well matched for gender, NYHA class and use of guideline validated heart failure and diabetic medications. The mean treatment duration was 1.9 ± 1.1 years with carvedilol and 1.4 ± 1.0 years with bisoprolol (p = ns). The carvedilol group achieved a reduction in HbA1c (7.8 ± 0.21% to 7.3 ± 0.17%, p = 0.02) whereas the bisoprolol group showed no change in HbA1c (7.0 ± 0.20% to 6.9 ± 0.23%, p = 0.92). There was no significant difference in the change in HbA1c from baseline to peak BB dose in the carvedilol group compared to the bisoprolol group. There was a similar deterioration in eGFR, but no significant changes in lipid profile or microalbuminuria in both groups (p = ns). BB use did not worsen glycaemic control, lipid profile or albuminuria status in subjects with SHF and T2DM. Carvedilol significantly improved glycemic control in subjects with SHF and T2DM and this improvement was non significantly better than that obtained with bisoprolol. BB's should not be withheld from patients with T2DM and SHF.

  18. Beta blocker use in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and systolic heart failure does not worsen glycaemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Bryan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognostic benefits of beta-blockers (BB in patients with systolic heart failure (SHF are known but despite this, in patients with diabetes they are underutilized. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of beta-blockers (BB on glycaemic control in patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM and systolic heart failure (SHF stratified to beta-1 selective (Bisoprolol vs. nonselective BB (Carvedilol. Methods This observational, cohort study was conducted in patients with T2DM and SHF attending an Australian tertiary teaching hospital's heart failure services. The primary endpoint was glycaemic control measured by glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c at initiation and top dose of BB. Secondary endpoints included microalbuminuria, changes in lipid profile and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. Results 125 patients were assessed. Both groups were well matched for gender, NYHA class and use of guideline validated heart failure and diabetic medications. The mean treatment duration was 1.9 ± 1.1 years with carvedilol and 1.4 ± 1.0 years with bisoprolol (p = ns. The carvedilol group achieved a reduction in HbA1c (7.8 ± 0.21% to 7.3 ± 0.17%, p = 0.02 whereas the bisoprolol group showed no change in HbA1c (7.0 ± 0.20% to 6.9 ± 0.23%, p = 0.92. There was no significant difference in the change in HbA1c from baseline to peak BB dose in the carvedilol group compared to the bisoprolol group. There was a similar deterioration in eGFR, but no significant changes in lipid profile or microalbuminuria in both groups (p = ns. Conclusion BB use did not worsen glycaemic control, lipid profile or albuminuria status in subjects with SHF and T2DM. Carvedilol significantly improved glycemic control in subjects with SHF and T2DM and this improvement was non significantly better than that obtained with bisoprolol. BB's should not be withheld from patients with T2DM and SHF.

  19. Association between atrial fibrillatory rate and heart rate variability in patients with atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corino, Valentina D A; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Mainardi, Luca T; Stridh, Martin; Vasquez, Rafael; Bayes de Luna, Antonio; Holmqvist, Fredrik; Zareba, Wojciech; Platonov, Pyotr G

    2013-01-01

    Even if atrial fibrillatory rate (AFR) has been related to clinical outcome in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), its relation with ventricular response has not been deeply studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between AFR and RR series variability in patients with AF. Twenty-minute electrocardiograms in orthogonal leads were processed to extract AFR, using spatiotemporal QRST cancellation and time frequency analysis, and RR series in 127 patients (age 69 ± 11 years) with congestive heart failure (NYHA II-III) enrolled in the MUSIC study (MUerte Subita en Insufficiencia Cardiaca). Heart rate variability and irregularity were assessed by time domain parameters and entropy-based indices, respectively and their correlation with AFR investigated. Variability measures seem not to be related to AFR, while irregularity measures do. A significant correlation between AFR and variability parameters of heart rate variability during AF was found only in patients not treated with antiarrhythmics drugs (correlation = 0.56 P < 0.05 for pNN50), while this correlation was lost in patients taking rate- or rhythm-control drugs. A significant positive correlation between AFR and indices of RR irregularity was found, showing that a higher AFR is related to a less organized RR series (correlation = 0.33 P < 0.05 for regularity index for all patients, correlation increased in subgroups of patients treated with the same drug). These results suggest that a higher AFR is associated with a higher degree of irregularity of ventricular response that is observed regardless of the use of rate-controlling drugs. ©2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Management of congestive heart failure: a gender gap may still exist. Observations from a contemporary cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weller Iris

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unlike other cardiovascular diseases the incidence and prevalence of congestive heart failure (CHF continues to increase. While gender differences in coronary artery disease have been well described, to date, there has been a relative paucity of similar data in patients with CHF. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the profile and management of patients with CHF at a tertiary care centre to determine if a gender difference exists. Methods A chart review was performed at a tertiary care centre on consecutive patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of CHF between June 1997 and 1998. Co-morbidity, diagnostic investigations, and management of CHF were recorded. Comparisons between male and female patients were conducted. Results One hundred and forty five patients were reviewed. There were 80 male (M and 65 female (F patients of similar age [71.6 vs. 71.3 (M vs. F, p = NS]. Male patients were more likely to have had a previous myocardial infarction (66% vs. 35%, p Conclusions This pilot study demonstrated that there seem to be important gender differences in the profile and management of patients with CHF. Importantly women were less likely to have an evaluation of LV function. As assessment of LV function has significant implications on patient management, this data justifies the need for larger studies to assess gender differences in CHF profile and treatment.

  1. [Relationship between chronic congestive heart failure and sleep-disordered breathing in elderly patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-xia; Huang, Ping; Chen, Yong-chi; Zhuo, Sheng-qing; Zhong, Zhi-an; Yang, Hui-jian; Ou, Qiong; Cen, Rui-jin

    2006-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in elderly patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) and explore the relations between SDB and left ventricular function. By means of polysomnography, 56 elderly patients with CHF were divided into non-SDB, mild SDB, moderate SDB, and severe SDB groups, and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was measure by (99)Tc equilibrium radionuclide angiography. In the 56 elderly patients with CHF, 38 (67.9%) had SDB, including 12 (21.4%) mild SDB, 14 (25.0%) moderate SDB, and 12 (21.4%) severe SDB patients. Thirty (53.6%) of the 56 patients with CHF had obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 4 (7.1%) had central sleep apnea and 22 (39.2%) had mixed sleep apnea. The moderate and severe SDB groups had lower minimum arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation during sleep than the non-SDB groups, and the apnea-hyponea index was closely related to LVEF (r=-0.74, P<0.01). The prevalence of SDB, predominantly OSA, is high in elderly patients with CHF. Moderate and severe SDB might affect the left ventricular function in these patients, who require polysomnography monitoring.

  2. The meaning in life for patients recently hospitalized with congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Inola Thomas; Ashcraft, Alyce S

    2014-02-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is based on individual values and is identified by what each person believes it to be. To provide patient centered care, practitioners must have an understanding of what each individual identifies as important in their lives. The purpose of this study was to identify what provides meaning to the lives of patients recently hospitalized with congestive heart failure (CHF). Participants for this pilot study were a convenience sample of 32 patients hospitalized as a result of complications of CHF. Study methodology was a cross-sectional, interview style survey, utilizing the Schedule for Meaning in Life Evaluation (SMiLE). No statistical significance was found between SMiLE scores and demographic data, including number of admissions or length of time since diagnosis. These findings suggest meaning in life (MIL), and subsequently QOL, may not be related to having a diagnosis of CHF. Identifying patients' relationship with their families, through the use of the SMiLE, has the ability to guide advanced planning decision making. Knowing, and preparing for, various family dynamics before the final stages of CHF may decrease episodes of care provided in opposition to patients' wishes, whether or not their wishes were previously stated or documented. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  3. Spiritual peace predicts 5-year mortality in congestive heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Crystal L; Aldwin, Carolyn M; Choun, Soyoung; George, Login; Suresh, Damodhar P; Bliss, Deborah

    2016-03-01

    Spirituality is favorably related to depression, quality of life, hospitalizations, and other important outcomes in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients but has not been examined as a predictor of mortality risk in this population. Given the well-known difficulties in managing CHF, we hypothesized that spirituality would be associated with lower mortality risk, controlling for baseline demographics, functional status, health behaviors, and religiousness. Participants were 191 CHF patients (64% male; M age = 68.6 years, SD = 10.1) who completed a baseline survey and were then followed for 5 years. Nearly 1/3 of the sample (32%) died during the study period. Controlling for demographics and health status, smoking more than doubled the risk of mortality, whereas alcohol consumption was associated with slightly lower risk of mortality. Importantly, adherence to healthy lifestyle recommendations was associated with halved mortality risk. Although both religion and spirituality were associated with better health behaviors at baseline in bivariate analyses, a proportional hazard model showed that only spirituality was significantly associated with reduced mortality risk (by 20%), controlling for demographics, health status, and health behaviors. Experiencing spiritual peace, along with adherence to a healthy lifestyle, were better predictors of mortality risk in this sample of CHF patients than were physical health indicators such as functional status and comorbidity. Future research might profitably examine the efficacy of attending to spiritual issues along with standard lifestyle interventions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Wavelet Based Method for Congestive Heart Failure Recognition by Three Confirmation Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daqrouq, K; Dobaie, A

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of the electrocardiogram (ECG) signals and arrhythmia characterization by wavelet energy is proposed. This study employs a wavelet based feature extraction method for congestive heart failure (CHF) obtained from the percentage energy (PE) of terminal wavelet packet transform (WPT) subsignals. In addition, the average framing percentage energy (AFE) technique is proposed, termed WAFE. A new classification method is introduced by three confirmation functions. The confirmation methods are based on three concepts: percentage root mean square difference error (PRD), logarithmic difference signal ratio (LDSR), and correlation coefficient (CC). The proposed method showed to be a potential effective discriminator in recognizing such clinical syndrome. ECG signals taken from MIT-BIH arrhythmia dataset and other databases are utilized to analyze different arrhythmias and normal ECGs. Several known methods were studied for comparison. The best recognition rate selection obtained was for WAFE. The recognition performance was accomplished as 92.60% accurate. The Receiver Operating Characteristic curve as a common tool for evaluating the diagnostic accuracy was illustrated, which indicated that the tests are reliable. The performance of the presented system was investigated in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) environment, where the recognition rate was 81.48% for 5 dB.

  5. Wavelet Based Method for Congestive Heart Failure Recognition by Three Confirmation Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Daqrouq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the electrocardiogram (ECG signals and arrhythmia characterization by wavelet energy is proposed. This study employs a wavelet based feature extraction method for congestive heart failure (CHF obtained from the percentage energy (PE of terminal wavelet packet transform (WPT subsignals. In addition, the average framing percentage energy (AFE technique is proposed, termed WAFE. A new classification method is introduced by three confirmation functions. The confirmation methods are based on three concepts: percentage root mean square difference error (PRD, logarithmic difference signal ratio (LDSR, and correlation coefficient (CC. The proposed method showed to be a potential effective discriminator in recognizing such clinical syndrome. ECG signals taken from MIT-BIH arrhythmia dataset and other databases are utilized to analyze different arrhythmias and normal ECGs. Several known methods were studied for comparison. The best recognition rate selection obtained was for WAFE. The recognition performance was accomplished as 92.60% accurate. The Receiver Operating Characteristic curve as a common tool for evaluating the diagnostic accuracy was illustrated, which indicated that the tests are reliable. The performance of the presented system was investigated in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN environment, where the recognition rate was 81.48% for 5 dB.

  6. A new approach to detect congestive heart failure using sequential spectrum of electrocardiogram signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Chandrakar

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the discriminative power of sequential spectrum analysis of the short-term electrocardiogram (ECG) time series in separating normal and congestive heart failure (CHF) subjects. The raw ECG time series is transformed into a series of discretized binary symbols and the distribution of mono-sequences (i.e., tuples containing only one type of symbol '0' or '1') is computed. The relative distribution of mono-sequences containing only one type of symbol constitutes binary occupancy for that symbol in the sequential spectrum. The quantified approximate entropies of the binary occupancies in the sequential spectra are found to have potential in discriminating normal and CHF subjects and thus can significantly add to the prognostic value of traditional cardiac analysis. The statistical analyses and the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis confirm the robustness of this new approach, which exhibits an average accuracy, average sensitivity, average positive predictivity, and average specificity, all 100.0%. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Patients with congestive heart failure and healthy controls differ in vitamin D-associated lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittermann, Armin; Fischer, Jessica; Schleithoff, Stefanie S; Tenderich, Gero; Fuchs, Uwe; Koerfer, Reiner

    2007-07-01

    We have recently hypothesized that low vitamin D status may contribute to the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure (CHF). This study was aimed at evaluating, in a pilot study, whether CHF patients have indications for a low vitamin D status during earlier periods of their lives. We performed a case-controlled study in 150 CHF patients and 150 controls. Study participants had to answer a questionnaire that included several items concerning vitamin D-associated lifestyle factors during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. A vitamin D score was constructed. This score takes into consideration that ultraviolet-B (UVB) exposure is the major vitamin D source for humans and that those lifestyle factors, which are associated with regular UVB exposure, can guarantee an adequate vitamin D status at best. The vitamin D score was significantly higher in controls than in patients (p sport club (p < 0.001), and fewer patients had summer holidays every year (p < 0.01). Patients also reported significantly less alcohol consumption during adulthood than controls (p < 0.001). Our results demonstrate that CHF patients and controls differed in several vitamin D-associated lifestyle factors and in alcohol consumption during earlier periods of their lives.

  8. Can Peak Expiratory Flow Measurements Differentiate Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease from Congestive Heart Failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Gough

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyspneic patients are commonly encountered by Emergency Medical Service (EMS. Frequent causes include Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and Congestive Heart Failure (CHF. Measurement of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR has been proposed to help differentiate COPD from CHF. This prospective, cohort, pilot study was conducted to determine if PEFR in patients with an exacerbation of COPD were significantly different than CHF. Included were patients presenting with dyspnea plus a history of COPD and/or CHF. A PEFR was measured, values were compared to predicted average, and a percentage was calculated. Twenty-one patients were enrolled. Six had a diagnosis of COPD, 12 CHF; 3 had other diagnoses. Mean percentage of predicted PEFR with COPD was 26.36%, CHF 48.9% (=0.04. Patients presenting with acute COPD had significantly lower percentage of predicted PEFR than those with CHF. These results suggest that PEFR may be useful in differentiating COPD from CHF. This study should be expanded to the prehospital setting with a larger number of subjects.

  9. NLP based congestive heart failure case finding: A prospective analysis on statewide electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Luo, Jin; Hao, Shiying; Xu, Haihua; Shin, Andrew Young; Jin, Bo; Liu, Rui; Deng, Xiaohong; Wang, Lijuan; Zheng, Le; Zhao, Yifan; Zhu, Chunqing; Hu, Zhongkai; Fu, Changlin; Hao, Yanpeng; Zhao, Yingzhen; Jiang, Yunliang; Dai, Dorothy; Culver, Devore S; Alfreds, Shaun T; Todd, Rogow; Stearns, Frank; Sylvester, Karl G; Widen, Eric; Ling, Xuefeng B

    2015-12-01

    In order to proactively manage congestive heart failure (CHF) patients, an effective CHF case finding algorithm is required to process both structured and unstructured electronic medical records (EMR) to allow complementary and cost-efficient identification of CHF patients. We set to identify CHF cases from both EMR codified and natural language processing (NLP) found cases. Using narrative clinical notes from all Maine Health Information Exchange (HIE) patients, the NLP case finding algorithm was retrospectively (July 1, 2012-June 30, 2013) developed with a random subset of HIE associated facilities, and blind-tested with the remaining facilities. The NLP based method was integrated into a live HIE population exploration system and validated prospectively (July 1, 2013-June 30, 2014). Total of 18,295 codified CHF patients were included in Maine HIE. Among the 253,803 subjects without CHF codings, our case finding algorithm prospectively identified 2411 uncodified CHF cases. The positive predictive value (PPV) is 0.914, and 70.1% of these 2411 cases were found to be with CHF histories in the clinical notes. A CHF case finding algorithm was developed, tested and prospectively validated. The successful integration of the CHF case findings algorithm into the Maine HIE live system is expected to improve the Maine CHF care. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Acromegaly with Normal Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Levels and Congestive Heart Failure as the First Clinical Manifestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyae Min Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with acromegaly is cardiovascular complications. Myocardial exposure to excessive growth hormone can cause ventricular hypertrophy, hypertension, arrhythmia, and diastolic dysfunction. However, congestive heart failure as a result of systolic dysfunction is observed only rarely in patients with acromegaly. Most cases of acromegaly exhibit high levels of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. Acromegaly with normal IGF-1 levels is rare and difficult to diagnose. Here, we report a rare case of an acromegalic patient whose first clinical manifestation was severe congestive heart failure, despite normal IGF-1 levels. We diagnosed acromegaly using a glucose-loading growth hormone suppression test. Cardiac function and myocardial hypertrophy improved 6 months after transsphenoidal resection of a pituitary adenoma.

  11. Congestive heart failure is a systemic illness: a role for minerals and micronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsafwah, Shadwan; Laguardia, Stephen P; Arroyo, Maximiliano; Dockery, Brian K; Bhattacharya, Syamal K; Ahokas, Robert A; Newman, Kevin P

    2007-12-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a clinical syndrome that features a failing heart together with signs and symptoms arising from renal retention of salt and water, mediated by attendant neurohormonal activation, and which prominently includes the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. More than this cardiorenal perspective, CHF is accompanied by a systemic illness whose features include an altered redox state in diverse tissues and blood, an immunostimulatory state with proinflammatory cytokines and activated lymphocytes and monocytes, and a wasting of tissues that includes muscle and bone. Based on experimental studies of aldosteronism and clinical findings in patients with CHF, there is an emerging body of evidence that secondary hyperparathyroidism is a covariant of CHF. The aldosteronism of CHF predisposes patients to secondary hyperparathyroidism because of a chronic increase in Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) losses in urine and feces, with a fall in their serum ionized levels and consequent secretion of parathyroid hormone. Secondary hyperparathyroidism accounts for bone resorption and contributes to a fall in bone strength that can lead to nontraumatic fractures. The long-term use of a loop diuretic with its attendant urinary wasting of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) further predisposes patients to secondary hyperparathyroidism and attendant bone loss. Aberrations in minerals and micronutrient homeostasis that includes Ca(2+), Mg(2+), vitamin D, zinc and selenium appear to be an integral component of pathophysiologic expressions of CHF that contributes to its systemic and progressive nature. This broader perspective of CHF, which focuses on the importance of secondary hyperparathyroidism and minerals and micronutrients, raises the prospect that dietary supplements could prove remedial in combination with the current standard of care.

  12. Different factors affecting human ANP amyloid aggregation and their implications in congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millucci, Lia; Paccagnini, Eugenio; Ghezzi, Lorenzo; Bernardini, Giulia; Braconi, Daniela; Laschi, Marcella; Consumi, Marco; Spreafico, Adriano; Tanganelli, Piero; Lupetti, Pietro; Magnani, Agnese; Santucci, Annalisa

    2011-01-01

    Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)-containing amyloid is frequently found in the elderly heart. No data exist regarding ANP aggregation process and its link to pathologies. Our aims were: i) to experimentally prove the presumptive association of Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) and Isolated Atrial Amyloidosis (IAA); ii) to characterize ANP aggregation, thereby elucidating IAA implication in the CHF pathogenesis. A significant prevalence (85%) of IAA was immunohistochemically proven ex vivo in biopsies from CHF patients. We investigated in vitro (using Congo Red, Thioflavin T, SDS-PAGE, transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy) ANP fibrillogenesis, starting from α-ANP as well as the ability of dimeric β-ANP to promote amyloid formation. Different conditions were adopted, including those reproducing β-ANP prevalence in CHF. Our results defined the uncommon rapidity of α-ANP self-assembly at acidic pH supporting the hypothesis that such aggregates constitute the onset of a fibrillization process subsequently proceeding at physiological pH. Interestingly, CHF-like conditions induced the production of the most stable and time-resistant ANP fibrils suggesting that CHF affected people may be prone to develop IAA. We established a link between IAA and CHF by ex vivo examination and assessed that β-ANP is, in vitro, the seed of ANP fibrils. Our results indicate that β-ANP plays a crucial role in ANP amyloid deposition under physiopathological CHF conditions. Overall, our findings indicate that early IAA-related ANP deposition may occur in CHF and suggest that these latter patients should be monitored for the development of cardiac amyloidosis.

  13. Congestive Heart Failure is a Systemic Illness: A Role for Minerals and Micronutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsafwah, Shadwan; LaGuardia, Stephen P.; Arroyo, Maximiliano; Dockery, Brian K.; Bhattacharya, Syamal K.; Ahokas, Robert A.; Newman, Kevin P.

    2007-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a clinical syndrome that features a failing heart together with signs and symptoms arising from renal retention of salt and water, mediated by attendant neurohormonal activation, and which prominently includes the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. More than this cardiorenal perspective, CHF is accompanied by a systemic illness whose features include an altered redox state in diverse tissues and blood, an immunostimulatory state with proinflammatory cytokines and activated lymphocytes and monocytes, and a wasting of tissues that includes muscle and bone. Based on experimental studies of aldosteronism and clinical findings in patients with CHF, there is an emerging body of evidence that secondary hyperparathyroidism is a covariant of CHF. The aldosteronism of CHF predisposes patients to secondary hyperparathyroidism because of a chronic increase in Ca2+ and Mg2+ losses in urine and feces, with a fall in their serum ionized levels and consequent secretion of parathyroid hormone. Secondary hyperparathyroidism accounts for bone resorption and contributes to a fall in bone strength that can lead to nontraumatic fractures.The long-term use of a loop diuretic with its attendant urinary wasting of Ca2+ and Mg2+ further predisposes patients to secondary hyperparathyroidism and attendant bone loss. Aberrations in minerals and micronutrient homeostasis that includes Ca2+, Mg2+, vitamin D, zinc and selenium appear to be an integral component of pathophysiologic expressions of CHF that contributes to its systemic and progressive nature. This broader perspective of CHF, which focuses on the importance of secondary hyperparathyroidism and minerals and micronutrients, raises the prospect that dietary supplements could prove remedial in combination with the current standard of care. PMID:18367709

  14. Congestive heart failure and cognitive impairment in an older population. Osservatorio Geriatrico Campano Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, F; Abete, P; Ferrara, N; Calabrese, C; Napoli, C; Maggi, S; Varricchio, M; Rengo, F

    1998-11-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is potentially preventable, and the identification of modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment (CI) for older persons is a very important issue. We examined the cross-sectional relationship between CHF and CI in an older population. A cross-sectional survey. A total of 1339 subjects aged 65 and older were selected from the electoral rolls of Campania, a region of southern Italy. Sociodemographic characteristics were recorded, as was the presence of cardiovascular diseases, including CHF classified according to the New York Heart Association (NYHA) guidelines for disease severity; CI evaluated by means of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), with a score of or =24 was 20.2% and 4.6%, respectively (P < .001). Logistic regression analysis showed that CHF was associated independently with CI by sex, age, educational level, GDS, diabetes, hypertension, alcohol consumption, smoking, atrial fibrillation, systolic and diastolic BP, and HR. The risk of CI was 1.96-fold greater in subjects with CHF (odds ratio: 1.96; 95% confidence interval: 1.07-3.58; P < .028). Systolic BP decrease was correlated negatively with NYHA classes only in subjects with CI (r = -0.981; P < .020), whereas HR increase was correlated positively with NYHA classes only in subjects without CI (r = 0.985; P < .015). In our population, CHF is associated with CI in subjects aged 65 years and older. Systolic BP reduction and the lack of HR increase, related to NYHA classes, might characterize cognitively impaired subjects with CHF.

  15. Prognostic Factors for Survival at 6-Month Follow-up of Hospitalized Patients with Decompensated Congestive Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Cheraghi, Mostafa; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Pourmoghadas, Ali; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The prevalence of Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is increasing in recent years. Factors associated with mortality in CHF patients are important to be determined in order to select therapeutic modality by physicians. The purpose of the current study was to declare predictors of 6-months survival in patients hospitalized for decompensated CHF in Isfahan. METHODS A cohort of 301 hospitalized patients with decompensated CHF were recruited in this study. The diagnosis of CHF was based o...

  16. Aortocaval Fistula in Rat: A Unique Model of Volume-Overload Congestive Heart Failure and Cardiac Hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Abassi, Zaid; Goltsman, Ilia; Karram, Tony; Winaver, Joseph; Hoffman, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Despite continuous progress in our understanding of the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure (CHF) and its management, mortality remains high. Therefore, development of reliable experimental models of CHF and cardiac hypertrophy is essential to better understand disease progression and allow new therapy developement. The aortocaval fistula (ACF) model, first described in dogs almost a century ago, has been adopted in rodents by several groups including ours. Although considered to be a mo...

  17. Prolonged signal-averaged P wave duration as a prognostic marker for morbidity and mortality in patients with congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixen, Ulrik; Wallevik, Laura; Hansen, Maja

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the prognostic roles of prolonged signal-averaged P wave duration (SAPWD), raised levels of natriuretic peptides, and clinical characteristics in patients with stable congestive heart failure (CHF)....

  18. Congestive heart failure disease management program: 1-Year population experience from a tertiary center heart failure registry in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Khal; Fallata, Dania; ElSebaie, Maha; Montasser, Ahmad; ElGedamy, Khaled; ElKhateeb, Osama

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate congestive heart failure (CHF) multidisciplinary disease management program (DMProg) impact on mortality, readmission rates, length of stay (LOS), and gender health characteristics. This was a quasi-observational, pre- and post-trial with a parallel nonequivalent group. We enrolled 174 inpatients having CHF with reduced ejection fraction and New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II-IV, and a total of 197 hospital admissions. A comparative follow-up was performed from 15 December 2014 to 15 December 2015. Among 197 consecutive hospital admissions, 76 (39%) were included in the preintervention or usual care group and 121 (61%) were assigned to the postintervention group. After 1 year, in comparison with the preintervention group, the postintervention group had shorter average LOS in days (7.6 days vs. 11.1 days, p < 0.002), lower 1-year readmission rate (36% vs. 57%, p < 0.003), and lower in-house mortality (1.6% vs. 7.8%, p = 0.03), but similar baseline mortality scores (38.2 vs. 38.6, p = 0.7), 30-day and 90-day readmission rates (15% vs. 18.3%, p = 0.62 and 27.6% vs. 30%, p = 0.65), and 30-day readmission risk score (24.9% vs. 26.2%, p = 0.09). By regression analysis, the DMProg intervention was an independent factor for 1-year readmission reduction (p = 0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis favored the postintervention group (log-rank, p < 0.001). DMProg significantly decreased 1-year readmission rates, LOS, and in-house mortality.

  19. A multi-layer monitoring system for clinical management of Congestive Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Gabriele; Pollonini, Luca; Dacso, Clifford C; Iadanza, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is a serious cardiac condition that brings high risks of urgent hospitalization and death. Remote monitoring systems are well-suited to managing patients suffering from CHF, and can reduce deaths and re-hospitalizations, as shown by the literature, including multiple systematic reviews. The monitoring system proposed in this paper aims at helping CHF stakeholders make appropriate decisions in managing the disease and preventing cardiac events, such as decompensation, which can lead to hospitalization or death. Monitoring activities are stratified into three layers: scheduled visits to a hospital following up on a cardiac event, home monitoring visits by nurses, and patient's self-monitoring performed at home using specialized equipment. Appropriate hardware, desktop and mobile software applications were developed to enable a patient's monitoring by all stakeholders. For the first two layers, we designed and implemented a Decision Support System (DSS) using machine learning (Random Forest algorithm) to predict the number of decompensations per year and to assess the heart failure severity based on a variety of clinical data. For the third layer, custom-designed sensors (the Blue Scale system) for electrocardiogram (EKG), pulse transit times, bio-impedance and weight allowed frequent collection of CHF-related data in the comfort of the patient's home. We also performed a short-term Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis on electrocardiograms self-acquired by 15 healthy volunteers and compared the obtained parameters with those of 15 CHF patients from PhysioNet's PhysioBank archives. We report numerical performances of the DSS, calculated as multiclass accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in a 10-fold cross-validation. The obtained average accuracies are: 71.9% in predicting the number of decompensations and 81.3% in severity assessment. The most serious class in severity assessment is detected with good sensitivity and specificity (0

  20. Impact of home patient telemonitoring on use of β-blockers in congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonicelli, Roberto; Mazzanti, Ilaria; Abbatecola, Angela M; Parati, Gianfranco

    2010-10-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF), which typically affects older people, is characterized by high short- and mid-term mortality rates. However, despite accumulating evidence showing that administration of β-blockers (β-adrenoceptor antagonists) can improve the clinical status of CHF patients, use of these agents in adequate dosages in this setting is not routine. One reason for this appears to be a concern about a possible risk of bradyarrhythmia associated with use of β-blockers. Telecardiology has recently been investigated as a means of constantly monitoring the heart rate of CHF patients in their homes. Its use may allay concerns about the risk of bradyarrhythmia and facilitate a more widespread use of β-blockers in this context. The primary objectives of this study were to assess the impact of telemonitoring on patients' adherence to prescribed therapeutic regimens, particularly β-blockers, and to explore whether use of home telemonitoring reduces mortality and rate of re-admission to hospital in elderly CHF patients compared with normal specialized CHF team care. A total of 57 patients with CHF (31 New York Heart Association [NYHA] class II, 23 NYHA class III and 3 NYHA class IV), with a mean ± SD age of 78.2 ± 7.3 years, were randomized to a control group who received standard care, based on routinely scheduled clinic visits, from a team specialized in CHF patient management, or to a home telemonitoring group (TM group), managed by the same specialized CHF team. Patients were followed up over 12 months. Compared with the control group, the TM group had a significant increase in the use of β-blockers, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and aldosterone receptor antagonists. A reduction in nitrate administration compared with baseline was also seen in the TM group. The 12-month occurrence of the primary combined endpoint of mortality and hospital re-admission for CHF was significantly lower in the TM group than in the control group (p

  1. Carotid body denervation improves autonomic and cardiac function and attenuates disordered breathing in congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Noah J; Del Rio, Rodrigo; Schultz, Evan P; Xia, Xiao-Hong; Schultz, Harold D

    2014-01-15

    In congestive heart failure (CHF), carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor activity is enhanced and is associated with oscillatory (Cheyne-Stokes) breathing patterns, increased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and increased arrhythmia incidence. We hypothesized that denervation of the CB (CBD) chemoreceptors would reduce SNA, reduce apnoea and arrhythmia incidence and improve ventricular function in pacing-induced CHF rabbits. Resting breathing, renal SNA (RSNA) and arrhythmia incidence were measured in three groups of animals: (1) sham CHF/sham-CBD (sham-sham); (2) CHF/sham-CBD (CHF-sham); and (3) CHF/CBD (CHF-CBD). Chemoreflex sensitivity was measured as the RSNA and minute ventilatory (VE) responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia. Respiratory pattern was measured by plethysmography and quantified by an apnoea-hypopnoea index, respiratory rate variability index and the coefficient of variation of tidal volume. Sympatho-respiratory coupling (SRC) was assessed using power spectral analysis and the magnitude of the peak coherence function between tidal volume and RSNA frequency spectra. Arrhythmia incidence and low frequency/high frequency ratio of heart rate variability were assessed using ECG and blood pressure waveforms, respectively. RSNA and VE responses to hypoxia were augmented in CHF-sham and abolished in CHF-CBD animals. Resting RSNA was greater in CHF-sham compared to sham-sham animals (43 ± 5% max vs. 23 ± 2% max, P CHF-CBD animals (25 ± 1% max, P CHF-sham). Low frequency/high frequency heart rate variability ratio was similarly increased in CHF and reduced by CBD (P CHF-sham animals and reduced in CHF-CBD animals (P CHF-sham animals (sham-sham 0.49 ± 0.05; CHF-sham 0.79 ± 0.06), and was attenuated in CHF-CBD animals (0.59 ± 0.05) (P CHF-sham and reduced in CHF-CBD animals (213 ± 58 events h(-1) CHF, 108 ± 48 events h(-1) CHF-CBD, P CHF-CBD compared to CHF-sham rabbits. Similar patterns of changes were observed longitudinally within the

  2. Integrative Medical Care Plus Mindfulness Training for Patients With Congestive Heart Failure: Proof of Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Kathi J; Carmin, Cheryl; Mehta, Bella; Binkley, Phillip

    2016-10-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) has a high rate of morbidity and mortality. It is often accompanied by other medical and psychosocial comorbidities that complicate treatment and adherence. We conducted a proof of concept pilot project to determine the feasibility of providing integrative group medical visits plus mindfulness training for patients recently discharged with CHF. Patients were eligible if they had been discharged from an inpatient stay for CHF within the 12 months prior to the new program. The Compassionate Approach to Lifestyle and Mind-Body (CALM) Skills for Patients with CHF consisted of 8 weekly visits focusing on patient education about medications, diet, exercise, sleep, and stress management; group support; and training in mind-body skills such as mindfulness, self-compassion, and loving-kindness. Over two 8-week sessions, 8/11 (73%) patients completed at least 4 visits. The patients had an average age of 57 years. The most common comorbidities were weight gain, sleep problems, and fatigue. After the sessions, 100% of patients planned to make changes to their diet, exercise, and stress management practices. Over half of the patients who met with a pharmacist had a medication-related problem. Improvements were observed in depression, fatigue, and satisfaction with life. Integrative group visits focusing on healthy lifestyle, support, and skill-building are feasible even among CHF patients and should be evaluated in controlled trials as a patient-centered approach to improving outcomes related to improving medication management, depression, fatigue, and quality of life. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Usefulness of running wheel for detection of congestive heart failure in dilated cardiomyopathy mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Masami; Odagiri, Fuminori; Suzuki, Takeshi; Murayama, Takashi; Nakazato, Yuji; Unuma, Kana; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Daida, Hiroyuki; Sakurai, Takashi; Morimoto, Sachio; Kurebayashi, Nagomi

    2013-01-01

    Inherited dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a progressive disease that often results in death from congestive heart failure (CHF) or sudden cardiac death (SCD). Mouse models with human DCM mutation are useful to investigate the developmental mechanisms of CHF and SCD, but knowledge of the severity of CHF in live mice is necessary. We aimed to diagnose CHF in live DCM model mice by measuring voluntary exercise using a running wheel and to determine causes of death in these mice. A knock-in mouse with a mutation in cardiac troponin T (ΔK210) (DCM mouse), which results in frequent death with a t(1/2) of 70 to 90 days, was used as a DCM model. Until 2 months of age, average wheel-running activity was similar between wild-type and DCM mice (approximately 7 km/day). At approximately 3 months, some DCM mice demonstrated low running activity (LO: 5 km/day). In the LO group, the lung weight/body weight ratio was much higher than that in the other groups, and the lungs were infiltrated with hemosiderin-loaded alveolar macrophages. Furthermore, echocardiography showed more severe ventricular dilation and a lower ejection fraction, whereas Electrocardiography (ECG) revealed QRS widening. There were two patterns in the time courses of running activity before death in DCM mice: deaths with maintained activity and deaths with decreased activity. Our results indicate that DCM mice with low running activity developed severe CHF and that running wheels are useful for detection of CHF in mouse models. We found that approximately half of ΔK210 DCM mice die suddenly before onset of CHF, whereas others develop CHF, deteriorate within 10 to 20 days, and die.

  4. Right-Sided Congestive Heart Failure in North American Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, J M; Booker, C W; Wildman, B K; Morley, P S

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest the incidence of right-sided congestive heart failure (RHF) in feedlot cattle is increasing; however, the rate of occurrence and risk factors are largely unknown. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the risk of RHF over time and among feedlots, to characterize some of the risk factors for RHF, and to investigate how risk factors may affect the timing of RHF occurrence. The population at risk consisted of 1.56 million cattle that were placed in 10 Canadian feedlots during the years 2000, 2004, 2008, and 2012, and 5 US feedlots during the year 2012. A retrospective observational study was conducted. Variables, including year of feedlot entry, were evaluated for association with RHF using zero-inflated negative binomial and logistic regression models. Factors affecting time to RHF were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard regression analyzes. Death from digestive disorders (DD) served as a control. The risk of RHF in Canadian feedlots doubled from the year 2000 to the year 2012 (P = .003). For every 10,000 cattle entering US feedlots in 2012, 11 cattle died from RHF and 45 cattle died from DD. The median time to RHF was 19 weeks. Cattle treated for bovine respiratory disease were 3 times more likely to die from RHF, and they died earlier in the feeding period. A doubling of the incidence of RHF over a short time period is concerning, particularly for US feedlots situated at moderate altitudes in the High Plains. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Computerized lung sound analysis following clinical improvement of pulmonary edema due to congestive heart failure exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Xiong, Ying-xia

    2010-05-05

    Although acute congestive heart failure (CHF) patients typically present with abnormal auscultatory findings on lung examination, lung sounds are not normally subjected to rigorous analysis. The goals of this study were to use a computerized analytic acoustic tool to evaluate lung sound patterns in CHF patients during acute exacerbation and after clinical improvement and to compare CHF profiles with those of normal individuals. Lung sounds throughout the respiratory cycle was captured using a computerized acoustic-based imaging technique. Thirty-two consecutive CHF patients were imaged at the time of presentation to the emergency department and after clinical improvement. Digital images were created, geographical area of the images and lung sound patterns were quantitatively analyzed. The geographical areas of the vibration energy image of acute CHF patients without and with radiographically evident pulmonary edema were (67.9 +/- 4.7) and (60.3 +/- 3.5) kilo-pixels, respectively (P < 0.05). In CHF patients without and with radiographically evident pulmonary edema (REPE), after clinical improvement the geographical area of vibration energy image of lung sound increased to (74.5 +/- 4.4) and (73.9 +/- 3.9) kilo-pixels (P < 0.05), respectively. Vibration energy decreased in CHF patients with REPE following clinical improvement by an average of (85 +/- 19)% (P < 0.01). With clinical improvement of acute CHF exacerbations, there was more homogenous distribution of lung vibration energy, as demonstrated by the increased geographical area of the vibration energy image. Lung sound analysis may be useful to track in acute CHF exacerbations.

  6. Low-dose carvedilol reduces transmural heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization in congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jiang-hua; Chen, Xiao-pan; Yun, Mei-ling; Li, Wei-jing; Chen, Yan-fang; Yao, Zhen

    2007-08-01

    To study the effects of carvedilol on the transmural heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization in rabbits with congestive heart failure (CHF). Rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups: control, CHF and carvedilol treated CHF group. Monophasic action potential duration (MAPD) in the 3 myocardial layers was simultaneously recorded. All the rabbits in the CHF group had signs of severe CHF. Compared with the control group, the mean blood pressure and cardiac output were significantly decreased, while peripheral resistance was significantly increased in the CHF group. This proved that the CHF model was successful created with adriamycin in this study. Compared to the control group, the ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT) was remarkably decreased and all MAPD of the 3 myocardial layers were extended in rabbits with CHF. However, the extension of MAPD in the midmyocardium was more obvious. The transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) was significantly increased in CHF. Low-dose carvedilol (0.25 mg/kg, twice daily) had no effects on ventricular remodeling. Treatment with low-dose carvedilol significantly increased VFT. Although the MAPD of the 3 myocardial layers were further prolonged in the carvedilol treated CHF group, the prolongation of MAPD in the midmyocardium was shorter than those in the epicardium and endocardium. Treatment with low-dose carvedilol significantly decreased TDR in CHF. In the present study, the transmural heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization increased in the rabbits with CHF. Low-dose carvedilol decreased the transmural heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization in CHF, which may be related to its direct electrophysiological property rather than its effect on ventricular remodeling.

  7. Usefulness of running wheel for detection of congestive heart failure in dilated cardiomyopathy mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Sugihara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inherited dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is a progressive disease that often results in death from congestive heart failure (CHF or sudden cardiac death (SCD. Mouse models with human DCM mutation are useful to investigate the developmental mechanisms of CHF and SCD, but knowledge of the severity of CHF in live mice is necessary. We aimed to diagnose CHF in live DCM model mice by measuring voluntary exercise using a running wheel and to determine causes of death in these mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A knock-in mouse with a mutation in cardiac troponin T (ΔK210 (DCM mouse, which results in frequent death with a t(1/2 of 70 to 90 days, was used as a DCM model. Until 2 months of age, average wheel-running activity was similar between wild-type and DCM mice (approximately 7 km/day. At approximately 3 months, some DCM mice demonstrated low running activity (LO: 5 km/day. In the LO group, the lung weight/body weight ratio was much higher than that in the other groups, and the lungs were infiltrated with hemosiderin-loaded alveolar macrophages. Furthermore, echocardiography showed more severe ventricular dilation and a lower ejection fraction, whereas Electrocardiography (ECG revealed QRS widening. There were two patterns in the time courses of running activity before death in DCM mice: deaths with maintained activity and deaths with decreased activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that DCM mice with low running activity developed severe CHF and that running wheels are useful for detection of CHF in mouse models. We found that approximately half of ΔK210 DCM mice die suddenly before onset of CHF, whereas others develop CHF, deteriorate within 10 to 20 days, and die.

  8. Approach to hyponatremia in congestive heart failure: a survey of Canadian specialist physicians and trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Amanda; Kuehl, Bonnie; Tennankore, Karthik; Soroka, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Hyponatremia is a recognized complication of congestive heart failure (CHF) and is associated with reduced survival. Therefore, early identification and appropriate management of hyponatremia is important. The aim of this study was to determine the general approach amongst Canadian healthcare practitioners and trainees to the identification and management of hyponatremia complicating CHF. Respondents completed 15 multiple-choice style questions in 3 case scenarios regarding the approach to management of hyponatremia complicating CHF using an online survey on UKidney.com between November 2012 and May 2013. Results were presented as a proportion of averaged correct/incorrect responses amongst Canadian nephrologists, cardiologists, internists and trainees in each of two domains; pathophysiology and management. Management was further subdivided into correct and incorrect use of diuretic therapy, hypertonic saline, oral urea tablets, vasopressin receptor antagonists (vaptans) and rate of sodium correction. Correct responses were determined by an expert panel of Canadian nephrologists and cardiologists based on review of evidence informed guidelines and current recommendations. There were 1757 responses to our online survey amongst 455 Canadian respondents, 1139 of which were from cardiologists, nephrologists, general internists, or trainees. Overall, the pathophysiology governing hyponatremia in CHF was correctly identified 68.7 % of the time (n = 380 responses, averaged over 4 questions). Hyponatremia was managed inappropriately 43.6 % of the time, with trainees scoring best overall with correct responses 60.3 % of the time (n = 759 responses, over 11 questions). Importantly, an incorrect rate for sodium correction was selected 61.1 % of the time overall, (n = 211 responses, averaged over 3 questions). This study identified that there are differences in the understanding of pathophysiology and management strategies for hyponatremia in the context of CHF amongst

  9. Prevalence, prognostic significance, and treatment of atrial fibrillation in congestive heart failure with particular reference to the DIAMOND-CHF study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Dyg; Brendorp, Bente; Køber, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a growing health problem and the most common cardiac arrhythmia, affecting 5% of persons above the age of 65 years. The number of hospital discharges for atrial fibrillation has more than doubled in the past decade. It occurs very often in patients with congestive heart...... fibrillation is a risk factor in congestive heart failure patients. In the last 10-15 years, significant advances in the treatment of heart failure have improved survival, whereas effective management of atrial fibrillation in heart failure patients still awaits similar progress. Empirically, two strategies...

  10. Combined digoxin-molsidomine therapy in congestive heart failure following acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantelli, I; Parchi, C; Palmieri, M; Brunelli, A; Sangiorgio, P; Bracchetti, D

    1986-01-01

    The acute hemodynamic effects of combining administration of digoxin (DIG)(0.01 mg/kg intravenously) with molsidomine (MLS)(4 mg sublingually) were compared with those of DIG and MLS considered alone in 12 patients with congestive heart failure following acute myocardial infarction. The patients were classified into two subgroups, A (cardiac index [CI] less than or equal to 2.2 L/min/m2 and B (CI greater than 2.2 L/min/m2), to verify differences between the responses to the three drug regimens. MLS significantly reduced systolic blood pressure from 121.2 +/- 12.3 (mean +/- SD) to 111.7 +/- 10.9 mm Hg (p less than 0.01) after 60 min, mean right atrial pressure (RAP) from 6.2 +/- 3.6 to 2.4 +/- 2.1 mm Hg (p less than 0.0001), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), left ventricular filling pressure (LVFP) from 20.6 +/- 2.1 to 12.2 +/- 2.8 mm Hg (p less than 0.0001), and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). Left ventricular stroke work index (LVSWI) significantly increased after 60 min. DIG induced a significant reduction in heart rate, RAP, PAP, and LVFP from 20.1 +/- 2 to 14.3 +/- 2.7 mm Hg (p less than 0.0001) after 90 min. Stroke volume index (SVI) increased from 24.7 +/- 4.2 to 27.7 +/- 3.1 ml/beat/m2 (p less than 0.001) and LVSWI from 25.9 +/- 7.2 to 31.9 +/- 5.4 g X m/m2 (p less than 0.0001). The combination of DIG and MLS produced a reduction in RAP, PAP, and LVFP greater than that achieved with either agent alone, with a further shift of the ventricular function curve to the left, thereby leading to an improvement in cardiac performance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Amiodarone or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardy, Gust H; Lee, Kerry L; Mark, Daniel B; Poole, Jeanne E; Packer, Douglas L; Boineau, Robin; Domanski, Michael; Troutman, Charles; Anderson, Jill; Johnson, George; McNulty, Steven E; Clapp-Channing, Nancy; Davidson-Ray, Linda D; Fraulo, Elizabeth S; Fishbein, Daniel P; Luceri, Richard M; Ip, John H

    2005-01-20

    Sudden death from cardiac causes remains a leading cause of death among patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Treatment with amiodarone or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) has been proposed to improve the prognosis in such patients. We randomly assigned 2521 patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II or III CHF and a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 35 percent or less to conventional therapy for CHF plus placebo (847 patients), conventional therapy plus amiodarone (845 patients), or conventional therapy plus a conservatively programmed, shock-only, single-lead ICD (829 patients). Placebo and amiodarone were administered in a double-blind fashion. The primary end point was death from any cause. The median LVEF in patients was 25 percent; 70 percent were in NYHA class II, and 30 percent were in class III CHF. The cause of CHF was ischemic in 52 percent and nonischemic in 48 percent. The median follow-up was 45.5 months. There were 244 deaths (29 percent) in the placebo group, 240 (28 percent) in the amiodarone group, and 182 (22 percent) in the ICD group. As compared with placebo, amiodarone was associated with a similar risk of death (hazard ratio, 1.06; 97.5 percent confidence interval, 0.86 to 1.30; P=0.53) and ICD therapy was associated with a decreased risk of death of 23 percent (0.77; 97.5 percent confidence interval, 0.62 to 0.96; P=0.007) and an absolute decrease in mortality of 7.2 percentage points after five years in the overall population. Results did not vary according to either ischemic or nonischemic causes of CHF, but they did vary according to the NYHA class. In patients with NYHA class II or III CHF and LVEF of 35 percent or less, amiodarone has no favorable effect on survival, whereas single-lead, shock-only ICD therapy reduces overall mortality by 23 percent. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.

  12. Occurrence, aetiology and challenges in the management of congestive heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa: experience of the Cardiac Centre in Shisong, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantchou Tchoumi, Jacques Cabral; Ambassa, Jean Claude; Kingue, Samuel; Giamberti, Alessandro; Cirri, Sylvia; Frigiola, Alessandro; Butera, Gianfranco

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence, the aetiology and the management of congestive heart failure in the cardiac centre of the St. Elizabeth catholic general hospital Shisong in Cameroon. Between November 2002 and November 2008, a population of 8121 patients was consulted in the referral cardiac centre of St. Elizabeth Catholic General Hospital. Of these patients, 462 were diagnosed with congestive heart failure according to the modified Framingham criteria for the diagnosis of heart failure. Complementary investigations used to confirm and establish the aetiology of the disease were the chest X-ray, electrocardiography, bi-dimensional Doppler echocardiography. The results showed that the occurrence of congestive heart failure in our centre was 5.7%. Congestive heart failure was diagnosed in 198 females and 264 males, aged between 8 and 86 years old (42.5±18 years old). Post rheumatic valvulopathies (14.6%) and congenital heart diseases (1.9%) were the first aetiologic factor of congestive heart failure in the young, meanwhile cardiomyopathies (8.3%) in elderly followed by hypertensive cardiomyopathy (4.4%). Congestive heart failure was also seen in adults with congenital heart diseases in 0.01%. In this zone of Cameroon, we discovered that HIV cardiomyopathy (1.6%) and Cor pulmonale (8%) were represented, aetiological factors not mentioned in previous studies conducted in urban areas of Cameroon. The mean duration of hospital stay for the compensation treatment was thirteen days, ranging between 7 and 21 days), the mortality being 9.2%. All the medications recommended for the treatment of congestive heart failure are available in our centre but many patients are not compliant to the therapy or cannot afford them. Financial limitation is causing the exacerbation of the disease and premature death. Our data show a high incidence of congestive heart failure mainly due to post rheumatic valvulopathies in young patients in our centre. National

  13. Occurrence, aetiology and challenges in the management of congestive heart failure in sub-saharan Africa: experience of the Cardiac Centre in Shisong, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantchou Tchoumi Jacques Cabral

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence, the aetiology and the management of congestive heart failure in the cardiac centre of the St. Elizabeth catholic general hospital Shisong in Cameroon. METHODS: Between November 2002 and November 2008, a population of 8121 patients was consulted in the referral cardiac centre of St. Elizabeth Catholic General Hospital. Of these patients, 462 were diagnosed with congestive heart failure according to the modified Framingham criteria for the diagnosis of heart failure. Complementary investigations used to confirm and establish the aetiology of the disease were the chest X-ray, electrocardiography, bi-dimensional Doppler echocardiography. RESULTS: The results showed that the occurrence of congestive heart failure in our centre was 5,7%. Congestive heart failure was diagnosed in 198 females and 264 males, aged between 8 and 86 years old (42.5, plus or minus 18 years old. Post rheumatic valvulopathies (14.6% and congenital heart diseases (1.9% were the first aetiologic factor of congestive heart failure in the young, meanwhile cardiomyopathies (8,3% in elderly followed by hypertensive cardiomyopathy (4.4%. Congestive heart failure was also seen in adults with congenital heart diseases in 0.01%. In this zone of Cameroon, we discovered that HIV cardiomyopathy (1.6% and Cor pulmonale (8% were represented, aetiological factors not mentioned in previous studies conducted in urban areas of Cameroon. The mean duration of hospital stay for the compensation treatment was thirteen days, ranging between 7 and 21 days, the mortality being 9.2%. All the medications recommended for the treatment of congestive heart failure are available in our centre but many patients are not compliant to the therapy or cannot afford them. Financial limitation is causing the exacerbation of the disease and premature death. CONCLUSION: Our data show a high incidence of congestive heart failure mainly due to post

  14. Worsening Renal Function in Acute Heart Failure Patients Undergoing Aggressive Diuresis is Not Associated with Tubular Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tariq; Jackson, Keyanna; Rao, Veena S; Tang, W H Wilson; Brisco-Bacik, Meredith A; Chen, Horng H; Felker, G Michael; Hernandez, Adrian F; O'Connor, Christopher M; Sabbisetti, Venkata S; Bonventre, Joseph V; Wilson, F Perry; Coca, Steven G; Testani, Jeffrey M

    2018-01-19

    Background -Worsening renal function (WRF) in the setting of aggressive diuresis for acute heart failure (AHF) treatment may reflect renal tubular injury or simply indicate a hemodynamic or functional change in glomerular filtration. Well-validated tubular injury biomarkers-NAG, NGAL, and KIM-1- are now available that can quantify the degree of renal tubularinjury. The ROSE-AHF trial provides an experimental platform for the study of mechanisms of WRF during aggressive diuresis for AHF, as the ROSE-AHF protocol dictated high dose loop diuretic therapy in all patients. We sought to determine whether tubular injury biomarkers are associated with WRF in the setting of aggressive diuresis and its association with prognosis. Methods -Patients in the multicenter ROSE-AHF trial with baseline and 72-hour urine tubular injury biomarkers were analyzed ( N =283). WRF was defined as a ≥20% decrease in glomerular filtration rate estimated using cystatin C. Results -Consistent with protocol driven aggressive dosing of loop diuretics, participants received a median 560 mg of IV furosemide equivalents (IQR 300-815 mg) which induced a urine output of 8425 mL (IQR 6341-10528 ml) over the 72-hour intervention period. Levels of NAG and KIM-1 did not change with aggressive diuresis ( P >0.59, both), whereas levels of NGAL decreased slightly [-8.7 ng/mg (-169, 35 ng/mg), P renal tubular injury: NGAL ( P =0.21), NAG ( P =0.46), or KIM-1 ( P =0.22). Increases in NGAL, NAG, and KIM-1 were paradoxically associated with improved survival (adjusted HR: 0.80 per 10 percentile increase, 95% CI: 0.69-0.91; P =0.001). Conclusions -Kidney tubular injury does not appear to have an association with WRF in the context of aggressive diuresis of AHF patients. These findings reinforce the notion that the small to moderate deteriorations in renal function commonly encountered with aggressive diuresis are dissimilar from traditional causes of acute kidney injury.

  15. Effect of age on short and long-term mortality in patients admitted to hospital with congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Seibaek, Marie

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: To describe the association between age and risk factors in patients hospitalised with congestive heart failure (CHF) and to determine the effect of age on mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive patients admitted to 34 hospitals with CHF during a period of 2 years were registered. Mean...... dysfunction, were under treated with ACE-inhibitors and were more often female. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and ischaemic heart disease increased with age, until the oldest age group (>80 years). Age was an independent predictor of short-term mortality (risk ratio (RR) per 10-year increase was 1...... function the RR was 1.57 (1.43-1.72, multivariate analyses). CONCLUSION: The clinical characteristics of CHF patients vary considerably with age. Elderly patients hospitalised with CHF face a very grave prognosis, particularly if their heart failure symptoms are caused by LV systolic dysfunction....

  16. Oncologists’ and family physicians’ views on value for money of cancer and congestive heart failure care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest that cancer-related interventions are valued by policy makers more favorably than interventions for other medical conditions, but the views of practicing physicians have not yet been assessed in Israel. Attitudes and judgments of practicing physicians may assist decision-makers in their deliberations on coverage of new technologies. We conducted a national survey in Israel among oncologists and family physicians to explore their views on access to care, coverage decisions and treatment recommendations for cancer and congestive heart failure (CHF) patients. Methods We administered a web-based survey to 300 family physicians and 156 oncologists. The questionnaire included 24 statements and physicians were asked to indicate their level of agreement with each statement on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree”. Where relevant, physicians were asked to express their views on interventions for cancer and CHF respectively. Results Response rates were 39% for family physicians and 36% for oncologists. Participants expressed similar views on cancer and CHF care and no significant differences were found between the two medical specialties. More than 85% of physicians believe that inclusion of a treatment in the National List of Health Services (NLHS) strongly affects their patients’ access to care. Approximately 80% suggest that more use of comparative-effectiveness and cost-effectiveness analysis is needed in coverage decisions. The vast majority of respondents (75%) suggest that assessment of value-for-money should be made by an independent (academic) institution or the national committee responsible for recommending coverage decisions, Seventy percent believe that treatments not included in the NLHS should be included in supplementary health insurance programs and only a small minority of respondents (<30%) believe that cancer-related interventions should receive higher priority than non

  17. Oncologists' and family physicians' views on value for money of cancer and congestive heart failure care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Dan; Hammerman, Ariel; Vinker, Shlomo; Shani, Adi; Yermiahu, Yuval; Neumann, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that cancer-related interventions are valued by policy makers more favorably than interventions for other medical conditions, but the views of practicing physicians have not yet been assessed in Israel. Attitudes and judgments of practicing physicians may assist decision-makers in their deliberations on coverage of new technologies. We conducted a national survey in Israel among oncologists and family physicians to explore their views on access to care, coverage decisions and treatment recommendations for cancer and congestive heart failure (CHF) patients. We administered a web-based survey to 300 family physicians and 156 oncologists. The questionnaire included 24 statements and physicians were asked to indicate their level of agreement with each statement on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree". Where relevant, physicians were asked to express their views on interventions for cancer and CHF respectively. Response rates were 39% for family physicians and 36% for oncologists. Participants expressed similar views on cancer and CHF care and no significant differences were found between the two medical specialties. More than 85% of physicians believe that inclusion of a treatment in the National List of Health Services (NLHS) strongly affects their patients' access to care. Approximately 80% suggest that more use of comparative-effectiveness and cost-effectiveness analysis is needed in coverage decisions. The vast majority of respondents (75%) suggest that assessment of value-for-money should be made by an independent (academic) institution or the national committee responsible for recommending coverage decisions, Seventy percent believe that treatments not included in the NLHS should be included in supplementary health insurance programs and only a small minority of respondents (<30%) believe that cancer-related interventions should receive higher priority than non-cancer interventions in coverage

  18. Long-term effects of dietary sodium intake on cytokines and neurohormonal activation in patients with recently compensated congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Gaspare; Di Pasquale, Pietro; Licata, Giuseppe; Torres, Daniele; Giammanco, Marco; Fasullo, Sergio; Mezzero, Manuela; Paterna, Salvatore

    2009-12-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that the fluid accumulation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF) and that the inflammatory and neurohormonal activation contribute strongly to the progression of this disorder. The study evaluated the long-term effects of 2 different sodium diets on cytokines neurohormones, body hydration and clinical outcome in compensated HF outpatients (New York Heart Association Class II). A total of 173 patients (105 males, mean age 72.5+/-7) recently hospitalized for worsening advanced HF and discharged in normal hydration and in clinical compensation were randomized in 2 groups (double blind). In Group 1, 86 patients received a moderate restriction in sodium (120mmol to 2.8g/day) plus oral furosemide (125 to 250mg bid); in Group 2, 87 patients: received a low-sodium diet (80mmol to 1.8g/day) plus oral furosemide (125 to 250mg bid). Both groups were followed for 12 months and the treatment was associated with a drink intake of 1000mL daily. Neurohormonal (brain natriuretic peptide, aldosterone, plasma rennin activity) and cytokines values (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6) were significantly reduced with a significant increase of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 at 12 months in normal, P restriction maintained dry weigh and improved outcome in the long term. Our results appear to suggest a surprising efficacy of a new strategy to improve the chronic diuretic response by increasing Na intake and limiting fluid intake. This counterintuitive approach underlines the need for a better understanding of factors that regulate sodium and water handling in chronic congestive HF. A larger sample of patients and further studies are required to evaluate whether this is due to the high dose of diuretic used or the low-sodium diet.

  19. Congestive heart failure predicts the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the elderly. The Osservatorio Geriatrico Regione Campania Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, L; Paolisso, G; Cacciatore, F; Ferrara, N; Ferrara, P; Canonico, S; Varricchio, M; Rengo, F

    1997-06-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is an insulin-resistant state which constitutes the main risk factor for the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Our study investigated the predictive role of CHF on the development of NIDDM in 1,339 elderly subjects with a mean ( +/- SD) age of 74.2 +/- 6.4 years. CHF had a 9.5% prevalence, and 14.7% of the subjects had NIDDM. After stratification by age, subjects between 80 and 84 years had the highest prevalence of CHF and a total of 29.6% of CHF patients had NIDDM. In multiple logistic regression analysis, CHF was associated with NIDDM [odds ration (OR) = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) - 1.6-2.5] independent of age, sex, family history of diabetes, body mass index, (BMI), waist/hip ratio, and diastolic blood pressure. When only untreated CHF patients were taken into account, the association between CHF and NIDDM was even stronger (OR = 4.0, 95% CI = 3.4-5.8). When untreated CHF patients were grouped into those with low (I and II) and high (III and IV) New York Heart Association (NYHA) classes, the association of CHF and NIDDM was stronger with the worsening of CHF. In a longitudinal study, CHF predicted NIDDM independently of age, sex, family history of diabetes, BMI, waist/hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and therapy for CHF (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.8). CHF was associated with a higher prevalence of NIDDM and was a risk factor for its development. Elevated FFA concentrations may play a pivotal role.

  20. Lung congestion in chronic heart failure: haemodynamic, clinical, and prognostic implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melenovsky, Vojtech; Andersen, Mads Jønsson; Andress, Krystof

    2015-01-01

    for carbon monoxide (DLCO , P = 0.009). Compared with dry lung HF, wet lung HF patients (congestion score > median) had 25% lower PA compliance and 25-35% higher PVR, transpulmonary gradients and PA pressures (40 vs. 32 mmHg, P ....002). Wet lung HF patients displayed more right ventricular (RV) dilatation and dysfunction, more restrictive ventilation and greater reduction of DLCO . The strongest correlates of lung congestion were NT-proBNP, haemoglobin, albumin, and glomerular filtration, all surpassing PAWP. After a median of 333...

  1. Relief and Recurrence of Congestion During and After Hospitalization for Acute Heart Failure: Insights From Diuretic Optimization Strategy Evaluation in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (DOSE-AHF) and Cardiorenal Rescue Study in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (CARESS-HF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, Anuradha; McNulty, Steven E; Mentz, Robert J; Dunlay, Shannon M; Vader, Justin M; AbouEzzeddine, Omar F; DeVore, Adam D; Khazanie, Prateeti; Redfield, Margaret M; Goldsmith, Steven R; Bart, Bradley A; Anstrom, Kevin J; Felker, G Michael; Hernandez, Adrian F; Stevenson, Lynne W

    2015-07-01

    Congestion is the most frequent cause for hospitalization in acute decompensated heart failure. Although decongestion is a major goal of acute therapy, it is unclear how the clinical components of congestion (eg, peripheral edema, orthopnea) contribute to outcomes after discharge or how well decongestion is maintained. A post hoc analysis was performed of 496 patients enrolled in the Diuretic Optimization Strategy Evaluation in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (DOSE-AHF) and Cardiorenal Rescue Study in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (CARRESS-HF) trials during hospitalization with acute decompensated heart failure and clinical congestion. A simple orthodema congestion score was generated based on symptoms of orthopnea (≥2 pillows=2 points, <2 pillows=0 points) and peripheral edema (trace=0 points, moderate=1 point, severe=2 points) at baseline, discharge, and 60-day follow-up. Orthodema scores were classified as absent (score of 0), low-grade (score of 1-2), and high-grade (score of 3-4), and the association with death, rehospitalization, or unscheduled medical visits through 60 days was assessed. At baseline, 65% of patients had high-grade orthodema and 35% had low-grade orthodema. At discharge, 52% patients were free from orthodema at discharge (score=0) and these patients had lower 60-day rates of death, rehospitalization, or unscheduled visits (50%) compared with those with low-grade or high-grade orthodema (52% and 68%, respectively; P=0.038). Of the patients without orthodema at discharge, 27% relapsed to low-grade orthodema and 38% to high-grade orthodema at 60-day follow-up. Increased severity of congestion by a simple orthodema assessment is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Despite intent to relieve congestion, current therapy often fails to relieve orthodema during hospitalization or to prevent recurrence after discharge. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT00608491, NCT00577135. © 2015 American Heart

  2. Soluble ST2 protein and hospitalizations due to worsening chronic heart failure during a one-year follow-up in a population with reduced ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtczak-Soska, Karolina; Sakowicz, Agata; Pietrucha, Tadeusz; Janikowski, Kamil; Lelonek, Małgorzata

    2017-09-01

    Hospitalizations due to worsening chronic heart failure (CHF) are common. However, the relationship between a single measurement of soluble ST2 protein (sST2) and the necessity of hospitalization in CHF is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the association between a single measurement of sST2 concentration and hospitalizations due to worsening CHF during a one-year follow-up. The study involved 167 consecutive patients (mean age 63 years, 83% males) with CHF in stable NYHA classes I-III with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 45% (median 29.65%, range 13-45%). Fifty-six variables were analyzed (clinical factors, basic laboratory results on admission, standard 12-lead ECG, echocardiography and coronary arteriography results). Information about hospitalizations due to worsening CHF was obtained during telephone interviews conducted 12 months after discharge from the cardiac ward. In order to define factors associated with hospitalization, uniand multivariate regression analyses were performed. A total of 53 patients from the study group (38%) were hospitalized due to worsening CHF. They included a higher percentage of males (p = 0.042), higher concentrations of sST2 (p = 0.049), and glucose (p = 0.010). The multivariate analysis (for model χ2 = 17.235; p CHF during the 1-year observation (p CHF with reduced EF, a single measurement of sST2 protein and glucose were independent variables for hospitalization due to worsening CHF over a 1-year follow-up period. The defined prognostic model including sST2 and fasting glucose better identified patients without HF-related hospitalizations.

  3. Cardiorespiratory response during exercise in patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease with and without a Fontan operation and in patients with congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohuchi, H; Arakaki, Y; Hiraumi, Y; Tasato, H; Kamiya, T

    1998-10-30

    To clarify the different cardiorespiratory response to exercise in patients with congenital heart disease and patients with chronic congestive heart failure, we investigated the effect of a progressive exercise test in 30 patients aged 10 to 24 years, including 9 patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease (group A), 13 patients who had undergone a Fontan operation (group B), and 8 patients with reduced left ventricular function (group C), and 18 healthy controls (group D). There was no difference in peak oxygen uptake among patient groups and all group A, B, and C values were lower than those in group D (Ppatient groups than in group D, heart rate at a given exercise intensity was highest in group C. The oxygen pulse (oxygen uptake divided by heart rate=stroke volume x arterial venous oxygen difference), as an indicator of stroke volume, was lower in patients groups, especially in group C, than in group D. There was no difference in tidal volume between groups A and D, but the respiratory rates at any given exercise intensity were higher in group A than in the other patient groups, thus minute ventilation and the ventilatory equivalent were highest in group A. The increased respiratory rate and low tidal volume in group C resulted in rapid and shallow respiration. There was no difference in exertional symptoms at peak exercise among the groups. In addition to impaired responses of stroke volume during exercise in patients with reduced exercise capacity, there was little limitation of increase in ventilation in group B and excessive ventilation in group A. The present results suggest that relationship between ventilatory and cardiac responses during exercise in patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease with and without a Fontan operation is different from the relationship in patients with chronic congestive heart failure; however, these pathological differences did not influence exertional symptoms.

  4. Disease management 360 degrees: a scorecard approach to evaluating TRICARE's programs for asthma, congestive heart failure, and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenya; Dall, Timothy M; Zhang, Yiduo; Hogan, Paul F; Arday, David R; Gantt, Cynthia J

    2010-08-01

    To assess the effect of TRICARE's asthma, congestive heart failure, and diabetes disease management programs using a scorecard approach. EVALUATION MEASURES: Patient healthcare utilization, financial, clinical, and humanistic outcomes. Absolute measures were translated into effect size and incorporated into a scorecard. Actual outcomes for program participants were compared with outcomes predicted in the absence of disease management. The predictive equations were established from regression models based on historical control groups (n = 39,217). Z scores were calculated for the humanistic measures obtained through a mailed survey. Administrative records containing medical claims, patient demographics and characteristics, and program participation status were linked using an encrypted patient identifier (n = 57,489). The study time frame is 1 year prior to program inception through 2 years afterward (October 2005-September 2008). A historical control group was identified with the baseline year starting October 2003 and a 1-year follow-up period starting October 2004. A survey was administered to a subset of participants 6 months after baseline assessment (39% response rate). Within the observation window--24 months for asthma and congestive heart failure, and 15 months for the diabetes program--we observed modest reductions in hospital days and healthcare cost for all 3 programs and reductions in emergency visits for 2 programs. Most clinical outcomes moved in the direction anticipated. The scorecard provided a useful tool to track performance of 3 regional contractors for each of 3 diseases and over time.

  5. Pathological alterations in liver injury following congestive heart failure induced by volume overload in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shaqura, Mohammed; Mohamed, Doaa M.; Aboryag, Noureddin B.; Bedewi, Lama; Dehe, Lukas; Treskatsch, Sascha; Shakibaei, Mehdi; Schaefer, Michael; Mousa, Shaaban A

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure has emerged as a disease with significant public health implications. Following progression of heart failure, heart and liver dysfunction are frequently combined in hospitalized patients leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Here, we investigated the underlying pathological alterations in liver injury following heart failure. Heart failure was induced using a modified infrarenal aortocaval fistula (ACF) in male Wistar rats. Sham operated and ACF rats were compared for th...

  6. Patients Commonly Believe Their Heart Failure Hospitalizations Are Preventable and Identify Worsening Heart Failure, Nonadherence, and a Knowledge Gap as Reasons for Admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilotra, Nisha A; Shpigel, Adam; Okwuosa, Ike S; Tamrat, Ruth; Flowers, Deirdre; Russell, Stuart D

    2017-03-01

    There are few data describing patient-identified precipitants of heart failure (HF) hospitalization. We hypothesized a patient's perception of reason for or preventability of an admission may be related to 30-day readmission rates. Ninety-four patients admitted with decompensated HF from July 2014 to March 2015 completed a brief questionnaire regarding circumstances leading to admission. Thirty-day outcomes were assessed via telephone call and chart review. Mean age was 58 ± 14 years, with 60% blacks (n = 56) and 41% females (n = 39). Median left ventricular ejection fraction was 30%; 27 had preserved ejection fraction. Seventy-two patients identified their hospitalization to be due to HF (± another condition). Most common patient-identified precipitants of admission were worsening HF (n = 37) and dietary nonadherence (n = 11). Readmitted patients tended to have longer time until first follow-up appointment (21 vs 8 days). Seven of the 42 patients who identified their hospitalization as preventable were readmitted compared with 21/49 who believed their hospitalization was unpreventable (P = .012). On multivariate regression analysis, patients who thought their hospitalization was preventable were less likely to be readmitted (odds ratio 0.31; 95% confidence interval 0.10-0.91; P = .04). Almost 50% of patients believe their HF hospitalization is preventable, and these patients appear to be less likely to be readmitted within 30 days. Notably, patients cite nonadherence and lack of knowledge as reasons hospitalizations are preventable. These results lend insight into possible interventions to reduce HF readmissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Vericiguat, a Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulator, on Natriuretic Peptide Levels in Patients With Worsening Chronic Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: The SOCRATES-REDUCED Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiade, Mihai; Greene, Stephen J; Butler, Javed; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Lam, Carolyn S P; Maggioni, Aldo P; Ponikowski, Piotr; Shah, Sanjiv J; Solomon, Scott D; Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth; Samano, Eliana T; Müller, Katharina; Roessig, Lothar; Pieske, Burkert

    2015-12-01

    Worsening chronic heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem. To determine the optimal dose and tolerability of vericiguat, a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, in patients with worsening chronic HF and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Dose-finding phase 2 study that randomized 456 patients across Europe, North America, and Asia between November 2013 and January 2015, with follow-up ending June 2015. Patients were clinically stable with LVEF less than 45% within 4 weeks of a worsening chronic HF event, defined as worsening signs and symptoms of congestion and elevated natriuretic peptide level requiring hospitalization or outpatient intravenous diuretic. Placebo (n = 92) or 1 of 4 daily target doses of oral vericiguat (1.25 mg [n = 91], 2.5 mg [n = 91], 5 mg [n = 91], 10 mg [n = 91]) for 12 weeks. The primary end point was change from baseline to week 12 in log-transformed level of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). The primary analysis specified pooled comparison of the 3 highest-dose vericiguat groups with placebo, and secondary analysis evaluated a dose-response relationship with vericiguat and the primary end point. Overall, 351 patients (77.0%) completed treatment with the study drug with valid 12-week NT-proBNP levels and no major protocol deviation and were eligible for primary end point evaluation. In primary analysis, change in log-transformed NT-proBNP levels from baseline to week 12 was not significantly different between the pooled vericiguat group (log-transformed: baseline, 7.969; 12 weeks, 7.567; difference, -0.402; geometric means: baseline, 2890 pg/mL; 12 weeks, 1932 pg/mL) and placebo (log-transformed: baseline, 8.283; 12 weeks, 8.002; difference, -0.280; geometric means: baseline, 3955 pg/mL; 12 weeks, 2988 pg/mL) (difference of means, -0.122; 90% CI, -0.32 to 0.07; ratio of geometric means, 0.885, 90% CI, 0.73-1.08; P = .15). The exploratory secondary analysis suggested a

  8. Intravenous Furosemide for Acute Decompensated Congestive Heart Failure: What Is the Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, D R J; MacAllister, R; Sofat, R

    2015-08-01

    Use of intravenous furosemide rather than oral administration in acute decompensated congestive cardiac failure is universally recommended in international guidelines. We argue that this recommendation is not supported by the existing evidence, and suggest that trials should be performed to determine whether larger doses of oral furosemide should be prescribed prior to an IV switch. This could reduce length of hospital admissions and allow for more patients to be managed in the primary care setting. © 2015 ASCPT.

  9. Evaluation of red blood cell distribution width as a prognostic indicator in cats with acquired heart disease, with and without congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, Kursten V; Abelson, Amanda L; Nielsen, Lindsey; Price, Lori Lyn; Quinn, Rebecca

    2017-06-01

    Objectives Congestive heart failure secondary to cardiomyopathy is a common manifestation of cardiac disease in cats, carrying a variable prognosis. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the relationship between red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and survival time in feline patients with acquired heart disease with and without congestive heart failure (CHF). Methods Three hundred and forty-nine client-owned cats with echocardiograms and complete blood count, including RDW measurement, performed between March 2006 and December 2011, were included in the study. Patient characteristics, including signalment, hematocrit, RDW, echocardiographic parameters and survival, were recorded. Comparisons between RDW in cats with asymptomatic acquired heart disease and those with CHF were made. Survival was documented and compared at 30 days and 6 months. Results CHF was present in 80 cats and absent in 269 cats. Cats with CHF had an increase in mortality compared with cats without CHF at 30 days and 6 months ( P = 0.007 and P = 0.04, respectively). RDW was not significantly associated with survival in cats with or without CHF at 30 days or 6 months. A significant difference was found between median RDW values in cats with CHF vs cats without CHF (16.3% vs 15.8%; P = 0.02). The median RDW value was significantly higher in cats with unclassified cardiomyopathy compared with cats with other types of cardiomyopathy (16.3% vs 15.8%; P = 0.03). Conclusions and relevance Single RDW values did not predict mortality in cats with acquired heart disease but may be useful in determining if cats have decompensated heart disease and CHF. Human studies indicate that incremental increases in serial RDW measurements are associated with decreased survival; serial RDW measurements in cats may be an area of future study.

  10. Impact of Hyperkalemia and Worsening Renal Function on the Use of Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System Inhibitors in Chronic Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, B; Rossignol, P

    2017-09-01

    Patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction (HFREF) are at increased risk of death and hospitalizations for HF. Numerous registries have reported a large and persistent gap between real-life practice in the use of life-saving evidence-based therapies, such as renin angiotensin system inhibitors, beta blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs), and recommended practices in international guidelines. The fears of inducing hyperkalemia and/or worsening renal function are the main triggers of this underuse. © 2017 ASCPT.

  11. Dofetilide in patients with congestive heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction. Danish Investigations of Arrhythmia and Mortality on Dofetilide Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, C; Møller, M; Bloch-Thomsen, P E

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation occurs frequently in patients with congestive heart failure and commonly results in clinical deterioration and hospitalization. Sinus rhythm may be maintained with antiarrhythmic drugs, but some of these drugs increase the risk of death. METHODS: We studied 1518...... patients with symptomatic congestive heart failure and severe left ventricular dysfunction at 34 Danish hospitals. We randomly assigned 762 patients to receive dofetilide, a novel class III antiarrhythmic agent, and 756 to receive placebo in a double-blind study. Treatment was initiated in the hospital...

  12. COMPARISON OF TREATMENT WITH LISINOPRIL VERSUS ENALAPRIL FOR CONGESTIVE-HEART-FAILURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZANNAD, F; VANDENBROEK, SAJ; BORY, M

    1992-01-01

    The effect of lisinopril 5-20 mg once daily or enalapril 5-20 mg once daily on exercise capacity, ventricular ectopic activity, and signs and symptoms of heart failure have been studied in 278 patients with mild-to-moderate (New York Heart Association [NYHA] classes II and III) heart failure in a

  13. Benefit of tolvaptan in the management of hyponatraemia in patients with diuretic-refractory congestive heart failure: the SEMI-SEC project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pose, Antonio; Almenar, Luis; Gavira, Juan José; López-Granados, Amador; Blasco, Teresa; Delgado, Juan; Aramburu, Oscar; Rodríguez, Avelino; Manzano, Luis; Manito, Nicolás

    2017-05-01

    Hyponatraemia is an electrolyte disorder that occurs in advanced congestive heart failure (HF) and worsens prognosis. We explored the usefulness of tolvaptan, which has shown promising results in the treatment of this condition. This study is based on a retrospective national registry (2011-15) of patients hospitalized with refractory HF and hyponatraemia who agreed to receive tolvaptan when standard treatment was ineffective. The benefit of tolvaptan was analysed according to the following criteria: normalization ([Na+] ≥ 135 mmol/L) or increased sodium levels [Na+] ≥ 4 mEq/L on completion of treatment, and increase in urine output by 300 or 500 mL at 48 h. Factors associated with tolvaptan benefit were explored. A total of 241 patients were included, 53.9% of whom had ejection fraction tolvaptan dose was 17.2 ± 6.1 mg, and end dose was 26.4 ± 23.2 mg (duration 7.8 ± 8.6 days). Serum sodium concentrations increased significantly at 24-48 h, from 126.5 ± 6.2 mEq/L at baseline to 134.1 ± 6.1 mEq/L at the end of treatment (P tolvaptan treatment. Tolvaptan may be useful in this setting, in which no effective proven alternatives are available.

  14. Intestinal congestion and right ventricular dysfunction: a link with appetite loss, inflammation, and cachexia in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentova, Miroslava; von Haehling, Stephan; Bauditz, Juergen; Doehner, Wolfram; Ebner, Nicole; Bekfani, Tarek; Elsner, Sebastian; Sliziuk, Veronika; Scherbakov, Nadja; Murín, Ján; Anker, Stefan D; Sandek, Anja

    2016-06-01

    Mechanisms leading to cachexia in heart failure (HF) are not fully understood. We evaluated signs of intestinal congestion in patients with chronic HF and their relationship with cachexia. Of the 165 prospectively enrolled outpatients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%, 29 (18%) were cachectic. Among echocardiographic parameters, the combination of right ventricular dysfunction and elevated right atrial pressure (RAP) provided the best discrimination between cachectic and non-cachectic patients [area under the curve 0.892, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.832-0.936]. Cachectic patients, compared with non-cachectic, had higher prevalence of postprandial fullness, appetite loss, and abdominal discomfort. Abdominal ultrasound showed a larger bowel wall thickness (BWT) in the entire colon and terminal ileum in cachectic than in non-cachectic patients. Bowel wall thickness correlated positively with gastrointestinal symptoms, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, RAP, and truncal fat-free mass, the latter serving as a marker of the fluid content. Logistic regression analysis showed that BWT was associated with cachexia, even after adjusting for cardiac function, inflammation, and stages of HF (odds ratio 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0-1.8; P-value = 0.03). Among the cardiac parameters, only RAP remained significantly associated with cachexia after multivariable adjustment. Cardiac cachexia was associated with intestinal congestion irrespective of HF stage and cardiac function. Gastrointestinal discomfort, appetite loss, and pro-inflammatory activation provide probable mechanisms, by which intestinal congestion may trigger cardiac cachexia. However, our results are preliminary and larger studies are needed to clarify the intrinsic nature of this relationship. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Role of micronutrients in congestive heart failure: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Valiyakizha Kkeveetil, Chandini; Thomas, Grace; Chander, Sam Johnson Udaya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of micronutrients on health outcomes in patients with heart failure. Materials and Methods: Only randomized controlled trials testing the effectiveness of different micronutrients either singly or combined versus placebo in heart failure patients were included. We conducted a search in different databases such as Medline from PubMed, Embase and Scopus from Elsevier, and Google Scholar. The keywords used in the search were ?Heart Failure? and its cognates, ?Mic...

  16. Endocardiosis and congestive heart failure in a captive ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.G. Kubba

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A seven-year-old blue-necked male ostrich was found dead after a few days of illness. The animal was living in an open yard of 25 square meters along with three other females. They were given concentrate-rich ration with free access to green leaves and water. Autopsy revealed cardiac enlargement due to left ventricular hypertrophy and right ventricular dilatation. The left aterioventricular valves were irregularly thickened and contracted. The lungs were engorged with blood and the liver had nutmeg appearance. The small intestine showed segmental sub-serosal petechial hemorrhages. Histological examination revealed myxomatous degeneration of the left aterioventricular valves, pulmonary congestion and edema, congestion of periacinar hepatic zone and fatty degeneration of outer zones, renal glomerulosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. The affected parts of the small intestine showed villous atrophy with lacteal distention. The venules in the affected intestinal segment were severely dilated while the arterioles had narrow lumen and irregular wall thickening with hyaline deposition. The current article reports an endocardiosis in ostrich and discusses other vascular disorders.

  17. Importance of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for prognosis and diagnosis of congestive heart failure in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Erik; Køber, Lars; Iversen, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    for a randomised controlled trial. A history of COPD was present in 765 (11.5%) patients. Thirty-day and 5-year survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was 86.3 and 42.9%. In patients without pulmonary disease the figures were 87.7 and 57.5%, respectively, giving a relative risk of 1.49 (1.......35-1.65). In multivariate analysis the relative risk was 1.15 (1.04-1.28). The prevalence of congestive heart failure was 65.9% in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 52.0% in patients without. This difference was most distinct in patients with normal or only slightly decreased left ventricular systolic...

  18. Qt dispersion has no prognostic information for patients with advanced congestive heart failure and reduced left ventricular systolic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brendorp, B; Elming, H; Jun, L

    2001-01-01

    .55), or cardiac arrhythmic mortality (risk ratio 1.00, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.01; P=0.38). CONCLUSIONS: QT dispersion has no prognostic value regarding all-cause mortality, cardiac mortality, or cardiac arrhythmic mortality for patients with advanced CHF and reduced left ventricular systolic function.......BACKGROUND: QT dispersion is a potential prognostic marker of tachyarrhythmic events and death, but it is unclear whether this applies to patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Of the 1518 patients with advanced CHF and left ventricular dysfunction enrolled in the Danish....../155 ms [5%/95% percentiles]), with no difference between survivors and nonsurvivors. Survival analysis revealed no prognostic information derived from QT dispersion regarding all-cause mortality (risk ratio 1.00, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.00; P=0.74), cardiac mortality (risk ratio 1.00, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.01; P=0...

  19. Cardiac output and cardiac index measured with cardiovascular magnetic resonance in healthy subjects, elite athletes and patients with congestive heart failure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcus Carlsson; Ruslana Andersson; Karin Markenroth Bloch; Katarina Steding-Ehrenborg; Henrik Mosén; Freddy Stahlberg; Bjorn Ekmehag; Hakan Arheden

    2012-01-01

    ...) and thereby cardiac index (CI, CO indexed to body surface area). The aim of this study was to establish if CI decreases with age and compare the values to CI for athletes and for patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Methods...

  20. Sudden onset congestive heart failure with a continuous murmur: ruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm complicated by anomalous origin of the left coronary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Arnold H; Hermer, Alan; Kern, Morton

    2008-01-01

    Ruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm is an unusual cause for congestive heart failure, and anomalous coronary arteries have rarely been found in association. A 47-year-old man developed sudden onset heart failure due to a ruptured noncoronary sinus of Valsalva fistula to the right atrium. Coronary angiography revealed an anomalous left coronary artery arising from the right coronary sinus, limiting percutaneous options for repair. We review the incidence, complications, and management of sinus of Valsalva aneurysms and anomalous left coronary arteries.

  1. The effect of theophylline on sleep-disordered breathing in patients with stable chronic congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ke; Li, Qingquan; Yang, Jiong; Hu, Suping; Chen, Xilan

    2003-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in patients with stable, optimally treated chronic congestive heart failure and the effect of short-term oral theophylline therapy on periodic breathing in these patients. Patients with stable, optimally treated chronic congestive heart failure were monitored by polysomnography during nocturnal sleep. The effects of theophylline therapy on periodic breathing associated with stable heart failure were observed before and after treatment. Patients were divided into two groups. Group I (n = 21) consisted of individuals with 15 episodes of apnea and hypopnea [as determined by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI)] per hour or less; Group II (n = 15, 41.7%) individuals had an index of more than 15 episodes per hour. In group II, the AHI varied from 16.8 to 78.8 (42.6 +/- 15.5) in which the obstructive AHI was 11.1 +/- 8.4 and the central AHI was 31.5 +/- 9.6. Group II had significantly more arousals (36.8 +/- 21.3 compared with 19.4 +/- 11.2 in group I) that were directly attributable to episodes of apnea and hypopnea, lower arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (76.7% +/- 4.6% compared with 86.5% +/- 2.8%) and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (24.2% +/- 8.8% compared with 31.5% +/- 10.6%). Thirteen patients with compensated heart failure and periodic breathing received theophylline orally (at an average dose of 4.3 mg/kg) for five to seven days. After treatment, the mean plasma theophylline concentration was (11.3 +/- 2.5) micro g/ml. Theophylline therapy resulted in significant decreases in the number of AHI (20.8 +/- 13.2 vs. 42.6 +/- 15.5; P arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO(2)) was less than 90 percent (8.8% +/- 8.6% vs. 23.4% +/- 24.1%; P arterial oxyhemoglobin desaturation during nocturnal sleep.

  2. Mast Cell Coupling to the Kallikrein–Kinin System Fuels Intracardiac Parasitism and Worsens Heart Pathology in Experimental Chagas Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa R. Nascimento

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During the course of Chagas disease, infectious forms of Trypanosoma cruzi are occasionally liberated from parasitized heart cells. Studies performed with tissue culture trypomastigotes (TCTs, Dm28c strain demonstrated that these parasites evoke neutrophil/CXCR2-dependent microvascular leakage by activating innate sentinel cells via toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2. Upon plasma extravasation, proteolytically derived kinins and C5a stimulate immunoprotective Th1 responses via cross-talk between bradykinin B2 receptors (B2Rs and C5aR. Awareness that TCTs invade cardiovascular cells in vitro via interdependent activation of B2R and endothelin receptors [endothelin A receptor (ETAR/endothelin B receptor (ETBR] led us to hypothesize that T. cruzi might reciprocally benefit from the formation of infection-associated edema via activation of kallikrein–kinin system (KKS. Using intravital microscopy, here we first examined the functional interplay between mast cells (MCs and the KKS by topically exposing the hamster cheek pouch (HCP tissues to dextran sulfate (DXS, a potent “contact” activator of the KKS. Surprisingly, although DXS was inert for at least 30 min, a subtle MC-driven leakage resulted in factor XII (FXII-dependent activation of the KKS, which then amplified inflammation via generation of bradykinin (BK. Guided by this mechanistic insight, we next exposed TCTs to “leaky” HCP—forged by low dose histamine application—and found that the proinflammatory phenotype of TCTs was boosted by BK generated via the MC/KKS pathway. Measurements of footpad edema in MC-deficient mice linked TCT-evoked inflammation to MC degranulation (upstream and FXII-mediated generation of BK (downstream. We then inoculated TCTs intracardiacally in mice and found a striking decrease of parasite DNA (quantitative polymerase chain reaction; 3 d.p.i. in the heart of MC-deficient mutant mice. Moreover, the intracardiac parasite load was significantly reduced in WT

  3. Plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as a marker for the prediction of worsening renal function in children hospitalized for acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsharawy, Sahar; Raslan, Lila; Morsy, Saed; Hassan, Basheir; Khalifa, Naglaa

    2016-01-01

    Acute heart failure (AHF) is frequently associated with worsening renal function in adult patients. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) serves as an early marker for acute renal tubular injury. To assess the role of plasma NGAL in predicting worsening renal function (WRF) in children with AHF, we studied 30 children hospitalized for AHF; children with history of chronic renal disease or on nephrotoxic drugs were excluded. Twenty age- and sex-matched healthy children were included in the study as a control group. Echocardiographic examination was performed on admission. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and plasma NGAL levels were measured on admission and 72 h later. Seventeen (56.6%) patients developed WRF within the three-day follow-up period. At presentation, plasma NGAL level was significantly elevated in children who developed WRF. Admission plasma NGAL level correlated with renal parameters (BUN, creatinine and eGFR) as well as with left ventricular systolic parameters (ejection fraction and fractional shortening). For prediction of WRF, admission plasma, NGAL level>27.5 μg/L had sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 68%, respectively. The area under the receiver-operator curve was higher for NGAL (0.869) than for BUN (0.569) or eGFR (0.684). We conclude that admission plasma NGAL level can predict WRF in children hospitalized for AHF.

  4. Effects of propranolol on the QT dispersion in congestive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesquita Evandro Tinoco

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - Studies have shown that therapy with beta-blockers reduces mortality in patients with heart failure. However, there are no studies describing the effects of propranolol on the QT dispersion in this population. The objective of this study was to assess the electrophysiological profile, mainly QT dispersion, of patients with heart failure regularly using propranolol. METHODS - Fifteen patients with heart failure and using propranolol were assessed over a period of 12 months. Twelve-lead electrocardiograms (ECG were recorded prior to the onset of beta-blocker therapy and after 3 months of drug use. RESULTS - A significant reduction in heart rate, in QT dispersion and in QTc dispersion was observed, as was also an increase in the PR interval and in the QT interval, after the use of propranolol in an average dosage of 100 mg/day. CONCLUSION - Reduction in QT dispersion in patients with heart failure using propranolol may explain the reduction in the risk of sudden cardiac death with beta-blocker therapy, in this specific group of patients.

  5. A new approach to early diagnosis of congestive heart failure disease by using Hilbert-Huang transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Gokhan; Kutlu, Yakup; Allahverdi, Novruz

    2016-12-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a degree of cardiac disease occurring as a result of the heart's inability to pump enough blood for the human body. In recent studies, coronary artery disease (CAD) is accepted as the most important cause of CHF. This study focuses on the diagnosis of both the CHF and the CAD. The Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), which is effective on non-linear and non-stationary signals, is used to extract the features from R-R intervals obtained from the raw electrocardiogram data. The statistical features are extracted from instinct mode functions that are obtained applying the HHT to R-R intervals. Classification performance is examined with extracted statistical features using a multilayer perceptron neural network. The designed model classified the CHF, the CAD patients and a normal control group with rates of 97.83%, 93.79% and 100%, accuracy, specificity and sensitivity, respectively. Also, early diagnosis of the CHF was performed by interpretation of the CAD with a classification accuracy rate of 97.53%, specificity of 98.18% and sensitivity of 97.13%. As a result, a single system having the ability of both diagnosis and early diagnosis of CHF is performed by integrating the CAD diagnosis method to the CHF diagnosis method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Aortocaval Fistula in Rat: A Unique Model of Volume-Overload Congestive Heart Failure and Cardiac Hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid Abassi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite continuous progress in our understanding of the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure (CHF and its management, mortality remains high. Therefore, development of reliable experimental models of CHF and cardiac hypertrophy is essential to better understand disease progression and allow new therapy developement. The aortocaval fistula (ACF model, first described in dogs almost a century ago, has been adopted in rodents by several groups including ours. Although considered to be a model of high-output heart failure, its long-term renal and cardiac manifestations are similar to those seen in patients with low-output CHF. These include Na+-retention, cardiac hypertrophy and increased activity of both vasoconstrictor/antinatriureticneurohormonal systems and compensatory vasodilating/natriuretic systems. Previous data from our group and others suggest that progression of cardiorenal pathophysiology in this model is largely determined by balance between opposing hormonal forces, as reflected in states of CHF decompensation that are characterized by overactivation of vasoconstrictive/Na+-retaining systems. Thus, ACF serves as a simple, cheap, and reproducible platform to investigate the pathogenesis of CHF and to examine efficacy of new therapeutic approaches. Hereby, we will focus on the neurohormonal, renal, and cardiac manifestations of the ACF model in rats, with special emphasis on our own experience.

  7. Hyponatremia and Congestive Heart Failure: A Marker of Increased Mortality and a Target for Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Romanovsky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure is one of the most common chronic medical conditions in the developed world. It is characterized by neurohormonal activation of multiple systems that can lead to clinical deterioration and significant morbidity and mortality. In this regard, hyponatremia is due to inappropriate and continued vasopressin activity despite hypoosmolality and volume overload. Hyponatremia is also due to diuretic use in an attempt to manage volume overload. When hyponatremia occurs, it is a marker of heart failure severity and identifies patients with increased mortality. The recent introduction of specific vasopressin-receptor antagonists offers a targeted pharmacological approach to these pathophysiological derangements. Thus far, clinical trials with vasopressin-receptor antagonists have demonstrated an increase in free-water excretion, improvement in serum sodium, modest improvements in dyspnea but no improvement in mortality. Continued clinical trials with these agents are needed to determine their specific role in the treatment of both chronic and decompensated heart failure.

  8. Apparent paradox of neurohumoral axis inhibition after body fluid volume depletion in patients with chronic congestive heart failure and water retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzi, M D; Agostoni, P; Perego, B; Lauri, G; Salvioni, A; Giraldi, F; Matturri, M; Guazzi, M; Marenzi, G

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Hypovolaemia stimulates the sympathoadrenal and renin systems and water retention. It has been proposed that in congestive heart failure reduction of cardiac output and any associated decrease in blood pressure cause underfilling of the arterial compartment, which promotes and perpetuates neurohumoral activation and the retention of fluid. This study examined whether an intravascular volume deficit accounts for patterns that largely exceed the limits of a homoeostatic response, which are sometimes seen in advanced congestive heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS--In 22 patients with congestive heart failure and water retention the body fluid mass was reduced by ultrafiltration and the neurohumoral reaction was monitored. A Diafilter, which was part of an external venous circuit was regulated to produce 500 ml/hour of ultrafiltrate (mean (SD) 3122 (1199) ml) until right atrial pressure was reduced to 50% of baseline. Haemodynamic variables, plasma renin activity, noradrenaline, and aldosterone were measured before and within 48 hours of ultrafiltration. After ultrafiltration, which produced a 20% reduction of plasma volume and a moderate decrease in cardiac output and blood pressure (consistent with a diminished degree of filling of the arterial compartment), there was an obvious decrease in noradrenaline, plasma renin activity, and aldosterone. In the next 48 hours plasma volume, cardiac output, and blood pressure recovered; the neurohumoral axis was depressed; and there was a striking enhancement of water and sodium excretion with resolution of the peripheral oedema and organ congestion. The neurohumoral changes and haemodynamic changes were not related. There were significant correlations between the neurohumoral changes and increase in urinary output and sodium excretion. CONCLUSIONS--In advanced congestive heart failure arterial underfilling was not the main mechanism for activating the neurohumoral axis and retaining fluid. Because a decrease in

  9. Effect of mibefradil on left ventricular diastolic function in patients with congestive heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muntinga, HJ; vanderVring, JAFM; Niemeyer, MG; vandenBerg, F; Knol, HR; Bernink, PJLM; vanderWall, EE; Blanksma, PK; Lie, KI

    Calcium antagonists have antihypertensive and antianginal properties. In heart failure, however, their use can be hazardous, as systolic function can deteriorate. This may nor be true of the new calcium antagonist mibefradil, which has a new chemical structure. Calcium antagonists may also be

  10. Burned out myocardium in biventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy presenting with congestive heart failure: Importance of ECG changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Backman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60 year old man was found to have a heart murmur and ECG features of ventricular hypertrophy on a medical check up for military recruitment at age of 20, despite having swimming as the only exercise. His mother had 3 survived children out of 9 pregnancies.

  11. Decision-making model for early diagnosis of congestive heart failure using rough set and decision tree approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Chang-Sik; Kim, Yoon-Nyun; Kim, Hyung-Seop; Park, Hyoung-Seob; Kim, Min-Soo

    2012-10-01

    The accurate diagnosis of heart failure in emergency room patients is quite important, but can also be quite difficult due to our insufficient understanding of the characteristics of heart failure. The purpose of this study is to design a decision-making model that provides critical factors and knowledge associated with congestive heart failure (CHF) using an approach that makes use of rough sets (RSs) and decision trees. Among 72 laboratory findings, it was determined that two subsets (RBC, EOS, Protein, O2SAT, Pro BNP) in an RS-based model, and one subset (Gender, MCHC, Direct bilirubin, and Pro BNP) in a logistic regression (LR)-based model were indispensable factors for differentiating CHF patients from those with dyspnea, and the risk factor Pro BNP was particularly so. To demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed model, we compared the discriminatory power of decision-making models that utilize RS- and LR-based decision models by conducting 10-fold cross-validation. The experimental results showed that the RS-based decision-making model (accuracy: 97.5%, sensitivity: 97.2%, specificity: 97.7%, positive predictive value: 97.2%, negative predictive value: 97.7%, and area under ROC curve: 97.5%) consistently outperformed the LR-based decision-making model (accuracy: 88.7%, sensitivity: 90.1%, specificity: 87.5%, positive predictive value: 85.3%, negative predictive value: 91.7%, and area under ROC curve: 88.8%). In addition, a pairwise comparison of the ROC curves of the two models showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.01; 95% CI: 2.63-14.6). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Myocardial velocities obtained by pulsed tissue Doppler in English Cocker Spaniels with dilated cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme G. Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is characterized by systolic myocardial dysfunction which is identified by low myocardial velocities obtained by pulsed tissue Doppler (PTD. However, increased preload is known to increase myocardial velocities which could overestimate myocardial function and turn dysfunction characterization into a challenge in dogs with DCM and congestive heart failure. To test the hypothesis that increased preload could hamper identification of low myocardial velocities in dogs with DCM and congestive heart failure the present study prospectively evaluated 32 English Cocker Spaniel dogs, being 16 with clinical DCM and 16 healthy for control purpose. The PTD analysis of regional velocities were performed in both longitudinal and radial myocardial displacements and systolic (Sm, early (Em and late diastolic (Am velocities were obtained in left ventricular free wall (LVFW and interventricular septum (IVS. Peak radial subendocardial and subepicardial Sm velocities were lower in DCM group compared to control (0.065±0.018 vs. 0.102±0.020m/s and 0.059±0.014 vs. 0.094±0.025m/s respectively; p<0.001. Peak longitudinal Sm velocities were lower in basal and medial portions of LVFW (0.093±0.034 vs. 0.155±0.034m/s and 0.091±0.033 vs. 0.134±0.037m/s respectively; p<0.001 and IVS (0.063±0.021 vs. 0.136±0.039 and 0.066±0.026 vs. 0.104±0.032m/s respectively; p<0.001. Most of diastolic velocities were not significantly different between groups, although advanced myocardial disease and dysfunction are expected in DCM group. Reduction in systolic basal and medial longitudinal myocardial velocities and in radial myocardial velocities was the most significant PTD findings. Increased preload did not represent a problem to evaluate systolic dysfunction by PTD in English Cocker Spaniels with DCM, but influence of preload on assessment of diastolic velocities should be better elucidated.

  13. The evaluation of β-adrenoceptor blocking agents in patients with COPD and congestive heart failure: a nationwide study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao KM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Kuang-Ming Liao,1,* Tien-Yu Lin,2,3 Yaw-Bin Huang,2,3 Chen-Chun Kuo,2,* Chung-Yu Chen2,3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Chi Mei Medical Center, Chiali, Tainan, 2School of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, 3Department of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: β-Blockers are safe and improve survival in patients with both congestive heart failure (CHF and COPD. However, the superiority of different types of β-blockers is still unclear among patients with CHF and COPD. The association between β-blockers and CHF exacerbation as well as COPD exacerbation remains unclear. The objective of this study was to compare the outcome of different β-blockers in patients with concurrent CHF and COPD. Patients and methods: We used the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan to conduct a retrospective cohort study. The inclusion criteria for CHF were patients who were >20 years old and were diagnosed with CHF between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2012. COPD patients included those who had outpatient visit claims ≥2 times within 365 days or 1 claim for hospitalization with a COPD diagnosis. A time-dependent Cox proportional hazards regression model was applied to evaluate the effectiveness of β-blockers in the study population. Results: We identified 1,872 patients with concurrent CHF and COPD. Only high-dose bisoprolol significantly reduced the risk of death and slightly decreased the hospitalization rate due to CHF exacerbation (death: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] =0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.29–0.89; hospitalization rate due to CHF exacerbation: aHR =0.48, 95% CI =0.23–1.00. No association was observed between β-blocker use and COPD exacerbation. Conclusion: In patients with concurrent CHF and COPD, β-blockers reduced mortality, CHF exacerbation, and the need for hospitalization. Bisoprolol was

  14. Risk of Congestive Heart Failure in Early Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Adjuvant Treatment With Trastuzumab: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hui-Dong; Lin, Yun-En; Zhang, Juan-Juan; Zhong, Wen-Zhao; Zheng, Rui-Nian

    2016-05-01

    The use of trastuzumab has proven to be a successful strategy in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer; however, it is associated with an increased risk of cardiac dysfunction. We performed an up-to-date, comprehensive meta-analysis to clarify the risk of congestive heart failure (CHF) in patients with early breast cancer receiving different durations of adjuvant trastuzumab with the longest-term follow-up. Eligible studies included randomized control trials of HER2-positive early breast cancer patients with or without trastuzumab in adjuvant chemotherapy. Adequate reporting of CHF data were required for inclusion. Statistical analyses were conducted to calculate the overall incidence, relative risk (RR), and 95% confidence interval (CI) by use of a fixed-effects model. Six randomized control trials including 18,111 patients were identified. The overall incidence of high-grade CHF in patients treated with trastuzumab versus placebo was 1.44% (95% CI, 0.79%-2.64%) and the RR was 3.19 (95% CI, 2.03-5.02; p analysis, the difference in CHF incidence failed to achieve significance. The RR for 8 mg/kg trastuzumab (high dose) was greater than that for 4 mg/kg (low dose) (RR, 6.79, 95% CI, 2.03-22.72, p = .0001; versus RR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.61-4.32; p = .002). Additionally, higher RRs were observed for patients receiving trastuzumab for 1 year (RR, 3.29; 95% CI, 2.07-5.25) and 2 years (RR, 9.54; 95%CI, 2.19-41.43), but not 9 weeks (RR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.05-5.49) compared with control groups. No evidence of publication bias was observed. Adjuvant trastuzumab therapy was strongly associated with an increased risk of significant CHF in patients with early breast cancer, particularly in 2-year use. This comprehensive meta-analysis evaluated the risk of congestive heart failure with a usage profile of adjuvant trastuzumab in patients with early breast cancer. Before initiating treatment with trastuzumab, a risk-benefit analysis for

  15. Investigation of iron deficiency in patients with congestive heart failure: A medical practice that requires greater attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmar Vega, Lara; de Francisco, Alm; Albines Fiestas, Zoila; Serrano Soto, Mara; Kislikova, María; Seras Mozas, Miguel; Unzueta, Mayte García; Arias Rodríguez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency in congestive heart failure (CHF), with or without concomitant anaemia, is associated with health-related quality of life, NYHA functional class, and exercise capacity. Prospective, randomised studies have demonstrated that correcting iron deficiency improves the quality of life and functional status of patients with CHF, including those who do not have anaemia. The aim of this study was to analyse how frequently these iron parameters are tested and thus determine the extent to which this quality improvement tool has been implemented in patients admitted with CHF. Retrospective observational study of patients from a university hospital diagnosed with CHF on admission between 01/01/2012 and 11/06/2013. Iron parameters were tested in 39% (324) of the 824 patients analysed. There was no significant difference in age between the patients whose iron was tested and those whose iron was not tested, but the difference in terms of gender was significant (P=.007). Glomerular filtration rate and haemoglobin, were significantly lower in the group of patients whose iron was tested (P<.001). The proportion of patients with anaemia, renal failure or both was significantly higher in the group of patients who had iron tests (P<.001). Of the 324 patients whose iron parameters were tested, 164 (51%) had iron deficiency. There were no differences between patients with and without iron deficiency in terms of age or gender. The iron parameters in both groups, ferritin and transferrin saturation index were significantly lower among the patients with iron deficiency (P<.001). The glomerular filtration rate values were significantly lower in patients with no iron deficiency (P<.001). Significant differences were also observed between those with and without iron deficiency in the proportion of patients with renal failure (79 vs. 66%, respectively, P=.013), but not in terms of haemoglobin concentration. Congestive heart failure is very frequently associated with anaemia, iron

  16. Management of elderly patients with congestive heart failure--design of the Trial of Intensified versus standard Medical therapy in Elderly patients with Congestive Heart Failure (TIME-CHF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner-La Rocca, Hans Peter; Buser, Peter Theo; Schindler, Ruth; Bernheim, Alain; Rickenbacher, Peter; Pfisterer, Matthias

    2006-05-01

    Little is known about the management of elderly patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) although they represent the majority of the CHF population. Therefore, the TIME-CHF study was set up (1) to evaluate the medical management of very old patients (> or = 75 years) with CHF compared with younger patients (60-74 years), (2) to compare an intensified with a standard treatment approach, and (3) to differentiate between systolic and diastolic dysfunction (ejection fraction 45%). In a prospective single-blinded multicenter trial, 824 symptomatic patients, CHF hospitalization within the last year and elevated NT-BNP, are randomized to an intensified versus a standard medical therapy. Treatment strategies follow the published guidelines with the aim to reduce symptoms to NYHA class 45% in 26% and 10%, respectively. Significant comorbidities were present in 93% of patients. TIME-CHF will be the first prospective randomized trial to comprehensively study the management of elderly patients with CHF. It will provide unique information comparing two treatment strategies in two age groups irrespective of ejection fraction regarding prognosis, quality of life, as well as resource utilization and costs.

  17. Elderly women's experiences of support when living with congestive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Sundin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure is a chronic syndrome that has physiological, psychological and social effects. The aim of the study was to illuminate the meanings of support as experienced by elderly women with chronic heart failure. Narrative interviews were conducted with five elderly women with chronic heart failure. A phenomenological hermeneutic method of interpretation was used. The meanings of support were experienced by the women out of two perspectives, that is, when support is present and when there is a lack of support. The findings were revealed in two themes: “Feeling confident means support” and “Feeling abandoned”. The women do not wish to be a burden. They want to be independent as much as possible to defend their dignity. An important support to the women is that they are understood and confirmed in their illness. Supportive relations are most valuable, that is, a relationship that supports the women's independence. If there is no supportive relationship, they feel like a burden to others and they feel lonely; this loneliness creates suffering and counteracts wellbeing and health.

  18. Levosimendan treatment of severe acute congestive heart failure refractory to dobutamine/milrinone in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prijić Sergej

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Levosimendan is a novel positive inotropic agent which, improves myocardial contractility through its calcium-sensitizing action, without causing an increase in myocardial oxygen demand. Also, by opening ATP-sensitive potassium channels, it causes vasodilatation with the reduction in both afterload and preload. Because of the long halflife, its effects last for up 7 to 9 days after 24-hour infusion. Case report. We presented three patients 2, 15 and 17 years old. All the patients had severe acute deterioration of the previously diagnosed chronic heart failure (dilatative cardiomyopathy; univentricular heart with bidirectional Glenn anastomosis and restrictive bulboventricular foramen; bacterial endocarditis on artificial aortic valve with severe stenosis and regurgitation. Signs and symptoms of severe heart failure, cardiomegaly (cardio-thoracic index 0.65 and left ventricular dilatation (end-diastolic diameter z-score 2.6; 4.1 and 4.0 were confirmed on admission. Also, myocardial contractility was poor with ejection fraction (EF - 27%, 25%, 35%, fractional shortening (FS - 13%, 11%, 15% and stroke volume (SV - 40, 60, 72 mL/m2. The treatment with standard intravenous inotropic agents resulted in no improvement but in clinical deterioration. Thus, standard intravenous inotropic support was stopped and levosimendan treatment was introduced. All the patients received a continuous 24-h infusion 0.1 μg/kg/min of levosimendan. In a single patient an initial loading dose of 11 μg/kg over 10 min was administrated, too. Levosimendan treatment resulted in both clinical and echocardiography improvement with the improved EF (42%, 34%, 44%, FS (21%, 16%, 22% and SV (59, 82, 93 mL/m2. Hemodynamic improvement was registered too, with the reduction in heart rate in all the treated patients from 134-138 bpm before, to less than 120 bpm after the treatment. These parameters were followed by the normalization of lactate levels. Nevertheless, left

  19. Valvular dysplasia and congestive heart failure in a juvenile African penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Allyson; Frasca, Salvatore; Mishra, Neha; Tuttle, Allison D

    2014-12-01

    Abstract: An aquarium-housed, 6-mo-old African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) presented with acute respiratory distress. Auscultation revealed a grade II-III systolic murmur in the absence of adventitial sounds, and an enlarged heart without pulmonary edema was seen radiographically. Echocardiographic evaluation revealed atrioventricular (AV) valvular dysplasia and ventricular enlargement. The penguin was treated with enalapril, furosemide, and pimobendan but died within 3 wk of detection of the murmur. Congenital dysplasia of the right AV valve with right atrial and ventricular dilation and ventricular hypertrophy were diagnosed on postmortem examination.

  20. Peripheral haemodynamic effects of inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis in congestive heart failure and interactions with captopril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townend, J. N.; Doran, J.; Lote, C. J.; Davies, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To investigate the role of prostaglandins in maintaining circulatory homoeostasis in chronic heart failure and the hypothesis that an increase in vasodilatory prostaglandin synthesis may contribute to the actions of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in heart failure. DESIGN--Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled studies. Cardiac output and renal and limb blood flow were measured after oral indomethacin 50 mg or placebo followed by "open" intravenous infusion of prostaglandin E2 (study A). In a second study the same measurements were made after oral indomethacin 50 mg or placebo was given 30 min before "open" captopril (study B). METHODS--Blood pressure was measured using a mercury sphygmomanometer. Cardiac output was determined by Doppler interrogation of blood flow in the ascending aorta and echocardiographic measurement of aortic root diameter. Renal blood flow was calculated from the effective renal plasma flow measured by p-aminohippurate clearance and the haematocrit, and glomerular filtration rate by endogenous creatinine clearance. Limb blood flow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography using mercury in silastic strain gauges. The concentration of plasma prostaglandin E2 was measured by radioimmunoassay. SETTING--University department of cardiovascular medicine. PATIENTS--12 patients with chronic stable heart failure before starting treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. RESULTS--Indomethacin resulted in adverse effects on cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, renal blood flow, glomerular filtration, urinary sodium excretion, and calf vascular resistance. Changes were reversed with infusion of prostaglandin E2. Pretreatment with indomethacin resulted in the attenuation of the acute increase in cardiac output and decrease in systemic vascular resistance that occurred with captopril. Similarly, an increase in renal blood flow with captopril was attenuated by indomethacin. CONCLUSIONS--The acute

  1. Importance of Clinical Worsening of Heart Failure Treated in the Outpatient Setting: Evidence From the Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure Trial (PARADIGM-HF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Naoki; Jhund, Pardeep S; Gong, Jianjian; Lefkowitz, Martin P; Rizkala, Adel R; Rouleau, Jean L; Shi, Victor C; Swedberg, Karl; Zile, Michael R; Solomon, Scott D; Packer, Milton; McMurray, John J V

    2016-06-07

    Many episodes of worsening of heart failure (HF) are treated by increasing oral therapy or temporary intravenous treatment in the community or emergency department (ED), without hospital admission. We studied the frequency and prognostic importance of these episodes of worsening in the Prospective Comparison of ARNI (angiotensin-receptor-neprilysin inhibitor) with ACEI (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor) to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure Trial (PARADIGM-HF). Outpatient intensification of HF therapy was added to an expanded composite outcome with ED visits, HF hospitalizations, and cardiovascular deaths. In an examination of first nonfatal events, 361 of 8399 patients (4.3%) had outpatient intensification of HF therapy without a subsequent event (ie, ED visit/HF hospitalizations) within 30 days; 78 of 8399 (1.0%) had an ED visit without previous outpatient intensification of HF therapy or a subsequent event within 30 days; and 1107 of 8399 (13.2%) had HF hospitalizations without a preceding event. The risk of death (in comparison with no-event patients) was similar after each manifestation of worsening: outpatient intensification of HF therapy (hazard ratio, 4.8; 95% confidence interval, 3.9-5.9); ED visit (hazard ratio, 4.5; 95% confidence interval, 3.0-6.7); HF hospitalizations (hazard ratio, 5.9; 95% confidence interval, 5.2-6.6). The expanded composite added 14% more events and shortened time to accrual of a fixed number of events. The benefit of sacubitril/valsartan over enalapril was similar to the primary outcome for the expanded composite (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.73-0.86) and was consistent across the components of the latter. Focusing only on HF hospitalizations underestimates the frequency of worsening and the serious implications of all manifestations of worsening. For clinical trials conducted in an era of heightened efforts to avoid HF hospitalizations, inclusion of episodes of outpatient

  2. Differential aspects of stroke and congestive heart failure in quality of life reduction: a case series with three comparison groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cincura Carolina

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess QOL of patients with stroke in comparison to other groups (caregivers and CHF patients, to identify which items of QOL are more affected on each group and what is the functional profile of patients with stroke. Methods Consecutive stroke or congestive heart failure (CHF patients were evaluated and compared to their caregivers (caregivers. The NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS and EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D scale were applied. Results We evaluated 67 patients with stroke, 62 with CHF and 67 caregivers. For stroke patients, median NIHSS score was four. EQ-5D score was significantly worse in stroke, as compared to CHF and caregivers (0.52, 0.69 and 0.65, respectively. Mobility and usual activity domains were significantly affected in stroke and CHF patients as compared to caregivers; and self-care was more affected in stroke as compared with the other two groups. Conclusions Despite a mild neurological deficit, there was a significantly worse QOL perception in stroke as compared to CHF patients, mostly in their perception of self-care.

  3. Differential aspects of stroke and congestive heart failure in quality of life reduction: a case series with three comparison groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Elen B; Maso, Iara; Pereira, Julio L B; Fukuda, Thiago G; Seixas, Jamile C; Menezes, Daniela F; Cincura, Carolina; Neville, Iuri S; Jesus, Pedro A P; Oliveira-Filho, Jamary

    2011-08-10

    To assess QOL of patients with stroke in comparison to other groups (caregivers and CHF patients), to identify which items of QOL are more affected on each group and what is the functional profile of patients with stroke. Consecutive stroke or congestive heart failure (CHF) patients were evaluated and compared to their caregivers (caregivers). The NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D) scale were applied. We evaluated 67 patients with stroke, 62 with CHF and 67 caregivers. For stroke patients, median NIHSS score was four. EQ-5D score was significantly worse in stroke, as compared to CHF and caregivers (0.52, 0.69 and 0.65, respectively). Mobility and usual activity domains were significantly affected in stroke and CHF patients as compared to caregivers; and self-care was more affected in stroke as compared with the other two groups. Despite a mild neurological deficit, there was a significantly worse QOL perception in stroke as compared to CHF patients, mostly in their perception of self-care.

  4. Multiscale properties of instantaneous parasympathetic activity in severe congestive heart failure: A survivor vs non-survivor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, G; Wendt, H; Kiyono, K; Hayano, J; Watanabe, E; Yamamoto, Y; Abry, P; Barbieri, R

    2017-07-01

    Multifractal analysis of cardiovascular variability series is an effective tool for the characterization of pathological states associated with congestive heart failure (CHF). Consequently, variations of heartbeat scaling properties have been associated with the dynamical balancing of nonlinear sympathetic/vagal activity. Nevertheless, whether vagal dynamics has multifractal properties yet alone is currently unknown. In this study, we answer this question by conducting multifractal analysis through wavelet leader-based multiscale representations of instantaneous series of vagal activity as estimated from inhomogeneous point process models. Experimental tests were performed on data gathered from 57 CHF patients, aiming to investigate the automatic recognition accuracy in predicting survivor and non-survivor patients after a 4 years follow up. Results clearly indicate that, on both CHF groups, the instantaneous vagal activity displays power-law scaling for a large range of scales, from ≃ 0.5s to ≃ 100s. Using standard SVM algorithms, this information also allows for a prediction of mortality at a single-subject level with an accuracy of 72.72%.

  5. Important ECG diagnosis-aiding indices of ventricular septal defect children with or without congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, M; Huang, M N; Bai, Z; Hsieh, K S

    2001-04-15

    In this paper we perform a statistical study of the conventional RR intervals and two newly defined PR' and RT intervals of ECG data. A quadratic classification rule is applied to extract several important ECG diagnosis-aiding indices among normal children and children with ventricular septal defect (VSD) with or without congestive heart failure (CHF). The results show that certain statistics computed from PR', RR and RT intervals are important diagnosis-aiding indices. Best classification vectors are searched for pairwise classification. Two methods, minimum distance criterion and a two-stage classification procedure, are considered for three-way classification. Furthermore, logistic regression models based on transformations of these important diagnosis-aiding indices are proposed. The receiver operating characteristic curves of the proposed models show better performance than those of linear and quadratic logistic models. In order to proceed with this study, a computer algorithm to automatically detect the three intervals is developed and the related ECG data are collected and analysed. The algorithm is also enhanced with an outlier detection procedure for the automatic measurements of the PR' and RT intervals. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Impact of collaborative care on survival time for dogs with congestive heart failure and revenue for attending primary care veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefbom, Bonnie K; Peckens, Neal K

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of in-person collaborative care by primary care veterinarians (pcDVMs) and board-certified veterinary cardiologists (BCVCs) on survival time of dogs after onset of congestive heart failure (CHF) and on associated revenue for the attending pcDVMs. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS 26 small-breed dogs treated for naturally occurring CHF secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease at a multilocation primary care veterinary hospital between 2008 and 2013. PROCEDURES Electronic medical records were reviewed to identify dogs with confirmed CHF secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease and collect information on patient care, survival time, and pcDVM revenue. Data were compared between dogs that received collaborative care from the pcDVM and a BCVC and dogs that received care from the pcDVM alone. RESULTS Dogs that received collaborative care had a longer median survival time (254 days) than did dogs that received care from the pcDVM alone (146 days). A significant positive correlation was identified between pcDVM revenue and survival time for dogs that received collaborative care (ie, the longer the dog survived, the greater the pcDVM revenue generated from caring for that patient). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that collaborative care provided to small-breed dogs with CHF by a BCVC and pcDVM could result in survival benefits for affected dogs and increased revenue for pcDVMs, compared with care provided by a pcDVM alone.

  7. Comparison of tolvaptan treatment between patients with the SIADH and congestive heart failure: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gun Ha; Lee, Chang Min; Song, Jae Won; Jung, Moon Chan; Kim, Jwa Kyung; Song, Young Rim; Kim, Hyung Jik; Kim, Sung Gyun

    2017-03-13

    Tolvaptan is a very effective treatment for hypervolemic or euvolemic hyponatremia. We compared the clinical efficacy of and response to tolvaptan in patients with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and congestive heart failure (CHF). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 50 patients (SIADH, n = 30; CHF, n = 20) who were prescribed tolvaptan between July 2013 and October 2015. Tolvaptan was prescribed when the serum sodium level was 135 mmol/L. After the initiation of tolvaptan therapy, there was an immediate response in the urine volume and serum sodium level in all patients. The improvements in the urine volume and serum sodium concentration were highest within the first 24 hours of treatment. In addition, the mean change in the serum sodium level during the first 24 hours was significantly higher in patients with SIADH than in those with CHF (∆Na, 9.9 ± 4.5 mmol/L vs. 6.9 ± 4.4 mmol/L, respectively; p = 0.025). Also, the mean maintenance dose was lower, and the total duration of tolvaptan use was slightly shorter in the SIADH group than CHF group (21.5 ± 14.9 days vs. 28.0 ± 20.1 days, p = 0.070). The early response to tolvaptan treatment was better in patients with SIADH than in those with CHF. Thus, the tolvaptan treatment strategy should be differed between patients with SIADH and those with CHF.

  8. Meaning in life and violations of beliefs and goals: reciprocal relations among individuals with congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Login S; Park, Crystal L

    2017-05-01

    In the context of highly stressful experiences, violations of beliefs and goals and meaning in life may have a reciprocal relationship over time. More violations may lead to lowered meaning, whereas higher meaning may lead to lowered violations. The present study examines this relationship among congestive heart failure (CHF) patients. A cross-lagged panel design was used. CHF patients (N = 142) reported twice, six months apart, on their meaning in life and the extent to which CHF violates their beliefs and goals. Overall, results were consistent with a reciprocal relationship, showing that greater goal violations led to negative subsequent changes in meaning, whereas greater meaning led to favorable subsequent changes in violations of beliefs and goals. Meaning in life and violations may contribute to one another, and therefore, in understanding the adjustment process, it is important to consider their interrelationship. The results are also broadly informative regarding the experience of meaning, showing that disruption of beliefs and goals may undermine meaning.

  9. Epidemiological profile and obstetric outcomes of patients with peripartum congestive heart failure in Taiwan: a retrospective nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying-Jen; Ho, Chung-Han; Chen, Jen-Yin; Wu, Ming-Ping; Yu, Chia-Hung; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Chen, Chia-Ming; Chu, Chin-Chen

    2017-09-12

    During pregnancy, the hyperdynamic physiology of circulation can exacerbate many cardiovascular disorders. Congestive heart failure (CHF) usually occurs during late pregnancy, which is significantly associated with a high level of maternal and neonatal morbidities and mortalities. The profile of women who develop peripartum CHF (PCHF) is unknown. We investigated the epidemiological profiles of PCHF. In this retrospective cohort study, PCHF patients were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Risk factors and obstetric outcomes were compared in women with and without PCHF. From 2,115,873 birth-mothers in Taiwan between 1997 and 2013, we identified 512 with PCHF (incidence: 24.20/10 5 ). More women with than without PCHF were older (≥ 35, 18.16% vs. 9.62%), and had more multifetal gestations (7.42% vs. 1.40%), gestational hypertension (HTN) (19.2% vs. 1.31%), and gestational diabetes mellitus (4.10% vs. 0.67%). After the analysis had been adjusted for confounders, the leading comorbidities associated with PCHF were structural heart diseases (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 67.21; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 54.29-83.22), pulmonary diseases (aOR: 13.12; 95% CI: 10.28-16.75), chronic HTN (aOR: 11.27; 95% CI: 6.94-18.28), thyroid disease (aOR: 9.53; 95% CI: 5.27-17.23), and gestational HTN (aOR: 5.16; 95% CI: 3.89-6.85). PCHF patients also had a higher rate of cesarean sections (66.41% vs. 34.46%; p outcomes, including maternal death. Our findings should benefit healthcare providers, and government and health insurance policy makers.

  10. Hemodynamic effects of digoxin on congestive heart failure in old myocardial infarction, dilated cardiomyopathy, acute myocardial infarction and mitral stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurogane, K; Fujitani, K; Fukuzaki, H

    1985-03-01

    The hemodynamic effects of digoxin (0.01 mg/Kg) on congestive heart failure were compared in 32 patients with old myocardial infarction (OMI) (n = 9), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) (n = 10), acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (n = 5) and mitral stenosis (MS) (n = 8). The responses of heart rate (HR) and pulmonary capillary pressure (PCP) to digoxin in OMI, DCM and MS were marked but different in each of these groups and no significant changes were found in patients with AMI. The responses of cardiac index (CI) to digoxin in patients with OMI and DCM in whom left ventricular myocardial contractile force was impaired were divided into 2 groups (Group 1: CI increased more than 15% and Group 2: less than 15%). In Group 1, both CI and percent fractional shortening (%FS) before digoxin administration were lower than in Group 2, i.e., 1.97 +/- 0.27 vs 2.80 +/- 0.48 L/min/m2 (p less than 0.001) and 10.9 +/- 8.0 vs 19.5 +/- 11.9% (p less than 0.05), respectively. In MS, CI increased after digoxin administration only in the 2 patients with low CI and rapid HR in the control state. These results indicate that the mode of hemodynamic response to digoxin is considerably different in various diseases. They further suggest that digoxin should not be used in the early phase of AMI, although digoxin was of great clinical benefit in patients with OMI and DCM through such mechanisms as its positive inotropic and negative chronotropic effects and lowering of PCP.

  11. Short-term reproducibility of gas exchange measurements during bicycle exercise in patients with mild to moderate congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieshammer, S; Hetzel, M; Hetzel, J; Kochs, M; Hombach, V

    1992-05-01

    A series of 45 patients with congestive heart failure due to coronary disease had semisupine bicycle exercise tests (ramp protocol, 10 W/min) on two occasions separated by 3 to 7 days in order to determine the short-term reproducibility of gas exchange measurements during symptom-limited exercise. The percentage difference (PD) between each pair of measurements (m1, m2; PD = 100%.(m2-m1): m1) were calculated. The mean PD values (+/- 1 sigma) and the single determination standard deviations (SDSD) for exercise tolerance (ET, W), peak heart rate (pHR, 1/min), peak oxygen uptake (pVO2, ml/min/kg), peak carbon dioxide output (pVCO2, ml/min/kg), and peak minute ventilation (pVE, l/min) were as follows: [table: see text] No patient reached a plateau of oxygen uptake during the last portion of the ramp exercise test. Thus, pVO2 is not an objective endpoint. The single determination standard deviations show that exercise tolerance and peak oxygen uptake do not differ as to their reproducibility. The absolute values of PD were not a function of exercise tolerance for any of the parameters studied. The PD values for ET and pVO2 were normally distributed. The data suggest that a change in ET and pVO2 must exceed 27% and 28% between two sequential studies in an individual patient in order to be significant at the 5% level, respectively. For the one-tailed test situation, the changes in ET or pVO2 must be greater than 23% in order to be significant.

  12. Sleeping and resting respiratory rates in dogs and cats with medically-controlled left-sided congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porciello, F; Rishniw, M; Ljungvall, I; Ferasin, L; Haggstrom, J; Ohad, D G

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping and resting respiratory rates (SRR and RRR, respectively) are commonly used to monitor dogs and cats with left-sided cardiac disease and to identify animals with left-sided congestive heart failure (L-CHF). Dogs and cats with subclinical heart disease have SRRmean values dogs and cats with CHF that is well controlled with medical therapy. In this study, SRR and RRR were measured by the owners of 51 dogs and 22 cats with stable, well-controlled CHF. Median canine SRRmean was 20 breaths/min (7-39 breaths/min); eight dogs were ≥25 breaths/min and one dog only was ≥30 breaths/min. Canine SRRmean was unrelated to pulmonary hypertension or diuretic dose. Median feline SRRmean was 20 breaths/min (13-31 breaths/min); four cats were ≥25 breaths/min and only one cat was ≥30 breaths/min. Feline SRRmean was unrelated to diuretic dose. SRR remained stable during collection in both species with little day-to-day variability. The median canine RRRmean was 24 breaths/min (12-44 breaths/min), 17 were ≥25 breaths/min, seven were ≥30 breaths/min, two were >40 breaths/min. Median feline RRRmean was 24 breaths/min (15-45 breaths/min); five cats had RRRmean ≥25 breaths/min; one had ≥30 breaths/min, and two had ≥40 breaths/min. These data suggest that most dogs and cats with CHF that is medically well-controlled and stable have SRRmean and RRRmean dogs and cats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and prognosis of congestive heart failure in Saudi patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome (from SPACE registry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albackr, Hanan B; Alhabib, Khalid F; Ullah, Anhar; Alfaleh, Hussam; Hersi, Ahmad; Alshaer, Fayez; Alnemer, Khalid; Al Saif, Shukri; Taraben, Amir; Kashour, Tarek

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, clinical features, and in-hospital outcomes of heart failure in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The Saudi Project for Assessment of Coronary Events recruited patients admitted with ACS from 17 hospitals in Saudi Arabia from 2005 to 2007. The outcomes of ACS patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) compared with those without CHF were analyzed. A total of 4523 patients with ACS were identified, of whom 905 (20%) had CHF. Compared with no CHF, patients with CHF were older (62±13.1 vs. 57±12.9 years; P=0.001), less likely to be men (70 vs. 79%; P=0.001), likely to present with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (48 vs. 36%; P=0.001), likely to have diabetes (71 vs. 54%; P=0.001), hypertension (64 vs. 54%; P=0.001) and previous history of coronary artery disease (53 vs. 43%; P=0.001), and likely to have significant left ventricular systolic dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction coronary intervention (19 vs. 50%; P=0.001). Adjusted in-hospital mortality and cardiogenic shock were higher in the CHF group (odds ratio 4.43, 95% confidence interval 2.52-7.78; and odds ratio 3.51, 95% confidence interval 2.23-5.52), respectively. ACS patients with CHF in the Saudi Project for Assessment of Coronary Events were older, more likely to have more cardiac risk factors, and less likely to be treated with optimum medical treatment on admission. These findings were associated with higher incidence of their in-hospital adverse outcomes. More aggressive treatment is warranted to improve prognosis.

  14. Prognostic Factors for Survival at 6-Month Follow-up of Hospitalized Patients with Decompensated Congestive Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghi, Mostafa; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Pourmoghadas, Ali; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is increasing in recent years. Factors associated with mortality in CHF patients are important to be determined in order to select therapeutic modality by physicians. The purpose of the current study was to declare predictors of 6-months survival in patients hospitalized for decompensated CHF in Isfahan. A cohort of 301 hospitalized patients with decompensated CHF were recruited in this study. The diagnosis of CHF was based on previous hospitalizations and Framingham criteria for heart failure (HF). Information regarding past history, accompanying diseases such as cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), clinical data, medications and echocardiography were obtained by a cardiologist. Patients were followed for their survival for 6 months by telephone calls. Kaplan-Meier method was used for uni variate survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard model was used for multivariate analysis. Mean age of patients was 71.9 ± 12.2 years and 59.8% was male. During 6-months follow-up 138 (45.8%) patients died. Mean survival was 119.2 ± 4.4 days (Mean ± SEM). Significant prognostic factors for 6 months survival were high education level (HR = 0.74, CI 95% 0.59-0.93), COPD (HR = 1.91, CI 95% 1.2-3.04), CVA (HR = 1.69, CI 95% 1.03-2.78), Angiotensin Converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors use (HR = 0.44, CI 95% 0.3-0.66) and Diuretics (HR = 0.63, CI 95% 0.41-0.96). Six-month survival of hospitalized decompensated CHF patients in Iran is not favorable. Many factors particularly accompanying diseases and medications affected the patient's 6-months survival.

  15. Effects of beta-blockers for congestive heart failure in pediatric and congenital heart disease patients: a meta-analysis of published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M J; Lim, R K; Jung Kwak, M; Park, K H; Kim, H Y; Kim, Y M; Lee, H D

    2015-12-01

    The effects of beta-blockers in pediatric and congenital heart disease (CHD) patients suffering from heart failure are controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to determine whether beta-blockers are effective for heart failure in pediatric and CHD patients. We searched for clinical trials focusing on clinical on clinical and ventricular functional/dimensional changes after beta-blocker therapy in PubMed (from its inception to August 2013) and bibliographies of identified studies. Studies investigating any of three beta blockers (carvedilol, bisoprolol, and extended release metoprolol succinate) which are known to be effective in adult patients with heart failure were included. Of the 158 screened, 17 (N.=476) fulfilled the study criteria and were analyzed. Beta-blockers were associated with significant improvements in left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) (12.47%; 95% CI, 10.36 to 14.61), fraction shortening (5.75%; 95% CI, 4.42 to 7.08), LV end-diastolic dimension (-2.91 mm; 95% CI, -5.46 to -0.36), and LV systolic dimension (-4.03 mm; 95% CI, -6.81 to -1.25). No significant change in the pooled mean difference of the right ventricular (RV) EF (3.50%; P=0.08) was observed. However, the RV EF in the untreated group showed a deteriorating trend (-3%), which was different from the trend in the treatment group. There was a significant reduction in the incidence of clinical worsening (odds ratio, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.27 to 3.66). Beta-blocker therapy was associated with a significant improvement of echocardiographic parameters in patients with systemic LV failure. However, the use of beta-blockers did not provide significant benefits in terms of improving the EF in patients with RV failure. Nonetheless, beta-blockers may be effective to prevent the clinical deterioration of pediatric and CHD patients with heart failure.

  16. Global mortality variations in patients with heart failure: results from the International Congestive Heart Failure (INTER-CHF) prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokainish, Hisham; Teo, Koon; Zhu, Jun; Roy, Ambuj; AlHabib, Khalid F; ElSayed, Ahmed; Palileo-Villaneuva, Lia; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Karaye, Kamilu; Yusoff, Khalid; Orlandini, Andres; Sliwa, Karen; Mondo, Charles; Lanas, Fernando; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Badr, Amr; Elmaghawry, Mohamed; Damasceno, Albertino; Tibazarwa, Kemi; Belley-Cote, Emilie; Balasubramanian, Kumar; Islam, Shofiqul; Yacoub, Magdi H; Huffman, Mark D; Harkness, Karen; Grinvalds, Alex; McKelvie, Robert; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Yusuf, Salim

    2017-07-01

    Most data on mortality and prognostic factors in patients with heart failure come from North America and Europe, with little information from other regions. Here, in the International Congestive Heart Failure (INTER-CHF) study, we aimed to measure mortality at 1 year in patients with heart failure in Africa, China, India, the Middle East, southeast Asia and South America; we also explored demographic, clinical, and socioeconomic variables associated with mortality. We enrolled consecutive patients with heart failure (3695 [66%] clinic outpatients, 2105 [34%] hospital in patients) from 108 centres in six geographical regions. We recorded baseline demographic and clinical characteristics and followed up patients at 6 months and 1 year from enrolment to record symptoms, medications, and outcomes. Time to death was studied with Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for demographic and clinical variables, medications, socioeconomic variables, and region. We used the explained risk statistic to calculate the relative contribution of each level of adjustment to the risk of death. We enrolled 5823 patients within 1 year (with 98% follow-up). Overall mortality was 16·5%: highest in Africa (34%) and India (23%), intermediate in southeast Asia (15%), and lowest in China (7%), South America (9%), and the Middle East (9%). Regional differences persisted after multivariable adjustment. Independent predictors of mortality included cardiac variables (New York Heart Association Functional Class III or IV, previous admission for heart failure, and valve disease) and non-cardiac variables (body-mass index, chronic kidney disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). 46% of mortality risk was explained by multivariable modelling with these variables; however, the remainder was unexplained. Marked regional differences in mortality in patients with heart failure persisted after multivariable adjustment for cardiac and non-cardiac factors. Therefore, variations in mortality

  17. Strategies to Prevent Anthracycline-Related Congestive Heart Failure in Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saro H. Armenian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular complications are a leading cause of therapy-related morbidity and mortality in long-term survivors of childhood malignancy. In fact, childhood cancer survivors are at a 15-fold risk of developing CHF compared to age-matched controls. There is a strong dose-dependent association between anthracycline exposure and risk of CHF, and the incidence increases with longer followup. Outcome following diagnosis of CHF is generally poor, with overall survival less than 50% at 5 years. The growing number of childhood cancer survivors makes it imperative that strategies be developed to prevent symptomatic heart disease in this vulnerable population. We present here an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention strategies for childhood cancer survivors at high risk for CHF, drawing on lessons learned from prevention studies in nononcology populations as well as from the more limited experience in cancer survivors.

  18. Diuretic treatment in decompensated cirrhosis and congestive heart failure: effect of posture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring-Larsen, H; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Wilken, C

    1986-01-01

    in the supine position or normal daily activity in the upright position for the next six hours. Two days later the procedure was repeated, the patients being assigned to the other posture. The diuretic response was similar in patients with heart failure and cirrhosis, and was significantly greater in the supine...... than in the upright position: mean 1133 v 626 ml/6 h (p less than 0.01). The natriuresis was similarly larger during recumbency: mean sodium 96 v 45 mmol(mEq)/6h (p less than 0.01), and the excreted potassium in six hours was similar in both postures. The glomerular filtration rate was 100 and 66 ml...

  19. Relief and Recurrence of Congestion During and After Hospitalization for Acute Heart Failure: Insights from DOSE-AHF and CARRESS-HF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, Anuradha; McNulty, Steven E.; Mentz, Robert J.; Dunlay, Shannon; Vader, Justin M.; AbouEzzeddine, Omar F.; DeVore, Adam D.; Khazanie, Prateeti; Redfield, Margaret M.; Goldsmith, Steven R.; Bart, Bradley A.; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Felker, Michael; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Stevenson, Lynne W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Congestion is the most frequent cause for hospitalization in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Although decongestion is a major goal of acute therapy, it is unclear how the clinical components of congestion (e.g., peripheral edema, orthopnea) contribute to outcomes after discharge or how well decongestion is maintained. Methods and Results A post-hoc analysis was performed of 496 patients enrolled in the DOSE-AHF and CARRESS-HF trials during hospitalization with ADHF and clinical congestion. A simple “orthodema” congestion score was generated based on symptoms of orthopnea (≥2 pillows=2 points, <2 pillows=0 points) and peripheral edema (trace=0 points, moderate=1 point, severe=2 points) at baseline, discharge, and 60-day follow-up. Orthodema scores were classified as absent (score of 0), low-grade (score of 1–2), and high-grade (score of 3–4), and the association with death, rehospitalization or unscheduled medical visits through 60 days was assessed. At baseline, 65% of patients had high-grade orthodema and 35% had low-grade orthodema. At discharge, 52% patients were free from orthodema at discharge (score = 0) and these patients had lower 60-day rates of death, rehospitalization, or unscheduled visits (50%) compared to those with low-grade or high-grade orthodema (52% and 68%, respectively, p=0.038). Of the patients without orthodema at discharge, 27% relapsed to low-grade orthodema and 38% to high-grade orthodema at 60-day follow-up. Conclusions Increased severity of congestion by a simple orthodema assessment is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Despite intent to relieve congestion, current therapy often fails to relieve orthodema during hospitalization or to prevent recurrence after discharge. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT00608491, NCT00577135. PMID:26041600

  20. Association of persistent and transient worsening renal function with mortality risk, readmissions risk, length of stay, and costs in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer JB

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jacqueline B Palmer,1 Howard S Friedman,2 Katherine Waltman Johnson,1 Prakash Navaratnam,2 Stephen S Gottlieb3 1Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 2DataMed Solutions, LLC, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: Data comparing effects of transient worsening renal function (WRFt and persistent WRF (WRFp on outcomes in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure (AHF are lacking. We determined the characteristics of hospitalized AHF patients who experienced no worsening renal function (non-WRF, WRFt, or WRFp, and the relationship between cohorts and AHF-related outcomes. Methods and results: A patient’s first AHF hospitalization (index was identified in the Cerner Health Facts® database (January 2008-March 2011. Patients had WRF if serum creatinine (SCr was ≥0.3 mg/dL and increased ≥25% from baseline, and they were designated as WRFp if present at discharge or WRFt if not present at discharge. A total of 55,436 patients were selected (non-WRF =77%, WRFp =10%, WRFt =13%. WRFp had greater comorbidity burden than WRFt. At index hospitalization, WRFp patients had the highest mortality, whereas WRFt patients had the longest length of stay (LOS and highest costs. These trends were observed at 30, 180, and 365 days postdischarge and confirmed by multivariable analyses. WRF patients had more AHF-related readmissions than non-WRF patients. In sensitivity analyses of the patient subset with live index hospitalization discharges, postdischarge LOS and costs were highest in WRFt patients, whereas mortality associated with a HF hospitalization was significantly higher for WRF patients vs non-WRF patients, with no difference between WRFp and WRFt. Conclusion: In patients hospitalized for AHF, WRFp was associated with the highest mortality, whereas WRFt was associated with the highest LOS and costs. WRF patients had higher readmissions than non

  1. Sustained cardiac diastolic changes elicited by ultrafiltration in patients with moderate congestive heart failure: pathophysiological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, M; Marenzi, G C; Agostoni, P G; Doria, E; Barbier, P; Muratori, M; Celeste, F; Guazzi, M D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the pathophysiological (cardiac function and physical performance) significance of clinically silent interstitial lung water accumulation in patients with moderate heart failure; to use isolated ultrafiltration as a means of extravascular fluid reabsorption. DESIGN--Echocardiographic, Doppler, chest x-ray evaluations, and cardiopulmonary tests at baseline, soon after ultrafiltration (veno venous extracorporeal circuit), and four days, one month, and three months later. SETTING--University institute of cardiology. SUBJECTS--24 patients with heart failure due to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy or ischaemic myocardial disease with sinus rhythm and ejection fraction less than 35%. Twelve were randomised to ultrafiltration and 12 were taken as controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Left ventricular systolic function (from ultrasonography); Doppler evaluation of mitral, tricuspid, and aortic flow and echo-Doppler determination of cardiac output; radiological score of extravascular lung water; right and left ventricular filling pressures; oxygen consumption at peak exercise and exercise tolerance time in cardiopulmonary tests. RESULTS--Soon after ultrafiltration (1976 (760) ml of fluid removed) the following was observed: a reduction in radiological score of extravascular lung water (from 15(1) to 9(1)) and of right (from 7.1 (2.3) to 2.3 (1.7) mm Hg) and left (from 17.6 (8.8) to 9.5 (6.4) mm Hg) ventricular filling pressures; an increase in oxygen consumption at peak exercise (from 15.8 (3.3) to 17.6 (2) ml/min/kg) and of tolerance time (from 444 (138) to 508 (134) s); a slight decrease in atrial and ventricular dimensions; no changes in the systolic function of the left ventricle; a reduction of the early to late filling ratio in both ventricles (mitral valve from 2 (2) to 1.1 (1.1)); (tricuspid valve from 1.3 (1.3) to 0.69 (0.18)) and an increase in the deceleration time of mitral and tricuspid flow, reflecting a redistribution of filling to late

  2. Oral administration of eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid modifies cardiac function and ameliorates congestive heart failure in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanushi, Tomoko T; Kabuto, Hideaki; Hirakawa, Eiichiro; Janjua, Najma; Takayama, Fusako; Mankura, Mitsumasa

    2014-04-01

    This study assessed the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on normal cardiac function (part 1) and congestive heart failure (CHF) (part 2) through electrocardiogram analysis and determination of EPA, DHA, and arachidonic acid (AA) concentrations in rat hearts. In part 2, pathologic assessments were also performed. For part 1 of this study, 4-wk-old male rats were divided into a control group and 2 experimental groups. The rats daily were orally administered (1 g/kg body weight) saline, EPA-ethyl ester (EPA-Et; E group), or DHA-ethyl ester (DHA-Et; D group), respectively, for 28 d. ECGs revealed that QT intervals were significantly shorter for groups E and D compared with the control group (P ≤ 0.05). Relative to the control group, the concentration of EPA was higher in the E group and concentrations of EPA and DHA were higher in the D group, although AA concentrations were lower (P ≤ 0.05). In part 2, CHF was produced by subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline into 5-wk-old rats. At 3 d before monocrotaline injection, rats were administered either saline, EPA-Et, or DHA-Et as mentioned above and then killed at 21 d. The study groups were as follows: normal + saline (control), CHF + saline (H group), CHF + EPA-Et (HE group), and CHF + DHA-Et (HD group). QT intervals were significantly shorter (P ≤ 0.05) in the control and HD groups compared with the H and HE groups. Relative to the H group, concentrations of EPA were higher in the HE group and those of DHA were higher in the control and HD groups (P ≤ 0.05). There was less mononuclear cell infiltration in the myocytes of the HD group than in the H group (P = 0.06). The right ventricles in the H, HE, and HD groups showed significantly increased weights (P ≤ 0.05) compared with controls. The administration of EPA-Et or DHA-Et may affect cardiac function by modification of heart fatty acid composition, and the administration of DHA-Et may ameliorate CHF.

  3. Effects of perindopril on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in patients with congestive heart failure: comparison with enalapril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu; Toyama, Takuji; Suzuki, Tadashi; Kurabayashi, Masahiko [Gunma University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Kumakura, Hisao; Takayama, Yoshiaki; Ichikawa, Shuichi [Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan, Department of Internal Medicine, Gunma (Japan)

    2005-08-01

    The production of aldosterone in the heart is suppressed by the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor perindopril in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Moreover, perindopril has been reported to have more cardioprotective effects than enalapril. Forty patients with CHF [left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <45%; mean 33{+-}7%] were randomly assigned to perindopril (2 mg/day; n=20) or enalapril (5 mg/day; n=20). All patients were also treated with diuretics. The delayed heart/mediastinum count (H/M) ratio, delayed total defect score (TDS) and washout rate (WR) were determined from {sup 123}I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) images, and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations were measured before and 6 months after treatment. The left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) and LVEF were also determined by echocardiography. After treatment, in patients receiving perindopril, TDS decreased from 39{+-}10 to 34{+-}9 (P<0.01), H/M ratios increased from 1.62{+-}0.27 to 1.76{+-}0.29 (P<0.01), WR decreased from 50{+-}14% to 42{+-}14% (P<0.05) and plasma BNP concentrations decreased from 226{+-}155 to 141{+-}90 pg/ml (P<0.0005). In addition, the LVEDV decreased from 180{+-}30 to 161{+-}30 ml (P<0.05) and the LVESV decreased from 122{+-}35 to 105{+-}36 ml (P<0.05). Although the LVEF tended to increase, the change was not statistically significant (from 33{+-}8% to 36{+-}12%; P=NS). On the other hand, there were no significant changes in these parameters in patients receiving enalapril. Plasma BNP concentrations, {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphic and echocardiographic parameters improved after 6 months of perindopril treatment. These findings indicate that perindopril treatment can ameliorate the cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and the left ventricular performance in patients with CHF. (orig.)

  4. Worsening renal function and outcome in heart failure patients with reduced and preserved ejection fraction and the impact of angiotensin receptor blocker treatment : data from the CHARM-study programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, Kevin; Solomon, Scott D.; Pfeffer, Marc A.; Swedberg, Karl; Yusuf, Salim; Young, James B.; Rouleau, Jean L.; Granger, Christopher B.; McMurray, John J. V.

    2016-01-01

    Aims We investigated the association between worsening renal function (WRF) that occurs during renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition initation and outcome in heart failure (HF) patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) and compared this with HF patients with reduced ejection

  5. Safety and Efficacy of Eplerenone in Patients at High Risk for Hyperkalemia and/or Worsening Renal Function Analyses of the EMPHASIS-HF Study Subgroups (Eplerenone in Mild Patients Hospitalization And SurvIval Study in Heart Failure)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschalier, Romain; McMurray, John J. V.; Swedberg, Karl; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Krum, Henry; Pocock, Stuart J.; Shi, Harry; Vincent, John; Rossignol, Patrick; Zannad, Faiez; Pitt, Bertram

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The study sought to investigate the safety and efficacy of eplerenone in patients at high risk for hyperkalemia or worsening renal function (WRF) in EMPHASIS-HF, a trial that enrolled patients at least 55 years old with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF), in New York

  6. Osteoporosis and congestive heart failure (CHF) in the elderly patient: double disease burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Raya, Suzan; Abou-Raya, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the association between osteoporosis and CHF in elderly patients and to assess the effect of physical performance, vitamin D levels, inflammatory markers on this association. One hundred and twenty-six consecutive patients aged 65 years and above, with moderate to severe CHF who presented to our institution for CHF management and 54 age- and sex-matched controls were screened for osteoporosis. All patients were thoroughly interrogated for cause of CHF, medications, smoking, alcohol use, additional comorbidities and previous falls/fractures. A physical examination was performed to assess CHF severity and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN). Physical performance assessment included grip strength, 6-min walk, "Get up and Go Test", activities of daily living (ADL) and frailty assessment. Biochemical assessment included measurement of levels of serum calcium, phosphorus, 1,25-dihyroxycholecalciferol=1,25(OH)(2)D (vitamin D(3)) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The BMD-Z-scores were significantly lower in HF patients compared to the non-HF controls. Furthermore, there was an association between the ejection fraction (EF) and the BMD-Z-scores. HF patients were significantly more likely to have poor physical performance, a higher frailty composite score, higher TNF-alpha and lower 1,25(OH)(2)D levels. A significant association was found between EF and frailty score, pCHF is likely to increase fracture risk. Thus, strategies for optimal treatment of CHF and for optimizing vitamin D(3), calcium and physical activity to improve quality of life (QoL) in these patients who have double disease burden are critical in these individuals.

  7. A comparison of congestive heart failure readmissions among teaching and nonteaching hospital services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio, Carlos; House, Jeffrey; Ibrahim, Saif; Touchan, Jean N; Mooradian, Ariana

    2014-08-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of hospitalization in the United States. With the population trend shifting to a higher volume of elderly adults, the efficient management of HF will become increasingly essential. The development and implementation of The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and subsequent changes in reimbursement practices have made 30-day readmission rates a topic of much interest and relevance. The aim of the study was to compare rates of readmission among teaching and nonteaching hospitals. The authors gathered retrospective data on HF quality measures and readmission rates between August 2011 and July 2012, extracted from the institution's managerial accounting database. These data were compared among teaching and nonteaching hospitals. Patient demographics, readmission rates, readmission diagnoses, severity of illness, patient disposition, medications prescribed, cost of services, and mortality were reviewed. Analysis of variance was used for continuous variables; χ(2) analysis was used for evaluating categorical variables. A higher proportion of patients on the cardiology teaching service were men than on either the medicine teaching service or the medicine nonteaching service. Length of stay, case costs, and care costs were lowest for the cardiology teaching service; however, patient illness severity was lower on this service than on the other two services. Overall, readmissions and mortality were similar among all groups, but readmission for the same diagnosis was more likely on the cardiology service than on the medicine teaching and nonteaching services. Studies comparing teaching and nonteaching providers for an HF diagnosis are needed. Hospital readmission and mortality rates were similar across services and compared favorably with national data. Opportunities that target cost reduction and length of stay may be leveraged.

  8. The Efficacy of Tolvaptan in Congestive Heart Failure Patients with and Without Hypoalbuminemia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Toshitaka; Yakushiji, Tadayuki; Igawa, Wataru; Ono, Morio; Kido, Takehiko; Ebara, Seitaro; Yamashita, Kennosuke; Yamamoto, Myong Hwa; Saito, Shigeo; Hoshimoto, Koichi; Amemiya, Kisaki; Isomura, Naoei; Araki, Hiroshi; Ochiai, Masahiko

    2015-10-01

    Heart failure (HF) with hypoalbuminemia is associated with poor response to conventional therapy. We investigated whether tolvaptan, a potent aquaretic agent, might be of benefit in HF patients with hypoalbuminemia. We prospectively enrolled 40 patients hospitalized for HF. Patients received conventional therapy including loop diuretics. We subsequently added tolvaptan in the range of 3.75-15 mg daily and it was discontinued after improvement of HF symptoms. We compared clinical and laboratory data in HF patients with and without hypoalbuminemia (defined as serum albumin Tolvaptan was administered in 18 HF patients with hypoalbuminemia (Group A) and 22 HF patients without hypoalbuminemia (Group B). The mean serum albumin was 2.63 ± 0.27 and 3.46 ± 0.25 g/dL, respectively. The average urine output on tolvaptan increased significantly in both groups (1644.4 ± 797.6-3011.6 ± 1453.8 mL/day, P = 0.004; 1459 ± 612.7-2112.2 ± 724.5 mL/day, P = 0.008; respectively). In addition, we observed higher urine output on therapy in Group A than in Group B (P = 0.015). There was a moderate negative correlation between serum albumin and average urine output on tolvaptan (r = -0.42, P = 0.007). The addition of tolvaptan to low dose loop diuretics might be an effective strategy for treatment of HF patients with hypoalbuminemia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Admission plasma neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) predicts worsening renal function during hospitalization and post discharge outcome in patients with acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzuoli, Alberto; Ruocco, Gaetano; Beltrami, Matteo; Franci, Beatrice; Pellegrini, Marco; Lucani, Barbara; Nuti, Ranuccio; Ronco, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    Abstract Background: The role of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has been described in chronic heart failure (HF), however less data are available in patients admitted for acute HF. We evaluated the role of NGAL in predicting in-hospital worsening renal function (WRF) and post-discharge follow-up during six months period in patients with acute HF. All patients were submitted to creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) measurement during hospitalization and before discharge. Patients with chronic kidney dysfunction (CKD) demonstrated higher NGAL respect to subject with preserved renal function (241 ± 218 and 130 ± 80 ng/ml; P = 0.0001). In subgroup that developed WRF during hospitalization, NGAL levels were significantly increased respect to patients without WRF (272 ± 205 versus 136 ± 127 ng/ml; P = 0.0001). A cut off of 134 ng/ml has been related to WRF with good sensibility and specificity (92% and 71% AUC 0.83; P = 0.001). Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that cut-off of 134 ng/ml was the only marker related to death (HR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.24-2.45; P 130 ng/ml was associated with adverse events during a six-month period. Admission NGAL measurement appears a sensible tool for in-hospital WRF prediction as well as an early marker for adverse outcome during post discharge vulnerable phase.

  10. A randomized clinical trial of hospital-based, comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care for patients with congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, or high risk of ischemic heart disease (the DANREHAB trial)--design, intervention, and population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe Olsen; Soja, Anne Merete Boas; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    randomized clinical trial to clarify whether hospital-based comprehensive CR is superior to usual care for patients with congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, or high risk for ischemic heart disease. A combined primary outcome measure included total mortality, myocardial infarction...... management, and clinical assessment. STUDY POPULATION: Of 5060 discharged patients, 1614 (32%) were eligible for the trial and 770 patients were randomized (47% of those eligible). Participants were younger (P ... that a large-scale, centrally randomized clinical trial on comprehensive CR can be conducted among a broadly defined patient group, but reaching the stipulated number of 1800 patients was difficult. Although the study included relatively many women and older people, elderly patients and patients with high...

  11. Factors associated with increased risk for dementia in individuals age 80 years or older with congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelm, Carina; Broström, Anders; Dahl, Anna; Johansson, Boo; Fredrikson, Mats; Strömberg, Anna

    2014-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence shows that individuals diagnosed with congestive heart failure (CHF) are at a higher risk for dementia. However, the prevalence rate of dementia among persons with CHF in very old individuals has not been previously reported, and little is known about the comorbidities that place old persons with CHF at a higher risk for dementia. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of dementia in individuals 80 years or older who have CHF with that in individuals without CHF and to identify factors related to dementia in individuals diagnosed with CHF. A total of 702 participants from a Swedish population-based longitudinal study (Octogenerian Twin) were included. The group consisted of same-sex twin pairs, age 80 years or older, and 138 participants had CHF. Dementia was diagnosed according to criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised. Generalized estimating equations including gender, age and educational level, waist circumference, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, depression, and blood values were used in a case-control analysis. Individuals with CHF had a significantly higher prevalence of vascular dementia, 16% vs 6% (P dementia, 40% vs 30% (P depression, hypertension, and/or increased levels of homocysteine were all associated with a higher risk for dementia in individuals with CHF. Diabetes was specifically associated with an increased risk for vascular dementia. The prevalence of dementia was higher among individuals with CHF than in those without CHF. Diabetes, depression, and hypertension in patients with CHF require special attention from healthcare professionals because these conditions are associated with an elevated risk for dementia. Higher levels of homocysteine were also found to be a marker of dementia in patients with CHF. Further research is needed to identify the factors related to dementia in individuals 80 years or older diagnosed with CHF.

  12. Is ventilatory efficiency (VE/VCO(2) slope) associated with right ventricular oxidative metabolism in patients with congestive heart failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukkonen, Heikki; Burwash, Ian G; Dafoe, William; de Kemp, Robert A; Haddad, Haissam; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Davies, Ross A; Gannon, Edward K; Dasilva, Jean N; Beanlands, Rob S B

    2008-11-01

    The relationship between minute ventilation and the rate of CO2 elimination (VE/VCO2 slope) is associated with mortality in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). The VE/VCO2 slope > or =34 denotes a poor prognosis and has been proposed to reflect abnormalities in pulmonary perfusion. To study whether increased VE/VCO2 slope is associated with elevated right ventricular (RV) oxidative metabolism relative to the left ventricle (LV). 21 patients with stable NYHA II-III CHF underwent symptom limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Dynamic [(11)C]acetate positron emission tomography (PET) was used to measure oxidative metabolism (k(mono)) of the LV and RV. Corrected RV oxidative metabolism (RVOx) was calculated as RV/LV k(mono) ratio. Peak VO2 was 16.2+/-4.1 ml/min/kg and the VE/VCO2 slope was 33.4+/-6.1. LV and RV k(mono) were 0.046+/-0.009 and 0.037+/-0.007 min(-1), respectively, with a RVOx of 0.83+/-0.17. There was a good correlation between RVOx and the VE/VCO2 slope (r=0.61, p=0.0034). RVOx was 0.77+/-0.16 in patients with a VE/VCO2 slope slope > or =34 (p=0.047). RVOx correlates with VE/VCO2 slope in CHF patients. This supports the hypothesis that pulmonary vascular resistance is a determinant of the VE/VCO2 slope.

  13. Impact of right ventricular distensibility on congestive heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Daisuke; Aasanoi, Hidetsugu; Ushijima, Ryuichi; Noto, Takahisa; Takagawa, Junya; Ishise, Hisanari; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2017-12-13

    To elucidate involvement of age-related impairments of right ventricular (RV) distensibility in the elderly congestive heart failure (CHF), we examined the prevalence of less-distensible right ventricle in patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) over a wide range of ages. In 893 patients aged from 40 to 102 years, we simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram, phonocardiogram, and jugular venous pulse wave. Using signal-processing techniques, the prominent 'Y' descent of jugular pulse waveform was detected as a hemodynamic sign of a less-distensible right ventricle. Prevalence of less-distensible right ventricle and elevated RV systolic pressure increased along with aging from the 50s to the 90s in an exponential fashion from 3.3 and 12% up to 33 and 61%, respectively (p right ventricle (Odds ratio, 1.05 per 1 year, p = 0.003; and 1.03 per 1 mmHg, p = 0.026, respectively). The elderly CHF was associated with high prevalence of the less-distensible right ventricle and higher RV systolic pressure, both of which were independent risk factors for CHF (Odds ratio, 5.27, p = 0.001, and 1.08 per 1 mmHg, p right ventricle and a high RV systolic pressure seems to be related to developing CHF. The less-distensible right ventricle and elevated RV systolic pressure are closely associated with CHF with preserved LVEF in the elderly patients.

  14. Role of hypertension on new onset congestive heart failure in patients receiving trastuzumab therapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giulia; Cioffi, Giovanni; Gori, Stefania; Tuccia, Fausto; Boccardi, Lidia; Khoury, Georgette; Lestuzzi, Chiara; Maurea, Nicola; Oliva, Stefano; Faggiano, Pompilio; Tarantini, Luigi

    2014-02-01

    Adjuvant trastuzumab therapy improves survival of Human Epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive women with early breast cancer (EBC). Trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity is not uncommon. In the setting of community patients, the incidence, timing and phenotype of new onset congestive heart failure (CHF) is unknown. Forty hundred and ninety nine consecutive HER2-positive women (mean age 55 ± 11) with EBC treated with trastuzumab between January 2008 and June 2009 at 10 Italian institutions were followed-up for 1 year. We evaluated incidence, time of occurrence, clinical features associated with CHF. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was evaluated by echocardiography at baseline and 3, 6, 9and 12 months during trastuzumab therapy. CHF occurred in 16 patients (3.2%), who were older, more hypertensive and with a higher degree of hypertension in comparison with patients who did not have CHF. All CHF patients had a significant reduction in LVEF with a mean peak of -12 points % detected at 3-month follow-up. CHF occurred in seven patients (44%) within 3-month follow-up, in four patients (25%) between 3-6 months, in three patients (19%) between 6-9 months and in two patients (12%) between 9 and 12 months. Trastuzumab was discontinued in 10 of 16 patients and re-started in five after LVEF recovery and clinical improvement. New onset CHF was predicted by the presence of hypertension [OR 2.9 (CI 1.1-7.9]). New onset CHF occurs seldom in HER2-positive women with EBC, prevalently in the first 6 months of therapy. CHF is associated with a significant reduction in LVEF and is predicted by a history of hypertension.

  15. Orthostatic hypotension and the risk of congestive heart failure: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension (OH has been related to the increased risk of future congestive heart failure (CHF events. However, the overall quantitative estimate of predictive ability of OH for CHF has not been determined. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between OH and incident CHF. METHODS: Prospective cohort studies relevant to the aim of the study were identified by searching of Medline and Embase databases up to December 25, 2012 without restrictions and by reviewing the reference lists from retrieved articles. RESULTS: A total of 51270 subjects and 3603 incident CHF cases from 4 prospective cohorts were included in the meta-analysis. Using random effect model, the pooled result indicated that presence of OH at baseline was significantly associated with an increased risk for future CHF outcomes (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.30, 95% confidence interval 1.09-1.55; p = 0.004. Results of stratified analysis suggested that the association between OH and CHF incidence seemed to be significant in middle-age subjects, or the individuals with hypertension and diabetes at baseline, but did not significant in the elderly subjects or those without hypertension or diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis confirmed that presence of OH is related to a significant increased risk for development of CHF in the future. Studies are needed to explore the potential mechanisms underlying this association. More importantly, screen for OH may be of great clinical significance for the early identification of subjects at higher risk for development of CHF.

  16. Increased serum C-reactive protein concentrations in dogs with congestive heart failure due to myxomatous mitral valve disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, M J; Ljungvall, I; Hillström, A; Møller, J E; Hagman, R; Falk, T; Höglund, K; Häggström, J; Olsen, L H

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease in humans and dogs is associated with mildly increased circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP). Few studies have evaluated associations between circulating CRP and canine myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and the results reported have been divergent. The aim of this study was to investigate whether serum concentrations of CRP, determined using a novel automated canine-specific high-sensitivity CRP assay (Gentian hsCRP), were associated with severity of MMVD and selected clinical variables in dogs. The study included 188 client-owned dogs with different severities of MMVD. Dogs were classified based on ACVIM consensus statement guidelines (group A, n = 58; group B1, n = 56; group B2, n = 38; group C, n = 36). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. Dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF; group C) had significantly higher CRP concentrations (median, 2.65 mg/L; quartile 1-quartile 3, 1.09-5.09) compared to dogs in groups A (median, 0.97 mg/L; quartile 1-quartile 3, disease severity, including left atrial to aortic root ratio (P = 0.0002, adjusted r(2) = 0.07) and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter normalised for bodyweight (P = 0.0005, adjusted r(2) = 0.06), were positively associated with CRP concentration, but the association disappeared if dogs with CHF were excluded from analysis. In conclusion, slightly higher CRP concentrations were found in dogs with CHF whereas severity of asymptomatic MMVD showed no association with CRP concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of Lisinopril and Losartan on Parameters of Cardiac Hemodynamics and Kidney Function in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfiya D. Rasulova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research was to study the comparative influence of lisinopril and losartan on the parameters of cardiac hemodynamics and kidney function state in CHF (Congestive Heart Failure patients with NYHA Functional Class (FC I-III. Material and Methods: The study included 92 CHF patients between the ages of 41 and 75 (mean age 66.3±9.8 yrs with FCI-III of ischemic genesis. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 47 CHF patients with FCI-III who had been receiving losartan for 6 months in addition to standard therapy. Group II consisted of 45 CHF patients with FCI-III who had been receiving lisinopril for 6 months in addition to standard therapy. The dose of losartan was 50–100 mg/day, and lisinopril, 5–10 mg/day. The control group included 20 healthy volunteers. NYHA FC was determined by the 6-minute walk test (6MWT and the Russian scale of evaluation of the clinical condition of the patients. All patients underwent clinical examination, ECG, and echocardiography. Estimated creatinine clearance rate (eCCr was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault formula; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR was calculated using the MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Results: The results obtained show a clear association between maladaptive LV remodeling and kidney dysfunction at CHF. Our analysis revealed the significant direct correlation between EF and eGFR, as well as between 6MWT and eGFR. The 6-month therapy of CHF patients with NYHA FCI-III based on a combination of standard therapy with ACEi/ARB has resulted in a significant improvement in the cardiac hemodynamic, LV myocardial contractility, and renal function, with a more significant effect in the patients treated with losartan.

  18. Serum to urinary sodium concentration ratio is an estimate of plasma renin activity in congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenzi, GianCarlo; Lauri, Gianfranco; Assanelli, Emilio; Grazi, Marco; Campodonico, Jeness; Famoso, Gabriella; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe

    2002-10-01

    We investigated the relationship between plasma renin activity (PRA) and serum ([sNa(+)]) and urinary ([uNa(+)]) sodium concentrations in 124 congestive heart failure (CHF) patients (II-IV NYHA class) and 20 healthy subjects. According to PRA (> or or <135 mEq l(-1)), patients were classified as Group A (normal PRA and normal [sNa(+)], n=39), Group B (increased PRA and normal [sNa(+)], n=62) and Group C (low [sNa(+)], n=23). Measurements were performed at rest and, in 26 cases, after extracorporeal ultrafiltration (UF). At rest, [sNa(+)] and [uNa(+)], and their difference ([sNa(+)]-[uNa(+)]), were linearly correlated with PRA, but the values did not allow differentiation of control subjects from patients or differentiation of patients with from those without renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Conversely, the [sNa(+)]/[uNa(+)] ratio showed the best correlation with PRA (r=0.79, P<0.0001). UF-induced PRA changes were linearly correlated with [sNa(+)]/[uNa(+)] ratio changes (r=0.67, P=0.002), but not with those of [sNa(+)], [uNa(+)] and [sNa(+)]-[uNa(+)]. In CHF, the [sNa(+)]/[uNa(+)] ratio best correlates with PRA and reflects the basal activity as well as the rapid changes (as those induced by UF) of the RAS. Therefore, it can be considered a strong and easily available marker of PRA. Copyright 2002 European Society of Cardiology

  19. Electrocardiographic predictors of incident congestive heart failure and all-cause mortality in postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautaharju, Pentti M; Kooperberg, Charles; Larson, Joseph C; LaCroix, Andrea

    2006-01-31

    Information is limited about ECG predictors of the risk of incident congestive heart failure (CHF), particularly in women without overt manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We evaluated hazard ratios for incident CHF and all-cause mortality using Cox regression in 38,283 participants of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) during a 9-year follow-up. All risk models were adjusted for demographic and available clinical and therapeutic variables (multivariable-adjusted models). A backward selection procedure was used to identify dominant predictors among those that were significant as individual ECG predictors. Eleven ECG variables were significant predictors of incident CHF, with none of them having a significant interaction with baseline CVD status. From 6 dominant ECG predictors, wide QRS/T angle had a nearly 3-fold increased risk in multivariable-adjusted single ECG variable models. Two other repolarization variables, STV5 depression and high TV1 amplitude, and 2 QRS-related variables, QRS non-dipolar voltage and myocardial infarction (MI) by ECG, were all associated with &2-fold increase of incident CHF risk. Overall, 11 of the 12 ECG variables were significant predictors of all-cause mortality. Four variables had a significant interaction with CVD status requiring stratification. Three among these 4 were strong, dominant predictors in the CVD group: ECG MI, wide QRS/T angle, and low TV5 amplitude had risk increase from >2-fold to 3-fold, with considerably lower risks in the CVD-free group. Several repolarization variables in postmenopausal women are predictors of the risk of incident CHF and all-cause mortality as important as old ECG MI.

  20. Augmentation of ECG QRS complexes after fluid removal via a mechanical ultrafiltration pump in patients with congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madias, John E; Guglin, Maya E

    2007-10-01

    Augmentation of the amplitude of ECG QRS complexes, correlating with loss of weight or fluid volume removed, has been documented in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). We investigated the effect of an ultrafiltration (UF) pump on the fluid removal and the amplitude of ECG QRS complexes in patients with CHF. Nine patients aged 48.3 +/- 10.4 years with CHF were treated with an UF system, and weights, fluid removed, and sums of the amplitude of QRS complexes (SigmaQRS), were inter-correlated. UF resulted in removal of 4.62 +/- 1.82 L of fluid, 5.0 +/- 2.9% decrease in the weights (P = 0.002) and 18.1 +/- 16.8% increase in the SigmaQRS (P = 0.012). There was a moderate correlation of % increase in the SigmaQRS and net fluid volume losses (UF + urine - oral intake), (r = 0.67, P = 0.0471, and a poor correlation between % increase in the SigmaQRS and % decrease in weights (r = 0.11, P = 0.77). Correlations of the change in weights after UF with the fluid removed by UF, or with the volume of total fluid loss (including insensible losses) were moderate but barely statistically significant (r = 0.65, P = 0.0559), and (r = 0.65, P = 0.0577), correspondingly. Augmentation of the amplitude of QRS complexes correlates well with net fluid loss in response to UF in patients with CHF, and can be employed as an index of effectiveness of therapy. Also, a model of fluid losses in patients treated for CHF is being proposed.

  1. The resting electrocardiogram in the management of patients with congestive heart failure: established applications and new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madias, John E

    2007-01-01

    The resting electrocardiogram (ECG) furnishes essential information for the diagnosis, management, and prognostic evaluation of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Almost any ECG diagnostic entity may turn out to be useful in the care of patients with CHF, revealing the non-specificity of the ECG in CHF. Nevertheless a number of CHF/ECG correlates have been proposed and found to be indispensable in clinical practice; they include, among others, the ECG diagnoses of myocardial ischemia and infarction, atrial fibrillation, left ventricular hypertrophy/dilatation, left bundle branch block and intraventricular conduction delays, left atrial abnormality, and QT-interval prolongation. In addition to the above well-known applications of the ECG for patients with CHF, a recently described association of peripheral edema (PERED), sometimes even imperceptible by physical examination, with attenuated ECG potentials, could extend further the diagnostic range of the clinician. These ECG voltage attenuations are of extracardiac mechanism, and impact the amplitude of QRS complexes, P-waves, and T-waves, occasionally resulting also in shortening of the QRS complex and QT interval duration. PERED alleviation, in response to therapy of CHF, reverses all above alterations. These fresh diagnostic insights have potential application in the follow-up of patients with CHF, and in their selection for implantation of cardioverter/defibrillator and/or cardiac resynchronization systems. If sought, PERED-induced ECG changes are abundantly present in the hospital and clinic environments; if their detection and monitoring are incorporated in the clinician's "routine," considerable improvements in the care of patients with CHF may be realized.

  2. Effects of ambient air pollution on functional status in patients with chronic congestive heart failure: a repeated-measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Russell S

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies using administrative data report a positive association between ambient air pollution and the risk of hospitalization for congestive heart failure (HF. Circulating levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP are directly associated with cardiac hemodynamics and symptom severity in patients with HF and, therefore, serves as a marker of functional status. We tested the hypothesis that BNP levels would be positively associated with short-term changes in ambient pollution levels among 28 patients with chronic stable HF and impaired systolic function. Methods BNP was measured in whole blood at 0, 6, and 12 weeks. We used linear mixed models to evaluate the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and black carbon and log(BNP. Lags of 0 to 3 days were considered in separate models. We calculated the intraclass correlation coefficient and within-subject coefficient of variation as measures of reproducibility. Results We found no association between any pollutant and measures of BNP at any lag. For example, a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 0.8% (95% CI: -16.4, 21.5; p = 0.94 increase in BNP on the same day. The within-subject coefficient of variation was 45% on the natural scale and 9% on the log scale. Conclusion These results suggest that serial BNP measurements are unlikely to be useful in a longitudinal study of air pollution-related acute health effects. The magnitude of expected ambient air pollution health effects appears small in relation to the considerable within-person variability in BNP levels in this population.

  3. Effects and safety of oral tolvaptan in patients with congestive heart failure: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mei-Yi; Chen, Tzu-Ting; Chen, Ying-Chun; Tarng, Der-Cherng; Wu, Yun-Chun; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Tu, Yu-Kang

    2017-01-01

    Several studies reported treatment benefits of tolvaptan in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). However, the optimal dosage remains unclear. We aimed to compare different dosage of tolvaptan to determine the optimal dosage in terms of the efficacy and safety. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL and ClinicalTrials.gov through Aug 31, 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing tolvaptan of different dosages or to placebo in patients with CHF were included. We used network meta-analysis to look for the optimal dosage in terms of effectiveness and safety. Urine output, body weight change and change in serum sodium were the main outcomes of efficacy. Adverse effects were the secondary outcomes. Quality was assessed by Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Twelve RCTs reporting 14 articles with 5793 patients (mean age, 65.7 ± 11.9 years; 73.7% man) were included. Compared with placebo, the tolvaptan 30 mg had similar effects to tolvaptan 45-90 mg in terms of urine output (mean difference [MD] 2.03 liter; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3 to 2.71), body weight change (MD -1.12 kg; 95% CI -1.37 to -0.88) and change in serum sodium (MD 3.06 meq/L; 95% CI 2.43 to 3.68). Compared with placebo, tolvaptan of different dosage showed a non-significant higher risk of adverse effects. These findings suggest that tolvaptan 30 mg and 45 mg may be the optimum dosage for CHF patients, because of its ability to provide favourable clinical results without greater adverse effects. However, tolvaptan is not beneficial for reducing all-cause mortality in CHF patients.

  4. Effects and safety of oral tolvaptan in patients with congestive heart failure: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yi Wu

    Full Text Available Several studies reported treatment benefits of tolvaptan in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF. However, the optimal dosage remains unclear. We aimed to compare different dosage of tolvaptan to determine the optimal dosage in terms of the efficacy and safety.We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL and ClinicalTrials.gov through Aug 31, 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing tolvaptan of different dosages or to placebo in patients with CHF were included. We used network meta-analysis to look for the optimal dosage in terms of effectiveness and safety. Urine output, body weight change and change in serum sodium were the main outcomes of efficacy. Adverse effects were the secondary outcomes. Quality was assessed by Cochrane risk-of-bias tool.Twelve RCTs reporting 14 articles with 5793 patients (mean age, 65.7 ± 11.9 years; 73.7% man were included. Compared with placebo, the tolvaptan 30 mg had similar effects to tolvaptan 45-90 mg in terms of urine output (mean difference [MD] 2.03 liter; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3 to 2.71, body weight change (MD -1.12 kg; 95% CI -1.37 to -0.88 and change in serum sodium (MD 3.06 meq/L; 95% CI 2.43 to 3.68. Compared with placebo, tolvaptan of different dosage showed a non-significant higher risk of adverse effects.These findings suggest that tolvaptan 30 mg and 45 mg may be the optimum dosage for CHF patients, because of its ability to provide favourable clinical results without greater adverse effects. However, tolvaptan is not beneficial for reducing all-cause mortality in CHF patients.

  5. Hospitalized congestive heart failure patients with preserved versus abnormal left ventricular systolic function: clinical characteristics and drug therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, M M; Feinglass, J; Sy, J; Gheorghiade, M

    1995-12-01

    To compare clinical characteristics of and pharmacologic therapy for hospitalized patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and left ventricular systolic dysfunction or normal left ventricular systolic function. Medical records were reviewed for all patients discharged with a principal diagnosis of CHF from a university hospital and a community hospital between September 1, 1991 and August 31, 1992. Pertinent medical history items and prescribed drug therapies at discharge were recorded for each patient's first calendar year admission. Patients were categorized as having either normal left ventricular systolic function or systolic dysfunction based on the results of echocardiography and radionuclide angiography or contrast ventriculogram. Of 298 patients with CHF, 92 (31%) had normal left ventricular systolic function. Patients with normal systolic function were older, were more often women, were less likely to have a history of coronary artery disease, and were more likely to have a history of hypothyroidism than patients with systolic dysfunction. However, the prevalence of clinical characteristics overlapped considerably between the two groups. Among patients with systolic dysfunction, 79% were discharged on a therapeutic regimen of digoxin, 65% on an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and 26% on either a beta-blocker or a calcium channel blocker. Among patients with normal systolic function, 50% were discharged on a regimen of a beta-blocker or a calcium channel blocker and 38% were discharged on digoxin. Twenty-six percent of patients with normal systolic function and without a history of atrial fibrillation were discharged on a digoxin regimen. Hospitalized CHF patients with normal left ventricular systolic function and those with diminished left ventricular systolic function share many clinical features. Since recommended drug therapy and prognosis differ, our data underscore the importance of diagnostic testing to assess left ventricular systolic

  6. Safety of add-on tolvaptan in patients with furosemide-resistant congestive heart failure complicated by advanced chronic kidney disease: a sub-analysis of a pharmacokinetics/ pharmacodynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Naoto; Kida, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Naoki; Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Miyake, Fumihiko; Kimura, Kenjiro; Shibagaki, Yugo

    2015-07-01

    Treatment of congestive heart failure (CHF) with loop diuretics, such as furosemide, may be associated with complications, including worsening renal function and metabolic or electrolyte disturbances. Coadministration of tolvaptan, a selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, can ameliorate such adverse events by reducing the required dose of loop diuretics; however, the safety of tolvaptan in patients with reduced renal function is not known. As a result, we conducted an exploratory clinical trial of tolvaptan in 22 patients with CHF and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). We classified these patients into three groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate, namely, CKD stages G3b, G4, and G5. Patients were coadministered tolvaptan 15 mg once daily for 7 days after single administration of furosemide. We assessed patients' hemodynamic parameters, serum chemistry values, and body fluid status during the study. On day 8, serum sodium and potassium concentrations were significantly higher than baseline values in the G3b (p=0.020) and G5 groups (p=0.037), respectively. Although serum urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations increased significantly in the G4 group (p=0.017 and p=0.012, respectively), no patient in any of the three groups showed decreased renal function on days 2 and 3. In addition, no significant changes in serum uric acid, blood pressure, or heart rate were observed in any patient in this study. In this short-term pilot study, coadministration of tolvaptan and furosemide appears to be safe in patients with heart failure and CKD.

  7. Evaluation of a self-management programme for congestive heart failure patients: design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Eijk Jacques

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congestive heart failure (CHF has a substantial impact on care utilisation and quality of life. It is crucial for patients to cope with CHF adequately, if they are to live an acceptable life. Self-management may play an important role in this regard. Previous studies have shown the effectiveness of the 'Chronic Disease Self-Management Program' (CDSMP, a group-based cognitive behavioural programme for patients with various chronic conditions. However, the programme's effectiveness has not yet been studied specifically among CHF patients. This paper presents the design of a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of the CDSMP on psychosocial attributes, health behaviour, quality of life, and health care utilisation of CHF patients. Methods/Design The programme is being evaluated in a two-group randomised controlled trial. Patients were eligible if they had been diagnosed with CHF and experienced slight to marked limitation of physical activity. They were selected from the Heart Failure and/or Cardiology Outpatient Clinics of six hospitals. Eligible patients underwent a baseline assessment and were subsequently allocated to the intervention or control group. Patients allocated to the intervention group were invited to attend the self-management programme consisting of six weekly sessions, led by a CHF nurse specialist and a CHF patient. Those allocated to the control group received care as usual. Follow-up measurements are being carried out immediately after the intervention period, and six and twelve months after the start of the intervention. An effect evaluation and a process evaluation are being conducted. The primary outcomes of the effect evaluation are self-efficacy expectancies, perceived control, and cognitive symptom management. The secondary outcome measures are smoking and drinking behaviour, Body Mass Index (BMI, physical activity level, self-care behaviour, health-related quality of life, perceived

  8. Cognitive impairment in heart failure: results from the Trial of Intensified versus standard Medical therapy in Elderly patients with Congestive Heart Failure (TIME-CHF) randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijts, Marjolein; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; Duits, Annelien; Burkard, Thilo; Muzzarelli, Stefano; Maeder, Micha T; Schindler, Ruth; Pfisterer, Matthias E; Brunner-La Rocca, Hans-Peter

    2013-06-01

    Up to 50% of patients with heart failure (HF) may suffer from severe cognitive impairment (SCI), but longitudinal studies are sparse, and effects of changes in HF severity on cognitive function are unknown. Therefore, we assessed the prevalence of SCI in HF patients, its relationship with HF severity, its effects on morbidity and mortality, and the relationship between changes in HF severity and cognitive function. We included 611 patients from the Trial of Intensified versus standard Medical therapy in Elderly patients with Congestive Heart Failure (TIME-CHF) and assessed cognitive function [Hodkinson Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT)] in relation to severity of HF (NYHA class, NT-proBNP) at baseline and 18 months (n = 382) and effects on hospitalization-free survival and mortality. SCI (i.e. AMT score ≤ 7) was present in 9.2% of patients at baseline, but only 20% of them had a diagnosis of dementia. Prevalence of SCI remained stable during follow-up. SCI was present at baseline more often in NYHA IV patients compared with NYHA II [odds ratio 2.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-7.51, P = 0.025], but it was not related to NT-proBNP levels. SCI was related to higher mortality (hazard ratio 1.53, 95% CI 1.02-2.30, P = 0.04), but not hospitalization-free survival. Changes in HF severity were not significantly related to changes in cognitive function. SCI is a frequent, but often unrecognized finding in HF patients, but the influence of HF severity and its changes on cognitive function were less than hypothesized. Trial registration ISRCTN43596477.

  9. Heart failure in low- and middle-income countries: background, rationale, and design of the INTERnational Congestive Heart Failure Study (INTER-CHF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokainish, Hisham; Teo, Koon; Zhu, Jun; Roy, Ambuj; Al-Habib, Khalid; ElSayed, Ahmed; Palileo, Lia; Jaramillo, Patricio Lopez; Karaye, Kamilu; Yusoff, Khalid; Orlandini, Andres; Sliwa, Karen; Mondo, Charles; Lanas, Fernando; Dorairaj, Prabhakar; Huffman, Mark; Badr, Amr; Elmaghawry, Mohamed; Damasceno, Albertino; Belley-Cote, Emilie; Harkness, Karen; Grinvalds, Alex; McKelvie, Robert; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-10-01

    Although heart failure (HF) has been referred to as a global epidemic, most HF information comes from high-income countries, with little information about low-income countries (LIC) and middle-income countries (MIC) in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and South America, which make up the majority of the world's population. The INTERnational Congestive Heart Failure Study is a cohort study of 5,813 HF patients enrolled in 108 centers in 16 LIC and MIC. At baseline, data were recorded on sociodemographic and clinical risk factors, HF etiology, laboratory variables, management, and barriers to evidence-based HF care at the patient, physician, and system levels. We sought to enroll consecutive and consenting patients ≥18 years of age with a clinical diagnosis of HF seen in outpatient clinics (2/3 of patients) or inpatient hospital wards (1/3 of patients). Patients were followed up at 6 and 12 months post-enrollment to record clinical status, treatments, and clinical outcomes such as death and hospitalizations. In the 5,813 enrolled HF patients, the mean age was 59 ± 15 years, 40% were female, 62% had a history of hypertension, 30% had diabetes, 21% had prior myocardial infarction, 64% were recruited from outpatient clinics, 36% lived in rural areas, and 29% had HF with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. This unique HF registry aims to systematically gather information on sociodemographic and clinical risk factors, etiologies, treatments, barriers to evidence-based care, and outcomes of HF in LIC and MIC. This information will help improve the management of HF globally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term administration of tolvaptan increases myocardial remodeling and mortality via exacerbation of congestion in mice heart failure model after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Akiyo; Iwasaku, Toshihiro; Okuhara, Yoshitaka; Naito, Yoshiro; Mano, Toshiaki; Masuyama, Tohru; Hirotani, Shinichi

    2016-10-15

    In contrast to loop diuretics, tolvaptan does not cause neurohormonal activation in several animal heart failure models. However, it remains unknown whether chronic vasopressin type 2 receptor blockade exerts beneficial effects on mortality in murine heart failure after myocardial infarction (MI). In an experimental heart failure model, we tested the hypothesis that tolvaptan reduces myocardial remodeling and mortality. MI was induced in 9-week-old male C57Bl6/J by the left coronary artery ligation. In study 1, animals were randomly assigned to treatment with placebo or tolvaptan starting 14days post-MI. In study 2, animals were randomized to tolvaptan or furosemide+tolvaptan starting 14days post-MI. Interestingly, results showed lower survival rate in tolvaptan group compared to placebo. Tolvaptan group had higher serum osmolality, heavier body weight, more severe myocardial remodeling, and lung congestion at day 28 of drug administration compared to placebo. In study 2, addition of furosemide significantly reduced mortality rate seen with tolvaptan, and presented with decreased osmolality, myocardial remodeling, and lung congestion compared to tolvaptan-treated mice. Increase in proximal tubular expression of aquaporin 1, Angiotensin II, and vasopressin seen with tolvaptan treatments were normalized to basal levels, similar to levels in placebo-treated mice. Contrary to our hypothesis, tolvaptan was associated with increased mortality in murine heart failure after MI. This increase in lung congestion, myocardial remodeling, could be prevented by co-administration of furosemide, which resulted in normalized serum osmolality, neurohormonal activation, and renal aquaporin 1 expression, and hence decreased mortality post-MI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prognostic Value of Different Allelic Polymorphism of Aldosterone Synthase Receptor in a Congestive Heart Failure European Continental Ancestry Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feola, Mauro; Monteverde, Martino; Vivenza, Daniela; Testa, Marzia; Leto, Laura; Astesana, Valentina; Mussapi, Francesco; Vado, Antonello; Merlano, Marco; Lo Nigro, Cristiana

    2017-02-01

    Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is as an 9-exon gene on chromosome 8q22 and exists as a common single nucleotide polymorphism C-T transition for position -344. The aim of this study was to assess the -344T/C polymorphism of the aldosterone synthase promoter in a European continental ancestry congestive heart failure (CHF) population. Patients discharged after an acute decompensation were enrolled and underwent echocardiography, determination of BNP, evaluation of non-invasive cardiac outputs and determination of -344 T/C SNP in the aldosterone synthase gene. 175 patients (137 male; age 69.9 ± 10.2 years) were enrolled. The genotype distribution of -344 T/C SNP demonstrated a TT genotype in 61 patients (34.9%), CT in 80 (45.7%) and finally CC in 34 (19.4%) CHF patients. According to presence of C allele, CHF patients were divided into C group (-CT/CC genotype, 114 subjects) and T Group (-TT genotype, 61 subjects). The two groups did not differ in term of age, non-invasive cardiac output at rest, creatinine level or end-systolic or diastolic left ventricle diameter, LVEF and BNP. In group C patients in comparison than in group T a higher degree of disability (Barthel Index p = 0.004), NYHA class (p = 0.02) and a lower cardiac index (p = 0.01) emerged. Moreover, the two groups showed a similar clinical outcome (death for any cause/hospital readmission for CHF) at 48 month follow-up (p = 0.16; log-rank 1.99). In European continental ancestry patients the C allele (CC or CT) at -344T/C SNP in the aldosterone synthase gene does not significantly influence clinical prognosis of CHF. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of dofetilide on QT dispersion and the prognostic implications of changes in QT dispersion for patients with congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brendorp, Bente; Elming, Hanne; Jun, Li

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: Drug-induced changes in QT dispersion may be a way of detecting harmful repolarisation abnormalities for patients receiving antiarrhythmic drugs affecting ventricular repolarisation. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 463 congestive heart failure (CHF) patients enrolled in the Danish Investigations...... Of Arrhythmia and Mortality On Dofetilide-CHF (DIAMOND-CHF) study, both pre-treatment and on-treatment day 2-6 QT dispersion was available from standard 12-lead ECGs. Patients were randomised in a double-blind manner to receive either placebo or dofetilide, a new class III antiarrhythmic drug. During a median...

  13. Survival after withdrawal of dofetilide in patients with congestive heart failure and a short baseline QTc interval; a follow-up on the Diamond-CHF QT substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brendorp, B; Torp-Pedersen, C; Elming, H

    2003-01-01

    withdrawal of dofetilide. METHODS: Patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and reduced left ventricular function enrolled in the Diamond-CHF (Danish Investigations of Arrhythmia and Mortality on Dofetilide-CHF) study were eligible for our QT substudy provided they were in sinus rhythm and had......% confidence interval 1.1-2.8)[corrected]. CONCLUSIONS: This follow-up study shows significant loss of survival benefit upon withdrawal of dofetilide in patients with CHF and a pre-treatment QTc interval below 429 ms. An independent randomized trial is warranted to validate these results....

  14. Dofetilide in patients with congestive heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction. Danish Investigations of Arrhythmia and Mortality on Dofetilide Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, C; Møller, M; Bloch-Thomsen, P E

    1999-01-01

    and included three days of cardiac monitoring and dose adjustment. The primary end point was death from any cause. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 18 months, 311 patients in the dofetilide group (41 percent) and 317 patients in the placebo group (42 percent) died (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95 percent...... (hazard ratio for the recurrence of atrial fibrillation, 0.35; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.22 to 0.57; Pgroup (3.3 percent) as compared with none in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with congestive heart failure...

  15. Severe starvation hypoglycemia and congestive heart failure induced by thyroid crisis, with accidentally induced severe liver dysfunction and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki; Sasaki, Hideo; Kosuge, Keiichiro; Miyakita, Yasushi; Hayakawa, Masahumi; Suzuki, Akiko; Abe, Eri; Suzuki, Katsunori; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2005-03-01

    A 69-year-old woman caught a cold resulting in nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and severe anorexia. Then she suffered progressively from dyspnea and leg edema, and finally became delirious. On admission severe hypoglycemia, hypothermia, marked tachycardia, generalized edema, mild jaundice and cachexy were noted. EKG showed atrial fibrillation. A chest X-ray, chest CT and echocardiography showed congestive heart failure. Therapeutic use of diuretics induced shock leading to serious liver dysfunction and disseminated intravascular coagulation. However, combined therapy by intravenous glucose, digitalis, diuretics, anti-fibrinolytic drug and hydrocortisone were effective. Addition of antithyroid therapy brought a further favorable outcome.

  16. Ca(2+) sensitisation of force production by noradrenaline in femoral conductance and resistance arteries from rats with postinfarction congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trautner, Simon; Amtorp, Ole; Boesgaard, Soren

    2006-01-01

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that arterial myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity and/or the Ca(2+) sensitising effect of noradrenaline (NA) is enhanced in post-infarction congestive heart failure (CHF), which could contribute to the high peripheral vascular resistance in this condition. Femoral...... using wire myography and the FURA-2 fluorescence technique. In conductance and resistance arteries, the resting levels of [Ca(2+)](i) and tension in physiological saline solution (PSS) and active tension in response to single doses of 125 mM K(+) (KPSS) were unaffected by CHF. During cumulative...

  17. The change of cerebral blood flow after heart transplantation in congestive heart failure: a voxel-based and automatic VOl analysis of Tc-99m ECD SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, I. K.; Kim, J. J.; Lee, C. H.; Lim, K. C.; Moon, D. H.; Rhu, J. S.; Kim, J. S. [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    To investigate the change of global and regional cerebral blood flow after heart transplantation (HT) in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients. Twenty-one patients with CHF who underwent HT (45{+-}12 yrs, M/F=19/2) and 10 healthy volunteers (39{+-}13 yrs, M/F = 7/3) were prospectively included. All patients underwent echocardiography and radionuclide angiography including brain and aorta with brain SPECT which was performed after iv bolus injection of Tc-99m ECD (740MBq) before (175{+-}253 days) and after (129{+-}82 days) HT. Patients were divided into two groups according to the interval between HT and postoperative SPECT [early follow-up (f/u): <6 mo, n=14; late f/u: >6 mo, n=7]. Global CBF (gCBF) of bilateral hemispheres were calculated by Patlak graphical analysis. Absolute rCBF map was obtained from brain SPECT by Lassen's correction algorithm. Age-corrected voxel-based analysis using SPM2 and automatic VOl analysis were performed to assess the rCBF change. Cardiac ejection fraction of all patients improved after HT (20.8%{yields}64.0%). gCBF was reduced compared to normal before HT (35.7{+-}3.9 vs. 49.1{+-}3.0 ml/100g/min; p<0.001) and improved postoperatively (46.6{+-}5.4, p<0.001). The preoperative gCBFs of early and late f/u group were not different (34.6{+-}3.2 vs. 38.0{+-}4.4, p=0.149) but postoperative gCBF (43.9{+-}3.7) of late f/u group was higher than those (52.0{+-}4.0) of early f/u group (p<0.001). On voxel-based analysis, preoperative rCBF was reduced in entire brain but most severely in bilateral superior and inferior frontal cortex, supplementary motor area, precuneus and anterior cingulum, compared to normals (uncorrected p<0.001). After HT, rCBF of these areas improved more significantly in late f/u group than in early f/u group but still lower than normals. Global CBF was significantly reduced in CHF patients and improved after HT. rCBFs of the frontal cortex, precuneus and cingulum were most severely reduced and slowly improved after

  18. Effect of obesity and being overweight on long-term mortality in congestive heart failure: influence of left ventricular systolic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Kragelund, Charlotte B; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: Previous studies have suggested that a high body mass index (BMI) is associated with an improved outcome in congestive heart failure (CHF). However, the studies addressing this problem have not included enough patients with non-systolic heart failure to evaluate how left ventricular systolic...... function interacts with obesity on prognosis in CHF. The aim of this study was to evaluate how BMI influences mortality in patients hospitalized with CHF, and to address in particular whether the effect of BMI is influenced by left ventricular (LV) systolic function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Retrospective...... with increasing BMI from the underweight to the obese. Compared with normal weight, and adjusted for sex and age, risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence limits were: underweight 1.56 (1.33-1.84), overweight 0.90 (0.83-0.97), obese 0.77 (0.70-0.86). Being underweight conferred a greater risk in CHF patients...

  19. Coronary artery aneurysms and congestive heart failure--possible long-term course of Kawasaki disease in an adult--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Y; Takayanagi, K; Inoue, T; Yamaguchi, H; Hayashi, T; Morooka, S; Takabatake, Y; Sato, Y

    1988-07-01

    Multiple coronary artery aneurysms, rarely seen in patients with atherosclerotic heart disease, can be frequently observed in children with Kawasaki disease. However, their long-term clinical courses still remain obscure. A thirty-nine-year-old male came to our clinic because of congestive heart failure. A left ventriculogram revealed highly reduced wall motion. A coronary angiogram showed left main trunk aneurysm with complete occlusion of the left anterior descending artery and ramification of the right coronary artery close to the ostium. Six months after discharge, he died suddenly. On autopsy, aneurysms were observed in the left main trunk and right coronary artery, together with an old anteroseptal myocardial infarction. Although he did not have a clear history of febrile disease in childhood, he was highly suspected to be a long-term survivor of Kawasaki disease because of the unique form and distribution of the coronary artery aneurysms.

  20. A case-crossover study of fine particulate matter air pollution and onset of congestive heart failure symptom exacerbation leading to hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, J M; Wang, L; Guallar, E; Howell, E; Dominici, F; Schwab, M; Ange, B A; Samet, J; Ondov, J; Harrison, D; Geyh, A

    2006-09-01

    Persons with congestive heart failure may be susceptible to ambient air pollution. The authors evaluated the association between exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <2.5 microm (PM2.5) and onset of symptom exacerbation leading to hospital admission in Baltimore, Maryland. They used a case-crossover design for 135 case events occurring among 125 persons with prevalent congestive heart failure who were admitted to a single hospital through the emergency department during 2002. The case period was assigned using three index times: 8-hour and 24-hour periods of symptom onset and date of hospital admission. Controlling for weather, the authors detected a modest relative increase in risk for cases defined by 8-hour symptom onset for an interquartile-range increase in PM2.5 at a 2-day lag (odds ratio=1.09, 95% confidence interval: 0.91, 1.30). A corresponding increase in risk was not observed when admission date was used to define the case period. A series of simulations based on study data indicated that the study had adequate statistical power to detect odds ratios of 1.2 or higher. Although overall findings were not statistically significant, the identification of case events defined by an 8-hour onset period may be more relevant than either a 24-hour onset period or the admission date for estimating harmful effects of air pollutant exposure on cardiovascular health.

  1. Influence of age on the prognostic importance of left ventricular dysfunction and congestive heart failure on long-term survival after acute myocardial infarction. TRACE Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køber, L; Torp-Pedersen, C; Ottesen, M

    1996-01-01

    index independent of age, we performed Cox proportional-hazard models in 4 different age strata ( 75 years). Patients in these strata had 1-year mortality rates of 5%, 11%, 21%, and 32%, respectively. Three-year mortality rates were 11%, 20%, 34......%, and 55%, respectively. The risk ratios (and 95% confidence limits) associated with congestive heart failure in the same 4 age strata were 1.9 (1.3 to 2.9), 2.8 (2.1 to 3.7), 1.8 (1.5 to 2.2) and 1.8 (1.5 to 2.2), respectively. The risk ratios associated with decreasing wall motion index were 6.5 (3.......6 to 11.4), 3.3 (2.3 to 4.6), 2.7 (2.2 to 3.4), and 2.1 (1.7 to 2.6), respectively. In absolute percentages, there was an excess 3-year mortality associated with congestive heart failure in the 4 age strata of 14%, 24%, 25%, and 28% respectively. The absolute excess in 3-year mortality associated with LV...

  2. Influence of age on the prognostic importance of left ventricular dysfunction and congestive heart failure on long-term survival after acute myocardial infarction. TRACE Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køber, L; Torp-Pedersen, C; Ottesen, M

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the importance of congestive heart failure and left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction after an acute myocardial infarction (AIM) on long-term mortality in different age groups. A total of 7,001 consecutive enzyme-confirmed AMIs (6,676 patients) were screened...... index independent of age, we performed Cox proportional-hazard models in 4 different age strata ( 75 years). Patients in these strata had 1-year mortality rates of 5%, 11%, 21%, and 32%, respectively. Three-year mortality rates were 11%, 20%, 34......%, and 55%, respectively. The risk ratios (and 95% confidence limits) associated with congestive heart failure in the same 4 age strata were 1.9 (1.3 to 2.9), 2.8 (2.1 to 3.7), 1.8 (1.5 to 2.2) and 1.8 (1.5 to 2.2), respectively. The risk ratios associated with decreasing wall motion index were 6.5 (3...

  3. PULMONARY ARTERIAL DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH RIGHT-SIDED CARDIAC HYPERTROPHY AND CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE IN ZOO MAMMALS HOUSED AT 2,100 M ABOVE SEA LEVEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-Sallés, Carles; Martínez, Liliana Sofía; Rosas-Rosas, Arely G; Parás, Alberto; Martínez, Osvaldo; Hernández, Alejandra; Garner, Michael M

    2015-12-01

    Subacute and chronic mountain sickness of humans and the related brisket disease of cattle are characterized by right-sided congestive heart failure in individuals living at high altitudes as a result of sustained hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Adaptations to high altitude and disease resistance vary among species, breeds, and individuals. The authors conducted a retrospective survey of right-sided cardiac hypertrophy associated with pulmonary arterial hypertrophy or arteriosclerosis in zoo mammals housed at Africam Safari (Puebla, México), which is located at 2,100 m above sea level. Seventeen animals with detailed pathology records matched the study criterion. Included were 10 maras (Dolichotis patagonum), 2 cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus), 2 capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), and 1 case each of Bennet's wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus), nilgai antelope (Boselaphus tragocamelus), and scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah). All had right-sided cardiac hypertrophy and a variety of arterial lesions restricted to the pulmonary circulation and causing arterial thickening with narrowing of the arterial lumen. Arterial lesions most often consisted of medial hypertrophy or hyperplasia of small and medium-sized pulmonary arteries. All maras also had single or multiple elevated plaques in the pulmonary arterial trunk consisting of fibrosis, accompanied by chondroid metaplasia in some cases. Both antelopes were juvenile and died with right-sided congestive heart failure associated with severe pulmonary arterial lesions. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of cardiac and pulmonary arterial disease in zoo mammals housed at high altitudes.

  4. The Effectiveness of Healthy Lifestyle Promotion Intervention on Quality of Life in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure via Cognitive-Behavioral Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zeraatkar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reduced quality of life in cardiac patients and their frequent hospitalizations in the coronary care units is regarded as a main challenge for such patients. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the effectiveness of healthy lifestyle promotion intervention on quality of life in patients with congestive heart failure via cognitive-behavioral procedure. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, assessment in pretest, posttest, and follow-up along with the control group were applied. Twenty-six patients with congestive heart failure were selected via convenience sampling among patients attended to Shahid Rajaee Heart hospital in Tehran. Then, they were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n=11; under administration of healthy lifestyle promotion intervention via cognitive-behavioral procedure during eight group sessions once a week and control group (n=15. Quality of life was measured for all the participants in three phases of pre-test, post-test and follow-up by Questionnaire of Quality of Life in Patients with Heart Failure (IHF-QoL and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS. Results: According to the results of variance analysis with repeated measures, this intervention was proved to have short-time effects on quality of life and its psychological components (P<0.001. Following the therapy termination, patients were returned to baseline, though the effect of intervention on depression was continued within 2 month follow-up (P<0.001. Conclusion: In regard with the effectiveness of healthy lifestyle promotion intervention via cognitive-behavioral procedure in improving quality of life and its psychological aspects, as well as high costs of hospital and prolonged treatment for these patients, applying this intervention in a permanent manner seem to be beneficial.

  5. Factores determinantes del déficit cognitivo en la insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva Deciding factors of cognitive deficit in congestive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia L Ruiz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva constituye una de las principales causas de hospitalización, morbilidad y mortalidad en los países occidentales. Aunque en Colombia no se conocen con exactitud su incidencia y prevalencia, recientemente se ha planteado que está adquiriendo proporciones epidémicas. Diversos estudios demuestran que los pacientes con esta condición presentan alteraciones cognitivas tales como pérdida de la memoria y déficit de atención, las cuales se relacionan con un peor pronóstico clínico. Los síntomas cognitivos no sólo indican una enfermedad cardiaca más avanzada, sino que también se asocian con pobre adherencia al tratamiento y menor calidad de vida. A pesar de su importancia, los mecanismos fisiopatológicos de esta relación no son claros. Se sugiere que las alteraciones hemodinámicas cerebrales derivadas de la disminución en el gasto cardiaco, así como de la presencia de múltiples microinfartos cerebrales secundarios a microembolismos, podrían relacionarse con alteraciones cognitivas en dichos pacientes. Sin embargo, hasta el momento no existen suficientes datos que permitan confirmar esta hipótesis.Congestive heart failure is a leading cause of hospitalization, morbidity and mortality in the Western countries. Although its incidence and prevalence in Colombia is not fully established, it seems to be acquiring epidemic proportions. Several studies have shown that patients with congestive heart failure present cognitive impairments such as memory loss and attention deficit, which are associated with a worse clinical prognosis. The cognitive symptoms are not only indicative of a more advanced heart disease but are also associated with poor adherence to treatment and lower quality of life. Despite their importance, the pathophysiological mechanisms of this relationship have not been clearly defined. It has been suggested that the cerebral hemodynamic changes resulting from a decrease in cardiac output

  6. Outcome after implantation of cardiac resynchronization/defibrillation systems in patients with congestive heart failure and left bundle-branch block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Giselher; Schilling, Thomas; Kozian, Alf; Lux, Anke; Götte, A; Huth, Christof; Hachenberg, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    The implantation of cardiac resynchronization/defibrillation devices (CRT-Ds) increasingly is used in patients with congestive heart failure and left bundle-branch block. There are no data on the effects of anesthesia and surgery on outcome after implantation. A retrospective, observational study; postoperative survey. University hospital. Three hundred forty-one patients (258 men/83 women, 63 +/- 9 years) with congestive heart failure and left bundle-branch block who underwent CRT-D implantation in 1996 to 2005. Perioperative data were retrieved from the patients' records. Cardiologists caring for the patients were contacted to obtain information on current New York Heart Association (NYHA) status and mortality after CRT-D implantation. Preoperatively, 45 patients were classified as NYHA II, 246 as NYHA III, and 50 as NYHA IV. CRT was performed via thoracotomy in 100 and transvenously in 241 cases. General anesthesia (propofol or sevoflurane and remifentanil) was performed in 273 and local anesthesia (lidocaine) in 68 patients. Hypotension occurred mainly during general anesthesia (43% v 4%). The 30-day mortality was 0%. The postoperative survey started in 2006 and was completed by 215 patients. The mean survival time was 77 months; 151 patients survived the study period. Outcome was not influenced by local and general anesthesia. Presence of preoperative NYHA class >II (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6, confidence interval [CI] = 0.5-5.1), mitral regurgitation (OR = 2.5, CI = 1.2-5.5), and serum creatinine >1.1 mg/dL (OR = 3.0, CI = 1.5-6.2) resulted in an inferior prognosis. In patients with severely impaired cardiac function, general anesthesia for the implantation of a biventricular pacing device can be used with justifiable risk. The method of anesthesia did not influence outcome. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Congestive heart failure presence predicts delayed healing of foot ulcers in diabetes: An audit from a multidisciplinary high-risk foot clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhou, Yoon Ji Jina; Henshaw, F R; McGill, M J; Twigg, S M

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to investigate both established and less well-explored factors as potential predictive variables for failed and delayed ulcer healing. Patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes with foot ulceration presenting consecutively to, and then subsequently managed at, a multidisciplinary, high-risk foot clinic were followed until ulcer healing, amputation or death. Data comprised prospective standardised documentation at each visit and retrospective collection from hospital records, and included patient demographics, comorbidities, laboratory variables, and ulcer infection, depth and area at each presentation. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine independent predictors of failure to heal and delayed healing. Of the 107 consecutive patients studied, 95 (89%) healed overall, 50 (47%) had healed in 12 weeks and the mean healing rate was a 10% decrease in ulcer area per week. Amongst all variables examined, comorbid congestive heart failure (CHF) was the only factor independently predictive of all measured outcomes of failure to heal overall, delayed healing at 12 weeks, and reduced healing rate. Ulcer infection at presentation, longer duration of antibiotic use, and liver enzyme abnormalities of raised ALT and AST:ALTulcer outcomes. Comorbid congestive cardiac failure is predictive of delayed foot ulcer healing rate as well as a lower probability of healing overall. Liver enzyme abnormalities also predicted delayed ulcer healing outcomes. The mechanisms underlying these associations with foot ulcer outcomes in diabetes are unclear. Further studies are needed to determine the role of systematic routine documentation of heart failure and its severity, and then targeting of heart failure to potentially aid the management of foot ulcers in diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The prognostic importance of a history of hypertension in patients with symptomatic heart failure is substantially worsened by a short mitral inflow deceleration time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Gislason, Gunnar H; Weeke, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with heart failure and may contribute to development and course of disease, but the importance of a history of hypertension in patients with prevalent heart failure remains uncertain.......Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with heart failure and may contribute to development and course of disease, but the importance of a history of hypertension in patients with prevalent heart failure remains uncertain....

  9. Intensity of Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) and Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Deaths: A Correlation Study in Louisiana, 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSyone, Lukas; Hand, Julie; Ratard, Raoult C

    2015-01-01

    Influenza infection has been linked to significant morbidity and mortality, especially in vulnerable populations including the elderly and those with chronic disease, such as congestive heart failure (CHF). This correlation analysis used influenza surveillance data and vital statistics mortality data to assess the correlation between influenza-like illness (ILI) and CHF deaths in Louisiana from 2000-2012 on a weekly level and at the seasonal level. The correlation between ILI proportion and mean number of deaths for the entire study period was 0.23. The comparisons made at the seasonal level showed some association between season's intensity and CHF mortality. The clinical implication of this study is that ILI surveillance can be used to issue alert to clinicians who treat CHF patient in order to stress measures aimed at preventing deaths from CHF.

  10. Effectiveness of transcendental meditation on functional capacity and quality of life of African Americans with congestive heart failure: a randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayadevappa, Ravishankar; Johnson, Jerry C; Bloom, Bernard S; Nidich, Sanford; Desai, Shashank; Chhatre, Sumedha; Raziano, Donna B; Schneider, Robert

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a Transcendental Meditation (TM) stress reduction program for African Americans with congestive heart failure (CHF). Randomized, controlled study We recruited 23 African American patients > or = 55 years of age who were recently hospitalized with New York Heart Association class II or III CHF and with an ejection fraction of Depression Scale (CES-D), rehospitalizations, brain natriuretic peptide, and cortisol. Changes in outcomes from baseline to three and six months after treatment were analyzed by using repeated measures analysis of variance, covarying for baseline score. For the primary outcome of functional capacity, the TM group significantly improved on the six-minute walk test from baseline to six months after treatment compared to the HE group (P = .034). On the secondary outcome measures, the TM group showed improvements in SF-36 subscales and total score on the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure scale. On the CES-D, the TM group showed significant decrease from baseline to six months compared to the HE group (P = .03). Also, the TM group had fewer rehospitalizations during the six months of followup. Results indicate that TM can be effective in improving the quality of life and functional capacity of African American CHF patients. Further validation of outcomes is planned via a large, multicenter trial with long-term follow-up.

  11. The effect of family training and support on the quality of life and cost of hospital readmissions in congestive heart failure patients in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanpour-Dehkordi, Ali; Khaledi-Far, Arsalan; Khaledi-Far, Borzoo; Salehi-Tali, Shahriar

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of family training and support on quality of life and cost of hospital readmissions in congestive heart failure patients. In this single-blinded, randomized, controlled trial, the participants were heart failure patients hospitalized in an Iranian hospital. Data were collected from available hospitalized patients. The participants were enrolled through randomized sampling and were divided randomly into two groups, an intervention group and a control group. The intervention group received extra training package for the disease. Training was provided at discharge and three months after. A standard questionnaire to assess the QoL was filled out by both groups at discharge and six months after. Mean scores of QoL domains at the beginning of the study decreased in control group and increased in intervention in comparison with six months after (p<0.01). Nursing care follow-up according to heart failure patients' needs promoted their QoL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF EPLERENONE IN PATIENTS AT HIGH RISK FOR HYPERKALEMIA AND/OR WORSENING RENAL FUNCTION. ANALYSES OF THE EMPHASIS-HF STUDY SUBGROUPS (EPLERENONE IN MILD PATIENTS HOSPITALIZATION AND SURVIVAL STUDY IN HEART FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Eschalier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation articles:R. Eschalier, J.J.V. McMurray, K. Swedberg, D.J. van Veldhuisen, H. Krum, S.J. Pocock, H. Shi, J. Vincent, P. Rossignol, F. Zannad, B. Pitt, for the EMPHASIS-HF Investigators “Safety and Efficacy of Eplerenone in Patients at High Risk for Hyperkalemia and/or Worsening Renal Function. Analyses of the EMPHASIS-HF Study Subgroups (Eplerenone in Mild Patients Hospitalization And SurvIval Study in Heart Failure”  J Am Coll Cardiol 2013;62(17:1585-93; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2013.04.086

  13. Incidence, Determinants, and Prognostic Significance of Hyperkalemia and Worsening Renal Function in Patients With Heart Failure Receiving the Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist Eplerenone or Placebo in Addition to Optimal Medical Therapy Results From the Eplerenone in Mild Patients Hospitalization and Survival Study in Heart Failure (EMPHASIS-HF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossignol, Patrick; Dobre, Daniela; McMurray, John J. V.; Swedberg, Karl; Krum, Henry; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Shi, Harry; Messig, Michael; Vincent, John; Girerd, Nicolas; Bakris, George; Pitt, Bertram; Zannad, Faiez

    Background Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists improve outcomes in patients with systolic heart failure but may induce worsening of renal function (WRF) and hyperkalemia (HK). We assessed the risk factors for mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist-related WRF and for HK, as well as the association

  14. Prognostic importance of a restrictive transmitral filling pattern in patients with symptomatic congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raunsø, Jakob; Møller, Jacob Eifer; Kjaergaard, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Restrictive diastolic filling pattern is associated with increased mortality in patients with myocardial infarction and heart failure. Most studies have excluded patients with atrial fibrillation. The aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic value of a restrictive filling...... pattern in patients with atrial fibrillation. METHODS: Doppler echocardiography including pulsed wave Doppler assessment of transmitral flow was performed in 880 patients with a clinical diagnosis of heart failure on hospital admission. Filling was considered restrictive when the mitral deceleration time...

  15. Sympathetic reflex control of skeletal muscle blood flow in patients with congestive heart failure: evidence for beta-adrenergic circulatory control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassis, E.; Jacobsen, T.N.; Mogensen, F.; Amtorp, O.

    1986-11-01

    Mechanisms controlling forearm muscle vascular resistance (FMVR) during postural changes were investigated in seven patients with severe congestive heart failure (CHF) and in seven control subjects with unimpaired left ventricular function. Relative brachioradial muscle blood flow was determined by the local /sup 133/Xe-washout technique. Unloading of baroreceptors with use of 45 degree upright tilt was comparably obtained in the patients with CHF and control subjects. Control subjects had substantially increased FMVR and heart rate to maintain arterial pressure whereas patients with CHF had decreased FMVR by 51 +/- 11% and had no increase in heart rate despite a fall in arterial pressure during upright tilt. The autoregulatory and local vasoconstrictor reflex responsiveness during postural changes in forearm vascular pressures were intact in both groups. In the patients with CHF, the left axillary nerve plexus was blocked by local anesthesia. No alterations in forearm vascular pressures were observed. This blockade preserved the local regulation of FMVR but reversed the vasodilator response to upright tilt as FMVR increased by 30 +/- 7% (p less than .02). Blockade of central neural impulses to this limb combined with brachial arterial infusions of phentolamine completely abolished the humoral vasoconstriction in the tilted position. Infusions of propranolol to the contralateral brachial artery that did not affect baseline values of heart rate, arterial pressure, or the local reflex regulation of FMVR reversed the abnormal vasodilator response to upright tilt as FMVR increased by 42 +/- 12% (p less than .02). Despite augmented baseline values, forearm venous but not arterial plasma levels of epinephrine increased in the tilted position, as did arteri rather than venous plasma concentrations of norepinephrine in these patients.

  16. Increased stiffness is the major early abnormality in a pig model of severe aortic stenosis and predisposes to congestive heart failure in the absence of systolic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kiyotake; Aguero, Jaume; Oh, Jae Gyun; Hammoudi, Nadjib; Fish, Lauren A; Leonardson, Lauren; Picatoste, Belén; Santos-Gallego, Carlos G; Fish, Kenneth M; Hajjar, Roger J

    2015-05-20

    It remains unclear whether abnormal systolic function and relaxation are essential for developing heart failure in pathophysiology of severe aortic stenosis. Yorkshire pigs underwent surgical banding of the ascending aorta. The animals were followed for up to 5 months after surgery, and cardiac function was assessed comprehensively by invasive pressure-volume measurements, 3-dimensional echocardiography, echocardiographic speckle-tracking strain, and postmortem molecular and histological analyses. Pigs with aortic banding (n=6) exhibited significant left ventricular hypertrophy with increased stiffness compared with the control pigs (n=7) (end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship β: 0.053±0.017 versus 0.028±0.009 mm Hg/mL, P=0.007); however, all other parameters corresponding to systolic function, including ejection fraction, end-systolic pressure-volume relationship, preload recruitable stroke work, echocardiographic circumferential strain, and longitudinal strain, were not impaired in pigs with aortic banding. Relaxation parameters were also similar between groups. Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium (Ca(2+)) ATPase protein levels in the left ventricle were similar. There were significant increases in 3-dimensional echocardiographic left atrial volumes, suggesting the usefulness of these indexes to detect increased stiffness. Right atrial pacing with a heart rate of 120 beats per minute induced increased end-diastolic pressure in pigs with aortic banding in contrast to decreased end-diastolic pressure in the control pigs. Histological evaluation revealed that increased stiffness was accompanied by cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and increased perimysial and perivascular fibrosis. Increased stiffness is the major early pathological process that predisposes to congestive heart failure without abnormalities in systolic function and relaxation in a clinically relevant animal model of aortic stenosis. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart

  17. Tolvaptan in Patients Hospitalized With Acute Heart Failure: Rationale and Design of the TACTICS and the SECRET of CHF Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, G Michael; Mentz, Robert J; Adams, Kirkwood F; Cole, Robert T; Egnaczyk, Gregory F; Patel, Chetan B; Fiuzat, Mona; Gregory, Douglas; Wedge, Patricia; O'Connor, Christopher M; Udelson, James E; Konstam, Marvin A

    2015-09-01

    Congestion is a primary reason for hospitalization in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). Despite inpatient diuretics and vasodilators targeting decongestion, persistent congestion is present in many AHF patients at discharge and more severe congestion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Moreover, hospitalized AHF patients may have renal insufficiency, hyponatremia, or an inadequate response to traditional diuretic therapy despite dose escalation. Current alternative treatment strategies to relieve congestion, such as ultrafiltration, may also result in renal dysfunction to a greater extent than medical therapy in certain AHF populations. Truly novel approaches to volume management would be advantageous to improve dyspnea and clinical outcomes while minimizing the risks of worsening renal function and electrolyte abnormalities. One effective new strategy may be utilization of aquaretic vasopressin antagonists. A member of this class, the oral vasopressin-2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan, provides benefits related to decongestion and symptom relief in AHF patients. Tolvaptan may allow for less intensification of loop diuretic therapy and a lower incidence of worsening renal function during decongestion. In this article, we summarize evidence for decongestion benefits with tolvaptan in AHF and describe the design of the Targeting Acute Congestion With Tolvaptan in Congestive Heart Failure Study (TACTICS) and Study to Evaluate Challenging Responses to Therapy in Congestive Heart Failure (SECRET of CHF) trials. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Differential number of CD34+, CD133+ and CD34+/CD133+ cells in peripheral blood of patients with congestive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzenwanger M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC which are characterised by the simulateous expression of CD34, CD133 and vascular endothelial growth receptor 2 (VEGF 2 are involved in the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure (CHF and their number and function is reduced in CHF. But so far our knowledge about the number of circulating hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (CPC expressing the early hematopoietic marker CD133 and CD34 in CHF is spares and therefore we determined their number and correlated them with New York Heart Association (NYHA functional class. Methods CD34 and CD133 surface expression was quantified by flow cytometry in the peripheral venous blood of 41 healthy adults and 101 patients with various degrees of CHF. Results CD34+, CD133+ and CD34+/CD133+ cells correlated inversely with age. Both the number of CD34+ and of CD34+/CD133+ cells inversely correlated with NYHA functional class. The number of CD133+ cells was not affected by NYHA class. Furthermore the number of CD133+ cells did not differ between control and CHF patients. Conclusion In CHF the release of CD34+, CD133+ and CD34+/CD133+ cells from the bone marrow seems to be regulated differently. Modulating the releasing process in CHF may be a tool in CHF treatment.

  19. The prognostic importance of a history of hypertension in patients with symptomatic heart failure is substantially worsened by a short mitral inflow deceleration time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Gislason, Gunnar H; Weeke, Peter; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Hassager, Christian; Akkan, Dilek; Møller, Jacob E; Køber, Lars; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2012-04-25

    Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with heart failure and may contribute to development and course of disease, but the importance of a history of hypertension in patients with prevalent heart failure remains uncertain. 3078 consecutively hospitalized heart failure patients (NYHA classes II-IV) were screened for the EchoCardiography and Heart Outcome Study (ECHOS). The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was estimated by 2 dimensional transthoracic echocardiography in all patients and a subgroup of 878 patients had additional data on pulsed wave Doppler assessment of transmitral flow available. A restrictive filling (RF) was defined as a mitral inflow deceleration time ≤140 ms. Patients were followed for a median of 6.8 (Inter Quartile Range 6.6-7.0) years and multivariable Cox regression models were used to assess the risk of all-cause mortality associated with hypertension. The study population had a mean age of 73 ± 11 years. 39% were female, 27% had a history of hypertension and 48% had a RF. Over the study period, 64% of the population died. Hypertension was not associated with increased risk of mortality, hazard ratio (HR) 0.95 (0.85-1.05). LVEF did not modify this relationship (p for interaction = 0.7), but RF pattern substantially influenced the outcomes associated with hypertension (p for interaction heart failure, a history of hypertension is associated with a substantially increased relative risk of mortality among patients with a restrictive transmitral filling pattern.

  20. Effects of hope promoting interventions based on religious beliefs on quality of life of patients with congestive heart failure and their families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binaei, Niloufar; Moeini, Mahin; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Najafi, Mostafa; Mohagheghian, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Heart failure is one of the most important and prevalent diseases that may have negative effects on the quality of life (QOL). Today, the promotion of QOL in patients with heart failure is important in nursing care programs. This research aimed to determine the efficacy of hope-promoting interventions based on religious beliefs on the QOL of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial (IRCT2014100619413N1) conducted in Isfahan, Iran, 46 adult patients with CHF were selected and randomly assigned to study and control groups. Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index (QLI) was completed by both groups before, immediately after, and 1 month after the intervention. For the study group participants and their families, 60-min sessions of hope-promoting interventions based on religious beliefs were held twice a week for 3 weeks. Independent t, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), Chi-square, Mann–Whitney, and Fisher's exact tests were adopted for data analysis. Results: The mean (standard deviation) overall QOL score in the area of satisfaction significantly increased in the study group, compared to the controls, immediately [70.7 (8.5) vs. 59.2 (12.5)] and 1 month after the intervention [75.2 (7.4) vs. 59.4 (12.9)] (P < 0.05). There was also a similar difference between the two groups in the area of importance immediately [73.6 (5.8) vs. 65.7 (7.5)] and 1 month after the intervention [76.3 (8.1) vs. 66.8 (8.5)] (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Hope-promoting intervention based on religious beliefs is a useful method for improving QOL in patients with CHF. PMID:26985226

  1. Chronic exposure to ivabradine reduces readmissions in the vulnerable phase after hospitalization for worsening systolic heart failure: a post-hoc analysis of SHIFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komajda, Michel; Tavazzi, Luigi; Swedberg, Karl; Böhm, Michael; Borer, Jeffrey S; Moyne, Aurélie; Ford, Ian

    2016-09-01

    During the post-discharge phase following a heart failure hospitalization (HFH), patients are at high risk of early readmission despite standard of care therapy. We examined the impact of chronic exposure to ivabradine on early readmissions in patients hospitalized for heart failure during the course of the SHIFT study (Systolic Heart Failure treatment with the If inhibitor ivabradine Trial). A total of 1186 of the 6505 randomized patients experienced at least one HFH during the study, and had a more severe profile than those without HFH. Of these 1186 patients, 334 patients (28%) were rehospitalized within 3 months for any reason, mostly for cardiovascular causes (86%), including HFH (61%). Ivabradine was associated with fewer all-cause hospitalizations at 1 month [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-1.00, P post-hoc analysis that chronic exposure to ivabradine reduces the incidence of all-cause hospitalizations during the vulnerable phase after a HFH. Further studies are needed to investigate if in-hospital or early post-discharge initiation of ivabradine could be useful to improve early outcomes in patients hospitalized for HF. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2016 European Society of Cardiology.

  2. Transcapillary escape rate of albumin and right atrial pressure in chronic congestive heart failure before and after treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, B; Parving, H H; Lund-Jacobsen, H

    1976-01-01

    The transcapillary escape rate of albumin (TERalb), i.e., the fraction of intravascular mass of albumin that passes to the extravascular space per unit of time, was determined from the disappearance of intravenously injected 125I-labeled human serum albumin during the first 60 minutes after injec...... results best can be explained by increased filtration, mainly through the venous end of the microvasculature, due to the increased venous pressure in heart failure....

  3. Rescue Therapy with Nifurtimox and Dipyridamole for Severe Acute Chagas Myocarditis with Congestive Heart Failure in NMRI Albino Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Aparicio, Daniela Yustiz; González-Hernández, María; Hernández-Forero, Greybis; Guédez-Ortiz, María; Santeliz, Sonia; Goncalves, Loredana; Cabarcas, Rafael Bonfante

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Chagas disease is a global health problem; therefore, the development of new therapeutic protocols is necessary. Our group recently demonstrated that nifurtimox associated with dipyridamole has curative effects in mice with acute Chagas disease. In this study, we assess the effect of this therapeutic protocol in chagasic mice with heart failure. Objective: To evaluate whether nifurtimox and dipyridamole are useful to rescue mice with severe acute chagasic myocarditis wi...

  4. Heart failure - tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHF - tests; Congestive heart failure - tests; Cardiomyopathy - tests; HF - tests ... the best test to: Identify which type of heart failure (systolic, diastolic, valvular) Monitor your heart failure and ...

  5. Quality of care in congestive heart failure in the elderly: epidemiological evidence of a gap between guidelines and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocco, Stefano; Zamboni, Mauro; Fantin, Francesco; Marchesan, Maria; Schievano, Elena; Zambon, Francesco; Bozzano, Chiara; Di Francesco, Vincenzo; Vassanelli, Corrado; Spolaore, Paolo

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the quality of care in elderly patients hospitalized for heart failure, compared with that received by subjects of younger age. A cross-sectional retrospective study was performed on hospitalized subjects for heart failure in the Veneto Region (4.5 million inhabitants), located in North-East Italy, for the year 2004. Through consultation of clinical charts, performance of echocardiography, and prescription of ACE-inhibitors and beta-blockers were evaluated in each patient. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to test the association between age and the end-points of interest: prescription of ACE-inhibitors or beta- blockers and performance of echocardiography. The percentage of patients with prescriptions for ACE-inhibitors decreased with age, from 75% for patients under 65 years, to 62% for subjects over 84 years (p=0.02). A similar, but more marked, finding was observed for prescriptions of beta- blockers (56% in subjects aged 84 yrs) (pnegative predictor of beta-blocker prescription and echocardiographic evaluation, but did not affect prescriptions for ACE-inhibitors.

  6. Automated diagnosis of congestive heart failure using dual tree complex wavelet transform and statistical features extracted from 2s of ECG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshan, Vidya K; Acharya, U Rajendra; Oh, Shu Lih; Adam, Muhammad; Tan, Jen Hong; Chua, Chua Kuang; Chua, Kok Poo; Tan, Ru San

    2017-04-01

    Identification of alarming features in the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is extremely significant for the prediction of congestive heart failure (CHF). ECG signal analysis carried out using computer-aided techniques can speed up the diagnosis process and aid in the proper management of CHF patients. Therefore, in this work, dual tree complex wavelets transform (DTCWT)-based methodology is proposed for an automated identification of ECG signals exhibiting CHF from normal. In the experiment, we have performed a DTCWT on ECG segments of 2s duration up to six levels to obtain the coefficients. From these DTCWT coefficients, statistical features are extracted and ranked using Bhattacharyya, entropy, minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR), receiver-operating characteristics (ROC), Wilcoxon, t-test and reliefF methods. Ranked features are subjected to k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and decision tree (DT) classifiers for automated differentiation of CHF and normal ECG signals. We have achieved 99.86% accuracy, 99.78% sensitivity and 99.94% specificity in the identification of CHF affected ECG signals using 45 features. The proposed method is able to detect CHF patients accurately using only 2s of ECG signal length and hence providing sufficient time for the clinicians to further investigate on the severity of CHF and treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. New auxiliary indicators for the differential diagnosis of functional cardiorespiratory limitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and congestive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Marcelo de Castro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To differentiate the nature of functional cardiorespiratory limitations during exercise in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD or congestive heart failure (CHF and to determine indicators that may help their classifications. METHODS: The study comprised 40 patients: 23 with COPD and 17 with CHF. All individuals underwent maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a treadmill. RESULTS: The values of peak gas exchange ratio (R peak, peak carbon dioxide production (VCO2 peak, and peak oxygen ventilatory equivalent (V E O2 peak were higher in the patients with CHF than in those with COPD, and, therefore, those were the variables that characterized the differences between the groups. For group classification, the differentiating functions with the R peak, VCO2 peak (L/min, and V E O2 peak variables were used as follows: group COPD: - 44.886 + 78.832 x R peak + 5.442 x VCO2 peak + 0.336 x V E O2 peak; group CHF: - 69.251 + 89.740 x R peak + 8.461 x VCO2 peak + 0.574 x V E O2 peak. The differentiating function, whose result is greater, correctly classifies the patient's group as 90%. CONCLUSION: The R peak, VCO2 peak, and V E O2 peak values may be used to identify the cause of the functional cardiorespiratory limitations in patients with COPD and CHF.

  8. Impact of pacing site on QRS duration and its relationship to hemodynamic response in cardiac resynchronization therapy for congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derval, Nicolas; Bordachar, Pierre; Lim, Han S; Sacher, Frederic; Ploux, Sylvain; Laborderie, Julien; Steendijk, Paul; Deplagne, Antoine; Ritter, Philippe; Garrigue, Stephane; Denis, Arnaud; Hocini, Mélèze; Haissaguerre, Michel; Clementy, Jacques; Jaïs, Pierre

    2014-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that left ventricular (LV) pacing site is a critical parameter in optimizing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The present study evaluates the effect of pacing from different LV locations on QRS duration (QRSd) and their relationship to acute hemodynamic response in congestive heart failure patients. Thirty-five patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and left bundle branch block referred for CRT device implantation were studied. Eleven predetermined LV pacing sites were systematically assessed in random order: epicardial: coronary sinus (CS); endocardial: basal and mid-cavity (septal, anterior, lateral, and inferior), apex, and the endocardial site facing the CS pacing site. For each patient QRSd and +dP/dtmax during baseline (AAI) and DDD LV pacing at 2 atrioventricular delays were compared. Response to CRT was significantly better in patients with wider baseline QRSd (≥150 milliseconds). Hemodynamic response was inversely correlated to increase of QRSd during LV pacing (short atrioventricular [AV] delay: r = 0.44, P site of shortest QRSd significantly improved +dP/dtmax (+18 ± 25%, P response and that LV pacing location was a primary determinant of paced QRSd. Although QRSd did not predict the maximum hemodynamic response, our results confirm the link between electrical activation and hemodynamic response of the LV during CRT. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Retrospective evaluation of the incidence and prognostic significance of spontaneous echocardiographic contrast in relation to cardiac disease and congestive heart failure in cats: 725 cases (2006-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Courtney M; Nielsen, Lindsey K; Quinn, Rebecca L; Laste, Nancy J; Price, Lori Lyn

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether the presence of spontaneous echocardiographic contrast (SEC) in cats with cardiomyopathy is associated with increased mortality. To establish whether specific types of cardiomyopathy are more often associated with SEC in an attempt to provide a risk-stratification scheme for cats with increased risk of thromboembolic events. Retrospective study 2006-2011. Tertiary referral and teaching hospital. Seven hundred twenty-five client-owned cats undergoing echocardiographic evaluation. Patient characteristics, including age, breed, clinical signs, type of cardiovascular disease, presence of SEC, and survival time were recorded. Thyroxine, HCT, and blood pressure were recorded when available. Among cats diagnosed with cardiac abnormalities based on echocardiographic findings, those with SEC were at significantly increased risk of death as compared to those without SEC. Cats with dilated cardiomyopathy, unclassified cardiomyopathy, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were significantly more likely to have SEC compared to cats with other types of cardiac disease. Cats with cardiomyopathy and SEC have an increased risk of death compared to cats without SEC, although other previously identified factors such as the presence of congestive heart failure and increased left atrium to aorta ratio remain important determinants of mortality. Cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, unclassified cardiomyopathy, and dilated cardiomyopathy may benefit from anticoagulant therapy due to the increased risk of SEC in these subpopulations. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  10. Prognostic value of plasma catecholamines, plasma renin activity, and plasma atrial natriuretic peptide at rest and during exercise in congestive heart failure: comparison with clinical evaluation, ejection fraction, and exercise capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, B K; Keller, N; Christiansen, E

    1995-01-01

    Survival in congestive heart failure is related to plasma catecholamines and atrial natriuretic peptide at rest, but the prognostic importance of changes during exercise is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of catecholamines and atrial natriuretic peptide at rest...... were: plasma noradrenaline at rest (P catecholamines and plasma atrial natriuretic peptide increased significantly; the change, however, was not related to survival. Six variables...... creatinine > 121 mumol/L (P = .004), and serum urea > 7.6 mmol/L (P = .007). Patients with congestive heart failure have a poor survival despite intensive medical treatment. Plasma catecholamines and plasma atrial natriuretic peptide are elevated at rest and rises further during exercise; the increase...

  11. Internet Congestion Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranoto Rusmin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Internet congestion occurs when resource demands exceeds the network capacity. But, it is not the only reason. Congestion can happen on some users because some others user has higher sending rate. Then some users with lower sending rate will experience congestion. This partial congestion is caused by inexactly feedback. At this moment congestion are solved by the involvement of two controlling mechanisms. These mechanisms are flow/congestion control in the TCP source and Active Queue Management (AQM in the router. AQM will provide feedback to the source a kind of indication for the occurrence of the congestion in the router, whereas the source will adapt the sending rate appropriate with the feedback. These mechanisms are not enough to solve internet congestion problem completely. Therefore, this paper will explain internet congestion causes, weakness, and congestion control technique that researchers have been developed. To describe congestion system mechanisms and responses, the system will be simulated by Matlab.

  12. Relationship Between Prohormone Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP Level and Severity of Pulmonary Dysfunction in Patients With Chronic Congestive Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazemiyeh Masoud

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congestive heart failure (CHF is a common disease and its prevalence is increasingin industrialized countries. NT-proBNP measurement is an established diagnostic test fordiagnosis of CHF in patients who present to emergency room with acute dyspnea. The primaryobject of this study was to determine the relationship between levels of brain natriuretic peptideprecursor and severity of lung function impairment in patients with chronic CHF.Methods: This cross-sectional and analytical study that performed in Tuberculosis andLung Disease Research Center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences on 95 patients withchronic heart failure, and relation between NT-proBNP levels and pulmonary functionparameters were examined.Results: Sixty-four patients were male and 31 were female. The average age of male and femaleswas 62.90 ± 11.54 and 61.61 ± 11.98 years, respectively. A significant inverse linear correlationwas found between NT-proBNP and FEV1 (P<0.001, r = -0.367, FVC (P<0.001, r = -0.444,TLC (P=0.022, r = -0.238, maximal midexpiratory flow (MMEF (P=0.047, r = -0.207 andleft ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF (P<0.001, r = -0.461. A significant positive linearcorrelation was found between NT-proBNP and FEV1/FVC (P =0.013, r = 0.257, RV/TLC (P =0.003, r=0.303 and 5 Hz Raw (r = 0.231, P = 0.024.Conclusion: This study showed that, both restrictive and obstructive ventilator impairments canoccur in chronic CHF and as NT-proBNP increases appropriate to hemodynamic deterioration,pulmonary dysfunction increases.

  13. Multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of the safety and efficacy of oral delapril in patients with congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circo, A; Platania, F; Mangiameli, S; Putignano, E

    1995-06-16

    A total of 101 patients (67 delapril, 34 placebo) with congestive heart failure, New York Heart Association (NYHA) classes II and III, entered a multicenter, randomized (2:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled study to determine the minimum effective and maximum tolerated doses of delapril. Patients received placebo or increasing doses of delapril. After a 2-week run-in period on placebo, patients were randomly assigned to delapril or placebo. The dose of delapril was 7.5 mg twice daily for 2 weeks, 15 mg twice daily for another 2 weeks, followed by 30 mg twice daily for 4 weeks. The dose was increased only if the patient did not present any symptoms of orthostatic hypotension. If such symptoms developed, the code was broken and an open treatment was continued on the minimum effective dose (delapril group). Patients with symptoms of orthostatic hypotension in the placebo group were withdrawn. At the end of the 8-week treatment, 36 (54.5%) patients in the delapril group completed the study on 30 mg twice daily, 12 (18.2%) on 15 mg twice daily, and 18 (27.3%) on 7.5 mg twice daily. Seven patients on placebo were withdrawn because of insufficient therapeutic response; one patient on delapril was lost to follow-up. There was a significant improvement (p < 0.01) in bicycle ergometric performance involving an increase in the exercise duration and the maximum workload tolerated in those patients completing the study on delapril 30 mg twice daily and those finishing on 15 mg twice daily.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. In-hospital and 1-year outcomes of acute heart failure patients according to presentation (de novo vs. worsening) and ejection fraction. Results from IN-HF Outcome Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senni, Michele; Gavazzi, Antonello; Oliva, Fabrizio; Mortara, Andrea; Urso, Renato; Pozzoli, Massimo; Metra, Marco; Lucci, Donata; Gonzini, Lucio; Cirrincione, Vincenzo; Montagna, Laura; Di Lenarda, Andrea; Maggioni, Aldo P; Tavazzi, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the outcomes of hospitalized patients with both de-novo and worsening heart failure (HF) with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (HFpEF) (LVEF ≥ 50%), compared to those with reduced LVEF (HFrEF). We studied 1669 patients (22.6% HFpEF) hospitalized for acute HF in the prospective multi-center nationwide Italian Network on Heart Failure (IN-HF) Outcome Registry. In all patients LVEF was assessed during hospitalization. De-novo HF presentations constituted 49.6% of HFpEF and 43.1% of HFrEF hospitalizations. All-cause mortality during hospitalization was lower in HFpEF than HFrEF (2.9% vs 6.5%, p=0.01), but this mortality difference was not significant at 1 year (19.6% vs 24.4%, p=0.06), even after adjusting for clinical covariates. Similarly, there were no differences in 1-year mortality between HFpEF and HFrEF when compared by cause of death (cardiovascular vs non-cardiovascular) or mode of presentation (worsening HF vs de novo). Rehospitalization rates (all-cause, non-cardiovascular, cardiovascular, HF-related) at 90 days and 1 year were also similar. Mode of presentation influenced rehospitalizations in HFpEF, where those presenting with worsening HFpEF had higher all-cause (36.8% vs 21.6%, p=0.001), cardiovascular (28.1% vs 14.9%, p=0.002), and HF-related (21.1% vs 7.7%, p=0.0003) rehospitalization rates at 1 year compared to those with de novo presentations. Outcomes at 1 year following hospitalization for HFpEF are as poor as that of HFrEF. A prior history of HF decompensation or hospitalization identifies patients with HFpEF at particularly high risk of recurrent events. These findings may have implications for clinical practice, quality and process improvements and trial design. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Doxorubicin dose for congestive heart failure modeling and the use of general ultrasound equipment for evaluation in rats. Longitudinal in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Mykola; Bubnov, Rostyslav; Yemets, Ilya; Lazarenko, Liudmyla; Timoshok, Natalia; Vorobieva, Anna; Mohnatyy, Sergii; Ulberg, Zoia; Reznichenko, Liudmyla; Grusina, Tamara; Zhovnir, Volodymyr; Zholobak, Nadia

    2013-03-01

    For the evaluation of the congestive heart failure (CHF) in rat models, the use of special equipment for echocardiography for dynamic evaluation is suggested. The optimal doxorubicin dose for CHF induction has still not been established. The aims of our study was to find a reliable doxorubicin CHF rat model using a general ultrasound (US) equipment for in vivo ultrasound examination of the systemic circulation, to establish the optimal doxorubicin dose, and to assess the feasibility of US guided administration of the drug. Sixty Wistar rats, weighing 180-200 g were assigned to 3 groups (n=20 in each): group A - 4 time intraperitoneal doxorubicin "Sigma"administration, cumulative dose 2.49 mg/animal or 12.45 mg/kg; group B and 5 time doxorubicin administration, cumulative dose 3.03 mg/animal or 15.15 mg/kg; and group C- controls (injected same volume of saline). Dynamic US using linear 12 MHz transducer was used to establish the CHF modifications. Two rats with CHF were injected under US guidance in the pleural cavity with 0.06 ml cardiotropic drug levosimendan and two rats in the pericardial cavity. We established the optimal cumulative doxorubicin dose for CHF induction at 12.45 mg/kg. At a higher dose, more than 40% of animals died. A lower dose did not induce significant clinical and US CHF criteria. Congestion (followed by weight gain) led to lower animal mortality. Preliminary results indicate a similar positive cardioprotective effect of drug injection into pericardial and pleural cavities under US guidance, demonstrating that this technique is useful for drug administration. US is an effective modality for in vivo monitoring of the rat organs for the study of cardiovascular function or for drug administration under US guidance. Suggested model (optimal dose of doxorubicin for simulation of CHF of 2.5 mg/animal, a cumulative dose of 12.45 mg/kg in 4 injections every 3 days) can be used for research purposes.

  16. Right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia worsened during pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia worsened during pregnancy. Y Kambiré, L Konaté, GRC Millogo, E Sib, M Amoussou, LVA Nebié, A Niakara. Abstract. We report the case of a 35 years old woman without underlying heart disease who was diagnosed with a right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia worsened during ...

  17. Gold nanoparticles administration induces disarray of heart muscle, hemorrhagic, chronic inflammatory cells infiltrated by small lymphocytes, cytoplasmic vacuolization and congested and dilated blood vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhalim Mohamed Anwar K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite significant research efforts on cancer therapy, diagnostics and imaging, many challenges remain unsolved. There are many unknown details regarding the interaction of nanoparticles (NPs and biological systems. The structure and properties of gold nanoparticles (GNPs make them useful for a wide array of biological applications. However, for the application of GNPs in therapy and drug delivery, knowledge regarding their bioaccumulation and associated local or systemic toxicity is necessary. Information on the biological fate of NPs, including distribution, accumulation, metabolism, and organ specific toxicity is still minimal. Studies specifically dealing with the toxicity of NPs are rare. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of intraperitoneal administration of GNPs on histological alterations of the heart tissue of rats in an attempt to identify and understand the toxicity and the potential role of GNPs as a therapeutic and diagnostic tool. Methods A total of 40 healthy male Wistar-Kyoto rats received 50 μl infusions of 10, 20 and 50 nm GNPs for 3 or 7 days. Animals were randomly divided into groups: 6 GNP-treated rats groups and one control group (NG. Groups 1, 2 and 3 received infusions of 50 μl GNPs of size 10 nm (3 or 7 days, 20 nm (3 or 7 days and 50 nm (3 or 7 days, respectively. Results In comparison with the respective control rats, exposure to GNPs doses produced heart muscle disarray with a few scattered chronic inflammatory cells infiltrated by small lymphocytes, foci of hemorrhage with extravasation of red blood cells, some scattered cytoplasmic vacuolization and congested and dilated blood vessels. None of the above alterations were observed in the heart muscle of any member of the control group. Conclusions The alterations induced by intraperitoneal administration of GNPs were size-dependent, with smaller ones inducing greater affects, and were also related to the time exposure to

  18. Electrocardiographic strain pattern and prediction of new-onset congestive heart failure in hypertensive patients: the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okin, Peter M; Devereux, Richard B; Nieminen, Markku S; Jern, Sverker; Oikarinen, Lasse; Viitasalo, Matti; Toivonen, Lauri; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Dahlöf, Björn

    2006-01-03

    The ECG strain pattern of ST depression and T-wave inversion is strongly associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) independently of coronary heart disease and with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients. However, whether ECG strain is an independent predictor of new-onset congestive heart failure (CHF) in the setting of aggressive antihypertensive therapy in unclear. The relationship of ECG strain at study baseline to the development of CHF was examined in 8696 patients with no history of CHF who were enrolled in the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study. All patients had ECG LVH by Cornell product and/or Sokolow-Lyon voltage criteria on a screening ECG, were treated in a blinded manner with atenolol- or losartan-based regimens, and were followed up for a mean of 4.7+/-1.1 years. Strain was defined as a downsloping convex ST segment with inverted asymmetrical T-wave opposite the QRS axis in lead V5 or V6. ECG strain was present in 923 patients (10.6%), and new-onset CHF occurred in 265 patients (3.0%), 26 of whom had a CHF-related death. Compared with patients who did not develop CHF, hypertensive patients who developed CHF were older; were more likely to be black, current smokers, and diabetic; were more like to have a history of myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, stroke, or peripheral vascular disease; and had greater baseline severity of LVH by Cornell product and Sokolow-Lyon voltage, higher baseline body mass indexes, higher serum glucose levels and albuminuria, similar baseline systolic and diastolic pressures, and reductions in diastolic pressure with treatment but greater reductions in systolic pressure. In univariate Cox analyses, ECG strain was a significant predictor of new-onset CHF (hazard ratio [HR], 3.27; 95% CI, 2.49 to 4.29) and CHF mortality (HR, 4.74; 95% CI, 2.11 to 10.64). In Cox multivariable analyses adjusting for baseline differences

  19. Type 1 diabetes mellitus abrogates compensatory augmentation of myocardial neuregulin-1β/ErbB in response to myocardial infarction resulting in worsening heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odiete, Oghenerukevwe; Konik, Ewa A; Sawyer, Douglas B; Hill, Michael F

    2013-03-27

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) patients surviving myocardial infarction (MI) exhibit a substantially higher incidence of subsequent heart failure (HF). Neuregulin (NRG)-1 and erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ErbB) receptors have been shown to play a critical role in maintenance of cardiac function. However, whether myocardial NRG-1/ErbB is altered during post-MI HF associated with DM remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of type 1 DM on the myocardial NRG-1/ErbB system following MI in relation to residual left ventricular (LV) function. Type 1 DM was induced in rats via administration of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, i.p.). Control rats were injected with citrate buffer (vehicle) only. Two weeks after induction of type 1 DM, MI was produced in DM and non-DM rats by ligation of the left coronary artery. Sham MI rats underwent the same surgical procedure with the exception that the left coronary artery was not ligated. At 4 weeks after surgery, residual in vivo LV function was assessed via echocardiography. Myocardial protein expression of NRG-1β, ErbB2 and ErbB4 receptors, and MDM2 (a downstream signaling pathway induced by NRG-1 that has been implicated in cell survival) was assessed in the remaining, viable LV myocardium by Western blotting. Changes in ErbB receptor localization in the surviving LV myocardium of diabetic and non-diabetic post-MI rats was determined using immunohistochemistry techniques. At 4 weeks post-MI, echocardiography revealed that LV fractional shortening (FS) and LV ejection fraction (EF) were significantly lower in the DM + MI group compared to the MI group (LVFS: 17.9 ± 0.7 vs. 25.2 ± 2.2; LVEF: 35.5 ± 1.4 vs. 47.5 ± 3.5, respectively; P < 0.05), indicating an increased functional severity of HF among the DM + MI rats. Up-regulation of NRG-1β and ErbB2 protein expression in the MI group was abrogated in the DM + MI group concurrent with degradation of MDM2, a downstream negative regulator of p53. Erb

  20. Effects of combination of AT1-antagonist candesartan cilexetil and ACE-inhibitors in patients with congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasanin, Edis; Dragutinović, Ivana; Banković, Dragić; Mitrović, Veselin

    2013-01-01

    Combination of ACE-inhibitors with angiotensin-II type 1 receptor antagonists could provide better blockade of RAAS system compared with monotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate hemodynamic and neurohumoral effects at rest and during exercise of Candesartan cilexetil as add-on therapy to ACE-inhibitors in patients with heart failure NYHA class III to IV. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study. Thirty-five patients received either Candesartan 8 mg/16 mg (1st and 2nd week/ of 3-24) or placebo as add-on therapy to their previous ACE-inhibitor during a 24-weeks treatment period. Peak aerobic capacity remained constant in the Candesartan group of patients (0.06 +/- 1.43 mL/min/ kg) and slightly decreased in the placebo group (-1.10 +/- 1.51 mL/min/kg), without a statistically significant difference between the groups (p = 0.13). Exercise time showed a relevant increase in the Candesartan (31.9 +/- 58.5 sec) and a significant decrease in the placebo group (-25.9 +/- 85.9 sec) compared to baseline value. The difference between the studied groups was statistically significant (p Candesartan: -1.9 +/- 1.7 mmHg, placebo: 1.0 +/- 2.7 mmHg, p Candesartan: -3.1 +/- 3.8 mmHg, placebo: 0.2 +/- 4.6 mmHg, p Candesartan: -141.9 +/- 253.3 dyne*sec/cm5, placebo: 47.3 +/-221.0 dyne*sec/cm5, p Candesartan as add-on therapy to ACE-inhibitors.

  1. Safety and efficacy of eplerenone in patients at high risk for hyperkalemia and/or worsening renal function: analyses of the EMPHASIS-HF study subgroups (Eplerenone in Mild Patients Hospitalization And SurvIval Study in Heart Failure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschalier, Romain; McMurray, John J V; Swedberg, Karl; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Krum, Henry; Pocock, Stuart J; Shi, Harry; Vincent, John; Rossignol, Patrick; Zannad, Faiez; Pitt, Bertram

    2013-10-22

    The study sought to investigate the safety and efficacy of eplerenone in patients at high risk for hyperkalemia or worsening renal function (WRF) in EMPHASIS-HF, a trial that enrolled patients at least 55 years old with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF), in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II and with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and serum potassium HF-REF may be due to fear of inducing hyperkalemia or WRF in high-risk patients. This was a pre-specified analysis of subgroups of patients at high risk of hyperkalemia or WRF (patients ≥ 75 years of age, with diabetes, with eGFR 5.5, >6.0, and HF or cardiovascular mortality). In all high-risk subgroups, patients treated with eplerenone had an increased risk of potassium >5.5 mmol/l but not of potassium >6.0 mmol/l, and of hospitalization for hyperkalemia or discontinuation of study medication due to adverse events. Eplerenone was effective in reducing the primary composite endpoint in all subgroups. In patients with chronic HF-REF, in NYHA functional class II, and meeting specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, including an eGFR >30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and potassium HF Study]; NCT00232180). Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of repeated intracoronary injection of bone marrow cells in patients with ischaemic heart failure the Danish stem cell study - congestive heart failure trial (DanCell-CHF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, A.C.; Møller, Jacob Eifer; Thayssen, P.

    2008-01-01

    was prospective and non-randomised, comprising an observational baseline period of 4 months followed by an interventional period of 12 months. Intracoronary bone marrow cell infusion was performed at the end of the baseline period and repeated 4 months later. RESULTS: 32 patients were included. LV ejection......, NYHA class improved (pnon-randomised study, no change in LV ejection fraction could be demonstrated after repeated intracoronary bone marrow stem cell treatment in patients with chronic ischaemic heart failure Udgivelsesdato: 2008/7...... repeated infusions would have additional positive effects. AIMS: To assess whether two treatments of intracoronary infusion of bone marrow stem cells, administered 4 months apart, could improve left ventricular (LV) systolic function in patients with chronic ischaemic heart failure. METHODS: The study...

  3. Heart failure in children - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congestive heart failure - children; Cor pulmonale - children; Cardiomyopathy - children; CHF - children; Congenital heart defect - heart failure in children; Cyanotic heart disease - heart failure in children; Birth defect of the heart - heart ...

  4. Cardiac output and cardiac index measured with cardiovascular magnetic resonance in healthy subjects, elite athletes and patients with congestive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlsson Marcus

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR enables non-invasive quantification of cardiac output (CO and thereby cardiac index (CI, CO indexed to body surface area. The aim of this study was to establish if CI decreases with age and compare the values to CI for athletes and for patients with congestive heart failure (CHF. Methods CI was measured in 144 healthy volunteers (39 ± 16 years, range 21–81 years, 68 females, in 60 athletes (29 ± 6 years, 30 females and in 157 CHF patients with ejection fraction (EF below 40% (60 ± 13 years, 33 females. CI was calculated using aortic flow by velocity-encoded CMR and is presented as mean ± SD. Flow was validated in vitro using a flow phantom and in 25 subjects with aorta and pulmonary flow measurements. Results There was a slight decrease of CI with age in healthy subjects (8 ml/min/m2 per year, r2 = 0.07, p = 0.001. CI in males (3.2 ± 0.5 l/min/m2 and females (3.1 ± 0.4 l/min/m2 did not differ (p = 0.64. The mean ± SD of CI in healthy subjects in the age range of 20–29 was 3.3 ± 0.4 l/min/m2, in 30–39 years 3.3 ± 0.5 l/min/m2, in 40–49 years 3.1 ± 0.5 l/min/m2, 50–59 years 3.0 ± 0.4 l/min/m2 and >60 years 3.0 ± 0.4 l/min/m2. There was no difference in CI between athletes and age-controlled healthy subjects but HR was lower and indexed SV higher in athletes. CI in CHF patients (2.3 ± 0.6 l/min/m2 was lower compared to the healthy population (p 2 = 0.07, p  Conclusions CI decreases in healthy subjects with age but does not differ between males and females. We found no difference in CI between athletes and healthy subjects at rest but CI was lower in patients with congestive heart failure. The presented values can be used as reference values for flow velocity mapping CMR.

  5. ECG leads I and II to evaluate diuresis of patients with congestive heart failure admitted to the hospital via the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumlertgul, Suthaporn; Chenthanakij, Boriboon; Madias, John E

    2009-01-01

    Attenuation of electrocardiogram (ECG) QRS complexes is observed in patients with a variety of illnesses and peripheral edema (PERED), and augmentation with alleviation of PERED. Serial ECGs in stable individuals display variation in the amplitude of QRS complexes in leads V1-V6, stemming from careless placement of recording electrodes on the chestwall. Electrocardiographs record only leads I and II, and mathematically derive the other four limb leads in real time. This study evaluated the sum of the amplitudes of ECG leads I and II, along with other sets of ECG leads in the monitoring of diuresis in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Twenty patients with CHF had ECGs and weights recorded on admission and at discharge. The amplitude of the QRS complexes in all ECG leads were measured and sums of I and II, all limb leads, V1-V6, and all 12 leads were calculated. There was a good correlation between the weight loss and the increase in the sums of the amplitudes of the QRS complexes from leads I and II (r = 0.55, P = 0.012), and the six limb leads (r = 0.68, P = 0.001), but a poor correlation with the V1-V6 leads (r = 0.04, P = 0.85) and all 12 leads (r = 0.1, P = 0.40). Sums of the amplitudes of the ECG QRS complexes from leads I and II constitute a reliable, easily obtainable, ubiquitously available, bedside clinical index, which can be employed in the diagnosis, monitoring of management, and follow-up of patients with CHF.

  6. The Role of B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in the Diagnosis of Congestive Heart Failure in Patients Presenting to an Emergency Department with Dyspnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Villacorta

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP in the diagnosis of congestive heart failure (CHF in patients presenting with dyspnea to an emergency department (ED. METHODS: Seventy patients presenting with dyspnea to an ED from April to July 2001 were included in the study. Mean age was 72±16 years and 33 (47% were male. BNP was measured in all patients at the moment of admission to the ED. Emergency-care physicians, blinded to BNP values, were required to assign a probable initial diagnosis. A cardiologist retrospectively reviewed the data (blinded to BNP measurements and assigned a definite diagnosis, which was considered the gold standard for assessing the diagnostic performance of BNP. RESULTS: The mean BNP concentration was higher in patients with CHF (n=36 than in those with other diagnoses (990±550 vs 80±67 pg/mL, p<0.0001. Patients with systolic dysfunction had higher BNP levels than those with preserved systolic function (1,180±641 vs 753±437 pg/mL, p=0.03. At a blood concentration of 200 pg/mL, BNP showed a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 97.1%, positive predictive value of 97.3%, and negative predictive value of 100%. The application of BNP could have potentially corrected all 16 cases in which the diagnosis was missed by the emergency department physician. CONCLUSION: BNP measurement is a useful tool in the diagnosis of CHF in patients presenting to the ED with dyspnea.

  7. Transvenous phrenic nerve stimulation in patients with Cheyne-Stokes respiration and congestive heart failure: a safety and proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Long; Ding, Ning; Wang, Hong; Augostini, Ralph; Yang, Bing; Xu, Di; Ju, Weizhu; Hou, Xiaofeng; Li, Xinli; Ni, Buqing; Cao, Kejiang; George, Isaac; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Shi-Jiang

    2012-10-01

    Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR), which often occurs in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), may be a predictor for poor outcome. Phrenic nerve stimulation (PNS) may interrupt CSR in patients with CHF. We report the clinical use of transvenous PNS in patients with CHF and CSR. Nineteen patients with CHF and CSR were enrolled. A single stimulation lead was placed at the junction between the superior vena cava and brachiocephalic vein or in the left-side pericardiophrenic vein. PNS stimulation was performed using Eupnea System device (RespiCardia Inc). Respiratory properties were assessed before and during PNS. PNS was assessed at a maximum of 10 mA. Successful stimulation capture was achieved in 16 patients. Failure to capture occurred in three patients because of dislocation of leads. No adverse events were seen under maximum normal stimulation parameters for an overnight study. When PNS was applied following a series of central sleep apneic events, a trend toward stabilization of breathing and heart rate as well as improvement in oxygen saturation was seen. Compared with pre-PNS, during PNS there was a significant decrease in apnea-hypopnea index (33.8 ± 9.3 vs 8.1 ± 2.3, P = .00), an increase in mean and minimal oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry (89.7% ± 1.6% vs 94.3% ± 0.9% and 80.3% ± 3.7% vs 88.5% ± 3.3%, respectively, all P = .00) and end-tidal CO2 (38.0 ± 4.3 mm Hg vs 40.3 ± 3.1 mm Hg, P = .02), but no significant difference in sleep efficiency (74.6% ± 4.1% vs 73.7% ± 5.4%, P = .36). The preliminary results showed that in a small group of patients with CHF and CSR, 1 night of unilateral transvenous PNS improved indices of CSR and was not associated with adverse events.

  8. A study to evaluate the effectiveness of an indigenous exercise protocol in patients with heart failure to improve their quality of life: (Exercise in congestive heart failure study [E - CHF study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congestive heart failure (CHF is characterized by an intolerance to activities of daily living, office environment and shortness of breath in any level of extraneous activity depending on their level of heart failure (HF. This significantly contributes to reduced participation and poor quality of life (QoL among these patients. Methods: The study was conducted from June 2014 to December 2014 in Cardio-Neuro-Centre, OPD, AIIMS, New Delhi on 40 medically stable CHF outpatients (mean age 46.3±11.4 years in NYHA class -I & II with 3 month follow-up. IEP (Indigenous Exercise Protocol training, consisting of one supervised session at baseline visit followed by home-based practice and telephonic encouragement and monitoring of the group was given. Outcome measures were QoL, physiological parameters (6 minute walk test - distance, VO2 max and double product and frequency of hospitalization. Results: The results showed significant difference between QoL (P < 0.02 as measured by KCCQ, mean walking distance on the 6 minute walk test (P < 0.01 and VO2 max (P < 0.01 at entry and after 12 weeks within the experimental group, but compared to the control group, no significant difference was found between the two groups. Two hospitalizations and one death were reported in the control group, whereas none was reported in the experimental group. Conclusion: IEP was effective in achieving adequate exercise tolerance in experimental group. It showed no deleterious effect and is safe to practice at home, but more evidence is needed to consider using IEP when caring for stable heart failure patient.

  9. What Is Heart Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intramural Research Home / Heart Failure Heart Failure Also known as Congestive heart failure What ... diseases for many years that led to heart failure. Heart failure is a leading cause of hospital stays ...

  10. What Causes Heart Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intramural Research Home / Heart Failure Heart Failure Also known as Congestive heart failure What ... diseases for many years that led to heart failure. Heart failure is a leading cause of hospital stays ...

  11. Living with Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intramural Research Home / Heart Failure Heart Failure Also known as Congestive heart failure What ... diseases for many years that led to heart failure. Heart failure is a leading cause of hospital stays ...

  12. Effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure on oxygen body stores in patients with Cheyne-Stokes respiration and congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krachman, Samuel L; Crocetti, Joseph; Berger, Thomas J; Chatila, Wissam; Eisen, Howard J; D'Alonzo, Gilbert E

    2003-01-01

    The mechanism(s) by which nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is effective in the treatment of Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) remains uncertain, and may involve an increase in total oxygen body stores (dampening), changes in central and peripheral controller gain, and/or improvement in cardiac function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of nasal CPAP on total oxygen stores, as measured by the rate of fall of arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (dSaO(2)/dt), to determine if dampening may play a role in the attenuation of CSR in patients with CHF. Prospective controlled trial. University hospital. Nine male patients (mean +/- SD age, 59 +/- 8 years) with CHF and a mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 16 +/- 4%. All patients had known CSR, as identified on a baseline polysomnographic study. Patients then underwent repeat polysomnography while receiving nasal CPAP (9 +/- 0.3 cm H(2)O). The polysomnography consisted of recording of breathing pattern, pulse oximetry, and EEG. dSaO(2)/dt was measured as the slope of a line drawn adjacent to the falling linear portion of the arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) curve associated with a central apnea. All patients underwent echocardiography and right-heart catheterization within 1 month of the study to measure LVEF and cardiac hemodynamics, respectively. There was a significant decrease in the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) with nasal CPAP, from 44 +/- 27 events per hour at baseline to 15 +/- 24 events per hour with nasal CPAP (p = 0.004). When compared to baseline, dSaO(2)/dt significantly decreased with nasal CPAP from 0.42 +/- 0.15% to 0.20 +/- 0.07%/s (p < 0.001). The postapneic SaO(2), when compared to baseline, significantly increased with nasal CPAP, from 87 +/- 5% to 91 +/- 4% (p < 0.05). The preapneic SaO(2) did not significantly change, from a baseline of 96 +/- 2% to 96 +/- 3% with nasal CPAP (p = 0.8). When compared to

  13. Soy diet worsens heart disease in mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stauffer, Brian L; Konhilas, John P; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Leinwand, Leslie A

    We report that dietary modification from a soy-based diet to a casein-based diet radically improves disease indicators and cardiac function in a transgenic mouse model of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy...

  14. A three-step approach for the derivation and validation of high-performing predictive models using an operational dataset: congestive heart failure readmission case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdelRahman, Samir E; Zhang, Mingyuan; Bray, Bruce E; Kawamoto, Kensaku

    2014-05-27

    The aim of this study was to propose an analytical approach to develop high-performing predictive models for congestive heart failure (CHF) readmission using an operational dataset with incomplete records and changing data over time. Our analytical approach involves three steps: pre-processing, systematic model development, and risk factor analysis. For pre-processing, variables that were absent in >50% of records were removed. Moreover, the dataset was divided into a validation dataset and derivation datasets which were separated into three temporal subsets based on changes to the data over time. For systematic model development, using the different temporal datasets and the remaining explanatory variables, the models were developed by combining the use of various (i) statistical analyses to explore the relationships between the validation and the derivation datasets; (ii) adjustment methods for handling missing values; (iii) classifiers; (iv) feature selection methods; and (iv) discretization methods. We then selected the best derivation dataset and the models with the highest predictive performance. For risk factor analysis, factors in the highest-performing predictive models were analyzed and ranked using (i) statistical analyses of the best derivation dataset, (ii) feature rankers, and (iii) a newly developed algorithm to categorize risk factors as being strong, regular, or weak. The analysis dataset consisted of 2,787 CHF hospitalizations at University of Utah Health Care from January 2003 to June 2013. In this study, we used the complete-case analysis and mean-based imputation adjustment methods; the wrapper subset feature selection method; and four ranking strategies based on information gain, gain ratio, symmetrical uncertainty, and wrapper subset feature evaluators. The best-performing models resulted from the use of a complete-case analysis derivation dataset combined with the Class-Attribute Contingency Coefficient discretization method and a voting

  15. Influence of Androgen Deprivation Therapy on All-Cause Mortality in Men With High-Risk Prostate Cancer and a History of Congestive Heart Failure or Myocardial Infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Paul L., E-mail: pnguyen@LROC.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Chen, Ming-Hui [Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Beckman, Joshua A. [Department of Cardiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Beard, Clair J.; Martin, Neil E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Choueiri, Toni K. [Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Hu, Jim C. [Division of Urologic Surgery, Brigham and Women' s/Faulkner Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Hoffman, Karen E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dosoretz, Daniel E. [21st Century Oncology, Fort Myers, FL (United States); Moran, Brian J. [Chicago Prostate Center, Westmont, IL (United States); Salenius, Sharon A. [21st Century Oncology, Fort Myers, FL (United States); Braccioforte, Michelle H. [Chicago Prostate Center, Westmont, IL (United States); Kantoff, Philip W. [Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); D' Amico, Anthony V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Ennis, Ronald D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke' s-Roosevelt and Beth Israel Hospitals, Continuum Cancer Centers of New York, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY (Israel)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: It is unknown whether the excess risk of all-cause mortality (ACM) observed when androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is added to radiation for men with prostate cancer and a history of congestive heart failure (CHF) or myocardial infarction (MI) also applies to those with high-risk disease. Methods and Materials: Of 14,594 men with cT1c-T3aN0M0 prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy-based radiation from 1991 through 2006, 1,378 (9.4%) with a history of CHF or MI comprised the study cohort. Of these, 22.6% received supplemental external beam radiation, and 42.9% received a median of 4 months of neoadjuvant ADT. Median age was 71.8 years. Median follow-up was 4.3 years. Cox multivariable analysis tested for an association between ADT use and ACM within risk groups, after adjusting for treatment factors, prognostic factors, and propensity score for ADT. Results: ADT was associated with significantly increased ACM (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-2.34; p = 0.0001), with 5-year estimates of 22.71% with ADT and 11.62% without ADT. The impact of ADT on ACM by risk group was as follows: high-risk AHR = 2.57; 95% CI, 1.17-5.67; p = 0.019; intermediate-risk AHR = 1.75; 95% CI, 1.13-2.73; p = 0.012; low-risk AHR = 1.52; 95% CI, 0.96-2.43; p = 0.075). Conclusions: Among patients with a history of CHF or MI treated with brachytherapy-based radiation, ADT was associated with increased all-cause mortality, even for patients with high-risk disease. Although ADT has been shown in Phase III studies to improve overall survival in high-risk disease, the small subgroup of high-risk patients with a history of CHF or MI, who represented about 9% of the patients, may be harmed by ADT.

  16. Impact of β-blocker selectivity on long-term outcomes in congestive heart failure patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubota Y

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiaki Kubota, Kuniya Asai, Erito Furuse, Shunichi Nakamura, Koji Murai, Yayoi Tetsuou Tsukada, Wataru Shimizu Department of Medicine (Division of Cardiology, Nippon Medical School, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is present in approximately one-third of all congestive heart failure (CHF patients, and is a key cause of underprescription and underdosing of β-blockers, largely owing to concerns about precipitating respiratory deterioration. For these reasons, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of β-blockers on the long-term outcomes in CHF patients with COPD. In addition, we compared the effects of two different β-blockers, carvedilol and bisoprolol. Methods: The study was a retrospective, non-randomized, single center trial. Acute decompensated HF patients with COPD were classified according to the oral drug used at discharge into β-blocker (n=86; carvedilol [n=52] or bisoprolol [n=34] and non-β-blocker groups (n=46. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality between the β-blocker and non-β-blocker groups during a mean clinical follow-up of 33.9 months. The secondary endpoints were the differences in all-cause mortality and the hospitalization rates for CHF and/or COPD exacerbation between patients receiving carvedilol and bisoprolol. Results: The mortality rate was higher in patients without β-blockers compared with those taking β-blockers (log-rank P=0.039, and univariate analyses revealed that the use of β-blockers was the only factor significantly correlated with the mortality rate (hazard ratio: 0.41; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.99; P=0.047. Moreover, the rate of CHF and/or COPD exacerbation was higher in patients treated with carvedilol compared with bisoprolol (log-rank P=0.033. In the multivariate analysis, only a past history of COPD exacerbation significantly increased the risk of re-hospitalization due to CHF and/or COPD exacerbation (adjusted hazard

  17. Cost-effectiveness of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic-guided therapy in elderly heart failure patients: results from TIME-CHF (Trial of Intensified versus Standard Medical Therapy in Elderly Patients with Congestive Heart Failure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-van Wijk, Sandra; van Asselt, Antoinette D I; Rickli, Hans; Estlinbaum, Werner; Erne, Paul; Rickenbacher, Peter; Vuillomenet, Andre; Peter, Martin; Pfisterer, Matthias E; Brunner-La Rocca, Hans-Peter

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to assess cost-effectiveness of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)-guided versus symptom-guided therapy in heart failure (HF) patients ≥60 years old. Cost-effectiveness of NT-proBNP guidance in HF patients is unclear. It may create additional costs with uncertain benefits. In the TIME-CHF (Trial of Intensified versus Standard Medical Therapy in Elderly Patients with Congestive Heart Failure), patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of ≤45% were randomized to receive intensified NT-proBNP-guided therapy or standard, symptom-guided therapy. For cost-effectiveness analysis, 467 (94%) patients (age 76 ± 7 years, 66% male) were eligible. Incremental cost-effectiveness was calculated as incremental costs per gained life-year and quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) within the 18-month trial period, as defined per protocol. NT-proBNP-guided therapy was dominant (i.e., more effective and less costly) over symptom-guided therapy, saving $2,979 USD (2.5 to 97.5% confidence interval [CI]: $8,758 to $3,265) per patient, with incremental effectiveness of +0.07 life-years and +0.05 QALYs. The probability of NT-proBNP-guided therapy being dominant was 80%, and the probability of saving 1 life-year or QALY at a cost of $50,000 was 97% and 93%, respectively. Exclusion of residence costs resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $5,870 per life-year gained. Cost-effectiveness of NT-proBNP-guided therapy was most pronounced in patients CHF]; ISRCTN43596477). Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Internet congestion control

    CERN Document Server

    Varma, Subir

    2015-01-01

    Internet Congestion Control provides a description of some of the most important topics in the area of congestion control in computer networks, with special emphasis on the analytical modeling of congestion control algorithms. The field of congestion control has seen many notable advances in recent years and the purpose of this book, which is targeted towards the advanced and intermediate reader, is to inform about the most important developments in this area. The book should enable the reader to gain a good understanding of the application of congestion control theory to a number of applic

  19. Heart failure - medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken once ...

  20. Insomnia Self-Management in Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-05

    Cardiac Failure; Heart Failure; Congestive Heart Failure; Heart Failure, Congestive; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders; Chronic Insomnia; Disorders of Initiating and Maintaining Sleep; Fatigue; Pain; Depressive Symptoms; Sleep Disorders; Anxiety

  1. Acute heart failure: acute cardiorenal syndrome and role of aggressive decongestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Elias B; Hanna Deschamps, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    Congestion and acute renal dysfunction are at the center of acute heart failure (HF) syndromes. Acute cardiorenal syndrome, which refers to worsening of renal function in a patient with acute HF syndrome, is partly related to venous congestion and high renal afterload. Aggressive decongestion improves renal and myocardial flow and ventricular loading conditions, potentially resulting in reduced HF progression, rehospitalization, and mortality. High-dose diuretic therapy remains the mainstay therapy. Ultrafiltration and inotropic therapy are useful in the subgroup of patients with a low-output state and diuretic resistance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. How Is Heart Failure Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intramural Research Home / Heart Failure Heart Failure Also known as Congestive heart failure What ... diseases for many years that led to heart failure. Heart failure is a leading cause of hospital stays ...

  3. How Is Heart Failure Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intramural Research Home / Heart Failure Heart Failure Also known as Congestive heart failure What ... diseases for many years that led to heart failure. Heart failure is a leading cause of hospital stays ...

  4. Congestion with incidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of random delays during a repeatedly occurring demand peak in a congested facility, such as an airport or an urban road. Congestion is described in the form of a dynamic queue using the Vickrey bottleneck model and assuming Nash equilibrium in departure times. Ever...

  5. Congestion in the bathtub

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a model of urban traffic congestion that allows for hypercongestion. Hypercongestion has fundamental importance for the costs of congestion and the effect of policies such as road pricing, transit provision and traffic management, treated in the paper. In the simplest version...

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Anaemia among patients with congestive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... Congestive cardiac failure (CCF) is a lethal end-stage complication of cardiovascular diseases of which the causes include hypertension, rheumatic heart disease and cardiomyopathies, and has reached epidemic proportions.1. CCF affects 2% of the world's population, and its prevalence increases with ...

  7. Changes in absolute and relative importance in the prognostic value of left ventricular systolic function and congestive heart failure after acute myocardial infarction. TRACE Study Group. Trandolapril Cardiac Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køber, L; Torp-Pedersen, C; Jørgensen, S

    1998-01-01

    ) by echocardiography, was assessed in 6,676 consecutive patients with an enzyme-confirmed AMI. So that changes in the prognostic value of WMI or CHF could be studied, separate analyses were performed at selected time periods. Average monthly mortality (deaths per 100 patients per month) was determined from life......Changes in the importance of left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction and congestive heart failure (CHF) with time after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) after the introduction of thrombolytic therapy have not been studied. LV systolic function, measured as wall motion index (WMI...... dysfunction or CHF, monthly mortality was high during the first month (18.3 +/- 1.6% and 20.2 +/- 1.6%, respectively), decreased during the first year, and was stable thereafter (0.8 +/- 0.1% and 1.0 +/- 0.1%, respectively, average monthly mortality after year 3). The relative risk of LV dysfunction decreased...

  8. Congestive Heart Failure Leads to Prolongation of the PR Interval and Atrioventricular Junction Enlargement and Ion Channel Remodelling in the Rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidou, Theodora; Cai, Xue J.; Stephenson, Robert S.; Yanni, Joseph; Lowe, Tristan; Atkinson, Andrew J.; Jones, Caroline B.; Sardar, Rida; Corno, Antonio F.; Dobrzynski, Halina; Withers, Philip J.; Jarvis, Jonathan C.; Hart, George; Boyett, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is a major killer worldwide. Atrioventricular conduction block is common in heart failure; it is associated with worse outcomes and can lead to syncope and bradycardic death. We examine the effect of heart failure on anatomical and ion channel remodelling in the rabbit atrioventricular junction (AVJ). Heart failure was induced in New Zealand rabbits by disruption of the aortic valve and banding of the abdominal aorta resulting in volume and pressure overload. Laser micro-dissection and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were employed to investigate the effects of heart failure on ion channel remodelling in four regions of the rabbit AVJ and in septal tissues. Investigation of the AVJ anatomy was performed using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Heart failure animals developed first degree heart block. Heart failure caused ventricular myocardial volume increase with a 35% elongation of the AVJ. There was downregulation of HCN1 and Cx43 mRNA transcripts across all regions and downregulation of Cav1.3 in the transitional tissue. Cx40 mRNA was significantly downregulated in the atrial septum and AVJ tissues but not in the ventricular septum. mRNA abundance for ANP, CLCN2 and Navβ1 was increased with heart failure; Nav1.1 was increased in the inferior nodal extension/compact node area. Heart failure in the rabbit leads to prolongation of the PR interval and this is accompanied by downregulation of HCN1, Cav1.3, Cx40 and Cx43 mRNAs and anatomical enlargement of the entire heart and AVJ. PMID:26509807

  9. Vericiguat in patients with worsening chronic heart failure and preserved ejection fraction: results of the SOluble guanylate Cyclase stimulatoR in heArT failurE patientS with PRESERVED EF (SOCRATES-PRESERVED) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieske, Burkert; Maggioni, Aldo P; Lam, Carolyn S P; Pieske-Kraigher, Elisabeth; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Butler, Javed; Ponikowski, Piotr; Shah, Sanjiv J; Solomon, Scott D; Scalise, Andrea-Viviana; Mueller, Katharina; Roessig, Lothar; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2017-04-14

    To determine tolerability and the optimal dose regimen of the soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator vericiguat in patients with chronic heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). SOCRATES-PRESERVED was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind, Phase 2b dose-finding study in patients with HFpEF (ejection fraction ≥ 45%). Patients received vericiguat once daily at 1.25 or 2.5 mg fixed doses, or 5 or 10 mg titrated from a 2.5 mg starting dose, or placebo for 12 weeks. The two primary endpoints were change from baseline in log-transformed N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP) and left atrial volume (LAV) at 12 weeks. Patients (N = 477; 48% women; mean age 73 ± 10 years; baseline atrial fibrillation 40%) were randomized within 4 weeks of HF hospitalization (75%) or outpatient treatment with intravenous diuretics for HF (25%) to vericiguat (n = 384) or placebo (n = 93). In the pooled three highest dose arms change in logNT-proBNP (vericiguat: +0.038 ± 0.782 log(pg/mL), n = 195; placebo: -0.098 ± 0.778 log(pg/mL), n = 73; one-sided P = 0.8991, two-sided P = 0.2017), and change in LAV [vericiguat: -1.7 ± 12.8 mL (n = 194); placebo:  -3.4 ± 12.7 mL (n = 67), one-sided P = 0.8156, two-sided P = 0.3688] were not different from placebo. Vericiguat was well tolerated (adverse events: vericiguat 10 mg arm, 69.8%; placebo, 73.1%), with low discontinuation rates in all groups, and no changes in blood pressure at 10 mg compared with placebo. The pre-specified exploratory endpoint of Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Clinical Summary Score improved in the vericiguat 10 mg arm by mean 19.3 ± 16.3 points [median 19.8 (interquartile range 10.4-30.7)] from baseline (mean difference from placebo 9.2 points). Vericiguat was well tolerated, did not change NT-proBNP and LAV at 12 weeks compared with placebo but was associated with

  10. A randomized clinical trial of hospital-based, comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care for patients with congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, or high risk of ischemic heart disease (the DANREHAB trial) - design, intervention, and population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwisler, A.D.O.; Schou, O.; Soja, A.M.B.

    2005-01-01

    , or readmissions due to heart disease based on linkage to public registries. The CR was an individually tailored, multidisciplinary program (6 weeks of intensive CR and 12 months of follow-up) including patient education, exercise training, dietary counseling, smoking cessation, psychosocial support, risk factor...

  11. Extracorporeal Ultrafiltration for Fluid Overload in Heart Failure Current Status and Prospects for Further Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costanzo, Maria Rosa; Ronco, Claudio; Abraham, William T.; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Barasch, Jonathan; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Gottlieb, Stephen S.; Jaski, Brian E.; Kazory, Amir; Levin, Allison P.; Levin, Howard R.; Marenzi, Giancarlo; Mullens, Wilfried; Negoianu, Dan; Redfield, Margaret M.; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Testani, Jeffrey M.; Voors, Adriaan A.

    2017-01-01

    More than 1 million heart failure hospitalizations occur annually, and congestion is the predominant cause. Rehospitalizations for recurrent congestion portend poor outcomes independently of age and renal function. Persistent congestion trumps serum creatinine increases in predicting adverse heart

  12. Newer treatments for decompensated heart failure: focus on levosimendan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Follath

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ferenc FollathUniversity Hospital Zürich, Steering Group Drug Therapy, Zürich, SwitzerlandAbstract: Acute heart failure (AHF is a major cause of hospitalizations. Severe dyspnea, pulmonary congestion and low cardiac output with peripheral vasoconstriction and renal hypoperfusion is a main form of clinical presentation. Most patients with acute worsening have a pre-existing decompensated chronic heart failure (ADCHF, but AHF may also occur as a first manifestation of a previously unknown heart disease. Myocardial ischemia, cardiac arrhythmias, non-compliance with medication and infections are frequent precipitating factors. Management of AHF depends on the underlying heart disease and cause of decompensation. In patients with ADCHF vasodilators and iv diuretics are first-line drugs for rapid reduction of dyspnea and congestion. In patients with signs of low cardiac output and oliguria, inotropic agents are also often administered to prevent further deterioration. Beta-adrenergic agents and phosphodiesterase inhibitors correct the hemodynamic disturbance, but may also induce arrhythmias and worsen myocardial ischemia. Inotropic therapy therefore remains controversial. A novel class of drugs, the calcium sensitizers, represent a new therapeutic option. Levosimendan was shown to improve myocardial contractility without increasing oxygen requirements and to produce peripheral and coronary vasodilation. Its therapeutic effects and tolerance have been tested in several trials. The present review focuses on the clinical pharmacology and therapeutic utility of levosimendan in patients with ADCHF.Keywords: acute heart failure, inotropic agents, calcium sensitizers, levosimendan

  13. Cardiorenal Syndrome in Acute Heart Failure: Revisiting Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Julio; Miñana, Gema; Santas, Enrique; Bertomeu-González, Vicente

    2015-05-01

    Cardiorenal syndrome has been defined as the simultaneous dysfunction of both the heart and the kidney. Worsening renal function that occurs in patients with acute heart failure has been classified as cardiorenal syndrome type 1. In this setting, worsening renal function is a common finding and is due to complex, multifactorial, and not fully understood processes involving hemodynamic (renal arterial hypoperfusion and renal venous congestion) and nonhemodynamic factors. Traditionally, worsening renal function has been associated with worse outcomes, but recent findings have revealed mixed and heterogeneous results, perhaps suggesting that the same phenotype represents a diversity of pathophysiological and clinical situations. Interpreting the magnitude and chronology of renal changes together with baseline renal function, fluid overload status, and clinical response to therapy might help clinicians to unravel the clinical meaning of renal function changes that occur during an episode of heart failure decompensation. In this article, we critically review the contemporary evidence on the pathophysiology and clinical aspects of worsening renal function in acute heart failure. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Benefit of cardiopoietic mesenchymal stem cell therapy on left ventricular remodelling: results from the Congestive Heart Failure Cardiopoietic Regenerative Therapy (CHART-1) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerlink, John R; Metra, Marco; Filippatos, Gerasimos S; Davison, Beth A; Bartunek, Jozef; Terzic, Andre; Gersh, Bernard J; Povsic, Thomas J; Henry, Timothy D; Alexandre, Bertrand; Homsy, Christian; Edwards, Christopher; Seron, Aymeric; Wijns, William; Cotter, Gad

    2017-11-01

    Left ventricular (LV) reverse remodelling is an important marker of improved outcomes in patients with advanced heart failure (HF). We examined the impact of the intramyocardial administration of bone-marrow-derived, lineage-directed, autologous cardiopoietic mesenchymal stem cells (C3BS-CQR-1) on LV remodelling in patients with advanced HF enrolled in the CHART-1 study. Patients (n=351) with symptomatic advanced HF secondary to ischaemic heart disease, and reduced LV ejection fraction (LVEF CHART-1, intramyocardial administration of cardiopoietic stem cells led to reverse remodelling as evidenced by significant progressive decreases in LVEDV and LVESV through the 52 weeks of follow-up. Further studies are needed to explore the dose response with regard to cell number and injected volume, and reverse remodelling. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2017 European Society of Cardiology.

  15. Depression May Worsen Health for Cancer Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166958.html Depression May Worsen Health for Cancer Caregivers Identifying signs ... 29, 2017 THURSDAY, June 29, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Depression is known to be linked to worsening physical ...

  16. Preservation of Skin Integrity in Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİR BARUTCU, Canan

    2018-01-01

    Congestive heart failure is an international health problem with its high incidence, prevalence, morbidity and mortality rates. Congestive heart failure is the most common reason of hospitalization in patients older than 65 and it causes more than a million hospitalizations a year. Patients with congestive heart failure experience a number of complications due to physiopathologic reasons, side effects of drugs, accompanying comorbid diseases and limitations caused by congestive heart failure....

  17. Who Is at Risk for Heart Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intramural Research Home / Heart Failure Heart Failure Also known as Congestive heart failure What ... diseases for many years that led to heart failure. Heart failure is a leading cause of hospital stays ...

  18. How Can Heart Failure Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intramural Research Home / Heart Failure Heart Failure Also known as Congestive heart failure What ... diseases for many years that led to heart failure. Heart failure is a leading cause of hospital stays ...

  19. Efficacy and safety of tolvaptan for pediatric patients with congestive heart failure. Multicenter survey in the working group of the Japanese Society of PEdiatric Circulation and Hemodynamics (J-SPECH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Kouji; Murakami, Tomoaki; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Itoi, Toshiyuki; Ohuchi, Hideo; Kodama, Yoshihiko; Honda, Takashi; Masutani, Satoshi; Yamazawa, Hirokuni; Senzaki, Hideaki; Ishikawa, Shiro

    2016-02-15

    Tolvaptan, a vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist, has been reported to improve congestion in adult patients with heart failure. However, it has not been fully clarified whether tolvaptan is also effective and safe for pediatric patients as well as adult. This trial was a multicenter, retrospective, observational study, and was led by the Japanese Society of PEdiatric Circulation and Hemodynamics (J-SPECH). Thirty-four pediatric patients who received tolvaptan to treat congestive heart failure were enrolled in this study. An increment in the urinary volume and decrease in the body weight from baseline were significant at day 1 (+106.7 ± 241.5%, p = 0.008 and -2.30 ± 4.17%, p = 0.01), day 3 (+113.5 ± 261.9%, p = 0.02 and -2.30 ± 4.17%, p = 0.01), week 1 (+56.3 ± 163.5%, p = 0.01 and -1.55 ± 4.09%, p = 0.03) and month 1 (+91.1 ± 171.6%, p = 0.01 and -2.95 ± 5.98, p = 0.03). The significant predictive factors in responders, who was defined as patients who achieved an increase in the urinary volume at day 1, were older age (p = 0.03), larger body weight before exacerbation (p = 0.04), higher weight at one day before the first administration of tolvaptan (p = 0.03), higher aspartate aminotransferase levels (p = 0.03) and higher urinary osmolality levels (p = 0.03). A logistic regression analysis showed that the urinary osmolality was the only significant predictive factor for responders to tolvaptan. Adverse drug reactions were observed in 7 patients (20.6%). Six patients had thirst and a dry month, and 1 had a mild increase in the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Tolvaptan can be effectively and safely administered in pediatric patients. Because the kidneys in neonates and infants are resistant to arginine vasopressin, the efficacy of tolvaptan may be less effective compared to older children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Urine Aquaporin-2: A Promising Marker of Response to the Arginine Vasopressin Type-2 Antagonist, Tolvaptan in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruhiko Imamura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporin-2, a member of the aquaporin family, is an arginine vasopressin-regulated water channel expressed in the renal collecting duct, and a promising marker of the concentrating and diluting ability of the kidney. The arginine vasopressin type-2 antagonist, tolvaptan, is a new-generation diuretic; it is especially indicated in patients with decompensated heart failure refractory to conventional diuretics. However, the ideal responders to tolvaptan have not yet been identified, and non-responders experience worse clinical courses despite treatment with tolvaptan. Urine aquaporin-2 has recently been demonstrated as a promising predictor of response to tolvaptan. We here validated aquaporin-2-guided tolvaptan therapy in patients with decompensated heart failure. Long-term efficacy of tolvaptan treatment in the responders defined by aquaporin-2 needs to be validated in the future prospective study.

  1. Anaemia among patients with congestive cardiac failure in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... mild CCF is about 15%, increasing to 50% for severe disease.4. Long-term survival of patients with .... underlying cardiac diseases, followed by degenerative valvular heart disease (1.9%), hypertrophic ..... Formiga F. Anemia in new-onset congestive heart failure patients admitted for acute decompensation.

  2. Validated risk score predicts the development of congestive heart failure after presentation with unstable angina or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction: results from OPUS-TIMI 16 and TACTICS-TIMI 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, John V; Murphy, Sabina A; Morrow, David A; de Lemos, James A; Antman, Elliott M; Cannon, Christopher P

    2004-07-01

    Few data are available about development of congestive heart failure (CHF) in patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (UA/NSTEMI). We developed and validated a risk score to predict which patients will develop CHF. A subset of 4681 patients from the Orbofiban in Patients With Unstable Coronary Syndromes-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (OPUS-TIMI 16) trial with UA/NSTEMI and without a history of CHF were included in this analysis and stratified according to the development of CHF at 10 months. A risk score was created from significant variables and validated in the Treat Angina With Aggrastat and Determine Cost of Therapy With an Invasive or Conservative Strategy-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TACTICS-TIMI 18) trial. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) was then added to the initial multivariate analysis and validated in the TACTICS-TIMI 18 trial. The incidence of CHF at 30 days was 4.9%, and at 10 months it was 5.6%. Significant variables on multivariate analysis included age >65 years, heart rate >100 beats/min, history of diabetes mellitus, lateral electrocardiographic changes, and history of angiographically confirmed coronary artery disease. The risk of CHF increased 10-fold across the number of risk factors (P TIMI 18 trial, the risk score was significantly associated with CHF at 6 months (P =.01). The median BNP value doubled across the number of risk factors (P risk score improved its discriminatory capacity. In patients with UA/NSTEMI, a simple clinical risk score can aid in assessing the risk of developing CHF. BNP adds to the predictive capacity of this risk score. This score may assist in identifying patients who warrant more careful monitoring and therapy for CHF prevention inhospital and during follow-up.

  3. Diuretics for heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Rajaa F; Flather, Marcus; Purcell, Henry; Poole-Wilson, Philip A; Coats, Andrew J S

    2012-02-15

    Chronic heart failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diuretics are regarded as the first-line treatment for patients with congestive heart failure since they provide symptomatic relief. The effects of diuretics on disease progression and survival remain unclear. To assess the harms and benefits of diuretics for chronic heart failure Updated searches were run in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials in The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL Issue 1 of 4, 2011), MEDLINE (1966 to 22 February 2011), EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 07) and HERDIN database (1990 to February 2011). We hand searched pertinent journals and reference lists of papers were inspected. We also contacted manufacturers and researchers in the field. No language restrictions were applied. Double-blinded randomised controlled trials of diuretic therapy comparing one diuretic with placebo, or one diuretic with another active agent (e.g. ACE inhibitors, digoxin) in patients with chronic heart failure. Two authors independently abstracted the data and assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of each trial. Extracted data were analysed by determining the odds ratio for dichotomous data, and difference in means for continuous data, of the treated group compared with controls. The likelihood of heterogeneity of the study population was assessed by the Chi-square test. If there was no evidence of statistical heterogeneity and pooling of results was clinically appropriate, a combined estimate was obtained using the fixed-effects model. This update has not identified any new studies for inclusion. The review includes 14 trials (525 participants), 7 were placebo-controlled, and 7 compared diuretics against other agents such as ACE inhibitors or digoxin. We analysed the data for mortality and for worsening heart failure. Mortality data were available in 3 of the placebo-controlled trials (202 participants). Mortality was lower for participants treated with diuretics than for

  4. Prognostic importance of change in QRS duration over time associated with left ventricular dysfunction in patients with congestive heart failure: the DIAMOND study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup; Seibaek, Marie; Brendorp, Bente

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prognostic importance reported for QRS duration in patients with heart failure (HF) and left ventricular dysfunction varies. No prior study has investigated the prognostic importance of change in QRS duration over time. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Danish Investigations and Arrhythmia...... ON Dofetilide (DIAMOND) study randomized 1518 patients with HF to dofetilide (class III antiarrhythmic drug) or placebo. All patients had left ventricular dysfunction. QRS duration was systematically measured at randomization and every 3 months after that. During 10 years of follow-up, 1324 (89......%) of the patients died. QRS duration increased from baseline by 1.36 ms (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.26 to -2.98; P = .1) after 12 months and by 3.65 ms (CI: 0.22-7.07; P = .04) after 24 months. QRS duration measured at baseline was not of prognostic significance after multivariable adjustment (adjusted hazard...

  5. Effect of repeated intracoronary injection of bone marrow cells in patients with ischaemic heart failure the Danish stem cell study--congestive heart failure trial (DanCell-CHF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Møller, Jacob E; Thayssen, Per

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that myocardial regeneration may be achieved by a single intracoronary bone marrow derived stem cell infusion in selected patients with ischaemic heart disease. The effect is uncertain in patients with chronic ischaemic heart failure and it is not known whether r...

  6. Framework for Traffic Congestion Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Hassan TALUKDAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic Congestion is one of many serious global problems in all great cities resulted from rapid urbanization which always exert negative externalities upon society. The solution of traffic congestion is highly geocentric and due to its heterogeneous nature, curbing congestion is one of the hard tasks for transport planners. It is not possible to suggest unique traffic congestion management framework which could be absolutely applied for every great cities. Conversely, it is quite feasible to develop a framework which could be used with or without minor adjustment to deal with congestion problem. So, the main aim of this paper is to prepare a traffic congestion mitigation framework which will be useful for urban planners, transport planners, civil engineers, transport policy makers, congestion management researchers who are directly or indirectly involved or willing to involve in the task of traffic congestion management. Literature review is the main source of information of this study. In this paper, firstly, traffic congestion is defined on the theoretical point of view and then the causes of traffic congestion are briefly described. After describing the causes, common management measures, using world- wide, are described and framework for supply side and demand side congestion management measures are prepared.

  7. Upgrading to biventricular pacing/defibrillation systems in right ventricular paced congestive heart failure patients: prospective assessment of procedural parameters and response rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duray, Gabor Z; Israel, Carsten W; Pajitnev, Dimitrij; Hohnloser, Stefan H

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is indicated in patients with heart failure and bundle branch block. It is less clear whether this includes patients with pre-existing right ventricular pacemaker/defibrillator systems, particularly with respect to implantation success and clinical benefit. In consecutive patients scheduled for CRT, we prospectively compared implantation success, procedural parameters, and clinical response in 'de novo' vs. upgrade procedures of previously implanted right ventricular systems. CRT implantation was attempted in 79 consecutive patients (64 +/- 11 years, 63 male, 38 ischaemic, 41 non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy). De novo implantation was performed in 61 patients, upgrade procedures in 18 patients. Implant success (92 vs. 94%, P = 1.00), procedure duration (153 +/- 43 vs. 164 +/- 65 min, P = 0.51), fluoroscopy time (25 +/- 18 vs. 32 +/- 22 min, P = 0.18) or dose (40 +/- 31 vs. 52 +/- 49 Gy/cm(2), P = 0.35), and response rate (66 vs. 59%, P = 0.5) were comparable for both groups. Procedural aspects, implantation success, and clinical response to CRT were comparable for patients undergoing de-novo vs. upgrade procedures. Accordingly, patient selection for upgrading should be the same as for new CRT implantation.

  8. Continuous Veno-Venous Hemofiltration Improves Survival of Patients With Congestive Heart Failure and Cardiorenal Syndrome Compared to Slow Continuous Ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premuzic, Vedran; Basic-Jukic, Nikolina; Jelakovic, Bojan; Kes, Petar

    2017-06-01

    Continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) could modulate the inflammatory response by removal of circulating cytokines and therefore improve cardiac function in patients with heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that patients with developed cardiorenal syndrome and treated with CVVH have lower risk for mortality than other patients treated with slow continuous ultrafiltration (SCUF). This was a prospective, longitudinal follow-up study for 24 months duration. In total, 120 patients were recruited from the intensive care units. Only patients with cardiorenal syndrome type 1 and 2 were enrolled. 54 CVVH and 23 SCUF patients survived. Mean survival time was longer in CVVH group with cardiomyopathy than in the SCUF group. When we compared patients with cardiomyopathy and hourly urine output cardiorenal syndrome. Better survival in patients treated with CVVH, which is mostly pronounced in patients with cardiomyopathy, is a consequence of a better preserved hourly urine output. Longer survival in patients with cardiomyopathy is most probably related to cytokine removal by CVVH with smaller UF rates and longer duration of each treatment. Slow continuous ultrafiltration remains the method of choice in patients with HF and preserved renal function but in cases of developed cardiorenal syndrome is much inferior to CVVH. © 2017 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  9. Spectrum of congestive heart failure late after aortic valve or mitral replacement: differentiation of valvular versus myocardial cause by radionuclide ventriculogram-ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, M R; Boucher, C A; Block, P C; Buckley, M J; Austen, W G; Strauss, H W; Pohost, G M

    1981-10-01

    Heart failure (CHF) appearing late after aortic (AV) or mitral valve (MV) replacement (R) may be due to mechanical factors such as prosthetic or native dysfunction, or due to myocardial disease. We studied 41 patients who developed CHF late (6 weeks to 11 years) after AVR or MVR with gated blood pool scan (RNV) to analyze the spectrum of ejection fraction (EF) and its clinical correlates. Of the 17 patients who developed CHF after AVR, 10 had RNV EF greater than 0.5 (all of whom had severe valve or prosthetic dysfunction as the primary cause of CHF) and seven had EF less than 0.5 (five with severe myocardial disease and two with prosthetic dysfunction). Of the 24 with CHF after MVR, 13 had RNV EF greater than 0.5. In contrast to post-AVR patients, only 8 of the 13 patients had mechanical causes of CHF (seven prosthetic dysfunction and one constrictive pericarditis). Of the 11 patients after MVR with EF less than 0.5, nine had severe myocardial disease and two had prosthetic dysfunction. Thus (1) reduced EF in patients and CHF-after AVR or MVR suggests myocardial disease as the basis for CHF, and (2) normal EF implies a mechanical cause of CHF after AVR but may be associated with either myocardial or mechanical factors after MVR.

  10. Making sense of health care delivery Where does the close to community health care worker fit in? – The case for congestive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Iyngkaran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Close to community health care workers (CTC-HCW is an increasingly used term to describe the emergence of a new partner in health services delivery. In strengthening arguments for this part of the health workforce the authorities, health staffers, supporters, sceptics and perhaps clients will look to the academicians and the evidence base to determine the fate of this group. There is no doubt, CTC-HCW are a vital resource, whose importance is tied to socio-demo-geographic variables. Regardless of what the common perceptions of its importance are, the evolving evidence base could suggest either way. In this short commentary we would like to highlight the importance of a balanced and common sense approach in these arguments. An important example is heart failure where the majority have an associated comorbidity and one in four would also suffer with cognitive or mood disturbances. It is unclear how the CTC-HCW would fare for this devastating syndrome. In moving forward it is important we understand there are: strengths and limitations in the evidence gathering processes; indecision as to the questions; uncertainty of the starting points to gather evidence; and sociodemogeographic biases, which have to be factored before determining the fate of this much needed health care resource.

  11. Acute Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 1 in Patients With Congestive Heart Failure Exacerbations Is Not an Indicator of Poor Outcome and Increased Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguelles, Eric; de Elia, Carolina; Lasic, Zoran

    2014-04-01

    Over one million patients are hospitalized each year with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) in the US. Approximately 20% to 40% of them will develop acute cardiorenal syndrome type 1 (ACRS1) via multiple mechanisms. From January 2010 to December 2010, 197 patients were diagnosed with ADHF. Initial N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP), creatinine levels throughout hospital stay, use of invasive mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay and death were assessed for each patient. ACRS1 was diagnosed when an increase of creatinine > 0.3 mg/dL from baseline was noted during hospital stay. We sought to investigate whether presence of ACRS1 is associated with increased length of stay, need for mechanical ventilation and increased in-hospital mortality in patients admitted with ADHF. Total of 61 (31%) patients experienced ACRS1. Mean hospital stay for ACRS1 patients was 8.43 ± 6.28 days while for non-ACRS1 was 5.06 ± 4.19 (P < 0.0001). Twenty-eight (14%) patients required invasive mechanical ventilation (11 non-ACRS1 vs. 17 ACRS1). ACRS1 was associated with more frequent use of invasive ventilation (odd ratio 3.45, CI 1.52 - 7.79, P = 0.003). Fifteen (8%) patients expired (8 non-ACRS1 vs. 7 ACRS1). There was no difference in mortality between groups (odd ratio 2.07, CI 0.72 - 6.00, P = 0.18). Development of ACRS1 was not associated with increased incidence of in-hospital mortality, but it prolonged hospital stay and need for mechanical ventilation.

  12. Medicinal Leech Therapy for Glans Penis Congestion After Primary Bladder Exstrophy-Epispadias Repair in an Infant: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenheim, Gavin N; Au, Jason; Gargollo, Patricio C

    2016-01-01

    Many postoperative complications have been reported after repair of classic bladder exstrophy. We present a case of medicinal leech therapy for glans penis congestion following exstrophy repair in an infant. A 2-week-old male with classic bladder exstrophy underwent complete primary repair. On postoperative day 1, he developed rapidly worsening glans penis venous congestion. Medicinal leech therapy was instituted with antibiotics and blood transfusions to maintain a hematocrit >30%. After 24 hours, venous congestion improved and therapy was discontinued. The patient's remaining hospital course was uncomplicated. Medicinal leeches are an effective therapy to relieve glans penis venous congestion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Diuretics in heart failure and Karl Popper's turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cice, Gennaro

    2015-12-01

    Heart failure and renal failure often coexist in the same patient. This condition is commonly referred to as cardiorenal syndrome. When this occurs, patient survival worsens significantly with increasing degree of renal dysfunction. Management of this complex patient poses treatment challenges because of unstable hemodynamics (the problem is to reduce congestion without affecting organ perfusion) and very high mid-term in-hospital mortality. Congestion is a typical feature of this syndrome, and use of diuretics is mandatory. Loop diuretics should be administered first. However, poor attention to pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of loop diuretics may contribute to the development of diuretic resistance leading to iatrogenic hyponatremia. Accordingly, emphasis is given to the importance of sequential nephron blockade to reduce the number of non-responder patients to diuretics and to recognize a possible role for acquaretics.

  14. The comparison of the effects of education provided by nurses on the quality of life in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) in usual and home-visit cares in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehralian, Hossein; Salehi, Shahriar; Moghaddasi, Jafar; Amiri, Masoud; Rafiei, Hossin

    2014-04-11

    Quality of life (QOL) can be considered as a quality indicator of health care systems and nurses can play an important role to improve QOL in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). The aim of this study was to determine the effects of education provided by nurses on the QOL in patients with CHF in home-visit care compared to usual care. In a single-blind randomized controlled trial conducted from September 2011 to June 2012, 110 patients with CHF were randomly assigned into two groups. While patients in group I were received usual education at the time of hospital discharge, patients in Group II, in addition to usual education, were received special education regards to their illness by nurses who visited patients in their homes. The 36-item short-form (SF-36) questionnaire was used to evaluate the patient's QOL at the time of discharge and also six months after hospital discharge. At the time of hospital discharge, mean score of all 8 sub-score of SF-36 questionnaire was 63.4±7.8 in patients of group II and 61.1±6.4 in patients of group I, respectively (P> 0.05). QOL was decreased in group I and increased in group II compared to the time of hospital discharge. After six months, mean score of QOL was higher in group II than in group I. QOL of patients with CHF were decreased after hospital discharge. Education provided by nurses in home-visit care could improve the QOL in patients with CHF, based on the findings of this study.

  15. Involvement of Depressive Catecholamines as Thrombosis Risk/Inflammatory Markers in Non-Smoker, Non-Obese Congestive Heart Failure, Linked to Increased Epidermal Growth Factor-Receptor (EGF-R) Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Nadia M; El-Wakeel, Lamiaa; Suwailem, Salwa M

    2011-04-01

    The EGF-R, also known as HER-1 or erbB-1 (EGF-R/HER-1/erbB-1), is a member of the human epithelial receptor tyrosine kinase family. sEGF-R is considered to play a role in cardiac (patho)physiology. We aimed to investigate whether soluble EGF-R is increased in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients and if related to disease severity. Soluble EGF-R, vitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH) was studied, and being evaluated in relation to Ca(2+), lipids, hsCRP, fibrinogen, serotonin, norepinepherine (NE). The study compared non-smoker, non-obese male CHF patients (n = 50) with age and gender-matched essential hypertension (HTN) patients (n = 20). Moreover, comparison with healthy control volunteers (n = 20) were employed. EGF-R/HER-1/erbB-1 was higher (P = 0.013) in 50 CHF male patients mean 12 ± 0.7 fmol/ml, than in 20 HTN, 9.25 ± 0.6 fmol/ml or in 20 controls, 6.25 ± 1 fmol/ml. Serum EGF-R levels correlated positively with hsCRP and NE, and were highest among CVD patients (n = 70) as well as negatively with vitamin D and HDL-C. EGF-R/HER-1/erbB-1 levels are increased in HTN and more in CHF patients. This study confirms a strong association between catecholamines as well as EGF-R/HER-1/erbB-1 levels with PTH and low vitamin D levels, being related to hyperlipidemia and inflammation (hsCRP and fibrinogen) in CVD. Moreover, contributing to the complex process of the inflammatory component of atherosclerosis in hypertensive patients that leads eventually to CHF.

  16. High resolution mapping of the pulmonary vein and the vein of Marshall during induced atrial fibrillation and atrial tachycardia in a canine model of pacing-induced congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Yuji; Miyauchi, Yasushi; Park, Angela M; Hamabe, Akira; Zhou, Shengmei; Hayashi, Hideki; Miyauchi, Mizuho; Omichi, Chikaya; Pak, Hui Nam; Brodsky, Lauren A; Mandel, William J; Fishbein, Michael C; Karagueuzian, Hrayr S; Chen, Peng Sheng

    2003-07-16

    The study examined the activations in the pulmonary veins (PVs) and the vein of Marshall (VOM) during atrial fibrillation (AF) in dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF). The patterns of activation within the PVs and the VOM during AF in CHF are unclear. We induced CHF in nine dogs by rapid ventricular pacing. The patterns of activation during induced AF were studied one week after ceasing ventricular pacing. The duration of induced AF averaged 80.7 +/- 177.3 s. The termination of low-amplitude fractionated activity in the PVs preceded the termination of AF in 25 of 29 episodes. High-density mapping (1-mm resolution) showed that the PV was activated by a focal wave front independent of left atrial (LA) activation in 22 AF episodes. Frequent intra-PV conduction blocks and multiple wave fronts in the PVs were recorded during 10 AF episodes. Focal activations were observed within the VOM in 4 of 12 episodes of AF. Three atrial tachycardia (AT) episodes originated from a focus within a PV. Histological studies showed extensive fibrosis in the PVs and in the atria. The PVs in five normal dogs did not have focal or fractionated activity during induced AF. Atrial fibrillation in canine CHF is associated with independent focal activations in the PVs and the VOM, and with complex wave fronts within the PVs. The PVs may also serve as the origin of AT. These findings suggest that electrical and anatomical remodeling of the PVs and the VOM are important in the maintenance of AF and AT in dogs with CHF.

  17. Fluid removal in acute heart failure: diuretics versus devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Arun; Felker, G Michael

    2014-10-01

    Fluid removal and relief of congestion are central to treatment of acute heart failure. Diuretics have been the decongestive mainstay but their known limitations have led to the exploration of alternative strategies. This review compares diuretics with ultrafiltration and examines the recent evidence evaluating their use. Relevant recent studies are the Diuretic Optimization Strategies Evaluation trial (of diuretics) and the Cardiorenal Rescue Study in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (of ultrafiltration). The Diuretic Optimization Strategies Evaluation study evaluated strategies of loop diuretic use during acute heart failure (continuous infusion versus intermittent bolus and high dose versus low dose). After 72  h, there was no significant difference with either comparison for the coprimary end points. Patients treated with a high-dose strategy tended to have greater diuresis and more decongestion compared with low-dose therapy, at the cost of transient changes in renal function. The Cardiorenal Rescue Study in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure study showed that in acute heart failure patients with persistent congestion and worsening renal function, ultrafiltration, as compared with a medical therapy, was associated with similar weight loss but greater increase in serum creatinine and more adverse events. Decongestion remains a major challenge in acute heart failure. Although recent studies provide useful data to guide practice, the relatively poor outcomes point to the continued need to identify better strategies for safe and effective decongestion.

  18. Update on device technologies for monitoring heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bharat; Russell, Stuart D; Cheng, Alan

    2012-10-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) affects more than 5 million people in the United States and is one of the most common reasons for recurrent hospitalizations. Since the majority of admissions related to CHF are secondary to progressively worsening congestion, many clinicians are quick to initiate aggressive diuresis once early signs of impending heart failure develop. These signs are based in large measure on patient-reported symptoms. Unfortunately, recent trials have shown that traditional ambulatory monitoring of heart failure using patient symptoms or body weight do not reduce episodes of decompensated heart failure requiring hospitalization. This has led to great interest in developing monitoring systems that can detect impending episodes of CHF even prior to the development of symptoms. Some of the these systems utilize existing implantable cardioverter defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy devices to monitor electrophysiologic parameters including the presence of ventricular arrhythmias, heart rate variability and even transthoracic impedances. Other more recent developments have focused on more invasive hemodynamic monitoring systems that can measure pressures in the right ventricle, pulmonary arteries and the left atrium. The data on the utility of such systems is limited but encouraging. While none of these systems are currently FDA approved, they have been applied in a number of clinical trials. This paper highlights the currently available monitoring systems for heart failure and reviews the evidence supporting its use.

  19. Safety and tolerability of intensified, N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide-guided compared with standard medical therapy in elderly patients with congestive heart failure: results from TIME-CHF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-van Wijk, Sandra; Muzzarelli, Stefano; Neuhaus, Michael; Kiencke, Stephanie; Maeder, Micha; Estlinbaum, Werner; Tobler, Daniel; Mayer, Kurt; Erne, Paul; Pfisterer, Matthias E; Brunner-La Rocca, Hans-Peter

    2013-08-01

    NT-proBNP-guided therapy results in intensification of medical heart failure (HF) therapy and is suggested to improve outcome. However, it is feared that an intensified, NT-proBNP-guided therapy carries a risk of adverse effects. Therefore, the safety and tolerability of NT-proBNP-guided therapy in the Trial of Intensified vs standard Medical therapy in Elderly patients with Congestive Heart Failure (TIME-CHF) was assessed. A total of 495 chronic HF patients, aged ≥60, with an LVEF ≤45%, NYHA class ≥II, randomized to NT-proBNP-guided or symptom-guided therapy and ≥1 month follow-up were included in the present safety analysis. All adverse events (AEs) were recorded during the 18-month trial period. A total of 5212 AEs were noted, 433 of them serious. NT-proBNP-guided therapy led to a higher up-titration of HF medication and was well tolerated, with a dropout rate (12% vs. 11%, P = 1.0) and AE profile [number of AEs/patient-year 4.7 (2.8-9.4) vs. 5.4 (2.7-11.4), P = 0.69; number of severe AEs/patient-year 0.7 (0-2.7) vs. 1.3 (0-3.9), P = 0.21] similar to that of symptom-guided therapy, although most subjects in both treatment groups (96% vs. 95%, P = 0.55) experienced at least one AE. Age and number of co-morbidities were associated with AEs and interacted with the safety profile of NT-proBNP-guided therapy: positive effects were more frequent in younger and less co-morbid patients whereas potential negative effects-although small and related to non-severe AEs only-were only seen in the older and more co-morbid patients. NT-proBNP-guided therapy is safe in elderly and highly co-morbid HF patients. Trial registration ISRCTN43596477.

  20. Evolução intra-hospitalar e seguimento pós-alta de pacientes idosos atendidos com insuficiência cardíaca congestiva na unidade de emergência Hospital outcome and short-term follow-up of predominatly elderly patients presenting to the emergency department with congestive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Villacorta

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conhecer a evolução intra-hospitalar (IH e pós-alta (PA de uma população predominantemente idosa, com insuficiência cardíaca congestiva (ICC na unidade de emergência (UE. MÉTODOS: Durante 11 meses, foram selecionados 57 pacientes consecutivos com ICC, atendidos em EU, com idade média de 69+15 (27 a 94 anos, sendo 39 (68,4% homens. O diagnóstico de ICC baseou-se nos critérios de Boston. Avaliou-se a evolução IH e PA num período médio de 5,7+2,7 (1 a 12 meses, procurando-se identificar variáveis que se correlacionassem com a mortalidade e o mecanismo de morte, avaliado pelo sistema ACME . RESULTADOS: Oito (14% pacientes faleceram na fase IH, sendo 7 por falência circulatória (FC, e 1 em pós-operatório (PO. Durante o seguimento ocorreram 9 (18,4% óbitos, sendo 5 por FC, 2 mortes súbitas e 2 em PO (troca valvar mitral e ventriculectomia. A sobrevida dos pacientes que tiveram alta foi de 82% e 66%, aos 6 meses e 1 ano, respectivamente. Sódio sérico PURPOSE: To evaluate the in-hospital (IH outcome and the short-term follow-up of predominantly elderly patients presenting to an emergency room (ER with congestive heart failure (CHF. METHODS: In an 11 month period, 57 patients presenting to the ER with CHF were included. Mean age was 69+15 years (27 to 94 and 39 (68,4% were male. CHF diagnosis was based on the Boston criteria. We evaluated IH outcome and prognosis in a mean follow-up of 5,7+2,7 months (1 to 12. In addition, some mortality predictors and mechanisms of death according on the ACME system were identified. RESULTS: Eight patients (14% died in the IH period. Modes of death were circulatory failure (CF in 7, and peri-operative (PO in one (aortic valve replacement. During follow-up 9 deaths ocurred. Five were due to CF, 2 were sudden and 2 were PO (mitral valve replacement and ventriculectomy. Six-months and 1-year survival rates of the patients who were discharged were 82% and 66%, respectively. Sodium lower

  1. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intramural Research Home / Heart Failure Heart Failure Also known as Congestive heart failure What ... diseases for many years that led to heart failure. Heart failure is a leading cause of hospital stays ...

  2. Car-following under non-congested and congested conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijker, T.; Bovy, P.H.L.; Vermijs, R.G.M.M.

    1997-01-01

    In traffic flow analysis several regimes are distinguished, such as congested and non-congested flow conditions. Indications exist that driving behavior differs by regime, and that it may change discontinuously between regimes. In contrast, most traffic flow models used today basically assume the

  3. Glucosamine: Can It Worsen Gout Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms? My husband takes glucosamine supplements to treat gout. But I'm wondering if glucosamine, which contains shellfish, may actually worsen gout symptoms? Answers from April Chang-Miller, M.D. ...

  4. Extracorporeal fluid removal in heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Maria Rosa; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Marenzi, Giancarlo

    2010-01-01

    More than one million hospitalizations occur annually in the US because of heart failure (HF) decompensation caused by fluid overload. Congestion contributes to HF progression and mortality. Apart from intrinsic renal insufficiency, venous congestion, rather than a reduced cardiac output, may be the primary hemodynamic factor driving worsening renal function in patients with acutely decompensated HF. According to data from large national registries, approximately 40% of hospitalized HF patients are discharged with unresolved congestion, which may contribute to unacceptably high rehospitalization rates. Although diuretics reduce the symptoms and signs of fluid overload, their effectiveness is reduced by excess salt intake, underlying chronic kidney disease, renal adaptation to their action and neurohormonal activation. In addition, the production of hypotonic urine limits the effectiveness of loop diuretics in reducing total body sodium. Ultrafiltration is the mechanical removal of fluid from the vasculature. Hydrostatic pressure is applied to blood across a semipermeable membrane to separate isotonic plasma water from blood. Because solutes in blood freely cross the semipermeable membrane, large amounts of fluid can be removed at the discretion of the treating physician without affecting any change in the serum concentration of electrolytes and other solutes. Ultrafiltration has been used to relieve congestion in patients with HF for almost four decades. In contrast to the adverse physiological consequences of loop diuretics, numerous studies have demonstrated favorable responses to ultrafiltration. Such studies have shown that removal of large amounts of isotonic fluid relieves symptoms of congestion, improves exercise capacity, improves cardiac filling pressures, restores diuretic responsiveness in patients with diuretic resistance, and has a favorable effect on pulmonary function, ventilatory efficiency, and neurohormonal activation. Ultrafiltration is the only

  5. [Association between ethanol intake and ischemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccoli, Giampaolo; Bacà, Marco; Cosentino, Nicola; Fabretti, Alessandro; Crea, Filippo

    2008-11-01

    Most world populations consume alcoholic beverages. Ethanol may have both protective and harmful effects on health depending on the amount and way of consumption. An extensive body of data shows concordant J or U-shaped associations between alcohol intake and a variety of adverse health outcomes, including coronary heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, stroke, and all-cause mortality. In particular, moderate ethanol consumption is associated with cardioprotective benefits such as lower cardiovascular risk and mortality, probably mediated by beneficial effects on inflammation, lipids, and coagulation. In contrast, binge and/or heavy drinking results in proportional worsening of outcomes, increasing cardiovascular events and mortality. This harmful effect has been recently associated with the blockade of ischemic preconditioning mediated by high doses of ethanol. In this review, we highlight the recent epidemiological and experimental evidences regarding the specific benefits and risks of ethanol in the setting of ischemic heart disease.

  6. Controlling Congestion on Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Buzna, Lubos

    2016-01-01

    From the Internet to road networks and the power grid, modern life depends on controlling flows on critical infrastructure networks that often operate in a congested state. Yet, we have a limited understanding of the relative performance of the control mechanisms available to manage congestion and of the interplay between network topology, path layout and congestion control algorithms. Here, we consider two flow algorithms (max-flow and uniform-flow), and two more realistic congestion control schemes (max-min fairness and proportional fairness). We analyse how the algorithms and network topology affect throughput, fairness and the location of bottleneck edges. Our results show that on large random networks a network operator can implement the trade-off (proportional fairness) instead of the fair allocation (max-min fairness) with little sacrifice in throughput. We illustrate how the previously studied uniform-flow approach leaves networks severely underutilised in comparison with congestion control algorithms...

  7. Self-perceived symptoms and care needs of patients with severe to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure or chronic renal failure and its consequences for their closest relatives: the research protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schols Jos MGA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research shows that the prevalence of patients with very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, congestive heart failure (CHF and chronic renal failure (CRF continues to rise over the next years. Scientific studies concerning self-perceived symptoms and care needs in patients with severe to very severe COPD, CHF and CRF are scarce. Consequently, it will be difficult to develop an optimal patient-centred palliative care program for patients with end-stage COPD, CHF or CRF. The present study has been designed to assess the symptoms, care needs, end-of-life care treatment preferences and communication needs of patients with severe to very severe COPD, CHF or CRF. Additionally, family distress and care giving burden of relatives of these patients will be assessed. Methods/design A cross-sectional comparative and prospective longitudinal study in patients with end-stage COPD, CHF or CRF has been designed. Patients will be recruited by their treating physician specialist. Patients and their closest relatives will be visited at baseline and every 4 months after baseline for a period of 12 months. The following outcomes will be assessed during home visits: self-perceived symptoms and care needs; daily physical functioning; general health status; end-of-life care treatment preferences; end-of-life care communication and care-giver burden of family caregivers. Additionally, end-of-life care communication and prognosis of survival will be assessed with the physician primarily responsible for the management of the chronic organ failure. Finally, if patients decease during the study period, the baseline preferences with regard to life-sustaining treatments will be compared with the real end-of-life care. Discussion To date, the symptoms, care needs, caregiver burden, end-of-life care treatment preferences and communication needs of patients with very severe COPD, CHF or CRF remain unknown. The present study will

  8. Tratamento de insuficiência cardíaca com benazepril em cães com cardiomiopatia dilatada e endocardiose Treatment of congestive heart failure with benazepril in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy and endocardiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Pereira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos clínicos do benazepril, um inibidor da enzima de conversão da angiotensina de ação prolongada, em cães com insuficiência cardíaca congestiva (ICC secundária à endocardiose de mitral ou cardiomiopatia dilatada. O medicamento foi administrado na dose de 0,25 a 0,5mg/kg/dia. Diuréticos, digitálicos e f��rmacos antiarrítmicos foram usados de acordo com a necessidade de cada paciente. Exames físico, radiográfico e eletrocardiográfico foram realizados nos dias 0, 7, 28 e 56. A gasometria arterial e a bioquímica sérica foram avaliadas nos dias 0 e 56. Os sinais de dispnéia e o estado geral dos pacientes melhoraram em todos os cães após o início do tratamento. Houve diminuição na freqüência da tosse e não houve alterações no eletrocardiograma, exceto pela diminuição na amplitude e na duração da onda P. Nenhum efeito colateral foi observado. Conclui-se que o benazepril é um inibidor da enzima de conversão da angiotensina, eficaz e bem tolerado no tratamento da ICC no cão.Clinical effects of benazepril, a long acting angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACEi, in dogs with naturally-occurring congestive heart failure (CHF caused by mitral endocardiosis or dilated cardiomyopathy were studied. The drug was given orally at a dose of 0.25 to 0.5mg/kg/day. Diuretics, digitalics, and antiarrhtyhmic drugs were given as needed. Physical, radiographic, and eletrocardiographic examination were performed at days 0, 7, 28, and 56. Serum biochemistry and arterial blood gases were obtained at days 0 and 56. Signs of dyspnea and general condition improved in all dogs. Cough decreased in frequency. The electrocardiogram did not change with benazepril use except for a decrease in P wave amplitude and duration. No adverse effects related to the use of benazepril were observed. Benazepril is an effective and well tolerated ACEi for the treatment of CHF in dogs.

  9. Clinical and prognostic correlates of pulmonary congestion in coronary computed tomography angiography data sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühl, J Tobias; Kristensen, Thomas S; Thomsen, Anna F

    2016-01-01

    congestion predict clinical heart failure and adverse outcome in patients with myocardial infarction. METHODS: Coronary CTA was performed before invasive treatment in 400 prospectively included patients with non ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in an observational study. Using a previously...

  10. Heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction: a distinct clinical entity? Insights from the Trial of Intensified versus standard Medical therapy in Elderly patients with Congestive Heart Failure (TIME-CHF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickenbacher, Peter; Kaufmann, Beat A; Maeder, Micha T; Bernheim, Alain; Goetschalckx, Kaatje; Pfister, Otmar; Pfisterer, Matthias; Brunner-La Rocca, Hans-Peter

    2017-03-15

    While the conditions of heart failure (HF) with reduced (HFrEF, LVEF CHF) comprising a population with established HF including the whole spectrum of LVEF. Of the 622 patients, 108 (17%) were classified as having HFmrEF. This group was in general found to be 'intermediate' regarding clinical characteristics with a comparable and high burden of comorbidities and equally impaired quality of life but was more likely to have coronary artery disease as compared with the HFpEF group. During a median follow-up of 794 days, mortality was 39.7% without significant differences between groups. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)-guided as compared with standard therapy resulted in improved survival free of HF hospitalizations in HFrEF and HFmrEF, but not in HFpEF. Although the 'intermediate' clinical profile of HFmrEF between HFrEF and HFpEF would support the conclusion that HFmrEF is a distinct clinical entity, we hypothesize that HFmrEF has to be categorized as HFrEF because of the high prevalence of coronary artery disease and the similar benefit of NT-proBNP-guided therapy in HFrEF and HFmrEF, in contrast to HFpEF. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2017 European Society of Cardiology.

  11. HSUPA Transport Network Congestion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádas Szilveszter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA greatly improves achievable uplink bitrate but it presents new challenges to be solved in the WCDMA radio access network. In the transport network, bandwidth reservation for HSUPA is not efficient and TCP cannot efficiently resolve congestion because of lower layer retransmissions. This paper proposes an HSUPA transport network flow control algorithm that handles congestion situations efficiently and supports Quality of Service differentiation. In the Radio Network Controller (RNC, transport network congestion is detected. Relying on the standardized control frame, the RNC notifies the Node B about transport network congestion. In case of transport network congestion, the Node B part of the HSUPA flow control instructs the air interface scheduler to reduce the bitrate of the flow to eliminate congestion. The performance analysis concentrates on transport network limited scenarios. It is shown that TCP cannot provide efficient congestion control. The proposed algorithm can achieve high end-user perceived throughput, while maintaining low delay, loss, and good fairness in the transport network.

  12. Novel insights on effect of atrioventricular programming of biventricular pacemaker in heart failure – a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafique Asim M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echocardiography plays an integral role in the diagnosis of congestive heart failure including measurement of left heart pressure as well as mechanical dyssynchrony. Methods In this report we describe novel therapeutic uses of echo pulsed wave Doppler in atrioventricular pacemaker optimization in patients who had either not derived significant symptomatic benefit post biventricular pacemaker implantation or deteriorated after deriving initial benefit. In these patients atrioventricular optimization showed novel findings and improved cardiac output and symptoms. Results In 3 patients with Cheyne Stokes pattern of respiration echo Doppler showed worsening of mitral regurgitation during hyperpneac phase in one patient, marked E and A fusion in another patient and exaggerated ventricular interdependence in a third patient thus highlighting mechanisms of adverse effects of Cheyne Stokes respiration in patients with heart failure. All 3 patients required a very short atrioventricular delay programming for best cardiac output. In one patient with recurrent congestive heart failure post cardiac resynchronization, mitral inflow pulse wave Doppler showed no A wave until a sensed atrioventricular delay of 190 ms was reached and showed progressive improvement in mitral inflow pattern until an atrioventricular delay of 290 ms. In 2 patients atrioventricular delay as short as 50 ms was required to allow E and A separation and prevent diastolic mitral regurgitation. All patients developed marked improvement in congestive heart failure symptoms post echo-guided biv pacemaker optimization. Conclusion These findings highlight the value of echo-guided pacemaker optimization in symptomatic patients post cardiac resynchronization treatment.

  13. Modeling and Analyzing Taxi Congestion Premium in Congested Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwei Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a significant problem in many major cities. Getting stuck in traffic, the mileage per unit time that a taxicab travels will decline significantly. Congestion premium (or so-called low-speed fare has become an increasingly important income source for taxi drivers. However, the impact of congestion premium on the taxicab market is not widely understood yet. In particular, modeling and analyzing of the taxi fare structure with congestion premium are extremely limited. In this paper, we developed a taxi price equilibrium model, in which the adjustment mechanism of congestion premium on optimizing the taxi driver’s income, balancing the supply and demand, and eventually improving the level of service in the whole taxicab market was investigated. In the final part, we provided a case study to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed model. The results indicated that the current taxi fare scheme in Beijing is suboptimal, since the gain from the raise of congestion premium cannot compensate for the loss from the demand reduction. Conversely, the optimal fare scheme suggested by our model can effectively reduce the excessive demand and reach the supply-demand equilibrium, while keeping the stability of the driver’s income to the maximum extent.

  14. Developing a congestion mitigation toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    Researchers created A Michigan Toolbox for Mitigating Traffic Congestion to be a useful desk reference for practitioners and an educational tool for elected officials acting through public policy boards to better understand the development, planning,...

  15. Cognitive dysfunction in congestive heart failure: transcranial Doppler evidence of microembolic etiology Disfunção cognitiva na insuficiência cardíaca congestiva: evidência de etiologia microembólica ao Doppler transcraniano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A.P. Jesus

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive symptoms are common in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF and are usually attributed to low cerebral blood flow. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate global cognitive function (Mini Mental State Exam MMSE in relation to both cardiac function (evaluated by echocardiogram and cerebrovascular hemodynamics (evaluated by transcranial Doppler TCD in CHF patients. In 83 patients studied, no correlation was found between echocardiographic parameters and MMSE scores. In contrast, a significant correlation was found between right middle cerebral artery (RMCA mean flow velocity and MMSE score (r=0.231 p=0.039, as well as between RMCA pulsatility index and MMSE score (r s= -0.292 p=0.015. After excluding patients with a previous history of stroke, only RMCA pulsatility index correlated with MMSE score (r s=-0,314 p=0,007. The relationship between high cerebrovascular resistance and worse cognitive scores suggest that microembolism may be responsible for a significant proportion of cognitive symptoms in CHF patients.Sintomas cognitivos são comuns em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca congestiva (ICC e são geralmente atribuídos a um regime de baixo fluxo sanguíneo cerebral. Neste estudo, objetivamos avaliar a função cognitiva global (Mini Exame do Estado Mental MEEM em pacientes com ICC e sua relação com o grau de disfunção cardíaca (avaliada pelo ecocardiograma e a hemodinâmica cerebral (avaliada pelo Doppler transcraniano DTC. Em 83 pacientes estudados, nenhuma correlação foi encontrada entre a pontuação no MEEM e parâmetros ecocardiográficos. Em contraste, uma correlação significativa foi encontrada entre a velocidade média na artéria cerebral média direita (ACMD e a pontuação no MEEM (r=0,231 p=0,039, assim como entre o índice de pulsatilidade na ACMD e a pontuação no MEEM (r s=-0,292 p=0,015. Após excluir pacientes com histórico prévio de acidente vascular encefálico, somente o índice de

  16. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    We consider the timing of activities through a dynamic model of commuting with congestion, in which workers care solely about leisure and consumption. Implicit preferences for the timing of the commute form endogenously due to temporal agglomeration economies. Equilibrium exists uniquely and is i......We consider the timing of activities through a dynamic model of commuting with congestion, in which workers care solely about leisure and consumption. Implicit preferences for the timing of the commute form endogenously due to temporal agglomeration economies. Equilibrium exists uniquely...... and is indistinguishable from that of a generalized version of the classical Vickrey bottleneck model, based on exogenous trip-timing preferences, but optimal policies differ: the Vickrey model will misstate the benefits of a capacity increase, it will underpredict the benefits of congestion pricing, and pricing may make...

  17. Air congestion delay: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alberto Pamplona

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a literature review of the air congestion delay and its costs. Air congestion is a worldwide problem. Its existence brings costs for airlines and discomfort for passengers. With the increasing demand for air transport, the study of air congestion has attracted the attention of many researchers around the world. The cause for the delays is erroneously attributed only to the lack of infrastructure investments. The literature review shows that other factors such as population growth, increasing standards of living, lack of operational planning and environmental issues exercise decisive influence. Several studies have been conducted in order to analyze and propose solutions to this problem that affects society as a whole.

  18. Probability-based TCP congestion control mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changbiao; Yang, Shizhong; Xian, Yongju

    2005-11-01

    To mitigate TCP global synchronization and improve network throughput, an improved TCP congestion control mechanism is proposed, namely P-TCP, which adopts the probability-based way to adjust congestion window independently when the network occurs congestion. Therefore, some P-TCP connections may decrease the congestion window greatly while other P-TCP connections may decrease the congestion window lightly. Simulation results show that TCP global synchronization can be effectively mitigated, which leads to efficient utilization of network resources as well as the effective mitigation for network congestion. Simulation results also give some valuable references for determining the related parameters in P-TCP.

  19. Prueba de esfuerzo cardiopulmonar (PEC en el síndrome de falla cardíaca. Una propuesta basada en la evidencia Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in congestive heart failure. a proposal based on evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Sénior Sánchez

    2008-06-01

    ; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

    The purpose of this document is to present recommendations for the clinical utilization of the cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with congestive heart failure with special emphasis on the evidence-based medicine, by means of a systematic search of the literature. The cardiopulmonary exercise testing is a useful tool in the evaluation and follow-up of patients with heart failure, but it is infrequently used in the daily practice of specialists in internal medicine and clinical cardiology. It allows differential diagnoses in patients with dyspnea of unexplained cause; to evaluate the tolerance to exercise, the functional capacity and prognosis; to select patients for heart transplantation; to provide parameters for the prescription of exercise, and to monitor the response to training in rehabilitation programs.

  20. Role of imaging in the evaluation of renal dysfunction in heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Dario; Terlizzese, Paola; Iacoviello, Massimo

    2017-05-06

    Heart failure and kidney disease share common pathophysiological pathways which can lead to mutual dysfunction, known as cardiorenal syndrome. In heart failure patients, renal impairment is related to hemodynamic and non-hemodynamic factors. Both decreased renal blood flow and renal venous congestion due to heart failure could lead to impaired renal function. Kidney disease and worsening renal function are independently associated with poor prognosis in heart failure patients, both in acute and chronic clinical settings. The aim of this review is to assess the role of renal imaging modalities in the evaluation and management of heart failure patients. Renal imaging techniques could complete laboratory data, as estimated glomerular filtration rate, exploring different pathophysiological factors involved in kidney disease and adding valuable information about renal structure and function. In particular, Doppler examination of arterial and venous hemodynamics is a feasible and non invasive technique, which has proven to be a reliable method for prognostic stratification in patients with cardiorenal syndrome. The renal resistance index, a measure related to renal hemodynamics, can be calculated from the Doppler evaluation of arterial flow. Moreover, the analysis of Doppler venous flow patterns can integrate information from the arterial study and evaluate renal congestion. Other imaging modalities are promising, but still confined to research purposes.

  1. Renal failure requiring dialysis complicating slow continuous ultrafiltration in acute heart failure: importance of systolic perfusion pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe, Edgard; Patarroyo, Maria; Taliercio, Jonathan J; Starling, Randall C; Nally, Joseph V; Tang, W H Wilson; Demirjian, Sevag

    2015-02-01

    Recent reports have raised concerns regarding renal outcomes in patients with decompensated acute heart failure (HF) treated with slow continuous ultrafiltration (SCUF). The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for renal failure (RF) requiring dialysis in patients with acute HF initiated on SCUF. We studied 63 consecutive patients with acute HF who required SCUF because of congestion refractory to hemodynamically guided intensive medical therapy. Median serum creatinine at SCUF initiation was higher in patients who developed RF requiring dialysis [2.5 (interquartile range 1.8-3.3) vs 1.6 (1.2-2.3) mg/dL; P acute HF initiated on SCUF, onset of RF requiring dialysis is associated with high mortality. Systolic perfusion pressure which incorporates both perfusion and venous congestion parameters may present a modifiable risk factor for worsening RF during SCUF in acute HF patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic models of congestion so far rely on exogenous scheduling preferences of travelers, based for example on disutility of deviation from a preferred departure or arrival time for a trip. This paper provides a more fundamental view in which travelers derive utility just from consumption and le...

  3. Congestion and residential moving behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Marott; Pilegaard, Ninette; Van Ommeren, Jos

    2008-01-01

    we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due to conges...

  4. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    . Compared to the predictions of an analyst observing untolled equilibrium and taking scheduling preferences as exogenous, we find that both the optimal capacity and the marginal external cost of congestion have changed. The benefits of tolling are greater, and the optimal time varying toll is different....

  5. OPTIMAL CONGESTION CHARGES IN GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Joo MOON, Ph.D.

    2002-01-01

    Another maximization problem involves characterizing the second-best optimal solution. In this problem, it is assumed to impose the congestion toll only on a single highway link. This problem yields the second-best congestion toll different from the first-best one. This second-best optimal congestion toll has the structure to reflect its impact on other highway links exempt from the congestion charge program.

  6. Outdoor Air Pollution, Heart Attack and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated outdoor ambient air particle pollution triggers heart attacks, strokes, and abnormal heart rhythms and worsens heart failure in individuals at high risk due to underlying medical conditions. Emergency Medical Services in communities are the first responders to these eme...

  7. Measuring accessibility and congestion in Accra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Kofie, Richard Y.; Allotey, Albert N.M.

    2012-01-01

    to the city centre. Peak hour traffic speeds are compared with off-peak levels and theoretical free-flow estimations to provide an indica-tion of the level of congestion. It is found that the core areas are somewhat congested during the day period, while the fringe areas are more congested during peak hours...

  8. Rapsyn congenital myasthenic syndrome worsened by fluoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Amy C; Laughlin, Ruple S; Litchy, William J; Benarroch, Eduardo E; Milone, Margherita

    2017-01-01

    Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and long-lived open channel blocker of the acetylcholine receptor, often used in the treatment of slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS). We report a 42-year-old woman who had a history of episodic limb weakness that worsened after initiation of fluoxetine for treatment of depression. Genetic testing for CMS revealed a homozygous pathogenic mutation in the rapsyn (RAPSN) gene (p.Asn88Lys). Electrodiagnostic testing was performed before and 1 month after discontinuation of fluoxetine. The 2 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation of the fibular and spinal accessory nerves showed a baseline decrement of 36% and 14%, respectively. One month after discontinuing fluoxetine, the spinal accessory nerve decrement was no longer present, and the decrement in the fibular nerve was improved at 17%. This case demonstrates worsening of both clinical and electrophysiologic findings in a patient with CMS secondary to a RAPSN mutation treated with fluoxetine. Muscle Nerve 55: 131-135, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Terapia com inibidor da ECA com dosagens relativamente altas e risco de agravamento renal na insuficiência cardíaca crônica ACE-inhibitor therapy at relatively high doses and risk of renal worsening in chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato De Vecchis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O efeito renoprotetor dos inibidores da ECA vem sendo questionado no caso de diminuição do volume circulante efetivo, como na insuficiência cardíaca crônica direita ou biventricular. Objetivo: Detectar os preditores clínicos de agravamento renal na população de pacientes com ICC, caracterizado por dois tipos de regime de dosagem de inibidores da ECA. MÉTODOS: De acordo com um desenho de coorte retrospectiva, seguimos dois grupos de pacientes com ICC - tanto direita quanto biventricular -, todos na classe III da NYHA, tratados com inibidores da ECA (enalapril ou lisinopril, e com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE 10 mg por dia de enalapril ou lisinopril. A disfunção renal agravada (ARD foi definida pelo aumento de Cr > 30% com relação ao segmento basal. O modelo de risco proporcional de Cox foi utilizado para identificar os preditores da ARD entre as seguintes variáveis: os inibidores da ECA com "alta" dosagem, idade, FEVE basal, histórico de repetidas terapias intensivas com diuréticos de alça por via intravenosa (diurético intravenoso, diabete, Cr basal, histórico de hipertensão, pressão arterial sistólica BACKGROUND: Renoprotective effect of ACE-inhibitors has been questioned in case of decreased effective circulating volume, like in right or biventricular chronic heart failure. OBJECTIVE: To detect clinical predictors of renal worsening in CHF patient population characterized by two types of ACE-inhibitor dosing regimens. METHODS: According to a retrospective cohort design, we followed 2 groups of patients with CHF - whether right or biventricular -, all in III NYHA class treated with ACE-inhibitors (enalapril or lisinopril, and with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF 10 mg per day of enalapril or lisinopril. Worsened renal failure (ARD was defined by Cr increase >30% from baseline. Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the predictors of ARD among the following variables

  10. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Handbook for Women Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease Overweight and Obesity A healthy weight is important ... a woman is, the higher her risk for heart disease. Overweight also increases the risks for stroke, congestive ...

  11. Computed Tomography of Prosthetic Heart Valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, J.

    2012-01-01

    Prosthetic heart valve (PHV) dysfunction is an infrequent but potentially life-threatening disease with a heterogeneous clinical presentation. Patients with PHV dysfunction clinically can present with symptoms of congestive heart failure (dyspnea, fatigue, edema), fever, angina pectoris, dizziness

  12. The use of metoprolol CR/XL in the treatment of patients with diabetes and chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidio De Freitas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovidio De Freitas, Oliver Lenz, Alessia Fornoni, Barry J MatersonDivision of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USAAbstract: About 5 million Americans suffer from heart failure. Given the correlation of heart failure with age and the rising life expectancy, the prevalence of heart failure continues to increase in the general population. Sympathetic stimulation intensifies with progressive heart failure. The rationale to use β-blockers in individuals with impaired myocardial function is based on experimental evidence supporting the notion that prolonged α- and β-adrenergic stimulation leads to worsening heart failure. Until recently, safety concerns have precluded the use of β-blockers in patients with diabetes and heart failure. However, several large, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials such as Metoprolol Randomized Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure (MERIT-HF have shown that β-blockers can be safely used in patients with diabetes and heart failure. Moreover, β-blockers significantly improved morbidity and mortality in this population. Based on this evidence, it is now recommended to add β-blockers such as metoprolol CR/XL with an escalating dosage regimen to the treatment of patients with symptomatic heart failure who already are receiving a stable medical regimen including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, diuretics, vasodilators, or digitalis.Keywords: metoprolol, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, β-adrenergic blocking agents, MERITHF

  13. Avoiding congestion in recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaolong; Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Runran; Zhang, Jianlin

    2014-06-01

    Recommender systems use the historical activities and personal profiles of users to uncover their preferences and recommend objects. Most of the previous methods are based on objects’ (and/or users’) similarity rather than on their difference. Such approaches are subject to a high risk of increasingly exposing users to a narrowing band of popular objects. As a result, a few objects may be recommended to an enormous number of users, resulting in the problem of recommendation congestion, which is to be avoided, especially when the recommended objects are limited resources. In order to quantitatively measure a recommendation algorithm's ability to avoid congestion, we proposed a new metric inspired by the Gini index, which is used to measure the inequality of the individual wealth distribution in an economy. Besides this, a new recommendation method called directed weighted conduction (DWC) was developed by considering the heat conduction process on a user-object bipartite network with different thermal conductivities. Experimental results obtained for three benchmark data sets showed that the DWC algorithm can effectively avoid system congestion, and greatly improve the novelty and diversity, while retaining relatively high accuracy, in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods.

  14. Predictors of sudden death and death from pump failure in congestive heart failure are different. Analysis of 24 h Holter monitoring, clinical variables, blood chemistry, exercise test and radionuclide angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, B K; Rasmussen, Verner; Hansen, J F

    1997-01-01

    Association class II and 44% in III. Total mortality after 1 year was 21%, after 2 years 32%. Of 60 deaths, 33% were sudden and 49% due to pump failure. Multivariate analyses identified totally different risk factors for sudden death: ventricular tachycardia, s-sodium ....6 mmol/l, s-potassium sudden death and for death from progressive pump failure........80 mmol/l, s-creatinine > 121 mumol/l, and maximal change in heart rate during exercise death from progressive pump failure: New York Heart Association class III + IV, delta heart rate over 24 h 7...

  15. The dark side of the kidney in cardio-renal syndrome: renal venous hypertension and congestive kidney failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nicolò, Pierpaolo

    2018-01-31

    Renal involvement in some forms of acute or chronic diseases, such as heart failure or sepsis, presents with a complex pathophysiological basis that is not always clearly distinguishable. In these clinical settings, kidney failure is traditionally and almost exclusively attributed to renal hypoperfusion and it is commonly accepted that causal elements are pre-renal, such as a reduction in the ejection fraction or absolute or relative hypovolemia acting directly on oxygen transport mechanisms and renal autoregulation systems, causing a reduction of glomerular filtration rate. Nevertheless, the concept emerging from accumulating clinical and experimental evidence is that in complex clinical pictures, kidney failure is strongly linked to the hemodynamic alterations occurring in the renal venous micro and macrocirculation. Accordingly, the transmission of the increased venous pressure to the renal venous compartment and the consequent increasing renal afterload has a pivotal role in determining and sustaining the kidney damage. The aim of this review was to clarify the physiopathological aspects of the link between worsening renal function and renal venous hypertension, analyzing the prognostic and therapeutic implications of the so-called congestive kidney failure in cardio-renal syndrome and in other clinical contexts of its possible onset.

  16. Congestion and sleep impairment in allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Timothy J; Sherkat, Amir; Safaee, Sahar

    2010-03-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a prevalent disease in developed nations, and its prevalence has been increasing throughout the world. Nasal congestion is the most common and bothersome symptoms of rhinitis. Congestion is associated with sleep-disordered breathing and is thought to be a key cause of sleep impairment in individuals with rhinitis. The end result is a decrease in quality of life and productivity and an increase in daytime sleepiness. Treatment with intranasal corticosteroids has been shown to reduce nasal congestion. Data on sleep-related end points from clinical trials of intranasal corticosteroids indicate that this reduction is associated with improved sleep, reduced daytime fatigue, and improved quality of life. Other therapies, such as montelukast, also have a positive influence on congestion and sleep. This review examines nasal congestion and the associated sleep impairment of allergic rhinitis patients. It explores the adverse effects of disturbed sleep on quality of life and how these conditions can be reduced by therapies that decrease congestion.

  17. Road traffic congestion a concise guide

    CERN Document Server

    Falcocchio, John C

    2015-01-01

    This book on road traffic congestion in cities and suburbs describes congestion problems and shows how they can be relieved. The first part (Chapters 1 - 3) shows how congestion reflects transportation technologies and settlement patterns. The second part (Chapters 4 - 13) describes the causes, characteristics, and consequences of congestion. The third part (Chapters 14 - 23) presents various relief strategies - including supply adaptation and demand mitigation - for nonrecurring and recurring congestion. The last part (Chapter 24) gives general guidelines for congestion relief and provides a general outlook for the future. The book will be useful for a wide audience - including students, practitioners and researchers in a variety of professional endeavors: traffic engineers, transportation planners, public transport specialists, city planners, public administrators, and private enterprises that depend on transportation for their activities.  

  18. Question of road traffic congestion and de-congestion in the Greater Johannesburg area: some perspectives

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available plan reflecting input from all stakeholders could lay the foundation on which an appropriate, responsive and sustainable congestion and de-congestion framework, mitigation and responsive mechanism can rest....

  19. Multipath Binomial Congestion Control Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tuan Anh; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon

    Nowadays portable devices with multiple wireless interfaces and using multimedia services are becoming more popular on the Internet. This paper describes a family of multipath binomial congestion control algorithms for audio/video streaming, where a low variant of transmission rate is important. We extend the fluid model of binomial algorithms for single-path transmission to support the concurrent transmission of packets across multiple paths. We focus on the extension of two particular algorithms, SQRT and IIAD, for multiple paths, called MPSQRT and MPIIAD, respectively. Additionally, we apply the design technique (using the multipath fluid model) for multipath TCP (MPTCP) into the extension of SQRT and IIAD, called fbMPSQRT and fbMPIIAD, respectively. Both two approaches ensure that multipath binomial congestion control algorithms achieve load-balancing, throughput improvement, and fairness to single-path binomial algorithms at shared bottlenecks. Through the simulations and comparison with the uncoordinated protocols MPSQRT/MPIIAD, fbMPSQRT/fbMPIIAD and MPTCP, we find that our extended multipath transport protocols can preserve lower latency and transmission rate variance than MPTCP, fairly share with single-path SQRT/IIAD, MPTCP and TCP, and also can achieve throughput improvements and load-balancing equivalent to those of MPTCP under various scenarios and network conditions.

  20. Efficacy and Safety of Tolvaptan in Patients Hospitalized With Acute Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, G Michael; Mentz, Robert J; Cole, Robert T; Adams, Kirkwood F; Egnaczyk, Gregory F; Fiuzat, Mona; Patel, Chetan B; Echols, Melvin; Khouri, Michel G; Tauras, James M; Gupta, Divya; Monds, Pamela; Roberts, Rhonda; O'Connor, Christopher M

    2017-03-21

    The oral vasopressin-2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan causes aquaresis in patients with volume overload, potentially facilitating decongestion and improving the clinical course of patients with acute heart failure (AHF). The TACTICS-HF (Targeting Acute Congestion with Tolvaptan in Congestive Heart Failure) study was conducted to address the acute use of tolvaptan to improve congestion in AHF. The TACTICS-HF study randomized patients (n = 257) within 24 h of AHF presentation in a prospective, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients were eligible regardless of ejection fraction, and were randomized to either 30 mg of tolvaptan or placebo given at 0, 24, and 48 h, with a fixed-dose furosemide regimen as background therapy. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients considered responders at 24 h. Secondary endpoints included symptom improvement, changes in renal function, and clinical events. Dyspnea relief by Likert scale was similar between groups at 8 h (25% moderately or markedly improved with tolvaptan vs. 28% placebo; p = 0.59) and at 24 h (50% tolvaptan vs. 47% placebo; p = 0.80). Need for rescue therapy was also similar at 24 h (21% tolvaptan, 18% placebo; p = 0.57). The proportion defined as responders at 24 h (primary study endpoint) was 16% for tolvaptan and 20% for placebo (p = 0.32). Tolvaptan resulted in greater weight loss and net fluid loss compared with placebo, but tolvaptan-treated patients were more likely to experience worsening renal function during treatment. There were no differences in in-hospital or post-discharge clinical outcomes. In patients hospitalized with AHF, dyspnea, and congestion, the addition of tolvaptan to a standardized furosemide regimen did not improve the number of responders at 24 h, despite greater weight loss and fluid loss. (Targeting Acute Congestion With Tolvaptan in Congestive Heart Failure [TACTICS-HF]; NCT01644331). Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published

  1. [Anesthetic management of severe or worsening postpartum hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aya, A G; Ducloy-Bouthors, A-S; Rugeri, L; Gris, J-C

    2014-12-01

    Risk factors of maternal morbidity and mortality during postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) include non-optimal anesthetic management. As the anesthetic management of the initial phase is addressed elsewhere, the current chapter is dedicated to the management of severe PPH. A literature search was performed using PubMed and Medline databases, and the Cochrane Library, for articles published from 2003 up to and including 2013. Several keywords related to anesthetic and critical care practice, and obstetrical management were used, in various combinations. Guidelines from several societies and organisations were also read. When PPH worsens, one should ask for additional team personnel (professional consensus). Patients should be monitored for heart rate, blood pressure, skin and mucosal pallor, bleeding at skin puncture sites, diuresis and the volume of genital bleeding (grade B). Because of the possible rapid worsening of coagulapathy, patients should undergo regular evaluation of coagulation status (professional consensus). Prevention and management of hypothermia should be considered (professional consensus), by warming intravenous fluids and blood products, and by active body warming (grade C). Antibiotics should be given, if not already administered at the initial phase (professional consensus). Vascular fluids must be given (grade B), the choice being left at the physician discretion. Blood products transfusion should be decided based on the clinical severity of PPH (professional consensus). Priority is given to red blood cells (RBC) transfusion, with the aim to maintain Hb concentration>8g/dL. The first round of products could include 3 units of RBC (professional consensus), and the following round 3 units of RBC, and 3 units of fresh frozen plasma (FFP). The FFP:RBC ratio should be kept between 1:2 and 1:1 (professional consensus). Depending on the etiology of PPH, the early administration of FFP is left at the discretion of the physician (professional consensus

  2. Congestion control in satellite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Do Jun

    Due to exponential increases in internet traffic, Active Queue Management (AQM) has been heavily studied by numerous researchers. However, little is known about AQM in satellite networks. A microscopic examination of queueing behavior in satellite networks is conducted to identify problems with applying existing AQM methods. A new AQM method is proposed to overcome the problems and it is validated using a realistic emulation environment and a mathematical model. Three problems that were discovered during the research are discussed in this dissertation. The first problem is oscillatory queueing, which is caused by high buffering due to Performance Enhancing Proxy (PEP) in satellite networks where congestion control after the PEP buffering does not effectively control traffic senders. Existing AQMs that can solve this problem have tail drop queueing that results in consecutive packet drops (global synchronization). A new AQM method called Adaptive Virtual Queue Random Early Detection (AVQRED) is proposed to solve this problem. The second problem is unfair bandwidth sharing caused by inaccurate measurements of per-flow bandwidth usage. AVQRED is enhanced to accurately measure per-flow bandwidth usage to solve this problem without adding much complexity to the algorithm. The third problem is queueing instability caused by buffer flow control where TCP receive windows are adjusted to flow control traffic senders instead of dropping received packets during congestion. Although buffer flow control is quite attractive to satellite networks, queueing becomes unstable because accepting packets instead of dropping them aggravates the congestion level. Furthermore, buffer flow control has abrupt reductions in the TCP receive window size due to high PEP buffering causing more instability. AVQRED with packet drop is proposed to solve this problem. Networks with scarce bandwidth and high propagation delays can not afford to have an unstable AQM. In this research, three problems

  3. Improvement of TCP Reno Congestion Control Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueqiu JIANG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available TCP Reno increases its congestion window exponentially during the phase of initial slow start. This leads a series of problems. For this reason, a piecewise mathematical function model which is symmetrical about midpoint is proposed. The growth rate of congestion window is accelerated at first and the growth rate of congestion window slows down at last during the phase of slow start so that it can smoothly transit to the phase of congestion avoidance. The algorithm also makes use of the bottleneck link based on the measurement method to calculate the network bandwidth so that the slow start threshold is set to the network bandwidth. Its congestion window, throughput, friendliness is assessed and validated by NS2 simulation. The new algorithm can effectively reduce the losses for network transmission of packets and decrease the number of network jitter.

  4. Optimal management of nasal congestion caused by allergic rhinitis in children: safety and efficacy of medical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scadding, Glenis

    2008-01-01

    Nasal congestion is such a frequent and multifactorial occurrence in young children that parents and medical caregivers often overlook the need for medical intervention. However, children with congestion can suffer quality-of-life detriments resulting from sleep disturbance, learning impairment, and fatigue. Congestion also impairs the normal nasal breathing that is physiologically important for the efficient cleaning and conditioning of inspired air. Further, the most common cause of congestion, allergic rhinitis, is considered a potential risk factor for asthma. Published guidelines on the treatment of allergic rhinitis agree that management strategies in children should follow the same principles as in adults, while recognizing the need for dosage adjustments and being aware of unique safety issues. Intranasal corticosteroids, with robust effects in reducing congestion and good tolerability, remain a treatment of choice. Despite lingering concerns about the potential for growth suppression with these drugs, clinical evidence suggests a very low risk at prescribed dosages, especially with compounds that have a low systemic bioavailability. Oral antihistamines are commonly cited as first-line options for allergic rhinitis, although their effect on nasal congestion is relatively modest. First-generation antihistamines should not be administered to children because of their sedative properties, which can worsen learning problems associated with allergic rhinitis. Second-generation oral antihistamines are preferred, although this class is not completely devoid of adverse effects. Other treatments, such as a nasal antihistamine, decongestants, and immunotherapy, present varying levels of safety and tolerability issues in children.

  5. Management and monitoring of haemodynamic complications in acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspromonte, Nadia; Cruz, Dinna N; Valle, Roberto; Ronco, Claudio

    2011-11-01

    The pathophysiology of acute heart failure syndromes (AHFS), defined as a change or worsening in heart failure symptoms and signs, is complex. The variety of adverse neurohormonal adaptations includes increased levels of plasma renin, aldosterone and angiotensin II, all responsible for cardio-renal dysfunction. In fact, such alterations result in an array of clinical changes that include abnormal haemodynamics, altered ventricular filling pressures, pathological neurohormonal responses, leading to fluid overload, congestion and ultimately heart failure symptoms. Clinical pictures can be various: in spite of a usual improvement in dyspnoea, little weight change and significant morbidity are generally observed during hospitalization. Short-term outcomes are characterized by a high 60-day re-hospitalization and high mortality rates; apparently, both can be predicted from pre-discharge characteristics. The most frequently used treatments for AHF care include diuretics, inotropic agents, and vasodilator/vasoactive agents; however, the final therapeutic strategy is often individualized. Diuretics are currently the most used agents, but resistance to diuretic therapy is common. In addition, several studies have demonstrated that aggressive diuresis can contribute to reduced renal function, and high doses of diuretics have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Many patients with AHFS also suffer from acute or from chronic renal dysfunction (cardio-renal syndromes type 1 and 2, respectively), which further complicate the outcomes and treatment strategies. A personalized patient evaluation of the combined heart and kidney functions is advised to implement the best possible multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic approach.

  6. CHA2DS2-VASc Score (Congestive Heart Failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75 [Doubled], Diabetes Mellitus, Prior Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack [Doubled], Vascular Disease, Age 65-74, Female) for Stroke in Asian Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Korean Nationwide Sample Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Yang, Pil-Sung; Uhm, Jae-Sun; Kim, Jong-Youn; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung; Joung, Boyoung; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2017-06-01

    The CHA2DS2-VASc stroke score (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 (doubled), diabetes mellitus, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack (doubled), vascular disease, age 65-74, female) is used in most guidelines for risk stratification in atrial fibrillation (AF), but most data for this score have been derived in Western populations. Ethnic differences in stroke risk may be present. Our objective was to investigate risk factors for stroke in AF and application of the CHA2DS2-VASc score in an Asian AF population from Korea. A total of 5855 oral anticoagulant-naive nonvalvular AF patients aged ≥20 years were enrolled from Korea National Health Insurance Service Sample cohort from 2002 to 2008 and were followed up until December 2013. The incidence rates (per 100 person-years) of ischemic stroke were 3.32 in the total population, being 0.23 in low-risk (CHA2DS2-VASc score 0 [male] or 1 [female]) and 4.59 in high-risk patients (CHA2DS2-VASc ≥2). Incidence rates of ischemic stroke or the composite thromboembolism end point showed a clear increase with increasing CHA2DS2-VASc score. On multivariable analysis, significant associations between CHA2DS2-VASc risk factors and ischemic stroke were observed; however, the significance of vascular disease or diabetes mellitus was attenuated after multivariate adjustment, and female sex (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.84) had a lower risk of ischemic stroke than males. Patients who were categorized as low risk consistently had an event rate Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Renal dysfunction prevalence and clinical impact in heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palazzuoli A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Alberto Palazzuoli, Susanna Benincasa, Stefanie Grothgar, Pasquale Di Sipio, Giovanni Paganini, Marco Pellegrini, Ranuccio NutiDepartment of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Cardiology Section, Le Scotte Hospital, University of Siena, ItalyAbstract: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with a significant increase in death and cardiovascular mortality. However the exact mechanism by which CKD impairs the cardiovascular outcome is not well established. Some reasons may lie in the association of CKD with several other cardiovascular and noncardiovascular disorders including accelerated systemic atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, increased levels of inflammatory factors, anemic status, bone mineral dysfunction, electrolyte imbalance, and renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS activation. Therefore several risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, lipid disorders, and older age are common in both conditions. In patients affected with heart failure (HF a key role is represented by the neurohormonal activation. This condition causes fluid and sodium retention, peripheral vasoconstriction, as well as increased congestion and cardiac workload. Moreover, HF during the decompensated phases is often associated with a worsening renal function that leads to further RAAS activation, microvascular damage, and intrarenal flow redistribution. In order to clarify the interactions between these factors, several questions need to be answered: the universal definition of “worsening renal function,” the identification of the best laboratory parameters to investigate renal function in terms of sensitivity and specificity, and a better definition of the comorbidities’ role in the determination of the outcome, especially in patients with chronic HF. A clarification of these key points could lead to the individualization of new specific therapeutic targets and to a reduction in mortality and hospitalization in patients with HF and

  8. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C.; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S.; Irace, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk. Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods. We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women. Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:26937904

  9. Efeitos do carvedilol (bloqueador b1,b2,a1 na insuficiência cardíaca refratária Effects of carvedilol (beta1,beta2,alpha1-blocker on refractory congestive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimar Alcides Bocchi

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Os efeitos dos beta-bloqueadores na insuficiência cardíaca (IC refratária não têm sido adequadamente estudados. Investigamos os efeitos do carvedilol (bloqueador b1,b2,a1 nos sintomas e na função ventricular de portadores de IC refratária. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 21 pacientes, idade média de 56±10 anos, 9 em classe funcional (CF IV, e 12 em CF III intermitente com IV. A dose inicial de carvedilol foi de 6,25mg e, se tolerada, aumentada progressivamente. A dose média final foi 42±11mg. Os pacientes foram submetidos a avaliações clínicas e eletrocardiográficas seriadas. Realizaram-se, antes e com 196±60 dias de evolução, ecocardiograma e ventriculografia radioisotópica. RESULTADOS: O medicamento foi tolerado em 16 (76% pacientes. Um paciente está em fase de titulação em CF II. Com 196±60 dias de evolução observaram-se 8 pacientes em CF I e 7 em II; redução da freqüência cardíaca de 96±15 para 67±10bpm (pPURPOSE: The effects of beta-blockers on severe heart failure are not well known. We investigated the effects of carvedilol (b1,b2,a1-blocker on symptoms, functional class (FC, and left ventricular function in patients with refractory heart failure. METHODS: We studied 21 patients, mean age 56±10 years, 9 in FC IV, e 12 in FC III (intermittently with class IV. The initial dosage was 6.25mg, and it was increased progressively as tolerated. The mean dose was 42±11mg. The patients were submitted to routine clinical evaluation, and electrocardiogram. We determined after 196±60 days of follow-up the left ventricular end diastolic dimension (by echocardiogram, and left ventricular ejection fraction (using MUGA. RESULTS: Carvedilol was well tolerated by 16 (76% patients. One patient is in FC II during increment of the dosage. Eight patients were in FC I, and 7 in FC II at 196±60 days of follow-up. Heart rate decreased from 96±15 to 67±10bpm (p<0.0001, left ventricular end diastolic diameter from 73±13 to

  10. Predictors of the first heart failure hospitalization in patients who are stable survivors of myocardial infarction complicated by pulmonary congestion and/or left ventricular dysfunction: a VALIANT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Eldrin F; Velazquez, Eric J; Solomon, Scott D

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: We sought to assess the incidence of and prognostic factors for heart failure (HF) hospitalization among survivors of high-risk acute myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed the risk of an initial hospitalization for HF in 11 040 stable MI patients (no major non...... 25-month follow-up at a rate of approximately 3.4% per year. Most patients, 824 (72.3%), did not have a symptomatic recurrent MI between randomization and the onset of HF. The most important predictors of HF were older age, antecedent diabetes, prior MI before index MI, and reduced renal function. HF...... markedly increased the risk of death [HR(hazard ratio) 8.22; 95% CI(confidence interval), 7.49-9.01]. CONCLUSION: HF post high risk-MI occurs in a time-dependent fashion and is usually not directly related to re-infarction. Patients who experience HF beyond the acute phase have increased mortality. Long...

  11. Binomial congestion control at receivers for multicast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Liu, Zengji; Xu, Yayan; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Shi

    2004-09-01

    A single rate multicast congestion control for streaming media applications called Binomial congestion control At Receivers for Multicast (BARM) is proposed. Combining aspects of window-based and rate-based congestion control, the protocol shifts most of the congestion control mechanisms to multicast receivers. The main features of BARM are as follows. (1) The protocol adopts binomial algorithm (k=l=0.5, α=0.28, β=0.2 for our implementation) to adjust congestion window, which not only provides TCP-friendliness but decreases abrupt rate fluctuations, making it suitable for real time streaming media multicast applications. (2) The binomial algorithm is executed at the receivers instead of at the sender; to do this, a congestion window is maintained and updated separately by each receiver. Hence the protocol not only has a better scalability but reduces the burden of the sender significantly and is suitable to Client/Server model. (3) The congestion window is converted to the expected receiving rate which is then fed back to the sender if permitted. Compared to window feedback scheme, rate feedback scheme is simpler and increases the scalability. (4) The representative approach is used to suppress the feedback implosion. Simulations results indicate that BARM shows good fairness, TCP-friendliness, smoothness, scalability, and acceptable responsiveness.

  12. Ivabradine, heart failure and chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Di Lullo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of congestive heart failure are actually increasing worldwide, especially in Western countries. In Europe and the United States, congestive heart failure represents a disabling clinical disease, accountable for increased hospitalization and health care costs. European guidelines have underlined the importance of pharmacological treatment to improve both patients’ outcomes and quality of life. The latest clinical trials to evaluate ivabradine’s efficacy have underlined its usefulness as a stand-alone medication and in combination with conventional congestive heart failure therapy, including in chronic kidney disease patients.

  13. Natriuretic Peptides as Biomarkers for Congestive States: The Cardiorenal Divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash Koratala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Congestion represents the primary reason for hospitalization of patients with heart failure and is associated with adverse outcomes. Fluid overload has been shown to be inadequately addressed in a significant subset of these patients in part due to lack of robust, reliable, and readily available biomarkers for objective assessment and monitoring of therapy. Natriuretic peptides have long been used in this setting, often in conjunction with other assessment tools such as imaging studies. Patients presenting with concomitant cardiac and renal dysfunction represent a unique population with regard to congestion in that the interactions between the heart and the kidney can affect the utility and performance of biomarkers of fluid overload. Herein, we provide an overview of the currently available evidence on the utility of natriuretic peptides in these patients and discuss the clinical conundrum associated with their use in the setting of renal dysfunction. We highlight the potential divergence in the role of natriuretic peptides for assessment of volume status in a subset of patients with renal dysfunction who receive renal replacement therapy and call for future research to elucidate the utility of the biomarkers in this setting.

  14. Meta-analysis of combined therapy with angiotensin receptor antagonists versus ACE inhibitors alone in patients with heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kuenzli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is insufficient evidence whether the benefit of adding angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors outweighs the increased risk of adverse effects in patients with heart failure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two independent reviewers searched and abstracted randomized controlled trials of ARBs and ACE inhibitors compared to ACE inhibitor therapy alone in patients with heart failure reporting mortality and hospitalizations having a follow-up of at least 6 months identified by a systematic literature search. Eight trials including a total of 18,061 patients fulfilled our inclusion criteria. There was no difference between patients treated with combination therapy and ACE inhibitor therapy alone for overall mortality, hospitalization for any reason, fatal or nonfatal MI. Combination therapy was, however, associated with fewer hospital admissions for heart failure (RR 0.81, 95%CI 0.72-0.91, although there was significant heterogeneity across trials (p-value for heterogeneity = 0.04; I(2 = 57% [95%CI 0-83%]. Patients treated with combination therapy had a higher risk of worsening renal function and symptomatic hypotension, and their trial medications were more often permanently discontinued. Lack of individual patient data precluded the analysis of time-to-event data and identification of subgroups which potentially benefit more from combination therapy such as younger patients with preserved renal function and thus at lower risk to experience worsening renal function or hyperkalemia. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Combination therapy with ARBs and ACE inhibitors reduces admissions for heart failure in patients with congestive heart failure when compared to ACE inhibitor therapy alone, but does not reduce overall mortality or all-cause hospitalization and is associated with more adverse events. Thus, based on current evidence, combination therapy with ARBs and ACE inhibitors may be reserved

  15. Diuretics as pathogenetic treatment for heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglin, Maya

    2011-01-01

    Increased intracardiac filling pressure or congestion causes symptoms and leads to hospital admissions in patients with heart failure, regardless of their systolic function. A history of hospital admission, in turn, predicts further hospitalizations and morbidity, and a higher number of hospitalizations determine higher mortality. Congestion is therefore the driving force of the natural history of heart failure. Congestion is the syndrome shared by heart failure with preserved and reduced systolic function. These two conditions have almost identical morbidity, mortality, and survival because the outcomes are driven by congestion. A small difference in favor of heart failure with preserved systolic function comes from decreased ejection fraction and left ventricular remodeling which is only present in heart failure with decreased systolic function. The magnitude of this difference reflects the contribution of decreased systolic function and ventricular remodeling to the progression of heart failure. The only treatment available for congestion is fluid removal via diuretics, ultrafiltration, or dialysis. It is the only treatment that works equally well for heart failure with reduced and preserved systolic function because it affects congestion, the main pathogenetic feature of the disease. Diuretics are pathogenetic therapy for heart failure. PMID:21403798

  16. Congested Aggregation via Newtonian Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Katy; Kim, Inwon; Yao, Yao

    2017-08-01

    We consider a congested aggregation model that describes the evolution of a density through the competing effects of nonlocal Newtonian attraction and a hard height constraint. This provides a counterpoint to existing literature on repulsive-attractive nonlocal interaction models, where the repulsive effects instead arise from an interaction kernel or the addition of diffusion. We formulate our model as the Wasserstein gradient flow of an interaction energy, with a penalization to enforce the constraint on the height of the density. From this perspective, the problem can be seen as a singular limit of the Keller-Segel equation with degenerate diffusion. Two key properties distinguish our problem from previous work on height constrained equations: nonconvexity of the interaction kernel (which places the model outside the scope of classical gradient flow theory) and nonlocal dependence of the velocity field on the density (which causes the problem to lack a comparison principle). To overcome these obstacles, we combine recent results on gradient flows of nonconvex energies with viscosity solution theory. We characterize the dynamics of patch solutions in terms of a Hele-Shaw type free boundary problem and, using this characterization, show that in two dimensions patch solutions converge to a characteristic function of a disk in the long-time limit, with an explicit rate on the decay of the energy. We believe that a key contribution of the present work is our blended approach, combining energy methods with viscosity solution theory.

  17. Innovative contracting methods and construction traffic congestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Increasing travel demand and lack of sufficient highway capacity are serious problems in most : major metropolitan areas in the United States. Large metropolitan cities have been experiencing : increased traffic congestion problems over the past seve...

  18. Understanding congested travel in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolak, Serdar; Lima, Antonio; González, Marta C.

    2016-03-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing demand for transportation burdens urban road infrastructures. The interplay of number of vehicles and available road capacity on their routes determines the level of congestion. Although approaches to modify demand and capacity exist, the possible limits of congestion alleviation by only modifying route choices have not been systematically studied. Here we couple the road networks of five diverse cities with the travel demand profiles in the morning peak hour obtained from billions of mobile phone traces to comprehensively analyse urban traffic. We present that a dimensionless ratio of the road supply to the travel demand explains the percentage of time lost in congestion. Finally, we examine congestion relief under a centralized routing scheme with varying levels of awareness of social good and quantify the benefits to show that moderate levels are enough to achieve significant collective travel time savings.

  19. Treatment of congestion in upper respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli O Meltzer

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Eli O Meltzer1, Fernan Caballero2, Leonard M Fromer3, John H Krouse4, Glenis Scadding51Allergy and Asthma Medical Group and Research Center, San Diego, CA and Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, USA; 2Allergy and Clinical Immunology Service, Centro Medico-Docente La Trinidad, Caracas, Venezuela; 3David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, USA; 4Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA; 5Department of Allergy and Rhinology, Royal National TNE Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Congestion, as a symptom of upper respiratory tract diseases including seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis, acute and chronic rhinosinusitis, and nasal polyposis, is principally caused by mucosal inflammation. Though effective pharmacotherapy options exist, no agent is universally efficacious; therapeutic decisions must account for individual patient preferences. Oral H1-antihistamines, though effective for the common symptoms of allergic rhinitis, have modest decongestant action, as do leukotriene receptor antagonists. Intranasal antihistamines appear to improve congestion better than oral forms. Topical decongestants reduce congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, but local adverse effects make them unsuitable for long-term use. Oral decongestants show some efficacy against congestion in allergic rhinitis and the common cold, and can be combined with oral antihistamines. Intranasal corticosteroids have broad anti-inflammatory activities, are the most potent long-term pharmacologic treatment of congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, and show some congestion relief in rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. Immunotherapy and surgery may be used in some cases refractory to pharmacotherapy. Steps in congestion management include (1 diagnosis of the cause(s, (2 patient education and monitoring, (3 avoidance of environmental triggers where possible, (4 pharmacotherapy, and (5 immunotherapy

  20. Differing phagocytic function of monocytes and neutrophils in Chagas' cardiopathy according to the presence or absence of congestive heart failure Diferenciada função de monócitos e neutrófilos na cardiopatia chagásica segundo a presença ou ausência de insuficiência cardíaca congestiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Imaculada Muniz-Junqueira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the in vitro phagocytic function and the production of microbicidal oxygen radicals by monocytes and neutrophils of 9 Chagas' heart disease subjects with heart failure and 9 without the syndrome in comparison with 11 healthy subjects, by assessing phagocytosis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and NBT reduction by peripheral blood phagocytes. Phagocytic index of monocytes of chagasics without heart failure was significantly 6.7 and 10.6 times lower than those of controls and chagasics with the congestive syndrome, respectively, due to a lesser engagement in phagocytosis and to an inability of these cells to ingest particles. Neutrophils also show in chagasics without heart failure PI 11.2 and 19.8 times lower than that of controls and chagasics with heart failure, respectively. The percent of NBT reduction was normal and similar for the three groups. Balanced opposite effects of cardiovascular and immune disturbances may be acting in Chagas' disease subjects with heart failure paradoxically recovering the altered phagocytic function.A função fagocitária e a produção de radicais microbicidas de oxigênio pelos monócitos e neutrófilos foram avaliadas em 9 pacientes com cardiopatia chagásica com insuficiência cardíaca congestiva e 9 sem a síndrome em comparação com 11 indivíduos controles normais pelo teste de fagocitose de Saccharomyces cerevisiae e redução do nitroblue tetrazolium pelos fagócitos do sangue periférico. O índice fagocitário dos monócitos dos chagásicos sem insuficiência cardíaca foi significantemente 6,7 e 10,6 vezes menor do que o dos controles e chagásicos com a síndrome congestiva, respectivamente, devido ao menor envolvimento na fagocitose e a menor capacidade destas células de ingerirem partículas. Nos chagásicos sem insuficiência cardíaca os neutrófilos também apresentaram o IF 11,2 e 19,8 vezes menor que os controles e chagásicos com insuficiência cardíaca, respectivamente. A

  1. Rerouting algorithms solving the air traffic congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adacher, Ludovica; Flamini, Marta; Romano, Elpidio

    2017-06-01

    Congestion in the air traffic network is a problem with an increasing relevance for airlines costs as well as airspace safety. One of the major issue is the limited operative capacity of the air network. In this work an Autonomous Agent approach is proposed to solve in real time the problem of air traffic congestion. The air traffic infrastructures are modeled with a graph and are considered partitioned in different sectors. Each sector has its own decision agent dealing with the air traffic control involved in it. Each agent sector imposes a real time aircraft scheduling to respect both delay and capacity constrains. When a congestion is predicted, a new aircraft scheduling is computed. Congestion is solved when the capacity constrains are satisfied once again. This can be done by delaying on ground aircraft or/and rerouting aircraft and/or postponing the congestion. We have tested two different algorithms that calculate K feasible paths for each aircraft involved in the congestion. Some results are reported on North Italian air space.

  2. Intrathoracic impedance monitoring for early detection of impending heart failure decompensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, William T

    2007-01-01

    In patients with chronic heart failure, detecting signs and symptoms of worsening congestion early enough to prevent hospitalization is an ongoing challenge. Intrathoracic impedance monitoring is a new, device-based method for detecting fluid accumulation in the lungs. Small clinical trials have shown that it may provide an early warning of impending decompensation and may be useful when used in conjunction with routine clinical assessment in guiding diuresis during hospitalization. Additional large-scale, prospective, randomized clinical trials are currently underway to further evaluate its clinical utility. This review discusses the basic concepts underlying intrathoracic impedance monitoring, the clinical evidence supporting its use, and some common pitfalls to avoid when interpreting intrathoracic impedance data.

  3. Diuréticos melhoram a capacidade funcional em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca congestiva Diuretics improve functional capacity in patients with congestive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Tadeu Eterno

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Quantificar a influência do diurético na capacidade funcional em portadores de insuficiência cardíaca congestiva (ICC descompensada, através do teste de caminhada. MÉTODOS: Estudamos 10 pacientes internados, com idade média de 47 anos, sendo cinco do sexo masculino, com ICC descompensada, em classe funcional III e IV (NYHA, submetidos ao teste de caminhada de 6 e 9min na admissão e alta. Foram obtidos registros na admissão e alta, do peso, do ecocardiograma, sódio, potássio, uréia, creatinina séricos, hematócrito e hemoglobina. O tratamento instituído foi o aumento da dose prévia de furosemida EV e/ou VO, associado ou não a diurético tiazídico, tendo sido mantidas as doses prévias de digital, captopril ou da associação de nitrato e hidralazina. RESULTADOS: O período de compensação variou entre 4 a 30 dias (média 8,7±7,8 dias. Ao ecocardiograma bidimensional apresentaram diâmetro do ventrículo esquerdo que variou de 47 a 81mm e a fração de ejeção de 0,26 a 0,74. A distância caminhada em 6min passou de 193,4±71,5m para 341,8±67,7m (pPURPOSE: The 6-9 minute walking test was used in this study to evaluate the impact of these drugs on functional capacity of patients admitted to the Hospital because of Heart Failure (CHF. METHODS: Ten patients (5 males and 5 females with mean age of 47 years and NYHA CHF functional class III or IV underwent a 6-9 minute walking test at admission and on the day of discharge from the Hospital. The following parameters were evaluated both at admission and discharge: body weight, echocardiography-derived LV dimensions and function, plasmatic levels of sodium, potassium, BUN, creatinine, hemoglobin and hematocrit. Treatment consisted of increasing outpatient dose of furosemide (IV and/or PO plus the association of thiazide if necessary. The previous dose regimen of digitalis, ACE inhibitors or the association nitrate and hydralazine was kept unchanged. RESULTS: Time to

  4. Managing anemia in patients with chronic heart failure: what do we know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Sandhu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ankur Sandhu1, Sandeep Soman1, Michael Hudson2, Anatole Besarab11Divisions of Nephrology, 2Cardiology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, USAAbstract: Anemia is common in patients with chronic heart failure (HF with an incidence ranging from 4% to 55% depending on the studied population. Several studies have highlighted that the prevalence of anemia increases with worsening heart failure as reflected by New York Heart Association classification. Additionally, several epidemiological studies have highlighted its role as a prognostic marker, linking it to worse outcomes including; malnutrition, increased hospitalizations, refractory heart failure and death. The pathophysiology of anemia is multifactorial and related to various factors including; hemodilution, iron losses from anti-platelet drugs, activation of the inflammatory cascade, urinary losses of erythropoietin and associated renal insufficiency. There are a host of epidemiological studies examining HF outcomes and anemia, but only a few randomized trials addressing this issue. The purpose of this article is to review the literature that examines the interrelationship of anemia and congestive HF, analyzing its etiology, impact on outcomes and also the role of associated kidney disease as well as cardiorenal syndrome both as a marker of morbidity and mortality.Keywords: anemia, cardio-renal syndrome, heart failure

  5. Diálise peritoneal (DP como tratamento da insuficiência cardíaca congestiva (ICC em pacientes com doença renal crônica estágio IV Peritoneal dialysis for treating congestive heart failure in patients with stage IV chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Prompt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A Insuficiência Cardíaca Congestiva (ICC é uma patologia com incidência crescente e que representa uma condição de grande impacto na saúde pública, com alta morbidade e mortalidade. O excesso de volume é uma complicação prevalente, presente em 80% dos pacientes atendidos com o diagnóstico de ICC. Estratégias farmacológicas e não farmacológicas no manejo terapêutico da ICC visam ao melhor manejo do volume e à redução no uso de diuréticos. A ultrafiltração extracorpórea tem evidenciado melhor controle de peso, redução nos dias de hospitalização e re-hospitalização dos pacientes com ICC. Neste artigo, relatamos dois casos atendidos no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, relativos a pacientes com diagnóstico de ICC tratados com diálise peritoneal.Congestive heart failure (CHF has a growing incidence, a great impact on public health, and high morbidity and mortality. Excessive blood volume is a prevalent complication present in 80% of the patients diagnosed with CHF. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies in the treatment of CHF aim to better manage blood volume and reduce the use of diuretics. Extracorporeal ultrafiltration has evidenced better weight control, and a reduction in the length of hospitalization and re-hospitalization of patients with CHF. We report the cases of 2 patients diagnosed with CHF and treated with peritoneal dialysis at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre.

  6. Patterns of left ventricular geometry and the transition to congestive heart failure with preserved versus depressed ejection fraction (Patrones de geometría ventricular izquierda y la transición a la insuficiencia cardíaca congestiva con fracción de eyección conservada versus deprimida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José H. Donis Hernández

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract (english Analysis of cross-sectional and follow up clinical studies, of hypertensive patients with the different left ventricular geometric patterns, provide plausible explanations for the transition from hypertensive heart disease to the two distinct phenotypes of systolic and diastolic congestive heart failure. According to the LIFE study treated-uncomplicated patients, with normal ventricular geometry (12%, concentric remodeling (11 % and concentric hypertrophy (34 %, may evolve to the eccentric hypertrophy pattern. Patients with the eccentric hypertrophy pattern have selective sympathetic activation and progressive enlargement of the left ventricular cavity with thinning of its walls. This pattern goes on to a stage of systolic dysfunction with diminished ejection fraction and enhanced degradation of the collagen matrix. On the other hand, patients with the concentric hypertrophy pattern have predominant activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and progressive shrinking of the left ventricular cavity with thickening of its walls. This pattern usually precedes the stage of diastolic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, impairment of relaxation and increased deposition of collagen in the myocardial interstitium. Thus, ventricular remodeling preceding diastolic heart failure is opposite to that of hypertensive patients who go on to develop systolic heart failure. Resumen (español El análisis de los estudios transversales y longitudinales, de pacientes hipertensos con diferentes patrones de geometría ventricular izquierda, permite postular posibles mecanismos fisiopatológicos para explicar la transición de la cardiopatía hipertensiva hacia los dos fenotipos conocidos de insuficiencia cardiaca. De acuerdo con el estudio LIFE, los pacientes hipertensos no complicados, con patrones de geometría ventricular normal (12 %, remodelado concéntrico (11 % e hipertrofia concéntrica (34 %, pueden evolucionar hacia

  7. Heart failure complicating tetralogy of Fallot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), a cyanotic congenital heart disease comprising of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO), right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), ventricular septal defect (VSD) and overriding of the aorta, constitutes about 10% of congenital heart diseases seen in. Nigeria.1 Congestive heart failure is not a ...

  8. Heart Truth for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quit, and just one year later, your heart disease risk will drop by more than half. There’s no easy way to quit but making a plan helps. You also can try an organized program or ... of heart disease, stroke, and congestive heart failure. Even levels slightly ...

  9. Making the Traffic Operations Case for Congestion Pricing: Operational Impacts of Congestion Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Hu, Patricia S [ORNL; Davidson, Diane [ORNL

    2011-02-01

    Congestion begins when an excess of vehicles on a segment of roadway at a given time, resulting in speeds that are significantly slower than normal or 'free flow' speeds. Congestion often means stop-and-go traffic. The transition occurs when vehicle density (the number of vehicles per mile in a lane) exceeds a critical level. Once traffic enters a state of congestion, recovery or time to return to a free-flow state is lengthy; and during the recovery process, delay continues to accumulate. The breakdown in speed and flow greatly impedes the efficient operation of the freeway system, resulting in economic, mobility, environmental and safety problems. Freeways are designed to function as access-controlled highways characterized by uninterrupted traffic flow so references to freeway performance relate primarily to the quality of traffic flow or traffic conditions as experienced by users of the freeway. The maximum flow or capacity of a freeway segment is reached while traffic is moving freely. As a result, freeways are most productive when they carry capacity flows at 60 mph, whereas lower speeds impose freeway delay, resulting in bottlenecks. Bottlenecks may be caused by physical disruptions, such as a reduced number of lanes, a change in grade, or an on-ramp with a short merge lane. This type of bottleneck occurs on a predictable or 'recurrent' basis at the same time of day and same day of week. Recurrent congestion totals 45% of congestion and is primarily from bottlenecks (40%) as well as inadequate signal timing (5%). Nonrecurring bottlenecks result from crashes, work zone disruptions, adverse weather conditions, and special events that create surges in demand and that account for over 55% of experienced congestion. Figure 1.1 shows that nonrecurring congestion is composed of traffic incidents (25%), severe weather (15%), work zones, (10%), and special events (5%). Between 1995 and 2005, the average percentage change in increased peak traveler

  10. Fixed-rate layered multicast congestion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Zhang; Bing, Yuan; Zengji, Liu

    2006-10-01

    A new fixed-rate layered multicast congestion control algorithm called FLMCC is proposed. The sender of a multicast session transmits data packets at a fixed rate on each layer, while receivers each obtain different throughput by cumulatively subscribing to deferent number of layers based on their expected rates. In order to provide TCP-friendliness and estimate the expected rate accurately, a window-based mechanism implemented at receivers is presented. To achieve this, each receiver maintains a congestion window, adjusts it based on the GAIMD algorithm, and from the congestion window an expected rate is calculated. To measure RTT, a new method is presented which combines an accurate measurement with a rough estimation. A feedback suppression based on a random timer mechanism is given to avoid feedback implosion in the accurate measurement. The protocol is simple in its implementation. Simulations indicate that FLMCC shows good TCP-friendliness, responsiveness as well as intra-protocol fairness, and provides high link utilization.

  11. Congestion management using adaptive bacterial foraging algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panigrahi, B.K.; Ravikumar Pandi, V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2009-05-15

    The economical operation of power system is associated with many sub-problems. The electric market background makes the operation of system further complicated one. The congestion management problem can be devised as the emerging problem needs to concentrate much in order to supply power to the consumers in most reliable manner. In this paper we have tried to remove the congestion in the transmission line by generation rescheduling with the cost involved in the rescheduling process should be minimized. The adaptive bacterial foraging algorithm with Nelder-Mead (ABFNM) is used in this work to optimize the congestion cost. The results are also compared with the genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO) and simple bacterial foraging (SBF) algorithms. Numerical results for the standard IEEE 30 bus system having six generating units have been presented to demonstrate the performance of the algorithm. (author)

  12. Mathematical and Computational Models for Congestion Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawphongpanich, Siriphong; Hearn, Donald W.; Smith, Michael J.

    Although transportation economists have advocated the tolling of urban streets as a mechanism for controlling congestion and managing travel demands for over 50 years, it is only recently that this idea has become practical. When compared to the alternative of building more roads, congestion pricing - in particular via electronic tolling - is attractive and has been adopted in countries around the world. Recent implementations in London, Singapore, and various cities in Norway, as well as a number of projects in the United States, have been judged successful.

  13. Endocardiosis and congestive heart failure in a captive ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A seven-year-old blue-necked male ostrich was found dead after a few days of illness. The animal was living in an open yard of 25 square meters along with three other females. They were given concentrate-rich ration with free access to green leaves and water. Autopsy revealed cardiac enlargement due to left ventricular ...

  14. Pseudoxanthomaelasticum with congestive heart failure: A case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pseudoxanthomaelasticum (PXE) is a rare systemic disease of connective tissue primarily affecting the skin, retinae, and cardiovascular system. Clinically it has high hetrogenicity in age of onset, extent and severity of disease. Its cardiovascular effect has a wide clinical spectrum extending from mental fatigue to early death ...

  15. Predicting worsening asthma control following the common cold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, M. J.; Castro, M.; Kunselman, S. J.; Chinchilli, V. M.; Reno, M.; Ramkumar, T. P.; Avila, P. C.; Boushey, H. A.; Ameredes, B. T.; Bleecker, E. R.; Calhoun, W. J.; Cherniack, R. M.; Craig, T. J.; Denlinger, L. C.; Israel, E.; Fahy, J. V.; Jarjour, N. N.; Kraft, M.; Lazarus, S. C.; Lemanske, R. F.; Martin, R. J.; Peters, S. P.; Ramsdell, J. W.; Sorkness, C. A.; Sutherland, E. R.; Szefler, S. J.; Wasserman, S. I.; Wechsler, M. E.

    2008-01-01

    The asthmatic response to the common cold is highly variable, and early characteristics that predict worsening of asthma control following a cold have not been identified. In this prospective multicentric cohort study of 413 adult subjects with asthma, the mini-Asthma Control Questionnaire

  16. Odors as triggering and worsening factors for migraine in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Lima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of odors in triggering or worsening migraine in men. METHOD: Ninety-eight male migraineurs from the general population were assessed individually through questionnaires. Environmental factors relating to their migraine were reported, with special focus on the role of odors. RESULTS: Odors were the second most frequent triggering factor for migraine attacks (48%, behind stressful situations (59%. Likewise, odors were the second most frequent worsening factor (73%, just behind excessive light (74%. Thirty-three individuals (33.4% stated that odors were both triggering and worsening factors for their migraine attacks. Perfume, cigarette smoke and cleaning products were the most frequent migraine-related odors reported by these male migraineurs. CONCLUSION: This was the first study to assess the role of odors in migraine exclusively in men. There was a high degree of odor-related migraine among these men, thus suggesting that patient education could alert such individuals to gender-related factors, since different triggering and worsening factors have been reported by males and females.

  17. The Ketogenic Diet Improves Recently Worsened Focal Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Nathalie; Pinton, Florence; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Dulac, Olivier; Chiron, Catherine; Nabbout, Rima

    2009-01-01

    Aim: We observed a dramatic response to the ketogenic diet in several patients with highly refractory epilepsy whose seizure frequency had recently worsened. This study aimed to identify whether this characteristic was a useful indication for the ketogenic diet. Method: From the 70 patients who received the ketogenic diet during a 3-year period at…

  18. Salt and water imbalance in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Gaspare; Torres, Daniele; Paterna, Salvatore

    2011-10-01

    In chronic heart failure (CHF), neurohumoral systems, which help to maintain circulatory homeostasis, are maladaptive and responsible for disease progression and congestion in the long term. The activation of sympathetic hormones and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), in addition to non-osmotic vasopressin release, up-regulation of aquoporine 2 and renal sodium transporters, and renal resistance to natriuretic peptide lead to a salt- and water-avid state. A primary decrease in cardiac output and arterial vasodilatation brings about arterial underfilling, which activates neuro-humoral reflexes and systems. The heart disease is the primum movens, but the kidney is the end organ responsible for increased tubular reabsorption of sodium and water. The most important hemodynamic alteration in the kidneys is constriction of glomerular efferent arterioles, which increases intraglomerular pressure and hence glomerular filtration rate. The resulting changes in intrarenal oncotic and hydrostatic pressures promote tubular reabsorption. Over time, a gradually falling glomerular filtration rate, due to CHF progression, medications or chronic kidney injury due to comorbidities, becomes more critical in sodium/water imbalance. Moreover, long-term use of diuretics can lead to a diuretic-resistant state, which necessitates the use of higher doses further activating RAAS, often at the expense of worsening renal function. However, every patient is a case in itself and the general pathophysiology of hydro-saline balance may be different in each subject. A mechanism can prevail over others and the kidney may have different responses to the same diuretic. So, it is necessary to customize each individual's long-term therapy, tailoring medical treatment according to clinical profiles, comorbidities and renal function, introducing active control of body weight by the patient himself, fluid restriction, a less restricted sodium intake, flexibility of diuretic doses, early and

  19. Acupuncture improves exercise tolerance of patients with heart failure: a placebo-controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristen, Arnt V; Schuhmacher, Boris; Strych, Kathrin; Lossnitzer, Dirk; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Hilbel, Thomas; Haass, Markus; Katus, Hugo A; Schneider, Antonius; Streitberger, Konrad M; Backs, Johannes

    2010-09-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a complex clinical syndrome with autonomic dysbalance and increased plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines, which further worsen the syndrome. Experimental data have shown that stimulation of certain acupoints decreases autonomic dysbalance. To test the therapeutic potential of acupuncture for life-threatening diseases such as CHF. 17 stable patients with CHF (New York Heart Association class II-III, ejection fraction acupuncture (VA) and placebo acupuncture (PA) group. Cardiopulmonary function, heart rate variability and quality of life were explored. No improvements of the cardiac ejection fraction or peak oxygen uptake were observed, but the ambulated 6 min walk distance was remarkably increased in the VA group (+32+/-7 m) but not the PA group (-1+/-11 m; pefficiency, were improved after VA but not PA. Furthermore, heart rate variability increased after VA, but decreased after PA. The 'general health' score and 'body pain' score of the quality-of-life questionnaire SF-36 tended to be improved after VA. Acupuncture may become an additional therapeutic strategy to improve the exercise tolerance of patients with CHF, potentially by improving skeletal muscle function.

  20. Real time driver information for congestion management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Traffic demand in the U.S. has grown substantially over the past few years because of the increase in population and : urbanization in large cities. This causes traffic congestion to spread out over U.S. highways and arterials, and subsequently : lea...

  1. Efficiency of urban congestion problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbyszko Pawlak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traffic congestion is nowadays probably one of the greatest problems of urban transportation systems and infrastructure. Unfortunately, it frequently happens that road work investments connected with the construction of new and re-construction of old road networks, contrary to original intentions, fails to improve urban transportation or even deteriorate it significantly. Methods: The article presents an analysis of some methods of easing urban traffic congestion. Instrumental methods such as city center parking tolls usually do not bring about sit uation improvement. Introducing a faster and relatively comfortable public transportation competitive with commuting by cars is more efficient. Results and conclusions: The results of the research also reveal that the frequently applied method of road broadening does not lead to increasing their capacity as it fuels the preference for using private cars, instead of means of mass transportation. Consequently, the number of cars driving in towns and cities is larger and the level of congestion boosts. Uncoordinated individuals striving towards achieving their personal optimum are not always achieving optimum for the whole community. Communities as a result of that tendency must pay the Price of Anarchy. Therefore, the better mass transportation functions, the more persons start using it and simultaneously there will be fewer cars in the network of streets and transportation routes - with the resultant lower level of congestion.  

  2. Mean Field Type Control with Congestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achdou, Yves, E-mail: achdou@ljll.univ-paris-diderot.fr; Laurière, Mathieu [Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, UMR 7598, UPMC, CNRS (France)

    2016-06-15

    We analyze some systems of partial differential equations arising in the theory of mean field type control with congestion effects. We look for weak solutions. Our main result is the existence and uniqueness of suitably defined weak solutions, which are characterized as the optima of two optimal control problems in duality.

  3. Value of digoxin in heart failure and sinus rhythm: new features of an old drug?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veldhuisen, D J; de Graeff, P A; Remme, W J; Lie, K I

    1996-10-01

    Digoxin has been a controversial drug since its introduction >200 years ago. Although its efficacy in patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation is clear, its value in patients with heart failure and sinus rhythm has often been questioned. In the 1980s, reports of some large-scale trials indicated that digoxin, with or without vasodilators or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, reduced signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure and improved exercise tolerance. This beneficial influence was mainly found in patients with more advanced heart failure and dilated ventricles, whereas the effect in those with mild disease appeared to be less pronounced. In the last few years, new data have shown that digoxin may also have clinical value in mild heart failure, either when used in combination with other drugs or when administered alone. As neurohumoral activation has increasingly been recognized to be a contributing factor in the disease progression of chronic heart failure, the modulating effects of digoxin on neurohumoral and autonomic status have received more attention. Also, there is evidence that relatively low doses of digoxin may be at least as effective as higher doses and have a lower incidence of side effects. Further, the recognition that the use of digoxin too early after myocardial infarction may be harmful and the development of other drugs, in particular angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, have obviously changed the place of digoxin in the treatment of chronic heart failure. The large-scale survival trial by the Digitalis Investigators Group (DIG), whose preliminary results have recently been presented, has shown that although digoxin has a neutral effect on total mortality during long-term treatment, it reduces the number of hospital admissions and deaths due to worsening heart failure. The potentially new features of the old drug digoxin are discussed in this review.

  4. O impacto do CPAP na reabilitação cardíaca de pacientes com ICC: relato de caso El impacto del CPAP en la rehabilitación cardíaca de pacientes con ICC: caso clínico The impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP on the cardiac rehabilitation of patients with congestive heart failure: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo Frazão de Lima e Costa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A insuficiência cardíaca congestiva é uma patologia que limita a função física do paciente. Neste estudo foi analisada uma paciente, realizando um programa de reabilitação cardíaca associado à pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas, aferindo-se antes do estudo e após 6 semanas, o teste de caminhada de 6 minutos (TC6M, questionário de qualidade de vida e ecocardiograma. A paciente aumentou a distância no TC6M de 152,5 m para 520,44 m. O questionário Minnesota reduziu de 62 para 18. A fração de ejeção subiu de 33% para 36%. Na paciente estudada a conduta melhorou o desempenho físico e a qualidade de vida.La insuficiencia cardíaca congestiva es una patología que limita la función física del paciente. En este estudio fue analizada una paciente, realizando un programa de rehabilitación cardíaca asociado a la presión positiva continua en las vías aéreas, realizando antes del estudio y después de 6 semanas, el test de caminata de 6 minutos (TC6M, cuestionario de calidad de vida y ecocardiograma. La paciente aumentó la distancia en el TC6M de 152,5 m a 520,44 m. El cuestionario Minnesota redujo de 62 a 18. La fracción de eyección subió de 33% a 36%. En la paciente estudiada la conducta mejoró el desempeño físico y la calidad de vida.Congestive heart failure is a pathology that limits the patient's physical function. This study analyzed one patient who was submitted to a cardiac rehabilitation program associated to Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP, by assessing the results of the six-minute walk test (6MWT and a questionnaire on the quality of life and performing an echocardiographic assessment before the study and after six weeks. The distance walked by the patient increased from 152.5 m to 520.44 m at the 6MWT. The Minnesota questionnaire score decreased from 62 to 18. Ejection fraction increased from 33% to 36%. Therefore, the management chosen for this case improved the patient's physical performance

  5. Delivering Faster Congestion Feedback with the Mark-Front Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunlei; Jain, Raj

    2001-01-01

    Computer networks use congestion feedback from the routers and destinations to control the transmission load. Delivering timely congestion feedback is essential to the performance of networks. Reaction to the congestion can be more effective if faster feedback is provided. Current TCP/IP networks use timeout, duplicate Acknowledgement Packets (ACKs) and explicit congestion notification (ECN) to deliver the congestion feedback, each provides a faster feedback than the previous method. In this paper, we propose a markfront strategy that delivers an even faster congestion feedback. With analytical and simulation results, we show that mark-front strategy reduces buffer size requirement, improves link efficiency and provides better fairness among users. Keywords: Explicit Congestion Notification, mark-front, congestion control, buffer size requirement, fairness.

  6. Income-based equity impacts of congestion pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    This equity primer was produced to examine the impacts of congestion pricing on low-income groups, public opinion as expressed by various income groups, and ways to mitigate the equity impacts of congestion pricing.

  7. Statewide GIS mapping of recurring congestion corridors : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Recurring congestion occurs when travel demand reaches or exceeds the available roadway : capacity. This project developed an interactive geographic information system (GIS) map of the : recurring congestion corridors (labeled herein as hotspots) in ...

  8. Standardized evaluation of lung congestion during COPD exacerbation better identifies patients at risk of dying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Høiseth AD

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Arne Didrik Høiseth,1 Torbjørn Omland,1 Bo Daniel Karlsson,2 Pål H Brekke,1 Vidar Søyseth11Cardiothoracic Research Group, Division of Medicine, Akershus University Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 2Deptartment of Radiology, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, NorwayBackground: Congestive heart failure is underdiagnosed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Pulmonary congestion on chest radiograph at admission for acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD is associated with an increased risk of mortality. A standardized evaluation of chest radiographs may enhance prognostic accuracy.Purpose: We aimed to evaluate whether a standardized, liberal assessment of pulmonary congestion is superior to the routine assessment in identifying patients at increased risk of long-term mortality, and to investigate the association of heart failure with N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP concentrations.Material and methods: This was a prospective cohort study of 99 patients admitted for AECOPD. Chest radiographs obtained on admission were routinely evaluated and then later evaluated by blinded investigators using a standardized protocol looking for Kerley B lines, enlarged vessels in the lung apex, perihilar cuffing, peribronchial haze, and interstitial or alveolar edema, defining the presence of pulmonary congestion. Adjusted associations with long-term mortality and NT-proBNP concentration were calculated.Results: The standardized assessment was positive for pulmonary congestion in 32 of the 195 radiographs (16% ruled negative in the routine assessment. The standardized assessment was superior in predicting death during a median follow up of 1.9 years (P=0.022, and in multivariable analysis, only the standardized assessment showed a significant association with mortality (hazard ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–4.7 (P=0.016 and NT-proBNP (relative

  9. Day-Ahead Congestion Management in Distribution Systems through Household Demand Response and Distribution Congestion Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Weijia; Wu, Qiuwei; Wen, Fushuan

    2014-01-01

    , the proposed DCPs are able to reflect the real congestion cost and further direct the schedule of the responses of electric demands. Based on the NordPool Spot market structure, the interactions between aggregators and the distribution system operator (DSO) are discussed, and the procedure for c