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Sample records for worm oligochaeta annelida

  1. Accidental vaginal parasitism by oligochaete worms (Annelida: Oligochaeta

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    Blakemore, R.J.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two independent cases of oligochaete worms recovered from Korean women’s vaginas are reported. Both specimens were non-parasitic cosmopolitan exotics identified as: microdrile tubificid Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Claparède, 1862 (Tubificidae and megadrile dichogastrid Dichogaster bolaui (Michaelsen, 1891 (Octochaetidae – a new record for Korea. The tubificid is a freshwater euryhaline species that may reach high numbers in organically rich water e.g. in a paddy field, whereas the earthworm is commonly intercepted by quarantine in plant or vegetable cargos and also appears in bathtubs when it inhabits drainage sys¬tems. Thus, bathing/douching, field working or picnicking without a blanket are suggested as possible modes of ingress. Oligo¬chaetes rarely occur in live human bodies but the few previous historical records are reviewed.

  2. Infection of Oligochaetes, Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Annelida: Oligochaeta), in the Nasal Cavity of a Chinese Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbin; Zhang, Zhenming; Huang, Guangping; Gu, Xiaolong; Wang, Chunmiao; Wang, Yan; Lu, Zhimin

    2017-01-01

    The infection by Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Claparède, 1862 (Oligochaeta: Tubificinae) in humans is relatively uncommon. The present report is to describe an incidental human infection with oligochaetes in the nasal cavity of a Chinese man, a 25-year-old man residing in Zhangjiakou city, Hebei province, China presenting with nose bleed, severe itching, continuous sneezing, and rhinorrhea. A lot of oligochaete worms were found in the nasal discharge of the patient. The detected worms were identified as Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Annelida: Oligochaeta) based on morphological and molecular characteristics. This incidental L. hoffmeisteri nasal infection is the first case in China and indicates that oligochaete worms can be encountered in humans. PMID:28285510

  3. Metals and terrestrial earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.

    1981-01-01

    The toxicity of metals to earthworms and the residues of metals found in earthworms are reviewed. Meta 1 concentrations are rarely high enough to be toxic to worms, but copper may reduce populations in orchards heavily treated with fungicides and in soil contaminated with pig wastes. The metals in some industrial sewage sludges may interfere with using sludge in vermiculture. Storage ratios (the concentration of a metal in worms divided by the concentration in soil) tend to be highest in infertile soil and lowest in media rich in organic matter, such as sewage sludge. Cadmium, gold, and selenium are highly concentrated by worms. Lead concentrations in worms may be very high, but are generally lower than concentrations in soil. Body burdens of both copper and zinc seem to be regulated by worms. Because worms are part of the food webs of many wildlife species, and also because they are potentially valuable feed supplements for domestic animals, the possible toxic effects of cadmium and other metals should be studied. Worms can make metals more available to food webs and can redistribute them in soil.

  4. Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta associated with Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae Naididae (Annelida: Oligochaeta associados a Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae

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    Guilherme R. Gorni

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The family Amplullaridae belongs to this class Gastropoda and is made up of freshwater organisms with a wide geographical distribution in tropical regions. Oligochaeta worms can be found in association with snails of this family, inhabiting the umbilicus of their shells. Due to the lack of information on the ecology of these worms, this work focused on investigating which kind of Oligochaeta species associate with the mollusk Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856. Samples were collected during winter and spring 2003 and summer 2004. From a total of 209 snails collected, the presence of Oligochaeta worms was observed in only 58 of them (27.75%. In these infected snails, 89 Oligochaeta worms were found, all belonging to the family Naididae. The species Haemonais waldvogeli Bretscher, 1900, Dero (Dero nivea Aiyer, 1929 and Dero (Dero sawayai Marcus, 1943 were the most abundant (43.68%, 12.32% and 10.08%, respectively. Haemonais waldvogeli was found in all of the seasons studied, what demonstrates its affinity for this kind of substrate. The results indicate that several Naididae species find in the umbilicus of these snails's shells (which contains fine detritus a favorable habitat for establishing themselves.A família Ampullaridae, pertencente à classe Gastropoda, é caracterizada por organismos de água doce com ampla distribuição na região tropical. Vermes Oligochaeta associados a esses caracóis podem ser encontrados habitando o umbílico de suas conchas. Devido à carência de informação sobre a ecologia desses vermes, o presente trabalho centrou-se em um levantamento de espécies de Oligochaeta associadas ao molusco Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856. Em amostragens realizadas no inverno e na primavera de 2003 e no verão de 2004, foram observados 209 caracóis, sendo que somente em 58 deles foi detectada a presença de vermes Oligochaeta, correspondendo a uma incidência de 27,75%. Foram encontrados, no total, 89 oligoquetos, todos da fam

  5. Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata associated to aquatic macrophytes in Brazil

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    Nathalie Aparecida de Oliveira Sanches

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Oligochaeta are still characterized as a poorly studied group among the aquatic macroinvertebrates and few studies about their ecology were conducted in Brazil. Thus, our study aimed to provide an overview of the association between Oligochaeta and macrophytes, in Brazilian continental aquatic environments, by means of a literature review along with an inventory of species associated to aquatic macrophytes on marginal lagoons in the reservoir Ribeirão das Anhumas (Américo Brasiliense, São Paulo, Brazil. In the review, we analyzed 10 articles, where we obtained data on 41 species. We also sampled 5 macrophyte genera, Egeria, Salvinia, Utricularia, Eleocharis, and Ceratophyllum, in August and December 2012 and in March and April 2013, in the reservoir Ribeirão das Anhumas. We registered 21 Oligochaeta species associated to these macrophytes. With the data obtained in the review along with the inventory of the reservoir Ribeirão das Anhumas, we found a total of 41 species associated to aquatic macrophytes, with a higher richness of the Naididae family (93.33%, followed by Opistocystidae (4.44%, and Alluroididae (2.22%. Our study inventoried about 48% of the Oligochaeta diversity registered in continental ecosystems in Brazil, thus highlighting the significance of macrophytes as a resource for these invertebrates, mainly for the Naididae family.

  6. Fauna Europaea: Annelida - Terrestrial Oligochaeta (Enchytraeidae and Megadrili), Aphanoneura and Polychaeta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Emilia; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. This paper provides updated information on the taxonomic composition and distribution of the Annelida - terrestrial Oligochaeta (Megadrili and Enchytraeidae), Aphanoneura and Polychaeta, recorded in Europe. Data on 18 families, 11 autochthonous and 7 allochthonous, represented in our continent by a total of 800 species, are reviewed, beginning from their distinctness, phylogenetic status, diversity and global distribution, and following with major recent developments in taxonomic and faunistic research in Europe. A rich list of relevant references is appended. The Fauna Europaea Annelida - terrestrial Oligochaeta data-set, as completed in 2004, will be updated accordingly.

  7. Fauna Europaea: Annelida - Terrestrial Oligochaeta (Enchytraeidae and Megadrili), Aphanoneura and Polychaeta

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. This paper provides updated information on the taxonomic composition and distribution of the Annelida - terrestrial Oligochaeta (Megadrili and Enchytraeidae), Aphanoneura and Polychaeta, recorded in Europe. Data on 18 families, 11 autochthonous and 7 allochthonous, represented in our continent by a total of 800 species, are reviewed, beginning from their distinctness, phylogenetic status, diversity and global distribution, and following with major recent developments in taxonomic and faunistic research in Europe. A rich list of relevant references is appended. The Fauna Europaea Annelida - terrestrial Oligochaeta data-set, as completed in 2004, will be updated accordingly. PMID:26379463

  8. The life-cycle of the compost worm Eisenia ietida (Oligochaeta)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-01-29

    Jan 29, 1987 ... The life-cycle of the compost worm Eisenia ietida (Oligochaeta). J.M. Venter* and A.J. Reinecke. Department of ... protein, the life-cycle of this species had to be studied thoroughly. The development, growth and .... medium (cattle manure of the same origin as that with which the experiment was begun, and ...

  9. Gut bacterium of Dendrobaena veneta (Annelida: Oligochaeta) possesses antimycobacterial activity.

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    Fiołka, Marta J; Zagaja, Mirosław P; Piersiak, Tomasz D; Wróbel, Marek; Pawelec, Jarosław

    2010-09-01

    The new bacterial strain with antimycobacterial activity has been isolated from the midgut of Dendrobaena veneta (Annelida). Biochemical and molecular characterization of isolates from 18 individuals identified all as Raoultella ornithinolytica genus with 99% similarity. The bacterium is a possible symbiont of the earthworm D. veneta. The isolated microorganism has shown the activity against four strains of fast-growing mycobacteria: Mycobacterium butiricum, Mycobacterium jucho, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium phlei. The multiplication of the gut bacterium on plates with Sauton medium containing mycobacteria has caused a lytic effect. After the incubation of the cell free extract prepared from the gut bacterium with four strains of mycobacteria in liquid Sauton medium, the cells of all tested strains were deformed and divided to small oval forms and sometimes created long filaments. The effect was observed by the use of light, transmission and scanning microscopy. Viability of all examined species of mycobacteria was significantly decreased. The antimycobacterial effect was probably the result of the antibiotic action produced by the gut bacterium of the earthworm. The application of ultrafiltration procedure allowed to demonstrate that antimicrobial substance with strong antimycobacterial activity from bacterial culture supernatant, is a protein with the molecular mass above 100 kDa. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Unraveling some Kinki worms (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Megadrili: Moniligastridae - Part I

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    Blakemore, R.J.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A new species, Drawida eda Blakemore, is proposed for an earthworm from rice paddy near Lake Biwa in centralJapan. It is compared with both Drawida barwelli (Beddard, 1886 – the cosmopolitan type of the genus – and with sympatric D.japonica (Michaelsen, 1892 for which a new synonym, D. propatula Gates, 1935, is added. Parasitic origin theory of diagnostic‘genital markings’ in D. japonica is extended to other taxa and their conspecificity is mooted. Definitive resolution of thetaxonomic complexities within Drawida via DNA analysis is pending, although the COI barcode for the type of D. eda is initiallyprovided, the first time for a new earthworm species. Polygiceriate similarity of Oriental ‘exquisiticlitellate’ Drawida tomegascolecid genera like Nexogaster Blakemore, 1997 (type Nexogaster sexies Blakemore, 1997 is briefly noted. Using thisopportunity, replacement names are given for two preoccupied Tasmanian Lake Pedder taxa as a normal part of taxonomic‘housekeeping’, viz. Anisogogaster for Anisogaster Blakemore, 2000 (non Deyrolle, 1862, nec Looss, 1901 and Perionchellavariegogata for Perionchella variegata Blakemore, 2000 (non Michaelsen, 1907

  11. Littoral Fauna of Oligochaeta (Annelida of Lake Eğirdir (Isparta.

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    Naime Arslan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Egirdir Gölü (Isparta litoral Oligochaeta (Annelida faunası. Bu çalışma Türkiye’nin güney batısında 918 m yükseklikte yer alan (38°00'N, 30°54'E ve önemli bir kuş alanı olan Eğirdir Gölü’nün litoral Oligochaeta faunasını belirlemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Örnekler Mayıs 2002 ile Ekim 2002 tarihleri arasında 17 istasyondan toplanmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda 17 istasyondan 15 cinse ait 22 tür; Lumbriculidae familyasından 1, Haplotaxidae familyasından 1, Tubificidae familyasından 9 ve Naididae familyasından 11 tür belirlenmiştir. Eğirdir Gölü’nün litoral Oligochaeta faunası geniş dağılım gösteren tubificid ve naidid taxalarından oluşmaktadır. Çalışma alanında Tubifex tubifex (%19.2, Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (%17.9, ve Potamothrix hammoniensis (%11.3 ve Ophidonais serpentina (%9.3 en yüksek bolluğa sahip türler olarak belirlenmiştir. Shannon-Wiener çeşitlilik indeksine göre, Eğirdir Gölü 1.45 zenginliğe sahip olarak bulunmuş, 5. istasyon en yüksek çeşitliliği gösterirken (1.93, 11. istasyon en düşük çeşitliliğe sahip (0.97 olarak belirlenmiştir. Çalışma alanında Tubificidae populasyonunun yüksek olması ve gölün 1, 45 oranında düşük bir Oligochaeta tür çeşitliliğine sahip olması, gölün geleceğinin belirlenmesi için benzer çalışmaların periyodik olarak yapılması gerektiğini göstermektedir

  12. Tributaries as richness source for Oligochaeta assemblage (Annelida of Neotropical dammed river

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    FH Ragonha

    Full Text Available Tributaries may serve as richness source for the river main channel and the zoobenthos community is a good tool to verify this kind of pattern. In this study, we aimed to characterize the benthic invertebrate assemblage in three tributaries associated to the Paraná River main channel, focusing in Oligochaeta community. We hypothesized that (i in tributaries, Oligochaeta are richer than the main river (Paraná River and (ii dammed tributary (Paranapanema River is poorly diverse than the others. Samples were conducted in Paranapanema, Baía and Ivinhema tributaries using a modified Petersen grab along three transects (samples conducted inside the tributary, in the mouth of each tributary and inside Paraná River. To analyze (i the difference between the richness and density among the tributaries and the Paraná River and (ii effect of each tributary transect on the Oligochaeta richness we used a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Changes in environmental variables and in richness and composition of Oligochaeta were summarized by Canonic Correspondence Analysis. It was registered 21 different benthic invertebrates taxa, being Oligochaeta assemblage with the highest density. Within Oligochaeta, Narapa bonettoi was the most abundant species, followed by Haplotaxis aedochaeta and Paranadrilus descolei. In our results we refused both hypotheses, because we did not found significant differences for richness and density between the tributaries and the main river, and also no difference between the three transects of each tributary were found. However, the tributaries less influenced by damming, especially the Baía recorded high richness. This corroborates their importance to diversity in the floodplain and the species of Oligochaeta reflect the peculiar characteristics of habitats within each tributaries.

  13. Swimming behavior of the spoon worm Urechis unicinctus (Annelida, Echiura).

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    Abe, Hirokazu; Sato-Okoshi, Waka; Tanaka, Masaatsu; Okoshi, Kenji; Teramoto, Wataru; Kondoh, Tomohiko; Nishitani, Goh; Endo, Yoshinari

    2014-06-01

    Large numbers of swimming and stranding Urechis unicinctus were observed at night during low tide in Sasuhama, Miyagi Prefecture, northeastern Japan, during the periods from January to February in 2012 and 2013. Worms did not drift passively but swam actively, therefore hinting at a certain purpose for such behavior. As trochophore larvae of U. unicinctus were observed to occur simultaneously in the plankton, we infer the possibility that this is an event of reproductive swarming. Anatomical observations of both swimming and stranding U. unicinctus showed that none of the specimens had gametes, which may suggest that these were completely spent after spawning. Urechis unicinctus seemed to begin swimming after dusk and the observed swimming behavior occurred during the evening ebb tide throughout the night low tide during winter time. Stranding U. unicinctus have long been known in Japan and have been attributed to sea storms. The present study shows for the first time the possibility that U. unicinctus swims in order to reproduce at night and that this swimming behavior is closely linked to the stranding of U. unicinctus individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. The Oligochaeta (Annelida, Clitellata) of the St. Lawrence Great Lakes region: An update

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    Spencer, Douglas R.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    2003-01-01

    An updated oligochaete species list for the Great Lakes region is provided. The list was developed through the reexamination of the taxa reported in a previous report in 1980, addition of new taxa or records collected from the region since 1980, and an update of taxonomy commensurate with systematic and nomenclatural changes over the intervening years since the last review. The authors found 74 papers mentioning Great Lakes oligochaete species. The majority of these papers were published in the 1980s. The literature review and additional collections resulted in 15 species being added to the previous list. Nine taxa were removed from the previous list due to misidentification, synonymies, level of identification, or inability to confirm the identity. Based on this review, 101 species of Oligochaeta are now known from the St. Lawrence Great Lakes watershed. Of these, 95 species are known from the St. Lawrence Great Lakes proper, with an additional 6 species recorded from the inland waters of the watershed. The greatest diversity of oligochaete species was found in the inland waters of the region (81) followed by Lake Huron (72), Lake Ontario (65), Lake Erie (64), Lake Superior (63), Lake Michigan (62), St. Marys River (60), Niagara River (49), Saginaw Bay (44), St. Clair River (37), Lake St. Clair (36), St. Lawrence River (27), and the Detroit River (21). Three species are suspected of being introduced, Branchiura sowerbyi, Gianius aquaedulcisand Ripistes parasita, and two are believed to be endemic, Thalassodrilus hallae andTeneridrilus flexus.

  15. Effect of temperature on heavy metal toxicity to earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Annelida: Oligochaeta).

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    Khan, M A Q; Ahmed, S A; Salazar, A; Gurumendi, J; Khan, A; Vargas, M; von Catalin, B

    2007-10-01

    Earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) acclimated at 2 degrees C above their habitat temperature (10-12 degrees C) showed about 5% increase in basal rate of oxygen consumption, which increased to about 38% in 14-16 degrees C- and 40% in 16-18 degrees C-, but decreased by 84% in 20-22 degrees C-acclimated worms. Temperature also increased the blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, which decreased slightly in 20-22 degrees C-acclimated worms. The worms acclimated at 20-22 degrees C showed their blood to be hypovolemic than that of 10-12 degrees C worms indicating dehydration. Pre-exposure of 10-14 degrees C-acclimated worms to sublethal concentrations of zinc, copper, and lead did not significantly affect the rate of respiration. However, at higher temperatures all these metals inhibited oxygen consumption; zinc, lead, and cadmium by approximately 11% and copper by approximately 18% of that at 14-16 degrees C. At 20-22 degrees C, the respiration was further inhibited, 36% by copper, 18% by cadmium, and approximately 10% by lead and zinc. Copper, lead, and zinc decreased the temperature-enhanced increase in blood Hb concentration at all temperatures. In 20-22 degrees C-acclimated worms heavy metal exposure slightly lowered the oxygen affinity of Hb as well as caused shifts in carbon monoxide difference spectra. The acute toxicity of these metals was not affected by a 2 degrees C rise in acclimation temperature but increased by 17% (lead), 33% (copper), and 5% (zinc) in 14-16 degrees C- and by 40% (lead), 149% (copper), and 132% (zinc) in 20-22 degrees C-acclimated worms. The increase in toxicity of metals caused by high temperatures may be due to limiting the scope of aerobic metabolism (oxygen extraction, transport, and utilization) via quantitative and qualitative effects on Hb. This terrestrial species appears to be tolerant of slight increases in habitat temperature, such as that expected with current global climate change. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta associated with briophytes in Brotas, State of São Paulo, Brazil Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta associadas a briófitas em Brotas, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Guilherme Rossi Gorni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mosses and liverworts can be colonized by various invertebrates, including fresh water oligochaete worms. However, little information is available on the habits and habitats of this oligochaetes in Brazil. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the occurrence of naidids in mosses, as well as to broaden the knowledge about the habitats of these oligochaetes. Sampling of bryophytes adhered to rock substrates in the rapids of the Jacaré Pepira River (municipality of Brotas, São Paulo, Brazil and to a vertical rock wall of a waterfall near the river revealed 191 Naididae individuals of the species Naiscommunis Piguet, 1906, Pristinellajenkinae (Stephenson, 1931 and Pristinellamenoni (Aiyer, 1929. We believe this to be the first record of naidids associated with mosses in Brazil.Musgos e hepáticas podem ser colonizados por diversos invertebrados, incluindo os vermes Oligochaeta. Contudo, existe pouca informação na literatura brasielira sobre os hábitos e hábitats destes oligoquetos. Portanto, o presente trabalho foi realizado para examinar a ocorrência de naidídeos em musgos, bem como aumentar o conhecimento dos habitats destes anelídeos. A coleta de briófitas aderidas a substratos rochosos nas corredeiras do Rio Jacaré Pepira (Brotas-SP e à parede rochosa vertical de uma cachoeira localizada nas proximidades do referido rio revelou 191 indivíduos de três espécies de Naididae: Naiscommunis Piguet, 1906, Pristinellajenkinae (Stephenson, 1931 e Pristinellamenoni (Aiyer, 1929. Acredita-se que este seja o primeiro registro de Naididae vivendo em briófitas no Brasil.

  17. Combined toxicity of imidacloprid and three insecticides to the earthworm, Eisenia fetida (Annelida, Oligochaeta).

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    Cang, Tao; Dai, Dejiang; Yang, Guiling; Yu, Yijun; Lv, Lu; Cai, Leiming; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Yanhua

    2017-03-01

    Although the earthworm Eisenia fetida has been used in many ecotoxicological studies in recent years, most of these studies have only focused on assessing the effects of individual insecticides. In the present study, we aimed to compare the individual and combined toxic effects of imidacloprid and three insecticides (phoxim, chlorpyrifos, and lambda-cyhalothrin) on E. fetida. We showed that imidacloprid had the highest intrinsic toxicity to the worms in filter paper contact test, followed by phoxim and lambda-cyhalothrin, while the least toxicity was found from chlorpyrifos. Moreover, 14-day soil toxicity test revealed that the highest toxicity was still detected for imidacloprid with an LC50 value of 2.82 (2.61∼3.17) mg a.i. kg-1 dry weight (DW), followed by chlorpyrifos with an LC50 value of 384.9 (353.5∼440.3) mg a.i. kg-1 DW. Meanwhile, a relatively less toxicity was found for lambda-cyhalothrin with an LC50 value of 560.3 (475.9∼718.5) mg a.i. kg-1 DW, while the lowest toxicity to E. fetida was observed for phoxim with an LC50 value of 901.5 (821.3∼1017) mg a.i. kg-1 DW. In addition, significant synergistic responses were found from the ternary mixture of imidacloprid-phoxim-lambda-cyhalothrin and quaternary mixture of imidacloprid-phoxim-chlorpyrifos-lambda-cyhalothrin in both bioassay systems. Therefore, our findings highlighted that the simultaneous presence of several insecticides in the soil environment might lead to increased toxicity, resulting in serious damage to the nontarget organisms compared with individual insecticides.

  18. Physiological responses to temperature and haeme synthesis modifiers in earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Annelida: Oligochaeta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M A Q; Khan, Munawwar Ali; Hurlock, Peter; Ahmed, S A

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) acclimated at 2° and 6°C above their average habitat temperature (10°C) had respectively 15 and 40% higher rate of respiration than those at habitat temperature. At 14°C, the rate of respiration and blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration both increased by ∼60 and 50%, respectively, of the values at habitat temperature. At higher temperatures the rate of respiration and Hb synthesis started decreasing. At 20-23°C, the respiration and Hb concentration decreased respectively by about 85% and 35% of that at 14°C. Decrease in blood Hb concentration at higher temperatures appeared to be due to the lowering of the activity of blood enzyme δ-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD). Exposure of 20-23°C-acclimated pale worms to ALAD inhibitor (lead), lowered the already compromised rate of respiration and blood Hb concentration; while exposure to hexachlorobenzene (HCB, inducer of haeme synthesis) and ferric chloride (enhancer of haeme synthesis) did not overcome the inhibitory effect of high temperature on Hb synthesis. At 20-23°C the affinity of Hb for oxygen also decreased as indicated by the lowering of oxy-Hb (HbO) concentration in blood. The lowering of concentration of blood Hb and its affinity for oxygen may lower the amount of oxygen delivered to cells, which may limit the level of aerobic metabolism (glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation), as indicated by an increase in blood glucose concentration and a decrease in in vitro activities of mitochondrial electron transport system components (ETS) namely NADH-cytochrome c reductase, succinate dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase, and ATPases. Although the oxygen concentration in air, at sea level, does not decrease significantly from 6° to 20-23°C (lack of hypoxia), lowering of both Hb and HbO concentrations by high temperature may cause significant hypoxemia. The latter may lead to inhibition of the activity of muscle mitochondrial respiratory enzymes (ETS). The resulting

  19. The life-cycle of the compost worm (Oligochaeta) | Venter | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the full potential of the compost worm Eisenia fetida as waste processor and as source of protein, the life-cycle of this species had to be studied thoroughly. The development, growth and reproduction of Eisenia fetida were studied on cattle manure under favourable conditions of moisture, temperature and ...

  20. Oligochaeta (Annelida, Clitellata in lotic environments in the state of São Paulo, Brazil Oligochaeta (Annelida, Clitellata em ambientes lóticos do estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Roberto da Gama Alves

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of Oligochaeta to the dynamics of aquatic ecosystems and to studies of the biology of pollution, there is currently a dearth of information on this group's ecology in Brazil. The aim of this study was to describe the Oligochaeta fauna in four watercourses - three urban and one rural - in the state of São Paulo: the Pinheirinho stream, the Água Branca stream, the Monjolinho River and the Gouveia stream, respectively. Sediment samples were taken with a Van Veen grab in two areas from each watercourse, during the summer and winter of 2001. In all collection areas, measurements of the pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and turbidity of the water were made with a Horiba U-10 device. Principal component analysis showed that axes 1 and 2 explained 68.18% of the results' variability, with the first axis predominantly associated with the granulometric data and the second one with the limnological data. Cluster analysis indicated that area II of the Monjolinho River differed from the other collection sites. In the present study, the Oligochaeta group was represented by Tubificidae, Naididae, Alluroididae, Narapidae and Enchytraeidae. Among the three species of Tubificidae, Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Claparede, 1862, was the most abundant and most frequent species. The results provided important information on the ecology and distribution of limnic Oligochaeta.Apesar da importância dos Oligochaeta para a dinâmica dos ecossistemas aquáticos e para os estudos sobre a biologia da poluição, existe atualmente, no Brasil, uma carência de informação sobre a ecologia desse grupo. O objetivo do estudo foi caracterizar a fauna de Oligochaeta em três córregos urbanos e um córrego rural, localizados na região central do Estado de São Paulo, sendo estes o córrego do Pinheirinho, Água Branca, rio Monjolinho e o córrego do Gouveia, respectivamente. Amostras do sedimento foram obtidas com um pegador Van Veen em duas

  1. Is similar the distribution of Chironomidae (Diptera and Oligochaeta (Annelida, Clitellata in a river and a lateral fluvial area?

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    Daniela Aparecida Silveira Cesar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerous factors may affect the pattern of distribution of benthic fauna in a river mouth region and, among the macroinvertebrates, Chironomidae and Oligochaeta are the most abundant groups and most tolerant to environmental changes. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the controlling factors of and a possible similarity between Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblies at two close sites, the mouth of the Guareí River into the Paranapanema River (São Paulo, Brazil and its lateral fluvial area. Methods Fauna samples were collected every three months during one year. Water physical and chemical variables and sediment variables were also determined in the same period. Results Both assemblies presented low density variability over time in the lateral area due to sediment characteristics and environmental factors. Taxa Caladomyia, Parachironomus, Pristina sp., Pristina osborni, Bothrioneurum and Opistocysta funiculus were recorded at this site. The Guareí River presented both greater temporal and spatial variations, attributed mainly to a reduction in the water level. Greater organism abundance, especially of Chironomus and Tubificinae, was observed in the river. Conclusions Dissimilarity in temporal and spatial distributions of Chironomidae and Oligochaeta was attributed to peculiar characteristics of the two study sites, a river channel and a lateral area. Reduction in the water level over the year was the main controlling factor of Chironomidae and Oligochaeta richness and density in the river. In the lateral area, the presence and abundance of certain taxa were determined by the nature of the sediment and water physical and chemical variables.

  2. Phylogenetic information from three mitochondrial genomes of Terebelliformia (Annelida) worms and duplication of the methionine tRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Min; Struck, Torsten H; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2008-06-15

    Mitochondrial genomes have been useful for inferring animal phylogeny across a wide range of clades, however they are still poorly sampled in some animal taxa, limiting our knowledge of mtDNA evolution. For example, despite being one of the most diverse animal phyla, only 5 complete annelid mitochrondial genomes have been published. To address this paucity of information, we obtained complete mitochondrial genomic sequences from Pista cristata (Terebellidae) and Terebellides stroemi (Trichobranchidae) as well as one nearly complete mitochondrial genome from Eclysippe vanelli (Ampharetidae). These taxa are within Terebelliformia (Annelida), which include spaghetti worms, icecream cone worms and their relatives. In contrast to the 37 genes found in most bilaterian metazoans, we recover 38 genes in the mitochondrial genomes of T. stroemi and P. cristata due to the presence of a second methionine tRNA (trnM). Interestingly, the two trnMs are located next to each other and are possibly a synapomorphy of these two taxa. The E. vanelli partial mitochondrial genome lacks this additional trnM at the same position, but it may be present in the region not sampled. Compared to other annelids, gene orders of these three mitochondrial genomes are generally conserved except for the atp6-mSSU region. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that mtDNA data strongly supports a Trichobranchidae/Terebellidae clade.

  3. Feeding spectrum of a dominant splash zone enchytraeid, Mesenchytraeus bungei Michaelsen, 1901 (Annelida: Oligochaeta, in Lake Baikal (East Siberia

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    Zvereva, Yu. M.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The first data on feeding spectrum of Baikal enchytraeids are given. Previously we found that Mesenchytraeus bungei Michaelsen, 1901 dominates in abundance in splash zone Oligochaeta community of Bolshie Koty Bay, Lake Baikal. Feeding spectrum of M. bungei was investigated in summer (partially also in spring and autumn of 2010–2012 and 2015. Our study is based on pellet content analyses of more than 200 M. bungei specimens. Diverse components in different ratio were found during the investigation period, namely green algae, diatoms, higher plants debris, various animal remains, some minor components and sediment particles. All the pellet content was subdivided into phytogenous and animal material, unidentified matter and sediment particles. Phytogenous material appeared to be a dominant component of pellets (up to 87% in almost all cases. Our analysis showed that M. bungei is a saprophage with a preference to phytogenous detritus.

  4. Metabolic rates, enzyme activities and chemical compositions of some deep-sea pelagic worms, particularly Nectonemertes mirabilis (Nemertea; Hoplonemertinea) and Poeobius meseres (Annelida; Polychaeta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuesen, Erik V.; Childress, James J.

    1993-05-01

    Investigations of metabolic rate, enzyme activity and chemical composition were undertaken on two abundant deep-sea pelagic worms: Nectonemertes mirabilis (Nemertea; Hoplonemertinea) and Poeobius meseres (Annelida; Polychaeta). Six other species of worms ( Pelagonemertes brinkmanni (Nemertea) and the following polychaetes: Pelagobia species A, Tomopteris nisseni, Tomopteris pacifica, Tomopteris species A, and Traviopsis lobifera) were captured in smaller numbers and used for comparison in the physiological and biochemical measurements. Polychaete worms had the highest oxygen consumption rates and, along with N. mirabilis, displayed significant size effects on metabolic rate. Poeobius meseres had the lowest rates of oxygen consumption and displayed no significant relationship of oxygen consumption rate to wet weight. No significant effect of size on the activities of citrate synthase, lactate dehydrogenase or pyruvate kinase was observed in P. meseres or N. mirabilis. Lipid content was higher than protein content for all the worms in this study. Carbohydrate was of little significance in these worms and was usually <0.01% of the total weight. Citrate synthase activities of pelagic worms showed excellent correlation with metabolic rates. It appears that polychaete worms as a group have higher metabolic rates than bathypelagic shrimps, copepods and fishes, and may be the animals with the highest metabolic rates in the bathypelagic regions of the world's oceans.

  5. Divergence of AMP Deaminase in the Ice Worm Mesenchytraeus solifugus (Annelida, Clitellata, Enchytraeidae

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    Roberto Marotta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Glacier ice worms, Mesenchytraeus solifugus and related species, are the largest glacially obligate metazoans. As one component of cold temperature adaptation, ice worms maintain atypically high energy levels in an apparent mechanism to offset cold temperature-induced lethargy and death. To explore this observation at a mechanistic level, we considered the putative contribution of 5′ adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPD, a key regulator of energy metabolism in eukaryotes. We cloned cDNAs encoding ice worm AMPD, generating a fragment encoding 543 amino acids that included a short N-terminal region and complete C-terminal catalytic domain. The predicted ice worm AMPD amino acid sequence displayed conservation with homologues from other mesophilic eukaryotes with notable exceptions. In particular, an ice worm-specific K188E substitution proximal to the AMP binding site likely alters the architecture of the active site and negatively affects the enzyme's activity. Paradoxically, this would contribute to elevated intracellular ATP levels, which appears to be a signature of cold adapted taxa.

  6. Molecular phylogeny of echiuran worms (Phylum: Annelida reveals evolutionary pattern of feeding mode and sexual dimorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryutaro Goto

    Full Text Available The Echiura, or spoon worms, are a group of marine worms, most of which live in burrows in soft sediments. This annelid-like animal group was once considered as a separate phylum because of the absence of segmentation, although recent molecular analyses have placed it within the annelids. In this study, we elucidate the interfamily relationships of echiuran worms and their evolutionary pattern of feeding mode and sexual dimorphism, by performing molecular phylogenetic analyses using four genes (18S, 28S, H3, and COI of representatives of all extant echiuran families. Our results suggest that Echiura is monophyletic and comprises two unexpected groups: [Echiuridae+Urechidae+Thalassematidae] and [Bonelliidae+Ikedidae]. This grouping agrees with the presence/absence of marked sexual dimorphism involving dwarf males and the paired/non-paired configuration of the gonoducts (genital sacs. Furthermore, the data supports the sister group relationship of Echiuridae and Urechidae. These two families share the character of having anal chaetae rings around the posterior trunk as a synapomorphy. The analyses also suggest that deposit feeding is a basal feeding mode in echiurans and that filter feeding originated once in the common ancestor of Urechidae. Overall, our results contradict the currently accepted order-level classification, especially in that Echiuroinea is polyphyletic, and provide novel insights into the evolution of echiuran worms.

  7. Molecular phylogeny of echiuran worms (Phylum: Annelida) reveals evolutionary pattern of feeding mode and sexual dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Ryutaro; Okamoto, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Hamamura, Yoichi; Kato, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The Echiura, or spoon worms, are a group of marine worms, most of which live in burrows in soft sediments. This annelid-like animal group was once considered as a separate phylum because of the absence of segmentation, although recent molecular analyses have placed it within the annelids. In this study, we elucidate the interfamily relationships of echiuran worms and their evolutionary pattern of feeding mode and sexual dimorphism, by performing molecular phylogenetic analyses using four genes (18S, 28S, H3, and COI) of representatives of all extant echiuran families. Our results suggest that Echiura is monophyletic and comprises two unexpected groups: [Echiuridae+Urechidae+Thalassematidae] and [Bonelliidae+Ikedidae]. This grouping agrees with the presence/absence of marked sexual dimorphism involving dwarf males and the paired/non-paired configuration of the gonoducts (genital sacs). Furthermore, the data supports the sister group relationship of Echiuridae and Urechidae. These two families share the character of having anal chaetae rings around the posterior trunk as a synapomorphy. The analyses also suggest that deposit feeding is a basal feeding mode in echiurans and that filter feeding originated once in the common ancestor of Urechidae. Overall, our results contradict the currently accepted order-level classification, especially in that Echiuroinea is polyphyletic, and provide novel insights into the evolution of echiuran worms.

  8. Molecular Phylogeny of Echiuran Worms (Phylum: Annelida) Reveals Evolutionary Pattern of Feeding Mode and Sexual Dimorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Ryutaro; Okamoto, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Hamamura, Yoichi; Kato, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The Echiura, or spoon worms, are a group of marine worms, most of which live in burrows in soft sediments. This annelid-like animal group was once considered as a separate phylum because of the absence of segmentation, although recent molecular analyses have placed it within the annelids. In this study, we elucidate the interfamily relationships of echiuran worms and their evolutionary pattern of feeding mode and sexual dimorphism, by performing molecular phylogenetic analyses using four genes (18S, 28S, H3, and COI) of representatives of all extant echiuran families. Our results suggest that Echiura is monophyletic and comprises two unexpected groups: [Echiuridae+Urechidae+Thalassematidae] and [Bonelliidae+Ikedidae]. This grouping agrees with the presence/absence of marked sexual dimorphism involving dwarf males and the paired/non-paired configuration of the gonoducts (genital sacs). Furthermore, the data supports the sister group relationship of Echiuridae and Urechidae. These two families share the character of having anal chaetae rings around the posterior trunk as a synapomorphy. The analyses also suggest that deposit feeding is a basal feeding mode in echiurans and that filter feeding originated once in the common ancestor of Urechidae. Overall, our results contradict the currently accepted order-level classification, especially in that Echiuroinea is polyphyletic, and provide novel insights into the evolution of echiuran worms. PMID:23457618

  9. Diversity of Polychaeta (Annelida) and other worm taxa in mangrove habitats of Darwin Harbour, northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, K. N.; Glasby, C. J.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper data on the diversity, distribution and abundance of polychaetes and other worm taxa in the mangroves of Darwin Harbour, northern Australia, are presented and compared with those of other tropical mangrove areas. Aspects of the feeding guild ecology and the effects of disturbance on mangrove worms are also examined. Data were collected over a period of four years, across four mangrove assemblages. Samples were obtained using three sampling techniques: 1 m × 1 m quadrat searches, epifauna searches and a new infaunal sampling technique, the anoxic mat. A total of 76 species (68 polychaetes, 1 oligochaete, 1 echiuran, 3 sipunculans, 2 nemerteans, 1 turbellarian) were recorded from the four main mangrove assemblages. Of these, 30 species are widespread, occurring in mangrove and non-mangrove habitats throughout the Indo-west Pacific. Only seven species (all polychaetes) appear to be restricted to the mangroves of Darwin Harbour and northern Australia. Polychaetes are predominant, comprising 80-96% of all worms sampled, with three families—Nereididae, Capitellidae and Spionidae—accounting for 46% of all species. The highest diversity and abundance was recorded in the soft, unconsolidated substrates of the seaward assemblage, with diversity and abundance decreasing progressively in the landward assemblages. Most of the worm fauna was infaunal (70%), but the intensive sampling regime revealed a hitherto unknown significant percentage of epifaunal species (18%) and species occurring as both infauna and epifauna (12%). Univariate analyses showed annual and seasonal differences in worm species richness and abundance—presumably associated with the intensity of the monsoon and recruitment success. The worm fauna differed between mangrove assemblages but the proportion of species in each feeding guild was relatively consistent across the four assemblages studied. Herbivores were the most species-rich and abundant, followed by carnivores and sub

  10. Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelida: Oligochaeta indicador de la calidad del suelo en sitios de Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtacea con manejo tumba y quema Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelidae: Oligochaeta soil quality indicator in Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtacea sites with slash and burn management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Uribe

    2012-12-01

    grandis on earthworm population in Huimanquillo, Tabasco, Mexico. Three sites (average area of 1-1.5ha each with different management conditions were considered for soil and earthworm sampling (two depths and six replicates: without vegetation (SV and recent slash-burned (38 days, forest crops of five years of production of E. grandis (Euc, and secondary vegetation of 15 years (Acah. Soil physico-chemical properties (apparent density, humidity, texture, pH, Ntot, OM, P, K, cationic capacity were also evaluated, and earthworms were collected at the end of the rainy season (august-october 2007. We found that the sites soil is an acrisol acid, with pH 3.0-4.5 in the first 30cm depth. Organic matter content (OM and total nitrogen (Ntot in the recently burned sites were significantly lower (6-8% y 0.19-0.22%, respectively than in sites with vegetation (OM=9-11%; el Ntot=0.27-0.33%. Only one species (P. corethrurus was found in all the sampled areas, where most of the individuals were at juvenile stage (80%. The highest densities and biomass were found in Euc. treatment (166.4ind/m² y 36.8g/m² followed by Acah (138.7ind/m² y 19.1g/m² respectively, while the SV treatment showed of about an 80% reduced earthworm populations when compared to other treatments. Even though 15 years have passed over the secondary vegetation (Acah still some perturbations were observed as the low abundance of the oligochaeta group. We concluded that the management used to culture E. grandis produces negative effects over the abundance and diversity of earthworms and soil nutrient availability.

  11. Radiolar Eyes of Serpulid Worms (Annelida, Serpulidae): Structures, Function, and Phototransduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Michael J; Porter, Megan L; Ten Hove, Harry A; Smith, Richard; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2017-08-01

    Fan worms, represented by sabellid and serpulid polychaetes, have an astonishing array of unusual eyes and photoreceptors located on their eponymous feeding appendages. Here we organize the previous descriptions of these eyes in serpulids and report new anatomical, molecular, and physiological data regarding their structure, function, and evolution and the likely identity of their phototransduction machinery. We report that, as in sabellids, serpulids display a broad diversity of radiolar eye arrangements and ocellar structures. Furthermore, the visual pigment expressed in the eyes of Spirobranchus corniculatus, a species of the charismatic Christmas tree worms, absorbs light maximally at 464 nm in wavelength. This visual pigment closely matches the spectrum of downwelling irradiance in shallow coral reef habitats and lends support to the hypothesis that these radiolar photoreceptors function as a silhouette-detecting "burglar alarm" that triggers a rapid withdrawal response when the worm is threatened by potential predators. Finally, we report on the transcriptomic sequencing results for the radiolar eyes of S. corniculatus, which express invertebrate c-type opsins in their ciliary radiolar photoreceptors, closely related to the opsin found in the radiolar eyes of the sabellid Acromegalomma interruptum. We explore the potential for a shared evolutionary lineage between the radiolar photoreceptors of serpulids and sabellids and consider these unique innovations in the broader context of metazoan eye evolution.

  12. Diversity and distribution of Tubificidae, Naididae, and Lumbriculidae (Annelida: Oligochaeta) in the Netherlands: an evaluation of twenty years of monitoring data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, R.C.; Wetzel, M.J.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Data from 24 water management districts and the rivers Rhine and Meuse in the Netherlands were used to study geographical distribution, relative occurrence, and environmental requirements of 76 aquatic oligochaetes (families Tubificidae, Naididae, and Lumbriculidae) (Annelida, Clitellata).

  13. A remarkable diversity of bone-eating worms (Osedax; Siboglinidae; Annelida

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    Johnson Shannon B

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone-eating Osedax worms have proved to be surprisingly diverse and widespread. Including the initial description of this genus in 2004, five species that live at depths between 25 and 3,000 m in the eastern and western Pacific and in the north Atlantic have been named to date. Here, we provide molecular and morphological evidence for 12 additional evolutionary lineages from Monterey Bay, California. To assess their phylogenetic relationships and possible status as new undescribed species, we examined DNA sequences from two mitochondrial (COI and 16S rRNA and three nuclear genes (H3, 18S and 28S rRNA. Results Phylogenetic analyses identified 17 distinct evolutionary lineages. Levels of sequence divergence among the undescribed lineages were similar to those found among the named species. The 17 lineages clustered into five well-supported clades that also differed for a number of key morphological traits. Attempts to determine the evolutionary age of Osedax depended on prior assumptions about nucleotide substitution rates. According to one scenario involving a molecular clock calibrated for shallow marine invertebrates, Osedax split from its siboglinid relatives about 45 million years ago when archeocete cetaceans first appeared and then diversified during the late Oligocene and early Miocene when toothed and baleen whales appeared. Alternatively, the use of a slower clock calibrated for deep-sea annelids suggested that Osedax split from its siboglinid relatives during the Cretaceous and began to diversify during the Early Paleocene, at least 20 million years before the origin of large marine mammals. Conclusion To help resolve uncertainties about the evolutionary age of Osedax, we suggest that the fossilized bones from Cretaceous marine reptiles and late Oligocene cetaceans be examined for possible trace fossils left by Osedax roots. Regardless of the outcome, the present molecular evidence for strong phylogenetic concordance

  14. Adaptation and evolution of deep-sea scale worms (Annelida: Polynoidae): insights from transcriptome comparison with a shallow-water species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjie; Sun, Jin; Chen, Chong; Watanabe, Hiromi K.; Feng, Dong; Zhang, Yu; Chiu, Jill M. Y.; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2017-04-01

    Polynoid scale worms (Polynoidae, Annelida) invaded deep-sea chemosynthesis-based ecosystems approximately 60 million years ago, but little is known about their genetic adaptation to the extreme deep-sea environment. In this study, we reported the first two transcriptomes of deep-sea polynoids (Branchipolynoe pettiboneae, Lepidonotopodium sp.) and compared them with the transcriptome of a shallow-water polynoid (Harmothoe imbricata). We determined codon and amino acid usage, positive selected genes, highly expressed genes and putative duplicated genes. Transcriptome assembly produced 98,806 to 225,709 contigs in the three species. There were more positively charged amino acids (i.e., histidine and arginine) and less negatively charged amino acids (i.e., aspartic acid and glutamic acid) in the deep-sea species. There were 120 genes showing clear evidence of positive selection. Among the 10% most highly expressed genes, there were more hemoglobin genes with high expression levels in both deep-sea species. The duplicated genes related to DNA recombination and metabolism, and gene expression were only enriched in deep-sea species. Deep-sea scale worms adopted two strategies of adaptation to hypoxia in the chemosynthesis-based habitats (i.e., rapid evolution of tetra-domain hemoglobin in Branchipolynoe or high expression of single-domain hemoglobin in Lepidonotopodium sp.).

  15. Mitochondrial genome of the Christmas tree worm Spirobranchus giganteus (Annelida: Serpulidae) reveals a high substitution rate among annelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Victor Corrêa; Russo, Claudia Augusta de Moraes; Paiva, Paulo Cesar

    2017-03-20

    Here we describe, for the first time, the mitochondrial genome of Spirobranchus giganteus (Annelida: Serpulidae) and compare it with all available annelid mitogenomes. The entire mitogenome has 22,058bp in length and bears 12 protein-coding genes (the ATP8 gene is missing), two rRNA, and 24 tRNA genes. The nucleotide composition and GC-skew are surprisingly different from those reported for other annelids. In addition, the pairwise genetic distances between the mitogenomes of S. giganteus and other annelids are higher than the distances for all annelid taxa analyzed. This result is consistent with a faster rate of mitochondrial sequence evolution in S. giganteus, which may explain the difficulty in obtaining PCR products with the available primers. The mitochondrial gene order of S. giganteus was remarkably different not only from that of the Sedentaria lineage, which includes S. giganteus, but also from the mitochondrial gene order of other major annelid lineages. The mitogenome of S. giganteus has no repetitive motifs despite its long control region (4769bp), but genes are shorter and have a lower AT content than other members of Annelida. Finally, we show that mitochondrial gene order rearrangements can directly correlate to variations in gene length. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Integumentary L-histidine transport in a euryhaline polychaete worm: Regulatory roles of calcium and cadmium in the transport event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahearn, Heather Rae Hammers; Ahearn, Gregory A.; Gomme, Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    Epithelial transport, integument, polychaete worm, Nereis succinea, Annelida, transport regulation, calcium, cadmium, heavy metal......Epithelial transport, integument, polychaete worm, Nereis succinea, Annelida, transport regulation, calcium, cadmium, heavy metal...

  17. Combined morphological and molecular data unveils relationships of Pseudobranchiomma (Sabellidae, Annelida) and reveals higher diversity of this intriguing group of fan worms in Australia, including potentially introduced species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capa, María; Murray, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Pseudobranchiomma (Sabellidae, Annelida) is a small and heterogeneous group of fan worms found in shallow marine environments and is generally associated with hard substrates. The delineation and composition of this genus is problematic since it has been defined only by plesiomorphic characters that are widely distributed among other sabellids. In this study we have combined morphological and molecular (mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences) data to evaluate species diversity in Australia and assess the phylogenetic relationships of these and other related sabellids. Unlike morphological data alone, molecular data and combined datasets suggest monophyly of Pseudobranchiomma. In this study, a new species of Pseudobranchiomma is described and three others are considered as potential unintentional introductions to Australian waters, one of them reported for the first time for the continent. Pseudobranchiomma pallidasp. n. bears 4-6 serrations along the radiolar flanges, lacks radiolar eyes and has uncini with three transverse rows of teeth over the main fang. In the new species the colour pattern as well is characteristic and species specific.

  18. Characteristics of immune-competent amoebocytes non-invasively retrieved from populations of the sentinel earthworm Lumbricus rubellus (Annelida; Oligochaeta; Lumbricidae) inhabiting metal polluted field soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plytycz, Barbara; Cygal, Malgorzata; Lis-Molenda, Urszula; Klimek, Malgorzata; Mazur, Agnieszka Irena; Duchnowski, Michał; Morgan, A John

    2011-05-01

    Lumbricus rubellus is a cosmopolitan earthworm devoid of riboflavin-storing eleocytes; its immune competent coelomocytes are predominantly amoebocytes. Our aim was to determine whether amoebocyte cytometrics in L. rubellus are robust biomarkers for innate immunological responses to environmental pollutants. Investigations were conducted on populations inhabiting three unpolluted and five metalliferous (mainly Pb+Zn+Cd) habitats in the UK and Poland. Inter-population differences in worm mass and amoebocyte numbers did not consistently reflect soil or tissue metal concentrations. Flow cytometry indicated that autofluorescence of the amoebocytes differs between cells from the unpolluted and metal-polluted worms, and pinocytosis of neutral red by amoebocytes was lower (especially at 15 versus 60 min incubation) in worms from the polluted Poland site compared with the reference population. To conclude, amoebocyte cytometrics and functionality are potentially useful for environmental diagnostics; deployment is contingent on better understanding potential confounders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Oligochaeta (Annelida, Clitellata in the Aquatic Macrophytes in Dam of Ribeirão of Anhumas Screamers (Américo Brasiliense-Sp

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    Nathalie Aparecida De Oliveira Sanches

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Macrophytes have different morphological structural complexities, offering to animals the availability of various niches. These plants are also an important substrate for the development of periphyton, which has a high nutritional value and is one of the main foods of aquatic invertebrates, mainly Naididae. This study aimed at examinining the diversity of Oligochaeta community in macrophytes belonging to genus Egeria sp. and Salvinia sp., in lagoons of Ribeirão das Anhumas dam. These macrophytes have distinct three-dimensional characteristics and different habits, being Egeria fixed submerged and Salvinia free floating. The collections of macrophytes were carried out between the months of August 2012 and April 2013. Samples of 100g (wet weight of each genus were taken from plant biomass and the removal of the plants from the environment was made with the aid of a sieve with 0.21 mm mesh. Considering the two macrophytes analyzed, Egeria sp. was the one that presented greater diversity, richness and abundance in relation to Salvinia sp. These results demonstrate that macrophytes are important for the establishment of oligochaetes, mainly providing protection and food, and possibly the morphology and habit of the plants are the most influential factors in the association of oligofauna with these plants.

  20. The influence of worm age, duration of exposure and endpoint selection on bioassay sensitivity for Neanthes arenaceodentata (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridges, T.S. [Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS (United States). Waterways Experiment Station; Farrar, J.D. [AScI Corp., Vicksburg, MS (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The influence of worm age, duration of exposure, and endpoint selection on bioassay sensitivity were evaluated for Neanthes arenaceodentata. Worms were exposed to contaminated sediment collected from Black Rock Harbor (BRH) near Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA. This sediment was diluted with clean control sediment to result in five experimental treatments: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% BRH. Three exposure scenarios were employed: (1) a 4-week exposure beginning with newly emerged juveniles (EJ-4w), (2) a 7-week exposure beginning with newly emerged juveniles (EJ-7w), and (3) a 4-week exposure beginning with 3-week-old juveniles (3WO-4w). Six measures of worm size were recorded at the conclusion of each exposure to evaluate differences among measurement endpoints. Survival was significantly reduced at the 25% BRH level for the EJ-7w scenario and at the 100% BRH level for the EJ-4w and 3WO-4w scenarios. Growth was significantly reduced at the 25% BRH level in each exposure scenario. Estimates based on the calculated minimum detectable difference indicated that considerably lower concentrations of BRH (6--10%) should be distinguishable by measuring effects on Neanthes growth. Worm size measured in terms of projected area, dry weight, and ash-free dry weight provided the most sensitive measures of effects. Increasing the length of exposure from 4 to 7 weeks and initiating exposures with emergent juveniles rather than 3-week-old worms increased the sensitivity of the bioassay. The results of this study demonstrate that N. arenacedentata is sensitive to the presence of sediment-associated contaminants and that test animal age, duration of exposure, and choice of endpoint can have a large effect on the magnitude of the toxic response observed.

  1. Evolution of Sulfur Binding by Hemoglobin in Siboglinidae (Annelida) with Special Reference to Bone-Eating Worms, Osedax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waits, Damien S; Santos, Scott R; Thornhill, Daniel J; Li, Yuanning; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2016-05-01

    Most members of Siboglinidae (Annelida) harbor endosymbiotic bacteria that allow them to thrive in extreme environments such as hydrothermal vents, methane seeps, and whale bones. These symbioses are enabled by specialized hemoglobins (Hbs) that are able to bind hydrogen sulfide for transportation to their chemosynthetic endosymbionts. Sulfur-binding capabilities are hypothesized to be due to cysteine residues at key positions in both vascular and coelomic Hbs, especially in the A2 and B2 chains. Members of the genus Osedax, which live on whale bones, do not have chemosynthetic endosymbionts, but instead harbor heterotrophic bacteria capable of breaking down complex organic compounds. Although sulfur-binding capabilities are important in other siboglinids, we questioned whether Osedax retained these cysteine residues and the potential ability to bind hydrogen sulfide. To answer these questions, we used high-throughput DNA sequencing to isolate and analyze Hb sequences from 8 siboglinid lineages. For Osedax mucofloris, we recovered three (A1, A2, and B1) Hb chains, but the B2 chain was not identified. Hb sequences from gene subfamilies A2 and B2 were translated and aligned to determine conservation of cysteine residues at previously identified key positions. Hb linker sequences were also compared to determine similarity between Osedax and siboglinids/sulfur-tolerant annelids. For O. mucofloris, our results found conserved cysteines within the Hb A2 chain. This finding suggests that Hb in O. mucofloris has retained some capacity to bind hydrogen sulfide, likely due to the need to detoxify this chemical compound that is abundantly produced within whale bones.

  2. Bone-boring worms: characterizing the morphology, rate, and method of bioerosion by Osedax mucofloris (Annelida, Siboglinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Nicholas D; Glover, Adrian G; Dahlgren, Thomas G; Little, Crispin T S

    2011-12-01

    Osedax worms possess unique "root" tissues that they use to bore into bones on the seafloor, but details of the boring pattern and processes are poorly understood. Here we use X-ray micro-computed tomography to investigate the borings of Osedax mucofloris in bones of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), quantitatively detailing their morphological characteristics for the first time. Comparative thin-sections of the borings reveal how the bone is eroded at the sub-millimeter level. On the basis of these results we hypothesize a model of boring that is dependent on the density and microstructure of the bone. We also present evidence of acidic mucopolysaccharides in the mucus of the root tissue, and hypothesize that this plays an important role in the boring mechanism. We discuss the utility of these new data in evaluating Osedax trace fossils and their relevance for O. mucofloris ecology. Measured rates of bone erosion (6% per year) and evidence of enhanced sulfide release from the borings indicate that Osedax worms are important habitat modifiers in whale-fall communities.

  3. Mercury critical concentrations to Enchytraeus crypticus (Annelida: Oligochaeta) under normal and extreme conditions of moisture in tropical soils - Reproduction and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Andressa Cristhy; Schmelz, Rüdiger M; Niva, Cintia Carla; Correia, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira

    2017-05-01

    Soil provides many ecosystem services that are essential to maintain its quality and healthy development of the flora, fauna and human well-being. Environmental mercury levels may harm the survival and diversity of the soil fauna. In this respect, efforts have been made to establish limit values of mercury (Hg) in soils to terrestrial fauna. Soil organisms such as earthworms and enchytraeids have intimate contact with trace metals in soil by their oral and dermal routes, reflecting the potentially adverse effects of this contaminant. The main goal of this study was to obtain Hg critical concentrations under normal and extreme conditions of moisture in tropical soils to Enchytraeus crypticus to order to assess if climate change may potentiate their acute and chronic toxicity effects. Tropical soils were sampled from of two Forest Conservation Units of the Rio de Janeiro State - Brazil, which has been contaminated by Hg atmospheric depositions. Worms were exposed to three moisture conditions, at 20%, 50% and 80% of water holding capacity, respectively, and in combination with different Hg (HgCl2) concentrations spiked in three types of tropical soil (two natural soils and one artificial soil). The tested concentrations ranged from 0 to 512mg Hg kg-1 dry weight. Results indicate that the Hg toxicity is higher under increased conditions of moisture, significantly affecting survival and reproduction rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bone-eating Osedax worms (Annelida: Siboglinidae) regulate biodiversity of deep-sea whale-fall communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Lucas, Joan M.; Shimabukuro, Maurício; Ferreira, Giulia D.; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Sumida, Paulo Y. G.

    2017-12-01

    Although it is well recognized the capital role of "bone-eating" Osedax worms in the degradation of vertebrate skeletons in the deep sea, very little is known about their effects on bone faunal assemblages. Here we aim to shed light on the bone colonization process and determine 1) whether Osedax degradation induces different bone epi/infaunal assemblages and 2) how biodiversity is affected by Osedax colonization. We describe and compare the epi/infaunal assemblage structures of caudal vertebrae colonized and not colonized by Osedax of an abyssal juvenile whale carcass serendipitously found at 4204 m depth in the SW Atlantic Ocean by HOV Shinkai 6500. Our results show that whale skeletons are very heterogeneous habitats that harbor specific and very rich assemblages and that contrasting epi/infaunal community patterns are found depending on the presence of Osedax. Vertebrae not colonized by Osedax were both well preserved and in a highly sulfophilic stage with chemosynthetic bacterial mats and numerous epifaunal organisms that fed on them. On the contrary, vertebrae colonized by Osedax were heavily degraded and did not exhibit evidence of a sulfophilic stage, harboring a distinct epifaunal assemblage. In general, bone infaunal assemblages were dominated by nematodes, especially in vertebrae without Osedax (ca. 77%) where organisms were only found in bone outer layers, showing a colonization pattern similar to that described for bacteria. Infauna in Osedax-colonized bones were present throughout the inner-matrices and were on average three times more abundant (ca. 1800 ind. 100 cm-3) and twice as rich in number of species (16 species). Here, bones had a relatively higher proportion of the polychaete Capitella iatapiuna (ca. 39%) in comparison with nematodes (ca. 52%). Besides, a higher number of rare species were present in bones with Osedax. We suggest that Osedax degradation increases water diffusion through matrices probably modifying reduced-compound fluxes and

  5. Bone-Eating Worms Spread: Insights into Shallow-Water Osedax (Annelida, Siboglinidae) from Antarctic, Subantarctic, and Mediterranean Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, Sergi; Riesgo, Ana; Bas, Maria; Arnedo, Miquel A; Cristobo, Javier; Rouse, Greg W; Avila, Conxita

    2015-01-01

    Osedax, commonly known as bone-eating worms, are unusual marine annelids belonging to Siboglinidae and represent a remarkable example of evolutionary adaptation to a specialized habitat, namely sunken vertebrate bones. Usually, females of these animals live anchored inside bone owing to a ramified root system from an ovisac, and obtain nutrition via symbiosis with Oceanospirillales gamma-proteobacteria. Since their discovery, 26 Osedax operational taxonomic units (OTUs) have been reported from a wide bathymetric range in the Pacific, the North Atlantic, and the Southern Ocean. Using experimentally deployed and naturally occurring bones we report here the presence of Osedax deceptionensis at very shallow-waters in Deception Island (type locality; Antarctica) and at moderate depths near South Georgia Island (Subantarctic). We present molecular evidence in a new phylogenetic analysis based on five concatenated genes (28S rDNA, Histone H3, 18S rDNA, 16S rDNA, and cytochrome c oxidase I-COI-), using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference, supporting the placement of O. deceptionensis as a separate lineage (Clade VI) although its position still remains uncertain. This phylogenetic analysis includes a new unnamed species (O. 'mediterranea') recently discovered in the shallow-water Mediterranean Sea belonging to Osedax Clade I. A timeframe of the diversification of Osedax inferred using a Bayesian framework further suggests that Osedax diverged from other siboglinids during the Middle Cretaceous (ca. 108 Ma) and also indicates that the most recent common ancestor of Osedax extant lineages dates to the Late Cretaceous (ca. 74.8 Ma) concomitantly with large marine reptiles and teleost fishes. We also provide a phylogenetic framework that assigns newly-sequenced Osedax endosymbionts of O. deceptionensis and O. 'mediterranea' to ribospecies Rs1. Molecular analysis for O. deceptionensis also includes a COI-based haplotype network indicating that individuals from Deception

  6. Bone-Eating Worms Spread: Insights into Shallow-Water Osedax (Annelida, Siboglinidae from Antarctic, Subantarctic, and Mediterranean Waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Taboada

    Full Text Available Osedax, commonly known as bone-eating worms, are unusual marine annelids belonging to Siboglinidae and represent a remarkable example of evolutionary adaptation to a specialized habitat, namely sunken vertebrate bones. Usually, females of these animals live anchored inside bone owing to a ramified root system from an ovisac, and obtain nutrition via symbiosis with Oceanospirillales gamma-proteobacteria. Since their discovery, 26 Osedax operational taxonomic units (OTUs have been reported from a wide bathymetric range in the Pacific, the North Atlantic, and the Southern Ocean. Using experimentally deployed and naturally occurring bones we report here the presence of Osedax deceptionensis at very shallow-waters in Deception Island (type locality; Antarctica and at moderate depths near South Georgia Island (Subantarctic. We present molecular evidence in a new phylogenetic analysis based on five concatenated genes (28S rDNA, Histone H3, 18S rDNA, 16S rDNA, and cytochrome c oxidase I-COI-, using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference, supporting the placement of O. deceptionensis as a separate lineage (Clade VI although its position still remains uncertain. This phylogenetic analysis includes a new unnamed species (O. 'mediterranea' recently discovered in the shallow-water Mediterranean Sea belonging to Osedax Clade I. A timeframe of the diversification of Osedax inferred using a Bayesian framework further suggests that Osedax diverged from other siboglinids during the Middle Cretaceous (ca. 108 Ma and also indicates that the most recent common ancestor of Osedax extant lineages dates to the Late Cretaceous (ca. 74.8 Ma concomitantly with large marine reptiles and teleost fishes. We also provide a phylogenetic framework that assigns newly-sequenced Osedax endosymbionts of O. deceptionensis and O. 'mediterranea' to ribospecies Rs1. Molecular analysis for O. deceptionensis also includes a COI-based haplotype network indicating that individuals from

  7. Bone-Eating Worms Spread: Insights into Shallow-Water Osedax (Annelida, Siboglinidae) from Antarctic, Subantarctic, and Mediterranean Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, Sergi; Riesgo, Ana; Bas, Maria; Arnedo, Miquel A.; Cristobo, Javier; Rouse, Greg W.; Avila, Conxita

    2015-01-01

    Osedax, commonly known as bone-eating worms, are unusual marine annelids belonging to Siboglinidae and represent a remarkable example of evolutionary adaptation to a specialized habitat, namely sunken vertebrate bones. Usually, females of these animals live anchored inside bone owing to a ramified root system from an ovisac, and obtain nutrition via symbiosis with Oceanospirillales gamma-proteobacteria. Since their discovery, 26 Osedax operational taxonomic units (OTUs) have been reported from a wide bathymetric range in the Pacific, the North Atlantic, and the Southern Ocean. Using experimentally deployed and naturally occurring bones we report here the presence of Osedax deceptionensis at very shallow-waters in Deception Island (type locality; Antarctica) and at moderate depths near South Georgia Island (Subantarctic). We present molecular evidence in a new phylogenetic analysis based on five concatenated genes (28S rDNA, Histone H3, 18S rDNA, 16S rDNA, and cytochrome c oxidase I–COI–), using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference, supporting the placement of O. deceptionensis as a separate lineage (Clade VI) although its position still remains uncertain. This phylogenetic analysis includes a new unnamed species (O. ‘mediterranea’) recently discovered in the shallow-water Mediterranean Sea belonging to Osedax Clade I. A timeframe of the diversification of Osedax inferred using a Bayesian framework further suggests that Osedax diverged from other siboglinids during the Middle Cretaceous (ca. 108 Ma) and also indicates that the most recent common ancestor of Osedax extant lineages dates to the Late Cretaceous (ca. 74.8 Ma) concomitantly with large marine reptiles and teleost fishes. We also provide a phylogenetic framework that assigns newly-sequenced Osedax endosymbionts of O. deceptionensis and O. ‘mediterranea’ to ribospecies Rs1. Molecular analysis for O. deceptionensis also includes a COI-based haplotype network indicating that individuals from

  8. Enchytraeidae of the Netherlands (Annelida; Oligochaeta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunst, de J.H.

    1965-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary check list of 46 species of Enchytraeidae hitherto found in the Netherlands. With the exception of Enchytraeus albidus and Hemifridericia parva, these species are recorded from the Netherlands for the first time.

  9. Annelida (Oligochaeta and Aphanoneura from the Natural Reserve of Isla Martín García (upper Río de la Plata estuary, Argentina: biodiversity and response to environmental variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    II César

    Full Text Available The Island of Martín García – located in the Upper Río de la Plata, to the south of the Uruguay River – is an outcropping of the crystalline basement. Fourteen sampling sites were selected, five along the littoral section of the island and nine in inland ponds. Four major environmental variables were measured: water temperature, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, and pH. A total of 34 species of Oligochaeta and Aphanoneura were found, 30 belonging to Naididae plus one species each of the Narapidae, Lumbricidae, Enchytraeidae, and Aeolosomatidae. The thirteen most frequent species were: A. leydigi (30%, N. bonettoi (13%, L. hoffmeisteri (11%, N. variabilis(10%, S. trivandrana (6.5%, A. pigueti (5.6%, D. sawayai (4.5%, D. digitata(3.5%, C. diastrophus (2.7%, A. costatus (2.5%, P. longiseta (2.0%, Enchytraeidae (1.5%, and A. p. paraguayensis(1.4%. UPGMA clustering of species based on their occurrence in different ecological conditions revealed two main species groups. Canonic-correspondence analysis (CCA was conducted with the 15 most frequent and abundant species in the 9 sampling sites and the 4 environmental variables. Results from the CCA revealed that the order of fluctuation of the environmental variables during the sampling period was, from the greatest to the least: dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, and water temperature. Approximately 97.6% of the correlations between species and environmental variables were expressed on axis 1 of the ordination diagram. Species richness correlated with the four environmental variables in the following order, from the weakest to the strongest: water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, and dissolved oxygen.

  10. Selection of suitable media and intervals of media inoculation for culturing Tubificid worms

    OpenAIRE

    Mollah, M.F.A; Mosharaf, K.; Mariom

    2012-01-01

    Tubificid worms are aquatic invertebrates, belonging to the class Oligochaeta and family Tubificidae, used as an important live food for fishes. The study was conducted to culture Tubificid worms under running water in order to develop a suitable culture media and an optimum duration of media inoculation for culturing Tubificid worms. The worms were cultured under two experiments in cemented culvert system (160×25×10 cm3 ) for 90 days. In the first experiment the worms were cultured in three ...

  11. A comprehensive molecular phylogeny of spoon worms (Echiura, Annelida): Implications for morphological evolution, the origin of dwarf males, and habitat shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Ryutaro

    2016-06-01

    Echiurans (spoon worms) are derived annelids that have secondarily lost segmentation. Recently, two molecular phylogenetic studies were performed to resolve the interfamily relationship of echiurans. However, the tree topologies were incongruent and taxon sampling was limited in both the studies. Thus, the phylogenetic relationships within echiurans remain contentious. In this study, I reevaluated the molecular phylogeny of echiurans, using three nuclear (18S, 28S, and H3) and two mitochondrial (16S and COI) genes of 49 echiuran species belonging to 17-19 genera and five families. Results showed that echiurans form the following two major clades: a sexually monomorphic group (Echiuridae, Urechidae, and Thalassematidae) and a sexually dimorphic group (Bonelliidae and Ikedidae). The sister group relationships between Urechidae and Echiuridae, as well as between Ikedidae and Bonelliidae, were supported. The analysis also supported the following relationships among genera within Thalassematidae: {Arhynchite [(Thalassema, Lissomyema) (Ochetostoma, Listriolobus, Ikedosoma, Anelassorhynchus)]}. Furthermore, I evaluated the evolutionary patterns of important taxonomic characteristics (body-wall longitudinal musculature, proboscis shape, gonostmal lip shape, and body color) and habitat shifts (water depth and substrate type), using ancestral state reconstruction analyses. The analyses showed that sexually dimorphic echiurans originated in the shallow waters and secondarily invaded the deep sea, although deep-to-shallow habitat reversal was also detected. In contrary to the previous hypothesis, sexual dimorphism with dwarf males in echiurans may have been a preadaptation to the deep-sea environment. The analyses also showed that habitat shifts from soft sediments to hard substrates occurred in Thalassematidae and Bonelliidae, respectively. A new classification of echiurans, in which Echiura comprises two superfamilies, namely Echiuroidea (with Echiuridae, Urechidae, and

  12. Expression of FoxA and GATA transcription factors correlates with regionalized gut development in two lophotrochozoan marine worms: Chaetopterus (Annelida and Themiste lageniformis (Sipuncula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyle Michael J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A through gut is present in almost all metazoans, and most likely represents an ancient innovation that enabled bilaterian animals to exploit a wide range of habitats. Molecular developmental studies indicate that Fox and GATA regulatory genes specify tissue regions along the gut tube in a broad diversity of taxa, although little is known about gut regionalization within the Lophotrochozoa. In this study, we isolated FoxA and GATA456 orthologs and used whole mount in situ hybridization during larval gut formation in two marine worms: the segmented, polychaete annelid Chaetopterus, which develops a planktotrophic larva with a tripartite gut, and the non-segmented sipunculan Themiste lageniformis, which develops a lecithotrophic larva with a U-shaped gut. Results FoxA and GATA456 transcripts are predominantly restricted to gut tissue, and together show regional expression spanning most of the alimentary canal in each of these lophotrochozoans, although neither FoxA nor GATA456 is expressed in the posterior intestine of Chaetopterus. In both species, FoxA is expressed at the blastula stage, transiently in presumptive endoderm before formation of a definitive gut tube, and throughout early larval development in discrete foregut and hindgut domains. GATA456 genes are expressed during endoderm formation, and in endoderm and mesoderm associated with the midgut in each species. Several species-specific differences were detected, including an overlap of FoxA and GATA456 expression in the intestinal system of Themiste, which is instead complimentary in Chaetopterus. Other differences include additional discrete expression domains of FoxA in ectodermal trunk cells in Themiste but not Chaetopterus, and expression of GATA456 in anterior ectoderm and midgut cells unique to Chaetopterus. Conclusions This study of gene expression in a sipunculan contributes new comparative developmental insights from lophotrochozoans, and shows that FoxA and

  13. First record of Bothrioneurum vejdovskyanum Štolc, 1886 (Oligochaeta, Tubificidae in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Božica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the discovery of Bothrioneurum vejdovskyanum Štolc, 1886 (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Tubificidae: Rhyacodrilinae in Serbian freshwaters. Fifteen specimens were found in the middle course of the River Ibar (southern Serbia, at a locality where the macrolithal type of substrate and strong currents prevail. These organisms were found together with Stylodrilus heringianus (Claparede, 1862. They were among the most abundant Oligochaeta species. The species are described and its biology and distribution are discussed. The present record contributes to the knowledge on the general distribution of this rare species, particularly in the Balkans (southeastern Europe. [Acknowledgments. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia, Projects No. ON 173025 and III 43002

  14. Does a global DNA barcoding gap exist in Annelida?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist, Sebastian

    2016-05-01

    Accurate identification of unknown specimens by means of DNA barcoding is contingent on the presence of a DNA barcoding gap, among other factors, as its absence may result in dubious specimen identifications - false negatives or positives. Whereas the utility of DNA barcoding would be greatly reduced in the absence of a distinct and sufficiently sized barcoding gap, the limits of intraspecific and interspecific distances are seldom thoroughly inspected across comprehensive sampling. The present study aims to illuminate this aspect of barcoding in a comprehensive manner for the animal phylum Annelida. All cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences (cox1 gene; the chosen region for zoological DNA barcoding) present in GenBank for Annelida, as well as for "Polychaeta", "Oligochaeta", and Hirudinea separately, were downloaded and curated for length, coverage and potential contaminations. The final datasets consisted of 9782 (Annelida), 5545 ("Polychaeta"), 3639 ("Oligochaeta"), and 598 (Hirudinea) cox1 sequences and these were either (i) used as is in an automated global barcoding gap detection analysis or (ii) further analyzed for genetic distances, separated into bins containing intraspecific and interspecific comparisons and plotted in a graph to visualize any potential global barcoding gap. Over 70 million pairwise genetic comparisons were made and results suggest that although there is a tendency towards separation, no distinct or sufficiently sized global barcoding gap exists in either of the datasets rendering future barcoding efforts at risk of erroneous specimen identifications (but local barcoding gaps may still exist allowing for the identification of specimens at lower taxonomic ranks). This seems to be especially true for earthworm taxa, which account for fully 35% of the total number of interspecific comparisons that show 0% divergence.

  15. Review of Criodrilidae (Annelida: Oligochaeta including Biwadrilus from Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blakemore, R.J.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Palaearctic family Criodrilidae Vejdovsky, 1884 is briefly reviewed and revised to reabsorb Biwadrilidae Brinkhurst & Jamieson, 1971, monotypic for lacustrine/limnic Biwadrilus bathybates (Stephenson, 1917 based on examination of new Lake Biwa material from recent earthworm surveys. Comparison is with type species: Criodrilus lacuum Hoffmeister, 1845. Synonymy in Criodrilus of monotypic genus Hydrilus Qiu & Bouché, 1998 from Algeria is accepted but with provisional restoration of its type as Criodrilus ghaniae (Qiu & Bouché, 1998 comb. nov., if indeed it belongs in the Criodrilidae. Another recent taxon Guarani camaqua Rodríguez & Lima, 2007 from rice fields of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil is syn. nov. of Criodrilus lacuum at species and genus level since its characteristics are easily embraced within interspecific variability. Moreover, the prior taxon, C. lacuum, was already known from its type-locality. Distribution, ecology and species associations of the criodrilids are briefly summarised including a report of C. lacuum maintained in a laboratory culture for >42 years (T. Timm pers. comm.. A key to species is provided.

  16. Earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta) of the Columbia River basin assessment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam. James

    2000-01-01

    Earthworms are key components of many terrestrial ecosystems; however, little is known of their ecology, distribution, and taxonomy in the eastern interior Columbia River basin assessment area (hereafter referred to as the basin assessment area). This report summarizes the main issues about the ecology of earthworms and their impact on the physical and chemical status...

  17. Spatial distribution of aquatic Oligochaeta in Ilha Grande National Park, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i1.10768

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Michiyo Takeda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ilha Grande National Park is an important conservation unit localized in the Southern part of the upper Paraná river floodplain (Brazil that includes diverse aquatic environments. Oligochaeta (Annelida is a large group of invertebrates, with several small specimens inhabiting almost every possible niche at most freshwater ecosystem. The goal of the present study was to examine the spatial variation of Oligochaeta community in five floodplain lakes from the Ilha Grande National Park and relate the distribution with abiotic variables. Samples were taken at five sampling stations using a modified Petersen grab. Thirteen species of Oligochaeta belonging to two families Naididae and Tubificidae were recorded. Different patterns of richness and abiotic factors were identified among the lakes located in the island and at the margin of Paraná river. The different patterns of granulometric texture affected directly the distribution of the Oligochaeta assemblage of theses environments. The results of this study permit to infer that the Oligochaeta assemblage, in preserved areas, present a higher richness in relation to long term studies with more frequent samplings. We concluded that Ilha Grande National Park contributes for the preservation of benthic invertebrates.  

  18. Phylogeny of scale-worms (Aphroditiformia, Annelida), assessed from 18SrRNA, 28SrRNA, 16SrRNA, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlinder, Erika; Nygren, Arne; Wiklund, Helena; Pleijel, Fredrik

    2012-11-01

    The phylogeny of scale-worms, benthic polychaetes carrying dorsal scales (elytra), including taxa from Acoetidae, Aphroditidae, Eulepethidae, Pholoidae, Pholoididae, Polynoidae and Sigalionidae (Aphroditiformia), is assessed from the nuclear markers 18SrRNA and 28SrRNA, and mitochondrial 16SrRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and 24 morphological characters. The data sets are analyzed both separately and combined, with Bayesian analyses, maximum likelihood and parsimony. In total, 56 terminal taxa are examined, including 48 taxa from all scale-worm families, and eight out-group species. The results indicate that Aphroditidae and Eulepethidae are the most basally placed families among the scale-worms. The Pholoididae and Pisionidae are positioned within and synonymized with the Sigalionidae, and Pholoidae may be part of the same group. The subfamily Iphioninae falls out as sister group to a clade consisting of Polynoidae and Acoetidae and is elevated to Iphionidae. The families now included in the Aphroditiformia are Acoetidae, Aphroditidae, Eulepethidae, Pholoidae, Polynoidae, Iphionidae and Sigalionidae, and the subfamily name Harmothoinae and Acholoinae are treated as a junior synonyms of Polynoinae. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. The simplicity of males: Dwarf males of four species of Osedax (Siboglinidae; Annelida) investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsaae, Katrine; Rouse, Greg W

    2010-01-01

    Dwarf males of the bone-eating worms Osedax (Siboglinidae, Annelida) have been proposed to develop from larvae that settle on females rather than on bone. The apparent arrest in somatic development and resemblance of the males to trochophore larvae has been posited as an example of paedomorphosis...

  20. Diet of Worms Emended: An Update of Polychaete Feeding Guilds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumars, Peter A.; Dorgan, Kelly M.; Lindsay, Sara M.

    2015-01-01

    Polychaetes are common in most marine habitats and dominate many infaunal communities. Functional guild classification based on taxonomic identity and morphology has linked community structure to ecological function. The functional guilds now include osmotrophic siboglinids as well as sipunculans, echiurans, and myzostomes, which molecular genetic analyses have placed within Annelida. Advances in understanding of encounter mechanisms explicitly relate motility to feeding mode. New analyses of burrowing mechanics explain the prevalence of bilateral symmetry and blur the boundary between surface and subsurface feeding. The dichotomy between microphagous deposit and suspension feeders and macrophagous carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores is further supported by divergent digestive strategies. Deposit feeding appears to be limited largely to worms longer than 1 cm, with juveniles and small worms in general restricted to ingesting highly digestible organic material and larger, rich food items, blurring the macrophage-microphage dichotomy that applies well to larger worms.

  1. Efectos subletales de la lambda-cialotrina sobre Eisenia fetida (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae Sublethal effects of lambda-cyhalothrin on Eisenia fetida (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Ricardo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El uso intensivo de agroquímicos provoca efectos dañinos sobre la fauna no blanco. Dentro de la misma, los oligoquetos contribuyen a mantener la estructura y fertilidad del suelo. La lambda-cialotrina es uno de los insecticidas piretroides más utilizados en la Argentina, pero son escasos los datos existentes acerca de su toxicidad sobre oligoquetos. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron evaluar mediante bioensayos de toxicidad crónica los efectos de lambda-cialotrina (producto comercial al 5% en Eisenia fetida sobre los parámetros de comportamiento, sobrevivencia, biomasa, reproducción y bioacumulación, así como la persistencia en suelo OECD de dicho tóxico. Los resultados muestran un comportamiento de huída intenso a partir de la concentración más baja, con un EC50 de 1,36 mg kg-1 (95% C.L. 0,24 - 2,80. No se observaron efectos en sobrevivencia y alimentación. La reproducción fue afectada significativamente (F= 11,94, PThe intensive use of agrochemicals has deleterious effects on non-target organisms. Among these organisms, earthworms are important because of their role in keeping the soil structure and fertility. Lambda-cyhalothrin is one of the most widely used pyrethroid insecticide in Argentina, but there are not enough studies of the effects of this pesticide on earthworms. The goals of this work were to perform chronic toxicity bioassays to determine the effects of commercial lambda-cyhalothrin (at 5% on Eisenia fetida. The parameters of behaviour, survival, biomass, reproduction, bioaccumulation and the degradation time of lambda-cyhalotrin in an OECD standard soil were also estimated. Results showed a hard avoidance behaviour in the lowest lambda-cyhalothrin concentration with an EC50 of 1.36 mg kg-1 (95% C.L 0.24-2.80. Eisenia fetida chronic test survival and feeding were not affected by lambda-cyhalothrin but negative effects on reproduction were significant (P<0.05. Cocoon production and fertility were reduced and incubation time was incremented. The BAF were between 0.005 and 0.08 in the test concentrations and the soil degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin was complete after 86 days.

  2. Bioaccumulation of mercury in a vestimentiferan worm living in Kagoshima Bay, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Megumi; Tomiyasu, Takashi; Hashimoto, Jun; Miura, Tomoyuki; Nakano, Atsuhiro; Akiba, Suminori

    2002-11-01

    The present study reports on the mercury concentrations of the vestimentiferan worm, Lamellibrachia satsuma, (Annelida: Pogonophora) found near hydrothermal vents at a depth of 80-100 m in the northern parts of Kagoshima Bay. The vestimentiferan worms had total mercury concentrations of 238 ng/g in the anterior muscle of the body and 164 ng/g in the posterior trophosome. Methylmercury constituted only 7.6% of total mercury detected anteriorly and 16.3% posteriorly. The mean total mercury concentration in filtrated ambient seawater of the worm habitat was 1.1 ng/l. The worm should accumulate mercury in seawater by a one-step into the anterior and posterior parts as 2.2 x 10(%) and 1.5 x 10(5) times those of the filtered ambient seawater, respectively. The bioaccumulation factor of mercury by the worms with only their respiration would be actually larger than that by other marine animals through food webs. The high bioaccumulation factor of mercury in the worms suggest the following two possibilities: (i) the biological half-life of organomercury in the worm could be exceptionally long; or (ii) the lifetime of vestimentiferan worms examined in the present study could be extremely long. Various metals in one specimen of the worm were analyzed by using ICP-MS, and then gold as well as silver were detected in the worm. Gold was detected for the first time from marine animals.

  3. Species diversity and abundance of Oligochaeta fauna in a tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species diversity and abundance of Oligochaeta fauna in a tropical rain forest lake in South-Southern, Nigeria. ... The impact of seasonal variations, human activities and environmental factors influencing the distribution and abundance of Oligochaeta are observed. There is a need for freshwater biologists to investigate the ...

  4. Influence of pressmud on the development of the ovary, oogenesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the reproductively active clitellate stages. Secretory activity of neurosecretory cells occurs earlier in worms reared in nutritively rich pressmud which has greater amounts of nitrogens, phosphorus and sugar, than in worms reared in clay loam soil. Key words: Annelida, Oligochaeta, reproduction, nutrition, gametogenesis.

  5. Freeze tolerance and accumulation of cryoprotectants in the enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta) from Greenland and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slotsbo, Stine; Maraldo, Kristine; Malmendal, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The freeze tolerance and accumulation of cryoprotectants was investigated in three geographically different populations of the enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta). E. albidus is widely distributed from the high Arctic to temperate Western Europe. Our results show that E. albidus is freeze...... tolerant, with freeze tolerance varying extensively between Greenlandic and European populations. Two populations from sub Arctic (Nuuk) and high Arctic Greenland (Zackenberg) survived freezing at -15 degrees C, whereas only 30% of a German population survived this temperature. When frozen, E. albidus...... resonance spectrometry (NMR) was used to screen for other putative cryoprotectants. Proline, glutamine and alanine were up regulated in frozen worms at -2 degrees C but only in relatively small concentrations suggesting that they were of little significance for freeze survival. The present study confirms...

  6. Mitochondrial genome sequence and gene order of Sipunculus nudus give additional support for an inclusion of Sipuncula into Annelida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomaeus Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial genomes are a valuable source of data for analysing phylogenetic relationships. Besides sequence information, mitochondrial gene order may add phylogenetically useful information, too. Sipuncula are unsegmented marine worms, traditionally placed in their own phylum. Recent molecular and morphological findings suggest a close affinity to the segmented Annelida. Results The first complete mitochondrial genome of a member of Sipuncula, Sipunculus nudus, is presented. All 37 genes characteristic for metazoan mtDNA were detected and are encoded on the same strand. The mitochondrial gene order (protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes resembles that of annelids, but shows several derivations so far found only in Sipuncula. Sequence based phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial protein-coding genes results in significant bootstrap support for Annelida sensu lato, combining Annelida together with Sipuncula, Echiura, Pogonophora and Myzostomida. Conclusion The mitochondrial sequence data support a close relationship of Annelida and Sipuncula. Also the most parsimonious explanation of changes in gene order favours a derivation from the annelid gene order. These results complement findings from recent phylogenetic analyses of nuclear encoded genes as well as a report of a segmental neural patterning in Sipuncula.

  7. Mitochondrial genome sequence and gene order of Sipunculus nudus give additional support for an inclusion of Sipuncula into Annelida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwinyi, Adina; Meyer, Achim; Bleidorn, Christoph; Lieb, Bernhard; Bartolomaeus, Thomas; Podsiadlowski, Lars

    2009-01-16

    Mitochondrial genomes are a valuable source of data for analysing phylogenetic relationships. Besides sequence information, mitochondrial gene order may add phylogenetically useful information, too. Sipuncula are unsegmented marine worms, traditionally placed in their own phylum. Recent molecular and morphological findings suggest a close affinity to the segmented Annelida. The first complete mitochondrial genome of a member of Sipuncula, Sipunculus nudus, is presented. All 37 genes characteristic for metazoan mtDNA were detected and are encoded on the same strand. The mitochondrial gene order (protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes) resembles that of annelids, but shows several derivations so far found only in Sipuncula. Sequence based phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial protein-coding genes results in significant bootstrap support for Annelida sensu lato, combining Annelida together with Sipuncula, Echiura, Pogonophora and Myzostomida. The mitochondrial sequence data support a close relationship of Annelida and Sipuncula. Also the most parsimonious explanation of changes in gene order favours a derivation from the annelid gene order. These results complement findings from recent phylogenetic analyses of nuclear encoded genes as well as a report of a segmental neural patterning in Sipuncula.

  8. Mitochondrial genome sequence and gene order of Sipunculus nudus give additional support for an inclusion of Sipuncula into Annelida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwinyi, Adina; Meyer, Achim; Bleidorn, Christoph; Lieb, Bernhard; Bartolomaeus, Thomas; Podsiadlowski, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial genomes are a valuable source of data for analysing phylogenetic relationships. Besides sequence information, mitochondrial gene order may add phylogenetically useful information, too. Sipuncula are unsegmented marine worms, traditionally placed in their own phylum. Recent molecular and morphological findings suggest a close affinity to the segmented Annelida. Results The first complete mitochondrial genome of a member of Sipuncula, Sipunculus nudus, is presented. All 37 genes characteristic for metazoan mtDNA were detected and are encoded on the same strand. The mitochondrial gene order (protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes) resembles that of annelids, but shows several derivations so far found only in Sipuncula. Sequence based phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial protein-coding genes results in significant bootstrap support for Annelida sensu lato, combining Annelida together with Sipuncula, Echiura, Pogonophora and Myzostomida. Conclusion The mitochondrial sequence data support a close relationship of Annelida and Sipuncula. Also the most parsimonious explanation of changes in gene order favours a derivation from the annelid gene order. These results complement findings from recent phylogenetic analyses of nuclear encoded genes as well as a report of a segmental neural patterning in Sipuncula. PMID:19149868

  9. GLOBOID WORM HOB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFTIMIE Dorin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new constructive solution of globoid worm hob in the globoid worm wheels gear cutting. This type of tool was created in full 3D. Technological difficulties have been overcome in the execution of this new type of hob that allow widespread use globoid worm gears.

  10. Polychaeta, Annelida, and Articulata are not monophyletic: articulating the Metameria (Metazoa, Coelomata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waltécio de Oliveira Almeida

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Polychaetes are metameric worms recognized for having parapodia, chaetae, and nuchal organs. Some authors have extended the Annelida to include Pogonophora, Echiura, and Clitellata. These suggestions are insufficient to generate a monophyletic group. They do not take into account two very large and important clades that in a cladistic analysis at a higher level are shown to be nested within the Annelida: the Ecdysozoa (arthropods and related taxa and Enterocoela (deuterostomes and related taxa. Evolutionary histories of most characters across metazoan phyla are still very poorly known. Metameres and coeloms have been considered homoplastic in the literature, and yet the homeobox genes responsible for the expression of metamerism and of paired appendages, at least, are very largely distributed among the Metazoa. A phylogenetic analysis was performed for the ingroups of Polychaeta, including Clitellata, Enterocoela, and Ecdysozoa as terminal taxa. The remaining non-metameric phyla Platyhelminthes, Nemertea, Mollusca, and Sipuncula were included to root the tree within the Bilateria. Empirical data was obtained from the literature and run with the software Hennig86 with two comparative interpretations of a priori hypotheses of primary homology: one with negative characters (coding losses and another considering only positive characters (without assumptions about losses. The most relevant conclusions are: (1 Annelida and Polychaeta are non-monophyletic, even when including Echiura, Clitellata, and Pogonophora; (2 Articulata, as traditionally circumscribed for Annelida and Arthropoda, is also not monophyletic; (3 Metameria becomes monophyletic only when Ecdysozoa and Enterocoela are included in addition to the traditional annelid taxa; (4 Ecdysozoa are the sister group of Aphrodita; (5 Clitellata are related to deposit-feeding sedentary polychaetes (scolecids, and Questidae represent their sister group; (6 Owenia plus Enterocoela form a monophyletic

  11. The leaf-litter earthworm fauna (Annelida: Oligochaeta) of forests in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative survey of the leaf-litter earthworm fauna of 11 selected indigenous forests in Limpopo Province, South Africa, was conducted to identify the species present, to describe the communities and to assess the relationship between indigenous and exotic species. A total of 8185 individuals from 17 species (five ...

  12. Pheromone evolution, reproductive genes, and comparative transcriptomics in mediterranean earthworms (annelida, oligochaeta, hormogastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Marta; Riesgo, Ana; Fernández-Guerra, Antoni; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2013-07-01

    Animals inhabiting cryptic environments are often subjected to morphological stasis due to the lack of obvious agents driving selection, and hence chemical cues may be important drivers of sexual selection and individual recognition. Here, we provide a comparative analysis of de novo-assembled transcriptomes in two Mediterranean earthworm species with the objective to detect pheromone proteins and other reproductive genes that could be involved in cryptic speciation processes, as recently characterized in other earthworm species. cDNA libraries of unspecific tissue of Hormogaster samnitica and three different tissues of H. elisae were sequenced in an Illumina Genome Analyzer II or Hi-Seq. Two pheromones, Attractin and Temptin were detected in all tissue samples and both species. Attractin resulted in a reliable marker for phylogenetic inference. Temptin contained multiple paralogs and was slightly overexpressed in the digestive tissue, suggesting that these pheromones could be released with the casts. Genes involved in sexual determination and fertilization were highly expressed in reproductive tissue. This is thus the first detailed analysis of the molecular machinery of sexual reproduction in earthworms.

  13. Fauna Europaea: Annelida - Terrestrial Oligochaeta (Enchytraeidae and Megadrili), Aphanoneura and Polychaeta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rota, E.; de Jong, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The

  14. A Fluorescent Marking and Re-count Technique Using the Invasive Earthworm, Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelida: Oligochaeta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez; Elianid Espinoza; Zhigang Liu; Xiaoming. Zou

    2006-01-01

    We used a fluorescence technique to mark and re-count the invasive earthworm, Pontoscolex corethrurus from PVC tubes established in a forest and a recently abandoned pasture in Puerto Rico to test the effects of the labeling treatment on earthworm population survival over time. A fluorescent marker was injected into the earthworms in the middle third section of the...

  15. Freshwater oligochaetes (Oligochaeta, Clitellata, Annelida) of North Pribaikalye (East Siberia, Russia)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaygorodova, Irina A.; Verdonschot, Piet F.M.; KRAVTSOVA, Lyubov S.

    2014-01-01

    The oligochaete fauna of freshwater reservoirs and rivers in North Pribaikalye was investigated for the first time. In total, 38 oligochaete species were collected. Of these, 16 species belong to the subfamily Naidinae, 6 to Pristininae, and 10 to the 3 subfamilies of Tubificidae. In addition, 5 species belonging to Enchytraeidae and 1 widespread species belonging to the family Lumbriculidae, Lumbriculus variegatus, were collected.

  16. Freshwater oligochaetes (Oligochaeta, Clitellata, Annelida) of North Pribaikalye (East Siberia, Russia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaygorodova, I.A.; Kravtsova, L.S.

    2012-01-01

    The oligochaete fauna of freshwater reservoirs and rivers in North Pribaikalye was investigated for the first time. In total, 38 oligochaete species were collected. Of these, 16 species belong to the subfamily Naidinae, 6 to Pristininae, and 10 to the 3 subfamilies of Tubificidae. In addition, 5

  17. Neuronal and non-neuronal Trk neurotrophin receptor-like proteins in Eisenia foetida (Annelida Oligochaeta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucini, C; Castaldo, L; Lamanna, C; Maruccio, L; Vega, J A; Gargiulo, G

    1999-02-19

    The occurrence and distribution of Trk proteins, which are the high-affinity signal-transducing receptors for neurotrophins, have been investigated in earthworms (Eisenia foetida) using polyclonal antibodies which map within their catalytic domain. Western-blot analysis identified major protein bands whose estimated molecular masses were consistent with those of the full-length Trk proteins in vertebrates. Specific immunoreactivity for TrkA-, TrkB-, and TrkC-like was observed in neuronal populations of the dorsal cerebral, subpharyngeal and ventral cord ganglia. Furthermore, TrkA-like immunoreactivity was observed in subcutaneous neurons and nerve fibers between muscle layers in the peripheral nervous system. TrkB- and TrkC-like immunoreactivity was observed in the gut innervation. Non-neuronal expression of TrkB and TrkC proteins was found in epidermal cells, and TrkC-like immunoreactivity was detected in the gut epithelium.

  18. Combined toxicity of cadmium and lead on the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Annelida, Oligochaeta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Liu, Zhengtao; Xu, Yun; Li, Dingsheng; Li, Mei

    2012-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in soil have received extensive attention due to their potential toxicological effects. This study analyzed the combined toxicity of Cd and Pb on the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Cellulase activity and DNA damage were chosen as toxic endpoints. Factorial analysis was applied to identify the interaction of Cd and Pb. The results showed that single Pb and Cd could increase the cellulase activity and DNA damage of coelomocytes. The combination of both metals could significantly inhibit cellulase activity. For low Cd concentration, the addition of Pb could increase the DNA damage. However, for high Cd concentration, Pb could decrease the DNA damage. Factorial analysis showed that the changes of Cd concentrations exerted the highest influence on the combined toxicity, followed by factor "Cd*Pb" and "Pb". The combined toxicological effects between Cd and Pb were complex, which might be influenced by the competition adsorption of both metals in soil and biomembrane and their bioavailability. The results of this study are useful for understanding of combined toxicity of Cd and Pb on terrestrial invertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Localization and characterization of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the body of the earthworm Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta, Annelida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Hanna B F; Mateus, Samuel H; Ferreira, Laina C; Ribeiro, Cristiane C; Palumbo-Junior, Antonio; Domingos, Maria-Aparecida O; Cinelli, Leonardo P; Costa-Filho, Adilson; Nasciutti, Luiz E; Silva, Luiz-Claudio F

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the compartmental distribution of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (S-GAGs) in adults and their occurrence during the development of the earthworm Eisenia andrei. S-GAGs were extracted from the body of earthworms to identify their composition and the time of their appearance and disappearance in embryonic, newborn, juvenile, and adult earthworms. S-GAGs were also analyzed in earthworm tissue using histochemical metachromatic staining. Purified S-GAGs obtained from the whole body of adult earthworms were composed of chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS). In addition, an unknown, highly sulfated polysaccharide (HSP) was detected. In order to characterize specifically the S-GAG composition in the integument, earthworms were dissected and as much as possible of their viscera was removed. HS and CS were the predominant sulfated polysaccharides in the dissected integument, whereas in viscera, CS, HS and the HSP were found in proportions similar to those identified in the body. The qualitative S-GAG composition in juveniles was similar to that obtained from adult earthworms. CS was the predominant S-GAG in newborn earthworms, accompanied by lesser amounts of HS and by tiny amounts of the HSP. This study provides a detailed descriptive account of the pattern of S-GAG synthesis during development, and also the characterization of the tissue distribution of these compounds in the body of earthworms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Two new earthworm species (Oligochaeta: Annelida) of the Caribbean region of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis, Liliana V; Rangel-Ch, Orlando

    2015-06-19

    Two new earthworm species are described, Periscolex malibu sp. nov. (Rhinodrilidae) and Righiodrilus lebrijae sp. nov. (Glossoscolecidae). They were found in relicts of tropical dry forests surrounding wetlands in the southern department of Cesar, located near the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Periscolex malibu sp. nov. is close to P. fuhrmanni Michaelsen, 1913 by the position of both clitellum and tubercula pubertatis, but differs in the extension of the clitellum and in the presence of five pairs of spermathecae. Righiodrilus lebrijae sp. nov is close to R. paolettii Righi, 1984a by the extension of the clitellum, but differs in the extension of the tubercula pubertatis, the extension of the seminal vesicles, the position of the male pores, the arrangements of setae, and the shape of the spermathecae.

  1. Metagenomics of the Methane Ice Worm, Hesiocaeca methanicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, K. D.; Edsall, L.; Xin, W.; Head, S. R.; Gelbart, T.; Wood, A. M.; Gaasterland, T.

    2012-12-01

    The methane ice worm (Hesiocaeca methanicola) is a polychaete found on methane hydrate deposits for which there appears to be no publically available genomic or metagenomic data. Methane ice worms were collected in 2009 by the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible (543m depth; N 27:44.7526 W 91:13.3168). Next-generation sequencing (HiSeq2000) was applied to samples of tissue and gut contents. A subset of the assembled data (40M reads, randomly selected) was run through MG-RAST. Preliminary results for the gut content (1,269,153 sequences, average length 202 bp) indicated that 0.1% of the sequences contained ribosomal RNA genes with the majority (67%) classified as Bacteria, a relatively small per cent (1.4%) as Archae, and 31% as Eukaryota. Campylobacterales was the predominant order (14%), with unclassified (7.5%) and Desulfobacterales (4%) being the next dominant. Preliminary results for the worm tissue (2,716,461 sequences, average length 241 bp) indicated that the majority of sequences were Eukaryota (73%), with 256 sequences classified as phylum Annelida and 58% of those belonging to class Polychaeta. For the bacterial sequences obtained from the tissue samples, the predominant order was Actinomycetales (2.7%). For both the tissue and gut content samples, the majority of proteins were classified as clustering-based subsystems. This preliminary analysis will be compared to an assembly consisting of 40M of the highest quality reads.; methane ice worms on methane hydrate

  2. Worm It! (Videojuego)

    OpenAIRE

    Termenón Riera, Adrián

    2016-01-01

    Worm it! is an adaptation to the three dimensions of Worm World, a free software developed by Kevin Ng in 1993. Thus, it is a puzzle game in which it requires some ingenuity to be overcoming the different levels that compose . The application is aimed at people of all ages and runs on Android devices and computers with Windows 7 or later operating system. Worm it! es una adaptación a las tres dimensiones de Worm World, un software gratuito desarrollado por Kevin Ng en el año 1993. Así pues...

  3. Effects of Organic Pesticides on Enchytraeids (Oligochaeta in Agroecosystems: Laboratory and Higher-Tier Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Römbke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta, Annelida are often considered to be typical forestliving organisms, but they are regularly found in agroecosystems of the temperate regions of the world. Although less known than their larger relatives, the earthworms, these saprophagous organisms play similar roles in agricultural soils (but at a smaller scale, e.g., influencing soil structure and organic matter dynamics via microbial communities, and having a central place in soil food webs. Their diversity is rarely studied or often underestimated due to difficulties in distinguishing the species. New genetic techniques reveal that even in anthropogenically highly influenced soils, more than 10 species per site can be found. Because of their close contact with the soil pore water, a high ingestion rate and a thin cuticle, they often react very sensitively to a broad range of pesticides. Firstly we provide a short overview of the diversity and abundance of enchytraeid communities in agroecosystems. Afterwards, we explore the available data on enchytraeid sensitivity toward pesticides at different levels of biological organization, focusing on pesticides used in (mainly European agroecosystems. Starting with non-standardized studies on the effects of pesticides on the sub-individual level, we compile the results of standard laboratory tests performed following OECD and ISO guidelines as well as those of higher-tier studies (i.e., semi-field and field tests. The number of comparable test data is still limited, because tests with enchytraeids are not a regulatory requirement in the European Union. While focusing on the effects of pesticides, attention is also given to their interactions with environmental stressors (e.g., climate change. In conclusion, we recommend to increase the use of enchytraeids in pesticide risk assessment because of their diversity and functional importance as well as their increasingly simplified use in (mostly standardized tests at all levels

  4. Interactions between worms and malaria: good worms or bad worms ?

    OpenAIRE

    Nacher Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    International audience; ABSTRACT: In the past decade, there has been an increasing number of studies on co-infections between worms and malaria. However, this increased interest has yielded results that have been at times conflicting and made it difficult to clearly grasp the outcome of this interaction. Despite the heterogeneity of study designs, reviewing the growing body of research may be synthesized into some broad trends: Ascaris emerges mostly as protective for malaria and its severe m...

  5. WormBase

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — WormBase is an international consortium of biologists and computer scientists dedicated to providing the research community with accurate, current, accessible...

  6. [Genetic aspects of species structure of the compost worm Eisenia foetida (Sav.) (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotetskiĭ, N M; Kodolova, O P

    2002-01-01

    Distribution of frequencies alleles of polymorphous loci of peroxidase (Pox), leucineaminopeptidase (Lap), phosphoglucomutase (Pgm) and octanoldehydrogenase (Odh) were studied by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel in 22 local samples of Esenia foetida in Russia (European part), Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Kirghizia. The samples form two spatial groups--"northern" and "southern", distinguished by set of alleles in every studied locus. The "northern" groups is formed by local populations of European Russia from Murmansk region on the north to Smolensk region on the south, and also by cultivated population of selection line "red California hybrid". The "southern" group is formed by local populations on the territory of Russia from middle Volga to the North Caucasus, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, cultivated populations from Kirghizia and Portugal. High degree of genetic difference between samples and independence of alleles frequencies distribution from geographical location and habitat allows to consider almost all studied groups as separate populations. Statistical processing of Nei genetic distances (Nei, 1972) revealed reliable differences between averages of within- and intergroup distances. Besides, discrete differences between intervals of significance of genetic distances were revealed. The results indicate that on the studied territory E. foetida has hierarchical two level structure. The first level is formed by local populations differed by frequency of the same alleles. The second level is formed by local populations, united into spatial groups, that are qualitatively distinguished by the set of alleles in the same loci.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Whitmania pigra (Annelida, Hirudinea): the first representative from the class Hirudinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xin; Wu, Zhigang; Sun, Ming'an; Ren, Jianfeng; Liu, Bin

    2011-06-01

    The mitochondrial genome is a significant tool for investigating the evolutionary history of metazoan animals. The currently available mitochondrial genome data in GenBank is limited to understand the detail evolutionary relationship among the metazoan animals, especially in the phylum Annelida. Here we present the mitochondrial gene organization, gene order and codon usage of the leech Whitmania pigra (Annelida), which is the first representative from the class Hirudinea. It is a circular molecule of 14,426bp, and encodes 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. All 37 genes of W. pigra mitochondrial genome are transcribed from the same strand, which is identical to studied annelids, two echiurans, two sipunculans and many other lophotrochozoans. Five conserved gene clusters can be found in mitochondrial genomes of nine studied annelids, including (1) cox1-N-cox2; (2) cox3-Q-nad6-cob-W-atp6; (3) H-nad5-F-E-P-T-nad4L-nad4; (4) srRNA-V-lrRNA; and (5) nad3-S(1)-nad2. Compared with that of other studied annelids, translocations of transfer RNAs were found in the gene arrangement of W. pigra mitochondrial genome. Phylogenetic analysis strongly support that the species from Hirudinina and Oligochaeta form a monophyletic group Clitellata (BPM=100, BPP=100), which is consistent with previous research based on morphological and other molecular data. Both gene order data and amino acid sequences reveal that echiurans are derived annelids and sipunculans should be clustered with annelids and echiurans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae)of Wyoming, USA, Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This survey of the earthworms from 22 of the 23 counties of Wyoming recorded 13 species of terrestrial Oligochaeta, all members of the family Lumbricidae. One of these species, Aporrectodea limicola, is reported for the first time from the state. Current nomenclature is applied to historical records...

  9. First record of Dero (Aulophorus bimagnasetus Harman (Oligochaeta from Brazil and habitat characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Campitelli-Ramos

    Full Text Available Annelid worms represent a significant part of freshwater benthic communities worldwide and Oligochaeta is a particularly species-rich group. Dero (A bimagnasetus (Naididae previously found and described from a small marsh in Surinam in 1974, has now been found for the first time in Barra Lake, MG, Brazil. Due to the scarce biological data and absence of ecological information in the literature regarding this species we are presenting morphological information on the specimens obtained and the physical and chemical characteristics of the habitat they were found. This species occurred only in the littoral zone of Barra Lake, in muddy, low oxygen, low conductivity and low organic matter sediment. The four individuals collected ranged 3.17-4.15 mm total length; 0.25 - 0.26 mm body width and 0.16-0.21 mm3 total volume. Considering the present anthropic pressures on freshwater biota and fast biodiversity losses worldwide it is now recognized that attention must be paid to low abundance species and the urgency for preservation of their habitats.

  10. Concept, Characteristics and Defending Mechanism of Worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong; Luo, Jiaqing; Xiao, Bin; Wei, Guiyi

    Worms are a common phenomenon in today's Internet and cause tens of billions of dollars in damages to businesses around the world each year. This article first presents various concepts related to worms, and then classifies the existing worms into four types- Internet worms, P2P worms, email worms and IM (Instant Messaging) worms, based on the space in which a worm finds a victim target. The Internet worm is the focus of this article. We identify the characteristics of Internet worms in terms of their target finding strategy, propagation method and anti-detection capability. Then, we explore state-of-the-art worm detection and worm containment schemes. This article also briefly presents the characteristics, defense methods and related research work of P2P worms, email worms and IM worms. Nowadays, defense against worms remains largely an open problem. In the end of this article, we outline some future directions on the worm research.

  11. Evolution of Scale Worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Brett Christopher

    ) caves, and the interstitium, recovering six monophyletic clades within Aphroditiformia: Acoetidae, Aphroditidae, Eulepethidae, Iphionidae, Polynoidae, and Sigalionidae (inclusive of the former ‘Pisionidae’ and ‘Pholoidae’), respectively. Tracing of morphological character evolution showed a high degree...... of adaptability and convergent evolution between relatively closely related scale worms. While some morphological and behavioral modifications in cave polynoids reflected troglomorphism, other modifications like eye loss were found to stem from a common ancestor inhabiting the deep sea, further corroborating...... the deep sea ancestry of scale worm cave fauna. In conclusion, while morphological characterization across Aphroditiformia appears deceptively easy due to the presence of elytra, convergent evolution during multiple early radiations across wide ranging habitats have confounded our ability to reconstruct...

  12. Development and embryonic pattern of body wall musculature in the crassiclitellate Eisenia andrei (Annelida, Clitellata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnekuhl, Vera S; Bergter, Annette; Purschke, Günter; Paululat, Achim

    2009-09-01

    During early development of Eisenia andrei (Crassiclitellata), a loose arrangement of primary circular and longitudinal muscles encloses the whole embryo. Circular muscles differentiate in an anterior-posterior progression creating a segmental pattern. Primary circular muscles emerge at the segmental borders while later in development the central part of each segment is filled with circular strands. Longitudinal muscles develop in an anterio-posterior manner as well, but by continuous lengthening. Muscle growth is not restricted by segmental boundaries. The development begins with one pair of prominent longitudinal muscles differentiating ventrally along the right and the left germ band. These first muscles provide a guiding structure for the parallel organization of the afterwards differentiating longitudinal musculature. Additional primary longitudinal muscles emerge and form, together with the initial circular muscles, the primary muscle grid of the embryo. During the following development, secondary longitudinal muscle strands develop and integrate themselves into the primary grid. Meanwhile the primary circular muscles split into thin strands in a ventral to dorsal progression. Thus, a fine structured mesh of circular and longitudinal muscles is generated. Compared to other "Oligochaeta", embryonic muscle patterns in E. andrei are adapted to the development of a lecithotrophic embryo. Nevertheless, two general characteristics of annelid muscle development become evident. The first is the segmental development of the circular muscles from a set of initial muscles situated at the segment borders. Second, there is a continuous development of primary longitudinal muscles starting at the anterior pole. At least one pair of main primary longitudinal strands is characteristic in Annelida. The space between all primary strands is filled with secondary longitudinal strands during further development. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Polymorphic Worms Collection in Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Shahin, Ashraf A.

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, computer worms are seen as one of significant challenges of cloud computing. Worms are rapidly changing and getting more sophisticated to evade detection. One major issue to defend against computer worms is collecting worms' payloads to generate their signature and study their behavior. To collect worms' payloads, we identified challenges for detecting and collecting worms' payloads and proposed high-interactive honeypot to collect payloads of zero-day polymorphic worms...

  14. COMPARATIVE ANALYSES OF MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS IN SPHAERODORIDAE AND ALLIES (ANNELIDA REVEALED BY AN INTEGRATIVE MICROSCOPICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad eHelm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sphaerodoridae is a group of benthic marine worms (Annelida characterized by the presence of spherical tubercles covering their whole surface. They are commonly considered as belonging to Phyllodocida although sistergroup relationships are still far from being understood. Primary homology assessment of their morphological features are lacking, hindering the appraisal of evolutionary relationships between taxa. Therefore, our detailed morphological investigation focuses on different Sphaerodoridae as well as on other members of Phyllodocida using an integrative approach combining scanning electron microscopy (SEM as well as immunohistochemistry with standard neuronal (anti-5-HT and muscular (phalloidin-rhodamine markers and subsequent CLSM analysis of whole mounts and sections. Furthermore, we provide histological (HES and light microscopical data to shed light on the structures and hypothetical function of sphaerodorid key morphological features. We provide fundamental details into the sphaerodorid morphology supporting a Phyllodocida ancestry of these enigmatic worms. However, the muscular arrangement and the presence of an axial muscular pharynx is similar to conditions observed in other members of the Errantia too. Furthermore, nervous system and muscle staining as well as SEM and histological observations of different types of tubercles indicate a homology of the so called microtubercles, present in the long-bodied sphaerodorids, to the dorsal cirri of other Errantia. The macrotubercles seem to represent a sphaerodorid autapomorphy based on our investigations. Therefore, our results allow comparisons concerning morphological patterns between Sphaerodoridae and other Phyllodocida and constitute a starting point for further comparative investigations to reveal the evolution of the remarkable Sphaerodoridae.

  15. Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelida: Oligochaeta) indicador de la calidad del suelo en sitios de Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtacea) con manejo tumba y quema Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelidae: Oligochaeta) soil quality indicator in Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtacea) sites with slash and burn management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheila Uribe; Esperanza Huerta; Violette Geissen; Manuel Mendoza; Godoy Roberto; Aarón Jarquín

    2012-01-01

    La presencia de oligoquetos en los ecosistemas puede indicar fertilidad del suelo, ya que estos organismos transportan, mezclan y entierran los residuos vegetales de la superficie al interior del suelo. Se caracterizó...

  16. Densidad estacional y distribución vertical de los Enchytraeidae (Annelida: Oligochaeta en diferentes sistemas de producción Seasonal density and vertical distribution of Enchytraeidae (Annelida: Oligochaeta in different production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Noemí López

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En el sudeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires existe escasa información sobre la actividad de los enquitreidos en diferentes sistemas de producción. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron determinar: a la importancia relativa de los enquitreidos dentro de la mesofauna; b su densidad estacional en relación con el grado de disturbio de los sistemas y c su distribución vertical. Este trabajo se realizó estacionalmente desde 1998 a 2001 en Balcarce, Argentina (37º 45'S, 58º 18'W, en cuatro lotes experimentales: natural (NAT, ganadero orgánico (GO, ganadero intensivo (GI y agrícola convencional (AC y en un suelo Argiudol Típico (NAT y Hapludol Tapto-Árgico (AC, GI y GO. Dentro de la comunidad mesofaunal, los enquitreidos fueron los más abundantes. GO (78 % y GI (68.5 % tuvieron un porcentaje menor que los sistemas más disturbado, AC (84.9 % y sin disturbios, NAT (93 %. El estudio comparativo de la densidad mostró interacción significativas entre sistemas y estación (p In the Southeastern of Buenos Aires Province little information exists on activity of enchytraeids under different production systems. The aims of this work were to determine: a the relative importance of enchytraeids among the components of the mesofaunal community; b the relationship between seasonal enchytraeids density (PD in different production systems, and c identify of pattern vertical distribution .This work was done seasonally from 1998 to 2001, on four experimental plots: natural (NAT, organic livestock (GO, intensive fertilization livestock (GI and conventional agriculture (AC at Balcarce, Argentina (37º 45'S, 58º 18'W, on soil Typic Argiudol (NAT and a Hapludol Tapto Árgico (AC, GI y GO. Enchytraeids were the most abundant in the mesofaunal community; GO (78% and GI (68,5% to supported a minor average those agroecosystems under intensive cultivation (84,9% and undisturbed soils NAT (93%. The comparative study showed significant interaction between site and season (p< 0.05 in PD. In general, GO, GI and AC average density were highest during autumn-winter than spring-summer (PD values ranged between 2476-10926 ind m-2 to 1922-0 ind m-2 in GO, 3740-2764 ind m-2 to 165-2 ind m-2 in GI and 8596-4022 ind m-2 to 4185-544 ind m-2 in AC. It was found the same in NAT (2000-2001 whereas there was not significant differences in 1999 between winter and summer. Enchytraeids were more superficially distributed (10 cm in natural grassland (NAT and in arable soil (AC than in cultivated pastures GO and GI (10-30 cm.

  17. Modal Analysis of Worm and Worm Gear Based on ANSYS Workbench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yichang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish the three-dimensional model of the worm and worm gear by using SolidWorks. On the worm and worm gear modal analysis is carried out by using finite element analysis software ANSYS Workbench. Obtain the first 6 order natural frequency and vibration mode characteristics of worm and worm gear. Modal analysis laid the foundation for further study on dynamics analysis, Also for the worm and worm gear structure optimization design provides a reference.

  18. Evolution of mitochondrial gene order in Annelida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigert, Anne; Golombek, Anja; Gerth, Michael; Schwarz, Francine; Struck, Torsten H; Bleidorn, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Annelida is a highly diverse animal group with over 21,000 described species. As part of Lophotrochozoa, the vast majority of annelids are currently classified into two groups: Errantia and Sedentaria, together forming Pleistoannelida. Besides these taxa, Sipuncula, Amphinomidae, Chaetopteridae, Oweniidae and Magelonidae can be found branching at the base of the tree. Comparisons of mitochondrial genomes have been used to investigate phylogenetic relationship within animal taxa. Complete annelid mitochondrial genomes are available for some Sedentaria and Errantia and in most cases exhibit a highly conserved gene order. Only two complete genomes have been published from the basal branching lineages and these are restricted to Sipuncula. We describe the first complete mitochondrial genome sequences for all other basal branching annelid families: Owenia fusiformis (Oweniidae), Magelona mirabilis (Magelonidae), Eurythoe complanata (Amphinomidae), Chaetopterus variopedatus and Phyllochaetopterus sp. (Chaetopteridae). The mitochondrial gene order of all these taxa is substantially different from the pattern found in Pleistoannelida. Additionally, we report the first mitochondrial genomes in Annelida that encode genes on both strands. Our findings demonstrate that the supposedly highly conserved mitochondrial gene order suggested for Annelida is restricted to Pleistoannelida, representing the ground pattern of this group. All investigated basal branching annelid taxa show a completely different arrangement of genes than observed in Pleistoannelida. The gene order of protein coding and ribosomal genes in Magelona mirabilis differs only in two transposition events from a putative lophotrochozoan ground pattern and might be the closest to an ancestral annelid pattern. The mitochondrial genomes of Myzostomida show the conserved pattern of Pleistoannelida, thereby supporting their inclusion in this taxon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Elucidating the Life History and Ecological Aspects of Allodero hylae (Annelida: Clitellata: Naididae), A Parasitic Oligochaete of Invasive Cuban Tree Frogs in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jessee M; Childress, Jasmine N; Iakovidis, Triantafilos J; Langford, Gabriel J

    2015-06-01

    Given their ubiquitous nature, it is surprising that more oligochaete annelid worms (Annelida: Clitellata) have not adopted an endoparasitic lifestyle. Exceptions, however, are the understudied members of the genus Dero (Allodero) that parasitize the ureters of tree frogs and toads. This study experimentally explores the life cycle and host specificity of Allodero hylae, the worm's use of chemical cues in host searching, and its seasonal prevalence and abundance over a year-long collection period on the Florida Southern College campus. A total of 2,005 A. hylae was collected from the ureter, urinary bladder, or expressed urine of wild Osteopilus septentrionalis ; a significant positive correlation was found between host snout-vent length and parasite intensity for female but not male hosts. Monthly prevalence of A. hylae reached a peak of 58% in April, but never dropped below 20% in any month; mean abundance peaked March-May, whereas few worms were recovered in December and January. Confirming a parasitic lifestyle, wild-collected hosts with intense infections, typically >40 worms, showed obvious dilatation of the ureter wall, and some young-of-the-year O. septentrionalis exposed to A. hylae in the laboratory were killed by the apparent rupture of the host's ureter. The worm has a direct life cycle: worms expelled in the host's urine are capable of locating and re-infecting other hosts within aquatic microhabitats such as bromeliad tanks, and worms can survive for weeks in a free-living environment, even undergoing a morphological change. Further, chemotaxis assays found a positive response to a tree frog attractant for worms recently removed from hosts. Overall, this study provides the first multifaceted investigation on the life history and ecology of any Allodero spp., which offers new insights into an understudied endoparasitic oligochaete.

  20. Distribution of bacteria and fungi in the earthworm Libyodrillus violaceous (Annelida: Oligochaeta, a native earthworm from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B Idowu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are soil invertebrates that play a key role in recycling organic matter in soils.In Nigeria, earthworms include Libyodrillus violaceous. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial counts, as well as fungal counts of viable microorganisms in soils and gut sections, were made on twenty L. violaceous collected from different sites on the campus of the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. The samples were collected between April and November, 2002. Numbers of microorganisms were higher in castings and gut sections than in uningested soil samples. The guts and their contents also had higher moisture and total nitrogen contents than the uningested soils. Bacteria and fungi isolated from the samples were identified by standard microbiological procedures on the bases of their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Isolated bacteria were identified as Staphylococcus, Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans, Clostridium, Spirocheata spp., Azotobacter spp., Micrococcus lylae, Acinetobacter spp., Halobacterium for bacteria. Yeast isolates were identified as Candida spp., Zygosaccharomyces spp., Pichia spp., and Saccharomyces spp while molds were identified as, Aspergillus spp., Pytium spp., Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp and Rhizopus spp. Of the five locations examined, the refuse dump area had the highest numbers of both aerobic and anaerobic organisms, followed by the arboretum while the cultivated land area recorded the lowest counts. The higher numbers of microorganisms observed in the gut sections and casts of the earthworms examined in this work reinforce the general concept that the gut and casts of earthworms show higher microbial diversity and activity than the surrounding soil. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (1: 49-58. Epub 2006 Mar 31.

  1. POBLACIÓN DE LOMBRICES (Oligochaeta:Annelida EN UNA FINCA CON BOVINOS LECHEROS, EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Boschini-Figueroa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se efectuó entre setiembre y octubre del 2006 en la Estación Experimental Alfredo Volio Ma ta (EEA VM ubicada en Ca rtago a 1.542 msnm, con precipi tación media anual de 2.050 mm, temperatura media de 19,5 ºC y humedad relativa de 84%. Se determinó la distribución de la población y masa de lombrices por unidad de área en una pastura de Estrella Africana (Cynodon nlemfuensis bajo condiciones de pastoreo rotativo intensivo con vacas lecheras. Las áreas fueron 28 potreros de suelo Andisol (Typic Distrandepts de los que se obtuvie ron cuatro muestras de 0,25 m2 de área por 10 cm de profundidad. Se contabilizó el número de lombrices. El materia l remanente se analizó para materia orgánica por los métodos de desecación y titulación. Se evaluaron las diferencia s entre las áreas de pastoreo. Se presentó en promedio 170,7 lombrices/m2 y una biomasa de 58,01 g/ m2 (0,414 g/lombriz. La cantidad de lombrices y de biomasa por unidad de área fue 100

  2. Populações de oligoquetos (Annelida: Oligochaeta em um Latossolo Vermelho submetido a sistemas de uso do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Rogério Ferreira da

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a dinâmica da população de oligoquetos edáficos em sistemas de manejo agrícola e pecuário, tendo, como referência, uma área sob vegetação nativa. O trabalho foi conduzido no município de Dourados, MS, num solo classificado como Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico, sob sistema com preparo convencional (SC, plantio direto (SPD, integração lavoura/pecuária (SILP, pastagem contínua (PC e sistema natural (SN. As amostragens foram realizadas nas safras de verão e inverno, no período de 2000 a 2003. Os sistemas SPD, SILP e PC favoreceram o desenvolvimento e estabelecimento da população dos oligoquetos edáficos. O sistema natural apresentou uma alta população de oligoquetos edáficos, sendo a grande maioria constituída pelos organismos da família Enchytraeidae. Dentre os sistemas produtivos, o SPD favoreceu a ocorrência dessa família.

  3. Influence of Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) and Tubifex tubifex (Annelida, Oligochaeta) on oxygen uptake by sediments. Consequences of uranium contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagauzere, S. [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache 186, BP 3, F-13115 Cedex, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)], E-mail: lagauzere@gmail.com; Pischedda, L.; Cuny, P. [Laboratoire de Microbiologie, Geochimie et Ecologie Marines, UMR 6117 CNRS/COM/Universite de la Mediterranee, Campus de Luminy, Case 901, F-13288 Cedex 09, Marseille (France); Gilbert, F. [EcoLab, Laboratoire d' Ecologie Fonctionnelle, UMR 5245 CNRS/INP/Universite Paul Sabatier, 29 Rue Jeanne Marvig, F-31055 Cedex 4, Toulouse (France); Stora, G. [Laboratoire de Microbiologie, Geochimie et Ecologie Marines, UMR 6117 CNRS/COM/Universite de la Mediterranee, Campus de Luminy, Case 901, F-13288 Cedex 09, Marseille (France); Bonzom, J.-M. [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache 186, BP 3, F-13115 Cedex, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2009-04-15

    The diffusive oxygen uptake (DOU) of sediments inhabited by Chironomus riparius and Tubifex tubifex was investigated using a planar oxygen optode device, and complemented by measurements of bioturbation activity. Additional experiments were performed within contaminated sediments to assess the impact of uranium on these processes. After 72 h, the two invertebrate species significantly increased the DOU of sediments (13-14%), and no temporal variation occurred afterwards. Within contaminated sediments, it was already 24% higher before the introduction of the organisms, suggesting that uranium modified the sediment biogeochemistry. Although the two species firstly reacted by avoidance of contaminated sediment, they finally colonized it. Their bioturbation activity was reduced but, for T. tubifex, it remained sufficient to induce a release of uranium to the water column and an increase of the DOU (53%). These results highlight the necessity of further investigations to take into account the interactions between bioturbation, microbial metabolism and pollutants. - This study highlights the ecological importance of bioturbation in metal-contaminated sediments.

  4. Darwin’s earthworms (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Megadrilacea with review of cosmopolitan Metaphire peguana–species group from Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blakemore, R.J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A chance visit to Darwin allowed inspection of and addition to Northern Territory (NT Museum’s earthworm collection. Native Diplotrema zicsii sp. nov. from Alligator River, Kakadu NP is described. Town samples were dominated by cosmopolitan exotic Metaphire bahli (Gates, 1945 herein keyed and compared morpho-molecularly with M. peguana (Rosa, 1890 requiring revision of allied species including Filipino Pheretima philippina (Rosa, 1891, P. p. lipa and P. p. victorias sub-spp. nov. A new P. philippina-group now replaces the dubia-group of Sims & Easton, 1972 and Amynthas carinensis (Rosa, 1890 further replaces their sieboldi-group. Lumbricid Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826 and Glossoscolecid Pontoscolex corethrurus (Müller, 1857 are confirmed introductions to the NT. mtDNA barcodes newly include Metaphire houlleti (Perrier, 1872 and Polypheretima elongata (Perrier, 1872 spp.-complexes from the Philippines. Pithemera philippinensis James & Hong, 2004 and Pi. glandis Hong & James, 2011 are new synonyms of Pi. bicincta (Perrier, 1875 that is common in Luzon. Vietnamese homonym Pheretima thaii Nguyen, 2011 (non P. thaii Hong & James, 2011 is replaced with Pheretima baii nom. nov. Two new Filipino taxa are also described: Pleionogaster adya sp. nov. from southern Luzon and Pl. miagao sp. nov. from western Visayas.

  5. Analysis of FAME for two species of earthworms Allolobophora caliginosa Savigny and Pheretima hawayana Rosa (Annelida-Oligochaeta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam El-Din Mohamed Omar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of fatty acid (FA is one of the most commonly used tools for investigating microbial populations in ecological studies. Fatty acids can be extracted and esterified to form fatty acid methyl esters (FAME when analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, the resulting profile contains some microbial biomarkers. The aim of the present study to analysis FAME present in two species of earthworms exhibit the same environment. The thin layer chromatography of earthworm Allolobophora caliginosa Savigny showed three major spots corresponding to FAME while that of earthworm Pheretima hawayana Rosa showed two major spots. The GC-MS analysis of Allolobophora caliginosa Savigny extract showed the presence of at least 23 peaks, only two peaks were identified from their Rt and Ms spectrum, hexadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecenoic acid methyl ester. While the chromatogram of Pheretima hawayana Rosa extract showed at least 20 peaks, five of them were identified; butanedioic acid dimethyl ester, pentadecanoic acid 14-methyl ester, 2-hydroxy-hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, 9-octadecenoic acid methyl ester and octadecanoic acid methyl ester. In conclusion, in spite of the two species of earthworms from the same environment, but their content of FAME was different and that may explain why the biological activity of the whole body extract was different.

  6. Observation on Monocystis kuidongae sp. nov. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida) from an Indian earthworm Perionyx excavatus Perrier (Annelida: Oligochaeta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Partha; Bandyopadhyay, Probir K

    2017-06-01

    A survey to know the diversity of endoparasitic protozoan parasites of the earthworms of West Bengal, revealed a new species of the genus Monocystis Stein, 1848, that resides in the seminal vesicle of the earthworm Perionyx excavatus Perrier. Monocystis kuidongae sp. nov. is characterized by ovoidal gamonts (trophozoites) with inconspicuous mucron and measure 69.53-102.25 (86.29 ± 11.48) μm × 24.54-61.35 (35.17 ± 12.82) μm. Shape of the gametocysts are almost rounded and measure 81.80-110.43 (96.11 ± 8.85) μm in diameter. Oocysts are navicular with pointed ends and measure 11.55-12.32 (11.78 ± 0.36) µm × 5.00-5.77 (5.39 ± 0.25) µm.

  7. New species and records of the earthworm genus Ramiellona (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Acanthodrilidae) from southern Mexico and Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, Carlos; Rojas, Patricia

    2014-01-10

    Three new species from the Mexican states of Tabasco and Chiapas are added to the acanthodrilid earthworm genus Ramiellona, R. microscolecina sp. nov., R. tojolabala sp. nov. and R. teapaensis sp. nov. They belong to a group of species with penial setae and last pair of hearts in segment 12. All are holandric and the spermathecae have either a flat circular diverticle in a segment anterior to that of the ampulla (R. microscolecina sp. nov. and R. tojolabala sp. nov.) or two ovoidal and sessile diverticles on opposite sides in the same segment of the ampulla (R. teapaensis sp. nov.). Ramiellona americana (Gates) is re-described from a single specimen from central Guatemala, and the diagnosis of Ramiellona lasiura (Graff) from El Salvador is emended after reinvestigating a paratype specimen from the Senckenberg Naturmuseum Frankfurt. On the basis of several individuals from different populations of the Mexican states of Chiapas and Tabasco, the morphological variation of Ramiellona strigosa setosa Righi is described and its relationship with the Guatemalan Ramiellona strigosa strigosa Gates and Ramiellona eiseni (Michaelsen) is discussed. Finally, the position of Ramiellona within Acanthodrilidae and its relation to genera of the doubtful Octochaetidae is discussed.

  8. Comparative effects of Cd and Pb on biochemical response and DNA damage in the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Annelida, Oligochaeta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Liu, Zhengtao; Xu, Yun; Cui, Yibin; Li, Dingsheng; Kong, Zhiming

    2009-02-01

    There are rising concerns about the hazardous effects of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) on the environment in China. Biochemical and comet assays were conducted on the earthworm Eisenia fetida, a suitable bio-indicator organism for evaluating soil pollution after exposure to two heavy metals, Cd and Pb. Protein content increased at low Cd concentrations (pearthworm was more sensitive to the effects of Cd.

  9. Observation on Nematocystis kailashi sp. nov. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida) from an Indian earthworm Glyphidrilus tuberosus Stephenson (Annelida: Oligochaeta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Partha; Bandyopadhyay, Prabir K

    Surveys on aseptate gregarines in earthworm hosts in different districts of West Bengal state of India revealed the existence of one new species of aseptate gregarine of the genus Nematocystis Hesse, 1909 have been identified from the seminal vesicles of the earthworm, Glyphidrilus tuberosus Stephenson, 1916 in the district of Purba Midnapur, West Bengal of India. Gamonts of the organism are very much elongated, cylindrical, nematoid and without mucron. The terminal end adjacent to the nucleus rounded and the distal end pointed. The gamonts measure 846.45-1031.13 (931.86±70.48) μm in length and 18.40-20.45 (19.43±1.05) μm in width. Nucleus elongated or depressed elliptoid, measures 53.17-63.39 (60.33±3.28) μm in length and 13.29-16.36 (14.15±0.89) μm in width. The gametocysts are slightly ovoid, measuring 110.43-120.65 (114.31±3.44) μm in diameter. Oocysts navicular and measure 9.24-10.39 (9.78±0.40) μm×5.77-6.16 (6.04±0.18) μm. Based on critical analysis and comparison with earlier reported species, the species under discussion established as new one.

  10. Genetic variation in the popular lab worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Annelida: Clitellata: Lumbriculidae) reveals cryptic speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Daniel R; Price, David A; Erséus, Christer

    2009-05-01

    Genetic variation in the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus from Europe, North America and Japan was studied by sequencing and analysing the mitochondrial 16S and COI genes, and the nuclear ITS region. What hitherto has been regarded as L. variegatus was found to consist of at least two distinct clades (I and II), both of which occur in Europe as well as North America (clade I also in Japan). Specimens from a single locality in Sierra Nevada, California, also morphologically identified as L. variegatus, represent a third clade, which appears to be more closely related to clade II than to clade I, based on 16S data only. Average COI genetic distances were 17.7% between clades I and II, 0.6% within clade I, and 1.3% within clade II. Further, for these two clades, the mitochondrial (16S and COI) gene trees, which consider only the maternal lineages, are congruent with the ITS gene tree, which is the result of recombinations of paternal as well as maternal genomes. Finally, chromosome counts revealed clade I specimens to be highly polyploid, and clade II specimens to be diploid. We therefore conclude that clades I-II are separately evolving lineages, and that they should be regarded as separate species. This will have to be taken into account in the continued use of L. variegatus as a model organism in biological sciences.

  11. A new Capitella polychaete worm (Annelida: Capitellidae) living inside whale bones in the abyssal South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Camila F.; Shimabukuro, Maurício; Alfaro-Lucas, Joan M.; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Sumida, Paulo Y. G.; Amaral, Antonia C. Z.

    2016-02-01

    A new species of the genus Capitella, Capitella iatapiuna sp. nov., has been found in deep sea whale-fall samples, São Paulo Ridge-Southwest Atlantic. The new species is mainly characterized by a bluntly rounded prostomium and a very distinct peristomium forming a complete ring. Ribosomal 16S sequences were obtained and used for inter-specific comparisons. This species is herein described and compared to others species of the genus. Its ecological role in the whale-fall community is also discussed.

  12. New Multi-step Worm Attack Model

    OpenAIRE

    Robiah, Y.; Rahayu, S. Siti; Shahrin, S.; Faizal, M. A.; Zaki, M. Mohd; Marliza, R.

    2010-01-01

    The traditional worms such as Blaster, Code Red, Slammer and Sasser, are still infecting vulnerable machines on the internet. They will remain as significant threats due to their fast spreading nature on the internet. Various traditional worms attack pattern has been analyzed from various logs at different OSI layers such as victim logs, attacker logs and IDS alert log. These worms attack pattern can be abstracted to form worms' attack model which describes the process of worms' infection. Fo...

  13. Analyzing Worms and Network Traffic using Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Wehner, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    Internet worms have become a widespread threat to system and network operations. In order to fight them more efficiently, it is necessary to analyze newly discovered worms and attack patterns. This paper shows how techniques based on Kolmogorov Complexity can help in the analysis of internet worms and network traffic. Using compression, different species of worms can be clustered by type. This allows us to determine whether an unknown worm binary could in fact be a later version of an existin...

  14. Checklist of the earthworm fauna of Croatia (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutuzović, Davorka Hackenberger; Kutuzović, Branimir Hackenberger

    2013-01-01

    A checklist of the Croatian earthworm fauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) is presented, including published records and authors' personal data. This is the first checklist for Croatia only, with comprehensive information for each earthworm species regarding ecological category, habitat, distribution type and distribution in Croatia. The currently known earthworm fauna of Croatia comprises 68 species belonging to 17 genera, with Octodrilus being the species-richest genus (15 species). Chorologically these species can be allocated to 13 different types of distribution. Nineteen species are endemic of which 10 species are endemic to Croatia and 9 species are endemic to Croatia and neighbouring countries (Italy, Slovenia, Hungary, and Montenegro). The endemic earthworms are distributed in the areas of higher altitudes in the Continental and Alpine biogeographic region, mostly covered with forest or autochtonous vegetation.

  15. A close phylogenetic relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida evidenced from the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Phascolosoma esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xin; Ma, Xiaoyin; Ren, Jianfeng; Zhao, Fangqing

    2009-03-28

    There are many advantages to the application of complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes in the accurate reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in Metazoa. Although over one thousand metazoan genomes have been sequenced, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased, left with many phyla without a single representative of complete mitochondrial genome. Sipuncula (peanut worms or star worms) is a small taxon of worm-like marine organisms with an uncertain phylogenetic position. In this report, we present the mitochondrial genome sequence of Phascolosoma esculenta, the first complete mitochondrial genome of the phylum. The mitochondrial genome of P.esculenta is 15,494 bp in length. The coding strand consists of 32.1% A, 21.5% C, 13.0% G, and 33.4% T bases (AT = 65.5%; AT skew = -0.019; GC skew = -0.248). It contains thirteen protein-coding genes (PCGs) with 3,709 codons in total, twenty-two transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region (AT = 74.2%). All of the 37 identified genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand. Compared with the typical set of metazoan mt genomes, sipunculid lacks trnR but has an additional trnM. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses of the protein sequences show that Myzostomida, Sipuncula and Annelida (including echiurans and pogonophorans) form a monophyletic group, which supports a closer relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida than with Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and some other lophotrochozoan groups. This is the first report of a complete mitochondrial genome as a representative within the phylum Sipuncula. It shares many more similar features with the four known annelid and one echiuran mtDNAs. Firstly, sipunculans and annelids share quite similar gene order in the mitochondrial genome, with all 37 genes located on the same strand; secondly, phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated protein sequences also strongly support the sipunculan + annelid clade (including echiurans and pogonophorans). Hence

  16. A close phylogenetic relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida evidenced from the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Phascolosoma esculenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xin; Ma, Xiaoyin; Ren, Jianfeng; Zhao, Fangqing

    2009-01-01

    Background There are many advantages to the application of complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes in the accurate reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in Metazoa. Although over one thousand metazoan genomes have been sequenced, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased, left with many phyla without a single representative of complete mitochondrial genome. Sipuncula (peanut worms or star worms) is a small taxon of worm-like marine organisms with an uncertain phylogenetic position. In this report, we present the mitochondrial genome sequence of Phascolosoma esculenta, the first complete mitochondrial genome of the phylum. Results The mitochondrial genome of P.esculenta is 15,494 bp in length. The coding strand consists of 32.1% A, 21.5% C, 13.0% G, and 33.4% T bases (AT = 65.5%; AT skew = -0.019; GC skew = -0.248). It contains thirteen protein-coding genes (PCGs) with 3,709 codons in total, twenty-two transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region (AT = 74.2%). All of the 37 identified genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand. Compared with the typical set of metazoan mt genomes, sipunculid lacks trnR but has an additional trnM. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses of the protein sequences show that Myzostomida, Sipuncula and Annelida (including echiurans and pogonophorans) form a monophyletic group, which supports a closer relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida than with Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and some other lophotrochozoan groups. Conclusion This is the first report of a complete mitochondrial genome as a representative within the phylum Sipuncula. It shares many more similar features with the four known annelid and one echiuran mtDNAs. Firstly, sipunculans and annelids share quite similar gene order in the mitochondrial genome, with all 37 genes located on the same strand; secondly, phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated protein sequences also strongly support the sipunculan + annelid clade (including

  17. A close phylogenetic relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida evidenced from the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Phascolosoma esculenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Jianfeng

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are many advantages to the application of complete mitochondrial (mt genomes in the accurate reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in Metazoa. Although over one thousand metazoan genomes have been sequenced, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased, left with many phyla without a single representative of complete mitochondrial genome. Sipuncula (peanut worms or star worms is a small taxon of worm-like marine organisms with an uncertain phylogenetic position. In this report, we present the mitochondrial genome sequence of Phascolosoma esculenta, the first complete mitochondrial genome of the phylum. Results The mitochondrial genome of P.esculenta is 15,494 bp in length. The coding strand consists of 32.1% A, 21.5% C, 13.0% G, and 33.4% T bases (AT = 65.5%; AT skew = -0.019; GC skew = -0.248. It contains thirteen protein-coding genes (PCGs with 3,709 codons in total, twenty-two transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region (AT = 74.2%. All of the 37 identified genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand. Compared with the typical set of metazoan mt genomes, sipunculid lacks trnR but has an additional trnM. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses of the protein sequences show that Myzostomida, Sipuncula and Annelida (including echiurans and pogonophorans form a monophyletic group, which supports a closer relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida than with Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and some other lophotrochozoan groups. Conclusion This is the first report of a complete mitochondrial genome as a representative within the phylum Sipuncula. It shares many more similar features with the four known annelid and one echiuran mtDNAs. Firstly, sipunculans and annelids share quite similar gene order in the mitochondrial genome, with all 37 genes located on the same strand; secondly, phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated protein sequences also strongly support the sipunculan + annelid

  18. Zoology: War of the Worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Maximilian J; Copley, Richard R

    2016-04-25

    The phylogenetic affinities of Xenacoelomorpha - the phylum comprising Xenoturbella bocki and acoelomorph worms - are debated. Two recent studies conclude they represent the earliest branching bilaterally symmetrical animals, but additional tests may be needed to confirm this notion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Guinea Worm in a Frog

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-03-09

    Dr. Mark Eberhard, a retired parasitologist and CDC guest researcher, discusses Guinea worm infection in a wild-caught frog.  Created: 3/9/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/9/2017.

  20. A Novel Approach to Worm Detection Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Saawy, Yazed B.; Siewe, Francois; Cau, A. (Antonio)

    2015-01-01

    Computer worms are a type of malicious malware that prey on networked machines. A number of different detection mechanisms have been presented in the literature to detect worms. However, a common drawback of these mechanisms is that any failure to detect the worms results in damaging the real machines. This study proposes a new approach to detection that goes beyond the currently available signature and behavior-based approaches. In contrast to the traditional worm detect...

  1. Detection of worms in error diffusion halftoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Marius; Albregtsen, Fritz; Hardeberg, Jon Yngve

    2009-01-01

    Digital halftoning is used to reproduce a continuous tone image with a printer. One of these halftoning algorithms, error diffusion, suffers from certain artifacts. One of these artifacts is commonly denoted as worms. We propose a simple measure for detection of worm artifacts. The proposed measure is evaluated by a psychophysical experiment, where 4 images were reproduced using 5 different error diffusion algorithms. The results indicate a high correlation between the predicted worms and perceived worms.

  2. Behaviour Based Worm Detection and Signature Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Anbar; Selvakumar Manickam; Al-Samarraie Hosam; Kok-Soon Chai; Mohmoud Baklizi; Ammar Almomani

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: A worm is a malicious piece of code that self-propagates, often via network connections, to exploit security flaws in computers connected through the network. In general, worms do not need any human intervention to propagate and are considered a real threat to network assets and the properties of organizations. An Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) are employed to detect the presence of the worms in the network. Approach: This study proposed a new behaviourbased worm detect...

  3. Defense and detection strategies against Internet worms

    CERN Document Server

    Nazario, José

    2004-01-01

    This is the first book focused exclusively on Internet worms, offering you solid worm detection and mitigation strategies for your work in the field. This ground-breaking volume enables you to put rising worm trends into perspective with practical information in detection and defense techniques utilizing data from live networks, real IP addresses, and commercial tools. The book helps you understand the classifications and groupings of worms, and offers a deeper understanding of how they threaten network and system security.

  4. Effect of repeated freeze-thaw cycles on geographically different populations of the freeze-tolerant worm Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisker, Karina Vincents; Holmstrup, Martin; Malte, Hans; Overgaard, Johannes

    2014-11-01

    Freeze-tolerant organisms survive internal ice formation; however, the adaptations to repeated freeze-thaw cycles are often not well investigated. Here we report how three geographically different populations of Enchytraeus albidus (Germany, Iceland and Svalbard) respond to three temperature treatments - constant thawed (0°C), constant freezing (-5°C) and fluctuating temperature (0 to -5°C) - over a period of 42 days. Survival varied between treatments and populations such that enchytraeids from arctic locations had a higher survival following prolonged freeze periods compared with temperate populations. However, enchytraeids from temperate locations had the same survival rate as arctic populations when exposed to repeated freeze-thaw events. Across all populations, metabolic rate decreased markedly in frozen animals (-5°C) compared with thawed controls (0°C). This decrease is likely due to the lower temperature of frozen animals, but also to the transition to the frozen state per se. Animals exposed to repeated freeze-thaw events had an intermediate metabolic rate and freeze-thaw events were not associated with pronounced excess energetic costs. Overwintering under either condition was not associated with a decrease in lipid content; however, during exposure to constant freezing and repeated freeze-thaw events there was a noticeable decrease in carbohydrate stores over time. Thus, animals exposed to constant freezing showed a decrease in glycogen stores, while both glucose and glycogen content decreased over time when the organisms were exposed to repeated freezing. The results therefore suggest that carbohydrate resources are important as a fuel for E. albidus during freezing whereas lipid resources are of marginal importance. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Chironomidae and Oligochaeta for water quality evaluation in an urban river in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Beatriz Jabour Figueiraujo Vescovi; Rodrigues, Luciana Falci Theza; de Oliveira, Gilmar Simões; da Gama Alves, Roberto

    2014-11-01

    Considering the importance of benthic macroinvertebrates for diagnosis of variations in the ecological conditions of aquatic habitats, the aim of this study was to investigate the structure of the Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblages along an organic pollution gradient. The fauna specimens were obtained with the use of artificial substrates, and the environmental variables were recorded at five sites of the São Lourenço River, during 12 months. Metrics of the assemblage and detrended correspondence analysis were used to verify the response of the fauna to the pollution gradient. Procrustes analysis was used to verify whether the data on the Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblages, as well as the taxonomic and numerical resolution of these groups, provide similar results in relation to the pollution gradient. The richness, evenness, and taxonomic composition of the Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblages varied significantly among the collection sites, with distinct conservation conditions. Genera of the subfamilies Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae were associated with the sites upstream of the urban area, where the dissolved oxygen levels are higher. Species of Oligochaeta and the genus Chironomus were associated with more organically polluted sites. No concordance was observed in the response of the Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblages in relation to the environmental variables, indicating the need to use both groups in biomonitoring studies. On the other hand, both the data on composition (presence or absence) and those on the lowest taxonomic resolution (abundance of subfamilies) were effective to diagnose the pollution gradient in the river studied. Therefore, when the environmental conditions along a river's gradient are contrasting, we suggest the use of the lowest taxonomic resolution of Chironomidae and Oligochaeta in biomonitoring. That procedure considerably reduces the assessment time, besides being a method that can be used by people not

  6. [World Collections of Parasitic Worms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinovieva, S V; Butorina, N N; Udalova, Zh V; Khasanova, S; Filimonova, L V; Petrosyan, V G; Pel'gunov, A N

    2015-01-01

    This article provides information about the depositories of parasitic worms in the scientific institutes and museums in the United States, Japan, and Europe (the total number of samples and the availability of types of helminths from various classes), as well as information on the availability of electronic catalogues of the collections in the continental, national, and regional centers for collective use. The extent of this material has determined the necessity of creating digital collections and libraries that would represent a new form of storing, displaying, and exchanging information for scientific research. An analysis was performed of the current state of approaches and methods of development of the specialized information retrieval system (IRS) and databases (DBs) on the parasitic worms in Russia on the basis of a common conceptual data model, taking into account their local use (as desktop systems of database management) and access by scientists worldwide via the Internet.

  7. Life-cycle of the African nightcrawler, Eudrilus eugeniae (Oligochaeta)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... an average rate of 1,65 cocoons per worm per day. The mean incubation period of cocoons is 16,6 days with a hatching success of 84% and 2,7 hatchlings per cocoon that hatched. Sexual maturity is attained by the offspring within 40 to 50 days after hatching. E. eugeniae is compared to other vermicomposting species.

  8. Worm Infestation: Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Bhavneet; Bharti, Sahul; Khurana, Sumeeta

    2017-11-11

    Worm infections continue to be among the most common diseases affecting children from low and middle income countries. Major worm infections of public health importance include Ascariasis, Trichuriasis, Hookworm, and Enterobiasis, which are transmitted through contaminated soil. In India, combined prevalence rates of worm infestation as per pooled data of 127 surveys is over 20%. Although most helminthic infections are mild and are often asymptomatic, but moderate to heavy worm infestations are generally associated with growth faltering, nutritional compromise, anemia and suboptimal academic performance among children from endemic regions. Migration of larval or adult worms also underpins pulmonary and gastrointestinal morbidity in affected children. Some of the distinctive life cycle and clinical features of various worms are discussed in the review. The gold standard diagnostic technique for evaluation of worm infestation includes stool microscopy for direct egg detection and species identification. Most of the community based surveys for detecting soil transmitted helminths (STH) use Kato-Katz technique. The drug armamentarium against worm infestation has evolved tremendously in last three to four decades with the availability of more efficacious and broad spectrum anthelminthics. The key strategies of a multi-component integrated management of worm infestation include individualized treatment, community management (mass drug administration) as well as preventive measures. Finally, barriers to diagnosis, treatment and prevention of worm infestations need to be identified and aggressively managed at individual, family and societal levels so that WHO's 75% coverage target can be achieved to eliminate soil transmitted helminthiasis in children by 2020.

  9. Microplastics in the terrestrial ecosystem: Implications for Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, H.F.; Gooren, H.; Peters, P.D.; Salanki, T.E.; Ploeg, van der M.J.C.; Besseling, E.; Koelmans, A.A.; Geissen, V.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris is widespread in the environment, but information on the effects of microplastics on terrestrial fauna is completely lacking. Here, we studied the survival and fitness of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) exposed to microplastics (Polyethylene, <150 μm)

  10. Earthworms (Oligochaeta: Acanthodrilidae and Lumbricidae) associated with Hornsby Bend Biosolids Management Plant, Travis County, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earthworm populations were surveyed in soils from a variety of habitats associated with the Hornsby Bend Biosolids Management Plant, Austin, Texas, from November 2009 through March 2010. Seven species of terrestrial Oligochaeta, including one species new to science, are reported from two families, ...

  11. Fauna Europaea: Annelida – Hirudinea, incl. Acanthobdellea and Branchiobdellea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Minelli

    2014-11-01

    Hirudinea is a fairly small group of Annelida, with about 680 described species, most of which live in freshwater habitats, but several species are (subterrestrial or marine. In the Fauna Europaea database the taxon is represented by 87 species in 6 families. Two closely related groups, currently treated as distinct lineages within the Annelida, are the Acanthobdellea (2 species worldwide, of which 1 in Europe and the Branchiobdellea (about 140 species worldwide, of which 10 in Europe. This paper includes a complete list of European taxa belonging to the Hirudinea, Acanthobdellea and Branchiobdellea. Recent research on a limited number of taxa suggests that our current appreciation of species diversity of Hirudinea in Europe is still provisional: on the one hand, cryptic, unrecognised taxa are expected to emerge; on the other, the status of some taxa currently treated as distinct species deserves revisiting.

  12. Factors affecting assemblage attributes of freshwater Oligochaeta in Neotropical shallow floodplain lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ernandes de Amo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: Identify the effects of sediment composition and water conditions on diversity, richness, evenness, density and composition of freshwater Oligochaeta in shallow floodplain lakes. Methods We sampled 13 shallow floodplain lakes quarterly during the year 2010 in the Upper Paraná River floodplain. In each lake, four sediment samples were taken from the shore and central regions, three of them were used for biological analysis, and one for granulometric analysis. Concomitantly, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, turbidity and chlorophyll-a were also measured. Initially, the biological samples were analyzed by a stereoscopic microscope. Oligochaeta individuals were identified under optical microscope at the lowest possible taxonomic level. For data analysis, we quantified density, richness, evenness and diversity index of freshwater Oligochaeta. In order to show differences between the months and the analyzed lakes, in relation to the percentages of coarse and fine organic material, the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test was used. We also calculated the sediment granulometric diversity using the Shannon-Wienner index, using a simple regression analysis. We correlated assemblage attributes of Oligochaeta with sediment diversity and the assemblage species with the limnological variables using the Spearman correlation. Results A total of 2,090 individuals were found distributed among 27 species. From the total individuals number, 57% were Pristina americana, followed by Dero (Dero righii with 13%. Assemblage attributes were not significantly correlated with sediment diversity, and 7 of the 27 species recorded showed significant correlations with at least some of the abiotic variables. Conclusions We verified that the abiotic variables of the water present greater influence on the attributes of the assemblage of freshwater Oligochaeta, when compared with sediment influences. Although we found low local diversity of

  13. Identification key to Nephtyidae (Annelida of the Sea of Okhotsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna L. Alalykina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 15 species of Nephtyidae (Annelida are known from the Sea of Okhotsk (north-western Pacific. A new user-friendly identification key is presented with a brief description for each species. The taxonomic positions of three closely related species, Nephtys brachycephala Moore, 1903, N. schmitti Hartman, 1938 and N. paradoxa Malm, 1874, are revised. The distributions of two species, Nephtys discors Ehlers, 1968 and N. assignis Hartman, 1950, are discussed.

  14. Dero (Allodero lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925 (Anura: Hylidae from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FH. Oda

    Full Text Available Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A. lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiuá Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A. lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species.

  15. Charles Darwin's Observations on the Behaviour of Earthworms and the Evolutionary History of a Giant Endemic Species from Germany, Lumbricus badensis (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Kutschera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The British naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882 began and ended his almost 45-year-long career with observations, experiments, and theories related to earthworms. About six months before his death, Darwin published his book on The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms, With Observations on their Habits (1881. Here we describe the origin, content, and impact of Darwin's last publication on earthworms (subclass Oligochaeta, family Lumbricidae and the role of these annelids as global “ecosystem reworkers” (concept of bioturbation. In addition, we summarize our current knowledge on the reproductive behaviour of the common European species Lumbricus terrestris. In the second part of our account we describe the biology and evolution of the giant endemic species L. badensis from south western Germany with reference to the principle of niche construction. Biogeographic studies have shown that the last common ancestor of L. badensis, and the much smaller sister-taxon, the Atlantic-Mediterranean L. friendi, lived less than 10 000 years ago. Allopatric speciation occurred via geographically isolated founder populations that were separated by the river Rhine so that today two earthworm species exist in different areas.

  16. Detecting Internet Worms Using Data Mining Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Muazzam Siddiqui; Morgan C. Wang; Joohan Lee

    2008-01-01

    Internet worms pose a serious threat to computer security. Traditional approaches using signatures to detect worms pose little danger to the zero day attacks. The focus of malware research is shifting from using signature patterns to identifying the malicious behavior displayed by the malwares. This paper presents a novel idea of extracting variable length instruction sequences that can identify worms from clean programs using data mining techniques. The analysis is facilitated by the program...

  17. Intracellular calcium signaling in the fertilized eggs of Annelida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takeshi; Deguchi, Ryusaku; Kyozuka, Keiichiro

    2014-08-01

    Fertilization is such a universal and indispensable step in sexual reproduction, but a high degree of variability exists in the way it takes place in the animal kingdom. As discussed in other reviews in this issue, recent works on this subject clarified many points. However, important results on the mechanisms of fertilization are obtained mainly from a few restricted model organisms. In this sense, it is utterly important to collect more information from various phyla. In this review, we have re-introduced Annelida as one of the most suitable models for the analysis of fertilization process. We have briefly reviewed the historical works on the fertilization of Annelida. Then, we have described recent findings on the two independent Ca(2+) increases in the fertilized eggs of Annelida, which arise from two different mechanisms and may have distinct physiological roles toward sperm entry and egg activation. We propose that the Ca(2+) increase in the fertilized eggs reflect the specific needs of the zygote in a given species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sublethal toxicity and biotransformation of pyrene in Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeenpaeae, K. [Faculty of Biosciences, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland)], E-mail: kimmo.maenpaa@joensuu.fi; Leppaenen, M.T.; Kukkonen, J.V.K. [Faculty of Biosciences, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland)

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the toxicity and biotransformation of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pyrene in the oligochaete aquatic worm, Lumbriculus variegatus. PAHs are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that pose a hazard to aquatic organisms, and metabolizing capability is poorly known in the case of many invertebrate species. To study the toxicity and biotransformation of pyrene, the worm was exposed for 15 days to various concentrations of water-borne pyrene. The dorsal blood vessel pulse rate was used as a sublethal endpoint. Pyrene biotransformation by L. variegatus was studied and the critical body residues (CBR) were estimated for pyrene toxicity. The toxicokinetics of pyrene uptake was evaluated. A combination of radiolabeled ({sup 14}C) and nonlabeled pyrene was used in the exposures, and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and high-pressure liquid chromatography were employed in both water and tissue residue analyses. The results showed that L. variegatus was moderately able to metabolize pyrene to 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), thus demonstrating that the phase-I-like oxidizing enzyme system metabolizes pyrene in L. variegatus. The amount of the 1-HP was 1-2% of the amount of pyrene in the worm tissues. The exposure to pyrene reduced the blood vessel pulse rate significantly (p < 0.05), showing that pyrene had a narcotic effect. The estimated CBRs remained constant during the exposure time, varying from 0.120 to 0.174 mmol pyrene/kg worm wet weight. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) decreased as exposure concentration increased. It was suggested that the increased toxicity of pyrene accounted for the decrease in BCFs by lowering the activity of the organism.

  19. NEDAC: A worm countermeasure mechanism | Ahmad | Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents an Internet worm countermeasure mechanism that uses DNS activities as a behavioural technique to detect worm propagation. The mechanism also uses a data-link containment solution to block traffic from an infected host. The concept has been demonstrated using a developed prototype and tested in ...

  20. END THE OF HORROR WORM: Dracunculus medinensis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the body of the human host. The worm inhabits the ... contact with water, the female worm emerges and releases her larvae. The larvae are then ingested by a copepod, and after two weeks. (and two molts) the larvae become infectious. Ingestion of the copepods in drinking water is the last stage that completes the cycle.

  1. Reduced aggression and foraging efficiency of invasive signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) infested with non-native branchiobdellidans (Annelida: Clitellata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J; Davidson, K E; Richardson, G; Grimstead, C; Cable, J

    2015-11-17

    Biological invasions are a principal threat to global biodiversity and identifying the determinants of non-native species' success is a conservation priority. Through their ability to regulate host populations, parasites are increasingly considered as important in determining the outcome of species' invasions. Here, we present novel evidence that the common crayfish ecto-symbiont, Xironogiton victoriensis (Annelida: Clitellata) can affect the behaviour of a widespread and ecologically important invader, the signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus). To assess the signal crayfish-X. victoriensis relationship naïve crayfish were infested with an intensity of worms typically observed under natural conditions. Over a 10-week period the growth rate and survivorship of these animals was monitored and compared to those of uninfested counterparts. Complementary dyadic competition and foraging experiments were run to assess the behaviour of infested compared to uninfested animals. These data were analysed using General Linear Models and Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Whilst X. victoriensis did not affect the growth rate or survivorship of signal crayfish under laboratory conditions, infested animals were significantly less aggressive and poorer foragers than uninfested individuals. Through reducing aggression and foraging efficiency, infestation with X. victoriensis may disrupt the social structure, and potentially growth rate and/or dispersal of afflicted crayfish populations, with potential effects on their invasion dynamics. This is important given the widespread invasive range of crayfish and their functional roles as ecosystem engineers and keystone species.

  2. Parasabella Bush, 1905, replacement name for the polychaete genus Demonax Kinberg, 1867 (Annelida, Polychaeta, Sabellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Tovar-Hernández

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Parasabella Bush, 1905 is reintroduced as a replacement name for Demonax Kinberg, 1867 (Annelida: Polychaeta: Sabellidae which is a junior homonym of Demonax Thomson, 1860 (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cerambycidae.

  3. Parasitic worms and inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Anne

    2012-07-01

    Parasitic worms have evolved strategies to manipulate the host immune system, some of which may lead to a reduction in inflammation. Characterisation of the ways in which these organisms mediate an anti-inflammatory response and identification of parasite-derived molecules involved in immune modulation paves the way to novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of inflammatory disease. This review highlights recent findings in this field of research in the context of a broader overview. Some parasites and parasite derived products inhibit inflammatory responses through effects on both the innate and adaptive immune response. Considerable progress has been made in identifying parasite derived molecules, the ways in which they interact with the immune system and how they mediate immunomodulation. There is great interest in the potential usefulness of parasite-mediated immunomodulation for the treatment and prevention of a range of inflammatory disorders. Much remains to be resolved regarding characterisation of potential helminth-derived biomodulators, timing and dose of exposure to the agents as well as characterisation of the modes of action so that synthetic analogues that mimic the effects can be generated.

  4. Correlation between some environmental variables and abundance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation between some environmental variables and abundance of Almophrya mediovacuolata (Ciliophora: Anoplophryidae) endocommensal ciliate of an anecic earthworms (Oligochaeta: Annelida) in Bambui (North-West Cameroon)

  5. Detecting Internet Worms Using Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muazzam Siddiqui

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet worms pose a serious threat to computer security. Traditional approaches using signatures to detect worms pose little danger to the zero day attacks. The focus of malware research is shifting from using signature patterns to identifying the malicious behavior displayed by the malwares. This paper presents a novel idea of extracting variable length instruction sequences that can identify worms from clean programs using data mining techniques. The analysis is facilitated by the program control flow information contained in the instruction sequences. Based upon general statistics gathered from these instruction sequences we formulated the problem as a binary classification problem and built tree based classifiers including decision tree, bagging and random forest. Our approach showed 95.6% detection rate on novel worms whose data was not used in the model building process.

  6. Detection of worms in error diffusion halftoning

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Marius; Albregtsen, Fritz; Hardeberg, Jon Yngve

    2009-01-01

    This is the copy of journal's version originally published in Proc. SPIE 7242. Reprinted with permission of SPIE: http://spie.org/x10.xml?WT.svl=tn7 Digital halftoning is used to reproduce a continuous tone image with a printer. One of these halftoning algorithms, error diffusion, suffers from certain artifacts. One of these artifacts is commonly denoted as worms. We propose a simple measure for detection of worm artifacts. The proposed measure is evaluated by a psychophysical experiment, ...

  7. Polygraph: Automatically Generating Signatures for Polymorphic Worms

    OpenAIRE

    Newsome, J.; Karp, B.; Song, D.

    2005-01-01

    It is widely believed that content-signature-based intrusion detection systems (IDSes) are easily evaded by polymorphic worms, which vary their payload on every infection attempt. In this paper, we present Polygraph, a signature generation system that successfully produces signatures that match polymorphic worms. Polygraph generates signatures that consist of multiple disjoint content substrings. In doing so, Polygraph leverages our insight that for a real-world exploit to function properly, ...

  8. Filarial worms reduce Plasmodium infectivity in mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Aliota

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-occurrence of malaria and filarial worm parasites has been reported, but little is known about the interaction between filarial worm and malaria parasites with the same Anopheles vector. Herein, we present data evaluating the interaction between Wuchereria bancrofti and Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea (PNG. Our field studies in PNG demonstrated that An. punctulatus utilizes the melanization immune response as a natural mechanism of filarial worm resistance against invading W. bancrofti microfilariae. We then conducted laboratory studies utilizing the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively impact Plasmodium development in co-infected mosquitoes. Ar. subalbatus used in this study are natural vectors of P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi and they are naturally refractory to B. malayi (melanization-based refractoriness.Mosquitoes were dissected and Plasmodium development was analyzed six days after blood feeding on either P. gallinaceum alone or after taking a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. malayi or a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of Plasmodium infections in two species of mosquito that had dual infections as compared to those mosquitoes that were infected with Plasmodium alone, and was independent of whether the mosquito had a melanization immune response to the filarial worm or not. However, there was no reduction in Plasmodium development when filarial worms were present in the bloodmeal (D. immitis but midgut penetration was absent, suggesting that factors associated with penetration of the midgut by filarial worms likely are responsible for the observed reduction in malaria parasite infections.These results could have an

  9. Optimal design for an end face engagement worm gear with multiple worm-wheel meshing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xingqiao; Zhu, Weibing; Chen, Yonghong; Chen, Shouan; Wang, Jinge

    2017-01-01

    To solve the problem for lacking a special mechanical transmission that could provide multiple outputs with high transmission efficiency and good lubrication in the modern industrial, a novel worm gear, named end face engagement worm gear, with multiple worm-wheel meshing is proposed for the first time. The essential parameters for the worm gear are optimized to enhance lubrication and meshing properties. Moreover, analysis of variance(ANOVA) is applied to determine the optimum levels and to determine the influence of parameters. The ANOVA results show that the novel end face engagement worm gear with multiple worm wheels provides high lubrication(the lubrication angle is more than 89°) and meshing performance(the induce normal curvature is less than 0.0002 mm-1). The interaction between center distance and roller slant distance most strongly influences the lubrication angle(contributed 51.6%), followed by the parameters of center distance(contributed 25.0%), roller slant distance(contributed 16.4%), tooth angle of gear, gear ratio, and roller radius. In addition, roller radius most strongly influences the induced normal curvature(contributed 39.4%), followed by roller slant distance(contributed 15.2%), tooth angle of the gear(contributed 9.0%), center distance, and gear ratio. The proposed worm gear helps to enrich the no-backlash high precision worm drive and the optimal design method can provide a useful reference on performance improvement of other worm gear.

  10. A new genus and species of bristle worm from Beibu Gulf, South China Sea (Annelida, Polychaeta, Amphinomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Sun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alleurythoe, a new genus with type species Alleurythoe tenuichaeta sp. n., is described and illustrated based on material from Beibu Gulf, northwestern South China Sea. The new genus is distinguished from all genera within Amphinomidae by a combination of characters: caruncle trilobed, conspicuous, attached to and confluent with the posterior prostomial lobe, which is free from the body wall and has 6-7 folds on each of the lateral lobes; both noto- and neuropodial aciculae are spinose, extending beyond the chaetal lobe. Alleurythoe tenuichaeta sp. n. is characterized by having branchiae present from chaetiger 4 and a bifurcate neurochaetae capillary. A key distinguishing the genera of Amphinominae is provided.

  11. The cryptogenic bait worm Diopatra biscayensis Fauchald et al., 2012 (Annelida: Onuphidae) - Revisiting its history, biology and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Andrés; Paxton, Hannelore

    2015-09-01

    The polychaetous annelid Diopatra biscayensis Fauchald et al., 2012 was recently described from the Atlantic coast of France. It has been the subject of a plethora of publications dealing with its importance in the field of ecology: from its role as an ecosystem engineer, being an indicative species of climate change in western Europe to questions of whether it was native or introduced to the old continent, spawning theories about its hypothetical routes of introduction and spreading. We have redescribed D. biscayensis, traced its biogeographical history in the Bay of Biscay through examination of old museum holdings and studied its ecology and reproductive biology throughout a one year period from a northern Spain estuary, showing for the first time that the species is a protandric simultaneous hermaphrodite. The annual spawning season is from early August to late September, when large numbers of oocytes of 260 μm diameter were deposited in gelatinous egg masses attached to the parental tubes. Early trochophores developed in the jelly mass by 4-6 h, 3-chaetiger metatrochophores after 48 h, and the jelly mass had totally disintegrated by 72 h, releasing the lecithotrophic larvae. Our studies have clarified the morphology and reproductive pattern of D. biscayensis, documented that the species has inhabited the European waters for more than a century and we hope that these findings will serve as a basis to robust ecological studies and hypotheses concerning this and the related species.

  12. Ovaries of the white worm (Enchytraeus albidus, Annelida, Clitellata) are composed of 16-celled meroistic germ-line cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbisz, Anna Z; Chajec, Łukasz; Brąszewska-Zalewska, Agnieszka; Kubrakiewicz, Janusz; Świątek, Piotr

    2017-06-01

    The paired ovaries of E. albidus are like a bunch of grapes and are composed of clearly separated units, syncytial germ cysts (clusters), which are surrounded by a thin layer of somatic cells. Each cyst maintains the connection with the ovary by an extended stalk that is composed of somatic cells. The spatial architecture of the germ-line cysts found in E. albidus is the same as in other clitellate annelids that have been studied to date. As a rule, germ cells are located at the cyst periphery and each has only one ring canal that connects it to the common and centrally located cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore. Here we present data about the F-actin and microtubular cytoskeleton and some molecular components of the germ-line cysts. We show that the ring canals have an inner rim that is enriched with microfilaments and proteins that contain phosphotyrosine. The microtubules form a loose network in the cytoplasm of the oocyte and nurse cells; moreover, some of them pass through the ring canals to the cytophore. Numerous microtubules are also located in the somatic cells. The germ-line cysts in E. albidus ovaries consist of 16 cells, which is the lowest known number of interconnected germ cells within clitellate annelids. During oogenesis, the fate of interconnected germ cells differentiates and only one cell develops as the future egg, while the other 15 become nurse cells. This differentiation means ovary meroism. The nurse cells gather cell organelles and storage material that then pass through the ring canals and cytophore moving towards the growing oocyte. At the end of oogenesis, the vitellogenic oocyte surrounds the siblings' cells together with the cytophore and engulfs their remnants into the ooplasm. No morphological or molecular markers of the apoptosis of the nurse cells were found. Moreover, the nurse cells did not undergo polyploidisation. The measured DNA level was 4C, which indicates that these cells are not highly-specialised. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Control Strategy on Worms Spread in Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianmei, Fang

    First, a preliminary understanding of what is meant by complex network and its features, and network worm virus that understanding and analysis of the emergence and development of the worm, the worm to understand the current situation, focus on the worm propagation model (simple propagation model, Kermack-Mckendrick model, SIS model, two-factor model, BCM model - network worms against the model). Contact the characteristics of complex networks and the worm theory, detection and prevention of worms and an important node in the network-based control strategy (target immunity, virus containment) for a simple discussion.

  14. Fauna Europaea: Annelida - Hirudinea, incl. Acanthobdellea and Branchiobdellea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro; Sket, Boris; de Jong, Yde

    2014-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Hirudinea is a fairly small group of Annelida, with about 680 described species, most of which live in freshwater habitats, but several species are (sub)terrestrial or marine. In the Fauna Europaea database the taxon is represented by 87 species in 6 families. Two closely related groups, currently treated as distinct lineages within the Annelida, are the Acanthobdellea (2 species worldwide, of which 1 in Europe) and the Branchiobdellea (about 140 species worldwide, of which 10 in Europe). This paper includes a complete list of European taxa belonging to the Hirudinea, Acanthobdellea and Branchiobdellea. Recent research on a limited number of taxa suggests that our current appreciation of species diversity of Hirudinea in Europe is still provisional: on the one hand, cryptic, unrecognised taxa are expected to emerge; on the other, the status of some taxa currently treated as distinct species deserves revisiting.

  15. Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelida: Oligochaeta) indicador de la calidad del suelo en sitios de Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtacea) con manejo tumba y quema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uribe, S.; Huerta, E.; Geissen, V.; Mendoza, M.I.; Godoy, R.; Jarquin, A.

    2012-01-01

    La presencia de oligoquetos en los ecosistemas puede indicar fertilidad del suelo, ya que estos organismos transportan, mezclan y entierran los residuos vegetales de la superficie al interior del suelo. Se caracterizó la comunidad de oligoquetos bajo sitios con diferentes periodos de establecimiento

  16. Barcoding Eophila crodabepis sp. nov. (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae), a Large Stripy Earthworm from Alpine Foothills of Northeastern Italy Similar to Eophila tellinii (Rosa, 1888).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Maurizio G; Blakemore, Robert J; Csuzdi, Csaba; Dorigo, Luca; Dreon, Angelo Leandro; Gavinelli, Federico; Lazzarini, Francesca; Manno, Nicola; Moretto, Enzo; Porco, David; Ruzzier, Enrico; Toniello, Vladimiro; Squartini, Andrea; Concheri, Giuseppe; Zanardo, Marina; Alba-Tercedor, Javier

    2016-01-01

    A new Italian earthworm morphologically close to the similarly large and anecic Eophila tellinii (Rosa, 1888) is described. Distribution of Eophila crodabepis sp. nov. extends over 750 km2 from East to West on the Asiago Plateau and Vittorio Veneto Hills, from North to South on mounts Belluno Prealps (Praderadego and Cesen), Asiago, Grappa and onto the Montello foothills. This range abuts that of Eophila tellinii in northern Friuli Venezia Giulia region. Known localities of both E. tellinii and E. crodabepis sp. nov. are mapped. mtDNA barcoding definitively separates the new western species from classical Eophila tellinii (Rosa, 1888).

  17. Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelida: Oligochaeta indicador de la calidad del suelo en sitios de Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtacea con manejo tumba y quema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Uribe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de oligoquetos en los ecosistemas puede indicar fertilidad del suelo, ya que estos organismos transportan, mezclan y entierran los residuos vegetales de la superficie al interior del suelo. Se caracterizó la comunidad de oligoquetos bajo sitios con diferentes periodos de establecimiento y manejo de plantaciones de Eucalyptus grandis, sin vegetación (SV, con cinco años en producción (Euc y vegetación secundaria con 15 años (Acah que han pasado por el proceso de tumba y quema en suelos de Acrisol en Huimanguillo, Tabasco; y se analizaron las propiedades físico-químicas del suelo (D.A., humedad, textura, pH, Ntot, MO, P, K, CIC. La recolecta de lombrices se realizó al finalizar las lluvias (agosto-octubre 2007. Se muestreó en tres parcelas con seis réplicas en cada una. Se encontró que los suelos tenían pH de 3.0-4.5 en los primeros 30cm de profundidad. Los contenidos de materia orgánica (MO y nitrógeno total (Ntot fueron significativamente menores en los sitios SV (6-8% y 0.19-0.22% respectivamente que en Euc y Acah (MO=9-11%; el Ntot=0.27-0.33%. La especie Pontoscolex corethrurus domino en toda el área, presentando mayores densidades y biomasas en Euc (164.4ind/m² y 36.8g/m² respectivamente y Acah (138.7ind/m² y 19.1g/m² respectivamente, mientras que en SV sus poblaciones fueron reducidas en un 80%. Se encontró que el sistema Acah sigue presentando rasgos de un sistema perturbado, al no recuperar fácilmente la diversidad de oligoquetos y las concentraciones de nutrientes disponibles en el suelo

  18. A comprehensive checklist of earthworm species and subspecies from Vietnam (Annelida: Clitellata: Oligochaeta: Almidae, Eudrilidae, Glossoscolecidae, Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae, Moniligastridae, Ocnerodrilidae, Octochaetidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tung T; Nguyen, Anh D; Tran, Binh T T; Blakemore, Robert J

    2016-07-25

    The comprehensive checklist of earthworms in Vietnam is presented here listing 24 genera and 212 species arranged in eight families. For each species, bibliographic citations are given, including the original descriptions as well as notable citations affecting taxonomic status or distributional reports of a species. Distributions of each species are also provided. The bibliography contains all relevant papers for Vietnamese earthworms. Of 212 species, 114 have been recorded only in Vietnam, and 25 are cosmopolitan. New combinations are made for Amynthas acalifornicus (Do & Huynh, 1991) comb. nov., A. binhgiaensis (Le, 1994) comb. nov., Metaphire catbaensis (Thai & Le, 1993) comb. nov., M. khoii (Do & Tran, 1994) comb. nov., M. phaluongana (Do & Huynh, 1992) comb. nov., and M. mangophila (Nguyen, 2011) comb. nov., M. tripidoporophoratus (Thai & Nguyen, 1993) comb. nov. Additionally, Pheretima paraalexandri Nguyen, 2011 is treated as a junior synonym of Amynthas polychaetiferus (Thai, 1984).

  19. Aquatic worms eat sludge: Mass balances and processing of worm faeces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G., E-mail: tim.hendrickx@wur.nl [Wetsus - Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, P.O. Box 1113, 8900 CC Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Sub-department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen (Netherlands); Temmink, H. [Wetsus - Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, P.O. Box 1113, 8900 CC Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Sub-department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen (Netherlands); Elissen, H.J.H. [Wetsus - Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, P.O. Box 1113, 8900 CC Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Buisman, C.J.N. [Wetsus - Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, P.O. Box 1113, 8900 CC Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Sub-department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-05-15

    Reduction of the amount of waste sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) can be achieved with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a new reactor concept. In addition to reducing the amount of waste sludge, further processing of produced worm faeces and released nutrients should also be considered. This study gives the mass balances for sludge consumed by L. variegatus, showing the fate of the consumed organic material, nutrients and heavy metals associated with the sludge. A distinction is made between conversion into worm biomass, release as dissolved metabolites and what remains in the worm faeces. The results showed that 39% of the nitrogen and 12% of the phosphorus in the sludge digested by the worms are used in the formation of new worm biomass, which has potential for reuse. Experiments showed that settling of the worm faeces leads to a factor 2.5 higher solids concentration, compared to settling of waste sludge. This could lead to a 67% reduction of the volumetric load on thickening equipment. The worm reactor is expected to be most interesting for smaller WWTPs where a decrease on the volumetric load on sludge handling operations will have most impact.

  20. Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis of the genus Limnodrilus (Annelida: Clitellata: Naididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingkui; Fend, Steven V; Martinsson, Svante; Luo, Xu; Ohtaka, Akifumi; Erséus, Christer

    2017-07-01

    Limnodrilus species are annelid worms distributed worldwide in various freshwater sediments. The systematics of Limnodrilus has chiefly been based on morphology, but the genus has not been subject to any closer phylogenetic studies over the past two decades. To reconstruct the evolutionary history of Limnodrilus, and to assess the monophyly of this genus and its systematic position within the subfamily Tubificinae (Annelida: Clitellata: Naididae), 45 Limnodrilus specimens, representing 19 species, and 35 other naidid species (representing 24 genera) were sampled. The data consisted of sequences of three mitochondrial genes (COI, 12S and 16S rDNA) and four nuclear markers (18S and 28S rDNA, Histone 3, and ITS). The phylogeny was estimated, using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses of concatenated data of seven DNA loci, as well as a multi-locus coalescent-based approach. All analyses strongly suggest that Limnodrilus is monophyletic, but only if the morphospecies L. rubripenis is removed from it. Limnodrilus rubripenis and (at least) Baltidrilus, Lophochaeta and some species attributed to Varichaetadrilus comprise the sister group to the clade Limnodrilus sensu stricto, and the latter is further divided into three well-supported groups. One of them contains morphospecies characterized by short cuticular penis sheaths and enlarged chaetae in anterior segments (L. udekemianus, L. silvani and L. grandisetosus). The second is a small group of species with moderately long penis sheaths, i.e., L. sulphurensis and L. profundicola. The third, and largest group, includes not only the multitude of cryptic species in the L. hoffmeisteri complex, but also other, morphologically distinct, species nested within this complex. All studied species in this large group have long penis sheaths, which are exceptionally long in L. claparedianus, L. maumeensis, and a form morphologically intermediate between L. claparedianus and L. cervix. The identification and classification of

  1. Disulfide-Functionalized Diblock Copolymer Worm Gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Nicholas J; Rosselgong, Julien; Madsen, Jeppe; Armes, Steven P

    2015-08-10

    Two strategies for introducing disulfide groups at the outer surface of RAFT-synthesized poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PGMA-PHPMA, or Gx-Hy for brevity) diblock copolymer worms are investigated. The first approach involved statistical copolymerization of GMA with a small amount of disulfide dimethacrylate (DSDMA, or D) comonomer to afford a G54-D0.50 macromolecular chain transfer agent (macro-CTA); this synthesis was conducted in relatively dilute solution in order to ensure mainly intramolecular cyclization and hence the formation of linear chains. Alternatively, a new disulfide-based bifunctional RAFT agent (DSDB) was used to prepare a G45-S-S-G45 (or (G45-S)2) macro-CTA. A binary mixture of a non-functionalized G55 macro-CTA was utilized with each of these two disulfide-based macro-CTAs in turn for the RAFT aqueous dispersion polymerization of 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA). By targeting a PHPMA DP of 130 and systematically varying the molar ratio of the two macro-CTAs, a series of disulfide-functionalized diblock copolymer worm gels were obtained. For both formulations, oscillatory rheology studies confirmed that higher disulfide contents led to stronger gels, presumably as a result of inter-worm covalent bond formation via disulfide/thiol exchange. Using the DSDB-based macro-CTA led to the strongest worm gels, and this formulation also proved to be more effective in suppressing the thermosensitive behavior that is observed for the nondisulfide-functionalized control worm gel. However, macroscopic precipitation occurred when the proportion of DSDB-based macro-CTA was increased to 50 mol %, whereas the DSDMA-based macro-CTA could be utilized at up to 80 mol %. Finally, the worm gel modulus could be reduced to that of a nondisulfide-containing worm gel by reductive cleavage of the inter-worm disulfide bonds using excess tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) to yield thiol groups. These new biomimetic worm gels are

  2. Consideraciones sobre la identidad de Onychochaeta elegans (Cognetti, 1905 (Oligochaeta, Glossoscolecidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez, C.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Considerations on the identity of Onychochaeta elegans (Cognetti, 1905 (Oligochaeta, Glossoscolecidae Anatomical variability of Onychochaeta elegans in Cuban populations was studied. A comparison among these populations and O. elegans cubana Michaelsen, 1924 and O. cubana Zicsi, 1995 from Cuba, as well as the descriptions of the typical form of Cognetti (1905 from Panama and Colombian specimens (Righi, 1995 was made. Besides, new materials from Mexico and Panama were added. Variations in anatomical characters in Cuban populations included those present in continental forms, so, there were not any character that justifies the division of O. elegans nor subspecies neither in distinct insular and continental species.

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of an Amynthas earthworm, Amynthas aspergillus (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangliang; Jiang, Jibao; Dong, Yan; Qiu, Jiangping

    2016-05-01

    We have determined the mitochondrial genome of the first Amynthas earthworm, Amynthas aspergillus (Perrier, 1872), which is a natural medical resource in Chinese traditional medicine. Its mitogenome is 15,115 bp in length containing 37 genes with the same contents and order as other sequenced earthworms. All genes are encoded by the same strand, all 13 PCGs use ATG as start codon. The content of A + T is 63.04% for A. aspergillus (33.41% A, 29.63% T, 14.56% G and 22.41% C). The complete mitochondrial genomes of A. aspergillus would be useful for the reconstruction of Oligochaeta polygenetic relationships.

  4. Temporal and spatial variations in the polychaete (Annelida) populations on the upper continental slope of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Fangyuan; Wang, Yuning; Rowe, Gilbert T.

    2017-01-01

    Polychaete worms (Annelida), the dominant macrofaunal taxon in most fine-grained marine sediments, were sampled in 1983-85 and then again in 2000-02 at nine locations at depths of 324-1454 m. on the upper continental slope of the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). The assemblages exhibited relative stability in abundance and diversity, but fell into six separate groups of species (>35% similarity) that were related to time-of-sampling, location, depth. This depth gradient experiences an increase in oxygen from 2.5 to 4.5 ml/L, a six degree decrease in temperature (10-12° down to 4 °C) and a decline of 30-37 mg C m-2 day-1 down to 7 mg C m-2 day-1 in estimates of the particulate organic carbon (POC) input to the sea floor, but these steep gradients had secondary effects on species turnover or depth-related zonation (Beta diversity). The species composition of four of the six groups was separated on the basis of sampling between 1983-85 and 2000-02 as opposed to depth or location. The species composition of the two groups on the eastern transect was different from the western sites and the two eastern groups differed in species composition from each other between 1983-85 and 2000-02. The two groups of species at the three deeper sites to the west (864-1410 m) were also separated on the basis of time-of-sampling but the group of species located at the three shallow locations (324-625 m) was not; it was a mixture of the two sampling periods. Significantly higher densities (p<0.05) in April 1984, on the eastern transect, suggest that seasonal recruitment may have occurred but the higher densities were attributed to only two species.

  5. The simplicity of males: dwarf males of four species of Osedax (Siboglinidae; Annelida) investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsaae, Katrine; Rouse, Greg W

    2010-02-01

    Dwarf males of the bone-eating worms Osedax (Siboglinidae, Annelida) have been proposed to develop from larvae that settle on females rather than on bone. The apparent arrest in somatic development and resemblance of the males to trochophore larvae has been posited as an example of paedomorphosis. Here, we present the first investigation of the entire muscle and nervous system in dwarf males of Osedax frankpressi, O. roseus, O. rubiplumus, and O. "spiral" analyzed by multistaining and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Sperm shape and spermiogenesis, the sperm duct and internal and external ciliary patterns were likewise visualized. The males of all four species possess morphological traits typical of newly settled siboglinid larvae: a prostomium, a peristomium with a prototroch, one elongate segment and a second shorter segment. Each segment has a ring of eight long-handled hooked chaetae. The longitudinal muscles are distributed as evenly spaced strands forming a grid with the thin outer circular muscles. Oblique protractor and retractor muscles are associated with each of the chaetal sacs. The nervous system comprises a cerebral ganglion, a prototroch nerve ring, paired dorsolateral longitudinal nerves, five ventral longitudinal nerves with paired, posterior ganglia and a terminal commissure, as well as a net of fine peripheral transverse plexuses surrounding the first segment. Internal ciliation occurs as paired ventrolateral bands along the first segment. The bands appear to lead the free mature sperm to a ciliated duct and seminal vesicle lying just behind the prototroch region. A duct then runs from the seminal vesicle into the dorsal part of the prostomium. The similarity of Osedax males to the larvae of Osedax and other siboglinid annelids as well as similarities shown here to the neuromuscular organization seen in other annelid larvae supports the hypothesis of paedomorphosis in males of Osedax.

  6. Fauna Europaea: Annelida – Hirudinea, incl. Acanthobdellea and Branchiobdellea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sket, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Hirudinea is a fairly small group of Annelida, with about 680 described species, most of which live in freshwater habitats, but several species are (sub)terrestrial or marine. In the Fauna Europaea database the taxon is represented by 87 species in 6 families. Two closely related groups, currently treated as distinct lineages within the Annelida, are the Acanthobdellea (2 species worldwide, of which 1 in Europe) and the Branchiobdellea (about 140 species worldwide, of which 10 in Europe). This paper includes a complete list of European taxa belonging to the Hirudinea, Acanthobdellea and Branchiobdellea. Recent research on a limited number of taxa suggests that our current appreciation of species diversity of Hirudinea in Europe is still provisional: on the one hand, cryptic, unrecognised taxa are expected to emerge; on the other, the status of some taxa currently treated as distinct species deserves revisiting. PMID:25425934

  7. Facing Two Rapidly Spreading Internet Worms

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    The Internet is currently facing a growing number of computer infections due to two rapidly spreading worms. The "Conficker" and "Downadup" worms have infected an estimated 1.1 million PCs in a 24-hour period, bringing the total number of infected computers to 3.5 million [1]. Via a single USB stick, these worms were also responsible for the infection of about 40 laptops at the last EGEE conference in Istanbul. In order to reduce the impact of these worms on CERN Windows computers, the Computer Security Team has suggested several preventive measures described here. Disabling the Windows AutoRun and AutoPlay Features The Computer Security Team and the IT/IS group have decided to disable the "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" functionality on all centrally-managed Windows computers at CERN. When inserting CDs, DVDs or USB sticks into a PC, "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" are responsible for automatically playing music or films stored on these media, or ...

  8. A taxonomic guide to the fanworms (Sabellidae, Annelida) of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, including new species and new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capa, María; Murray, Anna

    2015-09-18

    This comprehensive taxonomic work is the result of the study of fan worms (Sabellidae, Annelida) collected over the last 40 years from around the Lizard Island Archipelago, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Some species described herein are commonly found in Lizard Island waters but had not previously been formally reported in the literature. Most species appear to be not particularly abundant, and few specimens have been collected despite the sampling effort in the area over this time period. After this study, the overall sabellid diversity of the archipelago has been greatly increased (by more than 650%). Before this revision, only four sabellid species had been recorded for Lizard Island, and in this paper we report 31 species, 13 of which belong to nominal species, six are formally described as new species (Euchone danieloi n. sp., Euchone glennoi n. sp., Jasmineira gustavoi n. sp., Megalomma jubata n. sp., Myxicola nana n. sp., and Paradialychone ambigua n. sp.), and the identity of 12 species is still unknown (those referred as cf. or sp.). Two species are newly recorded in Australia and two in Queensland. The invasive species Branchiomma bairdi is reported for the first time at Lizard Island. The genus Paradialychone is reported for Australia for the first time. Standardised descriptions, general photographs of live and/or preserved specimens and distribution data are provided for all species. New species descriptions are accompanied by detailed illustrations and exhaustive morphological information. A dichotomous key for sabellid identification is also included.

  9. Effects on Packed Cell Volume and Parasitic Worm Load from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the consequences of parasitic worm infestation in children is anaemia which is objectively measured by estimating the packed cell volume. This study carried out through four months was to examine the effects, (on packed cell volume and parasitic worm load) of de-worming pupils of a primary school in Rivers State.

  10. Not every worm wrapped around a stick is a guinea worm: a case of Onchocerca volvulus mimicking Dracunculus medinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbong, Eta Ngole; Sume, Gerald Etapelong; Danbe, Flaubert; Kum, Walter Kang; Mbi, Valeri Oben; Fouda, André Arsène Bita; Atem, Peter

    2015-07-16

    Despite being certified guinea worm free in 2007, Cameroon continues surveillance efforts to ensure rapid verification of any suspected reoccurrence. This includes the investigation of every rumor and confirmation of each suspicious expulsed worm. This paper presents fieldwork carried out to investigate a guinea worm rumor in Cameroon which turned out to be an Onchocerca volvulus mimicking Dracunculus medinensis. The investigation included a field visit to the subsistence farming community where the rumor was reported. During the visit, interviews were conducted with health staff who managed the case and the elderly farmer from whom the worm was retrieved. An investigation of any potential missed guinea worm cases was also conducted through interviews with community residents and reviews of the health facility's medical records. This was combined with laboratory analyses of water samples from the community's water sources and the retrieved worm which was removed from the patient via wrapping it around a stick. Microscopy and molecular analyses of the retrieved worm revealed a female Onchocerca volvulus whose expulsion strongly mimicked guinea worm. In addition to presenting findings of our investigation, this paper discusses distinguishing elements between the two parasites and gives an overview of guinea worm eradication efforts in Cameroon as well as current challenges to the worm's eradication globally. The investigation findings suggest the evolving Onchocerca volvulus worm tropisms' adaptive survival behavior worth further investigation. Strategies used to successfully control guinea worm in Cameroon could be adapted for Onchocerca volvulus control.

  11. Lack of effect of ivermectin on prepatent guinea-worm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issaka-Tinorgah, A.; Magnussen, P.; Bloch, P.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of ivermectin on prepatent guinea-worm was tested in a single-blind placebo-controlled trial; 400 adults were randomly allocated to a single dose of ivermectin (150 µg/kg) or placebo. Fifty-four of the 385 participants who were followed for 15 months developed a total of 69 emergent...... guinea-worms. There was no significant differencein the proportion of persons with emergent guinea-worms between the 2 treatment groups; 58% appeared in males. 80% of emergent guinea-worms were located below the knee. Migration of guinea-worms in the tissues was not affected. It is concluded...

  12. Detecting Computer Worms in the Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Biedermann, Sebastian; Katzenbeisser, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Part 2: Malware Detection; International audience; Computer worms are very active and new sophisticated versions continuously appear. Signature-based detection methods work with a low false-positive rate, but previously knowledge about the threat is needed. Anomaly-based intrusion detection methods are able to detect new and unknown threats, but meaningful information for correct results is necessary. We propose an anomaly-based intrusion detection mechanism for the cloud which directly profi...

  13. How the velvet worm squirts slime

    OpenAIRE

    Concha, Andrés; Mellado, Paula; Morera-Brenes, Bernal; Costa, Cristiano Sampaio; Mahadevan, L,; Monge-Nájera, Julián

    2014-01-01

    The rapid squirt of a proteinaceous slime jet endows the ancient velvet worms (Onychophora) with a unique mechanism for defense from predators and for capturing prey by entangling them in a disordered web that immobilizes their target. However, to date neither qualitative nor quantitative descriptions have been provided for this unique adaptation. Here we investigate the fast oscillatory motion of the oral papillae and the exiting liquid jet that oscillates with frequencies $f\\sim 30-60$ Hz. ...

  14. Ingestion of Microplastics by Freshwater Tubifex Worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Rachel R; Woodward, Jamie C; Rothwell, James J

    2017-11-07

    Microplastic contamination of the aquatic environment is a global issue. Microplastics can be ingested by organisms leading to negative physiological impacts. The ingestion of microplastics by freshwater invertebrates has not been reported outside the laboratory. Here we demonstrate the ingestion of microplastic particles by Tubifex tubifex from bottom sediments in a major urban waterbody fed by the River Irwell, Manchester, UK. The host sediments had microplastic concentrations ranging from 56 to 2543 particles kg-1. 87% of the Tubifex-ingested microplastic particles were microfibers (55-4100 μm in length), while the remaining 13% were microplastic fragments (50-4500 μm in length). FT-IR analysis revealed ingestion of a range of polymers, including polyester and acrylic fibers. While microbeads were present in the host sediment matrix, they were not detected in Tubifex worm tissue. The mean concentration of ingested microplastics was 129 ± 65.4 particles g-1 tissue. We also show that Tubifex worms retain microplastics for longer than they retain other particulate components of the ingested sediment matrix. Microplastic ingestion by Tubifex worms poses a significant risk for trophic transfer and biomagnification of microplastics up the aquatic food chain.

  15. Biogeomorphic impact of oligochaetes (Annelida) on sediment properties and Salicornia spp. seedling establishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren, Van M.; Boer, Ten R.; Meesters, E.H.; Groot, De A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Oligochaetes (Annelida) are active bioturbators that can be present in high densities in the transition zone between intertidal flats and salt marshes, though their occurrence and functional role remain understudied. This study aimed to clarify the biogeomorphic role of oligochaete bioturbation in

  16. Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from Indonesia collected by the Siboga (1899-1900) and Snellius II expeditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguado, M.T.; San Martín, G.; ten Hove, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty seven samples of syllids (Annelida: Polychaeta) from Indonesia collected during the Siboga Expedition (1899-1900) and five during the Snellius II Expedition (1984) have been examined. Material from several other museums and Institutions has also been included. Unpublished identifications of

  17. Microplastics in the Terrestrial Ecosystem: Implications for Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, Hennie; Gooren, Harm; Peters, Piet; Salánki, Tamás; van der Ploeg, Martine; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A; Geissen, Violette

    2016-03-01

    Plastic debris is widespread in the environment, but information on the effects of microplastics on terrestrial fauna is completely lacking. Here, we studied the survival and fitness of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) exposed to microplastics (Polyethylene, microplastics in the litter than at 7% w/w and in the control (0%). Growth rate was significantly reduced at 28, 45, and 60% w/w microplastics, compared to the 7% and control treatments. Due to the digestion of ingested organic matter, microplastic was concentrated in cast, especially at the lowest dose (i.e., 7% in litter) because that dose had the highest proportion of digestible organic matter. Whereas 50 percent of the microplastics had a size of microplastics in the casts was microplastic in terrestrial ecosystems.

  18. Revision of the genus Hydroides (Annelida: Serpulidae) from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanan; Wong, Eunice; ten Hove, Harry A; Hutchings, Pat A; Williamson, Jane E; Kupriyanova, Elena K

    2015-09-01

    Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 is the largest and one of the economically most important genera of calcareous tubeworms (Serpulidae, Annelida) that includes a number of notorious fouling and bioinvading species. Although the representatives of the genus are typically found in shallow waters of tropical and subtropical areas worldwide, the species composition of the genus in Australia has never been revised. We conducted the first detailed regional taxonomic revision of Hydroides species based both on the historical collections from Australian museums (Australian Museum, Museum Victoria, South Australian Museum, Western Australian Museum, Queensland Museum, and Museum and Art Gallery of Northern Territory) and newly collected material from New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Northern Territory, and Western Australia. In total, 25 species are currently considered valid in Australia, including three new species: H. amri n. sp. from NSW, SA, and Vic (previously referred to as H. cf. brachyacantha), as well as H. glasbyi n. sp. and H. qiui n. sp., both from NT, and two new records of H. furcifera and H. multispinosa for Australia. We have synonymised H. spiratubus with H. albiceps, and H. spiculitubus with H. tambalagamensis in this study. The status of the taxon H. cf. recta remains undecided. An identification key and diagnoses accompanied by original high-quality photographs for all species recorded in Australia are provided. Application of molecular genetics is needed to resolve the status of some problematic species.

  19. Different levels of taxonomic resolution in bioassessment: a case study of oligochaeta in lowland streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Cortelezzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study evaluated the use of oligochaetes at different levels of taxonomic resolution as environmental indicators in Argentine lowland streams affected by different land uses. METHODS: Sampling sites were grouped based on the physicochemical and habitat characteristics (low-, moderate-, and high-impact disturbance. Collection of the oligochaetes samples was carried out seasonally in sediment and vegetation habitats. RESULTS: The increases in nutrients and organic matter produced elevated densities of the Oligochaeta, but when the disturbance also involved changes in the physical habitat or enhancements in toxic substances, the abundance decreased significantly to values even lower than those of non-impacted environments. The responses of Naidinae and Tubificinae were similar. The density of the Pristininae decreased with increasing impact, but those of the Enchytraeidae and Rhyacodrilinae increased at the most highly impacted sites. The Opistocystidae were not recorded in high-impact sites. Species richness and diversity (H' were lower in high-impact sites and even lower in sediments. Some species presented no restrictions in the habitat type or with the contamination level: Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, Dero furcatus, D. digitata, D. pectinata, Pristina longiseta, and P. aequiseta. Moreover, Trieminentia corderoi, Slavina appendiculata, and Aulodrilus pigueti exhibited the highest abundances at low-impact sites and were not registered in high-impact sites. CONCLUSIONS: The Oligochaeta show a relatively wide ecological valence through their extensive number of species. Although lower taxonomic levels can give information about environmental status, test-species' sensitivities to different types and degrees of contamination will be of utmost relevance to the evaluation of ecological quality.

  20. Growth, reproductive biology and life cycle of the vermicomposting earthworm, Perionyx ceylanensis Mich. (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmegam, Natchimuthu; Daniel, Thilagavathy

    2009-10-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the growth, reproduction and life cycle of the earthworm, Perionyx ceylanensis Mich. in cowdung for the period of 340 days. Results showed that the overall mean growth rate was 1.79, 1.57 and 1.34 mg/worm/day respectively for the worms cultured singly, in batches of four and eight. Cocoon production rate was found between 0.85 and 0.94 cocoons/worm/day and the hatching success between 74.67% and 82.67%. The majority of the cocoons (95.16-96.77%) hatched only one hatchling. Worms raised singly also produced viable cocoons indicating that P. ceylanensis reproduce parthenogenetically. The life cycle of the worms cultured singly was +/-57 days and it was +/-50 days for the worms cultured in batches of four and eight. There is a vast scope to utilize P. ceylanensis for vermiculture practices due to short period of life cycle.

  1. Pin Worm Survey on Infant School Children in Gunma Prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    佐藤, 久美子; 阿部, 美幸; 伊藤, 恵美; 金田, 聡子; 関口, 直美; 深町, 容子; 松渕, ユカ子; 柳, 博美; 鈴木, 守

    1991-01-01

    Pin worms (Enterobius vermicularis) are the commonest intestinal parasite in Japan. Examination of this worm infection is usually made by microscopic observation on the swab taken on a scothch tape. We conducted a survey of pin worm infection among infant school children of 4-6 years old. Suitable days for swab examination were studied by comparing the detection rate according to the consecutive days tested. Results were summarized as follows: 1. Three hundred sixteen children (172 boys and 1...

  2. Worms Eat My Garbage. How To Set Up and Maintain a Worm Composting System. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhof, Mary

    This book is a resource for parents and teachers who want to teach about recycling and composting by setting up and maintaining a worm composting system. It is designed to be a detailed yet simple manual of vermicomposting. The manual covers the basics of vermicomposting and answers such questions as where to store a composting container, what…

  3. Worm-it: converting organic wastes into sustainable fish feed by using aquatic worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elissen, H.J.H.; Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, H.; Laarhoven, B.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2015-01-01

    Due to overfishing and the use of one-third of wild fish catches for feeding farmed fish and livestock, there is a strong need for alternative sources of suitable proteins and lipids in fish feeds. Small freshwater worms of the species Lumbriculus variegatus can be such a source based on their high

  4. Rapid detection of worms using ICMP-T3 analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Robert S.; Berk, Vincent H.

    2004-09-01

    Identification of an active Internet worm is a manual process where security analysts must observe and analyze unusual activity on multiple firewalls, intrusion-detection systems or hosts. A worm might not be positively identified until it already has spread to most of the Internet, eliminating many defensive options. In previous work, we developed an automated system that can identify active worms seconds or minutes after they first begin to spread, a necessary precursor to halting the spread of the worm rather than simply cleaning up afterward. The system collects ICMP Destination Unreachable messages from instrumented network routers, identifies those patterns of unreachable messages that indicate malicious scanning activity, and then searches for patterns of scanning activity that indicate a propagating worm. In this paper, we compare the performance of two different detection strategies, our previous threshold approach and a new line-fit approach, for different worm-propagation techniques, noise environments, and system parameters. These techniques work for worms that generate at least some of their target addresses through a random process, a feature of most recent worms. Although both being powerful methods for fast worm identification, the new line-fit approach proves to be significantly more noise resistant.

  5. Design a Security Network System against Internet Worms

    OpenAIRE

    Rana Dhia'a Abdu-Aljabar

    2012-01-01

    Active worms have posed a major security threat to the Internet, and many research efforts have focused on them. This paper is interested in internet worm that spreads via TCP, which accounts for the majority of internet traffic. It presents an approach that use a hybrid solution between two detection algorithms: behavior base detection and signature base detection to have the features of each of them. The aim of this study is to have a good solution of detecting worm and stealthy worm with t...

  6. Tapping Indigenous Knowledge to Time Strategic De-worming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategic de-worming is a cost-effective management intervention to which farm animals are subjected at specific times in the year to prevent pasture contamination, reduce infestation rates and eliminate the negative effects of parasitosis to maximize production and economic gain. No studies, on which strategic de-worming ...

  7. Network protection against worms and cascading failures using modularity partitioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omic, J.; Hernandez, J.M.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2010-01-01

    Communication networks are prone to virus and worms spreading and cascading failures. Recently, a number of social networking worms have spread over public Web sites. Another example is error propagation in routing tables, such as in BGP tables. The immunization and error curing applied to these

  8. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how

  9. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how the

  10. "Qupirruit": insects and worms in Inuit traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugrand, Frédéric; Oosten, Jarich

    2010-01-01

    Although small beings such as the "qupirruit" (insects and worms) appear in many different contexts in Inuit culture, they have not received much attention from scholars. In this paper we examine the symbolism associated with these small animals. We show that their small size makes them suitable to operate on the level of the "tarniq," a miniature image of a being. We discuss how insects often connect different scales and easily transform into other beings. We first deal with the perceptions of insects as they take shape in narratives and practices, and their roles in the manufacture and use of amulets. Then we move to a more specific analysis of the distinctive features of the various "qupirruit".

  11. Comparative studies of jaw morphology and ontogeny in two species of asexually reproducing Dorvilleidae (Annelida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macnaughton, Martin Oliver; Eibye-Jacobsen, Danny; Worsaae, Katrine

    2011-01-01

    The jaw ontogeny of Dorvillea albomaculata and D. bermudensis was studied in cultured specimens, reproducing asexually by transverse fission. Mandibular growth was found to occur by lateral apposition. Maxillary development exhibited a gradual growth pattern, as opposed to the maxillary moults fo...... albomaculata and D. bermudensis are here reassigned to the genus Parougia (Dorvilleidae, Annelida). This is supported by the external morphology as well as previous molecular studies. (C) 2011...

  12. New Eclipidrilus species (Annelida, Clitellata, Lumbriculidae) from southeastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fend, Steven V.; Lenat, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Three new species of Lumbriculidae from southeastern North America are attributed to Eclipidrilus Eisen. All are small worms (diameter 0.2–0.5 mm), having semi-prosoporous male ducts with the atria in X, and spermathecae in IX. Eclipidrilus breviatriatus n. sp. and E. microthecus n. sp. have crosshatched atrial musculature, similar to some E. (Eclipidrilus) species, but they differ from congeners in having small, compact spermathecal ampullae. Eclipidrilus macphersonae n. sp. has a single, median atrium and spermatheca. The new species have been collected only in Sandhills and Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain streams of North Carolina.

  13. Development of the nervous system in Platynereis dumerilii (Nereididae, Annelida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starunov, Viktor V; Voronezhskaya, Elena E; Nezlin, Leonid P

    2017-01-01

    The structure and development of the nervous system in Lophotrochozoa has long been recognized as one of the most important subjects for phylogenetic and evolutionary discussion. Many recent papers have presented comprehensive data on the structure and development of catecholaminergic, serotonergic and FMRFamidergic parts of the nervous system. However, relatively few papers contain detailed descriptions of the nervous system in Annelida, one of the largest taxa of Lophotrochozoa. The polychaete species Platynereis dumerilii has recently become one of the more popular model animals in evolutionary and developmental biology. The goal of the present study was to provide a detailed description of its neuronal development. The data obtained will contribute to a better understanding of the basic features of neuronal development in polychaetes. We have studied the development of the nervous system in P. dumerilii utilizing histo- and immunochemical labelling of catecholamines, serotonin, FMRFamide related peptides, and acetylated tubulin. The first neuron differentiates at the posterior extremity of the protrochophore, reacts to the antibodies against both serotonin and FMRFamide. Then its fibres run forwards along the ventral side. Soon, more neurons appear at the apical extreme, and their basal neurites form the basel structure of the developing brain (cerebral neuropil and circumesophageal connectives). Initial development of the nervous system starts in two rudiments: anterior and posterior. At the nectochaete stage, segmental ganglia start to differentiate in the anterior-to-posterior direction, and the first structures of the stomatogastric and peripheral nervous system appear. All connectives including the unpaired ventral cord develop from initially paired nerves. We present a detailed description of Platynereis dumerilii neuronal development based on anti-acetylated tubulin, serotonin, and FMRFamide-like immunostaining as well as catecholamine

  14. Seasonal population dynamics of Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826) (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy, Fernando; Aira, Manuel; Domínguez, Jorge; Velando, Alberto

    2006-11-01

    In order to assess the response of epigeic earthworms to seasonal changes we monitored the population dynamics of Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) in a manure heap in the field during a year. Earthworms were hand-sorted from five 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.20 m blocks around the heap in November (autumn) 1999 and in January (winter), April (spring) and August (summer) 2000 to determine earthworm population dynamics. Earthworms of each block were classified into different age classes: mature, preclitellate, juvenile, hatchling and cocoon, and afterwards counted and weighed. Seasonality had a strong effect on the density, biomass and reproductive activity of the population. The population of E. fetida was characterized by a high density of individuals and the predominance of mature individuals throughout the year. Maximum density, mating activity and size of cocoons were achieved in spring, but there were not changes in the number of cocoons per mature earthworm throughout the year. Unexpectedly, the smallest cocoons were produced in winter by the largest individuals. These results suggest that E. fetida is able to allocate resources to growth and/or reproduction in response to environmental fluctuations.

  15. Phylogeny of Annelida (Lophotrochozoa): total-evidence analysis of morphology and six genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrzavý, Jan; Ríha, Pavel; Piálek, Lubomír; Janouskovec, Jan

    2009-08-06

    Annelida is one of the major protostome phyla, whose deep phylogeny is very poorly understood. Recent molecular phylogenies show that Annelida may include groups once considered separate phyla (Pogonophora, Echiurida, and Sipunculida) and that Clitellata are derived polychaetes. SThe "total-evidence" analyses combining morphological and molecular characters have been published for a few annelid taxa. No attempt has yet been made to analyse simultaneously morphological and molecular information concerning the Annelida as a whole. Phylogenetic relationships within Annelida were analysed on the basis of 93 morphological characters and sequences of six genes (18S, 28S, and 16S rRNA, EF1alpha, H3, COI), altogether, 87 terminals of all annelid "families" and 3,903 informative characters, by Bayesian and maximum-parsimony methods. The analysis of the combined dataset yields the following scheme of relationships: Phyllodocida and Eunicida are monophyletic groups, together probably forming monophyletic Aciculata (incl. Orbiniidae and Parergodrilidae that form a sister group of the Eunicida). The traditional "Scolecida" and "Canalipalpata" are both polyphyletic, forming instead two clades: one including Cirratuliformia and the "sabelloid-spionoid clade" (incl. Sternaspis, Sabellidae-Serpulidae, Sabellariidae, Spionida s.str.), the other ("terebelloid-capitelloid clade") including Terebelliformia, Arenicolidae-Maldanidae, and Capitellidae-Echiurida. The Clitellata and "clitellate-like polychaetes" (Aeolosomatidae, Potamodrilidae, Hrabeiella) form a monophyletic group. The position of the remaining annelid groups is uncertain--the most problematic taxa are the Opheliidae-Scalibregmatidae clade, the Amphinomida-Aberranta clade, Apistobranchus, Chaetopteridae, Myzostomida, the Sipunculida-Dinophilidae clade, and the "core Archiannelida" (= Protodrilidae, Nerillidae, Polygordiidae, Saccocirridae). The combined ("total-evidence") phylogenetic analysis provides a modified view of

  16. A calibration mechanism based on worm drive for space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Yaqin; Li, Chuang; Xia, Siyu; Zhong, Peifeng; Lei, Wang

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a new type of calibration mechanism based on worm drive is presented for a space telescope. This calibration mechanism based on worm drive has the advantages of compact size and self-lock. The mechanism mainly consists of thirty-six LEDs as the light source for flat calibration, a diffuse plate, a step motor, a worm gear reducer and a potentiometer. As the main part of the diffuse plate, a PTFE tablet is mounted in an aluminum alloy frame. The frame is fixed on the shaft of the worm gear, which is driven by the step motor through the worm. The shaft of the potentiometer is connected to that of the worm gear to measure the rotation angle of the diffuse plate through a flexible coupler. Firstly, the calibration mechanism is designed, which includes the LEDs assembly design, the worm gear reducer design and the diffuse plate assembly design. The counterweight blocks and two end stops are also designed for the diffuse plate assembly. Then a modal analysis with finite element method for the diffuse plate assembly is completed.

  17. Cytogenetic description of the earthworm Drawida ghilarovi Gates, 1969 (Oligochaeta, Moniligastridae) from the southern Russian Far East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Alim P.; Roslik, Galina V.; Ganin, Gennady N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sixty-six specimens of the earthworm Drawida ghilarovi Gates, 1969 (Oligochaeta, Moniligastridae) from 15 localities of the southern Russian Far East were studied cytogenetically. We examined chromosome sets during mitosis and diakinesis as well as DNA content in the spermatogenous and somatic cell nuclei. The populations and morphs displayed no differences in karyotype and ploidy levels estimated in terms of both chromosome number and DNA mass index: n = 10, 2n = 20; c = 1.1 pg, 2c = 2.2 pg. We conclude that polyploidy as a species- or race-forming factor is not typical of these earthworms. PMID:26753075

  18. Cytogenetic description of the earthworm Drawida ghilarovi Gates, 1969 (Oligochaeta, Moniligastridae) from the southern Russian Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Alim P; Roslik, Galina V; Ganin, Gennady N

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-six specimens of the earthworm Drawida ghilarovi Gates, 1969 (Oligochaeta, Moniligastridae) from 15 localities of the southern Russian Far East were studied cytogenetically. We examined chromosome sets during mitosis and diakinesis as well as DNA content in the spermatogenous and somatic cell nuclei. The populations and morphs displayed no differences in karyotype and ploidy levels estimated in terms of both chromosome number and DNA mass index: n = 10, 2n = 20; c = 1.1 pg, 2c = 2.2 pg. We conclude that polyploidy as a species- or race-forming factor is not typical of these earthworms.

  19. The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNAs from two Annelida species, Perinereis brevicirris and Sabellastarte japonica, and an Echiura species, Urechis unicinctus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazaki, T; Hori, H; Osawa, S

    1983-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNAs from two Annelida species, Perinereis brevicirris and Sabellastarte japonica, and an Echiura species, Urechis unicinctus have been determined. Their sequences are all 120 nucleotides long. The sequence similarity percents are 88% (Perinereis/Sabellastarte), 90% (Sabellastarte/Urechis) and 92% (Perinereis/Urechis), indicating that the Echiura is indistinguishable from the Annelida by their 5S rRNAs. The 5S rRNA sequences from the Annelida/Echiura are most related to those from the Nemertinea (87%), the Mollusca (87%) and the Rotifera (88%). PMID:6856459

  20. The theory and practice of worm gear drives

    CERN Document Server

    Dudás, Ilés

    2005-01-01

    Worm gears are special gears that resemble screws, and can be used to drive other gears. Worm gears, enable two non-touching shafts in a machine to mesh (join) together. This publication, unique in that it combines both theoretical and practical design aspects, including the latest results of research and development, provides detailed treatment of the theory and production of worm drives, as well as the overarching subject of production geometry of helicoidal surfaces.Included are mathematical models for a number of practical applications; a description of dressing equipment r

  1. Velvet worm development links myriapods with chelicerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Georg; Whitington, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the advent of modern molecular and computational methods, the phylogeny of the four major arthropod groups (Chelicerata, Myriapoda, Crustacea and Hexapoda, including the insects) remains enigmatic. One particular challenge is the position of myriapods as either the closest relatives to chelicerates (Paradoxopoda/Myriochelata hypothesis), or to crustaceans and hexapods (Mandibulata hypothesis). While neither hypothesis receives conclusive support from molecular analyses, most morphological studies favour the Mandibulata concept, with the mandible being the most prominent feature of this group. Although no morphological evidence was initially available to support the Paradoxopoda hypothesis, a putative synapomorphy of chelicerates and myriapods has recently been put forward based on studies of neurogenesis. However, this and other morphological characters remain of limited use for phylogenetic systematics owing to the lack of data from an appropriate outgroup. Here, we show that several embryonic characters are synapomorphies uniting the chelicerates and myriapods, as revealed by an outgroup comparison with the Onychophora or velvet worms. Our findings, thus provide, to our knowledge, first morphological/embryological support for the monophyly of the Paradoxopoda and suggest that the mandible might have evolved twice within the arthropods. PMID:19640885

  2. Basic definitions for discrete modeling of computer worms epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Guevara López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The information technologies have evolved in such a way that communication between computers or hosts has become common, so much that the worldwide organization (governments and corporations depends on it; what could happen if these computers stop working for a long time is catastrophic. Unfortunately, networks are attacked by malware such as viruses and worms that could collapse the system. This has served as motivation for the formal study of computer worms and epidemics to develop strategies for prevention and protection; this is why in this paper, before analyzing epidemiological models, a set of formal definitions based on set theory and functions is proposed for describing 21 concepts used in the study of worms. These definitions provide a basis for future qualitative research on the behavior of computer worms, and quantitative for the study of their epidemiological models.

  3. Mathematical model for spreading dynamics of social network worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Liu, Yan-Heng; Li, Bin; Li, Jin; Han, Jia-Wei; Liu, Xue-Jie

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model for social network worm spreading is presented from the viewpoint of social engineering. This model consists of two submodels. Firstly, a human behavior model based on game theory is suggested for modeling and predicting the expected behaviors of a network user encountering malicious messages. The game situation models the actions of a user under the condition that the system may be infected at the time of opening a malicious message. Secondly, a social network accessing model is proposed to characterize the dynamics of network users, by which the number of online susceptible users can be determined at each time step. Several simulation experiments are carried out on artificial social networks. The results show that (1) the proposed mathematical model can well describe the spreading dynamics of social network worms; (2) weighted network topology greatly affects the spread of worms; (3) worms spread even faster on hybrid social networks.

  4. Is Host-Based Anomaly Detection + Temporal Correlation = Worm Causality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sekar, Vyas; Xie, Yinglian; Reiter, Michael K; Zhang, Hui

    2007-01-01

    Epidemic-spreading attacks (e.g., worm and botnet propagation) have a natural notion of attack causality - a single network flow causes a victim host to get infected and subsequently spread the attack...

  5. The Worm Guide: A Vericomposting Guide for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

    This guide focuses on vermicomposting of food waste. Contents include: (1) "Integrated Waste Management"; (2) "Basics of Vermicomposting"; (3) "Other Worm Bin Residents"; (4) "The Garden Connection"; (5) "Closing the Food Loop at Your School"; (6) "Fundraising"; (7) "Activities for…

  6. Metagenomic Analysis of Microbial Symbionts in a Gutless Worm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woyke, Tanja; Teeling, Hanno; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Hunteman, Marcel; Richter, Michael; Gloeckner, Frank Oliver; Boeffelli, Dario; Barry, Kerrie W.; Shapiro, Harris J.; Anderson, Iain J.; Szeto, Ernest; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Bergin, Claudia; Ruehland, Caroline; Rubin, Edward M.; Dubilier, Nicole

    2006-05-01

    Symbioses between bacteria and eukaryotes are ubiquitous, yet our understanding of the interactions driving these associations is hampered by our inability to cultivate most host-associated microbes. Here we use a metagenomic approach to describe four co-occurring symbionts from the marine oligochaete Olavius algarvensis, a worm lacking a mouth, gut and nephridia. Shotgun sequencing and metabolic pathway reconstruction revealed that the symbionts are sulphur-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing bacteria, all of which are capable of carbon fixation, thus providing the host with multiple sources of nutrition. Molecular evidence for the uptake and recycling of worm waste products by the symbionts suggests how the worm could eliminate its excretory system, an adaptation unique among annelid worms. We propose a model that describes how the versatile metabolism within this symbiotic consortium provides the host with an optimal energy supply as it shuttles between the upper oxic and lower anoxic coastal sediments that it inhabits.

  7. Shrimp aquaculture in low salinity water feeded with worm flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenceslao Valenzuela Quiñónez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp aquaculture in Sinaloa is one of the top economic enterprises, generating many jobs and earns significant incomes every year. Shrimp feed is an essential part of maintaining healthy production. In this initial approach of shrimp growth in low salinity water, were tested two formulas of animal protein composed of 40% (APL1 and 20% (APL2 worm protein, a commercial diet, and no supplementary feed. Physicochemical parameters did not have a direct influence in shrimpbehavior. After six weeks of experimentation, shrimp fed with commercial diet had a weight gain 20% higher than those feed with worm protein. There were no significantly differences between sizes with respect to 40% animal protein and 20% animal protein with the commercial diet (P  0.05. However, shrimp fed worm protein had lower mortality. The use of worm protein could be an option to maintain a high quantity of shrimp reared in low salinity waters.

  8. Polymorphic worm detection using strong token-pair signatures

    OpenAIRE

    BAYOĞLU, Burak; SOĞUKPINAR, İbrahim

    2009-01-01

    Malicious software has become a big threat to information systems, which are widely used to store, transfer and process information for many critical assets. Worms are one of the most harmful network-enabled malicious software that can threaten networks and applications. Two main characteristics of worms distinguish them from the well-known virus programs and as a result are much more dangerous than the virus programs. First, they do not need to attach themselves to an existing prog...

  9. Navigating molecular worms inside chemical labyrinths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haranczyk, M.; Sethian, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Predicting whether a molecule can traverse chemical labyrinths of channels, tunnels, and buried cavities usually requires performing computationally intensive molecular dynamics simulations. Often one wants to screen molecules to identify ones that can pass through a given chemical labyrinth or screen chemical labyrinths to identify those that allow a given molecule to pass. Because it is impractical to test each molecule/labyrinth pair using computationally expensive methods, faster, approximate methods are used to prune possibilities, “triaging” the ability of a proposed molecule to pass through the given chemical labyrinth. Most pruning methods estimate chemical accessibility solely on geometry, treating atoms or groups of atoms as hard spheres with appropriate radii. Here, we explore geometric configurations for a moving “molecular worm,” which replaces spherical probes and is assembled from solid blocks connected by flexible links. The key is to extend the fast marching method, which is an ordered upwind one-pass Dijkstra-like method to compute optimal paths by efficiently solving an associated Eikonal equation for the cost function. First, we build a suitable cost function associated with each possible configuration, and second, we construct an algorithm that works in ensuing high-dimensional configuration space: at least seven dimensions are required to account for translational, rotational, and internal degrees of freedom. We demonstrate the algorithm to study shortest paths, compute accessible volume, and derive information on topology of the accessible part of a chemical labyrinth. As a model example, we consider an alkane molecule in a porous material, which is relevant to designing catalysts for oil processing. PMID:20018716

  10. Mosquito infection responses to developing filarial worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Erickson

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Human lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-vectored disease caused by the nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. These are relatively large roundworms that can cause considerable damage in compatible mosquito vectors. In order to assess how mosquitoes respond to infection in compatible mosquito-filarial worm associations, microarray analysis was used to evaluate transcriptome changes in Aedes aegypti at various times during B. malayi development. Changes in transcript abundance in response to the different stages of B. malayi infection were diverse. At the early stages of midgut and thoracic muscle cell penetration, a greater number of genes were repressed compared to those that were induced (20 vs. 8. The non-feeding, intracellular first-stage larvae elicited few differences, with 4 transcripts showing an increased and 9 a decreased abundance relative to controls. Several cecropin transcripts increased in abundance after parasites molted to second-stage larvae. However, the greatest number of transcripts changed in abundance after larvae molted to third-stage larvae and migrated to the head and proboscis (120 induced, 38 repressed, including a large number of putative, immunity-related genes (approximately 13% of genes with predicted functions. To test whether the innate immune system of mosquitoes was capable of modulating permissiveness to the parasite, we activated the Toll and Imd pathway controlled rel family transcription factors Rel1 and Rel2 (by RNA interference knockdown of the pathway's negative regulators Cactus and Caspar during the early stages of infection with B. malayi. The activation of either of these immune signaling pathways, or knockdown of the Toll pathway, did not affect B. malayi in Ae. aegypti. The possibility of LF parasites evading mosquito immune responses during successful development is discussed.

  11. Bacterial Microbiota Associated with the Glacier Ice Worm Is Dominated by Both Worm-Specific and Glacier-Derived Facultative Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takumi; Segawa, Takahiro; Dial, Roman; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Kohshima, Shiro; Hongoh, Yuichi

    2017-03-31

    The community structure of bacteria associated with the glacier ice worm Mesenchytraeus solifugus was analyzed by amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and their transcripts. Ice worms were collected from two distinct glaciers in Alaska, Harding Icefield and Byron Glacier, and glacier surfaces were also sampled for comparison. Marked differences were observed in bacterial community structures between the ice worm and glacier surface samples. Several bacterial phylotypes were detected almost exclusively in the ice worms, and these bacteria were phylogenetically affiliated with either animal-associated lineages or, interestingly, clades mostly consisting of glacier-indigenous species. The former included bacteria that belong to Mollicutes, Chlamydiae, Rickettsiales, and Lachnospiraceae, while the latter included Arcicella and Herminiimonas phylotypes. Among these bacteria enriched in ice worm samples, Mollicutes, Arcicella, and Herminiimonas phylotypes were abundantly and consistently detected in the ice worm samples; these phylotypes constituted the core microbiota associated with the ice worm. A fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that Arcicella cells specifically colonized the epidermis of the ice worms. Other bacterial phylotypes detected in the ice worm samples were also abundantly recovered from the respective habitat glaciers; these bacteria may be food for ice worms to digest or temporary residents. Nevertheless, some were overrepresented in the ice worm RNA samples; they may also function as facultative gut bacteria. Our results indicate that the community structure of bacteria associated with ice worms is distinct from that in the associated glacier and includes worm-specific and facultative, glacier-indigenous lineages.

  12. Invasion of the tropical earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Rhinodrilidae, Oligochaeta in temperate grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ortiz-Gamino

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The tropical earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Rhinodrilidae, Oligochaeta presents a broad distribution (e.g., 56 countries from four continents. It is generally assumed that temperature appears to limit the success of tropical exotic species in temperate climates. However, the distribution range of this species could advance towards higher elevations (with lower temperatures where no tropical species currently occur. The aim of this study was to evaluate the soil and climatic variables that could be closely associated with the distribution of P. corethrurus in four sites along an altitudinal gradient in central Veracruz, Mexico. We predicted that the distribution of P. corethrurus would be more related to climate variables than edaphic parameters. Five sampling points (in the grassland were established at each of four sites along an altitudinal gradient: Laguna Verde (LV, La Concepción (LC, Naolinco (NA and Acatlán (AC at 11–55, 992–1,025, 1,550–1,619 y 1,772–1,800 masl, respectively. The climate ranged from tropical to temperate along the altitudinal gradient. Ten earthworm species (5 Neotropical, 4 Palearctic and 1 Nearctic were found along the gradient, belonging to three families (Rhinodrilidae, Megascolecide and Lumbricidae. Soil properties showed a significant association (positive for Ngrass, pH, permanent wilting point, organic matter and P; and negative for Total N, K and water-holding capacity with the abundance of the earthworm community. Also there seems to be a relationship between climate and earthworm distribution along the altitudinal gradient. P. corethrurus was recorded at tropical (LV and LC and temperate sites (NA along the altitudinal gradient. Our results reveal that soil fertility determines the abundance of earthworms and site (climate can act as a barrier to their migration. Further research is needed to determine the genetic structure and lineages of P. corethrurus along altitudinal gradients.

  13. Invasion of the tropical earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Rhinodrilidae, Oligochaeta) in temperate grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gamino, Diana; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; Ortiz-Ceballos, Angel I

    2016-01-01

    The tropical earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Rhinodrilidae, Oligochaeta) presents a broad distribution (e.g., 56 countries from four continents). It is generally assumed that temperature appears to limit the success of tropical exotic species in temperate climates. However, the distribution range of this species could advance towards higher elevations (with lower temperatures) where no tropical species currently occur. The aim of this study was to evaluate the soil and climatic variables that could be closely associated with the distribution of P. corethrurus in four sites along an altitudinal gradient in central Veracruz, Mexico. We predicted that the distribution of P. corethrurus would be more related to climate variables than edaphic parameters. Five sampling points (in the grassland) were established at each of four sites along an altitudinal gradient: Laguna Verde (LV), La Concepción (LC), Naolinco (NA) and Acatlán (AC) at 11-55, 992-1,025, 1,550-1,619 y 1,772-1,800 masl, respectively. The climate ranged from tropical to temperate along the altitudinal gradient. Ten earthworm species (5 Neotropical, 4 Palearctic and 1 Nearctic) were found along the gradient, belonging to three families (Rhinodrilidae, Megascolecide and Lumbricidae). Soil properties showed a significant association (positive for Ngrass, pH, permanent wilting point, organic matter and P; and negative for Total N, K and water-holding capacity) with the abundance of the earthworm community. Also there seems to be a relationship between climate and earthworm distribution along the altitudinal gradient. P. corethrurus was recorded at tropical (LV and LC) and temperate sites (NA) along the altitudinal gradient. Our results reveal that soil fertility determines the abundance of earthworms and site (climate) can act as a barrier to their migration. Further research is needed to determine the genetic structure and lineages of P. corethrurus along altitudinal gradients.

  14. The mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii supports its association with Annelida rather than Mollusca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.; Staton, Joseph

    2001-09-01

    We have determined the sequence of about half (7470 nts) of the mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii, the first representative of this phylum to be so studied. All of the 19 identified genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand. The arrangement of these genes is remarkably similar to that of the oligochaete annelid Lumbricus terrestris. Comparison of both the inferred amino acid sequences and the gene arrangements of a variety of diverse metazoan taxa reveals that the phylum Sipuncula is more closely related to Annelida than to Mollusca. This requires reinterpretation of the homology of several embryological features and of patterns of animal body plan evolution.

  15. Mosquito transcriptome profiles and filarial worm susceptibility in Armigeres subalbatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Aliota

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Armigeres subalbatus is a natural vector of the filarial worm Brugia pahangi, but it kills Brugia malayi microfilariae by melanotic encapsulation. Because B. malayi and B. pahangi are morphologically and biologically similar, comparing Ar. subalbatus-B. pahangi susceptibility and Ar. subalbatus-B. malayi refractoriness could provide significant insight into recognition mechanisms required to mount an effective anti-filarial worm immune response in the mosquito, as well as provide considerable detail into the molecular components involved in vector competence. Previously, we assessed the transcriptional response of Ar. subalbatus to B. malayi, and now we report transcriptome profiling studies of Ar. subalbatus in relation to filarial worm infection to provide information on the molecular components involved in B. pahangi susceptibility.Utilizing microarrays, comparisons were made between mosquitoes exposed to B. pahangi, B. malayi, and uninfected bloodmeals. The time course chosen facilitated an examination of key events in the development of the parasite, beginning with the very start of filarial worm infection and spanning to well after parasites had developed to the infective stage in the mosquito. At 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 h post infection and 2-3, 5-6, 8-9, and 13-14 days post challenge there were 31, 75, 113, 76, 54, 5, 3, 13, and 2 detectable transcripts, respectively, with significant differences in transcript abundance (increase or decrease as a result of parasite development.Herein, we demonstrate that filarial worm susceptibility in a laboratory strain of the natural vector Ar. subalbatus involves many factors of both known and unknown function that most likely are associated with filarial worm penetration through the midgut, invasion into thoracic muscle cells, and maintenance of homeostasis in the hemolymph environment. The data show that there are distinct and separate transcriptional patterns associated with filarial worm susceptibility

  16. Molecular phylogeny of North American Branchiobdellida (Annelida: Clitellata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bronwyn W; Gelder, Stuart R; Proctor, Heather C; Coltman, David W

    2013-01-01

    Branchiobdellidans, or crayfish worms, are ectosymbiotic clitellate annelids associated primarily with freshwater crayfishes. The main objectives of our study were to infer a molecular phylogeny for the North American Branchiobdellida, examine its congruence with morphology-based hypotheses of relationships at the subfamily and genus level, and use our dataset to assess consistency of GenBank-archived branchiobdellidan sequences. We used nucleotide sequence data from two mtDNA genes (COI and 16S rDNA) and three nuclear genes (28S rDNA, 18S rDNA, and ITS1) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among 47 described and one undescribed species of Branchiobdellida. We recovered a monophyletic branchiobdellidan clade with generally short branch lengths, suggesting that a large portion of the taxon has likely undergone a recent and rapid radiation in North America. Results from our phylogenetic analyses indicate that current taxonomic groupings are largely unsupported by the molecular data. All four subfamilies are either paraphyletic or polyphyletic, and only three of seven sampled non-monotypic genera were monophyletic. We found a high rate (49%) of inconsistency in GenBank-archived sequences, over 70% of which can be attributed to field- or laboratory-based error. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of taxonomic resolution of Oligochaeta on the evaluation of water quality in an urban stream in Minas Gerais, Brazil A influência da resolução taxonômica de Oligochaeta na avaliação da qualidade da água em um córrego urbano em Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Linhares Frizzera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to verify the identification of specimens of the Oligochaeta in different taxonomic levels (family and species has the same potential for assessing the water quality of an urban stream in Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Oligochaeta specimens were collected from eight sampling stations in July 2007. Four stations were located in rural areas and the other four in urban areas. Were measured concentrations of dissolved oxygen, phosphorus and total nitrogen, pH, electrical conductivity and BOD. To evaluate the influence of taxonomic level, Oligochaeta specimens were identified at the family and species. We performed a principal component analysis (PCA to determine which abiotic variables best explained the distribution of Oligochaeta along the sampling stations. Cluster analysis was performed with the abundance of Oligochaeta in the family and species levels, separately, to assess the degree of similarity between the stations and check the level of identification of organisms could interfere with the associations formed. RESULTS: In general, the sampling stations located in urban areas had high pH, BOD and total nitrogen and phosphorus, while rural stations had a higher concentration of oxygen. Three families of Oligochaeta were found: Tubificidae, Naididae and Enchytraeidae. Tubificidae and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri were the family and the species with the highest density, respectively, especially at those stations located in urban areas. Both the PCA analysis and cluster analysis showed that the sampling stations in urban areas and rural areas have different characteristics that separate CONCLUSIONS: The studied environment presents two distinct regions: the urban region with a high degree of organic pollution and high density Tubificidae and L. hoffmeisteri, and rural, with less human influence and low density of organisms Oligochaeta. These features made the use of the taxonomic level of family allow a

  18. Sludge reduction using aquatic worms under different aeration regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lu; Gao, Ding; Wang, Kan; Liu, Hong-Tao; Wan, Xiao-Ming

    2017-03-01

    Adding aquatic worms to a wastewater treatment system can reduce sludge production through predation. The aeration level is crucial for success. To evaluate aeration impacts on sludge reduction and determine an optimal aeration regime, this study investigated the processes of in-situ sludge reduction, using aquatic worms exposed to different aeration levels. The experiment also compared treatment results between a conventional reactor and an aquatic worm reactor (WR). Results indicated that the recommended concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) was 2.5 mg L-1. The removal rate of chemical oxygen demand remained steady at 80% when the DO concentration was higher than 2.5 mg L-1, while the removal rate of ammonia nitrogen continued to moderately increase. Increasing the DO concentration to 5 mg L-1 did not improve sludge reduction, and consumed more power. With a DO concentration of 2.5 mg L-1 and a power of 0.19 kWh t-1 water, the absolute sludge reduction and relative sludge reduction rates in the WR were 60.0% and 45.7%, respectively, and the daily aquatic worm growth rate was 0.150 d-1 during the 17-d test. Therefore, at the recommended aeration regime, aquatic worms reduced the sludge without increasing the power consumption or deteriorating the effluent.

  19. Tracking movement behavior of multiple worms on food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemini, Eviatar; Kerr, Rex A; Schafer, William R

    2011-12-01

    Neurobiological research in genetically tractable organisms relies heavily on robust assays for behavioral phenotypes. The simple body plan of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans makes it particularly amenable to the use of automated microscopy and image analysis to describe behavioral patterns quantitatively. Forward genetic screens and screens of drug libraries require high-throughput phenotyping, a task traditionally incompatible with manual scoring of quantitatively varying behaviors. High-throughput automated analysis of C. elegans movement behavior is now possible with several different tracking software packages. The Multiworm Tracker (MWT) described here is designed for high-throughput analysis: it can record dozens of worms simultaneously at 30 frames per second for hours or days at a time. This is accomplished by performing all image analysis in real time, saving only the worm centroid, bearing, and outline data to the disk. To simplify image processing, the system focuses only on worms that have moved, and detects and discards worms that are touching rather than trying to isolate them computationally. Because the software is entirely automated, protocols can run unattended once the worms have been placed and the software has been started. The MWT does not save images for later analysis, but behavior can be validated manually with a companion analysis tool that replays recorded body postures. This protocol describes a basic basal movement assay on food using the MWT; similar protocols apply to related assays and to similar multiple animal trackers. The protocol can be extended to a variety of assays ranging from tap response to chemotaxis.

  20. [Killing effect of sodium abietate on adult worms of Schistosoma japonicum in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Bo; Liu, Hong-Jun; Wang, Ben-Jing; Zhou, Xia; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Chen-Chen; Gong, Wei; Zhu-Ge, Hong-Xiang

    2011-06-01

    To observe the killing effect of sodium abietate on adult male and female worms of Schistosoma japonicum in vitro. The mice infected with cercariae of S. japonicum were sacrificed and perfused five weeks later, the adult worms obtained by the portal perfusion method, were cultivated in DMEM medium containing different concentrations of sodium abietate for 3 days, except the controls, then the worms were observed for the death and motility reducing. The worms were stained by hydrochloric acid carmine for the detection of the changes, and the protein of the worms was detected by using the ultraviolet ray-absorption and Bradford method. After the treatment of sodium abietate, the mortality and motility reducing rate of adult worms were higher significantly than the controls; the effect of sodium abietate on male worms was more obvious than on female worms. The male worms' intestinal canal enlarged and appeared black or brown bands or spots after the treatment. The contents of the intestine of female worms were distributed asymmetrically, and the shape of some worms' ovaries was anomalism and the coloring was asymmetrical. Compared with the control group, the protein of adult male and female worms were reduced (P worms of S. japonicum in vitro. It may affect the protein metabolism of the worms.

  1. The impact of various distance between axes of worm gear on torque value. Worm gear test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, M.; Baier, A.; Grabowski, Ł.

    2017-08-01

    Transferring both rotational and translational movements in systems used in the automotive industry is a very important and complex issue. In addition, the situation becomes much more difficult and complicated when the design of the transition system requires a high precision of operation as well as a well definite and long operating life. Such requirements are imposed on all components of today’s motor vehicles. However, particular attention is paid to the elements that directly or indirectly affect the safety of persons traveling in the vehicle. Such components are undoubtedly components included as parts of the steering system of the vehicle. Power steering systems have been present in motor vehicles for more than a century. They go through continuous metamorphosis and they are getting better and better. Current power steering systems are based on an electric motor and some kind of transmission. Depending on the position of the drive relative to the steering column, different configurations of the transmission are used. This article will cover issues related to tests of power steering gearing using a worm drive. The worm drive is a very specific example of a propulsion system that uses twisted axles. Normally, in this type of transition you can find two gear units with the axis mounted with a 90° angle between. The components of the worm drive are a worm and a worm gear, also called a worm wheel. In terms of the geometrical form, the worm resembles a helical spur gear. The shape of the worm is similar to the shape of a screw with a trapezoidal thread. A correct matching of these two components ensures proper operation of the entire transmission. Incorrect positioning of the components in relation to each other can significantly reduce the lifetime of the drive unit, and also lead to abnormal work, eg by raising the noise level. This article describes a test method of finding the appropriate distance between the axles of both worm drive units by testing the

  2. Logistics of Guinea worm disease eradication in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-03-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries.

  3. Hybrid epidemics--a case study on computer worm conficker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Chain, Benjamin M

    2015-01-01

    Conficker is a computer worm that erupted on the Internet in 2008. It is unique in combining three different spreading strategies: local probing, neighbourhood probing, and global probing. We propose a mathematical model that combines three modes of spreading: local, neighbourhood, and global, to capture the worm's spreading behaviour. The parameters of the model are inferred directly from network data obtained during the first day of the Conficker epidemic. The model is then used to explore the tradeoff between spreading modes in determining the worm's effectiveness. Our results show that the Conficker epidemic is an example of a critically hybrid epidemic, in which the different modes of spreading in isolation do not lead to successful epidemics. Such hybrid spreading strategies may be used beneficially to provide the most effective strategies for promulgating information across a large population. When used maliciously, however, they can present a dangerous challenge to current internet security protocols.

  4. Hybrid epidemics--a case study on computer worm conficker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwang Zhang

    Full Text Available Conficker is a computer worm that erupted on the Internet in 2008. It is unique in combining three different spreading strategies: local probing, neighbourhood probing, and global probing. We propose a mathematical model that combines three modes of spreading: local, neighbourhood, and global, to capture the worm's spreading behaviour. The parameters of the model are inferred directly from network data obtained during the first day of the Conficker epidemic. The model is then used to explore the tradeoff between spreading modes in determining the worm's effectiveness. Our results show that the Conficker epidemic is an example of a critically hybrid epidemic, in which the different modes of spreading in isolation do not lead to successful epidemics. Such hybrid spreading strategies may be used beneficially to provide the most effective strategies for promulgating information across a large population. When used maliciously, however, they can present a dangerous challenge to current internet security protocols.

  5. Logistics of Guinea Worm Disease Eradication in South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander H.; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P. Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R.; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-01-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical–logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries. PMID:24445199

  6. Shai-Hulud: The quest for worm sign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.; Faucheux, Jeffery P.; Lamkin, Ken

    2005-03-01

    Successful worm detection at real-time OC-48 and OC-192 speed requires hardware to extract web based binary sequences at faster than these speeds, and software to process the incoming sequences to identify worms. Computer hardware advancement in the form of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) makes real-time extraction of these sequences possible. Lacking are mathematical algorithms for worm detection in the real time data sequence, and the ability to convert these algorithms into lookup tables (LUTs) that can be compiled into FPGAs. Data Modeling provides the theory and algorithms for an effective mathematical framework for real-time worm detection and conversion of algorithms into LUTs. Detection methods currently available such as pattern recognition algorithms are limited both by the amount of time to compare the current data sequence with a historical database of potential candidates, and by the inability to accurately classify information that was unseen in the training process. Data Modeling eliminates these limitations by training only on examples of nominal behavior. This results in a highly tuned and fast running equation model that is compiled in a FPGA as a LUT and used at real-time OC-48 and OC-192 speeds to detect worms and other anomalies. This paper provides an overview of our approach for generating these Data Change Models for detecting worms, and their subsequent conversion into LUTs. A proof of concept is given using binary data from a WEBDAV, SLAMMER packet, and RED PROBE attack, with BASIC source code for the detector and LUT provided.

  7. Homology and evolution of the chaetae in Echiura (Annelida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilic, Ekin; Lehrke, Janina; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Echiura is traditionally regarded as a small phylum of unsegmented spiralian worms. Molecular analyses, however, provide unquestionable evidence that Echiura are derived annelids that lost segmentation. Like annelids, echiurans possess chaetae, a single ventral pair in all species and one or two additional caudal hemi-circles of chaetae in two subgroups, but their evolutionary origin and affiliation to annelid chaetae are unresolved. Since annelids possess segmental pairs of dorsal (notopodial) and ventral (neuropodial) chaetae that are arranged in a row, the ventral chaetae in Echiura either represent a single or a paired neuropodial group of chaetae, while the caudal circle may represent fused rows of chaetae. In annelids, chaetogenesis is generally restricted to the ventral part of the notopodial chaetal sac and to the dorsal part of the neuropodial chaetal sac. We used the exact position of the chaetal formation site in the echiuran species, Thalassema thalassemum (Pallas, 1766) and Echiurus echiurus (Pallas, 1767), to test different hypotheses of the evolution of echiurid chaetae. As in annelids, a single chaetoblast is responsible for chaetogenesis in both species. Each chaeta of the ventral pair arises from its own chaetal sac and possesses a lateral formation site, evidencing that the pair of ventral chaetae in Echiura is homologous to a pair of neuropodia that fused on the ventral side, while the notopodia were reduced. Both caudal hemi-circles of chaetae in Echiurus echiurus are composed of several individual chaetal sacs, each with its own formative site. This finding argues against a homology of these hemi-circles of chaetae and annelids' rows of chaetae and leads to the hypothesis that the caudal chaetal rings evolved once within the Echiura by multiplication of ventral chaetae.

  8. Homology and Evolution of the Chaetae in Echiura (Annelida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilic, Ekin; Lehrke, Janina; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Echiura is traditionally regarded as a small phylum of unsegmented spiralian worms. Molecular analyses, however, provide unquestionable evidence that Echiura are derived annelids that lost segmentation. Like annelids, echiurans possess chaetae, a single ventral pair in all species and one or two additional caudal hemi-circles of chaetae in two subgroups, but their evolutionary origin and affiliation to annelid chaetae are unresolved. Since annelids possess segmental pairs of dorsal (notopodial) and ventral (neuropodial) chaetae that are arranged in a row, the ventral chaetae in Echiura either represent a single or a paired neuropodial group of chaetae, while the caudal circle may represent fused rows of chaetae. In annelids, chaetogenesis is generally restricted to the ventral part of the notopodial chaetal sac and to the dorsal part of the neuropodial chaetal sac. We used the exact position of the chaetal formation site in the echiuran species, Thalassema thalassemum (Pallas, 1766) and Echiurus echiurus (Pallas, 1767), to test different hypotheses of the evolution of echiurid chaetae. As in annelids, a single chaetoblast is responsible for chaetogenesis in both species. Each chaeta of the ventral pair arises from its own chaetal sac and possesses a lateral formation site, evidencing that the pair of ventral chaetae in Echiura is homologous to a pair of neuropodia that fused on the ventral side, while the notopodia were reduced. Both caudal hemi-circles of chaetae in Echiurus echiurus are composed of several individual chaetal sacs, each with its own formative site. This finding argues against a homology of these hemi-circles of chaetae and annelids’ rows of chaetae and leads to the hypothesis that the caudal chaetal rings evolved once within the Echiura by multiplication of ventral chaetae. PMID:25734664

  9. Comparative neuroanatomy suggests repeated reduction of neuroarchitectural complexity in Annelida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todt Christiane

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paired mushroom bodies, an unpaired central complex, and bilaterally arranged clusters of olfactory glomeruli are among the most distinctive components of arthropod neuroarchitecture. Mushroom body neuropils, unpaired midline neuropils, and olfactory glomeruli also occur in the brains of some polychaete annelids, showing varying degrees of morphological similarity to their arthropod counterparts. Attempts to elucidate the evolutionary origin of these neuropils and to deduce an ancestral ground pattern of annelid cerebral complexity are impeded by the incomplete knowledge of annelid phylogeny and by a lack of comparative neuroanatomical data for this group. The present account aims to provide new morphological data for a broad range of annelid taxa in order to trace the occurrence and variability of higher brain centers in segmented worms. Results Immunohistochemically stained preparations provide comparative neuroanatomical data for representatives from 22 annelid species. The most prominent neuropil structures to be encountered in the annelid brain are the paired mushroom bodies that occur in a number of polychaete taxa. Mushroom bodies can in some cases be demonstrated to be closely associated with clusters of spheroid neuropils reminiscent of arthropod olfactory glomeruli. Less distinctive subcompartments of the annelid brain are unpaired midline neuropils that bear a remote resemblance to similar components in the arthropod brain. The occurrence of higher brain centers such as mushroom bodies, olfactory glomeruli, and unpaired midline neuropils seems to be restricted to errant polychaetes. Conclusions The implications of an assumed homology between annelid and arthropod mushroom bodies are discussed in light of the 'new animal phylogeny'. It is concluded that the apparent homology of mushroom bodies in distantly related groups has to be interpreted as a plesiomorphy, pointing towards a considerably complex

  10. Metal contents in water, sediment, and Oligochaeta-Chironomidae of Lake Uluabat, a Ramsar site of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Naime; Koç, Burcu; Ciçek, Arzu

    2010-07-06

    Samples of lake water and sediment, and sediment and two dominant zoobenthic taxa (Oligochaeta: Potamothrix hammoniensis and Chironomidae: Chironomus [Camptochironomus] tentans larvae), were collected from 12 stations in Lake Uluabat and examined from the metal level point of view (cadmium, chromium, lead, copper, nickel, and zinc). Our results showed that the occurrence of metals in water, sediment, and the two zoobenthic taxa are relatively high. The opinion that supports the results of Lake Uluabat shows that certain species of oligochaetes and chironomids accumulate examined metals several times over compared to their surroundings. Therefore, it is concluded that the oligochaetes and the chironomids are suitable candidates to be used in biomonitoring surveys of Lake Uluabat.

  11. Metal Contents in Water, Sediment, and Oligochaeta-Chironomidae of Lake Uluabat, a Ramsar Site of Turkey*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naime Arslan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of lake water and sediment, and sediment and two dominant zoobenthic taxa (Oligochaeta: Potamothrix hammoniensis and Chironomidae: Chironomus [Camptochironomus] tentans larvae, were collected from 12 stations in Lake Uluabat and examined from the metal level point of view (cadmium, chromium, lead, copper, nickel, and zinc. Our results showed that the occurence of metals in water, sediment, and the two zoobenthic taxa are relatively high. The opinion that supports the results of Lake Uluabat shows that certain species of oligochaetes and chironomids accumulate examined metals several times over compared to their surroundings. Therefore, it is concluded that the oligochaetes and the chironomids are suitable candidates to be used in biomonitoring surveys of Lake Uluabat.

  12. The Vicious Worm - A One Health cysticercosis advocacy information tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Trevisan, Chiara; Mejer, Helena

    The Vicious Worm: A computer-based program advocating for prevention and control of Taenia solium cysticercosis – a zoonotic tapeworm disease - widespread and emerging in many low income countries due to increased pork production and bad hygiene. Available at www.theviciousworm.org + Google Play...... & iTunes app stores for smartphones. The Vicious Worm provides information on how to diagnose and treat the disease in both pigs and humans and its impact on people’s livelihood. Possible control and intervention strategies are provided using different ways of communication according to the audience...

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annelida: Oligochaeta) of forests in Limpopo Province, South Africa: diversity, communities and conservation. Abstract. ISSN: 2224-073X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  14. African Zoology - Vol 29, No 4 (1994)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptions of two new earthworm species, Iridodrilus abujaensis and Iridodrilus furcothecata (Eudrilidae: Oligochaeta: Annelida) from Nigeria · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. S.O. Owa, 235-239 ...

  15. African Zoology - Vol 32, No 1 (1997)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Description of a new earthworm species, Nsukkadrilus funmie (Eudrilidae: Oligochaeta: Annelida) from Nigeria · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Stephen Olugbemiga Owa ...

  16. [Comparison of fecal examinations and worm collection results in an investigation of Ascaris lumbricoides infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao-Jun; Li, Hua-Zhong; Chen, Ying-Dan; Hong, Xian-Lin; Hu, Sheng-Zhu; Lan, Wei-Min; Chen, Yi-Yang

    2012-10-01

    To explore the relationship between fecal examinations and worm collection results in a community investigation of Ascaris lumbricoides infection. A total of 1 019 residents in Zhangxi Village, Nanchang County, Jiangxi Province were investigated with the Kato-Katz technique and worm collection after deworming. Among 1 019 residents investigated, the actual prevalence of A. lumbricoides was 30.23%, and the egg and worm positive rates were 20.41% and 23.75%, respectively. The average burden was 2.64 worms per person, and the heavier worm burden accounted for less proportion. The heavier the worm burden, the higher the probability to got egg in the feces. If one person had 7 worms or more, the probability to got eggs in his feces was 100%. Among people of false negative fecal examination, 61.00% of them were infected with male worms only, whereas 7.00% were infected with immature female worms with or without male worms, and 32.00% were infected with mature female worms with or without male worms. Totally 32.47% of infected people were missed by fecal examination, including 22.08% without egg excreted, and 10.39% missed because of the method itself. The egg positive rate is obviously lower than the actual infection rate, and the egg detection rate is correlated with the worm burden.

  17. The normal development of Platynereis dumerilii (Nereididae, Annelida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrich Thorsten

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polychaete annelid Platynereis dumerilii is an emerging model organism for the study of molecular developmental processes, evolution, neurobiology and marine biology. Annelids belong to the Lophotrochozoa, the so far understudied third major branch of bilaterian animals besides deuterostomes and ecdysozoans. P. dumerilii has proven highly relevant to explore ancient bilaterian conditions via comparison to the deuterostomes, because it has accumulated less evolutionary change than conventional ecdysozoan models. Previous staging was mainly referring to hours post fertilization but did not allow matching stages between studies performed at (even slightly different temperatures. To overcome this, and to provide a first comprehensive description of P. dumerilii normal development, a temperature-independent staging system is needed. Results Platynereis dumerilii normal development is subdivided into 16 stages, starting with the zygote and ending with the death of the mature worms after delivering their gametes. The stages described can be easily identified by conventional light microscopy or even by dissecting scope. Developmental landmarks such as the beginning of phototaxis, the visibility of the stomodeal opening and of the chaetae, the first occurrence of the ciliary bands, the formation of the parapodia, the extension of antennae and cirri, the onset of feeding and other characteristics are used to define different developmental stages. The morphology of all larval stages as well as of juveniles and adults is documented by light microscopy. We also provide an overview of important steps in the development of the nervous system and of the musculature, using fluorescent labeling techniques and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Timing of each developmental stage refers to hours post fertilization at 18 ± 0.1°C. For comparison, we determined the pace of development of larvae raised at 14°C, 16°C, 20°C, 25°C, 28°C and

  18. Structure and flexibility of worm-like micelles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jerke, G.; Pedersen, J.S.; Egelhaaf, S.U.

    1997-01-01

    composition. The data analysis comprises an application from results of conformation space renormalization group theory and a non-linear least-squares fitting procedure based upon a recently developed numerical expression for the scattering function of a worm-like chain with excluded volume effects....

  19. Targeted treatment strategies for sustainable worm control in small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besier, R B

    2008-02-01

    Sustainable worm control strategies are based largely on ensuring that a source of worms not exposed to anthelmintics ("in refugia") remains after treatments are given, so that resistant worms do not become a dominant part of the total population. In environments with seasonally poor survival of worm larvae on pasture, this may require withholding treatments from a proportion of animals when the whole group would normally be treated. The "targeted treatment" approach involves using anthelmintics on an individual animal basis according to indications of parasitic effects, regardless of parasite burdens. For Haemonchus contortus, the FAMACHA system, based on the easily-visualised index of anaemia, has proved effective provided that labour is available for frequent inspections. For non-haematophagous nematodes, recent research indicates the potential of production parameters such as body weight change (sheep) and milk yield (dairy goats), providing that parasitic effects can be differentiated from nutritional and other factors. Continuing investigations are necessary to indicate the most appropriate indices for different situations, so that the refugia effect is maximized for the least risk of disease and production loss. Of prime importance, targeted treatment strategies must be practical to implement if they are to achieve widespread adoption.

  20. A new reactor concept for sludge reduction using aquatic worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elissen, H.J.H.; Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2006-01-01

    Biological waste water treatment results in the production of waste sludge. The final treatment option in The Netherlands for this waste sludge is usually incineration. A biological approach to reduce the amount of waste sludge is through predation by aquatic worms. In this paper we test the

  1. Evaluation of community-based surveillance for Guinea worm, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-03

    Aug 3, 2012 ... are at risk but the 14-45 year age group is most affected because of their greater mobility. [4]. ... 95% of global dracunculiasis. Methods and Materials: We used the Students field guide for surveillance evaluation to assess ... Surveillance Evaluation Student Guide [5] in selected endemic guinea worm areas.

  2. Evaluation of community-based surveillance for Guinea worm, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) is an ancient parasitic disease and is set to be the next disease eradicated from the world and the first to be overcome without a vaccine or treatment. South Sudan and Ghana account for more than 95% of global dracunculiasis. Methods and Materials: We used the ...

  3. SOME PARASITIC WORMS IN FRESHWATER FISHES AND FISH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    appear that more studies on the parasitic worms from African freshwater fishes and amphibians might produce more evidence of their ancient zoogeography, particularly in relation to con- tinental drift. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The material described in this paper was obtained by Mr B. C. W. van der Waal from fishes.

  4. Ascaris Lumbricoides (Round Worm) in the Upper Airway of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serious airway obstruction occurs when the adult worm obstructs the bronchi or the vocal cords with attending sequaele. We hereby present a case of a 67 year old man with cerebrovascular accident (stroke) admitted and mechanically ventilated in the Intensive Care Unit. However, four days later, a 15cm long adult ascaris ...

  5. The relationships between faecal worm egg count and subjectively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-08-02

    Aug 2, 2014 ... globally has included the genetics of nematode resistance and resilience in sheep flocks, using faecal worm egg count ... 2007). Studies of the genetic correlation between FEC and other subjectively assessed wool and .... (2014). The model including only the direct additive genetic effect of animal (σ2 a).

  6. Guinea worm disease and its persistence in some rural communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out in six villages of Ogun State, Nigeria, from January to December 2004 to identify the reasons for the persistence of guinea worm disease in spite of eradication measures. Pre-tested structured questionnaires were administered to 250 head of households in the endemic villages to assess their ...

  7. Faeco-histological Method of Studying Worm Endemicity with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worms are endemic in various parts of the world, the patterns varying from community to community, even in the same country. A rough index of those common among Nigerians of the Igbo ethnic group has been obtained using a histological study of the ova present in the luminal faeces of the vermiform appendix in 559 ...

  8. Life-cycle of the European compost worm Dendrobaena veneta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-06-05

    Jun 5, 1990 ... The life-cycle of Dendrobaena veneta was studied to assess the potential of this species in vermicuhure. The development, growth and reproduction were investigated by rearing worms at 25°C on urine-free cattle manure with a moisture content of 80% over a period of 200 days. It was found that cocoons ...

  9. Life-cycle of the European compost worm Dendrobaena veneta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life-cycle of Dendrobaena veneta was studied to assess the potential of this species in vermiculture. The development, growth and reproduction were investigated by rearing worms at 25°C on urine-free cattle manure with a moisture content of 80% over a period of 200 days. It was found that cocoons are produced at a ...

  10. Genetic parameters and relationships of faecal worm egg count with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-07-09

    Jul 9, 2014 ... worm egg count (FEC) has been suggested as a suitable criterion for selection for resistance to nematode infestation in ... expense of treatment, increased level of management and vigilance, loss of production and even mortality in severe cases .... data did not change the significance of the fixed effects.

  11. Neotypification of Drawida hattamimizu Hatai, 1930 (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Megadrili, Moniligastridae as a model linking mtDNA (COI sequences to an earthworm type, with a response to the ‘Can of Worms’ theory of cryptic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Blakemore

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A neotype is designated for the large and ecologically interesting species of Japanese earthworm, Drawida hattamimizu Hatai, 1930. Its morphological redescription is unambiguously combined with the neotype’s sequence of the Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI locus of the mitochondrial DNA, the first time an earthworm species’ type has been thus profiled. Probably it is an introduced exotic rather than a translocated native, with a patchy distribution that appears only partly defined in Japan where it is both a restricted and an endangered listed species. Brief comparison of sympatric Drawida japonica (Michaelsen, 1892 to the type-species Drawida barwelli (Beddard, 1886 – and this latter from Shiga appears as a new record for Japan – allows the diagnosis of Drawida Michaelsen, 1900 to be amended slightly. The contentious issue of molecular ‘cryptic species’ is queried in relation to the lack of molecular data from type-specimens, the unique name-bearing references employed in zoological nomenclature. Without such reference, neither eco-taxonomic nor genomic studies of earthworm taxa can progress. In this regard, questions are raised concerning the molecular identities and provisional divergences of cosmopolitan generotypes Allolobophora chlorotica chlorotica (Savigny, 1826, the Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny, 1826 species-complex sensu Blakemore (2002, and of ecotoxicological standard test-species icon Eisenia fetida fetida (Savigny, 1826. Resurrection of their respective synonyms is mooted. Resolution of relationships within and between earthworm genera and families without DNA testing of the representative type-species and type-genera is flagged as another crucial concern.

  12. Effects of different gamma exposure regimes on reproduction in the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel-Aas, Turid, E-mail: turid.hertel-aas@umb.no [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas (Norway); Brunborg, Gunnar, E-mail: Gunnar.Brunborg@fhi.no [Department of Chemical Toxicology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, 0403 Oslo (Norway); Jaworska, Alicja, E-mail: Alicja.Jaworska@nrpa.no [Department of Emergency Preparedness and Environmental Radioactivity, Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, 1332, Osteraas (Norway); Salbu, Brit, E-mail: brit.salbu@umb.no [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas (Norway); Oughton, Deborah Helen, E-mail: deborah.oughton@umb.no [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas (Norway)

    2011-12-15

    Ecological risk assessment of ionising radiation requires knowledge about the responses of individuals and populations to chronic exposures, including situations when exposure levels change over time. The present study investigated processes such as recovery and the adaptive response with respect to reproduction endpoints in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation. Furthermore, a crossed experiment was performed to investigate the influence of F0 parental and F1 embryonic irradiation history on the response of irradiated or non-irradiated F1 offspring. Recovery: The sterility induced by sub-chronic exposure at 17 mGy/h (accumulated dose: 25 Gy) was temporary, and 8 weeks after irradiation the worms had regained their reproductive capacity (number of viable offspring produced per adult per week). Adaptive response: Adult worms were continuously exposed at a low priming dose rate of 0.14 mGy/h for 12 weeks (accumulated dose: 0.24 Gy), followed by 14 weeks exposure at a challenge dose rate of 11 mGy/h. The results suggest a lack of adaptive response, since there were no significant differences in the effects on reproduction capacity between the primed and the unprimed groups after challenge doses ranging from 7.6 to 27 Gy. Crossed experiment: The effects of exposure at 11 mGy/h for 21 weeks on growth, sexual maturation and reproduction of offspring, derived either from parent worms and cocoons both exposed at 11 mGy/h, or from non-irradiated parents and cocoons (total accumulated dose 44 and 38 Gy, respectively) were compared. There were no significant differences between the two exposed offspring groups for any of the endpoints. The reproduction capacity was very low for both groups compared to the controls, but the reproduction seemed to be maintained at the reduced level, which could indicate acclimatisation or stabilisation. Finally, parental and embryonic exposures at 11 mGy/h did not affect reproduction in the F1 offspring as adults.

  13. Effects of different gamma exposure regimes on reproduction in the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel-Aas, Turid; Brunborg, Gunnar; Jaworska, Alicja; Salbu, Brit; Oughton, Deborah Helen

    2011-12-15

    Ecological risk assessment of ionising radiation requires knowledge about the responses of individuals and populations to chronic exposures, including situations when exposure levels change over time. The present study investigated processes such as recovery and the adaptive response with respect to reproduction endpoints in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to (60)Co γ-radiation. Furthermore, a crossed experiment was performed to investigate the influence of F0 parental and F1 embryonic irradiation history on the response of irradiated or non-irradiated F1 offspring. Recovery: The sterility induced by sub-chronic exposure at 17 m Gy/h (accumulated dose: 25 Gy) was temporary, and 8 weeks after irradiation the worms had regained their reproductive capacity (number of viable offspring produced per adult per week). Adaptive response: Adult worms were continuously exposed at a low priming dose rate of 0.14 mGy/h for 12 weeks (accumulated dose: 0.24 Gy), followed by 14 weeks exposure at a challenge dose rate of 11 mGy/h. The results suggest a lack of adaptive response, since there were no significant differences in the effects on reproduction capacity between the primed and the unprimed groups after challenge doses ranging from 7.6 to 27 Gy. Crossed experiment: The effects of exposure at 11 mGy/h for 21 weeks on growth, sexual maturation and reproduction of offspring, derived either from parent worms and cocoons both exposed at 11 mGy/h, or from non-irradiated parents and cocoons (total accumulated dose 44 and 38 Gy, respectively) were compared. There were no significant differences between the two exposed offspring groups for any of the endpoints. The reproduction capacity was very low for both groups compared to the controls, but the reproduction seemed to be maintained at the reduced level, which could indicate acclimatisation or stabilisation. Finally, parental and embryonic exposures at 11 mGy/h did not affect reproduction in the F1 offspring as adults

  14. Discovery and evolution of novel hemerythrin genes in annelid worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Paiva, Elisa M; Whelan, Nathan V; Waits, Damien S; Santos, Scott R; Schrago, Carlos G; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2017-03-23

    Despite extensive study on hemoglobins and hemocyanins, little is known about hemerythrin (Hr) evolutionary history. Four subgroups of Hrs have been documented, including: circulating Hr (cHr), myohemerythrin (myoHr), ovohemerythrin (ovoHr), and neurohemerythrin (nHr). Annelids have the greatest diversity of oxygen carrying proteins among animals and are the only phylum in which all Hr subgroups have been documented. To examine Hr diversity in annelids and to further understand evolution of Hrs, we employed approaches to survey annelid transcriptomes in silico. Sequences of 214 putative Hr genes were identified from 44 annelid species in 40 different families and Bayesian inference revealed two major clades with strong statistical support. Notably, the topology of the Hr gene tree did not mirror the phylogeny of Annelida as presently understood, and we found evidence of extensive Hr gene duplication and loss in annelids. Gene tree topology supported monophyly of cHrs and a myoHr clade that included nHrs sequences, indicating these designations are functional rather than evolutionary. The presence of several cHrs in early branching taxa suggests that a variety of Hrs were present in the common ancestor of extant annelids. Although our analysis was limited to expressed-coding regions, our findings demonstrate a greater diversity of Hrs among annelids than previously reported.

  15. The effect of chloroquine on the male worms of Onchocerca volvulus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The viability of the worms was assessed using two techniques: (a) measurement of motility using a micromotility meter and (b) determination of the rate of reduction to the MTT tetrezolium salt to Formazan. Heat-killed male worms were used as control. The motility of the worms decreased significantly 24 hours after exposure ...

  16. Desenvolupament d'un joc per a dispositius Android : WhackaWorm

    OpenAIRE

    García Solsona, David

    2016-01-01

    Projecte de desenvolupament d'un joc per a Android: WhackaWorm, basat en la famosa màquina de recreatives, Whackamole. Proyecto de desarrollo de un juego para Android: Whack Worm, basado en la famosa máquina de recreativas, Whackamole. Project to develop a game for Android: Worm Whack based on famous arcade machine, Whackamole.

  17. The effect of operating conditions on aquatic worms eating waste sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, H.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    Several techniques are available for dealing with the waste sludge produced in biological waste water treatment. A biological approach uses aquatic worms to consume and partially digest the waste sludge. In our concept for a worm reactor, the worms (Lumbriculus variegatus) are immobilised in a

  18. Reproductive biology of Diopatra neapolitana (Annelida, Onuphidae), an exploited natural resource in Ria de Aveiro (Northwestern Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, A; Gentil, F.; Quintino, V.; Rodrigues, A M

    2012-01-01

    Diopatra neapolitana Delle Chiaje, 1841 (Annelida, Onuphidae) is an important economic natural resource in Ria de Aveiro (northwestern coast of Portugal) and throughout Europe. The species is intensively harvested for use as fresh bait. However, there is only limited knowledge about its life cycle derived from a previous study in Mediterranean Sea. Reproduction and development patterns are known to vary biogeographically, making it important to base management decisions on locally appropriate...

  19. The effect of chromium on the hemoglobin concentration of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Tena, F J; Martínez-Tabchet, L

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the toxic effects of polluted sediments, mainly chromium, the El Niagara reservoir (Aguascalientes, Mexico) on a benthic oligochaete species. Acute toxicity tests with hexavalent chromium in an artificial sediment-water system resulted in 24-, 48-, and 96-h LC50 values of 49.53, 22.81, and 5.11 mg available chromium/kg dry sediment, respectivley, in Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri. The uptake of chromium by tubificids from artificial and polluted reservoir sediments was found to increase with metal concentration in sediments and exposure time. The increase was higher in experiments with artificial sediment. Cr concentration in worms was related to hemoglobin content, which decreased significantly when Cr concentrations were above 1.0 microg/g dry weight. Bioavailable chromium in the El Niágara reservoir sediments may be an important factor limiting the benthic species in this ecosystem.

  20. Comparación de las densidades de Annelida en diferentes paisajes de la Amazonía colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerda Enrique

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La distribución de las comunidades de Annelida se ve influenciada por la disponibilidad de nutrientes en el suelo,
    la asociación ínter específica, la presencia o ausencia de predadores y parásitos, al igual que por factores físicos y químicos propios del sustrato, entre otros. El presente estudio se realizó en áreas correspondientes al Trapecio Amazónico Colombiano. En los suelos circunscritos a los municipios de Leticia y Puerto Nariño se hallaron correlaciones significativas entre la densidad de Annelida y los porcentajes de carbono orgánico, materia orgánica y nitrógeno total, en tanto que, en el área correspondiente al corregimiento departamental
    de Tarapacá, la correlación se presentó con: la humedad, densidad aparente, y porosidad. Se infiere de las observaciones realizadas en las zonas donde se efectuaron los muestreos que la densidad de Annelida esta influenciada más por el uso al que es sometido el suelo que por el tipo de paisaje donde éste se encuentra. Adicionalmente, se reporta la presencia de Hirudinida en tres sitios diferentes, dentro del perfil edáfico.

  1. A new genus and species of Serpulidae (Annelida, Polychaeta, Sabellida) from the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRENTISS, NANCY K.; VASILEIADOU, KATERINA; FAULWETTER, SARAH; ARVANITIDIS, CHRISTOS; TEN HOVE, HARRY A.

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and species of Serpulidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) from the Caribbean Sea. Turbocavus secretus (gen. nov. and sp. nov.) is described from shallow hard substrates (0.5–3 m) in wind-sheltered bays of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands and Curaçao, as well as from diving depths (46–49 m) around Bonaire (Leeward Antilles), Caribbean Sea. The new taxon, which has from 7 to 19 thoracic chaetigers and up to 335 abdominal chaetigers, bears a unique type of thoracic chaeta which is multifolded at the base and continues with a groove tapering to the capillary tip. The new serpulid has unique 18S rRNA sequences and genetic analysis of the 18S rRNA gene situates the new genus at the basis of the serpulid cla-dogram, well separated from other genera, and close to Filograna/Salmacina and Protula. PMID:25543733

  2. Myoanatomy of Myzostoma cirriferum (Annelida, Myzostomida): implications for the evolution of the myzostomid body plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Conrad; Weigert, Anne; Mayer, Georg; Bleidorn, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    Studies of rare genomic marker systems suggest that Myzostomida are a subgroup of Annelida and phylogenomic analyses indicate an early divergence of this taxon within annelids. However, adult myzostomids show a highly specialized body plan, which lacks typical annelid features, such as external body annulation, coelomic cavities with metanephridia, and segmental ganglia of the nervous system. The putative loss of these features might be due to the parasitic/symbiotic lifestyle of myzostomids associated with echinoderms. In contrast, the larval anatomy and adult locomotory system resemble those of annelids. To clarify whether the myoanatomy of myzostomids reflects their relationship to annelids, we analyzed the distribution of f-actin, a common component of muscle fibers, in specimens of Myzostoma cirriferum using phalloidin-rhodamine labeling in conjunction with confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Our data reveal that the musculature of the myzostomid body comprises an outer circular layer, an inner longitudinal layer, numerous dorsoventral muscles, and prominent muscles of the parapodial complex. These features correspond well with the common organization of the muscular system in Annelida. In contrast to other annelids, however, several elements of the muscular system in M. cirriferum, including the musculature of the body wall, and the parapodial flexor muscles, exhibit radial symmetry overlaying a bilateral body plan. These findings are in line with the annelid affinity of myzostomids and suggest that the apparent partial radial symmetry of M. cirriferum arose secondarily in this species. Based on our data, we provide a scenario on the rearrangements of muscle fibers that might have taken place in the lineage leading to this species. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The worm's humus in the seedlings production of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill in a community of Cojedes State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Liriano González

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work was developed with the aimed to evaluate the application of worm's humus in the production of seedlings of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cultivar Roma, in the rural settlement San Isidro-San Ignacio, municipality of Tinaquillo, State of Cojedes, Republic of Venezuela. Five treatments were studied: chemical fertilization (control, worm`s humus at 4 t ha-1 bottom, worm`s humus at 4 t ha-1 bottom + worm`s humus leaching above foliage at 15 days of seeds germination, worm`s humus at 6 t ha-1 bottom and worm`s humus at 6 t ha-1 bottom + worm`s humus leaching (1L per 50 L water above foliage at 15 days of seeds germination. The experimental design was a random block with three replications. After 25 days seed germination it was measured the plant height, number of leaves per plant, stem diameter, root length, fresh and dry mass of leaf and root. The higher values obtained in each one of the studied parameters during tomatoes plant growing were achieved with the application of 4 t ha-1 worm`s humus at bottom plus worm`s humus leaching (1L por 50 L water above foliage at 15 days after seed germination.

  4. Can Parasitic Worms Cure the Modern World's Ills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, Margaret M; Harnett, William

    2017-09-01

    There has been increasing recognition that the alarming surge in allergy and autoimmunity in the industrialised and developing worlds shadows the rapid eradication of pathogens, such as parasitic helminths. Appreciation of this has fuelled an explosion in research investigating the therapeutic potential of these worms. This review considers the current state-of-play with a particular focus on exciting recent advances in the identification of potential novel targets for immunomodulation that can be exploited therapeutically. Furthermore, we contemplate the prospects for designing worm-derived immunotherapies for an ever-widening range of inflammatory diseases, including, for example, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and ageing as well as neurodevelopmental disorders like autism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Achievements of Study Concerning Worm Face Gear Made in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Boloş

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Worm face gears are a relatively new category of gear failure in 50 years in the USA. They are composed of a conical or cylindrical worm to engage the front wheel of a conical or flat. Geometric configuration to ensure a great contact ratio and lubrication between the flanks favorable conditions which allow their implementation of hardened steel, gray iron, bronze. Also they will produce big rapport of transmission in a single stage. Originally conceived by Illinois Tool Works Company Chicago they were taken and developed at the Institute of Mechanical Izhevsk (Russia. Experimental and theoretical developments were made in Britain, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria and Romania. In the present paper is highlighted the concerns and the achievements of researchers from Romania in the period 1980-2009.

  6. Spread and Control of Mobile Benign Worm Based on Two-Stage Repairing Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both in traditional social network and in mobile network environment, the worm is a serious threat, and this threat is growing all the time. Mobile smartphones generally promote the development of mobile network. The traditional antivirus technologies have become powerless when facing mobile networks. The development of benign worms, especially active benign worms and passive benign worms, has become a new network security measure. In this paper, we focused on the spread of worm in mobile environment and proposed the benign worm control and repair mechanism. The control process of mobile benign worms is divided into two stages: the first stage is rapid repair control, which uses active benign worm to deal with malicious worm in the mobile network; when the network is relatively stable, it enters the second stage of postrepair and uses passive mode to optimize the environment for the purpose of controlling the mobile network. Considering whether the existence of benign worm, we simplified the model and analyzed the four situations. Finally, we use simulation to verify the model. This control mechanism for benign worm propagation is of guiding significance to control the network security.

  7. Hop-by-HopWorm Propagation with Carryover Epidemic Model in Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Won Ho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the internet, a worm is usually propagated in a random multi-hop contact manner. However, the attacker will not likely select this random multi-hop propagation approach in a mobile sensor network. This is because multi-hop worm route paths to random vulnerable targets can be often breached due to node mobility, leading to failure of fast worm spread under this strategy. Therefore, an appropriate propagation strategy is needed for mobile sensor worms. To meet this need, we discuss a hop-by-hop worm propagation model in mobile sensor networks. In a hop-by-hop worm propagation model, benign nodes are infected by worm in neighbor-to-neighbor spread manner. Since worm infection occurs in hop-by-hop contact, it is not substantially affected by a route breach incurred by node mobility. We also propose the carryover epidemic model to deal with the worm infection quota deficiency that might occur when employing an epidemic model in a mobile sensor network. We analyze worm infection capability under the carryover epidemic model. Moreover, we simulate hop-by-hop worm propagation with carryover epidemic model by using an ns-2 simulator. The simulation results demonstrate that infection quota carryovers are seldom observed where a node’s maximum speed is no less than 20 m/s.

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: hemichordates (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hemichordates (Acorn worm) Glandiceps hacksi Hemichordata Glandiceps_hacksi_L.png Glandiceps_hack...si_NL.png Glandiceps_hacksi_S.png Glandiceps_hacksi_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=NL ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=NS ...

  9. Can parasitic worms cure the modern world's ills?

    OpenAIRE

    Harnett, Margaret W.; Harnett, William

    2017-01-01

    There has been increasing recognition that the alarming surge in allergy and autoimmunity in the industrialised and developing worlds shadows the rapid eradication of pathogens, such as parasitic helminths. Appreciation of this has fuelled an explosion in research investigating the therapeutic potential of these worms. This review considers the current state-of-play with a particular focus on exciting recent advances in the identification of potential novel targets for immunomodulation that c...

  10. Relationship between distribution of Annealida and sedimental condition in the Seto Inland Sea; Setonaikai ni okeru kankei dobutsu (Annelida) no seisoku jokyo to teishitsu kankyo no kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, K. [Okayama Prefectural Institute for Environmental Science and Public Health, Okayama (Japan)] Imatomi, Y. [Yamaguchi Prefectural Research Institute of Health, Yamaguchi (Japan)] Komai, Y. [Hyogo Prefectural Institute o Environmental Science, Kobe (Japan)] Nagafuchi, O. [Fukuoka Institute of Health and Environmental Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)] Seiki, T. [Hiroshima Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environment, Hiroshima (Japan)] Koyama, T. [Wakayama Prefectural Research Center of Environment and Public Health, Wakayama (Japan)

    1998-11-10

    The distribution of Annelida division members and the conditions of their habitats are investigated across the Seto Inland Sea. The conventional method of dividing the sea into 13 areas is modified, and the sea is now divided into 425 areas. The macrobenthos found in the top layer soil at 425 sites are classified and identified, and referred to the items in the checklist, with special attention focused on Annelida division members. All the dominant macrobenthos species in all the sea areas are found to be organic pollution indicator species. Sixteen kinds of Spionidae family members are observed in great numbers, belonging to the Annelida division. The number of Annelida individuals in the total number of macrobenthos individuals is different when the sea area is different, occupying 0-100%. The number of kinds and of individuals of the Annelida division tend to increase with a decrease in the level of IL, COD (chemical oxygen demand), T-N (total nitrogen), T-P (total phosphorus), or TOC (total organic carbon), and to decrease with an increase in Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, or Mn in the bottom sediment. The number of kinds reached the maximum at an oxidation-reduction potential of +200 to +300mV. The organic pollution indicating Spionidae family belonging to the Annelida division are achieving dominance all over the inland sea by expelling the other benthos, and this justifies an inference that organic pollution is in progress in bottom sediments especially inside bays in the inland sea. 25 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Worm Algorithm for CP(N-1) Model

    CERN Document Server

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The CP(N-1) model in 2D is an interesting toy model for 4D QCD as it possesses confinement, asymptotic freedom and a non-trivial vacuum structure. Due to the lower dimensionality and the absence of fermions, the computational cost for simulating 2D CP(N-1) on the lattice is much lower than that for simulating 4D QCD. However, to our knowledge, no efficient algorithm for simulating the lattice CP(N-1) model has been tested so far, which also works at finite density. To this end we propose a new type of worm algorithm which is appropriate to simulate the lattice CP(N-1) model in a dual, flux-variables based representation, in which the introduction of a chemical potential does not give rise to any complications. In addition to the usual worm moves where a defect is just moved from one lattice site to the next, our algorithm additionally allows for worm-type moves in the internal variable space of single links, which accelerates the Monte Carlo evolution. We use our algorithm to compare the two popular CP(N-1) l...

  12. Worm algorithm for the CP N - 1 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias; de Forcrand, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    The CP N - 1 model in 2D is an interesting toy model for 4D QCD as it possesses confinement, asymptotic freedom and a non-trivial vacuum structure. Due to the lower dimensionality and the absence of fermions, the computational cost for simulating 2D CP N - 1 on the lattice is much lower than that for simulating 4D QCD. However, to our knowledge, no efficient algorithm for simulating the lattice CP N - 1 model for N > 2 has been tested so far, which also works at finite density. To this end we propose a new type of worm algorithm which is appropriate to simulate the lattice CP N - 1 model in a dual, flux-variables based representation, in which the introduction of a chemical potential does not give rise to any complications. In addition to the usual worm moves where a defect is just moved from one lattice site to the next, our algorithm additionally allows for worm-type moves in the internal variable space of single links, which accelerates the Monte Carlo evolution. We use our algorithm to compare the two popular CP N - 1 lattice actions and exhibit marked differences in their approach to the continuum limit.

  13. Correlation between discharged worms and fecal egg counts in human clonorchiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hwan Kim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stool examination by counting eggs per gram of feces (EPGs is the best method to estimate worm burden of Clonorchis sinensis in infected humans. The present study investigated a correlation between EPGs and worm burden in human clonorchiasis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 60 residents, 50 egg-positive and 10 egg-negative, in Sancheong-gun, Korea, participated in this worm collection trial in 2006-2009. They were diagnosed by egg positivity in feces using the Kato-Katz method. After administration of praziquantel, they were purged with cathartics on the next day, and then discharged adult worms were collected from their feces. Their EPGs ranged from 0 to 65,544. Adult worms of C. sinensis were collected from 17 egg-positive cases, and the number of worms ranged from 1 to 114 in each individual. A positive correlation between EPGs and numbers of worms was demonstrated (r = 0.681, P<0.001. Worm recovery rates were 9.7% in cases of EPGs 1-1,000 and 73.7% in those of EPGs over 1,000. No worms were detected from egg-negative subjects. Maximum egg count per worm per day was roughly estimated 3,770 in a subject with EPGs 2,664 and 106 collected worms. CONCLUSIONS: The numbers of the worms are significantly correlated with the egg counts in human clonorchiasis. It is estimated that at least 110 worms are infected in a human body with EPGs around 3,000, and egg productivity of a worm per day is around 4,000.

  14. Glowing Worms: Biological, Chemical, and Functional Diversity of Bioluminescent Annelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdes, Aida; Gruber, David F

    2017-07-01

    Bioluminescence, the ability to produce light by living organisms, has evolved independently in numerous lineages across the tree of life. Luminous forms are found in a wide range of taxonomic groups from bacteria to vertebrates, although the great majority of bioluminescent organisms are marine taxa. Within the phylum Annelida, bioluminescence is widespread, present in at least 98 terrestrial and marine species that represent 45 genera distributed in thirteen lineages of clitellates and polychaetes. The ecological diversity of luminous annelids is unparalleled, with species occupying a great variety of habitats including both terrestrial and marine ecosystems, from coastal waters to the deep-sea, in benthic and pelagic habitats from polar to tropical regions. This great taxonomic and ecological diversity is matched by the wide array of bioluminescent colors-including yellow light, which is very rare among marine taxa-different emission wavelengths even between species of the same genus, and varying patterns, chemical reactions and kinetics. This diversity of bioluminescence colors and patterns suggests that light production in annelids might be involved in a variety of different functions, including defensive mechanisms like sacrificial lures or aposematic signals, and intraspecific communication systems. In this review, we explore the world of luminous annelids, particularly focusing on the current knowledge regarding their taxonomic and ecological diversity and discussing the putative functions and chemistries of their bioluminescent systems. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Routes of uptake of diclofenac, fluoxetine, and triclosan into sediment-dwelling worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Maja V; Marshall, Stuart; Gouin, Todd; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigated the route and degree of uptake of 2 ionizable pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and fluoxetine) and 1 ionizable compound used in personal care products (triclosan) into the sediment-dwelling worm Lumbriculus variegatus. Studies were done on complete worms ("feeding") and worms where the head was absent ("nonfeeding") using (14) C-labeled ingredients. Biota sediment accumulation factors (BSAF), based on uptake of (14) C, for feeding worms increased in the order fluoxetine (0.3) worms was not quantified. Although no significant differences were seen between the uptake of diclofenac and that of fluoxetine in feeding and nonfeeding worms, uptake of the more hydrophobic antimicrobial, triclosan, into the feeding worms was significantly greater than that in the nonfeeding worms, with the 48-h BSAF for feeding worms being 36% higher than that for the nonfeeding worms. The results imply that dietary uptake contributes to the uptake of triclosan, which may be a result of the high hydrophobicity of the compound. Models that estimate exposure of ionizable substances may need to consider uptake from both the water column and food, particularly when assessing risks from dynamic exposures to organic contaminants. © 2015 SETAC.

  16. The effect of operating conditions on aquatic worms eating waste sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, T L G; Temmink, H; Elissen, H J H; Buisman, C J N

    2009-03-01

    Several techniques are available for dealing with the waste sludge produced in biological waste water treatment. A biological approach uses aquatic worms to consume and partially digest the waste sludge. In our concept for a worm reactor, the worms (Lumbriculus variegatus) are immobilised in a carrier material. For correct sizing and operation of such a worm reactor, the effect of changes in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, ammonia concentration, temperature and light exposure were studied in sequencing batch experiments. DO concentration had an effect on both sludge consumption rate and sludge reduction efficiency. Sludge consumption rate was four times higher at DO concentrations above 8.1 mg/L, when compared to DO concentrations below 2.5 mg/L. Sludge reduction was 36 and 77% at these respective DO concentrations. The effect is most likely the result of a difference in gut residence time. An increase in unionised ammonia concentration drastically decreased the consumption rate. Ammonia is released by the worms at a rate of 0.02 mg N/mg TSS digested; therefore, replacing the effluent in the worm reactor is required to maintain a low ammonia concentration. The highest sludge consumption rates were measured at a temperature around 15 degrees C, whilst the highest TSS reduction was achieved at 10 degrees C. Not exposing the worms to light did not affect consumption or digestion rates. High temperatures (above 25 degrees C) as well as low DO concentrations (below 1 mg/L) in the worm reactor should be avoided as these lead to significant decreases in the number of worms. The main challenges for applying the worm reactor at a larger scale are the supply of oxygen to the worms and maintaining a low ammonia concentration in the worm reactor. Applying a worm reactor at a waste water treatment plant was estimated to increase the oxygen consumption and the ammonia load by 15-20% and 5% respectively.

  17. Histochemical evidence of β-chitin in parapodial glandular organs and tubes of Spiophanes (Annelida, Sedentaria: Spionidae), and first studies on selected Annelida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggolz, Theresa; Henne, Stephan; Politi, Yael; Schütz, Roman; Mašić, Admir; Müller, Carsten H G; Meißner, Karin

    2015-12-01

    A generic character of the genus Spiophanes (Annelida, Sedentaria: Spionidae) is the presence of parapodial glandular organs. Parapodial glandular organs in Spiophanes species include secretory cells with cup-shaped microvilli, similar to those present in deep-sea inhabiting vestimentiferans and frenulate Siboglinidae. These cells are supposed to secrete β-chitin for tube-building. In this study, transverse histological and/or ultrathin sections of parapodial glandular organs and tubes of Spiophanes spp. as well as of Glandulospio orestes (Spionidae) and Owenia fusiformis (Oweniidae) were examined. Fluorescent markers together with confocal laser scanning microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were used to detect chitin in the parapodial glandular organs of Spiophanes and/or in the glands of Owenia and Glandulospio. Tubes of these taxa were tested for chitin to elucidate the use of it for tube-building. The examinations revealed a distinct labelling of the gland contents. Raman spectroscopy documented the presence of β-chitin in both gland types of Spiophanes. The tubes of Spiophanes were found to have a grid-like structure that seems to be built with this β-chitin. Tests of tubes of Dipolydora quadrilobata (Spionidae) for chitin were negative. However, the results of our study provide strong evidence that Spiophanes species, O. fusiformis and probably also G. orestes produce chitin and supposedly use it for tube-building. This implies that the production of chitin and its use as a constituent part of tube-building is more widespread among polychaetes as yet known. The histochemical data presented in this study support previous assumptions inferring homology of parapodial glandular organs of Spionidae and Siboglinidae based on ultrastructure. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy-based evidence of secretory cells with nail-headed microvilli in O. fusiformis suggests homology of parapodial grandular organs across annelids including Sipuncula. © 2015 Wiley

  18. THE WORMS COMPOST - EFFECTIVE FERTILIZER FOR IMPROVING DEGRADED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa CREMENEAC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of organic waste is a difficult, complex and intractable in Moldova, according to international standards. Acute problem of organic matter from livestock sector waste is generated by storing them in unauthorized areas. Organic waste management strategies require different methods. One of them is organic waste bio conversion technology by worm’s cultivation. As the main natural wealth of the Republic of Moldova, soil requires a special care. Agriculture, in particular, should pay attention to the soil’s humus and nutrient status – and restore losses of humus and the nutrients used by crops. This requires measures to improve soil fertility. Land use provides, first of all return losses of humus and nutrients used by plants. Therefore measures required to improve soil fertility. The essence of the research was to highlight the role of worms compost improve the soil. To this end, in ETS "Maximovca" was organized an experiment that included three groups (two - experimental, to fund worms compost and one - control the natural background. Observations on soil fertility have been conducted over three years. The soil samples were collected by usual methods determined values of organic matter and humus. The results of the investigations, to determine the values of organic matter and humus samples collected from surface and depth 15 cm exceeded that of the sample control group to 29,7%; 11,4% and 34,3%; 37,1% in experimental group I and 9,3%; 11,6% and 45,5%; 45,5% in experimental group II. Therefore, worms compost embedded in a dose of 3-4 tons / ha during three years, has improved the fertility of the soil

  19. : acquired resistance in mice by implantation of young irradiated worms into the portal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marcos Z. Coelho

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available In two distinct experiments, immature S. mansoni worms (LE strain, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, aged 20 days, obtained from the portal system of white outbred mice, were irradiated with 14 and 4 Krad, respectively. Afterwards, the worms were directly inoculated into the portal vein of normal mice. Inoculation was performed with 20 irradiated worms per animal. Fifty days after inoculation, the mice that received 4 and 14 Krad-irradiated worms and their respective controls were infected with S. mansoni cercariae (LE strain, by transcutaneous route. Twenty days after this challenge infection, the animals were sacrificed and perfused for mature irradiated (90-day-old and immature (20-day-old worm counts. Analysis of the results showed that statistically significant protection against cercariae occurred in both groups with irradiated worms.

  20. Electro-worming: The Behaviors of Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans in DC and AC Electric Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang, Han-Sheng; Dabbish, Nooreen; Bau, Haim

    2010-01-01

    The video showcases how C. elegans worms respond to DC and AC electrical stimulations. Gabel et al (2007) demonstrated that in the presence of DC and low frequency AC fields, worms of stage L2 and larger propel themselves towards the cathode. Rezai et al (2010) have demonstrated that this phenomenon, dubbed electrotaxis, can be used to control the motion of worms. In the video, we reproduce Rezai's experimental results. Furthermore, we show, for the first time, that worms can be trapped with high frequency, nonuniform electric fields. We studied the effect of the electric field on the nematode as a function of field intensity and frequency and identified a range of electric field intensities and frequencies that trap worms without apparent adverse effect on their viability. Worms tethered by dielectrophoresis (DEP) avoid blue light, indicating that at least some of the nervous system functions remain unimpaired in the presence of the electric field. DEP is useful to dynamically confine nematodes for observati...

  1. Self-Propagating Worms in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannetsos, Thanassis; Dimitriou, Tassos; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2009-01-01

    Malicious code is defined as software designed to execute attacks on software systems. This work demonstrates the possibility of executing malware on wireless sensor nodes that are based on the von Neumann architecture. This is achieved by exploiting a buffer overflow vulnerability to smash the c...... the call stack, intrude a remote node over the radio channel and, eventually, completely take control of it. Then we show how the malware can be crafted to become a self-replicating worm that broadcasts itself and propagates over the network hop-by-hop, infecting all the nodes....

  2. Ecdysone receptor homologs from mollusks, leeches and a polychaete worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguerre, Michel; Veenstra, Jan A

    2010-11-05

    The genomes of the mollusk Lottia gigantea, the leech Helobdella robusta and the polychaete worm Capitella teleta each have a gene encoding an ecdysone receptor homolog. Publicly available genomic and EST sequences also contain evidence for ecdysone receptors in the seahare Aplysia californica, the bobtail squid Euprymna scolopes and the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis. Three-dimensional models of the ligand binding domains of these predicted ecdysone receptor homologs suggest that each of them could potentially bind an ecdysone-related steroid. Thus, ecdysone receptors are not limited to arthropods and nematodes. Copyright © 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pet roundworms and hookworms: A continuing need for global worming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traversa Donato

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ascarids and ancylostomatids are the most important parasites affecting dogs and cats worldwide, in terms of diffusion and risk for animal and human health. Different misconceptions have led the general public and pet owners to minimize the importance of these intestinal worms. A low grade of interest is also registered among veterinary professions, although there is a significant merit in keeping our guard up against these parasites. This article reviews current knowledge of ascarids and ancylostomatids, with a special focus on pathogenicity, epidemiology and control methods in veterinary and human medicine.

  4. Morphologic characterization of the ice worm Mesenchytraeus solifugus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, D H; Carter, M R; Murray, K P; Maleski, K A; Smith, N R; McBride, T R; Michalewicz, L A; Saidel, W M

    2000-12-01

    Ice worms occupy a unique position in metazoan phylogeny in that they are the only known annelid that completes its life cycle in ice. The mechanism(s) associated with this adaptation are likely to occur at different levels, ranging from modification of their metabolism to changes in morphology. In this study, we examined specimens of Mesenchytraeus solifugus by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in an effort to identify morphologic structures that may aid in its glacial habitation. We report that M. solifugus contains an elongated head pore at the tip of its prostomium, numerous sensory structures, and differentially oriented setae that curve abruptly at their distal end.

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) Ptychodera flava Hemichordata Ptychodera_flava..._L.png Ptychodera_flava_NL.png Ptychodera_flava_S.png Ptychodera_flava_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/t...axonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava...&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=S htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=161 ...

  6. Internet Worm Detection as part of a Distributed Network Inspection System

    OpenAIRE

    Linehan, Eamonn

    2004-01-01

    The most widely publicized, and arguably most damaging, types of malicious traffic on the Internet today include worms, spam, viruses and denial of service attacks. Internet worms self propagate across networks exploiting flaws in operating systems and services, spreading viruses and congesting network links. Worms constitute a significant security and performance threat and have recently been used to facilitate distributed denial of service (dDoS) attacks. It is the aim of thi...

  7. DoWitcher: Effective Worm Detection and Containment in the Internet Core

    OpenAIRE

    Munafo', Maurizio Matteo

    2007-01-01

    Enterprise networks are increasingly offloading the responsibility for worm detection and containment to the carrier networks. However, current approaches to the zero-day worm detection problem such as those based on content similarity of packet payloads are not scalable to the carrier link speeds (OC-48 and up-wards). In this paper, we introduce a new system, namely DoWitcher, which in contrast to previous approaches is scalable as well as able to detect the stealthiest worms that employ low...

  8. Spatial and temporal differences in giant kidney worm, dictophyma renale, prevalence in Minnesota Mink, Mustela vison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Examination of 110 Mink (Mustela vison) carcasses from 1998 through 2007 indicated that the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale, occurred in Pine and Kanabec Counties of eastern Minnesota with annual prevalences of 0-92%. Worm prevalence increased from 20% in 1999 to 92% in 2001 and decreased to 6% in 2005. During 2000 to 2007, no worms were found in Mink from Anoka and Chisago Counties (n = 54), and in 2000, none in 107 Mink from LeSeur, Freeborn, Redwood, Brown and Watonwan Counties. Changes in kidney worm prevalence were positively related to trapping success, considered an index of Mink density.

  9. Worms on the spectrum - C. elegans models in autism research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeisser, Kathrin; Parker, J Alex

    2017-04-20

    The small non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is widely used in neuroscience thanks to its well-understood development and lineage of the nervous system. Furthermore, C. elegans has been used to model many human developmental and neurological conditions to better understand disease mechanisms and identify potential therapeutic strategies. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the most prevalent of all neurodevelopmental disorders, and the C. elegans system may provide opportunities to learn more about this complex disorder. Since basic cell biology and biochemistry of the C. elegans nervous system is generally very similar to mammals, cellular or molecular phenotypes can be investigated, along with a repertoire of behaviours. For instance, worms have contributed greatly to the understanding of mechanisms underlying mutations in genes coding for synaptic proteins such as neuroligin and neurexin. Using worms to model neurodevelopmental disorders like ASD is an emerging topic that harbours great, untapped potential. This review summarizes the numerous contributions of C. elegans to the field of neurodevelopment and introduces the nematode system as a potential research tool to study essential roles of genes associated with ASD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Na; Wang, Cheng-Ye

    2014-11-18

    The yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor L.) is an important resource insect typically used as animal feed additive. It is also widely used for biological research. The first complete mitochondrial genome of T. molitor was determined for the first time by long PCR and conserved primer walking approaches. The results showed that the entire mitogenome of T. molitor was 15 785 bp long, with 72.35% A+T content [deposited in GenBank with accession number KF418153]. The gene order and orientation were the same as the most common type suggested as ancestral for insects. Two protein-coding genes used atypical start codons (CTA in ND2 and AAT in COX1), and the remaining 11 protein-coding genes started with a typical insect initiation codon ATN. All tRNAs showed standard clover-leaf structure, except for tRNA(Ser) (AGN), which lacked a dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The newly added T. molitor mitogenome could provide information for future studies on yellow meal worm.

  11. Transcriptome sequencing and annotation of the polychaete Hermodice carunculata (Annelida, Amphinomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Shaadi; Verdes, Aida; DeSalle, Rob; Sparks, John; Pieribone, Vincent; Gruber, David F

    2015-06-10

    The amphinomid polychaete Hermodice carunculata is a cosmopolitan and ecologically important omnivore in coral reef ecosystems, preying on a diverse suite of reef organisms and potentially acting as a vector for coral disease. While amphinomids are a key group for determining the root of the Annelida, their phylogenetic position has been difficult to resolve, and their publically available genomic data was scarce. We performed deep transcriptome sequencing (Illumina HiSeq) and profiling on Hermodice carunculata collected in the Western Atlantic Ocean. We focused this study on 58,454 predicted Open Reading Frames (ORFs) of genes longer than 200 amino acids for our homology search, and Gene Ontology (GO) terms and InterPro IDs were assigned to 32,500 of these ORFs. We used this de novo assembled transcriptome to recover major signaling pathways and housekeeping genes. We also identify a suite of H. carunculata genes related to reproduction and immune response. We provide a comprehensive catalogue of annotated genes for Hermodice carunculata and expand the knowledge of reproduction and immune response genes in annelids, in general. Overall, this study vastly expands the available genomic data for H. carunculata, of which previously consisted of only 279 nucleotide sequences in NCBI. This underscores the utility of Illumina sequencing for de novo transcriptome assembly in non-model organisms as a cost-effective and efficient tool for gene discovery and downstream applications, such as phylogenetic analysis and gene expression profiling.

  12. Interactions between sediment chemistry and frenulate pogonophores (Annelida) in the north-east Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, P. R.; Southward, A. J.; Southward, E. C.; Lamont, P.; Harvey, R.

    2008-08-01

    The small frenulate pogonophores (Annelida: Pogonophora a.k.a. Siboglinidae) typically inhabit muddy sediments on the continental slope, although a few species occur near hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. We present data on the distribution and habitat characteristics of several species on the European continental shelf and slope from 48°N to 75°N and show how the animals interact with the chemistry of the sediments. The environments inhabited include: shallow (30 m), organic-rich, fjord sediments; slope sediments (1000-2200 m) and methane seeps at 330 m depth. All the species studied obtain nutrition from endosymbiotic bacteria. They take up reduced sulphur species, or in one case, methane, through the posterior parts of their tubes buried in the anoxic sediment. We conclude that most species undertake sulphide 'mining', a mechanism previously demonstrated in the bivalves Lucinoma borealis and Thyasira sarsi. These pogonophores participate in the sulphur cycle and effectively lower the sulphide content of the sediments. Our results show that the abundance of frenulate pogonophores increases with increasing sedimentation and with decreasing abundance of other benthos, particularly bioturbating organisms. The maximum sustainable carrying capacity of non-seep sediments for frenulate pogonophores is limited by the rate of sulphate reduction.

  13. Molecular data reveal a tropical freshwater origin of Naidinae (Annelida, Clitellata, Naididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erséus, Christer; Envall, Ida; De Wit, Pierre; Gustavsson, Lena M

    2017-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationships within Naidinae (Annelida, Clitellata, Naididae) were investigated, using six molecular markers, both mitochondrial (12S rDNA, 16S rDNA, the COI gene) and nuclear (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, the ITS region). Thirty-seven nominal species, representing 16 of the 22 genera recognized in the subfamily, were included, and the Nais communis/variabilis species complex was represented by six different morphotypes. Ten other species of Naididae were selected as outgroups. The data were analysed by Bayesian inference and Maximum Likelihood. The phylogeny corroborates monophyly of the Naidinae, and the separate status of the genus Pristina (Pristininae) and the Opistocystinae. Relationships within Naidinae are largely well supported, but in some parts unexpected: (1) A clade containing the largely tropical genera Dero and Branchiodrilus is sister to the rest of the subfamily, and together with a third tropical genus, Allonais, they form a basal paraphyly. All these genera show morphological adaptations to environmental hypoxia, leading to the conclusion that Naidinae originated in tropical freshwaters. (2) The genera Dero, Nais and Piguetiella are paraphyletic. (3) At least Branchiodrilus, Paranais, Chaetogaster, Nais, Stylaria appear to contain cryptic species. Morphological characters, especially those associated with chaetae, are to a great extent homoplastic within Naidinae, which certainly has contributed to the overall taxonomic confusion of this subfamily. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sphaerodoridae (Annelida) of the deep Northwestern Atlantic, including remarkable new species of Euritmia and Sphaerephesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capa, María; Osborn, Karen J.; Bakken, Torkild

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sphaerodoridae (Annelida) is a seeming uncommon and minimally diverse group of polychaetes in the northwestern Atlantic, with only seven species reported from the United States, and none from the eastern coast of Canada, before the present study. Review of the large Smithsonian collection (National Museum of Natural History, Washington) revealed the presence of two morphologically extraordinary undescribed species and added a new record to the north-western Atlantic region. Euritmia carolensis sp. n. is characterised by bearing approximately 20 sessile spherical papillae arranged in three transverse rows per segment, ventrum with 4–6 larger papillae near the parapodial bases and parapodia without papillae; bearing 4–5 simple chaetae that are enlarged subdistally. Sphaerephesia amphorata sp. n. is distinguished from other congeners in the presence of four longitudinal rows of sessile, bottle-shaped macrotubercles with exceptionally long digitiform terminal papilla, and parapodia with four rounded and small papillae, bearing 4–7 compound chaetae, with blades 7–11 times as long as wide. Other encountered species are also herein re-described, including intraspecific variation and updated iconography. Comparison of material also allowed some systematic changes in the group, including the synonymisation of the genus Amacrodorum with Euritmia, and the transfer of Ephesiopsis shivae to Ephesiella. A key to the species reported from the Northwestern Atlantic is provided. PMID:27667938

  15. Early mesodermal expression of Hox genes in the polychaete Alitta virens (Annelida, Lophotrochozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakova, Milana A; Bakalenko, Nadezhda I; Novikova, Elena L

    2017-01-01

    Hox genes are the key regulators of axial regionalization of bilaterian animals. However, their main function is fulfilled differently in the development of animals from different evolutionary branches. Early patterning of the developing embryos by Hox gene expression in the representatives of protostomes (arthropods, mollusks) starts in the ectodermal cells. On the contrary, the instructive role of the mesoderm in the axial patterning was demonstrated for vertebrates. This makes it difficult to understand if during the axial regionalization of ancestral bilaterians Hox genes first expressed in the developing mesoderm or the ectoderm. To resolve this question, it is necessary to expand the number of models for investigation of the early axial patterning. Here, we show that three Hox genes of the polychaete Alitta virens (formerly Nereis virens, Annelida, Lophotrochozoa)-Hox2, Hox4, and Lox5-are expressed in the mesodermal anlagen of the three future larval chaetigerous segments in spatially colinear manner before the initiation of Hox expression in the larval ectoderm. This is the first evidence of sequential Hox gene expression in the mesoderm of protostomes to date.

  16. Sphaerodoridae (Annelida of the deep Northwestern Atlantic, including remarkable new species of Euritmia and Sphaerephesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Capa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sphaerodoridae (Annelida is a seeming uncommon and minimally diverse group of polychaetes in the northwestern Atlantic, with only seven species reported from the United States, and none from the eastern coast of Canada, before the present study. Review of the large Smithsonian collection (National Museum of Natural History, Washington revealed the presence of two morphologically extraordinary undescribed species and added a new record to the north-western Atlantic region. Euritmia carolensis sp. n. is characterised by bearing approximately 20 sessile spherical papillae arranged in three transverse rows per segment, ventrum with 4–6 larger papillae near the parapodial bases and parapodia without papillae; bearing 4–5 simple chaetae that are enlarged subdistally. Sphaerephesia amphorata sp. n. is distinguished from other congeners in the presence of four longitudinal rows of sessile, bottle-shaped macrotubercles with exceptionally long digitiform terminal papilla, and parapodia with four rounded and small papillae, bearing 4–7 compound chaetae, with blades 7–11 times as long as wide. Other encountered species are also herein re-described, including intraspecific variation and updated iconography. Comparison of material also allowed some systematic changes in the group, including the synonymisation of the genus Amacrodorum with Euritmia, and the transfer of Ephesiopsis shivae to Ephesiella. A key to the species reported from the Northwestern Atlantic is provided.

  17. Distribution of Iospilidae (Annelida along the eastern Brazilian coast (from Bahia to Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Tovar-Faro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the spatial distribution and abundance of the holoplanktonic family Iospilidae (Annelida, Polychaeta, along part of the eastern Brazilian coast, and its relation to environmental variables in the region. Samples were obtained from two collections made in 1998 and 2000 between 13°-25°S, and 28°-42°W, on the Brazilian coast, between the Bay of Todos os Santos (BA to Cape São Tomé (RJ. 216 stations were selected, covering the continental shelf, slope and oceanic regions, where plankton samples were collected for water and nutrient analysis. We analyzed environmental variables: temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, silicate and chlorophyll-a. 363 individuals were collected, identifying two species, viz., Phalacrophorus uniformis and Phalacrophorus pictus, the first being the most abundant, with 354 individuals, while only nine specimens of P. pictus were found. Both species are mainly distributed in the oceanic region stations. The distribution of P. uniformis was related to the concentration of phosphate and nitrate. Significant differences between samples and between sectors of the continental shelf and oceanic region were found.

  18. Revision of the Australian Sphaerodoridae (Annelida) including the description of four new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capa, Maria; Bakken, Torkild

    2015-08-14

    A revision of the complete sphaerodorid (Sphaerodoridae, Annelida) collections housed in the three major Australian museums (The Australian Museum, Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory and Museum Victoria) has been performed. Specimens of three of the four species described to date from Australian waters, Ephesiella australiensis, Sphaerodoropsis exmouthensis and Sphaerodoropsis fauchaldi, have been re-encountered, resulting in changes to their previously reported distribution range. Four additional species are herein described as new: Sphaerephesia hutchingsae n. sp., Sphaerodoropsis longofalcigera n. sp., Sphaerodoropsis megatuberculata n. sp. and Sphaerodoropsis wilsoni n. sp. Moreover, Sphaerodoropsis multipapillata heteropapillata is elevated to the rank of species. A formal description of other specimens, most likely belonging to undescribed species, is not possible due to insufficient material, but information about some of their morphological features is provided. Descriptions, iconography, geographical and ecological information of all species part of this revision is provided together with a key for identification to all Australian species. An evaluation of some of the traditional generic taxonomic features is made, considering the variation observed within the Australian species.

  19. Layer-By-Layer Self-Assembly of Polyelectrolytic Block Copolymer Worms on a Planar Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, Nicholas J W; Parnell, Andrew J; Molina, Marta; Verstraete, Pierre; Smets, Johan; Armes, Steven P

    2017-12-08

    Cationic and anionic block copolymer worms are prepared by polymerization-induced self-assembly via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) aqueous dispersion copolymerization of 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate and glycidyl methacrylate (GlyMA), using a binary mixture of a nonionic poly(ethylene oxide) macromolecular RAFT agent and either a cationic poly([2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) or an anionic poly(potassium 3-sulfopropyl methacrylate) macromolecular RAFT agent. In each case, covalent stabilization of the worm cores was achieved via reaction of the epoxide groups on the GlyMA repeat units with 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane. Aqueous electrophoresis studies indicated a pH-independent mean zeta potential of +40 mV and -39 mV for the cationic and anionic copolymer worms, respectively. These worms are expected to mimic the rigid rod behavior of water-soluble polyelectrolyte chains in the absence of added salt. The kinetics of adsorption of the cationic worms onto a planar anionic silicon wafer was examined at pH 5 and was found to be extremely fast at 1.0 w/w % copolymer concentration in the absence of added salt. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated that a relatively constant worm surface coverage of 16% was achieved at 20 °C for adsorption times ranging from just 2 s up to 2 min. Furthermore, the successive layer-by-layer deposition of cationic and anionic copolymer worms onto planar surfaces was investigated using SEM, ellipsometry, and surface zeta potential measurements. These techniques confirmed that the deposition of oppositely charged worms resulted in a monotonic increase in the mean layer thickness, with a concomitant surface charge reversal occurring on addition of each new worm layer. Unexpectedly, two distinct linear regimes were observed when plotting the mean layer thickness against the total number of adsorbed worm layers, with a steeper gradient (corresponding to thicker layers) being

  20. A full scale worm reactor for efficient sludge reduction by predation in a wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamis, J; van Schouwenburg, G; Kleerebezem, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2011-11-15

    Sludge predation can be an effective solution to reduce sludge production at a wastewater treatment plant. Oligochaete worms are the natural consumers of biomass in benthic layers in ecosystems. In this study the results of secondary sludge degradation by the aquatic Oligochaete worm Aulophorus furcatus in a 125 m(3) reactor and further sludge conversion in an anaerobic tank are presented. The system was operated over a period of 4 years at WWTP Wolvega, the Netherlands and was fed with secondary sludge from a low loaded activated sludge process. It was possible to maintain a stable and active population of the aquatic worm species A. furcatus during the full period. Under optimal conditions a sludge conversion of 150-200 kg TSS/d or 1.2-1.6 kg TSS/m(3)/d was established in the worm reactor. The worms grew as a biofilm on carrier material in the reactor. The surface specific conversion rate reached 140-180 g TSS/m(2)d and the worm biomass specific conversion rate was 0.5-1 g TSS sludge/g dry weight worms per day. The sludge reduction under optimal conditions in the worm reactor was 30-40%. The degradation by worms was an order of magnitude larger than the endogenous conversion rate of the secondary sludge. Effluent sludge from the worm reactor was stored in an anaerobic tank where methanogenic processes became apparent. It appeared that besides reducing the sludge amount, the worms' activity increased anaerobic digestibility, allowing for future optimisation of the total system by maximising sludge reduction and methane formation. In the whole system it was possible to reduce the amount of sludge by at least 65% on TSS basis. This is a much better total conversion than reported for anaerobic biodegradability of secondary sludge of 20-30% efficiency in terms of TSS reduction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Operation of an aquatic worm reactor suitable for sludge reduction at large scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of domestic waste water results in the production of waste sludge, which requires costly further processing. A biological method to reduce the amount of waste sludge and its volume is treatment in an aquatic worm reactor. The potential of such a worm reactor with the oligochaete

  2. Worms in the College Classroom: More than Just a Composting Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Rebecca L.

    2010-01-01

    Although worm bins have been used by K-12 and nonformal educators for decades, there is little evidence of their use in postsecondary education. The ease of use, maintenance, affordability, portability, and diversity of scientific concepts that can be demonstrated with a worm bin make it a valuable tool in college science classrooms. The purpose…

  3.  Grunting for worms: reactions of Diplocardia to seismic vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Callaham

    2009-01-01

    Harvesting earthworms by a practice called 'worm grunting' is a widespread and profitable business in the southeastern USA. Although a variety of techniques are used, most involve rhythmically scraping a wooden stake driven into the ground, with a fiat metal object. A common assumption is that vibrations cause the worms to surface, but this phenomenon has not...

  4. Defending against Internet worms using a phase space method from chaos theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Gao, Jianbo; Rao, Nageswara S.

    2007-04-01

    Enterprise networks are facing ever-increasing security threats from Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks, worms, viruses, intrusions, Trojans, port scans, and network misuses, and thus effective monitoring approaches to quickly detect these activities are greatly needed. In this paper, we employ chaos theory and propose an interesting phase space method to detect Internet worms. An Internet worm is a self-propagating program that automatically replicates itself to vulnerable systems and spreads across the Internet. Most deployed worm-detection systems are signature-based. They look for specific byte sequences (called attack signatures) that are known to appear in the attack traffic. Conventionally, the signatures are manually identified by human experts through careful analysis of the byte sequence from captured attack traffic. We propose to embed the traffic sequence to a high-dimensional phase space using chaos theory. We have observed that the signature sequence of a specific worm will occupy specific regions in the phase space, which may be appropriately called the invariant subspace of the worm. The invariant subspace of the worm separates itself widely from the subspace of the normal traffic. This separation allows us to construct three simple metrics, each of which completely separates 100 normal traffic streams from 200 worm traffic streams, without training in the conventional sense. Therefore, the method is at least as accurate as any existing methods. More importantly, our method is much faster than existing methods, such as based on expectation maximization and hidden Markov models.

  5. Valorization of waste streams, "From food by-products to worm biomass"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, B.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    A new technology is investigated to produce a high quality animal feed source by converting safe industrial food wastes into worm biomass. The freshwater worm Lumbriculus variegatus (common name: blackworm) has been selected for this purpose. This species can be used to reduce and concentrate

  6. Performance Analysis of Cell-Phone Worm Spreading in Cellular Networks through Opportunistic Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAHUI, W.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Worms spreading directly between cell-phones over short-range radio (Bluetooth, WiFi, etc. are increasing rapidly. Communication by these technologies is opportunistic and has very close relation with the social characteristics of the phone carriers. In this paper, we try to evaluate the impact of different characteristics on the spreading performance of worms. On the other hand, the behaviors of worms may have certain impact, too. For example, worms may make phones be completely dysfunctional and these phones can be seen as killed. We study the impact of the killing speed. Using the Markov model, we propose some theoretical models to evaluate the spreading performance in different cases. Simulation results show the accuracy of our models. Numerical results show that if users do not believe the data coming from others easily, the worms may bring less damage. Surprisingly, if the users are more willing to install the anti-virus software, the worms may bring bigger damage when the software becomes to be outdated with high probability. Though the worms can bring big damage on the network temporarily by killing phones rapidly, numerical results show that this behavior may decrease the total damage in the long time. Therefore, killing nodes more rapidly may be not optimal for worms.

  7. Elucidating the microbial community associated with the protein preference of sludge-degrading worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valk, S.L.; Feng, C.; Khadem, A.F.; van Lier, J.B.; de Kreuk, M.K.

    2017-01-01

    Sludge predation by aquatic worms results in an increased sludge reduction rate, which is mainly due to the specific removal of a protein fraction from the sludge. As microorganisms play an essential role in sludge hydrolysis a better understanding of the microbial community involved in the worm

  8. An unusual foreign body in the urinary bladder mimicking a parasitic worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Bryan H; Feder, Marc T; Rokke, Denise L; Moyer, Thomas P; Pritt, Bobbi S

    2012-07-01

    We report an unusual case of a foreign body removed from the urinary bladder of a 63-year-old male which mimicked a parasitic worm. The foreign body was identified as an artificial fishing worm by morphological comparison to a similar commercially produced product and by infrared spectrum analysis.

  9. Identification and Expression Analysis of Tryptophan Hydroxylase in the Brain and Ventral Nerve Cord of Ragworm Neanthes japonica (Polychaeta, Annelida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shun; Dong, Zhe; Li, Shen; Yin, Haotian; Zhao, Zhifu; Gao, Dongmei; Ren, Guimin; Bao, Xuexiang

    2017-02-01

    Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) was stained in the central nervous system of the Neanthes japonica (Polychaeta, Annelida), using sheep anti-tryptophan hydroxylase antibody by the Streptavidin-Peroxidase immunohistochemical method and Colophony-Paraffin embedded section technique. The immunohistochemistry results revealed that the TPH is distributed in the brain and ventral nerve cord, which is consistent with that of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) that labeled by anti-serotonin antibody. Using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique, TPH cDNA cloned from Neanthes japonica's central nervous system was 1778bp, which encodes predicted protein of 463 amino acid residues. The co-localization of TPH and 5-HT indicated that the specific TPH was responsible for the central serotonin synthesis in the central nervous system of annelida, TPH and 5-HT not only could be as the novel mutual corroboration marker to detect serotonergic neurons, but also provides the evidences for the evolution of aromatic amino acid hydroxylase genes. Anat Rec, 300:415-424, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Worm Control in Livestock: Bringing Science to the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Fiona; Hutchings, Fiona; Morgan-Davies, Claire; van Dijk, Jan; Bartley, Dave J

    2017-09-01

    Parasitic roundworm infections are ubiquitous in grazing livestock. Chemical control through the frequent 'blanket' administration of anthelmintics (wormers) has been, and remains, the cornerstone in controlling these infections, but this practice is unsustainable. Alternative strategies are available but, even with the plethora of best practice advice available, have yet to be integrated into routine farming practice. This is probably due to a range of factors, including contradictory advice from different sources, changes to advice following increased scientific understanding, and top-down knowledge exchange patterns. In this article, we discuss the worm control options available, the translation of new best practice advice from science bench to field, and ideas for future work and directions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanics and statistics of the worm-like chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marantan, Andrew; Mahadevan, L.

    2018-02-01

    The worm-like chain model is a simple continuum model for the statistical mechanics of a flexible polymer subject to an external force. We offer a tutorial introduction to it using three approaches. First, we use a mesoscopic view, treating a long polymer (in two dimensions) as though it were made of many groups of correlated links or "clinks," allowing us to calculate its average extension as a function of the external force via scaling arguments. We then provide a standard statistical mechanics approach, obtaining the average extension by two different means: the equipartition theorem and the partition function. Finally, we work in a probabilistic framework, taking advantage of the Gaussian properties of the chain in the large-force limit to improve upon the previous calculations of the average extension.

  12. Hybrid Epidemics—A Case Study on Computer Worm Conficker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Chain, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Conficker is a computer worm that erupted on the Internet in 2008. It is unique in combining three different spreading strategies: local probing, neighbourhood probing, and global probing. We propose a mathematical model that combines three modes of spreading: local, neighbourhood, and global, to capture the worm’s spreading behaviour. The parameters of the model are inferred directly from network data obtained during the first day of the Conficker epidemic. The model is then used to explore the tradeoff between spreading modes in determining the worm’s effectiveness. Our results show that the Conficker epidemic is an example of a critically hybrid epidemic, in which the different modes of spreading in isolation do not lead to successful epidemics. Such hybrid spreading strategies may be used beneficially to provide the most effective strategies for promulgating information across a large population. When used maliciously, however, they can present a dangerous challenge to current internet security protocols. PMID:25978309

  13. Not whale-fall specialists, Osedax worms also consume fishbones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Greg W; Goffredi, Shana K; Johnson, Shannon B; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2011-10-23

    Marine annelid worms of the genus Osedax exploit sunken vertebrate bones for food. To date, the named species occur on whale or other mammalian bones, and it is argued that Osedax is a whale-fall specialist. To assess whether extant Osedax species could obtain nutrition from non-mammalian resources, we deployed teleost bones and calcified shark cartilage at approximately 1000 m depth for five months. Although the evidence from shark cartilage was inconclusive, the teleost bones hosted three species of Osedax, each of which also lives off whalebones. This suggests that rather than being a whale-fall specialist, Osedax has exploited and continues to exploit a variety of food sources. The ability of Osedax to colonize and to grow on fishbone lends credibility to a hypothesis that it might have split from its siboglinid relatives to assume the bone-eating lifestyle during the Cretaceous, well before the origin of marine mammals.

  14. A GENERATIVE CAD MODEL OF A WORM GEAR MESHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika WRONKOWICZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the term of a generative CAD model, its origins and, thus, a need of creating such a type of models. A process of generative model creation as well as specific forms of knowledge recording applied in the implementation phase in various CAD systems are briefly discussed. The example of a worm gear meshing realized by the CATIA software encapsulates the methodology of generative model construction. Sources and types of knowledge for design and construction required for development of the aforementioned model as well as the UML language as a method of formal knowledge recording are presented. The concept of model creation, i.e. assumptions and the structure as well as logic of the model operation are described. Also, the paper addresses selected elements of the project that present the manner in which the model was constructed.

  15. Worm-like instability of a vibrated sessile drop

    CERN Document Server

    Hemmerle, Arnaud; Bergeron, Vance; Charitat, Thierry; Farago, Jean

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of vertical sinusoidal vibrations on a liquid droplet with a low surface tension (ethanol) deposited on a solid substrate. In a precise range of amplitudes and frequencies, the drop exhibits a dramatic worm-like shape instability with a strong symmetry breaking, comparable to the one observed by Pucci et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., 106 (2011) 024503) on a vibrated floating lens. However, the geometry of our system is much simpler since it does not involve the oscillation and deformation of a liquid-liquid-air contact line. We show that the Faraday waves appearing on the surface of the droplet control its shape and we draw a systematic phase diagram of the instability. A simple theoretical model allows us to derive a relation between the elongation of the droplet and the amplitude of the Faraday wave, in good agreement with measurements of both quantities.

  16. Early detection of Internet worm activity by metering ICMP destination unreachable messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, George; Berk, Vincent H.

    2002-08-01

    Early warning of active worm propagation over the Internet is of vital importance to first responders. Knowing an active worms characteristics very early in its propagation can significantly reduce the damage it may cause. In this paper we propose an early warning system that uses ICMP Destination Unreachable (ICMP-T3) messages to identify the random scanning behavior of worms. Participating routers across the Internet send Blind Carbon Copies of all their locally generated ICMP-T3 messages to a central collection point. There all the incoming messages are compared for similarities. Incoming messages are abstracted and patterns identified. Using the methods discussed in this paper we identify 'blooms' of activity that are a clear signature of worm propagation. Preliminary test results have shown that actively spreading worms can be identified in the first few minutes after they are launched. By using the characteristics gathered in those early stages, action can be taken and widespread damage might be avoided.

  17. Global dynamics of a novel multi-group model for computer worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yong-Wang; Song, Yu-Rong; Jiang, Guo-Ping

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we study worm dynamics in computer networks composed of many autonomous systems. A novel multi-group SIQR (susceptible-infected-quarantined-removed) model is proposed for computer worms by explicitly considering anti-virus measures and the network infrastructure. Then, the basic reproduction number of worm R0 is derived and the global dynamics of the model are established. It is shown that if R0 is less than or equal to 1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and the worm dies out eventually, whereas, if R0 is greater than 1, one unique endemic equilibrium exists and it is globally asymptotically stable, thus the worm persists in the network. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  18. The transcriptome and proteome are altered in marine polychaetes (Annelida) exposed to elevated metal levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, Matthew J; Streten-Joyce, Claire; Nouwens, Amanda S; Glasby, Chris J; McGuinness, Keith A; Parry, David L; Gibb, Karen S

    2012-05-17

    Polychaetes are often used in toxicological studies to understand mechanisms of resistance and for biomarker detection, however, we know of only a few genetic pathways involved in resistance. We found the marine polychaete Ophelina sp.1 (Opheliidae) in sediment containing high copper levels and investigated this phenomenon by measuring metal accumulation in the worms and changes in gene and protein expression. We sequenced the transcriptome of Ophelina sp.1 from both the impacted and reference sediments using 454-sequencing and analysed their proteomes using differential in gel electrophoresis (DIGE). We used the sequenced transcriptome to guide protein identification. Transcripts coding for the copper chaperone, Atox1, were up-regulated in the worms inhabiting the high copper sediment. In addition, genes coding for respiratory proteins, detoxification proteins and cytoskeletal proteins were significantly altered in metal-exposed worms; many of these changes were also detected in the proteome. This dual approach has provided a better understanding of heavy metal resistance in polychaetes and we now have a wider range of suitable indicator genes and proteins for future biomarker development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterisation of esterases as potential biomarkers of pesticide exposure in the lugworm Arenicola marina (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannam, Marie L. [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: marie.hannam@plymouth.ac.uk; Hagger, Josephine A.; Jones, Malcolm B.; Galloway, Tamara S. [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-15

    Here, we identify and characterise cholinesterase (ChE) and carboxylesterase (CbE) activities in the body tissues of the sediment dwelling worm Arenicola marina. Exposure to the organophosphorus pesticide azamethiphos yielded an in vitro IC{sub 50} of 5 {mu}g l{sup -1} for propionylcholinesterase (PChE). PChE was significantly inhibited in vivo after a 10 day exposure to 100 {mu}g l{sup -1} azamethiphos, equivalent to the recommended aquatic application rate (ANOVA; F = 2.75, P = 0.033). To determine sensitivity to environmental conditions, A. marina were exposed for 10 days to field collected sediments. PChE activity was significantly lower in worms exposed to sediments from an estuary classified to be at high risk from point source pollution by the UK Environment Agency (ANOVA; F = 15.33, P < 0.001). Whilst causality cannot be directly attributed from these latter exposures, they provide an important illustration of the potential utility of esterase activity as a biomarker of environmental quality in this ecologically relevant sentinel species. - This paper provides a preliminary characterisation of esterase enzyme activities in the tissues and body fluids of the sediment dwelling worm Arenicola marina and explores their potential use as biomarkers of organophosphorus pesticide exposure in the marine environment.

  20. The Utility of Genome Skimming for Phylogenomic Analyses as Demonstrated for Glycerid Relationships (Annelida, Glyceridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Sandy; Schwarz, Francine; Hering, Lars; Böggemann, Markus; Bleidorn, Christoph

    2015-11-19

    Glyceridae (Annelida) are a group of venomous annelids distributed worldwide from intertidal to abyssal depths. To trace the evolutionary history and complexity of glycerid venom cocktails, a solid backbone phylogeny of this group is essential. We therefore aimed to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of these annelids using Illumina sequencing technology. We constructed whole-genome shotgun libraries for 19 glycerid specimens and 1 outgroup species (Glycinde armigera). The chosen target genes comprise 13 mitochondrial proteins, 2 ribosomal mitochondrial genes, and 4 nuclear loci (18SrRNA, 28SrRNA, ITS1, and ITS2). Based on partitioned maximum likelihood as well as Bayesian analyses of the resulting supermatrix, we were finally able to resolve a robust glycerid phylogeny and identified three clades comprising the majority of taxa. Furthermore, we detected group II introns inside the cox1 gene of two analyzed glycerid specimens, with two different insertions in one of these species. Moreover, we generated reduced data sets comprising 10 million, 4 million, and 1 million reads from the original data sets to test the influence of the sequencing depth on assembling complete mitochondrial genomes from low coverage genome data. We estimated the coverage of mitochondrial genome sequences in each data set size by mapping the filtered Illumina reads against the respective mitochondrial contigs. By comparing the contig coverage calculated in all data set sizes, we got a hint for the scalability of our genome skimming approach. This allows estimating more precisely the number of reads that are at least necessary to reconstruct complete mitochondrial genomes in Glyceridae and probably non-model organisms in general. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. The Syllis gracilis species complex: A molecular approach to a difficult taxonomic problem (Annelida, Syllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Campos, Patricia; Giribet, Gonzalo; Riesgo, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Syllis gracilis is an emblematic member of the subfamily Syllinae (Syllidae, Annelida), which inhabits shallow, temperate coastal waters and can be found on algae, coral rubble, and sponges. Their distinctive ypsiloid chaetae, usually found in specimens from populations all around the world, led to the consideration of the species as cosmopolitan, even though four other species have similar chaetae: Syllis magellanica, S. picta, S. mayeri and S. ypsiloides. The discovery of deeply divergent lineages in the Mediterranean Sea, that were morphologically similar, questioned the cosmopolitanism of S. gracilis and suggested the possibility of it being a species complex. In order to assess the speciation patterns within the putative S. gracilis complex, we undertook species delimitation and phylogenetic analyses on 61 specimens morphologically ascribed to Syllis gracilis and closely related species using a multilocus molecular dataset (two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers). Our results suggest high levels of genetic differentiation between the S. gracilis populations analyzed, some of which have morphologically distinctive features. Five to eight distinct lineages (depending on the analysis) were identified, all with geographically restricted distributions. Although the presence of ypsiloid chaetae has been traditionally considered the main character to identify S. gracilis, we conclude that this feature is homoplastic. Instead, we propose that characters such as the degree of fusion of blades and shafts in chaetae, the morphology of the posterior chaetae or the animal color pattern should be considered to differentiate lineages within the S. gracilis species complex. Our study does not support the cosmopolitanism of S. gracilis, and instead provides morphological and molecular evidence of the existence of a complex of pseudo-cryptic species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Capitellid connections: contributions from neuromuscular development of the maldanid polychaete Axiothella rubrocincta (Annelida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    nerve, that support a close relationship of both taxa, thus corroborating recent molecular phylogenetic analyses. The data on myogenesis show that four longitudinal muscle bands most likely represent an ancestral character not only for the Capitellida, but for the Annelida in general. Whether or not circular muscles are part of the annelid groundpattern remains uncertain. PMID:20529306

  3. Capitellid connections: contributions from neuromuscular development of the maldanid polychaete Axiothella rubrocincta (Annelida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanninger Andreas

    2010-06-01

    strand, and a stomatogastric ring nerve, that support a close relationship of both taxa, thus corroborating recent molecular phylogenetic analyses. The data on myogenesis show that four longitudinal muscle bands most likely represent an ancestral character not only for the Capitellida, but for the Annelida in general. Whether or not circular muscles are part of the annelid groundpattern remains uncertain.

  4. The Utility of Genome Skimming for Phylogenomic Analyses as Demonstrated for Glycerid Relationships (Annelida, Glyceridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Sandy; Schwarz, Francine; Hering, Lars; Böggemann, Markus; Bleidorn, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Glyceridae (Annelida) are a group of venomous annelids distributed worldwide from intertidal to abyssal depths. To trace the evolutionary history and complexity of glycerid venom cocktails, a solid backbone phylogeny of this group is essential. We therefore aimed to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of these annelids using Illumina sequencing technology. We constructed whole-genome shotgun libraries for 19 glycerid specimens and 1 outgroup species (Glycinde armigera). The chosen target genes comprise 13 mitochondrial proteins, 2 ribosomal mitochondrial genes, and 4 nuclear loci (18SrRNA, 28SrRNA, ITS1, and ITS2). Based on partitioned maximum likelihood as well as Bayesian analyses of the resulting supermatrix, we were finally able to resolve a robust glycerid phylogeny and identified three clades comprising the majority of taxa. Furthermore, we detected group II introns inside the cox1 gene of two analyzed glycerid specimens, with two different insertions in one of these species. Moreover, we generated reduced data sets comprising 10 million, 4 million, and 1 million reads from the original data sets to test the influence of the sequencing depth on assembling complete mitochondrial genomes from low coverage genome data. We estimated the coverage of mitochondrial genome sequences in each data set size by mapping the filtered Illumina reads against the respective mitochondrial contigs. By comparing the contig coverage calculated in all data set sizes, we got a hint for the scalability of our genome skimming approach. This allows estimating more precisely the number of reads that are at least necessary to reconstruct complete mitochondrial genomes in Glyceridae and probably non-model organisms in general. PMID:26590213

  5. The provision of potable water in eradication of Guinea worm infection in Ezza North, Southeastern, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ede, Alison Okorie; Nwaokoro, Joakin Chidozie; Iwuala, C C; Amadi, A N; Akpelu, Ugochinyere Alvana

    2014-10-01

    Guinea worm is a parasite found in unprotected drinking water sources, causes considerable morbidity and loss of agricultural production among rural people. The study was to determine the current status of Guinea worm infection in Ezza North and to evaluate the impact of control measures on guinea worm infection. A total of 200 individuals in Ezza North Southeastern, Nigeria were examined for guinea worm infection. A standardized questionnaire was used to determine the effect of potable water on guinea worm eradication/control, the source of drinking water, information on the knowledge, attitude, symptom management practices, availability of health facilities and boreholes installation status. The instrument for data collection was well constructed, validated and reliable tested questionnaire by an expert. Data obtained was analyzed using Epi-Info model 3.4 versions. Results of a study indicated majority of the respondents 195 (97.5 %) have access to safe drinking water supply which indicated no case of Guinea worm infection. The active use of potable water supply was found among the age group of 20-30 years 71 (35.5 %) and higher in male (57.5 %) than females (42.5 %). The drastic reduction of Guinea worm infection to zero (0) level in Ezza North were due to multiple factors as health education, availability of functional boreholes, presence of health centers for immediate treatment if any case discovered.

  6. [Morphological observation on the adult worms of Taenia saginata in western China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Rong; Bao, Huai-En; Qiu, Xue-Li; Chen, Yan; Lang, Shu-Yuan; Huang, Jiang; Li, Jian-Hua; Zhu, Wu-Jun; Zhang, Ke; Ling-Hu, Yan

    2007-02-28

    To investigate the morphological characteristics of the adult worms of Taenia saginata from four areas of Western China. 42, 41, 7 and 18 integral worms of Taenia saginata were collected from Duyun and Congjiang of Guizhou Province, Wushi of Xinjiang, and Lhasa of Tibet respectively. The length of worms was measured and the segments were counted. The specimens of scolex, mature and gravid proglottids of the worms were stained, measured and photographed. The mean length of the worms from Duyun, Congjiang, Wushi and Lasa was (1.81+/-0.69) m, (3.84+/-1.32) m, (2.76+/-0.86) m and (3.72+/-1.12) m, and with (574.64+/-189.33), (913.84+/-317.41), (971.29+/-168.30) and (940.38+/-368.26) proglottids, respectively. The mean ratio of the distance between two lateral excretory vessels and the length of vitellarium of the mature proglottids was (1.71+/-0.13), (2.23+/-0.06), (2.03+/-0.21), (2.31+/-0.15) respectively. All the 3 parameters of the worms from Duyun were significantly less than those from other 3 areas (PTaenia saginata asiatica, while those of the worms from Congjiang, Wushi and Lhasa are alike to those of Taenia saginata saginata.

  7. Worm infestations and development of autoimmunity in children - The ABIS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Ludvigsson

    Full Text Available Worm infestations influence the immune system and may therefore decrease the risk for autoimmune diseases. The aim of the study was to determine whether children who have developed autoimmune disease were less likely to have had worm infestations in childhood. The ABIS-study is a prospective population-based cohort study of children born in southeast Sweden 1997/99. 17.055 children participated. As of June 2014 116 individuals had developed Type 1 diabetes, 181 celiac disease, and 53 Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. The parents answered questions on worm infestations when the children were 1, 5 and 8 years of age. The ABIS registry was connected to the National Registry of Drug Prescriptions, and national registries for diagnosis of the studied diseases. We found no differences in incidence of worm infestations at 1, 5 or 8 years of age between children who developed autoimmune disease(s or healthy controls. At 8 years in total 20.0% of the general child population had experienced a worm infestation; children who developed Type 1 diabetes, 21,3%, celiac disease 19,5% and JRA 18,8%. There was no difference in prescriptions of drugs for treatment of worm infestations between those who had and who had not developed Type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. We found no associations indicating that worm infestations in childhood does not play a role in the development of autoimmune diseases in Sweden.

  8. Promoting positive health behaviours--'tooth worm' phenomenon and its implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X L; Hsu, C Y S; Xu, Y C; Loh, T; Koh, D; Hwarng, H B

    2012-03-01

    'Tooth worm' is a traditional belief about the pathogen of dental caries (tooth decay). Nevertheless, in our previous study, parental 'tooth worm' belief was linked to a reduced caries risk of their children. This study aimed to further characterize the impact of parental 'tooth worm' belief on their children's caries experience and its psychobehavioural mechanisms. analytic observational study. Thirteen randomly selected kindergartens in Singapore. 1,782 preschoolers aged 3-6 years. Each child received an oral examination and microbiological tests. Parents completed a self-administered questionnaire on their socio-demographic background, oral health knowledge/attitude and child's oral health habits. Multivariate analysis confirmed a reduced chance of 'high caries rate' (number of affected teeth > 2) among children whose parents held the 'tooth worm' belief (Odds Ratio = 0.41; 95% Confidence Interval = 0.19-0.89). With such perception among parents, children brushed their teeth more frequently (p = 0.042). Since no difference in oral hygiene was observed, the health benefit of the "tooth worm" perception may be acquired through the delivery of fluoride (an agent with proven anti-caries effect) during frequent toothbrushing episodes. This study revealed a 'tooth worm' phenomenon, indicating that parental 'tooth worm' belief is associated with early establishment of regular toothbrushing habit and reduction of dental caries in children. This phenomenon and its psychobehavioural mechanisms, enriching our understanding of oral health behaviours, have implications for effective health education.

  9. Viability of developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni quantified with xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rinaldi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection with helminth parasites causes morbidity and mortality in billions of people and livestock worldwide. Where anthelmintic drugs are available, drug resistance is a major problem in livestock parasites, and a looming threat to public health. Monitoring the efficacy of these medicines and screening for new drugs has been hindered by the lack of objective, high-throughput approaches. Several cell monitoring technologies have been adapted for parasitic worms, including video-, fluorescence-, metabolism enzyme- and impedance-based tools that minimize the screening bottleneck. Using the xCELLigence impedance-based system we previously developed a motility-viability assay that is applicable for a range of helminth parasites. Here we have improved substantially the assay by using diverse frequency settings, and have named it the xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM. By utilizing strictly standardized mean difference analysis we compared the xWORM output measured with 10, 25 and 50 kHz frequencies to quantify the motility of schistosome adults (human blood flukes and hatching of schistosome eggs. Furthermore, we have described a novel application of xWORM to monitor movement of schistosome cercariae, the developmental stage that is infectious to humans. For all three stages, 25 kHz was either optimal or near-optimal for monitoring and quantifying schistosome motility. These improvements in methodology sensitivity should enhance the capacity to screen small compound libraries for new drugs both for schistosomes and other helminth pathogens at large.

  10. Automatic defense against zero-day polymorphic worms in communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammed, Mohssen

    2013-01-01

    Able to propagate quickly and change their payload with each infection, polymorphic worms have been able to evade even the most advanced intrusion detection systems (IDS). And, because zero-day worms require only seconds to launch flooding attacks on your servers, using traditional methods such as manually creating and storing signatures to defend against these threats is just too slow. Bringing together critical knowledge and research on the subject, Automatic Defense Against Zero-day Polymorphic Worms in Communication Networks details a new approach for generating automated signatures for un

  11. An analysis on the re-emergence of SQL Slammer worm using network telescope data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chindipha, SD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available geographically located in China, Vietnam and Mexico, with no one ready to take credit for the re-emergence of the worm [10]. Its reemergence now, 14 years later, makes it one of the most long-lived threats. In December 2016, researchers at Check Point confirmed... that Slammer worm is back online targeting the same ancient flaw in Microsoft SQL server 2000 buffer overflow vulnerability [8]. Whether the Slammer Worm is back to stay for good remains a question to be answered at this point. III. METHODOLOGY In this section...

  12. Chemistry and the worm: Caenorhabditis elegans as a platform for integrating chemical and biological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, S Elizabeth; Whitesides, George M

    2011-05-16

    This Review discusses the potential usefulness of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism for chemists interested in studying living systems. C. elegans, a 1 mm long roundworm, is a popular model organism in almost all areas of modern biology. The worm has several features that make it attractive for biology: it is small (biology, the Review provides examples of current research with C. elegans that is chemically relevant. It also describes tools-biological, chemical, and physical-that are available to researchers studying the worm. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Modeling and Analyzing the Spread of Flash Disk Worms via Multiple Subnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guihua Li

    2015-01-01

    subnet is considered. Analytical result shows that the Flash Disk worm can self-perpetuate when Ri0>1 and will die out otherwise. When multiple subnets are considered, we get that once a computer is infected by the Flash Disk worms, other computers in that subnet will be infected in a short time. Thus, for any subnet, to contain the Flash Disk worms, the most effective way is to prevent the first infected individual by improving the users’ security awareness of using removed devices. Our results are illustrated by numerical simulation.

  14. Bioaccumulation and biological effects of cigarette litter in marine worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephanie L.; Rowe, Darren; Reid, Malcolm J.; Thomas, Kevin V.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2015-01-01

    Marine debris is a global environmental issue. Smoked cigarette filters are the predominant coastal litter item; 4.5 trillion are littered annually, presenting a source of bioplastic microfibres (cellulose acetate) and harmful toxicants to marine environments. Despite the human health risks associated with smoking, little is known of the hazards cigarette filters present to marine life. Here we studied the impacts of smoked cigarette filter toxicants and microfibres on the polychaete worm Hediste diversicolor (ragworm), a widespread inhabitant of coastal sediments. Ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter toxicants in seawater at concentrations 60 fold lower than those reported for urban run-off exhibited significantly longer burrowing times, >30% weight loss, and >2-fold increase in DNA damage compared to ragworms maintained in control conditions. In contrast, ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter microfibres in marine sediment showed no significant effects. Bioconcentration factors for nicotine were 500 fold higher from seawater than from sediment. Our results illustrate the vulnerability of organisms in the water column to smoking debris and associated toxicants, and highlight the risks posed by smoked cigarette filter debris to aquatic life. PMID:26369692

  15. Serological Screening of the Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worm Proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludolf, Fernanda; Patrocínio, Paola R.; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Gazzinelli, Andréa; Falcone, Franco H.; Teixeira-Ferreira, André; Perales, Jonas; Oliveira, Guilherme C.; Silva-Pereira, Rosiane A.

    2014-01-01

    Background New interventions tools are a priority for schistosomiasis control and elimination, as the disease is still highly prevalent. The identification of proteins associated with active infection and protective immune response may constitute the basis for the development of a successful vaccine and could also indicate new diagnostic candidates. In this context, post-genomic technologies have been progressing, resulting in a more rational discovery of new biomarkers of resistance and antigens for diagnosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Two-dimensional electrophoresed Schistosoma mansoni adult worm protein extracts were probed with pooled sera of infected and non-infected (naturally resistant) individuals from a S. mansoni endemic area. A total of 47 different immunoreactive proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Although the different pooled sera shared most of the immunoreactive protein spots, nine protein spots reacted exclusively with the serum pool of infected individuals, which correspond to annexin, major egg antigen, troponin T, filamin, disulphide-isomerase ER-60 precursor, actin and reticulocalbin. One protein spot, corresponding to eukaryotic translation elongation factor, reacted exclusively with the pooled sera of non-infected individuals living in the endemic area. Western blotting of two selected recombinant proteins, major egg antigen and hemoglobinase, showed a similar recognition pattern of that of the native protein. Concluding/Significance Using a serological proteome analysis, a group of antigens related to the different infection status of the endemic area residents was identified and may be related to susceptibility or resistance to infection. PMID:24651847

  16. Monosaccharide transport into hemocytes of a sipunculan worm Themiste dyscrita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingermann, R.L.; Hall, R.E.; Bissonnette, J.M.; Terwilliger, R.C.

    1985-07-01

    The hemerythrin-containing blood cells, or hemocytes, of the sipunculan worm Themiste dyscrita were found to have a stereospecific and nonconcentrative monosaccharide transport system. The transport system transferred both D-glucose and 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3-OMG), and transport into cells by this system was rapid, reaching 50% equilibrium in approximately 20 s at 10 degrees C with an initial concentration gradient of 0.1 mM; the contribution to total uptake by simple diffusion was very small. 3-OMG uptake showed saturation kinetics with a low half-saturation constant (Km less than or equal to 0.1 mM). The uptake of labeled 3-OMG by the hemocytes was strongly inhibited by unlabeled 3-OMG, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, alpha- and beta-D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-mannose. It was moderately inhibited by D-xylose, only slightly by alpha-methyl-D-glucoside and D-fructose, and uninhibited by sucrose, L-glucose, or D-sorbitol. Phloretin was more potent than phloridzin in blocking entry of 3-OMG. Cytochalasin B did not bind tightly to the T. dyscrita transporter and was not a potent inhibitor of transport; it half-maximally inhibited 3-OMG transport at 0.1 mM. Therefore, despite some differences the data suggest functional similarities in the mechanism of monosaccharide transport into blood cells of mammals and this invertebrate.

  17. Methane Ice Worms: Hesiocaeca methanicola Colonizing Fossil Fuel Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, C. R.; MacDonald, I. R.; Sassen, R.; Young, C. M.; Macko, S. A.; Hourdez, S.; Carney, R. S.; Joye, S.; McMullin, E.

    During a research cruise in July 1997 in the Gulf of Mexico we discovered a gas hydrate approximately 1m thick and over 2m in diameter which had recently breached the sea floor at a depth of 540m. The hydrate surface visible from the submarine was considerably greater than that of any other reported hydrate. Two distinct color bands of hydrate were present in the same mound, and the entire exposed surface of the hydrate was infested (2500 individuals/m2) with 2 to 4 cm-long worms, since described as a new species, Hesiocaecamethanicola, in the polychaete family Hesionidae (Desbruyères and Toulmond 1998). H.methanicola tissue stable isotope values are consistent with a chemoautotrophic food source. No evidence of chemoautotrophic symbionts was detected, but geochemical data support the presence of abundant free living bacteria on the hydrate. The activities of the polychaetes, grazing on the hydrate bacteria and supplying oxygen to their habitats, appears to contribute to the dissolution of hydrates in surface sediments.

  18. Do We Need Worms to Promote Immune Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Joel V

    2015-10-01

    Many immune-mediated diseases like inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, asthma, and food allergy appeared to have increased in frequency in developed countries in the latter part of the twentieth century. Reports from less developed countries suggest that the "epidemic" of immune-mediated diseases now is spreading into these regions as well. The "hygiene hypothesis" was developed to partly explain this phenomenon. It has been proposed that modern-day sanitary living has altered our exposure to organisms that provided protection from these diseases in the past. Alternations in the composition of our intestinal flora and fauna could play a role. Helminths are a group of worm-like parasitic organisms that have adapted to live in various regions of their hosts. Epidemiological and some clinical data suggest that these organisms can protect people from developing immune-mediated diseases. Animal experimentation has shown that helminths stimulate the production of regulatory cytokines, activate regulatory T cells, and induce regulatory dendritic cells and macrophages. This could be the mechanism by which they protect the host from these diseases. Early clinical studies also suggest that helminths may prove useful for treating immunological diseases. More sophisticated clinical studies are underway, testing live helminth agents as therapeutic agents. Also, a strong effort is ongoing to discover the agents produced by helminths that modulate host immune responses with an eye on developing new, highly effective immune modulatory therapeutic agent.

  19. Worm domains and Fefferman space-time singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, Elisabetta; Dragomir, Sorin; Peloso, Marco M.

    2017-10-01

    Let W be a smoothly bounded worm domain in C2 and let A = Null(Lθ) be the set of Levi-flat points on the boundary ∂W of W. We study the relationship between pseudohermitian geometry of the strictly pseudoconvex locus M = ∂W ∖ A and the theory of space-time singularities associated to the Fefferman metric Fθ on the total space of the canonical circle bundle S1 → C(M) ⟶ π M. Given any point (0 ,w0) ∈ A, we show that every lift Γ(φ) ∈ C(M) , 0 ≤ φ - log|w0 | 2 frames O(1 , 1) → O(Σ) → Σ and adapted Lorentzian frames O(1 , 1) × O(2) → O(C(M) , Σ) → Σ, endowed with Schmidt metrics, descending to a map of bundle completions which maps the b-boundary of Σ into the adapted bundle boundary of C(M) , i.e. j(Σ ˙) ⊂∂adt C(M) .

  20. Functional brain regeneration in the acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon G. Sprecher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of some animals to regrow their head and brain after decapitation provides a striking example of the regenerative capacity within the animal kingdom. The acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis can regrow its head, brain and sensory head organs within only a few weeks after decapitation. How rapidly and to what degree it also reacquires its functionality to control behavior however remains unknown. We provide here a neuroanatomical map of the brain neuropils of the adult S. roscoffensis and show that after decapitation a normal neuroanatomical organization of the brain is restored in the majority of animals. By testing different behaviors we further show that functionality of both sensory perception and the underlying brain architecture are restored within weeks after decapitation. Interestingly not all behaviors are restored at the same speed and to the same extent. While we find that phototaxis recovered rapidly, geotaxis is not restored within 7 weeks. Our findings show that regeneration of the head, sensory organs and brain result in the restoration of directed navigation behavior, suggesting a tight coordination in the regeneration of certain sensory organs with that of their underlying neural circuits. Thus, at least in S. roscoffensis, the regenerative capacity of different sensory modalities follows distinct paths.

  1. Serological screening of the Schistosoma mansoni adult worm proteome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ludolf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New interventions tools are a priority for schistosomiasis control and elimination, as the disease is still highly prevalent. The identification of proteins associated with active infection and protective immune response may constitute the basis for the development of a successful vaccine and could also indicate new diagnostic candidates. In this context, post-genomic technologies have been progressing, resulting in a more rational discovery of new biomarkers of resistance and antigens for diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two-dimensional electrophoresed Schistosoma mansoni adult worm protein extracts were probed with pooled sera of infected and non-infected (naturally resistant individuals from a S. mansoni endemic area. A total of 47 different immunoreactive proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Although the different pooled sera shared most of the immunoreactive protein spots, nine protein spots reacted exclusively with the serum pool of infected individuals, which correspond to annexin, major egg antigen, troponin T, filamin, disulphide-isomerase ER-60 precursor, actin and reticulocalbin. One protein spot, corresponding to eukaryotic translation elongation factor, reacted exclusively with the pooled sera of non-infected individuals living in the endemic area. Western blotting of two selected recombinant proteins, major egg antigen and hemoglobinase, showed a similar recognition pattern of that of the native protein. CONCLUDING/SIGNIFICANCE: Using a serological proteome analysis, a group of antigens related to the different infection status of the endemic area residents was identified and may be related to susceptibility or resistance to infection.

  2. Functional brain regeneration in the acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, Simon G; Bernardo-Garcia, F Javier; van Giesen, Lena; Hartenstein, Volker; Reichert, Heinrich; Neves, Ricardo; Bailly, Xavier; Martinez, Pedro; Brauchle, Michael

    2015-11-18

    The ability of some animals to regrow their head and brain after decapitation provides a striking example of the regenerative capacity within the animal kingdom. The acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis can regrow its head, brain and sensory head organs within only a few weeks after decapitation. How rapidly and to what degree it also reacquires its functionality to control behavior however remains unknown. We provide here a neuroanatomical map of the brain neuropils of the adult S. roscoffensis and show that after decapitation a normal neuroanatomical organization of the brain is restored in the majority of animals. By testing different behaviors we further show that functionality of both sensory perception and the underlying brain architecture are restored within weeks after decapitation. Interestingly not all behaviors are restored at the same speed and to the same extent. While we find that phototaxis recovered rapidly, geotaxis is not restored within 7 weeks. Our findings show that regeneration of the head, sensory organs and brain result in the restoration of directed navigation behavior, suggesting a tight coordination in the regeneration of certain sensory organs with that of their underlying neural circuits. Thus, at least in S. roscoffensis, the regenerative capacity of different sensory modalities follows distinct paths. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. A SEM study of the reindeer sinus worm (Linguatula arctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Nikander

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentastomids are a group of peculiar parasitic arthropods, often referred to as tongue worms due to the resemblance of some species to a tongue. Linguatula arctica is the sinus worm of the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus, being the only pentastomid to have a direct life cycle and an ungulate as a definite host. Here, the surface structures and internal anatomy of adult L. arctica are described as seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Sinus worms were collected in the winter 1991-92 in Finnish Lapland. Paranasal cavities of about 80 reindeer were examined and 30 sinus worms were found. The sinus worms had typical Linguatula sp. morphology, being paddle-shaped, transparent, pale yellow, dorsoventrally flattened and pseudosegmented with a long tapering end. Present at the anteroventral part of the cephalothorax was an oral opening with a large, conspicuous, head-like papillar structure. Bilaterally, on both sides of this opening, was a pair of strong curved hooks. The cephalothorax and abdomen had a segmented appearance, as they showed distinct annulation. There was a small cup-shaped sensory organ present at the lateral margin on each annula. The posterior edge of each annula was roughened by tiny spines projecting backwards. Throughout the cuticular surface, small, circular depressions that represented the apical portion of chloride cells. The genital opening of the male was located medioventrally between the tips of the posterior pair of hooks, and that of the female posteroventrally and subterminally. In both sexes, the genital opening was bilaterally flanked by papillar (in males or leaf-like (in females structures. One copulating couple was present, with the male attached to the posteroventral part of the female with its anteroventral hooks and papillae. Several structures typical of arthropods and other pentastomids were identified. Because SEM allows only surfaces to be studied, the morphology and especially the sense organs of L. arctica

  4. Invertebrates Collected on and around Carroll Island, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    INVERTEBRATES , *MARYLAND, *WATER POLLUTION, TEST FACILITIES, TEST FACILITIES, ECOLOGY, CHESAPEAKE BAY, WATER POLLUTION, AIR POLLUTION, ANNELIDA, MOLLUSCA, PROTOZOA, ARTHROPODA, CRUSTACEA, ARACHNIDA, PLANKTON, WORMS.

  5. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

  6. Methods and strategies for gene structure curation in WormBase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, G W; Davis, P A; Rogers, A S; Bieri, T; Ozersky, P; Spieth, J

    2011-01-01

    .... In one of its roles as a central repository for nematode biology, WormBase continues to refine the gene structure annotations using sequence similarity and other computational methods, as well...

  7. Thermal limit for metazoan life in question: in vivo heat tolerance of the Pompeii worm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ravaux, Juliette; Hamel, Gérard; Zbinden, Magali; Tasiemski, Aurélie A; Boutet, Isabelle; Léger, Nelly; Tanguy, Arnaud; Jollivet, Didier; Shillito, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The thermal limit for metazoan life, expected to be around 50°C, has been debated since the discovery of the Pompeii worm Alvinella pompejana, which colonizes black smoker chimney walls at deep-sea vents...

  8. School based mass de-worming initiative in south-west Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At enrolment 19.6% of children with and 11.8% without helminth infections had BMI below the 5-percentile. ... No effect of de-worming was seen on longitudinal growth. ... Keywords: Helminthes, Absenteeism, Preventive Chemotherapy ...

  9. Guide and keys for the identification of Syllidae (Annelida, Phyllodocida from the British Isles (reported and expected species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo San Martín

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In November 2012, a workshop was carried out on the taxonomy and systematics of the family Syllidae (Annelida: Phyllodocida at the Dove Marine Laboratory, Cullercoats, Tynemouth, UK for the National Marine Biological Analytical Quality Control (NMBAQC Scheme. Illustrated keys for subfamilies, genera and species found in British and Irish waters were provided for participants from the major national agencies and consultancies involved in benthic sample processing. After the workshop, we prepared updates to these keys, to include some additional species provided by participants, and some species reported from nearby areas. In this paper, we provide the revised keys to enable rapid identification of Syllidae from the seas around Britain and Ireland. One new combination, Palposyllis propeweismanni, is proposed.

  10. Guide and keys for the identification of Syllidae (Annelida, Phyllodocida) from the British Isles (reported and expected species)

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martín, Guillermo; Worsfold, Tim M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In November 2012, a workshop was carried out on the taxonomy and systematics of the family Syllidae (Annelida: Phyllodocida) at the Dove Marine Laboratory, Cullercoats, Tynemouth, UK for the National Marine Biological Analytical Quality Control (NMBAQC) Scheme. Illustrated keys for subfamilies, genera and species found in British and Irish waters were provided for participants from the major national agencies and consultancies involved in benthic sample processing. After the workshop, we prepared updates to these keys, to include some additional species provided by participants, and some species reported from nearby areas. In this paper, we provide the revised keys to enable rapid identification of Syllidae from the seas around Britain and Ireland. One new combination, Palposyllis propeweismanni, is proposed. PMID:25878521

  11. Ecological features of Terebellida fauna (Annelida, Polychaeta from Ensenada de San Simón (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cacabelos, E.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological features of Terebellida (Annelida, Polychaeta inhabiting the intertidal and subtidal soft-bottoms of Ensenada de San Simón (NW Spain were analysed by means of quantitative sampling. A total of 4,814 specimens belonging to five families (Ampharetidae, Pectinariidae, Terebellidae, Trichobranchidae and Sabellariidae and ten species were collected in a variety of substrata and depths. Ampharetidae was the numerically dominant family mostly due to the abundance of Ampharete finmarchica and Melinna palmata; these species accounted for up to 94% of the total Terebellida abundance. Intertidal areas colonised by the seagrasses Zostera marina L. and Z. noltii Hornem. One thousand eight hundred and thirty-two harboured low densities of Terebellida, whereas the deeper subtidal muddy bottoms showed high abundances of ampharetids. Multivariate analyses suggested that Terebellida assemblages are highly correlated with sediment composition.

  12. Elisesione, a new name for Wesenbergia Hartman, 1955, and the description of a new species (Annelida, Hesionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Salazar-Vallejo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wesenbergia Hartman, 1955 (Annelida, Hesionidae is both preoccupied and a junior homonym of Wesenbergia Kryger, 1943 (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae, and must be renamed. Elisesione nom. n. is proposed as a replacement name, derived from the combination of the first name of the discoverer, Elise Wesenberg-Lund, and Hesione Savigny in Lamarck, 1818. Elisesione mezianei sp. n., is described from the Wallis and Futuna islands (southwest Pacific. A key to separate E. mezianei sp. n. from its congener E. problematica (Wesenberg-Lund, 1950 is included; further, the record of E. problematica for Japan should be regarded as a distinct species because it has palps shorter than antennae (subequal in the type species, and shorter neurochaetal blades (7–9 times longer than wide vs 8–12 times longer than wide in the type species.

  13. COMMUNITY KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTIONS ON NATIONAL SCHOOL-BASED DE-WORMING PROGRAMME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karani, F; Muthami, L; Kihara, J H; Mberia, H K

    2013-12-01

    To determine the community level of knowledge, attitude and perception of soil transmitted helminthes and the national school-based de-worming programme in selected villages of Busia County in Kenya. A cross-sectional survey. Busia and Bunyala districts in Busia County. A total of 384 participants were studied. Socio-demographic characteristics, then knowledge, causes and effects of Soil Transmitted Infections on health and education, prevention strategies, knowledge of national school-based de-worming programs, implementing strategies of the programme, benefits of the programme, community satisfaction and health seeking behaviour. Eating the uncooked food as a cause for soil transmitted infections constituted 27.16% (63) followed by 16.38% (38) notusing latrines, 15.95% (37) eating left over foods, 12.93% (30) eating cold food, 10.78% (25) eating not well cooked pork, 9.48% (22) eating contaminated soil, and 7.33% (17) changing of diet. One head teacher interviewed stated that "One can be able to notice if his/her child has worm infection if the child eats without getting satisfied, eating all the time and yet his belly is big."Community Health Extension Worker in the FGD stated that: "During flood seasons most of the areas in Budalangi become flooded and all latrines are filled with water and the excreta start overflowing. Most of the residents don't have shoes especially the children and therefore they are prone to the worm infection."99.57% of the parents were aware of the national school based de-worming programme of which (92%) learnt about the programme after their children were de-wormed in their various schools. Seventy five percent (174) were satisfied about the programme; 65.1% (151) and 10.3% indicated that the programme improves the children's health and student's school performance respectively. Most of the parents do not have adequate knowledge on worms, their causes, and signs and symptoms of the intestinal worms. Low educational levels and poverty

  14. Sago worms as a nutritious traditional and alternative food for rural children in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, Intan R; Trees; Suwarni; Pramono, Mochammad S

    2017-06-01

    The sago worm Rhynchophorus ferrugineus is a nutritious food source found in the remaining parts of a sago palm trunk after the removal of sago starch by farmers. The effort to increase sago worm consumption is investigated in an intervention study among children aged sago worm inclusive diet (n=10) and to a control group eating a usual diet, but without sago worms (n=13). Snacks were served once per day (100 g) for 45 days and designed to contain similar amounts of vegetables (carrots and long beans) and other ingredients including rice, sticky rice, cassava, sweet potato, banana, or tofu with or without sago worms. Food preference was ascertained by interview. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and the endpoint. After mixing all food stuffs into one product for instance nasi gurih, protein and fat content in the intervention group was higher compared to control group (8.8 g and 7.3 g vs 4.7 g and 0.5 g respectively). In the intervention group receiving complementary feeding with sago worms, children's height changed minimally as did the control group (0.3 vs 0.2 cm); no difference was observed between the groups regarding weight or height. Sago worm consumption can diversify the diet through usage in various dishes, so improving its overall nutritional quality. Worm addition in an intervention program does not compromise, but maintains nutritional value. Local use adds affordability and sustainability to the food and health systems in a sago-consuming culture, so contributing to food security.

  15. Modeling and Bifurcation Research of a Worm Propagation Dynamical System with Time Delay

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yu; Zhang, Zhao; Xiang, Wenlong; Yang, Wei; Gao, Fuxiang

    2014-01-01

    Both vaccination and quarantine strategy are adopted to control the Internet worm propagation. By considering the interaction infection between computers and external removable devices, a worm propagation dynamical system with time delay under quarantine strategy is constructed based on anomaly intrusion detection system (IDS). By regarding the time delay caused by time window of anomaly IDS as the bifurcation parameter, local asymptotic stability at the positive equilibrium and local Hopf bi...

  16. Exotic food anaphylaxis and the broken heart: sago worm and takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, K L; Kok, V S L

    2012-10-01

    There is increasing consumption of exotic food in Malaysia. Animals such as insects, worms and wild life animals also form part of the staple food of the local population. This practice may lead to more incidence of food allergy and anaphylaxis. We report a non-indigenous man who developed food anaphylaxis after consuming fried sago worms and consequently Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We postulate that certain food allergy and anaphylaxis could be another causative trigger for Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

  17. Red worm behavior (Eisenia spp. in vermicomposting systems of organic residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamani-Mamani Gladys

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the behavior of the vermicomposting red worm (Eisenia spp. in two environments (greenhouse and unsheltered and with two solid organic substrates (cow manure=CM and kitchen waste=KW in the zone of Carmen Pampa, Nor Yungas Province, Department of La Paz – Bolivia, using a factorial design with two factors and three repetitions (ANOVA analysis. The largest number of cocoons was found in the greenhouse treatment, with 64 in CM and 41 in KW. Cocoon viability was also greatest in the greenhouse treatment, at 100% for CM and 96% for KW. Similarly, the greatest number of worms hatched from cocoons was in the greenhouse treatment, with 2 immature worms for CM and 3.5 for KW, and the greatest number of immature worms was registered in the greenhouse treatment with 123 individuals in CM and 16 in KW. The lowest mortality rate due to environment was in the greenhouse treatment, with 3.90% mortality with CM and 88.64% with KW. The greatest number of mature worms (with clitella was in the unsheltered treatment, with 15 in CM and 21 in KW. The greatest biomass of immature worms was found in the greenhouse treatment, with 1.41 g of worms for CM and 0.185 g for KW; however, the greatest biomass of mature worms was in the KW treatment, with 7.98 g for the greenhouse treatment and 6.93 g for the unsheltered treatment. The phytotoxicity from CM vermicompost in the two environments was lowest, exhibiting a 66.6% rate of germination, and the opposite was true for KW, which was the most toxic in both environments. Macronutrient content in vermicompost obtained was: nitrogen at 2.45% and 2.31%, phosphorus at 500 mg kg-1 and 220 mg kg-1 and potassium at 27.43 and 2.76 cmol(+ kg-1 of dry substrate in KW and CM respectively.

  18. PRODUCTION OF BIMETALLIC SLUGS OF WORM WHEELS BY METHOD OF ELECTROSLAG REMELTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Thе technology of worm-wheel production, based on mechanical amalgamation of bronze crown with hub is described. The technology of production of the worm-wheel bimetallic ingots in chill and by means of liquid forging is considered. The technology of production of bimetallic ingots by means of electroslag melting (ESM is described and advantages of this method in comparison to the previous one are indicated.

  19. Optimal synthesis of the worm-lever mechanism for humanoid robots shrug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penčić Marko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotions represent a significant means of nonverbal communication and their expression represents an important aspect of social robots functionality. There are two basic ways of expressing emotions. The first one is based on facial expressions that can be realized by moving a particular part of face or by displaying a picture on the screen that represents a face with characteristic features such as eyebrows, eyes, nose and mouth. Combining them is also possible. The second way of nonverbal communication is based on gestures, especially using arms. This paper presents an optimal synthesis of shrug mechanism for humanoid robots. Based on the set requirements the worm-lever mechanism is proposed. It has 1 DOF and enables simultaneous shrug of both shoulders. It consists of a worm which is meshed with two worm gears having different directions of rotation and two four-bar lever mechanisms whose input links are rigidly connected to the worm gears. Based on the kinematic-dynamic analysis the dynamic model is formed, the objective function is defined, the constraints are prescribed and the optimal synthesis is performed. The maximum torque on the input link of the lever mechanism, the driving torque of the complete worm-lever mechanism, the range of transmission angle and the rotation range of the worm gears are determined. The lever mechanism has high efficiency in all positions because the transmission angle has a high value during the whole movement. The worm mechanism enables a significant reduction of driving torque and has acceptable efficiency. The rotation range of the worm gear is small – the mechanism movement is very quick and therefore the shrug speed is large, which was the basic requirement for realization. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III44008

  20. Durability Characteristics Analysis of Plastic Worm Wheel with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Il Seo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plastic worm wheel is widely used in the vehicle manufacturing field because it is favorable for weight lightening, vibration and noise reduction, as well as corrosion resistance. However, it is very difficult for general plastics to secure the mechanical properties that are required for vehicle gears. If the plastic resin is reinforced by glass fiber in the fabrication process of plastic worm wheel, it is possible to achieve the mechanical properties of metallic material levels. In this study, the mechanical characteristic analysis of the glass-reinforced plastic worm wheel, according to the contents of glass fiber, is performed by analytic and experimental methods. In the case of the glass fiber-reinforced resin, the orientation and contents of glass fibers can influence the mechanical properties. For the characteristic prediction of plastic worm wheel, computer-aided engineering (CAE analysis processes such as structural and injection molding analysis were executed with the polyamide resin reinforcement glass fiber (25 wt %, 50 wt %. The injection mold for fabricating the prototype plastic worm wheel was designed and made to reflect the CAE analysis results. Finally, the durability of prototype plastic worm wheel fabricated by the injection molding process was evaluated by the experimental method and the characteristics according to the glass fiber contents.

  1. Influence of ecological factors on prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Dubay, Shelli A.

    2015-01-01

    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a nematode parasite that commonly infects white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; WTD) throughout the deciduous forest biome and deciduous-coniferous ecotone of eastern and central North America; the species is not known to occur west of the grassland biome of central North America. We used county-specific prevalence data to evaluate potential effects of landscape and climatologic factors on the spatial distribution of meningeal worm infection in South Dakota, US. Probability of infection increased 4-fold between eastern and western South Dakota and 1.3-fold for each 1-cm increase in summer precipitation. Sixty-three percent of WTD had only a single worm in the cranium. Expansion of meningeal worm infection across western South Dakota may be inherently low due to the combined effects of arid climate and potential attributes of the Missouri River that limit regional movements by infected WTD. Use of landscape genetic analyses to identify potential relationships between landscape features and population genetic structure of infected deer and parasites may contribute to a greater understanding of regional heterogeneity in meningeal worm infection rates across South Dakota, particularly in counties adjacent to the Missouri River. Future research evaluating heterogeneity in prevalence and intensity of infection between fawn and yearling deer, and the potential role of yearling male deer as dispersal agents of meningeal worms across the Missouri River, also is warranted.

  2. Hopf Bifurcation in an SEIDQV Worm Propagation Model with Quarantine Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Worms exploiting zero-day vulnerabilities have drawn significant attention owing to their enormous threats to the Internet. In general, users may immunize their computers with countermeasures in exposed and infectious state, which may take a period of time. Through theoretical analysis, time delay may lead to Hopf bifurcation phenomenon so that the worm propagation system will be unstable and uncontrollable. In view of the above factors, a quarantine strategy is thus proposed in the study. In real network, unknown worms and worm variants may lead to great risks, which misuse detection system fails to detect. However, anomaly detection is of help in detecting these kinds of worm. Consequently, our proposed quarantine strategy is built on the basis of anomaly intrusion detection system. Numerical experiments show that the quarantine strategy can diminish the infectious hosts sharply. In addition, the threshold τ0 is much larger after using our quarantine strategy, which implies that people have more time to remove worms so that the system is easier to be stable and controllable without Hopf bifurcation. Finally, simulation results match numerical ones well, which fully supports our analysis.

  3. Elimination of Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worms by Rhesus Macaques: Basis for a Therapeutic Vaccine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Alan Wilson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Among animal models of schistosomiasis, the rhesus macaque is unique in that an infection establishes but egg excretion rapidly diminishes, potentially due to loss of adult worms from the portal system via shunts or death by immune attack.To investigate this, six rhesus macaques were exposed to Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and the infection monitored until portal perfusion at 18 weeks. Despite a wide variation in worm numbers recovered, fecal egg output and circulating antigen levels indicated that a substantial population had established in all animals. Half the macaques had portal hypertension but only one had portacaval shunts, ruling out translocation to the lungs as the reason for loss of adult burden. Many worms had a shrunken and pallid appearance, with degenerative changes in intestines and reproductive organs. Tegument, gut epithelia and muscles appeared cytologically intact but the parenchyma was virtually devoid of content. An early and intense IgG production correlated with low worm burden at perfusion, and blood-feeding worms cultured in the presence of serum from these animals had stunted growth. Using immunoproteomics, gut digestive enzymes, tegument surface hydrolases and antioxidant enzymes were identified as targets of IgG in the high responder animals.It appears that worms starve to death after cessation of blood feeding, as a result of antibody-mediated processes. We suggest that proteins in the three categories above, formulated to trigger the appropriate mechanisms operating in rhesus macaques, would have both prophylactic and therapeutic potential as a human vaccine.

  4. Flavonoids and Sesquiterpene Lactones from Artemisia absinthium and Tanacetum parthenium against Schistosoma mansoni Worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Luísa Maria Silveira; de Carvalho, Lara Soares Aleixo; Gazolla, Matheus Coutinho; Silva Pinto, Pedro Luiz; da Silva, Marcos Paulo Nascimento; de Moraes, Josué; Da Silva Filho, Ademar A

    2016-01-01

    Human schistosomiasis, caused by trematode worms of the genus Schistosoma, is one of the most significant neglected tropical diseases, affecting more than 200 million individuals worldwide and praziquantel is the only available drug to treat this disease. Artemisia absinthium L. and Tanacetum parthenium L. are species popularly used as anthelmintics. We investigated the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of crude extracts of A. absinthium (AA) and T. parthenium (TP) and their isolated compounds. AA and TP, at 200 μg/mL, were active, causing 100% mortality of all adult worms. Chromatographic fractionation of AA leads to isolation of artemetin and hydroxypelenolide, while santin, apigenin, and parthenolide were isolated from TP. Artemetin, hydroxypelenolide, santin, and apigenin, at 100 μM, were inactive against adult worms. Parthenolide (12.5 to 100 μM) caused 100% mortality, tegumental alterations, and reduction of motor activity of all adult worms of S. mansoni, without affecting mammalian cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed tegumental morphological alterations and changes on the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni worms. This report provides the first evidence for the in vitro activity of parthenolide against adult worms of S. mansoni, opening the route to further schistosomicidal studies with this compound.

  5. Census of bacterial microbiota associated with the glacier ice worm Mesenchytraeus solifugus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takumi; Segawa, Takahiro; Bodington, Dylan; Dial, Roman; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Kohshima, Shiro; Hongoh, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    The glacier ice worm, Mesenchytraeus solifugus, is a unique annelid, inhabiting only snow and ice in North American glaciers. Here, we analyzed the taxonomic composition of bacteria associated with M. solifugus based on the 16S rRNA gene. We analyzed four fixed-on-site and 10 starved ice worm individuals, along with glacier surface samples. In total, 1341 clones of 16S rRNA genes were analyzed for the ice worm samples, from which 65 bacterial phylotypes (99.0% cut-off) were identified. Of these, 35 phylotypes were closely related to sequences obtained from their habitat glacier and/or other components of cryosphere; whereas three dominant phylotypes were affiliated with animal-associated lineages of the class Mollicutes. Among the three, phylotype Ms-13 shared less than 89% similarity with database sequences and was closest to a gut symbiont of a terrestrial earthworm. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, Ms-13 was located on the gut wall surface of the ice worms. We propose a novel genus and species, 'Candidatus Vermiplasma glacialis', for this bacterium. Our results raise the possibility that the ice worm has exploited indigenous glacier bacteria, while several symbiotic bacterial lineages have maintained their association with the ice worm during the course of adaptive evolution to the permanently cold environment. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Propagation Modeling and Defending of a Mobile Sensor Worm in Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Wu, Qun; Wen, Sheng; Cai, Yiqiao; Tian, Hui; Chen, Yonghong; Wang, Baowei

    2017-01-13

    WSANs (Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks) are derived from traditional wireless sensor networks by introducing mobile actuator elements. Previous studies indicated that mobile actuators can improve network performance in terms of data collection, energy supplementation, etc. However, according to our experimental simulations, the actuator's mobility also causes the sensor worm to spread faster if an attacker launches worm attacks on an actuator and compromises it successfully. Traditional worm propagation models and defense strategies did not consider the diffusion with a mobile worm carrier. To address this new problem, we first propose a microscopic mathematical model to describe the propagation dynamics of the sensor worm. Then, a two-step local defending strategy (LDS) with a mobile patcher (a mobile element which can distribute patches) is designed to recover the network. In LDS, all recovering operations are only taken in a restricted region to minimize the cost. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our model estimations are rather accurate and consistent with the actual spreading scenario of the mobile sensor worm. Moreover, on average, the LDS outperforms other algorithms by approximately 50% in terms of the cost.

  7. Flavonoids and Sesquiterpene Lactones from Artemisia absinthium and Tanacetum parthenium against Schistosoma mansoni Worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Maria Silveira de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human schistosomiasis, caused by trematode worms of the genus Schistosoma, is one of the most significant neglected tropical diseases, affecting more than 200 million individuals worldwide and praziquantel is the only available drug to treat this disease. Artemisia absinthium L. and Tanacetum parthenium L. are species popularly used as anthelmintics. We investigated the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of crude extracts of A. absinthium (AA and T. parthenium (TP and their isolated compounds. AA and TP, at 200 μg/mL, were active, causing 100% mortality of all adult worms. Chromatographic fractionation of AA leads to isolation of artemetin and hydroxypelenolide, while santin, apigenin, and parthenolide were isolated from TP. Artemetin, hydroxypelenolide, santin, and apigenin, at 100 μM, were inactive against adult worms. Parthenolide (12.5 to 100 μM caused 100% mortality, tegumental alterations, and reduction of motor activity of all adult worms of S. mansoni, without affecting mammalian cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed tegumental morphological alterations and changes on the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni worms. This report provides the first evidence for the in vitro activity of parthenolide against adult worms of S. mansoni, opening the route to further schistosomicidal studies with this compound.

  8. Use of Amynthas gracilis (Oligochaeta, Megascolecidae) and Bougainvillea litter for rehabilitation of overexploited soils, in Campeche, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Esperanza; Alonso Gongora, Erick

    2014-05-01

    Yucatan peninsula is one of the recent emerged lands in Mexico; where more of the soils have low organic matter content, and/or the organic horizon is thin (2-5cm). The industry of material extraction for construction purposes is well developed in Yucatan Peninsula, due to the fact of the calcareous material that can be obtained by the maternal rock. Therefore, the material extraction promotes the desertification of the areas, and soil erosion. Bougainvillea sp is a tropical and subtropical woody, evergreen, shrubby vine (Kobayashi et al. 2007), it has a wide range of distribution and it roots are superficial, what allows the plant to inhabit soils with a thin layer of soil organic matter. Earthworms as ecosystem engineers (Jones et al. 1994) can modify their environment, forming borrows and incorporation organic matter into the soil. The aim of this study was to rehabilitate soils without organic matter horizon by the use of earthworms and Bougainvillea litter. The study was developed at mesocosmos level in the laboratory of soils at El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Unidad Campeche, Mexico. Individual of anecic earthworms were collected and reproduced previously, anecic worms can better incorporate organic matter in to the soil than epigeics or endogeics worms, in Mexican tropical terrestrial ecosystems, anecic worms are almost absent or scarce. In this study we used the exotic earthworm Amynthas gracilis (native in Taiwan),that used to inhabit banana plantations with low technology in southeast Mexico, as exotic has a wide range of tolerance to different amounts of soil organic matter and pH. Four treatments with 4 replicas were established: a) calcareous soil without organic matter horizon+earthworms+litter, b) calcareous soil with organic matter horizon+ earthworms+litter, c) calcareous soil without organic matter horizon+litter, d) calcareous soil with organic matter horizon+litter. After 60 days of study, we observed how earthworms developed successfully in

  9. The skin of Osedax (Siboglinidae, Annelida): an ultrastructural investigation of its epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Sigrid; Klepal, Waltraud; Bright, Monika

    2010-10-01

    The symbiotic polychaetes of the genus Osedax living on the bones of whale carcasses have become known as bone-eating worms. It is believed that whale bones are the source of nutrition for those gutless worms and that fatty acids are produced by their symbionts and transferred to the host. However, the symbionts are of the heterotrophic group Oceanospirillales and as such are not able to synthesize organic carbon de novo. Also, they are not housed in close contact to the bone material. We studied the ultrastructure of the integument overlying the symbiont housing trophosome in the ovisac region and the roots region and of the symbiont-free trunk region of Osedax to investigate the host's possible contribution in feeding for the whole symbiosis. The epidermis differs conspicuously between the three regions investigated and clearly points to being correlated with different functions carried out by those regions. The ultrastructure of the integument of the root region changed towards the ovisac region and corresponds with the change of the ultrastructure observed in the Osedax trophosome. We suggest that the epidermis in the root region is tightly linked to bone degradation and nutrient uptake. The trunk region possess two types of unicellular gland cells, at least one of which seems to be involved in secretion of the gelatinous tube of adult Osedax females. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. In vitro and in vivo effects of hesperidin treatment on adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, G; Abuelsaad, A S A

    2014-09-01

    Hesperidin has been reported to exert a wide range of pharmacological effects, including antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. Herein, the schistosomicidal activity of this compound was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Using an in vitro assay, a concentration of 200 μg/ml of hesperidin resulted in the mortality of 100% adult worms of Schistosoma (S.) mansoni within 72 h and a partial tegumental alteration in 10% of worms. However, after 144 h incubation, 50 and 100 μg/ml concentrations showed 0% and 10% mortality in adult worms, respectively, without any changes to the tegument. Sublethal doses did not influence egg output nor the development of eggs deposited by pairs of adult worms. In an in vivo study, mice infected with S. mansoni and treated with 600 mg hesperidin/kg body weight showed a respective reduction of 50, 45.2, 50 and 47.5% of males, females, worm pairs and total worm burden. In addition, a respective reduction, based on the number of eggs/g tissue, of 41.5, 63.7 and 58.6% was observed in the liver, intestine and liver/intestinal tissue combined. Furthermore, S. mansoni-specific IgG level significantly increased with hesperidin treatment, whereas IgA and IgE levels were not significantly changed. IgM levels decreased in response to cercarial antigen preparation but were not altered in response to soluble worm or soluble egg antigen. As in hesperidin-treated mice, praziquantel-treated mice showed a similar pattern of specific antibody response to S. mansoni antigens. The present study represents the first report on the effects of the schistosomicidal activity of hesperidin.

  11. Mopane worm allergy in a 36-year-old woman: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letswiti Mavis M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The increasing incidence of new diseases as well as changing features of known diseases has partly been attributed to the impact of environmental changes. As a result, there have been calls from health experts for proper surveillance and monitoring of these changes. This is a report of mopane worm allergy in a 36 year old female from the Tswana tribe in Botswana. Mopane worm, the caterpillar stage of Gonimbrasia belina moths, is a seasonal delicacy to people in many communities in southern Africa. As a result, by adulthood, many residents of these communities have had substantial exposure to the worm. Gonimbrasia belina moths belong to the Lepidoptera order of insects. Though some members of this order are known to induce contact allergy, there is no reported incidence of ingestion allergy from mopane worm. Therefore, it is important to track this case for its epidemiological significance and to alert both clinicians and the vulnerable public on the incidence of mopane worm allergy in this region. Case presentation This is a case of a 36 year old woman from the Tswana ethnic group in Botswana, who was diagnosed with food allergy. She presented with itchy skin rash, facial swelling, and mild hypotension after eating mopane worm. She had no previous history of allergic reaction following contact or ingestion of mopane worm and had no atopic illness in the past. She was treated and her symptoms resolved after 4 days. Conclusion The proper management of allergy involves patients' avoidance and clinicians' predictability. Though hypothetical, this report is expected to sensitize clinicians to anticipate and properly manage subsequent occurrence, as well as educate the public in these communities. In addition, tracking new disease patterns, with relationship to environmental changes, will compliment existing evidence in validating the importance of proper environmental surveillance and management.

  12. New species of Pisionidens (Sigalionidae, Annelida) from Akumal, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, H Cecilie B; Gonzalez, Brett C; Martínez, Alejandro; Worsaae, Katrine

    2016-07-05

    Pisionidens Aiyar & Alikuhni, 1943 is a genus of small scale-less annelids formerly belonging to the family 'Pisionidae', now synonymized with the scale worm family Sigalionidae. A new species from Akumal, México, Pisionidens ixazaluohae n. sp., is herein described, including a genetic barcode, and diagnosed by parapodia from segment 8, males having a continuous line of midventral pores, and the presence of a single copulatory segment without parapodia. The new species differs in morphology from the three previously described species, including P. indica (Aiyar & Alikuhni, 1940), representing the only other species previously reported from the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. A comparative table with a summary of the main taxonomic characters of all described species of the genus, including information on distribution, is provided.

  13. Associations among habitat characteristics and meningeal worm prevalence in eastern South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Dubay, Shelli A.

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated how wetland and forest characteristics influence the prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) infection of deer throughout the grassland biome of central North America. We used previously collected, county-level prevalence data to evaluate associations between habitat characteristics and probability of meningeal worm infection in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) across eastern South Dakota, US. The highest-ranked binomial regression model for detecting probability of meningeal worm infection was spring temperature + summer precipitation + percent wetland; weight of evidence (wi=0.71) favored this model over alternative models, though predictive capability was low (Receiver operating characteristic=0.62). Probability of meningeal worm infection increased by 1.3- and 1.6-fold for each 1-cm and 1-C increase in summer precipitation and spring temperature, respectively. Similarly, probability of infection increased 1.2-fold for each 1% increase in wetland habitat. Our findings highlight the importance of wetland habitat in predicting meningeal worm infection across eastern South Dakota. Future research is warranted to evaluate the relationships between climatic conditions (e.g., drought, wet cycles) and deer habitat selection in maintaining P. tenuis along the western boundary of the parasite.

  14. WormGender - Open-Source Software for Automatic Caenorhabditis elegans Sex Ratio Measurement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta K Labocha

    Full Text Available Fast and quantitative analysis of animal phenotypes is one of the major challenges of current biology. Here we report the WormGender open-source software, which is designed for accurate quantification of sex ratio in Caenorhabditis elegans. The software functions include, i automatic recognition and counting of adult hermaphrodites and males, ii a manual inspection feature that enables manual correction of errors, and iii flexibility to use new training images to optimize the software for different imaging conditions. We evaluated the performance of our software by comparing manual and automated assessment of sex ratio. Our data showed that the WormGender software provided overall accurate sex ratio measurements. We further demonstrated the usage of WormGender by quantifying the high incidence of male (him phenotype in 27 mutant strains. Mutants of nine genes (brc-1, C30G12.6, cep-1, coh-3, him-3, him-5, him-8, skr-1, unc-86 showed significant him phenotype. The WormGender is written in Java and can be installed and run on both Windows and Mac platforms. The source code is freely available together with a user manual and sample data at http://www.QuantWorm.org/. The source code and sample data are also available at http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1541248.

  15. Preliminary analysis of Sm14 in distinct fractions of Schistosoma mansoni adult worm extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Thaumaturgo

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies it was shown that the recombinant molecule, r-Sm14, induces high levels of protection against Schistosoma mansoni infection in two outbred animal models and immune crossprotection against infection by Fasciola hepatica in Swiss outbred mice. r-Sm14 was derived from a living worm extract, called SE, and is being developed as the molecular basis of an anti-helminth bivalent vaccine against the two parasites, for medical and veterinary application. Present data refer to SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting analysis of four different preparations of S. mansoni adult worms focusing Sm14 identification. The extracts correspond to the initial fraction of the SE extraction process, containing products released by living worms (SEi; SE2, reextraction of adult worms in PBS; and SE of separated male and female adult worms. In all extracts it was possible to detect the component of 14 kDa, that was recognized by specific anti-rSm14 antibody raised in rabbits.

  16. Elucidating the microbial community associated with the protein preference of sludge-degrading worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Valk, Steef; Feng, Cuijie; Khadem, Ahmad F; van Lier, Jules B; de Kreuk, Merle K

    2017-10-09

    Sludge predation by aquatic worms results in an increased sludge reduction rate, which is mainly due to the specific removal of a protein fraction from the sludge. As microorganisms play an essential role in sludge hydrolysis a better understanding of the microbial community involved in the worm predation process will provide more insight into the relations between the aquatic worms, their associated microbiome and the efficient sludge reduction. In this study, the microbial community associated with predation by the Tubifex tubifex was investigated. The microbial diversity in the samples of the worm faeces (WF), predated activated sludge and protein-rich substrates were compared. The results indicated that predation on sludge resulted in a microbial change from Actinobacteria (44%) in the sludge, to Proteobacteria (64%) and Bacteriodites (36%) in the WF. Interestingly, the faecal microbial community was more related to the community in (predated) protein-rich substrates than to the community in predated or endogenously respirated activated sludge samples. This similar microbial community could be due to microbial utilisation of protein hydrolysis products. Alternatively, conditions in the worm gut could facilitate a protein hydrolysing community which assists in protein hydrolysis. The genera Burkholderiales, Chryseobacterium and Flavobacterium were found to be associated with predation by T. tubifex.

  17. Pyrosequencing of prey DNA in reptile faeces: analysis of earthworm consumption by slow worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David S; Jarman, Simon N; Symondson, William O C

    2012-03-01

    Little quantitative ecological information exists on the diets of most invertebrate feeding reptiles, particularly nocturnal or elusive species that are difficult to observe. In the UK and elsewhere, reptiles are legally required to be relocated before land development can proceed, but without knowledge of their dietary requirements, the suitability of receptor sites cannot be known. Here, we tested the ability of non-invasive DNA-based molecular diagnostics (454 pyrosequencing) to analyse reptile diets, with the specific aims of determining which earthworm species are exploited by slow worms (the legless lizard Anguis fragilis) and whether they feed on the deeper-living earthworm species that only come to the surface at night. Slow worm faecal samples from four different habitats were analysed using earthworm-specific PCR primers. We found that 86% of slow worms (N=80) had eaten earthworms. In lowland heath and marshy/acid grassland, Lumbricus rubellus, a surface-dwelling epigeic species, dominated slow worm diet. In two other habitats, riverside pasture and calciferous coarse grassland, diet was dominated by deeper-living anecic and endogeic species. We conclude that all species of earthworm are exploited by these reptiles and lack of specialization allows slow worms to thrive in a wide variety of habitats. Pyrosequencing of prey DNA in faeces showed promise as a practical, rapid and relatively inexpensive means of obtaining detailed and valuable ecological information on the diets of reptiles. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. In Vitro Cestocidal Activity of Thymol on Mesocestoides corti Tetrathyridia and Adult Worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maggiore

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nothing is known about the possible effect of thymol or other compounds of essential oils against the adult worms of cestodes. The aim of the present work was to determine in vitro cestodicidal activity of thymol against Mesocestoides corti adult worms. Moreover, the in vitro effect on tetrathyridia was also demonstrated. Tetrathyridia exposed to different concentrations of thymol showed a concentration and time-dependent effect. At lower concentrations, the main change observed was mainly in morphology, with larvae exhibiting an elongation of the body. When tetrathyridia were exposed to higher concentrations, increased surface alterations and damage were detected. The body appeared elongated and flattened, and a complete loss of morphology and microtriches was observed. Thymol was able to kill M. corti tetrathyridia, since following inoculation of treated parasites in mice no parasites could be recovered. The effect on M. corti adult worms was dose and time-dependent. Changes in motility coincide with the tissue damage were observed at the structural and ultrastructural level. Thymol caused severe damages to both developmental stages analyzed. Damages were more significant in fully segmented worms. The data reported in this paper demonstrate a clear in vitro effect of thymol against M. corti tetrathyridia and adult worms.

  19. First time in Italy. Is the elusive aquatic megadrile Sparganophilus Benham, 1892 (Annelida, Clitellata accelerating its dispersal in Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Rota

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During field studies in River Mincio, northern Italy, populations of the aquatic megadrile Sparganophilus tamesis Benham, 1892 were discovered, the worms being particularly abundant among the roots of Vallisneria spiralis L. This finding represents the first record of Sparganophilidae in Italy. A morphological account, with photographs of worms and cocoons, as well as field and laboratory remarks on density, behaviour and habitat, are provided. The view of S. tamesis being senior synonym to S. eiseni Smith, 1895 is favoured, as is the hypothesis of the arrival and spreading of Sparganophilus in Europe amongst the roots of water plants. 

  20. Penonyx excavatus (Oligochaeta)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a second paper by the authors on the morphology of the reproductive structures in an attempt to ... ductive structures has been published and the descriptions presented by .... Figure 1 (A) TEM micrograph of ventral view of segment 14, showing the position of the female reproductive opening (FO), (BC =:; body clul·.

  1. of Perionyx excavatus (Oligochaeta)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    osmium tetroxide for I h (Bullock 1984). The samples were washed in distilled water ..... through which spenn can be transported. Ismail (1982) reported a single chaeta with three lobes with such a mecha- nism for Lampi/o mauritii. The comb-like structures on the penial chaetae of P. excavatus could facilitate the transport of.

  2. earthworm Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    recently on the use of Eisenia joetida (Savigny) for ac- celerating the decomposition of biodegradable wastes. (Graff 1974, Watanabe & Tsukamoto 1976, Hartenstein et al. 1979a) and also on Eudrilus eugeniae (Neuhauser,. Kaplan & Hartenstein 1979). Eisenia joetida is known under various names in different parts of the ...

  3. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy for the analysis of the biochemical composition of C. elegans worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Ming; Gorzsás, András; Tuck, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Changes in intermediary metabolism have profound effects on many aspects of C. elegans biology including growth, development and behavior. However, many traditional biochemical techniques for analyzing chemical composition require relatively large amounts of starting material precluding the analysis of mutants that cannot be grown in large amounts as homozygotes. Here we describe a technique for detecting changes in the chemical compositions of C. elegans worms by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. We demonstrate that the technique can be used to detect changes in the relative levels of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in one and the same worm. We suggest that Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy represents a useful addition to the arsenal of techniques for metabolic studies of C. elegans worms.

  4. Modeling and Bifurcation Research of a Worm Propagation Dynamical System with Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both vaccination and quarantine strategy are adopted to control the Internet worm propagation. By considering the interaction infection between computers and external removable devices, a worm propagation dynamical system with time delay under quarantine strategy is constructed based on anomaly intrusion detection system (IDS. By regarding the time delay caused by time window of anomaly IDS as the bifurcation parameter, local asymptotic stability at the positive equilibrium and local Hopf bifurcation are discussed. Through theoretical analysis, a threshold τ0 is derived. When time delay is less than τ0, the worm propagation is stable and easy to predict; otherwise, Hopf bifurcation occurs so that the system is out of control and the containment strategy does not work effectively. Numerical analysis and discrete-time simulation experiments are given to illustrate the correctness of theoretical analysis.

  5. OpenWorm: an open-science approach to modelling Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs eSzigeti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available OpenWorm is an international collaboration with the aim of understanding how the behaviour of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans emerges through the underlying biophysical processes. The project has developed a modular simulation engine to create computational models of the worm. The modularity of the engine makes it possible to easily modify the model, incorporate new experimental data and test hypotheses. The modelling framework incorporates both biophysical neuronal simulations and a novel fluid-dynamics-based soft-tissue simulation for physical environment-body interactions. The project's open-science approach is aimed at overcoming the difficulties of integrative modelling within a traditional academic environment. In this article the rationale is presented for creating the OpenWorm collaboration, the tools and resources developed thus far are outlined and the unique challenges associated with the project are discussed.

  6. WormBase: a comprehensive data resource for Caenorhabditis biology and genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nansheng; Harris, Todd W.; Antoshechkin, Igor; Bastiani, Carol; Bieri, Tamberlyn; Blasiar, Darin; Bradnam, Keith; Canaran, Payan; Chan, Juancarlos; Chen, Chao-Kung; Chen, Wen J.; Cunningham, Fiona; Davis, Paul; Kenny, Eimear; Kishore, Ranjana; Lawson, Daniel; Lee, Raymond; Muller, Hans-Michael; Nakamura, Cecilia; Pai, Shraddha; Ozersky, Philip; Petcherski, Andrei; Rogers, Anthony; Sabo, Aniko; Schwarz, Erich M.; Van Auken, Kimberly; Wang, Qinghua; Durbin, Richard; Spieth, John; Sternberg, Paul W.; Stein, Lincoln D.

    2005-01-01

    WormBase (http://www.wormbase.org), the model organism database for information about Caenorhabditis elegans and related nematodes, continues to expand in breadth and depth. Over the past year, WormBase has added multiple large-scale datasets including SAGE, interactome, 3D protein structure datasets and NCBI KOGs. To accommodate this growth, the International WormBase Consortium has improved the user interface by adding new features to aid in navigation, visualization of large-scale datasets, advanced searching and data mining. Internally, we have restructured the database models to rationalize the representation of genes and to prepare the system to accept the genome sequences of three additional Caenorhabditis species over the coming year. PMID:15608221

  7. Evaluation of existing EPRI and INEL test data to determine the worm to worm gear coefficient of friction in Limitorque actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garza, I.A.

    1996-12-01

    About the last sizing parameter for motor operated valves which has not been determined by utility or NRC sponsored testing is actuator efficiency. A by-product of EPRI testing for valve factors is the measurement of the actuator efficiencies. Motor sizing in this testing provides efficiency testing for motors running near synchronous speed. INEL testing, sponsored by the NRC, for stem factors and rate of loading provides complimentary data for motors loaded down to zero speed. This paper analyzes the data from these two test programs to determine the coefficient of friction for the worm to worm gear interface. This allowed the development of an algorithm for determining the efficiency of actuators which have not been tested. This paper compares the results of this algorithm to the test data to provide a measure of the accuracy of this method for calculating actuator efficiency.

  8. Highly Toxic Ribbon Worm Cephalothrix simula Containing Tetrodotoxin in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Asakawa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1998, during a toxicological surveillance of various marine fouling organisms in Hiroshima Bay, Japan, specimens of the ribbon worm, Cephalothrix simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea were found. These ribbon worms contained toxins with extremely strong paralytic activity. The maximum toxicity in terms of tetrodotoxin (TTX was 25,590 mouse units (MU per gram for the whole worm throughout the monitoring period. The main toxic component was isolated and recrystallized from an acidified methanolic solution. The crystalline with a specific toxicity of 3520 MU/mg was obtained and identified as TTX by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-fluorescent detection (FLD (HPLC-FLD, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, infrared (IR, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The highest toxicity of C. simula exceeded the human lethal dose per a single worm. A toxicological surveillance of C. simula from 1998 to 2005 indicated approximately 80% of the individuals were ranked as “strongly toxic” (≥1000 MU/g. Forty-eight percent of the specimens possessed toxicity scores of more than 2000 MU/g. Seasonal variations were observed in the lethal potency of C. simula. Specimens collected on January 13, 2000 to December 26, 2000 showed mean toxicities of 665–5300 MU/g (n = 10. These data prompted a toxicological surveillance of ribbon worms from other localities with different habitats in Japan, including Akkeshi Bay (Hokkaido under stones on rocky intertidal beaches, as well as Otsuchi (Iwate among calcareous tubes of serpulid polychaetes on rocky shores. Within twelve species of ribbon worms examined, only C. simula possessed extremely high toxicity. Therefore, C. simula appears to show generally high toxicity irrespective of their locality and habitat.

  9. A proteomic approach to the identification of tegumental proteins of male and female Schistosoma bovis worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, Ricardo; Valero, María Luz; Ramajo-Hernández, Alicia; Siles-Lucas, Mar; Ramajo-Martín, Vicente; Oleaga, Ana

    2008-10-01

    Schistosoma bovis, a parasite of ruminants, can live for years in the bloodstream in spite of the immune response of its host. The parasite tegument covers the entire surface of the worm and plays a key role in the host-parasite relationship. The parasite molecules involved in host immune response evasion mechanisms must be expressed on the tegument surface and are potential targets for immune or drug intervention. The purpose of the present work was to identify the tegumental proteomes of male and female S. bovis worms, in particular the proteins expressed on the outermost layers of the tegument structure. Adult worms of each sex were treated separately with trypsin in order to digest their tegumental proteins, after which the peptides released were analysed by LC-MS/MS for identification. This experimental approach afforded valuable information about the protein composition of the tegument of adult S. bovis worms. A range of tegumental proteins was identified, most of which had not been identified previously in this species. Although an absolute purification of the proteins expressed on the outermost layers of the tegument structure was not achieved, it is likely that present among the proteins identified are some of the molecules most closely associated with the tegument surface. Our study also suggests that there may be differences in the protein composition of the tegument of male and female schistosomes. Finally, the presence of actin and GAPDH on the surface of male and female worms and the presence of enolase exclusively on the surface of male worms were verified by confocal microscopy.

  10. Managing earthworm casts (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) in turfgrass using a natural byproduct of tea oil (Camellia sp.) manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Daniel A; Redmond, Carl T; Meepagala, Kumudini M; Williams, David W

    2010-04-01

    Earthworm casts are a worldwide problem on golf courses and sports fields when they disrupt the playability, aesthetics and maintenance of closely mowed playing surfaces. Currently, no pesticides are labeled for earthworms in the United States. Tea seed pellets (TSPs), a saponin-rich byproduct of Camellia oleifera Abel oil manufacture, were tested for expelling earthworms and reducing casts on creeping bentgrass turf. The fate of expelled worms, methods for removing them and impacts on pest and beneficial arthropods were also evaluated. Application of TSPs at 2.93 kg 100 m(-2), followed by irrigation, quickly expelled earthworms from the soil. A single application reduced casts by 80-95% for at least 5 weeks. Mowing or sweeping removed expelled earthworms from putting green surfaces. Most expelled earthworms burrowed down when transferred to untreated turf, but few survived. Bioassay-guided fractionation confirmed the vermicidal activity results from a mix of saponins. TSPs did not reduce the abundance of beneficial soil arthropods, nor did they control black cutworms or white grubs in treated turf. TSPs are an effective botanical vermicide that could be useful for selectively managing earthworm casts on closely mowed turfgrass. They might also be used to suppress earthworms in grassy strips alongside runways to reduce bird strike hazard at airports.

  11. Exposure to extremely low frequency (50 Hz electromagnetic field changes the survival rate and morphometric characteristics of neurosecretory neurons of the earthworm Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta under illumination stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banovački Zorana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vivo model was set up to establish the behavioral stress response (rate of survival and morphometric characteristics of A1 protocerebral neurosecretory neurons (cell size of Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta as a result of the synergetic effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF - 50 Hz, 50 μT, 17 V/m and 50 Hz, 150 μT, 17 V/m, respectively and constant illumination (420-450 lux. If combined, these two stressors significantly (p<0.05 increased the survival rate of E. foetida in the 150 μT-exposed animals, because of delayed caudal autotomy reflex, an indicator of stress response. In addition, morphometric analysis indicated that there were changes in the protocerebral neurosecretory cells after exposure to the ELF-EMF. The present data support the view that short-term ELF-EMF exposure in “windows” of intensity is likely to stimulate the immune and neuroendocrine response of E. foetida.

  12. In vivo intravascular biotinylation of Schistosoma bovis adult worms and proteomic analysis of tegumental surface proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre-Escudero, Eduardo; Pérez-Sánchez, Ricardo; Manzano-Román, Raúl; Oleaga, Ana

    2013-12-06

    Schistosoma bovis is a blood-dwelling fluke of ruminants that lives for years inside the vasculature of their hosts. The parasite tegument covers the surface of the worms and plays a key role in the host-parasite relationship. The parasite molecules expressed at the tegument surface are potential targets for immune or drug intervention. The purpose of this work was the identification of the proteins expressed in vivo on the surface of the tegument of S. bovis adult worms. To accomplish this we used a method based on in vivo vascular perfusion of mice infected with S. bovis which allowed the labelling of the surface of the worms inside the blood vasculature. The biotinylation of parasite inside blood vessels prevents the handling of worms in vitro and hence possible damage to the tegument that could produce results that would be difficult to interpret. Trypsin digestion of biotinylated proteins and subsequent liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS) resulted in the identification on the S. bovis tegument of 80 parasite proteins and 28 host proteins. The proteins identified were compared with the findings from other proteomic studies of the schistosome surface. The experimental approach used in this work is a reliable method for selective investigation of the surface of the worms and provides valuable information about the exposed protein repertoire of the tegument of S. bovis in the environmental conditions that the parasite faces inside the blood vessels. To identify the proteins expressed on the surface of the tegument of S. bovis adult worms we used a method based on in vivo vascular perfusion, with biotin, of mice infected with S. bovis which allowed the labelling of the surface of the worms inside the blood vasculature. This methodology prevents the handling of worms in vitro and hence possible damage to the tegument that could produce results that would be difficult to interpret. This work is the first in which vascular perfusion

  13. Incidental detection of two adult gravid filarial worms in breast: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummidi, Santosh; Kothari, Kanchan; Patil, Roshni; Singhal, Shruti S; Keshan, Pooja

    2017-08-16

    Microfilaria is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries and is an endemic problem in India. Wuchereria bancrofti is the commonest filarial infection. In some lesions, microfilariae and adult filarial worm have been incidentally detected in fine-needle aspirates. A 35 year old hindu female presented with lump in upper outer quadrant of left breast. Fine needle aspiration revealed two adult gravid female filarial worms. To our knowledge this is the first ever case report to demonstrate two live gravid female and embryoid forms in wet mount preparation.

  14. Distribution, abundance and trail characteristics of acorn worms at Australian continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T. J.; Przeslawski, R.; Tran, M.

    2011-04-01

    Acorn worms (Enteropneusta), which were previously thought to be a missing link in understanding the evolution of chordates, are an unusual and potentially important component of many deep-sea benthic environments, particularly for nutrient cycling. Very little is known about their distribution, abundance, or behaviour in deep-sea environments around the world, and almost nothing is known about their distribution within Australian waters. In this study, we take advantage of two large-scale deep-sea mapping surveys along the eastern (northern Lord Howe Rise) and western continental margins of Australia to quantify the distribution, abundance and trail-forming behaviour of this highly unusual taxon. This is the first study to quantify the abundance and trail behaviour of acorn worms within Australian waters and provides the first evidence of strong depth-related distributions. Acorn worm densities and trail activity were concentrated between transect-averaged depths of 1600 and 3000 m in both eastern and western continental margins. The shallow limit of their depth distribution was 1600 m. The deeper limit was less well-defined, as individuals were found in small numbers below 3000 down to 4225 m. This distributional pattern may reflect a preference for these depths, possibly due to higher availability of nutrients, rather than a physiological constraint to greater depths. Sediment characteristics alone were poor predictors of acorn worm densities and trail activity. High densities of acorn worms and trails were associated with sandy-mud sediments, but similar sediment characteristics in either shallower or deeper areas did not support similar densities of acorn worms or trails. Trail shapes varied between eastern and western margins, with proportionally more meandering trails recorded in the east, while spiral and meandering trails were both common in the west. Trail shape varied by depth, with spiral-shaped trails dominant in areas of high acorn worm densities

  15. Primer registro de Pisione guanche San Martín, López & Núñez, 1999 (Annelida: Sigalionidae en el golfo de Vizcaya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Martínez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En el transcurso de un programa de vigilancia ambiental llevado a cabo por INSUB el 9 de Mayo de 2017, dos ejemplares completos y un fragmento de Pisione guanche San Martín, López & Núñez, 1999 (Annelida: Polychaeta: Sigalionidae han sido identificados. Esta es la primera referencia de la especie para el golfo de Vizcaya. Los ejemplares fueron obtenidos en fondos blandos circalitorales de la plataforma continental de Zarautz (Costa vasca, SE del golfo de Vizcaya. En el presente artículo se aportan aspectos morfológicos, geográficos y ecológicos de la especie.

  16. Sphaerodoropsis kitazatoi, a new species and the first record of Sphaerodoridae (Annelida: Phyllodocida) in SW Atlantic abyssal sediments around a whale carcass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Maurício; Rizzo, Alexandra E.; Alfaro-Lucas, Joan M.; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Sumida, Paulo Y. G.

    2017-12-01

    A new polychaete species, Sphaerodoropsis kitazatoi (Annelida: Phyllodocida: Sphaerodoridae), is described from the abyssal Southwest Atlantic Ocean at the base of São Paulo Ridge (4204 m depth). This species was found in sediments impacted by a whale carcass. The new species has four longitudinal rows of macrotubercles and one transversal row per chaetiger and shares several characters with S. anae Aguado and Rouse, 2006 that is also associated with chemosynthetic environments. They can be clearly distinguished from S. anae and other Sphaerodoropsis species by the arrangement and the number of prostomial, body and parapodial papillae.

  17. Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 (Annelida, Serpulidae is feminine: a nomenclatural checklist of updated names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey B. Read

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a service to taxonomists and ecologists using names in the well-known and species-rich ship-fouling serpulid genus Hydroides we present an update of all 107 non-synonymised scientific names, with additional information on Hydroides nomenclature, original names, etymologies, and type localities derived from original literature, and in accord with the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS database. An update is needed because the gender of genus Hydroides has from 1 January 2000 reverted to the original feminine, due to a change in the wording of International Code of Zoological Nomenclature which was overlooked at that time, and is contrary to the usage in practice of Hydroides as masculine which had started about 1992, although Code-required from the 1960s. We match 31 further original names of current WoRMS subjective junior synonyms to each non-synonymised name, and also report on the world distribution of the genus as illustrated by type localities of the valid names. We include notes on seven species inquirenda. The correct rendering is given of six names that have been altered for gender agreement for the first time herein. Hydroides gottfriedi nom. n. replaces junior homonym H. rostrata Pillai, 1971. Currently there are 41 non-synonymised species-group names in Hydroides which should be gender invariant, and 23 names which would only change if moved to a neuter genus; the remaining 43 names are fully gender variable. Place-names (23, and personal names (16 make up more than a third (36% of the species names, with most of the remainder (68 being descriptive of species character states, usually of operculum morphology (54. All species, except H. norvegica (63°N, have type localities in shallow-water coastal locations in temperate to tropical waters below latitude 44°, with the highest number of new species (54 from the adjoining Western Pacific and Indian Ocean areas. The other concentration of new species (31 are those first found on

  18. Can the restrictive harvest period policy conserve the mopane worms in southern Africa. A bioeconomic modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akpalu, W.; Muchapondwa, E.; Zikhali, P.

    2009-01-01

    The mopane worm, which is the caterpillar form of the Saturnid moth Imbrasia belina Westwood, is like other edible insects and caterpillars a vital source of protein in southern African countries. The worms live and graze on mopane trees, which have alternative uses. With increasing

  19. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, Bob; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2016-01-01

    An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water

  20. A Mediterranean record of Eulalia ornata (Annelida: Phyllodocidae corroborating its fidelity link with the Sabellaria alveolata-reef habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. SCHIMMENTI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Among marine habitats Sabellaria alveolata-reefs deserve protection since they provide important ecosystem services and positive effects on biodiversity. Several marine species are listed among the S. alveolata-reef associated fauna, but characteristic species were seldom reported. Eulalia ornata (Annelida, Phyllodocidae might represent an exception, since it appears common/abundant in S. alveolata-reefs of the Eastern Atlantic. The most evident geographical mismatch in the distributions of E. ornata and these biogenic reefs occurs in the Mediterranean Sea, where S. alveolata-reefs are commonly found, but E. ornata was never recorded, whilst E. viridis, a non-Mediterranean species, was previously listed among the dominant reef-associated taxa. The faunal characterization of the sabellarid reefs along the Sicily Channel revealed an Eulalia species as the dominant taxon associated with that habitat in the area. A taxonomic approach integrated with DNA barcoding, and comparisons with closely related species, allow us to report E. ornata as a new record for the Mediterranean Sea. We describe patterns of abundance and distribution and corroborate its status as a preferential species in the S. alveolata-reef habitat. Focusing on the biology and ecology of E. ornata could help us to better understand the dynamics and functioning of this valuable European shallow marine habitat.

  1. Comparative Mitogenomics of Leeches (Annelida: Clitellata): Genome Conservation and Placobdella-Specific trnD Gene Duplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Andrés; Siddall, Mark E.; Latorre, Amparo

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences, often in combination with nuclear markers and morphological data, are frequently used to unravel the phylogenetic relationships, population dynamics and biogeographic histories of a plethora of organisms. The information provided by examining complete mitochondrial genomes also enables investigation of other evolutionary events such as gene rearrangements, gene duplication and gene loss. Despite efforts to generate information to represent most of the currently recognized groups, some taxa are underrepresented in mitochondrial genomic databases. One such group is leeches (Annelida: Hirudinea: Clitellata). Herein, we expand our knowledge concerning leech mitochondrial makeup including gene arrangement, gene duplication and the evolution of mitochondrial genomes by adding newly sequenced mitochondrial genomes for three bloodfeeding species: Haementeria officinalis, Placobdella lamothei and Placobdella parasitica. With the inclusion of three new mitochondrial genomes of leeches, a better understanding of evolution for this organelle within the group is emerging. We found that gene order and genomic arrangement in the three new mitochondrial genomes is identical to previously sequenced members of Clitellata. Interestingly, within Placobdella, we recovered a genus-specific duplication of the trnD gene located between cox2 and atp8. We performed phylogenetic analyses using 12 protein-coding genes and expanded our taxon sampling by including GenBank sequences for 39 taxa; the analyses confirm the monophyletic status of Clitellata, yet disagree in several respects with other phylogenetic hypotheses based on morphology and analyses of non-mitochondrial data. PMID:27176910

  2. New species of Rhyacodrilus (Annelida: Clitellata: Rhyacodrilinae) of North America, with re-description of R. sodalis (Eisen, 1879).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pilar; Fend, Steven V

    2013-01-01

    Six new Nearctic species of the aquatic oligochaete genus Rhyacodrilus (Annelida, Clitellata, Rhyacodrilinae), are described, five (R. saelonae sp. n., R. quileuticus sp. n., R. clio sp. n., R. alcyoneus sp. n. and R. longichaeta sp. n.) from western and one (R. propiporus sp. n.) from eastern North America. The taxonomy of the most common Rhyacodrilus species reported in the Nearctic region has been based largely on chaetal characters, which has generated certain confusion. The new species give a new perspective on the genus Rhyacodrilus in North America, suggesting a much higher diversity than previously expected. The description of R. longichaeta sp. n. questions the taxonomic status of R. montana (Brinkhurst), which is here regarded as species inquirenda. The taxonomic status of R. sodalis (Eisen) is discussed based on characters of the reproductive system, the existing Lake Tahoe neotype series is invalidated, and a neotype is described from Eisen's type locality. Based on the discussion of the characters of the genus Rhyacodrilus, the genus Stochidrilus Martinez-Ansemil et al. is proposed as a junior synonym of that genus. The presence of the widely reported species R. coccineus has not been confirmed in the study collections, although the species requires a sound revision. A key to the species bearing hair chaetae is provided, based mainly on features of the reproductive system.

  3. An experimental approach to the ecophysiology of the interstitial polychaete Polygordius eschaturus (Annelida: Polygordiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Pereira de Souza-Santos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Polygordius eschaturus from a reflective sandy beach were tested in the laboratory for tolerance to salinity and temperature and for their response to light, gravity and oxygen tension. After 192 h at 10°C, almost all specimens died at salinities of 10, 20 and 50 psu and were slow moving from 30 to 40. At 20°C and 30°C, all specimens died when salinity was 10; few showed abnormal behaviour at 50 and all presented normal behaviour from 20 to 40. At 40°C, all specimens died within 24 h. In our experimental conditions, the observed migration patterns corresponded to photonegative geopositive behaviours, but also indicated a positive response to a higher oxygen tension. These patterns, together with euryhalinity and eurythermy, are in accordance with the typical habitat of the species, from 10 to 20 cm depth in coarse sand above the swash zone. In the intertidal zone of the tropical beach where the worms were originally found, the combined behaviour leading to an attraction to well-oxygenated, dark subsurface sediment layers results in successful protection from the strong changes in salinity and temperature of the more superficial layers.

  4. The influence of cadmium on the antioxidant enzyme activities in polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiutang; Chen, Aihua; Zhou, Yibing; Liu, Haiying; Yang, Dazuo

    2010-07-01

    The infaunal polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube, distributed widely along Asian coasts and estuaries, is considered a useful animal model in ecotoxicological tests and a promising candidate in biomonitoring programs. This paper deals with the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidases (GSH-Px) in infaunal polychaete P. aibuhitensis exposed to a series of sublethal water-bound cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 0.34, 1.72, 3.44, 6.89, and 17.22 mg L-1) under a short-term exposure (1-8 d). The results indicate that the SOD and GSH-Px activities in P. aibuhitensis are stimulated first and then renewed to the original level. The CAT activity of worms decreases at an earlier exposure time but increases to the control values at a later exposure time. Our study suggests that Cd can interfere with the antioxidant defense system of P. aibuhitensis. However, the changes in antioxidant enzyme activities for this species do not show the best promise as biomarkers in Cd biomonitoring of estuarine and coastal zones because weak or non-dose-effect relationships between the antioxidant enzymes activities and Cd levels are found.

  5. Ultrastructure developments during spermiogenesis in Polydora ciliata (Annelida: Spionidae), a parasite of mollusca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Libin; Qiu, Tianlong; Xue, Dongxiu; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-12-01

    Spionid worms of Polydora ciliata inhabit the shells of many commercially important bivalves and cause disease in molluscan aquaculture. Their sperm structure is closely related to their fertilization method. To give an insight into the sperm structure and spermatogenesis, ultrastructure details of the subcellular components of germ cells during spermiogenesis of Polydora ciliata are detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In P. ciliata, during spermiogenesis, chromatin is regularly arranged as dense fibrils and becomes more condensed when the nucleus elongates. Microtubules do not surround the nucleus during its elongation. The Golgi phase is characterized by the formation of proacrosomal granules within the Golgi apparatus. The proacrosomal granules fuse to form a single, spherical acrosomal vesicle that migrates to the anterior pole of the cell. At the time of nuclear condensation, mitochondria become reduced in number but increased in size, causing deep indentation at the base of the nucleus. The mid-piece has a few mitochondria. The cap phase includes the spreading of the acrosomal granule over the surface of the nucleus of the differentiating spermatid. The acrosomal phase of spermiogenesis is typically associated with changes in the shape of the nucleus, acrosome and tail. The relationship of sperm ultrastructure to spermiogenesis in spionidae species was discussed.

  6. New Ukrainian records of Branchiobdella parasita (Annelida: Clitellata: Branchiobdellida from the Danube basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOLESNYKOVA Maria

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with the first substantiated Ukrainian records of Branchiobdella parasita (Braun, 1805 from the Danube basin including the Danube Delta and a tributary of the Tisza in Transcarpathia. The localities can be considered as the eastern border of the species range. Four sites (Katlabukh Lake, Kislitsa – Danube, a channel in the Danube Delta - at Vilkovo - and Tereblya river – from Transcarpathia were surveyed within summer seasons of 2008 - 2009. Hosts included the crayfish species Astacus leptodactylus (Eschscholtz, 1823 and Astacus astacus (Linnaeus, 1758. Information on morphological characters of Branchiobdella parasita including its cocoons is given. Details of host-parasite relationships of the crayfish and the branchiobdellidan are presented. Branchiobdella parasita prefers eyes and maxillipeds of the hosts. It lays cocoons mainly on the lateral cephalotorax. The pattern of cocoon localization is the same in different crayfish species from all studied localities. Infection rates for the adult worms and their cocoons are provided. The percentage (prevalence of crayfishes infested with adult Branchiobdella parasita reached 100% in two sites (one site from the Danube Delta and in the site from Transcarpathia, meanwhile percentage of crayfishes infested with cocoons of Branchiobdella parasita reached 90% in one site (at Tereblya river from Transcarpathia.

  7. Cosmopolitan or Cryptic Species? A Case Study of Capitella teleta (Annelida: Capitellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Shinri; Kondoh, Tomohiko; Sato-Okoshi, Waka; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kakui, Keiichi; Kajihara, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Capitella teleta Blake et al., 2009 is an opportunistic capitellid originally described from Massachusetts (USA), but also reported from the Mediterranean, NW Atlantic, and North Pacific, including Japan. This putatively wide distribution had not been tested with DNA sequence data; intraspecific variation in morphological characters diagnostic for the species had not been assessed with specimens from non-type localities, and the species status of the Japanese population(s) was uncertain. We examined the morphology and mitochondrial COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) gene sequences of Capitella specimens from two localities (Ainan and Gamo) in Japan. Specimens from Ainan and Gamo differed from C. teleta from Massachusetts in methyl-green staining pattern, shape of the genital spines, and shape of the capillary chaetae; we concluded that these characters vary intraspecifically. Species delimitation analyses of COI sequences suggested that worms from Ainan and Massachusetts represent C. teleta; these populations share a COI haplotype. The specimens from Gamo may represent a distinct species and comprise a sister group to C. teleta s. str.; we refer to the Gamo population as Capitella aff. teleta. The average Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distance between C. teleta s. str. and C. aff. teleta was 3.7%. The COI data indicate that C. teleta actually occurs in both the NW Atlantic and NW Pacific. Given the short planktonic larval duration of C. teleta, this broad distribution may have resulted from anthropogenic dispersal.

  8. Application of a widely-used tropical anti-worm agent, mebendazole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of a widely-used tropical anti-worm agent, mebendazole, in modern oncology. Dušica J Popović, Mihalj Poša, Kosta J Popović, Jovanka Kolarović, Jovan K. Popović, Pavle Z. Banović ...

  9. Histamine 1 Receptor Blockade Enhances Eosinophil-Mediated Clearance of Adult Filarial Worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ellen Mueller; Morris, Christopher P.; Hübner, Marc P.; Mitre, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Filariae are tissue-invasive nematodes that cause diseases such as elephantiasis and river blindness. The goal of this study was to characterize the role of histamine during Litomosoides sigmodontis infection of BALB/c mice, a murine model of filariasis. Time course studies demonstrated that while expression of histidine decarboxylase mRNA increases throughout 12 weeks of infection, serum levels of histamine exhibit two peaks—one 30 minutes after primary infection and one 8 weeks later. Interestingly, mice treated with fexofenadine, a histamine receptor 1 inhibitor, demonstrated significantly reduced worm burden in infected mice compared to untreated infected controls. Although fexofenadine-treated mice had decreased antigen-specific IgE levels as well as lower splenocyte IL-5 and IFNγ production, they exhibited a greater than fourfold rise in eosinophil numbers at the tissue site where adult L. sigmodontis worms reside. Fexofenadine-mediated clearance of L. sigmodontis worms was dependent on host eosinophils, as fexofenadine did not decrease worm burdens in eosinophil-deficient dblGATA mice. These findings suggest that histamine release induced by tissue invasive helminths may aid parasite survival by diminishing eosinophilic responses. Further, these results raise the possibility that combining H1 receptor inhibitors with current anthelmintics may improve treatment efficacy for filariae and other tissue-invasive helminths. PMID:26204515

  10. The World of the Worm-2002 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 3. The World of the Worm - 2002 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine ... Author Affiliations. S Mahadevan1. Department of Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India.

  11. Sex-specific aging in flies, worms, and missing great-granddads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caleb E; Tower, John

    2014-01-30

    Two recent studies identify how sex-specific pheromonal factors in flies and worms alter lifespan through metabolic pathways that are shared with mammals. Sex differences in human lifespans imply nonautonomous effects modulated by sex-specific gene-environment interactions that could still include pheromonal mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Vesicle-to-Worm Transition Provides a New High-Temperature Oil Thickening Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Matthew J; Mykhaylyk, Oleksandr O; Armes, Steven P

    2017-02-06

    Diblock copolymer vesicles are prepared via RAFT dispersion polymerization directly in mineral oil. Such vesicles undergo a vesicle-to-worm transition on heating to 150 °C, as judged by TEM and SAXS. Variable-temperature 1 H NMR spectroscopy indicates that this transition is the result of surface plasticization of the membrane-forming block by hot solvent, effectively increasing the volume fraction of the stabilizer block and so reducing the packing parameter for the copolymer chains. The rheological behavior of a 10 % w/w copolymer dispersion in mineral oil is strongly temperature-dependent: the storage modulus increases by five orders of magnitude on heating above the critical gelation temperature of 135 °C, as the non-interacting vesicles are converted into weakly interacting worms. SAXS studies indicate that, on average, three worms are formed per vesicle. Such vesicle-to-worm transitions offer an interesting new mechanism for the high-temperature thickening of oils. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Cold-adapted tubulins in the glacier ice worm, Mesenchytraeus solifugus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, Lawrence J; Shain, Daniel H

    2008-11-01

    Glacier ice worms, Mesenchytraeus solifugus and related species, are the only known annelids that survive obligately in glacier ice and snow. One fundamental component of cold temperature adaptation is the ability to polymerize tubulin, which typically depolymerizes at low physiological temperatures (e.g., <10 degrees C) in most temperate species. In this study, we isolated two alpha-tubulin (Msalpha1, Msalpha2) and two beta-tubulin (Msbeta1, Msbeta2) subunits from an ice worm cDNA library, and compared their predicted amino acid sequences with homologues from other cold-adapted organisms (e.g., Antarctic fish, ciliate) in an effort to identify species-specific amino acid substitutions that contribute to cold temperature-dependent tubulin polymerization. Our comparisons and predicted protein structures suggest that ice worm-specific amino acid substitutions stabilize lateral contact associations, particularly between beta-tubulin protofilaments, but these substitutions occur at different positions in comparison with other cold-adapted tubulins. The ice worm tubulin gene family appears relatively small, comprising one primary alpha- and one primary beta-tubulin monomers, though minor isoforms and pseudogenes were identified. Our analyses suggest that variation occurs in the strategies (i.e., species-specific amino acid substitutions, gene number) by which cold-adapted taxa have evolved the ability to polymerize tubulin at low physiological temperatures.

  14. Glycogen metabolism in Schistosoma mansoni worms after their isolation from the host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiolens, A.G.M.; Bergh, S.G. van den

    Adult Schistosoma mansoni worms rapidly degrade their endogenous glycogen stores immediately after isolation from the host. In NCTC 109 or in a diphasic culture medium the glycogen levels slowly recovered again after the initial decrease. The rapid degradation of glycogen could be prevented, even in

  15. Schistosomicidal Activity of Alkyl-phenols from the Cashew Anacardium occidentale against Schistosoma mansoni Adult Worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Tavane A; de Oliveira, Pollyanna F; de Souza, Julia M; Tavares, Denise C; Andrade E Silva, Márcio L; Cunha, Wilson R; Groppo, Milton; Januário, Ana H; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Pauletti, Patrícia M

    2016-11-23

    Bioassay-guided study of the ethanol extract from the cashew Anacardium occidentale furnished cardol triene (1), cardol diene (2), anacardic acid triene (3), cardol monoene (4), anacardic acid diene (5), 2-methylcardol triene (6), and 2-methylcardol diene (7). 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments and HRMS analysis confirmed the structures of compounds 1-7. Compounds 2 and 7 were active against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms in vitro, with LC50 values of 32.2 and 14.5 μM and selectivity indices of 6.1 and 21.2, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy of the tegument of male worms in the presence of compound 7 at 25 μM after 24 h of incubation showed severe damage as well as peeling and reduction in the number of spine tubercles. Transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed swollen mitochondrial membrane, vacuoles, and altered tegument in worms incubated with compound 2 (25 μM after 24 h). Worms incubated with compound 7 (25 μM after 24 h) had lysed interstitial tissue, degenerated mitochondria, and drastically altered tegument. Together, the results indicated that compound 7 presents promising in vitro schistosomicidal activity.

  16. Worms under stress: C. elegans stress response and its relevance to complex human disease and aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Sanchez, M.; Snoek, L.B.; Bono, de M.; Kammenga, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Many organisms have stress response pathways, components of which share homology with players in complex human disease pathways. Research on stress response in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans has provided detailed insights into the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying complex human

  17. In-vitro antihelmintic effects of two Kenyan plant extracts against Heamonchus contortus adult worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Gachoki Kareru

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was on evidence based information that Entada leptostachya Harms and Rapanea rhododendroides (Gil Mez were used by the herbalists in Mbeere County, Kenya, for the treatment of gastrointestinal worms. The plants’ aqueous and solvent extracts were tested for their in-vitro antihelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus adult worms. Of the eight plant extracts investigated, four extracts exhibited adult worm mortality greater than 50% while the other four afforded mortality ranging between 60-77%. E. leptostachya methanol extract was the most active (77%. Albendazole was used as a positive control drug while Goodwin’s physiological solution was used as negative control. Methanol extracts for both plants exhibited the highest anthelmintic activity at the test concentrations of 25mg/ml. Although R. rhododendroides was ranked third in general usage by the herbalists, E. leptostachya was solely used for the treatment of intestinal worms. The present results demonstrated that E. leptostachya and R. rhododendroides plant extracts had antihelmintic agents, and justified their traditional use as alternative drugs for the treatment of heamonchosis in ruminants.

  18. Observations on worm population dynamics in calves naturally infected with Schistosoma mattheei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bont, J; Vercruysse, J; Sabbe, F; Ysebaert, M T

    1995-11-01

    The evolution of faecal egg output, worm burdens and tissue egg counts in young calves was monitored during the first year of natural exposure to Schistosoma mattheei infection on a Zambian farm. According to the duration of their stay on the farm, these calves were classified into 2 groups of 14 temporary tracers (TT calves) which were introduced on a 2-monthly basis for residential periods of 2 months, and 12 permanent tracers (PT calves) introduced either at the beginning of the experiment (Group A) or 2 months later (Group B) and gradually removed after residential periods of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 months on the farm. Worm counts in the TT calves showed that infection occurred throughout the year on the farm and that levels of infection acquired during each period of 8 weeks correlated well with the respective infected snail densities observed at the main transmission site. Marked differences in worm population dynamics were recorded between the 2 groups of PT calves. In Group B animals which apparently were initially exposed to heavy transmission, according to the results from TT calves, much higher worm counts and greater susceptibility to reinfection were observed than in Group A animals initially exposed to lighter exposure. These results suggest that the development of resistance to natural infection with S. mattheei may depend on the initial exposure to the parasite. Low initial exposures may lead to resistance whereas high initial exposures may result in decreased immune responses resulting in susceptibility to infection.

  19. Proteomic analysis of the somatic and surface compartments from Dirofilaria immitis adult worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morchón, R; González-Miguel, J; Carretón, E; Kramer, L H; Valero, L; Montoya-Alonso, J A; Simón, F; Siles-Lucas, M

    2014-06-16

    Dirofilaria immitis (hearthworm) is a filarial roundworm transmitted by mosquitoes to different vertebrate hosts (dogs, cats and humans, among others), causing dirofilariosis. The adult worms reside in the pulmonary arteries affecting vessels and tissues and resulting in different pathological manifestations. Worms migrate to the heart and surrounding major vessels in heavy infections. Dirofilariosis can result in serious damage to affected hosts. In the last few years, a re-emergence of the disease driven by the climate change has been pointed out. Very recently, the knowledge at molecular level of this parasite has been extended by the published studies on its genome and transcriptome. Nevertheless, studies on the expression of defined protein sets in different parasite compartments and the corresponding role of those proteins in the host-parasite relationship have been relatively scarce to date. These include the description of the adult worm secretome, and some of the proteins eliciting humoural immune responses and those related with plasminogen binding in secreted and surface extracts of the parasite. Here, we investigate by proteomics the somatic and surface compartments of the D. immitis adult worm, adding new information on protein expression and localization that would facilitate a deeper understanding of the host-parasite relationships in dirofilariosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A new worm infiltrating the human cornea: A report of 3 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: To characterize a new species of parasitic nematode that triggers uveitis. Observations: Three previously healthy, relatively young people each contracted a corneal stromal nematode that, upon surgical removal and examination of one of the worms, did not match any known nematodes. Clinical...

  1. Prevalence of giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale) in wild mink (Mustela vison) in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Tracy, Shawn P.

    2001-01-01

    Of 138 wild mink (Mustela vison) from eastern Minnesota, 27% contained Dioctophyma renale, primarily in the right kidney. No significant difference between prevalence in adult male and immature male mink was found, nor between the prevalence in males versus female mink. Thirteen worms were found in one male mink, representing the highest documented infection intensity of a single wild mink.

  2. Virulence of serotype M3 Group A Streptococcus strains in wax worms (Galleria mellonella larvae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, M Ebru; Cantu, Concepcion C; Beres, Stephen B; Musser, James M

    2011-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes human infections that range in severity from pharyngitis (“strep-throat”) to necrotizing fasciitis (“flesh-eating disease”). To facilitate investigation of the molecular basis of host-pathogen interactions, infection models capable of rapidly screening for differences in GAS strain virulence are needed. To this end, we developed a Galleria mellonella larvae (wax worm) model of invasive GAS infection and used it to compare the virulence of serotype M3 GAS strains. We found that GAS causes severe tissue damage and kills wax worms in a dose-dependent manner. The virulence of genetically distinct GAS strains was compared by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and determining 50% lethal doses (LD50). Host-pathogen interactions were further characterized using quantitative culture, histopathology and TaqMan assays. GAS strains known to be highly pathogenic in mice and monkeys caused significantly lower survival and had significantly lower LD50s in wax worms than GAS strains associated with attenuated virulence or asymptomatic carriage. Furthermore, isogenic inactivation of proven virulence factors resulted in a significantly increased LD50 and decreased lesion size compared to the wild-type strain, a finding that also strongly correlates with animal studies. Importantly, survival analysis and LD50 determination in wax worms supported our hypothesis that a newly emerged GAS subclone that is epidemiologically associated with more human necrotizing fasciitis cases than its progenitor lineage has significantly increased virulence. We conclude that GAS virulence in wax worms strongly correlates with the data obtained in vertebrate models, and thus, the Galleria mellonella larva is a useful host organism to study GAS pathogenesis. PMID:21258213

  3. WormSizer: high-throughput analysis of nematode size and shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad T Moore

    Full Text Available The fundamental phenotypes of growth rate, size and morphology are the result of complex interactions between genotype and environment. We developed a high-throughput software application, WormSizer, which computes size and shape of nematodes from brightfield images. Existing methods for estimating volume either coarsely model the nematode as a cylinder or assume the worm shape or opacity is invariant. Our estimate is more robust to changes in morphology or optical density as it only assumes radial symmetry. This open source software is written as a plugin for the well-known image-processing framework Fiji/ImageJ. It may therefore be extended easily. We evaluated the technical performance of this framework, and we used it to analyze growth and shape of several canonical Caenorhabditis elegans mutants in a developmental time series. We confirm quantitatively that a Dumpy (Dpy mutant is short and fat and that a Long (Lon mutant is long and thin. We show that daf-2 insulin-like receptor mutants are larger than wild-type upon hatching but grow slow, and WormSizer can distinguish dauer larvae from normal larvae. We also show that a Small (Sma mutant is actually smaller than wild-type at all stages of larval development. WormSizer works with Uncoordinated (Unc and Roller (Rol mutants as well, indicating that it can be used with mutants despite behavioral phenotypes. We used our complete data set to perform a power analysis, giving users a sense of how many images are needed to detect different effect sizes. Our analysis confirms and extends on existing phenotypic characterization of well-characterized mutants, demonstrating the utility and robustness of WormSizer.

  4. Genetic variation for worm burdens in laying hens naturally infected with gastro-intestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongrak, K; Daş, G; von Borstel, U König; Gauly, M

    2015-01-01

    1. Genetic parameters were determined for the worm burden of the most common gastro-intestinal nematodes in two chicken genotypes after being exposed to free-range farming conditions for a laying period. 2. Seventeen-week-old hens of 2 brown genotypes, Lohmann Brown (LB) plus (n = 230) and LB classic (n = 230), were reared for a laying period and subjected to post-mortem parasitological examinations at 79 weeks (LB plus) or 88 weeks (LB classic) of age. 3. There was no significant difference in faecal egg counts between the genotypes. Almost all hens (>99%) were infected with at least one nematode species. Species-specific nematode prevalence ranged from 85.8% to 99.1% between the two genotypes. Heterakis gallinarum was the most prevalent nematode (98.5%), followed by Ascaridia galli (96.2%) and Capillaria spp. (86.1%). Capillaria spp. were composed of C. obsignata (79%), C. caudinflata (16%) and C. bursata (5%). 4. All phenotypic and genetic correlations among worm counts of different parasite species were positive in combined genotypes (rP ranged from 0.05 to 0.30 and rG ranged from 0.29 to 0.88). A strong genetic correlation (rG = 0.88 ± 0.34) between counts of A. galli and H. gallinarum was quantified. Heritability for total worm burden for LB plus and LB classic, respectively, were 0.55 ± 0.18 and 0.55 ± 0.34. Across both genotypes, the heritability of total worm burden was 0.56 ± 0.16. 5. In conclusion, there is a high variation attributable to genetic background of chickens in their responses to naturally acquired nematode infections. The high positive genetic correlation between counts of closely related worm species (e.g. A. galli and H. gallinarum) may indicate existence of similar genetically determined mechanism(s) in chickens for controlling these nematodes.

  5. Redescription and biology of Diopatra neapolitana (Annelida: Onuphidae), a protandric hermaphrodite with external spermaducal papillae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Andrés; Paxton, Hannelore; Budaeva, Nataliya

    2016-06-01

    A one-year study of the reproductive biology of a population of Diopatra neapolitana at Villaviciosa estuary, northern Spain, was undertaken. Field observations together with a histological study of monthly collected individuals revealed that the population was iteroparous, had a discontinuous reproductive season with a resting period during August and September and a spawning season from March to July. The study showed that D. neapolitana was not dioecious as previously suggested but consisted of protandric sequential hermaphrodites, pure males and pure females with a male biased sex ratio of 3:1. During the peak reproductive period from May to August we observed simultaneous hermaphrodites with two dorsal papillae per segment in the branchial region. Histological studies demonstrated that the papillae were acting as seminal vesicles, storing own sperm, and also as sperm ducts, providing an exit route; hence we termed them 'spermaducal papillae'. The papillae are not the only sperm repositories as the coelom of males and simultaneous hermaphrodites in smaller size classes is also filled with sperm. The worms are broadcast spawners with a brief pelagic larval stage as previously reported but the finer points of this unusual fertilisation system need still to be elaborated. Diopatra cryptornata was recently described as a new species, supposedly differing from D. neapolitana in chaetal detail and the possession of the papillae. We have shown conclusively with morphological and genetical studies that the former species is a junior synonym of the latter. In the absence of type material we are here designating a neotype from recently collected material from Naples.

  6. Gravity worms in the prospecting of epigenetic gold deposits: Example from the Northern Fennoscandian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Ilkka; Nykänen, Vesa; Niiranen, Tero

    2010-05-01

    Mapping of mineralized geologic structures using geophysical potential field datasets has become an essential part of present-day exploration projects. Various geophysical processing and semiautomatic interpretation techniques have provided new tools into the field of conventional exploration process. Such is the multiscale edge detection or "worming-technique" introduced by Hornby et al., (1999). Worms are representations of the maxima of potential field horizontal gradients. They are calculated at different upward continuation levels providing an alternative view into potential field anomalies and geometry of the anomaly sources. In this work we use the worming-technique on the regional gravity dataset collected by the Geological Survey of Finland during the last four decades in the northern Finland. The dataset consists of more than 19 000 ground gravity observations covering an area of about 15000 km2 with an average site separation of 0.5 - 1 km. The study area covers the central part of the 2.4-2.0 Ga Central Lapland Greenstone belt (CLGB) which is one of the largest Proterozoic greenstone terrains in the world. The CLGB hosts numerous gold occurrences of varying type and size. The majority of the gold occurrences fall into the orogenic gold category but also Iron Oxide-Copper-Gold (IOCG) and paleoplacer types are known within the region (e.g. Eilu et al., 2007). Currently the largest known deposit in the area is the Suurikuusikko orogenic gold deposit with current resources exceeding 5 million ounces Au. The largest known gold resources in IOCG type deposit is in the Hannukainen deposit with ca. 200 000 ounces of gold. All the known orogenic gold and IOCG deposits in the CLGB show intimate spatial correlation to shear zones of varying scale. Processed gravity worms display striking spatial correlation with the known orogenic gold and IOCG deposits. In some cases the gold hosting shear zones are outlined by gravity worms either completely (Sirkka shear zone

  7. Cuticular surface damage of Ascaridia galli adult worms treated with Veitchia merrillii betel nuts extract in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balqis, Ummu; Hambal, Muhammad; Rinidar; Athaillah, Farida; Ismail; Azhar; Vanda, Henni; Darmawi

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this research was to in vitro evaluate the cuticular surface damage of Ascaridia galli adult worms treated with ethanolic extract of betel nuts Veitchia merrillii. Phytochemical screening was done using FeCl3, Wagner and Dragendorff reagents, NaOH, MgHCl, and Liebermann-Burchard reaction test. Amount of 16 worms were segregated into four groups with three replicates. Four worms of each group submerged into phosphate buffered saline, 25 mg/ml, and 75 mg/ml crude ethanolic extract of V. merrillii, and 15 mg/ml albendazole. The effect of these extract was observed 40 h after incubation as soon as worms death. The worms were sectioned transversally and were explored for any cuticular histopathological changes in their body surface under microscope. We found that the ethanolic extract of V. merrillii betel nuts contains tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, and saponins. The ethanolic extract of betel nuts V. merrillii induces surface alterations caused cuticular damage of A. galli adult worms. We concluded that ethanolic extract of betel nuts V. merrillii possess anthelmintic activity caused cuticular damage of A. galli adult worms.

  8. Cuticular surface damage of Ascaridia galli adult worms treated with Veitchia merrillii betel nuts extract in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummu Balqis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this research was to in vitro evaluate the cuticular surface damage of Ascaridia galli adult worms treated with ethanolic extract of betel nuts Veitchia merrillii. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening was done using FeCl3, Wagner and Dragendorff reagents, NaOH, MgHCl, and Liebermann-Burchard reaction test. Amount of 16 worms were segregated into four groups with three replicates. Four worms of each group submerged into phosphate buffered saline, 25 mg/ml, and 75 mg/ml crude ethanolic extract of V. merrillii, and 15 mg/ml albendazole. The effect of these extract was observed 40 h after incubation as soon as worms death. The worms were sectioned transversally and were explored for any cuticular histopathological changes in their body surface under microscope. Results: We found that the ethanolic extract of V. merrillii betel nuts contains tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, and saponins. The ethanolic extract of betel nuts V. merrillii induces surface alterations caused cuticular damage of A. galli adult worms. Conclusion: We concluded that ethanolic extract of betel nuts V. merrillii possess anthelmintic activity caused cuticular damage of A. galli adult worms.

  9. Spatial analysis of targeted surveillance for screw-worm fly (Chrysomya bezziana or Cochliomyia hominivorax) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruean, Sn; East, Ij

    2014-07-01

    To assess Australia's targeted surveillance to detect an incursion of screw-worm fly (Chrysomya bezziana). A multi-criteria analysis shell was used to combine data on potential pathways of entry, availability of host species and environmental factors affecting survival of screw-worm fly in order to map spatial variation in the relative likelihood of a screw-worm fly incursion into Australia. Australia's current screw-worm fly surveillance activities were reviewed to determine whether they are located in the areas of highest likelihood of an incursion. Under average environmental conditions, an incursion of screw-worm fly in Australia is relatively more likely to occur along the north coast, down the eastern seaboard or in the south-east. Cold winter temperatures would limit the environmental suitability for screw-worm fly survival to the north and north-east coast and adjacent inland areas. Australia's current targeted surveillance conducted by the Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy program of the Australian Department of Agriculture (adult screw-worm fly trapping and myiasis sampling) correlated well with areas considered to have a high relative likelihood of an incursion of screw-worm fly. Adult fly trapping conducted at sea ports was less well correlated. Changes to surveillance at sea ports are proposed to better target areas considered to have a higher relative likelihood of screw-worm fly incursion. These include increasing the trapping intensity along the north and north-east coasts and shifting surveillance activity from the west coast to the south-east. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. Symbiotic association between Solanderia secunda (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Solanderiidae) and Medioantenna variopinta sp. nov. (Annelida, Polychaeta, Polynoidae) from North Sulawesi (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Camillo, Cristina Gioia; Martin, Daniel; Britayev, Temir A.

    2011-12-01

    A mimic scale-worm was found associated with the athecate hydroid Solanderia secunda, commonly found on reefs of the NW coast of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. The species resembled Medioantenna clavata Imajima 1997, which was originally described without any reference to a symbiotic mode of life and later reported to be living on a solanderiid hydroid both in Japanese waters. A detailed morphological analysis led us to consider the Indonesian specimens as a new species, namely Medioantenna variopinta sp. nov., which is congeneric with the Japanese species. The new species differs from the type material of M. clavata as it has elytra with one prominent finger-like papilla and all neurochaetae with unidentate tip, instead of an elytral lump and both unidentate and bidentate neurochaetae on segment two. In turn, the Japanese worms associated with Solanderia are here referred to our new species. Two morphological features in M. variopinta sp. nov. are rather unusual among scale-worms. One of them is its extremely high level of bilateral asymmetry and antero-posterior variability in elytral distribution and the other one is its elongated, upwardly directed nephridial papillae. The morphology and geographical distribution of the host together with the known characteristics of the symbiotic association have also been highlighted.

  11. Timing and Scope of Genomic Expansion within Annelida: Evidence from Homeoboxes in the Genome of the Earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwarycz, Allison S; Nossa, Carlos W; Putnam, Nicholas H; Ryan, Joseph F

    2015-12-10

    Annelida represents a large and morphologically diverse group of bilaterian organisms. The recently published polychaete and leech genome sequences revealed an equally dynamic range of diversity at the genomic level. The availability of more annelid genomes will allow for the identification of evolutionary genomic events that helped shape the annelid lineage and better understand the diversity within the group. We sequenced and assembled the genome of the common earthworm, Eisenia fetida. As a first pass at understanding the diversity within the group, we classified 363 earthworm homeoboxes and compared them with those of the leech Helobdella robusta and the polychaete Capitella teleta. We inferred many gene expansions occurring in the lineage connecting the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Capitella and Eisenia to the Eisenia/Helobdella MRCA. Likewise, the lineage leading from the Eisenia/Helobdella MRCA to the leech H. robusta has experienced substantial gains and losses. However, the lineage leading from Eisenia/Helobdella MRCA to E. fetida is characterized by extraordinary levels of homeobox gain. The evolutionary dynamics observed in the homeoboxes of these lineages are very likely to be generalizable to all genes. These genome expansions and losses have likely contributed to the remarkable biology exhibited in this group. These results provide a new perspective from which to understand the diversity within these lineages, show the utility of sub-draft genome assemblies for understanding genomic evolution, and provide a critical resource from which the biology of these animals can be studied. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. A rare cause of asymptomatic solitary pulmonary nodule: adult Schistosoma worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Ikram Ulhaq; Manah, Wejdan; Alghamdi, Mohammed; Mutairi, Hadi

    2014-03-10

    Solitary pulmonary nodule due to various pathologies has been reported in the medical literature. We report a case of solitary pulmonary nodule in an asymptomatic 60-year-old male smoker, who had a positive family history of pulmonary tuberculosis. His routine screening chest X-ray revealed a 2 × 1.5 cm nodule in the right lung upper zone. A CT scan of the thorax confirmed the finding. Bronchoscopy, lavage, biopsy and screening for tuberculosis were negative. Owing to its technical difficulty, a CT-guided biopsy was deferred by the radiologist, hence we decided to perform segmentectomy that showed granuloma harbouring an adult Schistosoma worm. This is the first case of asymptomatic solitary pulmonary nodule due to adult Schistosoma worm 26 years after the exposure.

  13. Sensitivity of the immunochromatographic card test relative to detection of adult Wuchereria bancrofti worms by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Gerusa; Lins, Renato; Norões, Joaquim; Rizzo, José Angelo; Figueredo-Silva, José

    2008-01-01

    The diagnosis of active infection in bancroftian filariasis continues to pose an important and continuously evolving challenge to filariasis-endemic countries and to health personnel. Sensitivity of the immunochromatographic card test (ICT) relative to detection of adult Wuchereria bancrofti worms by ultrasound was evaluated in a retrospective study conducted in the Center for Teaching, Research and Tertiary Referral Hospital for bancroftian filariasis (Federal University of Pernambuco) in Recife, Brazil. The results showed that among 408 persons tested, the overall sensitivity of the ICT was 84.5% and varied from 52% to 100% when patients were grouped by different criteria (age, sex, presence or absence of living adult worms by ultrasound, microfilaremia status/density). The present study provides evidence that a negative antigen result should be interpreted cautiously and may help to explain the different sensitivities of the antigen test found by different investigators in settings with different transmission intensities.

  14. Tongue worm (Pentastomida) infection in ball pythons (Python regius) – a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałęcki, Remigiusz; Sokół, Rajmund; Dudek, Agnieszka

    Tongue worms (Pentastomida) are endoparasites causing pentastomiasis, an invasive disease representing a threat to exotic animals and humans. Animals acquire infection via the alimentary tract. In reptiles, the parasite is present in the lungs, resulting in symptoms from the respiratory system. Pentastomiasis may be asymptomatic, but nonspecific symptoms may occur at high parasite concentrations. Due to the harmful effects of many antiparasitic substances, tongue worm invasion in reptiles remains not fully treatable. Although pentasomiasis is rarely diagnosed in Poland, pentastomids were diagnosed in two ball pythons, who were patients of the “Poliklinika Weterynaryjna” veterinary clinic. They demonstrated problems with the respiratory system and a significant deterioration of health. Fenbendazole at a dose of 100 mg/kg b.w., repeated after 7 days was shown to be effective.

  15. Acute phase proteins in dogs naturally infected with the Giant Kidney Worm (Dioctophyme renale)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Elizabeth M. S.; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Thomas, Funmilola

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dioctophyme renale is a nematode parasite of dogs, usually found in the right kidney, causing severe damage to the renal parenchyma. Objectives: The objective was to evaluate the acute phase response in dogs naturally infected with this Giant Kidney Worm and the possible effects...... of nephrectomy on circulating concentrations of select acute phase proteins (APP) such as serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and haptoglobin(HP). Methods: Nephrectomy was performed in infected dogs and the worms were collected for identification. Blood samples were taken 24 hours before surgery......, and 4, 8, and 12 hours postoperatively on the following 10 consecutive days, and 28 days after surgery. Acute phase protein concentrations were determined at all time points. Cortisol concentrations were determined 24 hours before surgery and at recovery (28 days after surgery).One-way ANOVA...

  16. CAD AND CAE METHODS IN COMPUTER ASSISTED DESIGN OF WORM MESHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk SABINIAK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One important feature of worm gear meshes is their complex geometry and now the application of computer aided design allows for mapping their real construction patterns with great affinity. Modelling of worm meshes with the use of CAD (Computer Aided Design and CAE (Computer Aided Engineering methods enables tracking the design process from the very beginning, i.e. from the concept or specific assumptions, until the final stage only by using appropriate software, thereby lowering the costs and eliminating common errors. Owing to this, just before the manufacturing process of the first meshing elements begins, one can conduct geometric analysis and correct or modify working profiles of the teeth in order to improve the operation properties of future gear. Visualizing such a geometric modelling process can also serve didactic purposes when used in education of future engineers, technologists and operators of this type of gears.

  17. Neural reconstruction of bone-eating Osedax spp. (Annelida) and evolution of the siboglinid nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsaae, Katrine; Rimskaya-Korsakova, Nadezhda N; Rouse, Greg W

    2016-04-14

    Bone-devouring Osedax worms were described over a decade ago from deep-sea whale falls. The gutless females (and in one species also the males) have a unique root system that penetrates the bone and nourishes them via endosymbiotic bacteria. Emerging from the bone is a cylindrical trunk, which is enclosed in a transparent tube, that generally gives rise to a plume of four palps (or tentacles). In most Osedax species, dwarf males gather in harems along the female's trunk and the nervous system of these microscopic forms has been described in detail. Here, the nervous system of bone-eating Osedax forms are described for the first time, allowing for hypotheses on how the abberant ventral brain and nervous system of Siboglinidae may have evolved from a ganglionated nervous system with a dorsal brain, as seen in most extant annelids. The intraepidermal nervous systems of four female Osedax spp. and the bone-eating O. priapus male were reconstructed in detail by a combination of immunocytochemistry, CLSM, histology and TEM. They all showed a simple nervous system composed of an anterior ventral brain, connected with anteriorly directed paired palp and gonoduct nerves, and four main pairs of posteriorly directed longitudinal nerves (2 ventral, 2 ventrolateral, 2 sets of dorso-lateral, 2 dorsal). Transverse peripheral nerves surround the trunk, ovisac and root system. The nervous system of Osedax resembles that of other siboglinids, though possibly presenting additional lateral and dorsal longitudinal nerves. It differs from most Sedentaria in the presence of an intraepidermal ventral brain, rather than a subepidermal dorsal brain, and by having an intraepidermal nerve cord with several plexi and up to three main commissures along the elongated trunk, which may comprise two indistinct segments. Osedax shows closer neuroarchitectural resemblance to Vestimentifera + Sclerolinum (= Monilifera) than to Frenulata. The intraepidermal nervous system with widely separated

  18. Anthelmintic activity in vivo of epiisopiloturine against juvenile and adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Guimarães

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a serious disease currently estimated to affect more that 207 million people worldwide. Due to the intensive use of praziquantel, there is increasing concern about the development of drug-resistant strains. Therefore, it is necessary to search for and investigate new potential schistosomicidal compounds. This work reports the in vivo effect of the alkaloid epiisopiloturine (EPI against adults and juvenile worms of Schistosoma mansoni. EPI was first purified its thermal behavior and theoretical solubility parameters charaterised. In the experiment, mice were treated with EPI over the 21 days post-infection with the doses of 40 and 200 mg/kg, and 45 days post-infection with single doses of 40, 100 and 300 mg/kg. The treatment with EPI at 40 mg/kg was more effective in adult worms when compared with doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg. The treatment with 40 mg/kg in adult worms reduced parasite burden significantly, lead to reduction in hepatosplenomegaly, reduced the egg burden in faeces, and decreased granuloma diameter. Scanning electron microscopy revealed morphological changes to the parasite tegument after treatment, including the loss of important features. Additionally, the in vivo treatment against juvenile with 40 mg/kg showed a reduction of the total worm burden of 50.2%. Histopathological studies were performed on liver, spleen, lung, kidney and brain and EPI was shown to have a DL50 of 8000 mg/kg. Therefore EPI shows potential to be used in schistosomiasis treatment. This is the first time that schistosomicidal in vivo activity of EPI has been reported.

  19. Carolus Linnaeus, the ash, worm-wood and other anti-malarial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin-Schmidt, Berit; Thorsell, Walborg; Wahlgren, Mats

    2010-12-01

    In 1735 Carolus Linnaeus wrote that quinine was the preferred treatment for malaria but that the bark of the ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and worm-wood (Artemisia absinthium) also had effects on the disease. We here report that lipo- and hydrophilic extracts of the bark of the ash inhibit the in vitro growth of the asexual stages of P. falciparum. The data suggests that the knowledge of the treatment of malaria was already available in Europe some 300 years ago.

  20. Proteome adaptation to high temperatures in the ectothermic hydrothermal vent Pompeii worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jollivet, Didier; Mary, Jean; Gagnière, Nicolas; Tanguy, Arnaud; Fontanillas, Eric; Boutet, Isabelle; Hourdez, Stéphane; Segurens, Béatrice; Weissenbach, Jean; Poch, Olivier; Lecompte, Odile

    2012-01-01

    Taking advantage of the massive genome sequencing effort made on thermophilic prokaryotes, thermal adaptation has been extensively studied by analysing amino acid replacements and codon usage in these unicellular organisms. In most cases, adaptation to thermophily is associated with greater residue hydrophobicity and more charged residues. Both of these characteristics are positively correlated with the optimal growth temperature of prokaryotes. In contrast, little information has been collected on the molecular 'adaptive' strategy of thermophilic eukaryotes. The Pompeii worm A. pompejana, whose transcriptome has recently been sequenced, is currently considered as the most thermotolerant eukaryote on Earth, withstanding the greatest thermal and chemical ranges known. We investigated the amino-acid composition bias of ribosomal proteins in the Pompeii worm when compared to other lophotrochozoans and checked for putative adaptive changes during the course of evolution using codon-based Maximum likelihood analyses. We then provided a comparative analysis of codon usage and amino-acid replacements from a greater set of orthologous genes between the Pompeii worm and Paralvinella grasslei, one of its closest relatives living in a much cooler habitat. Analyses reveal that both species display the same high GC-biased codon usage and amino-acid patterns favoring both positively-charged residues and protein hydrophobicity. These patterns may be indicative of an ancestral adaptation to the deep sea and/or thermophily. In addition, the Pompeii worm displays a set of amino-acid change patterns that may explain its greater thermotolerance, with a significant increase in Tyr, Lys and Ala against Val, Met and Gly. Present results indicate that, together with a high content in charged residues, greater proportion of smaller aliphatic residues, and especially alanine, may be a different path for metazoans to face relatively 'high' temperatures and thus a novelty in thermophilic

  1. Proteome adaptation to high temperatures in the ectothermic hydrothermal vent Pompeii worm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Jollivet

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of the massive genome sequencing effort made on thermophilic prokaryotes, thermal adaptation has been extensively studied by analysing amino acid replacements and codon usage in these unicellular organisms. In most cases, adaptation to thermophily is associated with greater residue hydrophobicity and more charged residues. Both of these characteristics are positively correlated with the optimal growth temperature of prokaryotes. In contrast, little information has been collected on the molecular 'adaptive' strategy of thermophilic eukaryotes. The Pompeii worm A. pompejana, whose transcriptome has recently been sequenced, is currently considered as the most thermotolerant eukaryote on Earth, withstanding the greatest thermal and chemical ranges known. We investigated the amino-acid composition bias of ribosomal proteins in the Pompeii worm when compared to other lophotrochozoans and checked for putative adaptive changes during the course of evolution using codon-based Maximum likelihood analyses. We then provided a comparative analysis of codon usage and amino-acid replacements from a greater set of orthologous genes between the Pompeii worm and Paralvinella grasslei, one of its closest relatives living in a much cooler habitat. Analyses reveal that both species display the same high GC-biased codon usage and amino-acid patterns favoring both positively-charged residues and protein hydrophobicity. These patterns may be indicative of an ancestral adaptation to the deep sea and/or thermophily. In addition, the Pompeii worm displays a set of amino-acid change patterns that may explain its greater thermotolerance, with a significant increase in Tyr, Lys and Ala against Val, Met and Gly. Present results indicate that, together with a high content in charged residues, greater proportion of smaller aliphatic residues, and especially alanine, may be a different path for metazoans to face relatively 'high' temperatures and thus a novelty

  2. Host resistance and tolerance of parasitic gut worms depend on resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutie, Sarah A; Wilkinson, Christina L; Wu, Qiu Chang; Ortega, C Nicole; Rohr, Jason R

    2017-04-01

    Resource availability can significantly alter host-parasite dynamics. Abundant food can provide more resources for hosts to resist infections, but also increase host tolerance of infections by reducing competition between hosts and parasites for food. Whether abundant food favors host resistance or tolerance (or both) might depend on the type of resource that the parasite exploits (e.g., host tissue vs. food), which can vary based on the stage of infection. In our study, we evaluated how low and high resource diets affect Cuban tree frog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) resistance and tolerance of a skin-penetrating, gut nematode Aplectana sp. at each stage of the infection. Compared to a low resource diet, a high resource diet enhanced frog resistance to worm penetration and tolerance while worms traveled to the gut. In contrast, a low resource diet increased resistance to establishment of the infection. After the infection established and worms could access food resources in the gut, a high resource diet enhanced host tolerance of parasites. On a high resource diet, parasitized frogs consumed significantly more food than non-parasitized frogs; when food was then restricted, mass of non-parasitized frogs did not change, whereas mass of parasitized frogs decreased significantly. Thus, a high resource diet increased frog tolerance of established worms because frogs could fully compensate for energy lost to the parasites. Our study shows that host-parasite dynamics are influenced by the effect of resource availability on host resistance and tolerance, which depends on when parasites have access to food and the stage of infection.

  3. Oscillation of the velvet worm slime jet by passive hydrodynamic instability

    OpenAIRE

    Concha, Andrés; Mellado, Paula; Morera-Brenes, Bernal; Sampaio Costa, Cristiano; Mahadevan, L,; Monge-Nájera, Julián

    2015-01-01

    The rapid squirt of a proteinaceous slime jet endows velvet worms (Onychophora) with a unique mechanism for defence from predators and for capturing prey by entangling them in a disordered web that immobilizes their target. However, to date, neither qualitative nor quantitative descriptions have been provided for this unique adaptation. Here we investigate the fast oscillatory motion of the oral papillae and the exiting liquid jet that oscillates with frequencies f~30–60 Hz. Using anatomical ...

  4. ABC Triblock Copolymer Worms: Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation as Pickering Emulsifiers for Millimeter-Sized Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mable, C J; Thompson, K L; Derry, M J; Mykhaylyk, O O; Binks, B P; Armes, S P

    2016-10-25

    Polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) is used to prepare linear poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate)-poly(benzyl methacrylate) [PGMA-PHPMA-PBzMA] triblock copolymer nano-objects in the form of a concentrated aqueous dispersion via a three-step synthesis based on reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. First, GMA is polymerized via RAFT solution polymerization in ethanol, then HPMA is polymerized via RAFT aqueous solution polymerization, and finally BzMA is polymerized via "seeded" RAFT aqueous emulsion polymerization. For certain block compositions, highly anisotropic worm-like particles are obtained, which are characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The design rules for accessing higher order morphologies (i.e., worms or vesicles) are briefly explored. Surprisingly, vesicular morphologies cannot be accessed by targeting longer PBzMA blocks-instead, only spherical nanoparticles are formed. SAXS is used to rationalize these counterintuitive observations, which are best explained by considering subtle changes in the relative enthalpic incompatibilities between the three blocks during the growth of the PBzMA block. Finally, the PGMA-PHPMA-PBzMA worms are evaluated as Pickering emulsifiers for the stabilization of oil-in-water emulsions. Millimeter-sized oil droplets can be obtained using low-shear homogenization (hand-shaking) in the presence of 20 vol % n-dodecane. In contrast, control experiments performed using PGMA-PHPMA diblock copolymer worms indicate that these more delicate nanostructures do not survive even these mild conditions.

  5. The mitochondrial genomes of the acoelomorph worms Paratomella rubra, Isodiametra pulchra and Archaphanostoma ylvae

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Helen E.; François Lapraz; Bernhard Egger; Telford, Maximilian J.; Schiffer, Philipp H.

    2017-01-01

    Acoels are small, ubiquitous - but understudied - marine worms with a very simple body plan. Their internal phylogeny is still not fully resolved, and the position of their proposed phylum Xenacoelomorpha remains debated. Here we describe mitochondrial genome sequences from the acoels Paratomella rubra and Isodiametra pulchra, and the complete mitochondrial genome of the acoel Archaphanostoma ylvae. The P. rubra and A. ylvae sequences are typical for metazoans in size and gene content. The la...

  6. Daily feeding of fresh Neem leaves (Azadirachta indica) for worm control in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrawathani, P; Chang, K W; Nurulaini, R; Waller, P J; Adnan, M; Zaini, C M; Jamnah, O; Khadijah, S; Vincent, N

    2006-06-01

    This study was Conducted To Evaluate The Anthelmintic Effect Of Neem (azadirachta Indica) On Nematode Parasites Of Sheep. Twelve Santa Ines Cross Bred Sheep From A Government Farm were randomly selected and equally divided into control (n = 6) and treated groups (n =6). Faecal egg counts (FEC) using the modified McMaster technique and the FAMACHA score for assessing clinical anaemia were carried out daily and recorded for 6 weeks. At the end of the study all the animals were slaughtered and the total worm count (TWC) was done. The results of FEC showed that there was no significant difference between the control and treated group (p = 0.081). However, worm burden estimations showed that the number of parasites was significantly higher in the control group compared to the treated group (p < 0.05). This result indicated that feeding Neem had an effect on worm numbers in sheep, but was not reflected in their faecal egg counts. Further work is needed to reconfirm the effect of Neem on helminth infections of sheep.

  7. Effects of Schistosoma mansoni worms and eggs on circulating cholesterol and liver lipids in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ronald G; Jackson, Christopher L; Griffiths, Keith; Doenhoff, Michael J

    2009-11-01

    It has previously been shown that experimental infections of the parasitic trematode Schistosoma mansoni, the adult worms of which reside in the blood stream of the mammalian host, significantly reduced atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E gene knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice. These effects occurred in tandem with a lowering of serum total cholesterol levels in both apoE(-/-) and random-bred laboratory mice and a beneficial increase in the proportion of HDL to LDL cholesterol. To better understand how the parasitic infections induce these effects we have here investigated the involvement of adult worms and their eggs on lipids in the host. Our results indicate that the serum cholesterol-lowering effect is mediated by factors released from S. mansoni eggs, while the presence of adult worms seemed to have had little or no effect. It was also observed that high levels of lipids, particularly triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters, present in the uninfected livers of both random-bred and apoE(-/-)mice fed a high-fat diet were not present in livers of the schistosome-infected mice.

  8. Packet Payload Monitoring for Internet Worm Content Detection Using Deterministic Finite Automaton with Delayed Dictionary Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Selvaraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Packet content scanning is one of the crucial threats to network security and network monitoring applications. In monitoring applications, payload of packets in a network is matched against the set of patterns in order to detect attacks like worms, viruses, and protocol definitions. During network transfer, incoming and outgoing packets are monitored in depth to inspect the packet payload. In this paper, the regular expressions that are basically string patterns are analyzed for packet payloads in detecting worms. Then the grouping scheme for regular expression matching is rewritten using Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA. DFA achieves better processing speed during regular expression matching. DFA requires more memory space for each state. In order to reduce memory utilization, decompression technique is used. Delayed Dictionary Compression (DDC is applied for achieving better speeds in the communication links. DDC achieves decoding latency during compression of payload packets in the network. Experimental results show that the proposed approach provides better time consumption and memory utilization during detection of Internet worm attacks.

  9. Edible peanut worm ( Sipunculus nudus) in the Beibu Gulf: Resource, aquaculture, ecological impact and counterplan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junwei; Xie, Xiaoyong; Zhu, Changbo; Guo, Yongjian; Chen, Suwen

    2017-10-01

    Sipunculus nudus is an important economic species because of its high nutritional and medicinal values. The exploitation and utilization of S. nudus primarily occur in the coastal regions of the Beibu Gulf. However, wild resource of S. nudus is rapidly decreasing because of the overexploitation, which has led to considerable developments of artificial breeding techniques. The cultivation scale of S. nudus has increased in response to successful artificial breeding; however, methods for culturing S. nudus in tidal flats or ponds require further study. Most studies have focused on the breeding, nutrition, medical value and ecological impact of these worms. Studies on the distribution, sediment requirements, nutrition characteristics, breeding techniques and aquaculture ecology of this species are summarized in this paper to promote the development of the aquaculture industry for S. nudus. The high biomass of S. nudus in the Beibu Gulf is positively correlated with the sediment characteristics and water quality of the region. The production of peanut worm has improved to some extent through culturing; however, the nutrient value and ecological environment problems have been observed, which reflect the over exploitation of trace elements and the sediment. These problems will worsen unless they are resolved, and the release of organic materials, nitrogen and phosphorus during harvesting impacts the coastal environment. Moreover, genetic erosion is a potential risk for larvae in artificial breeding programs in tidal flats. Therefore, culturing and collecting methods should be improved and the wild resource conservation should be implemented to promote the sustainable development of the peanut worm.

  10. Investigation on application of synthetic nutrients for augmenting worm growth rate in vermicomposting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanimani Thiruganasambadam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out to scan the influence of synthetic nutrients on Vermicomposting. A mixture of six nutrients (Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Copper, Molybdenum and Boron was introduced to augment the growth of worms (Lumbricus rubellus and to ensure the higher digestion rate of the pre-composted bio-degradable organic waste. Initially green waste was collected from the local vegetable market and pre-composted for about three weeks. Then the pre-composted waste was placed in two identical glass vermireactors. Each reactor was loaded with equal volume of waste (0.024 m³ and worms (40 gm. The pre-composted waste was vermicomposted for a period of 21 days by applying nutrients in one reactor and the other was kept as control (without nutrient. The nutrients were applied in liquid form while moistening the reactor beds and the characteristics of the pre-composted waste, vermicasts and vermi growth rate were studied. Results revealed that the reactor added by nutrients performed better by achieving 41.34% higher waste volume reduction and 42% increase in the worm growth rate.

  11. INVESTIGATION ON APPLICATION OF SYNTHETIC NUTRIENTS FOR AUGMENTING WORM GROWTH RATE IN VERMICOMPOSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthilkumar Palaniappan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out to scan the influence of synthetic nutrients on Vermicomposting. A mixture of six nutrients (Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Copper, Molybdenum and Boron was introduced to augment the growth of worms (Lumbricus rubellus and to ensure the higher digestion rate of the pre-composted bio-degradable organic waste. Initially green waste was collected from the local vegetable market and pre-composted for about three weeks. Then the pre-composted waste was placed in two identical glass vermireactors. Each reactor was loaded with equal volume of waste (0.024 m³ and worms (40 gm. The pre-composted waste was vermicomposted for a period of 21 days by applying nutrients in one reactor and the other was kept as control (without nutrient. The nutrients were applied in liquid form while moistening the reactor beds and the characteristics of the pre-composted waste, vermicasts and vermi growth rate were studied. Results revealed that the reactor added by nutrients performed better by achieving 41.34% higher waste volume reduction and 42% increase in the worm growth rate.

  12. Anisakis simplex: from obscure infectious worm to inducer of immune hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audicana, M Teresa; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2008-04-01

    Infection of humans with the nematode worm parasite Anisakis simplex was first described in the 1960s in association with the consumption of raw or undercooked fish. During the 1990s it was realized that even the ingestion of dead worms in food fish can cause severe hypersensitivity reactions, that these may be more prevalent than infection itself, and that this outcome could be associated with food preparations previously considered safe. Not only may allergic symptoms arise from infection by the parasites ("gastroallergic anisakiasis"), but true anaphylactic reactions can also occur following exposure to allergens from dead worms by food-borne, airborne, or skin contact routes. This review discusses A. simplex pathogenesis in humans, covering immune hypersensitivity reactions both in the context of a living infection and in terms of exposure to its allergens by other routes. Over the last 20 years, several studies have concentrated on A. simplex antigen characterization and innate as well as adaptive immune response to this parasite. Molecular characterization of Anisakis allergens and isolation of their encoding cDNAs is now an active field of research that should provide improved diagnostic tools in addition to tools with which to enhance our understanding of pathogenesis and controversial aspects of A. simplex allergy. We also discuss the potential relevance of parasite products such as allergens, proteinases, and proteinase inhibitors and the activation of basophils, eosinophils, and mast cells in the induction of A. simplex-related immune hypersensitivity states induced by exposure to the parasite, dead or alive.

  13. Infeksi Cacing pada Ular Kobra (Naja sputatrix di Bali (WORM INFECTION ON SPITTING COBRA SNAKE (Naja Sputatrix IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Sismami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been done the survey for study about worm infection on spitting cobra snake (Naja sputatrix inBali. There were 15 fecal samples from wild spitting cobra snake in Bali. The examination was usingconcentration cediment method. The result of examination showed that from all 15 fecal samples containedthe worm egg. From the result it could be conclude that the prevalent worm infection on spitting cobrasnake in Bali is capability 100% . From this study it means that infectioned could be happen more than 1(multiple infection on 1 splitting cobra snake. The kind and prevalent of worm infected snake wereRhabdias sp (60,03%, Strongyloides sp (60,03%, Oxyuris sp (53,3%, Kalicephalus spp (20,01%, danCapilaria sp (6,67%. For enrich the information of another kind of parasitic infection should be done theresearch with variable and more collected samples.

  14. Mercury and methylmercury bioaccumulation by polychaete worms is governed by both feeding ecology and mercury bioavailability in coastal mudflats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizmur, Tom; Canário, João; Gerwing, Travis G; Mallory, Mark L; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

    2013-05-01

    Polychaete worms are abundant in many mudflats but their importance to coastal food web Hg biomagnification is not known. We sampled sediments and polychaete worms from mudflats in the Bay of Fundy to investigate the bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in the coastal invertebrate food web. Hg concentrations in the sediments were low (worms. Worms feeding on deeper sediments contained the greatest MeHg concentrations (69.6 μg kg(-1)). Polychaetes are an important vector for Hg biomagnification to the coastal avian food web. This research demonstrates that feeding depth and method of feeding are more important than trophic position or sediment Hg concentrations for predicting Hg bioaccumulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Laurel: Effects of natural and anthropogenic disturbance on polychaete worm tubes and age-0 flatfish distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a field experiment that examined how juvenile flatfish distribution changed with worm tube heterogeneity, i.e. density and patchiness.

  16. The costs and cost-effectiveness of mass treatment for intestinal nematode worm infections using different treatment thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is estimated that almost a half of all of people living in developing countries today are infected with roundworms, hookworms, or whipworms or combinations of these types of intestinal nematode worms. They can all be treated using safe, effective, and inexpensive single-dose generic drugs costing as little as USD 0.03 per person treated when bought in bulk. The disease caused by intestinal nematodes is strongly related to the number of worms in the gut, and it is typical to find that worms tend to be aggregated or clumped in their distribution so that 80% of all worms. This clumping of worms is greatest when the prevalence is low. When the prevalence rises above 50%, the mean worm burden increases exponentially, worms are less clumped, and more people are likely to have moderate to heavy infections and may be diseased. Children are most at risk. For these reasons, the World Health Organization (WHO currently recommends mass treatment of children > or =1 year old without prior diagnosis when the prevalence is > or =20% and treatment twice a year when the prevalence is > or =50%. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The risk of moderate to heavy infections with intestinal nematodes was estimated by applying the negative binomial probability distribution, then the drug cost of treating diseased individuals was calculated based on different threshold numbers of worms. Based on this cost analysis, a new three-tier treatment regime is proposed: if the combined prevalence is >40%, treat all children once a year; >60% treat twice a year; and >80% treat three times a year. Using average data on drug and delivery costs of USD 0.15 to treat a school-age child and USD 0.25 to treat a pre-school child (with provisos the cost of treating children aged 2-14 years was calculated for 105 low- and low-middle-income countries and for constituent regions of India and China based on estimates of the combined prevalence of intestinal nematode worms therein. The

  17. Stage 2 Report for Reformulation Phase I General Design Memorandum, Cleveland Harbor, Ohio. Volume II. Appendices. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    conditions inside the Lakefront Harbor with the spur breakwaters removed. 4. Ray then presented a slide show illustrating the evolution of the pro- posed...Asehelminthes Class Nematoda Alaimus sp. Dorylaimus sp. Mesodorylaimus sp. Phylum Annelida Class Polychaeta Manayunkia speciosa Class Oligochaeta. Aulodrilus

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 10, No 5 (2016), Correlation between some environmental variables and abundance of Almophrya mediovacuolata (Ciliophora: Anoplophryidae) endocommensal ciliate of an anecic earthworms (Oligochaeta: Annelida) in Bambui (North-West Cameroon), Abstract PDF. Z. Fokam, PA Nana, G. Bricheux, B Vigues, ...

  19. Distribution et structure des communautés de vers de terre et leur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fetica (Oligochaeta: Annelida), using neutral-red retention assay. Environ. Tox. Chem.,. 19: 1774-1780. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.562019071. 0. Singh A, Rajesh KS, Madhoolika A, Fiona. MM. 2010. Health risk assessment of heavy metals via dietary intake of foodstuffs from the wastewater irrigated site of a dry ...

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation between some environmental variables and abundance of Almophrya mediovacuolata (Ciliophora: Anoplophryidae) endocommensal ciliate of an anecic earthworms (Oligochaeta: Annelida) in Bambui (North-West Cameroon) Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  1. African Zoology - Vol 42, No 2 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaf-litter earthworm fauna (Annelida: Oligochaeta) of forests in Limpopo Province, South Africa: diversity, communities and conservation · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Johanna L. Horn, J. Danuta Plisko, Michelle L. Hamer, 172-179.

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... The leaf-litter earthworm fauna (Annelida: Oligochaeta) of forests in Limpopo Province, South Africa: diversity, communities and conservation, Abstract. Johanna L. Horn, J. Danuta Plisko, Michelle L. Hamer. Vol 28, No 2 (1993), The Leucocytozoidae of South African birds. The Coliiformes and Coraciiformes, Abstract PDF.

  3. In vitro effects of amodiaquine on paired Schistosoma mansoni adult worms at concentrations of less than 5 µg/mL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kato

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the in vitro effects of amodiaquine (AQ monotherapy on the egg output of paired adult Schistosoma mansoni worms and their survival during in vitro culture were assessed. In addition, the gross morphological alterations of male and female worms caused by AQ were visually observed under a dissecting microscope. AQ significantly reduced the daily egg output of paired adult S. mansoni worms following incubation for 14 days at 1-5 µg/mL, but not at 0.5 µg/mL, compared with the control group. AQ also reduced the survival of male and female worms at concentrations of 2 and 5 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, exposure to 5 µg/mL AQ caused severe swelling and/or localisation of black content in the body of all male and female worms within one or two days of incubation; subsequently, shrinkage in the male worms and elongation in the female worms were observed. The initial morphological alterations caused by AQ occurred along the intestinal tract of the male and female worms. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report not only the efficacy of AQ at concentrations lower than 5 µg/mL on paired adult S. mansoni worms, but also the effects of AQ on the intestinal tracts of worms in in vitro culture.

  4. Worm peptidomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Husson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides are present in all metazoan species where they orchestrate diverse functions. In the last decade, high-throughput approaches based on mass spectrometry helped the identification of endogenously occurring peptides in different species. We here review biochemical strategies to obtain sequence information of natural (non-tryptic peptides in Caenorhabditis elegans and in the related nematodes Caenorhabditis briggsae and Ascaris suum with particular attention for sample preparation and methodology. In addition, we describe seven new C. elegans neuropeptides that we recently discovered by sequencing additional peptides. Finally, we explain how differential peptidomics approaches were used to characterize key neuropeptide processing enzymes.

  5. Track-a-worm, an open-source system for quantitative assessment of C. elegans locomotory and bending behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijie Jason Wang

    Full Text Available A major challenge of neuroscience is to understand the circuit and gene bases of behavior. C. elegans is commonly used as a model system to investigate how various gene products function at specific tissue, cellular, and synaptic foci to produce complicated locomotory and bending behavior. The investigation generally requires quantitative behavioral analyses using an automated single-worm tracker, which constantly records and analyzes the position and body shape of a freely moving worm at a high magnification. Many single-worm trackers have been developed to meet lab-specific needs, but none has been widely implemented for various reasons, such as hardware difficult to assemble, and software lacking sufficient functionality, having closed source code, or using a programming language that is not broadly accessible. The lack of a versatile system convenient for wide implementation makes data comparisons difficult and compels other labs to develop new worm trackers. Here we describe Track-A-Worm, a system rich in functionality, open in source code, and easy to use. The system includes plug-and-play hardware (a stereomicroscope, a digital camera and a motorized stage, custom software written to run with Matlab in Windows 7, and a detailed user manual. Grayscale images are automatically converted to binary images followed by head identification and placement of 13 markers along a deduced spline. The software can extract and quantify a variety of parameters, including distance traveled, average speed, distance/time/speed of forward and backward locomotion, frequency and amplitude of dominant bends, overall bending activities measured as root mean square, and sum of all bends. It also plots worm travel path, bend trace, and bend frequency spectrum. All functionality is performed through graphical user interfaces and data is exported to clearly-annotated and documented Excel files. These features make Track-A-Worm a good candidate for implementation in

  6. Examination of the relationship between host worm community structure on transmission of the parasite, Myxobolus cerebralis by developing taxon-specific probes for multiplex qPCR to identify worm taxa in stream communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fytilis, N.; Lamb, R.; Kerans, B.; Stevens, L.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Fish diseases are often caused by waterborne parasites, making them ideal systems for modeling the non-linear relationships between disease dynamics, stream dwelling oligochaete communities and geochemical features. Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease in salmonid fishes, has been a major contributor to the loss of wild rainbow trout populations in numerous streams within the Intermountain West. The parasite alternates between an invertebrate and vertebrate host, being transmitted between the sediment feeding worm Tubifex tubifex (T.tubifex) and salmonid fishes. Worm community biodiversity and abundance are influenced by biogeochemical features and have been linked to disease severity in fish. The worm (T.tubifex) lives in communities with 3-4 other types of worms in stream sediments. Unfortunately, taxonomic identification of oligochaetes is largely dependent on morphological characteristics of sexually mature adults. We have collected and identified ~700 worms from eight sites using molecular genetic probes and a taxonomic key. Additionally, ~1700 worms were identified using only molecular genetic probes. To facilitate distinguishing among tubificids, we developed two multiplex molecular genetic probe-based quantitative polymerase reaction (qPCR) assays to assess tubificid communities in the study area. Similar qPCR techniques specific for M.cerebralis used to determine if individual worms were infected with the parasite. We show how simple Bayesian analysis of the qPCR data can predict the worm community structure and reveal relationships between biodiversity of host communities and host-parasite dynamics. To our knowledge, this is the first study that combines molecular data of both the host and the parasite to examine the effects of host community structure on the transmission of a parasite. Our work can be extended to examine the links between worm community structure and biogeochemical features using molecular genetics and Bayesian

  7. Proceraea exoryxae sp. nov. (Annelida, Syllidae, Autolytinae, the first known polychaete miner tunneling into the tunic of an ascidian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Martin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available While studying organisms living in association with the solitary tunicate Phallusia nigra (Ascidiacea, Ascidiidae from a shallow fringing reef at Zeytouna Beach (Egyptian Red Sea, one of the collected ascidians showed peculiar perforations on its tunic. Once dissected, the perforations revealed to be the openings of a network of galleries excavated in the inner tunic (atrium by at least six individuals of a polychaetous annelid. The worms belonged to the Autolytinae (Syllidae, a subfamily that is well known to include specialized predators and/or symbionts, mostly associated with cnidarians. The Red Sea worms are here described as Proceraea exoryxae sp. nov., which are anatomically distinguished by the combination of simple chaetae only in anterior chaetigers, and a unique trepan with 33 teeth in one outer ring where one large tooth alternates with one medium-sized tricuspid tooth, and one inner ring with small teeth located just behind the large teeth. Male and female epitokes were found together with atokous individuals within galleries. Proceraea exoryxae sp. nov. constitutes the first known miner in the Autolytinae and the second species in this taxon known to live symbiotically with ascidians. The implications of finding this specialized parasite are discussed considering that Phallusia nigra has been introduced worldwide, in tropical and sub-tropical ecosystems, where it has the potential of becoming invasive.

  8. Taxonomic description and 3D modelling of a new species of myzostomid (Annelida, Myzostomida) associated with black corals from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrana, Lucas; Eeckhaut, Igor

    2017-03-19

    Eenymeenymyzostoma nigrocorallium n. sp. is the first species of myzostomid worm associated with black corals to be described. Endoparasitic specimens of E. nigrocorallium were found associated with three species of antipatharians on the Great Reef of Toliara. Individuals inhabit the gastrovascular ducts of their hosts and evidence of infestation is, most of the time, not visible externally. Phylogenetic analyses based on 18S rDNA, 16S rDNA and COI data indicate a close relation to Eenymeenymyzostoma cirripedium, the only other species of the genus. The morphology of E. nigrocorallium is very unusual compared to that of the more conventional E. cirripedium. The new species has five pairs of extremely reduced parapodia located on the body margin and no introvert, cirri or lateral organs. Individuals are hermaphroditic, with the male and female gonads both being located dorsally in the trunk. It also has a highly developed parenchymo-muscular layer on the ventral side, and the digestive system lies in the middle part of the trunk. A three-dimensional digital model of this worm's body plan has been constructed whereby the external morphology and in toto views of the observed organ systems (nervous, digestive and reproductive) can be viewed on-screen: http://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.17911.21923.

  9. Targeted selective treatment for worm management--how do we sell rational programs to farmers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, J A; Hoste, H; Kaplan, R M; Besier, R B

    2006-07-31

    Seriously escalating global anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants has spawned a variety of alternatives to anthelmintics for worm management, based on the need for sustainable Integrated Parasite Management (sIPM). Pivotal to the sIPM approach is the concept of refugia, the proportion of a given parasite population that escapes exposure to control measures. By balancing drug applications with the maintenance of refugia, the accumulation of anthelmintic resistance alleles in worm populations can be considerably delayed, while still providing good levels of control. The over-dispersed nature of parasitic infections provides an opportunity to achieve this balance, by targeting treatments to the members of a flock or herd that are least tolerant to nematode infection. However, implementation of this strategy has only recently become feasible, with the development of the FAMACHA((c)) system for clinical evaluation of anaemia due to haemonchosis. Subsequently, the use of milk yields has proven an effective indicator in dairy goats infected predominantly with nematodes other than Haemonchus contortus. In addition, short-term weight changes and perhaps also body condition scoring may provide indices of parasitism, permitting the rapid identification of animals likely to benefit from treatment. However, sIPM and refugia-based approaches are more complex than whole-flock treatments in conventional programs, and adoption by farmers is most likely where the theoretical basis is understood. As close communication with informed advisors is generally limited, there is a danger that sIPM will remain a theoretical concept without alternative modes of communication. The development of computer-based decision support programs, which use epidemiological, seasonal and clinical information to provide recommendations for specific situations, should be accorded high priority in the future development of worm management systems.

  10. WormScan: a technique for high-throughput phenotypic analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Mathew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are four main phenotypes that are assessed in whole organism studies of Caenorhabditis elegans; mortality, movement, fecundity and size. Procedures have been developed that focus on the digital analysis of some, but not all of these phenotypes and may be limited by expense and limited throughput. We have developed WormScan, an automated image acquisition system that allows quantitative analysis of each of these four phenotypes on standard NGM plates seeded with E. coli. This system is very easy to implement and has the capacity to be used in high-throughput analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our system employs a readily available consumer grade flatbed scanner. The method uses light stimulus from the scanner rather than physical stimulus to induce movement. With two sequential scans it is possible to quantify the induced phototactic response. To demonstrate the utility of the method, we measured the phenotypic response of C. elegans to phosphine gas exposure. We found that stimulation of movement by the light of the scanner was equivalent to physical stimulation for the determination of mortality. WormScan also provided a quantitative assessment of health for the survivors. Habituation from light stimulation of continuous scans was similar to habituation caused by physical stimulus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There are existing systems for the automated phenotypic data collection of C. elegans. The specific advantages of our method over existing systems are high-throughput assessment of a greater range of phenotypic endpoints including determination of mortality and quantification of the mobility of survivors. Our system is also inexpensive and very easy to implement. Even though we have focused on demonstrating the usefulness of WormScan in toxicology, it can be used in a wide range of additional C. elegans studies including lifespan determination, development, pathology and behavior. Moreover, we have even adapted the

  11. Human TNF-α induces differential protein phosphorylation in Schistosoma mansoni adult male worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Katia C; Carvalho, Mariana L P; Bonatto, José Matheus C; Schechtman, Debora; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2016-02-01

    Schistosoma mansoni and its vertebrate host have a complex and intimate connection in which several molecular stimuli are exchanged and affect both organisms. Human tumor necrosis factor alpha (hTNF-α), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is known to induce large-scale gene expression changes in the parasite and to affect several parasite biological processes such as metabolism, egg laying, and worm development. Until now, the molecular mechanisms for TNF-α activity in worms are not completely understood. Here, we aimed at exploring the effect of hTNF-α on S. mansoni protein phosphorylation by 2D gel electrophoresis followed by a quantitative analysis of phosphoprotein staining and protein identification by mass spectrometry. We analyzed three biological replicates of adult male worms exposed to hTNF-α and successfully identified 32 protein spots with a statistically significant increase in phosphorylation upon in vitro exposure to hTNF-α. Among the differentially phosphorylated proteins, we found proteins involved in metabolism, such as glycolysis, galactose metabolism, urea cycle, and aldehyde metabolism, as well as proteins related to muscle contraction and to cytoskeleton remodeling. The most differentially phosphorylated protein (30-fold increase in phosphorylation) was 14-3-3, whose function is known to be modulated by phosphorylation, belonging to a signal transduction protein family that regulates a variety of processes in all eukaryotic cells. Further, 75% of the identified proteins are known in mammals to be related to TNF-α signaling, thus suggesting that TNF-α response may be conserved in the parasite. We propose that this work opens new perspectives to be explored in the study of the molecular crosstalk between host and pathogen.

  12. Epidemiology of the eye worm Thelazia callipaeda in cats from southern Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, B; Nägeli, F; Nägeli, C; Solari-Basano, F; Schiessl, B; Deplazes, P; Schnyder, M

    2014-07-14

    Thelazia callipaeda is a spiruroid nematode of dogs, cats and wild carnivores transmitted by zoophilic drosophilid Phortica flies and found in an increasing number of European countries. In cats the disease is diagnosed sporadically. This study presents an epidemiological investigation of feline thelaziosis, performed in southern Ticino, Switzerland, an endemic area for T. callipaeda. Between January 2009 and July 2011 2171 cats, having outdoor access and presenting for various reasons, were examined by in-depth eye examinations, and clinical and anamnestic data were collected. The overall prevalence of T. callipaeda in the study area was 0.8% (17/2171 cats, 95% confidence interval: 0.5-1.3%). Among cats showing ocular illness, the prevalence was 9.2% (11/120, CI: 4.7-15.8%). Cats with eye worms had no international travel history and were significantly more often diagnosed between June and December than during other months. With one exception, one single eye per cat was infested, each harboring between 1 and 10 eye worms (arithmetic mean: 2.8 per cat). One cat presented with conjunctivitis and ulcers, seven with conjunctivitis only and 3 with a mildly increased lacrimation, while 6 cats were asymptomatic. Significantly more male than female cats had eye worms and cats older than one year were overrepresented. No pure-bred cats were infested. This study confirms the establishment of this potentially zoonotic parasite in cats from the study area. Due to the clinical relevance and pain caused by the infestations, increased disease awareness and in depth eye examination for the detection of T. callipaeda in cats are recommended, even in absence of obvious clinical signs, in order to initiate appropriate anthelmintic treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Extracts of Ascaris suum egg and adult worm share similar immunosuppressive properties

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    Souza V.M.O.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult Ascaris suum body extract (Asc prepared from male and female worms (with stored eggs down-regulates the specific immune response of DBA/2 mice to ovalbumin (OA and preferentially stimulates a Th2 response to its own components, which is responsible for the suppression of the OA-specific Th1 response. Here, we investigated the participation of soluble extracts prepared from male or female worms or from eggs (E-Asc in these immunological events. Extracts from either sex (1 mg/animal or E-Asc (0.35 or 1 mg protein/animal suppressed the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH reaction (60-85%, proliferative response (50-70%, IL-2 and IFN-gamma secretion (below detection threshold and IgG1 antibody production (70-90% of DBA/2 mice to OA. A dose of 0.1 mg E-Asc/animal did not change DTH or proliferation, but was as effective as 0.35 mg in suppressing IL-2 and IFN-gamma, and OA-specific IgG1 antibodies. Lymph node cells from DBA/2 mice injected with Asc (1 mg/animal or a high dose of E-Asc (1 mg protein/animal secreted IL-4 upon in vitro stimulation with concanavalin A. As previously demonstrated for Asc, the cytokine profile obtained with the E-Asc was dose dependent and changed towards Th1 when a low dose (0.1 mg protein/animal was used. Taken together, these results suggest that adult worms of either sex and eggs induce the same type of T cell response and share similar immunosuppressive properties.

  14. Animal-sediment interactions: the effect of ingestion and excretion by worms on mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, S. J.; Worden, R. H.; McIlroy, D.

    2004-09-01

    By controlled experiments that simulate marine depositional environments, it is shown that accelerated weathering and clay mineral authigenesis occur during the combined process of ingestion, digestion and excretion of fine-grained sediment by two species of annelid worms. Previously characterized synthetic mud was created using finely ground, low-grade metamorphic slate (temperature approximately 300°C) containing highly crystalline chlorite and muscovite. This was added to experiment and control tanks along with clean, wind-blown sand. Faecal casts were collected at regular intervals from the experimental tanks and, less frequently, from the control tanks. Over a period of many months the synthetic mud (slate) proved to be unchanged in the control tanks, but was significantly different in faecal casts from the experimental tanks that contained the worms Arenicola marina and Lumbricus terrestris. Chlorite was preferentially destroyed during digestion in the gut of A. marina. Both chlorite and muscovite underwent XRD peak broadening with a skew developing towards higher lattice spacing, characteristic of smectite formation. A neoformed Fe-Mg-rich clay mineral (possibly berthierine) and as-yet undefined clay minerals with very high d-spacing were detected in both A. marina and L. terrestris cast samples. We postulate that a combination of the low pH and bacteria-rich microenvironment in the guts of annelid worms may radically accelerate mineral dissolution and clay mineral precipitation processes during digestion. These results show that macrobiotic activity significantly accelerates weathering and mineral degradation as well as mineral authigenesis. The combined processes of sediment ingestion and digestion thus lead to early diagenetic growth of clay minerals in clastic sediments.

  15. The effects of chronic radiation on reproductive success of the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, F.L.; Anderson, S.L.

    1988-12-01

    The effects of lifetime exposure to chronic irradiation on reproductive success were assessed for laboratory populations of the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata. Lifetime exposure was initiated upon the spawning of the P1 female and was terminated upon spawning of the F1 female. Groups of experimental worms received either no radiation (controls) or 0.19, 2.1, or 17 mGy/h. The total dose received by the worms was either background or approximately 0.55, 6.5, or 54 Gy, respectively. The broods from the F1 mated pairs were sacrificed before hatching occurred, and information was obtained on brood size, on the number of normal and abnormal embryos, and on the number of embryos that were living, dying, and dead. The mean number of embryos in the broods from the F1 females exposed to lifetime radiation of 0.19 and 2.1 mGy/h was not significantly different from the mean number of embryos from control females; however, the mean number of embryos was different from those F1 females exposed to 17 mGy/h. There was a significant reduction in the number of live embryos in the broods from the F1 mated pairs that were exposed to the lowest dose rate given, 0.19 mGy/h, as well as those exposed to 2.1 and 17 mGy/h. Also, increased percentages of abnormal embryos were determined in the broods of all the radiation-exposed groups. 39 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Anisakis simplex: from Obscure Infectious Worm to Inducer of Immune Hypersensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audicana, M. Teresa; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Infection of humans with the nematode worm parasite Anisakis simplex was first described in the 1960s in association with the consumption of raw or undercooked fish. During the 1990s it was realized that even the ingestion of dead worms in food fish can cause severe hypersensitivity reactions, that these may be more prevalent than infection itself, and that this outcome could be associated with food preparations previously considered safe. Not only may allergic symptoms arise from infection by the parasites (“gastroallergic anisakiasis”), but true anaphylactic reactions can also occur following exposure to allergens from dead worms by food-borne, airborne, or skin contact routes. This review discusses A. simplex pathogenesis in humans, covering immune hypersensitivity reactions both in the context of a living infection and in terms of exposure to its allergens by other routes. Over the last 20 years, several studies have concentrated on A. simplex antigen characterization and innate as well as adaptive immune response to this parasite. Molecular characterization of Anisakis allergens and isolation of their encoding cDNAs is now an active field of research that should provide improved diagnostic tools in addition to tools with which to enhance our understanding of pathogenesis and controversial aspects of A. simplex allergy. We also discuss the potential relevance of parasite products such as allergens, proteinases, and proteinase inhibitors and the activation of basophils, eosinophils, and mast cells in the induction of A. simplex-related immune hypersensitivity states induced by exposure to the parasite, dead or alive. PMID:18400801

  17. Cluster algorithms for frustrated two-dimensional Ising antiferromagnets via dual worm constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakala, Geet; Damle, Kedar

    2017-08-01

    We report on the development of two dual worm constructions that lead to cluster algorithms for efficient and ergodic Monte Carlo simulations of frustrated Ising models with arbitrary two-spin interactions that extend up to third-neighbors on the triangular lattice. One of these algorithms generalizes readily to other frustrated systems, such as Ising antiferromagnets on the Kagome lattice with further neighbor couplings. We characterize the performance of both these algorithms in a challenging regime with power-law correlations at finite wave vector.

  18. A simple method to count total faecal Capillaria worm eggs in racing pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullion, Francis

    2013-10-18

    Capillaria columbae and C. longicollis are fine threadworms found in racing pigeons' small intestines that produce a characteristic lemon shaped bipolar egg. Clinically, capillariasis in racing pigeons can present as severe illness and it has been suggested that worms may affect race performance. A major aim of this study was to validate a cheap, simple to perform flotation technique for counting Capillaria worm eggs in racing pigeon droppings. Trials using reference samples of pigeon droppings laced with 348, 275 and 129 Capillaria eggs per gram, found a typical flotation method based on the modified Wisconsin technique to be inaccurate at counting worm eggs. The main sources of error were due to the loss of eggs in the faecal discard and insufficient flotation time. A new technique, using 0.15 g sample size and 8h flotation time resulted in significantly improved test accuracy. On average the new technique recovered 93% of eggs from reference samples with 129-348 epg concentration, recovering 197 times more eggs than the modified Wisconsin technique. Typical percentage error, as a measure of absolute reliablility, was 10% for the new technique and 50% for the modified Wisconsin technique. The regression line on a test-retest series of samples over a range of egg counts from 0 to 573 epg had a gradient of 0.96 (y=0.96x+6.28; r(2)=0.8408) for the new technique and 0.54 (y=0.54x+0.06; r(2)=0.4249) for the modified Wisconsin technique. The Pearson product moment correlations of the new technique and the modified Wisconsin technique were 0.92 and 0.65 respectively. As measures of relative reliability both the gradient of the regression line and the Pearson product moment correlation further suggested better repeatability of the new technique. It was concluded that the new technique would be an appropriate quantitative method of assessing worm egg burdens in racing pigeons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. First record of the sipunculan worm Phascolion (Phascolion caupo Hendrix, 1975 in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. FERRERO-VICENTE

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of the sipunculan worm Phascolion (Phascolion caupo Hendrix, 1975 have been collected for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea, thus increasing the number of known sipunculan species of up to 36 in this area. They were encountered on soft bottoms from the coast of San Pedro del Pinatar (Western Mediterranean. Thirty specimens were collected at a depth ranging from 32.6 to 37.2 m, mainly in sandy substrata with high load of silt and clays. 80% of the individuals were found inhabiting empty shells of gastropods or empty tubes of serpulid polychaetes.

  20. Cluster algorithms for frustrated two-dimensional Ising antiferromagnets via dual worm constructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakala, Geet; Damle, Kedar

    2017-08-01

    We report on the development of two dual worm constructions that lead to cluster algorithms for efficient and ergodic Monte Carlo simulations of frustrated Ising models with arbitrary two-spin interactions that extend up to third-neighbors on the triangular lattice. One of these algorithms generalizes readily to other frustrated systems, such as Ising antiferromagnets on the Kagome lattice with further neighbor couplings. We characterize the performance of both these algorithms in a challenging regime with power-law correlations at finite wave vector.

  1. The worm endosymbionts in tabulate corals from the Silurian of Podolia, Ukraine

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    Mõtus, Mari-Ann

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Two endosymbionts, Chaetosalpinx sibiriensis and Coralloconchus bragensis, occur in Silurian tabulate corals of Podolia. The endosymbiotic worms responsible for C. sibiriensis bioclaustrations in tabulates are found only in certain species: Paleofavosites cf. collatatus, Heliolites sp. A, Heliolites sp. B, Heliolites sp. C, Favosites gothlandicus, Favosites sp. A. One to six C. sibiriensis-infested tabulate species are known from Late Homerian to Ludfordian, in the reef-related community. Chaetosalpinx sibiriensis preferred certain tabulate species over the others, but showed no preference for the favositid or heliolitid type of morphology.

  2. Effect of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf extract on resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and Schistosoma mansoni worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quelemes, Patrick V; Perfeito, Márcia L G; Guimarães, Maria A; dos Santos, Raimunda C; Lima, David F; Nascimento, Carlos; Silva, Marcos P N; Soares, Maria José dos S; Ropke, Cristina D; Eaton, Peter; de Moraes, Josué; Leite, José Roberto S A

    2015-12-04

    There are ethnopharmacological reports supporting the use of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf against bacterial and worm infections. However there is a lack of studies about its effect on bacterial biofilm formation and Schistosoma mansoni worms. This study reports the in vitro effects of neem leaf ethanolic extract (Neem EE) on Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilm and planktonic aggregation formation, and against S. mansoni worms. Quantification of the Azadirachtin (AZA), thought to be one of their main compounds related to biological effects, was performed. The effect of sub-inhibitory concentrations of Neem EE on biofilm formation and planktonic aggregates of S. aureus was tested using the crystal violet dye method and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis, respectively. Changes in S. mansoni motor activity and death of worms were analyzed in vitro after exposition to the extract. Treated schistosomes were also examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy. It was observed the presence of AZA in the extract (0.14 ± 0.02 mg/L). Testing Neem EE sub-inhibitory concentrations, a significant biofilm adherence inhibition from 62.5 µg/mL for a sensitive S. aureus and 125 µg/mL for two MRSA strains was observed. AFM images revealed that as the Neem EE concentration increases (from 250 to 1000 µg/mL) decreased ability of a chosen MRSA strain to form large aggregates. In relation of anti-schistosoma assay, the extract caused 100% mortality of female worms at a concentration of 50 µg/mL at 72 h of incubation, while 300 µg/mL at 24h of incubation was required to achieve 100% mortality of male worms. The extract also caused significant motor activity reduction in S. mansoni. For instance, at 96 h of incubation with 100 µg/mL, 80% of the worms presented significant motor activity reduction. By the confocal microscopy analysis, the dorsal surface of the tegument of worms exposed to 300 µg/mL (male) and 100 µg/mL (female) of the extract

  3. Petri Net and Probabilistic Model Checking Based Approach for the Modelling, Simulation and Verification of Internet Worm Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaq, Misbah; Ahmad, Jamil

    2015-01-01

    Internet worms are analogous to biological viruses since they can infect a host and have the ability to propagate through a chosen medium. To prevent the spread of a worm or to grasp how to regulate a prevailing worm, compartmental models are commonly used as a means to examine and understand the patterns and mechanisms of a worm spread. However, one of the greatest challenge is to produce methods to verify and validate the behavioural properties of a compartmental model. This is why in this study we suggest a framework based on Petri Nets and Model Checking through which we can meticulously examine and validate these models. We investigate Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model and propose a new model Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered-Delayed-Quarantined (Susceptible/Recovered) (SEIDQR(S/I)) along with hybrid quarantine strategy, which is then constructed and analysed using Stochastic Petri Nets and Continuous Time Markov Chain. The analysis shows that the hybrid quarantine strategy is extremely effective in reducing the risk of propagating the worm. Through Model Checking, we gained insight into the functionality of compartmental models. Model Checking results validate simulation ones well, which fully support the proposed framework.

  4. Contribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and their subfractions to the sludge aggregation in membrane bioreactor coupled with worm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Tian, Yu; Ding, Yi; Wang, Haoyu; Chen, Lin

    2013-09-01

    This study focused on the effect of predated sludge recycle on the contribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) and their subfractions to sludge aggregation in combined MBR system. It was observed that aggregation abilities of sludge samples were decreased by worm predation. Furthermore, worm predation enhanced the energy barriers and weakened the secondary energy minimum in the interaction energy profiles of slime, loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS). Further investigations demonstrated that the content decrease and structural change of different EPS fractions induced by worm predation may be the reason for the decreased aggregation of sludge. Concomitantly, the adsorption tests and atomic force microscopy observation confirmed that the worm predation decreased the adsorption of slime, LB-EPS and TB-EPS on membrane. This would indicate the worm predation could keep an optimum EPS level for which floc structure was maintained and the fouling propensity of mixed liquid was reduced. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Approach to the resistance of exportation tebo worms when irradiated with gamma ray through a quarantine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva R, Samy; Zarate S, Herman; Aguirre H, Paulina [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)], e-mail: hzarate@cchen.cl, e-mail: paguirre@cchen.cl, e-mail: ssilva@cchen.cl; Aburto, Patricio [Expo Agro (Chile)], e-mail: expoag@expoag.cl

    2009-07-01

    The tebo worms or butterworms (Chilecomadia moorei) are widely used in Chile in fishing, and so are in the international markets although there are some countries, that use these species, to a less extent for preparing food reptiles. Some foreign countries requirements demand, from the exporters, to carry out quarantine treatments related to the sterilization by ionizing energy, however customers need to make sure about their products safety and that is why it is compulsory to establish limits in connection with worms' irradiation resistance. The irradiation effect on a worms sample using doses of 0.3; 0.45; 0.6 and 0.9 kGy was studied macroscopically, after 1 hour, and then 30, 60 and 90 days after the treatment. One of the equipment utilized had a Cobalt 60 source, where as the other one had Cesium 137 irradiators, with a dose rate of 42.7 Gy minute (min){sup -1} and 37.1 Gy min{sup -1}, respectively. The results concluded that tebo worms can resist more than 3 times the doses suggested by the meta countries without reducing the population drastically, nevertheless it is required to increase the number of worms to be analyzed in order to validate the findings. (author)

  6. The effects of worms, clay and biochar on CO2 emissions during production and soil application of co-composts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthod, Justine; Rumpel, Cornélia; Paradelo, Remigio; Dignac, Marie-France

    2016-12-01

    In this study we evaluated CO2 emissions during composting of green wastes with clay and/or biochar in the presence and absence of worms (species of the genus Eisenia), as well as the effect of those amendments on carbon mineralization after application to soil. We added two different doses of clay, biochar or their mixture to pre-composted green wastes and monitored carbon mineralization over 21 days in the absence or presence of worms. The resulting co-composts and vermicomposts were then added to a loamy Cambisol and the CO2 emissions were monitored over 30 days in a laboratory incubation. Our results indicated that the addition of clay or clay/biochar mixture reduced carbon mineralization during co-composting without worms by up to 44 %. In the presence of worms, CO2 emissions during composting increased for all treatments except for the low clay dose. The effect of the amendments on carbon mineralization after addition to soil was small in the short term. Overall, composts increased OM mineralization, whereas vermicomposts had no effect. The presence of biochar reduced OM mineralization in soil with respect to compost and vermicompost without additives, whereas clay reduced mineralization only in the composts. Our study indicates a significant role of the conditions of composting on mineralization in soil. Therefore, the production of a low CO2 emission amendment requires optimization of feedstocks, co-composting agents and worm species.

  7. Clot Formation in the Sipunculid Worm Themiste petricola: A Haemostatic and Immune Cellular Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Lombardo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Clot formation in the sipunculid Themiste petricola, a coelomate nonsegmented marine worm without a circulatory system, is a cellular response that creates a haemostatic mass upon activation with sea water. The mass with sealing properties is brought about by homotypic aggregation of granular leukocytes present in the coelomic fluid that undergo a rapid process of fusion and cell death forming a homogenous clot or mass. The clot structure appears to be stabilized by abundant F-actin that creates a fibrous scaffold retaining cell-derived components. Since preservation of fluid within the coelom is vital for the worm, clotting contributes to rapidly seal the body wall and entrap pathogens upon injury, creating a matrix where wound healing can take place in a second stage. During formation of the clot, microbes or small particles are entrapped. Phagocytosis of self and non-self particles shed from the clot occurs at the clot neighbourhood, demonstrating that clotting is the initial phase of a well-orchestrated dual haemostatic and immune cellular response.

  8. An externally brooding acorn worm (Hemichordata, Enteropneusta, Torquaratoridae) from the Russian arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Karen J; Gebruk, Andrey V; Rogacheva, Antonina; Holland, Nicholas D

    2013-10-01

    A single specimen of a previously undescribed acorn worm in the family Torquaratoridae was trawled from a bottom depth of about 350 m in the Kara Sea (Russian Arctic). The new species is the shallowest of the exclusively deep-sea torquaratorids found to date, possibly an example of high-latitude emergence. On the basis of ribosomal DNA sequences and morphology, the worm is described here as the holotype of Coleodesmium karaensis n. gen., n. sp. It is most similar in overall body shape to the previously described enteropneust genus Allapasus, but is uniquely characterized by a tubular component of the proboscis skeleton ensheathing the collar nerve cord. Additionally, within the proboscis, the sparseness of the musculature of C. karaensis clearly distinguishes it from the much more muscular members of Allapasus. The holotype is a female bearing about a dozen embryos on the surface of her pharyngeal region, each recessed within a shallow depression in the dorsal epidermis. The embryos, ranging from late gastrula to an early stage of coelom formation, are a little more than 1 mm in diameter and surrounded by a thin membrane. Each embryo comprises an external ectoderm of monociliated cells (not arranged in obvious ciliated bands) and an internal endo-mesoderm; the blastopore is closed. In the most advanced embryos, the anterior coelom is starting to constrict off from the archenteron. Coleodesmium karaensis is the first enteropneust (and indeed the first hemichordate) found brooding embryos on the surface of the mother's body.

  9. Microplastic moves pollutants and additives to worms, reducing functions linked to health and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Mark Anthony; Niven, Stewart J; Galloway, Tamara S; Rowland, Steve J; Thompson, Richard C

    2013-12-02

    Inadequate products, waste management, and policy are struggling to prevent plastic waste from infiltrating ecosystems [1, 2]. Disintegration into smaller pieces means that the abundance of micrometer-sized plastic (microplastic) in habitats has increased [3] and outnumbers larger debris [2, 4]. When ingested by animals, plastic provides a feasible pathway to transfer attached pollutants and additive chemicals into their tissues [5-15]. Despite positive correlations between concentrations of ingested plastic and pollutants in tissues of animals, few, if any, controlled experiments have examined whether ingested plastic transfers pollutants and additives to animals. We exposed lugworms (Arenicola marina) to sand with 5% microplastic that was presorbed with pollutants (nonylphenol and phenanthrene) and additive chemicals (Triclosan and PBDE-47). Microplastic transferred pollutants and additive chemicals into gut tissues of lugworms, causing some biological effects, although clean sand transferred larger concentrations of pollutants into their tissues. Uptake of nonylphenol from PVC or sand reduced the ability of coelomocytes to remove pathogenic bacteria by >60%. Uptake of Triclosan from PVC diminished the ability of worms to engineer sediments and caused mortality, each by >55%, while PVC alone made worms >30% more susceptible to oxidative stress. As global microplastic contamination accelerates, our findings indicate that large concentrations of microplastic and additives can harm ecophysiological functions performed by organisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pelvic abscess from enterobius vermicularis. Report of a case with cytologic detection of eggs and worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, D K; Pathan, S K; Hira, P R; Madda, J P; Hasaniah, W F; Juma, T H

    2001-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is known to produce perianal and ischioanal abscesses and invade the peritoneal cavity via the female reproductive system, causing pelvic peritonitis. However, there are only rare case reports on the cytodiagnosis of these parasitic lesions. A 28-year-old woman was admitted with a tender left iliac fossa mass and greenish vaginal discharge. Ultrasonogram and computed tomography scan confirmed the presence of a mass lesion suggestive of a tuboovarian abscess. Cytologic examination of the pus obtained during left salpingo-oophorectomy revealed the presence of ova of E vermicularis and fragments of the adult worm in an inflammatory exudate consisting predominantly of neutrophils, eosinophils and occasional epithelioid cell granulomas. Paraffin sections of the tuboovarian mass showed necrotizing epithelioid cell granulomas, but neither ova nor any worm section was identified. Although the possibility of tuberculosis was considered histologically, Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N) stain for acid-fast bacilli was negative. Z-N staining of the smear and mycobacterial culture of the pus also did not yield positive results. E vermicularis may cause tuboovarian abscess with necrotizing epithelioid granulomas mimicking tuberculosis. Cytologic examination of the pus is helpful in the diagnosis.

  11. Bioaccumulation of isocarbophos enantiomers from laboratory-contaminated aquatic environment by tubificid worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tiantian; Diao, Jinling; Di, Shanshan; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2015-04-01

    The benthic fauna is of great importance to assess the environmental fate of contaminations in aquatic ecosystem. In this study, tubificids were exposed to both laboratory-contaminated aqueous phases and spiked sediment to study the bioaccumulation of isocarbophos (ICP). Two types of spiked sediments were used in the spiked sediment experiment. During the exposure period, an enantioselective bioaccumulation was found in spiked water treatment, with concentrations of the (-)-ICP higher than that of the (+)-ICP, but no enantioselectivity was detected in the spiked sediment treatments. However, different bioaccumulation patterns were observed in the two spiked sediment treatments. Results showed that for spiked forest field sediment (FF sediment) incubation, bioaccumulation was governed by the concentrations in soil. Whereas ICP was bioaccumulated dominantly from overlying water in spiked Chagan Lake sediment (CG sediment) test. The dissipation rates were proved different in the two sediments and ICP dissipated much faster in CG sediment than that in FF sediment. Significant difference in ICP's half-life was also observed between worm-present and worm-free treatments in FF sediment. The detections of concentrations in overlying water indicated that much more ICP diffused to aquatic phase with the present of tubificids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermal limit for metazoan life in question: in vivo heat tolerance of the Pompeii worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaux, Juliette; Hamel, Gérard; Zbinden, Magali; Tasiemski, Aurélie A; Boutet, Isabelle; Léger, Nelly; Tanguy, Arnaud; Jollivet, Didier; Shillito, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The thermal limit for metazoan life, expected to be around 50°C, has been debated since the discovery of the Pompeii worm Alvinella pompejana, which colonizes black smoker chimney walls at deep-sea vents. While indirect evidence predicts body temperatures lower than 50°C, repeated in situ temperature measurements depict an animal thriving at temperatures of 60°C and more. This controversy was to remain as long as this species escaped in vivo investigations, due to irremediable mortalities upon non-isobaric sampling. Here we report from the first heat-exposure experiments with live A. pompejana, following isobaric sampling and subsequent transfer in a laboratory pressurized aquarium. A prolonged (2 hours) exposure in the 50-55°C range was lethal, inducing severe tissue damages, cell mortalities and triggering a heat stress response, therefore showing that Alvinella's upper thermal limit clearly is below 55°C. A comparison with hsp70 stress gene expressions of individuals analysed directly after sampling in situ confirms that Alvinella pompejana does not experience long-term exposures to temperature above 50°C in its natural environment. The thermal optimum is nevertheless beyond 42°C, which confirms that the Pompeii worm ranks among the most thermotolerant metazoans.

  13. Worms with a single functional sensory cilium generate proper neuron-specific behavioral output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senti, Gabriele; Ezcurra, Marina; Löbner, Jana; Schafer, William R; Swoboda, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Studying the development and mechanisms of sensory perception is challenging in organisms with complex neuronal networks. The worm Caenorhabditis elegans possesses a simple neuronal network of 302 neurons that includes 60 ciliated sensory neurons (CSNs) for detecting external sensory input. C. elegans is thus an excellent model in which to study sensory neuron development, function, and behavior. We have generated a genetic rescue system that allows in vivo analyses of isolated CSNs at both cellular and systemic levels. We used the RFX transcription factor DAF-19, a key regulator of ciliogenesis. Mutations in daf-19 result in the complete absence of all sensory cilia and thus of external sensory input. In daf-19 mutants, we used cell-specific rescue of DAF-19 function in selected neurons, thereby generating animals with single, fully functional CSNs. Otherwise and elsewhere these animals are completely devoid of any environmental input through cilia. We demonstrated the rescue of fully functional, single cilia using fluorescent markers, sensory behavioral assays, and calcium imaging. Our technique, functional rescue in single sensory cilia (FRISSC), can thus cell-autonomously and cell-specifically restore the function of single sensory neurons and their ability to respond to sensory input. FRISSC can be adapted to many different CSNs and thus constitutes an excellent tool for studying sensory behaviors, both in single animals and in populations of worms. FRISSC will be very useful for the molecular dissection of sensory perception in CSNs and for the analysis of the developmental aspects of ciliogenesis.

  14. Schistosoma japonicum: immunological characterization and detection of circulating polysaccharide antigens from adult worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Z L; Deelder, A M

    1983-04-01

    The antigenic constituents of a trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble fraction of adult Schistosoma japonicum were studied with immunoelectrophoresis, and compared with those of Schistosoma mansoni. Eight TCA-soluble antigens of S. japonicum were demonstrated, five of which showed immunological identity with S. mansoni antigens. Of the eight antigens, five antigens with anodic motility were found as circulating antigens in S. japonicum-infected hamster and rabbit sera; the major circulating antigen was the circulating anodic antigen (CAA). Two other antigens, with cathodic motility, including the circulating cathodic antigen (CCA), were demonstrable as circulating antigens in S. mansoni infections, but not in S. japonicum infections. Most of the circulating antigens were shown to be gut-associated. Only one antigen, line 2, which was not demonstrable as circulating antigen and which was present in the parenchyma of the worms, was found to be specific for S. japonicum. Using an ELISA for the detection of CAA in the sera of S. japonicum-infected rabbits, a lower detection level of 100 ng CAA/ml serum was achieved. Moreover, at 7-8 weeks after infection, a direct relationship between worm burden and CAA level was demonstrated.

  15. The Optimal Locomotion of a Self-Propelled Worm Actuated by Two Square Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziwang Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Worm-like locomotion at small scales induced by propagating a series of extensive or contraction waves has exhibited enormous possibilities in reproducing artificial mobile soft robotics. However, the optimal relation between locomotion performance and some important parameters, such as the distance between two adjacent waves, wave width, and body length, is still not clear. To solve this problem, this paper studies the optimal problem of a worm’s motion induced by two peristalsis waves in a viscous medium. Inspired by a worm’s motion, we consider that its body consists of two segments which can perform the respective shape change. Next, a quasi-static model describing the worm-like locomotion is used to investigate the relationship between its average velocity over the period and these parameters. Through the analysis of the relationship among these parameters, we find that there exist four different cases which should be addressed. Correspondingly, the average velocity in each case can be approximately derived. After that, optimization is carried out on each case to maximize the average velocity according to the Kuhn–Tucker Conditions. As a result, the optimal conditions of all of the cases are obtained. Finally, numerical and experimental verifications are carried out to demonstrate the correctness of the obtained results.

  16. Conditions for worm-robot locomotion in a flexible environment: theory and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, David; Sharf, Inna; Shoham, Moshe

    2012-04-01

    Biological vessels are characterized by their substantial compliance and low friction that present a major challenge for crawling robots for minimally invasive medical procedures. Quite a number of studies considered the design and construction of crawling robots; however, very few focused on the interaction between the robots and the flexible environment. In a previous study, we derived the analytical efficiency of worm locomotion as a function of the number of cells, friction coefficients, normal forces, and local (contact) tangential compliance. In this paper, we introduce the structural effects of environment compliance, generalize our previous analysis to include dynamic and static coefficients of friction, determine the conditions of locomotion as function of the external resisting forces, and experimentally validate our previous and newly obtained theoretical results. Our experimental setup consists of worm robot prototypes, flexible interfaces with known compliance and a Vicon motion capture system to measure the robot positioning. Separate experiments were conducted to measure the tangential compliance of the contact interface that is required for computing the analytical efficiency. The validation experiments were performed for both types of compliant conditions, local and structural, and the results are shown to be in clear match with the theoretical predictions. Specifically, the convergence of the tangential deflections to an arithmetic series and the partial and overall loss of locomotion verify the theoretical predictions.

  17. Growth of green catfish seed fed on sludge worm and artificial feed combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netti Aryani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research aimed to obtain information of growth and survival of green catfish (Mystus nemurus juvenile fed with sludge worm (Tubifex sp.; T and artificial diet (PB and added with the combination of 50% soybean pulp waste and 50% freshwater trash fish. Feeding was performed in several variation of time during 40 days of fish rearing. Average body length of juvenile was 12 mm and weight 2.8±0.0 mg, maintained at a density of 30 individuals/aquarium. The treatment in this research was T10PB30 (8–18 days old juvenile were fed with sludge worm and 18–48 days old fish were fed with artificial diet, T20PB20 (8–28 days old juvenile were fed with sludge worm and 28–48 days old were fed with artificial diet, T30PB10 (8–38 days old juvenile were fed with sludge worm and 38–48 days old were given artificial diet, PB40 (8–48 days old juvenile were fed artificial diet, T40 (8–48 days old juvenile were fed with sludge worm. The results indicated that the treatment of 40 days feeding with sludge worm provided the best growth and survival as daily growth rate of 16.4±28.0 g/day, the growth of the absolute length was 43.60±0.01 mm, the absolute body weight 2,047.2±35.0 mg and the survival rate was 96.44%. The best artificial feeding treatment was feeding with sludge worm for 30 days and with 10 days of artificial diet, results in daily growth rate of 4.53±0,25 mm/day, the growth of the absolute length 40.00±0.04 mm, the absolute body weight 1,447.2±15.0 mg, and the survival rate 94.44±2.60%. Keywords: artificial feed, sludge worm, growth, green catfish  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan informasi pertumbuhan dan sintasan benih ikan baung (Mystus nemurus dengan pemberian cacing sutra (Tubifex sp.; T dan pakan buatan (PB kombinasi 50% limbah ampas tahu dan 50% ikan rucah air tawar. Pakan diberikan dengan variasi lama waktu berbeda selama pemeliharaan 40 hari. Rerata panjang awal benih adalah 12 mm dan bobot

  18. Thermal limit for metazoan life in question: in vivo heat tolerance of the Pompeii worm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Ravaux

    Full Text Available The thermal limit for metazoan life, expected to be around 50°C, has been debated since the discovery of the Pompeii worm Alvinella pompejana, which colonizes black smoker chimney walls at deep-sea vents. While indirect evidence predicts body temperatures lower than 50°C, repeated in situ temperature measurements depict an animal thriving at temperatures of 60°C and more. This controversy was to remain as long as this species escaped in vivo investigations, due to irremediable mortalities upon non-isobaric sampling. Here we report from the first heat-exposure experiments with live A. pompejana, following isobaric sampling and subsequent transfer in a laboratory pressurized aquarium. A prolonged (2 hours exposure in the 50-55°C range was lethal, inducing severe tissue damages, cell mortalities and triggering a heat stress response, therefore showing that Alvinella's upper thermal limit clearly is below 55°C. A comparison with hsp70 stress gene expressions of individuals analysed directly after sampling in situ confirms that Alvinella pompejana does not experience long-term exposures to temperature above 50°C in its natural environment. The thermal optimum is nevertheless beyond 42°C, which confirms that the Pompeii worm ranks among the most thermotolerant metazoans.

  19. WormAssay: a novel computer application for whole-plate motion-based screening of macroscopic parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Marcellino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is caused by filarial nematode parasites, including Brugia malayi. Adult worms live in the lymphatic system and cause a strong immune reaction that leads to the obstruction of lymph vessels and swelling of the extremities. Chronic disease leads to the painful and disfiguring condition known as elephantiasis. Current drug therapy is effective against the microfilariae (larval stage of the parasite, but no drugs are effective against the adult worms. One of the major stumbling blocks toward developing effective macrofilaricides to kill the adult worms is the lack of a high throughput screening method for candidate drugs. Current methods utilize systems that measure one well at a time and are time consuming and often expensive. We have developed a low-cost and simple visual imaging system to automate and quantify screening entire plates based on parasite movement. This system can be applied to the study of many macroparasites as well as other macroscopic organisms.

  20. [Epidemiological investigation of Taenia saginata asiatica in Duyun, Guizhou and detection of amino acids and elements of adult worms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Bao, Huai-en; Li, Jin-fu; Lang, Shu-yuan; Qiu, Xue-li; Huang, Jiang; Wu, Yuan-ming; Zhang, Chao-yun

    2003-01-01

    To study epidemiological factors of taeniasis and to detect amino acid and element components of adult worms in Duyun of Guizhou Province. 1. Traditional methods were used for epidemiological investigation. 2. Automatic amino acid analyzer and bioassay were applied for the detection. Among 70 persons with clinical symptoms, 25 patients (24 men and 1 woman) were found to have adult taenia worms in their faeces after taking Areca catechu L. and other drugs. Sixteen amino acids and 12 elements were determined in adult worms. Duyun area in Guizhou is a highly endemic area of taeniasis. The pathogenic parasite is identified as Taenia saginata asiatica. Its clinical symptoms are similar to that of Taenia saginata saginata.