WorldWideScience

Sample records for world religion adherence

  1. Teaching World Religions without Teaching "World Religions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locklin, Reid B.; Tiemeier, Tracy; Vento, Johann M.

    2012-01-01

    Tomoko Masuzawa and a number of other contemporary scholars have recently problematized the categories of "religion" and "world religions" and, in some cases, called for its abandonment altogether as a discipline of scholarly study. In this collaborative essay, we respond to this critique by highlighting three attempts to teach…

  2. "World Religions" in Introductory Sociology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    A section on "world religions" (WRs) is now routinely included in the religion chapters of introductory sociology textbooks. Looking carefully at these WR sections, however, two things seem puzzling. The first is that the criteria for defining a WR varies considerably from textbook to textbook; the second is that these WRs sections…

  3. World Religions for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Dorothy Arnett

    This teaching and resource guide contains ideas appropriate for teaching junior and senior high school students about the following religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Shintoism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Individual sections discuss general approaches to teaching the religious philosophies and rituals, and exemplary…

  4. Religion and violence in a globalised world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Huber

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Violent religious extremism is seen as one of the mega-problems of the 21st century. This article � based on a key lecture at the conference on �Violence in a democratic South Africa� at the University of Pretoria and the David de Villiers memorial lecture at the University of Stellenbosch, both held during August 2010 � critically discussed the interaction between religion and violence in our present-day, globalised world. Three different propositions on the relationship between religion and violence were scrutinised. In countering the proposition that religion, or more specifically monotheism, necessarily leads to violence, it was argued that violence is not an inherent, but rather an acquired or even an ascribed quality of religion. The second proposition that religion leads to non-violence was affirmed to the extent that religions do provide a strong impulse to overcome violence. However, they also tend to accept violence as an inevitable part of reality and even justify the use of violence on religious grounds. The third proposition was regarded as the most convincing, for it argues that the link between religion and violence is contingent. Some situations do seem to make the use of violence inevitable; however, religions should refrain from justifying the use of violence and maintain a preferential option for nonviolence.

  5. The World Religions Paradigm Time for a Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of religions has long relied on the World Religions paradigm to guide curricula throughout education, which has led to a widening gap, on the one hand, between what is taught in schools and in universities and, on the other, between research and teaching. While the World Religions paradigm has allowed the inclusion of non-Christian…

  6. No Religion Is an Island: Teaching World Religions to Adolescents in a Jewish Educational Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    What is the place of teaching about other world religions in a Jewish educational curriculum for adolescents? This article explores a course in world religions that has been taught at the Genesis Program at Brandeis University since 2001. Based on a participant observational study during 2002 and 2012, the author traces how the teachers construct…

  7. Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2017-01-01

    In the world of Greek Comedy, the traditionally austere gods of Tragedy are lowered to fit the streets of Athens. Religion is omnipresent in comedy on many levels, and we find gods on stage, prayers and oaths performed, sacrifices narrated, festivals performed. Religion in comedy is generally...

  8. The origin of the world from science and religion perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexandru-Corneliu ARION

    2017-01-01

    The issue of the origin of the world was one of the most controversial chapters in the dispute between science and religion, for it was reduced until recently to the confrontation between two theories...

  9. World religions and their importance for travellers

    OpenAIRE

    Hrušková Reinová, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Hinduism-characterized with a variety of uniform components passing through different traditions. Of the many gods, the most important are Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. Religion is the most widespread of the Indian peninsula. Ayurveda is a traditional Indian medicine, which in essence is a balance of body and soul. Treatment is aimed at restoring the balance by living and eating habits, medication and preventive measures. Food is very diverse and aromatic. Beef is prohibited. Buddhism-the science...

  10. Religion and gender inequality: The status of women in the societies of world religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klingorová Kamila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The status of women in society is very diverse worldwide. Among many important traits associated with the differentiation of gender inequality is religion, which itself must be regarded as a fluid concept with interpretations and practices ‘embedded’ and thus varying with respect to cultural and historical relations. Admitting the complexity of the issues, some religious norms and traditions can contribute to the formation of gender inequalities and to subordinate the role of women in society. Using an exploratory quantitative analysis, the influence of religiosity on gender inequality in social, economic and political spheres is examined. Three categories of states have emerged from the analysis: (a states where the majority of inhabitants are without religious affiliation, which display the lowest levels of gender inequality; (b Christian and Buddhist societies, with average levels of gender inequality; and (c states with the highest levels of gender inequality across the observed variables, whose inhabitants adhere to Islam and Hinduism.

  11. American religion: diaspora and syncretism from Old World to New

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Khan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Nation Dance: Religion, Identity, and Cultural Difference in the Caribbean. PATRICK TAYLOR (ed.. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001. x +220 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 Translating Kali 's Feast: The Goddess in Indo-Caribbean Ritual and Fiction. STEPHANOS STEPHANIDES with KARNA SINGH. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2000. xii + 200 pp. (Paper US$ 19.00 Between Babel and Pentecost: Transnational Pentecostalism in Africa and Latin America. ANDRÉ CORTEN & RUTH MARSHALL-FRATANI (eds.. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001. 270 pp. (Paper US$ 22.95 Encyclopedia of African and African-American Religions. STEPHEN D. GLAZIER (ed.. New York: Routledge, 2001. xx + 452 pp. (Cloth US$ 125.00 As paradigms and perspectives change within and across academie disciplines, certain motifs remain at the crux of our inquiries. Evident in these four new works on African and New World African and South Asian religions are two motifs that have long defined the Caribbean: the relationship between cultural transformation and cultural continuity, and that between cultural diversity and cultural commonality. In approaching religion from such revisionist sites as poststructuralism, diaspora, hybridity, and creolization, however, the works reviewed here attempt to move toward new and more productive ways of thinking about cultures and histories in the Americas. In the process, other questions arise. Particularly, can what are essentially redirected language and methodologies in the spirit of postmodern interventions teil us more about local interpretation, experience, and agency among Caribbean, African American, and African peoples than can more traditional approaches? While it is up to individual readers to decide this for themselves, my own feeling is that it is altogether a good thing that these works still echo long-standing conundrums: the Herskovits/Frazier debate over cultural origins, the tensions of assimilation in "plural societies," and the

  12. Association of religion with delusions and hallucinations in the context of schizophrenia: implications for engagement and adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearing, Robin Edward; Alonzo, Dana; Smolak, Alex; McHugh, Katie; Harmon, Sherelle; Baldwin, Susanna

    2011-03-01

    The relationship of religion and schizophrenia is widely acknowledged, but often minimized by practitioners and under investigated by researchers. In striving to help fill this gap, this paper focuses on examining four aims: 1) how research has investigated the association between religiosity and schizophrenia; 2) how is religiosity associated with delusions and hallucinations; 3) what are the risk and protective factors associated with religiosity and schizophrenia; and 4) does religion influence treatment adherence with individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. A systematic literature search of PsycINFO and MEDLINE databases from January 1, 1980 through January 1, 2010 was conducted using the terms schizophrenia, schizoaffective, schizophreniform, psychotic disorder not otherwise specified (NOS) and religion, religiosity, spirituality, or faith. Seventy (n=70) original research studies were identified. Religion can act as both a risk and protective factor as it interacts with the schizophrenia symptoms of hallucination and delusions. Cultural influences tend to confound the association of religion and schizophrenia. Adherence to treatment has a mixed association with religiosity. The relationship between religion and schizophrenia may be of benefit to both clinicians and researchers through enhancing adherence to treatment, and enhancement of the protective aspects while minimizing associated risk. The relationship of religion and schizophrenia needs further research that is more nuanced and methodologically rigorous, specifically concerning its influence on engagement and adherence to treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The origin of the world from science and religion perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Corneliu ARION

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the origin of the world was one of the most controversial chapters in the dispute between science and religion, for it was reduced until recently to the confrontation between two theories: creationism and evolutionism, the latter claiming the scientific nature. But whether it's creationism or evolutionism, both theories disregard the presence and continuous work of God in creation. In terms of philosophical and religious point of view, creationists are rather deist because they consider God being transcendentally isolated, while evolutionists lean more towards pantheism, believing that the world exists from eternity. Unlike science, the theonomist cosmology of the Eastern Church does not launch into speculation about the origin and movement of the world, but starts from a divine gift, i.e. from biblical narration, which she does not ignore even when engaging a dialogue with the theories of scientific cosmology. The arguments of Orthodox Christian theology proof that the quantum universe was created “out of nothing” and that it’s kept in existence only by God's relationship with creation through Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit. In relation to itself, the universe is reduced to nothing, because God is in Himself, while any other created thing is dependent upon Him, into an indissoluble connection with Him. From the perspective of quantum physics, the genesis of the universe involves the image of a void space, serving as a stage for the material world.

  14. Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Ole

    2004-01-01

    En sociologisk indgang til religion, som individuel religiøsitet, som organisation af et trossamfund og som samfundsinstitution. Religion betragtes både im- og eksplicit, og som både samlende og splittende for sociale fællesskaber.......En sociologisk indgang til religion, som individuel religiøsitet, som organisation af et trossamfund og som samfundsinstitution. Religion betragtes både im- og eksplicit, og som både samlende og splittende for sociale fællesskaber....

  15. Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2017-01-01

    Article on the different ways on which religion is relevant to discussions of discrimination and the normative issues this gives rise to.......Article on the different ways on which religion is relevant to discussions of discrimination and the normative issues this gives rise to....

  16. Toward Theological Inclusivism: The Effects of a World Religions Course in a Mormon University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properzi, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Inclusivist, exclusivist, and pluralist attitudes toward other religions interact in complex ways within the Mormon faith. Hence, a course on the world's religions at LDS-sponsored Brigham Young University presents an interesting case study in this context. Through survey data and statistical analysis this article attempts to examine the effect of…

  17. Home Is My Area Code: Thinking about, Teaching, and Learning Globalization in Introductory World Religions Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeTemple, Jill

    2012-01-01

    There has been significant and growing interest in teaching religious studies, and specifically world religions, in a "global' context. Bringing globalization into the classroom as a specific theoretical and pedagogical tool, however, requires not just an awareness that religions exist in an ever-globalizing environment, but a willingness to…

  18. Teaching Justice and Teaching Justly: Reflections on Teaching World Religions at a Jesuit Liberal Arts College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Mathew N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines how the teaching of world religions at Catholic Christians institutions can contribute to teaching justice and teaching justly. The paper compares central issues engaged by History of Religions as a discipline with those addressed within the Jesuit tradition of higher education as it developed in the wake of the Second Vatican…

  19. Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2017-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Niels Reehs "Secularization Revisited. Teaching of Religion and the State of Denmark" med afsæt i de nutidige kampe om kristendom og islam og med fremhævelse af Reehs forståelse af staten/religionen som en 'survival unit'.......Anmeldelse af Niels Reehs "Secularization Revisited. Teaching of Religion and the State of Denmark" med afsæt i de nutidige kampe om kristendom og islam og med fremhævelse af Reehs forståelse af staten/religionen som en 'survival unit'....

  20. Influence of Spirituality and Religion on Adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Adult HIV/AIDS Patients in Calabar, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Agam Ebaji Ayuk; Ndifreke Udonwa; Abraham Gyuse

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of a chronic medical illness such as Human Immune Deficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) may be the time when people turn to the Sacred through spirituality and religion. HIV is a chronic illness that requires strict adherence to medication regimens that may be influenced by spirituality/religion. This study was aimed at finding the association between spirituality/religion and adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in adult HIV/AID...

  1. Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is a thematic issue of the journal Religion 47 (3) entitled Exploring Aniconism. It contains elleven research articles on the use of aniconism in different religious traditions. Table of Content 1. Aniconism: definitions, examples and comparative perspectives (Milette Gaifman, concluding...

  2. The nature and dynamics of world religions: a life-history approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumard, Nicolas; Chevallier, Coralie

    2015-11-07

    In contrast with tribal and archaic religions, world religions are characterized by a unique emphasis on extended prosociality, restricted sociosexuality, delayed gratification and the belief that these specific behaviours are sanctioned by some kind of supernatural justice. Here, we draw on recent advances in life history theory to explain this pattern of seemingly unrelated features. Life history theory examines how organisms adaptively allocate resources in the face of trade-offs between different life-goals (e.g. growth versus reproduction, exploitation versus exploration). In particular, recent studies have shown that individuals, including humans, adjust their life strategy to the environment through phenotypic plasticity: in a harsh environment, organisms tend to adopt a 'fast' strategy, pursuing smaller but more certain benefits, while in more affluent environments, organisms tend to develop a 'slow' strategy, aiming for larger but less certain benefits. Reviewing a range of recent research, we show that world religions are associated with a form of 'slow' strategy. This framework explains both the promotion of 'slow' behaviours such as altruism, self-regulation and monogamy in modern world religions, and the condemnation of 'fast' behaviours such as selfishness, conspicuous sexuality and materialism. This ecological approach also explains the diffusion pattern of world religions: why they emerged late in human history (500-300 BCE), why they are currently in decline in the most affluent societies and why they persist in some places despite this overall decline. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Histlexia Observed in Training Pre-Service Social Studies Teachers to Teach World Religions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Juan; Langan, Elise

    2016-01-01

    The process of teaching world religions is fraught with dispositional and pedagogical concerns for pre-service teachers. To address these issues, middle grades pre-service teachers were asked to integrate an inquiry-based approach while considering their own histlexia, which we define as an inability to articulate positions. The findings of this…

  4. Religion and the quest of peace and happiness in a world of nuclear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Making use of the postmodern theory that consists in redefining the political, sociocultural and religious stakes of the period related to the postwar times in view of a pluralistic and serene world, this article consists in revisiting the convictions of two big religions that are Islam and Christianity in relation to the war, to the peace ...

  5. A Comparative Study of the Punishments and related Teachingsabout adulteryin World Religions (Urdu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Abzahir Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition of peace, eradication of crimes and cleaning a society of all immoral activities is the basic and equal need of all human beings without any differentiation of any worldly and divine religions, on the basis of this need, Imam Ghazali declared “peace” is the purpose of Islamic jurisprudence. Islamic jurisprudence expects protection of faith, life, reason, race and property from humans for the humans. Protection and prevalence of theses five purposes is called peace in Islamic jurisprudence. In the religion of our world, there are two ways of acquisition of peace, eradication of crimes and protection of property, First awareness and fright of divine punishments on committing a sin or sins, Secondly, to punish the wrong doer on the basis of the nature of his/her crime in the circle of pure justice.\tThese worldly punishments have remained different in different ages and religions while in our modern world and revolted era, punishments of Islamic Jurisprudence are considered stick and against the humans rights, especially punishments relating to adultery and fornication. It is therefore, considered imperative to compare these punishment relating to adultery and fornication , we have in our Islamic jurisprudence to those of other religion in order to unearth the relating of considering Islamic punishments strict and against the human rights.

  6. Becoming Pilgrims: Engaging Theory through Practice in the Introductory World Religions Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the use of the educational pilgrimage as an active learning strategy in the introductory world religions course. As we study pilgrimages from different religious traditions throughout the semester using Victor Turner as our theoretical guide, students also plan their own campus pilgrimage, paying homage to sites that help them…

  7. USE OF DISTANCE EDUCATION BY CHRISTIAN RELIGION TO TRAIN, EDIFY AND EDUCATE ADHERENTS

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    P. SATYANARAYANA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Distance Education has been growing fast, in a marvelously diverse fashion. The efficiency, effectiveness, validity and utility of distance teaching-learning are on increase. All communities and religious groups are making use of distance learning methodology to upgrade their knowledge, skills and attitudes. Christina educational institutions in all the parts of the world are being benefitted by the Christian distance education programme. Christian websites make up more than 80 percent of the websites of the world’s five major religions. Globalisation is facilitating many Christian pioneers of multiple denominations to adopt distance teaching-learning beyond all frontiers and barriers. Baker’s guide to Christian Distance Education profiles upto 150 Christian degree programmes. Some of the popular programmes are indicated here. Christians who constitute 2.33 percent of Indian population are educationally benefitted by Christian distance education programmes. A major Christian distance education programme is offered by Andhra Christian Theological College. Its four distance courses attract students all over the country. How quality is important in distance teaching and learning is highlighted here.

  8. The operationalisation of religion and world view in surveys of nurses' attitudes toward euthanasia and assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Joris; Van den Branden, Stef; Broeckaert, Bert

    2009-11-01

    Most quantitative studies that survey nurses' attitudes toward euthanasia and/or assisted suicide, also attempt to assess the influence of religion on these attitudes. We wanted to evaluate the operationalisation of religion and world view in these surveys. In the Pubmed database we searched for relevant articles published before August 2008 using combinations of search terms. Twenty-eight relevant articles were found. In five surveys nurses were directly asked whether religious beliefs, religious practices and/or ideological convictions influenced their attitudes, or the respondents were requested to mention the decisional basis for their answers on questions concerning end-of-life issues. In other surveys the influence of religion and world view was assessed indirectly through a comparison of the attitudes of different types of believers and/or non-believers toward euthanasia or assisted suicide. In these surveys we find subjective religious or ideological questions (questions inquiring about the perceived importance of religion or world view in life, influence of religion or world view on life in general, or how religious the respondents consider themselves) and objective questions (questions inquiring about religious practice, acceptance of religious dogmas, and religious or ideological affiliation). Religious or ideological affiliation is the most frequently used operationalisation of religion and world view. In 16 surveys only one religious or ideological question was asked. In most articles the operationalisation of religion and world view is very limited and does not reflect the diversity and complexity of religion and world view in contemporary society. Future research should pay more attention to the different dimensions of religion and world view, the religious plurality of Western society and the particularities of religion in non-Western contexts.

  9. Influence of Spirituality and Religion on Adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Adult HIV/AIDS Patients in Calabar, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agam Ebaji Ayuk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of a chronic medical illness such as Human Immune Deficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS may be the time when people turn to the Sacred through spirituality and religion. HIV is a chronic illness that requires strict adherence to medication regimens that may be influenced by spirituality/religion. This study was aimed at finding the association between spirituality/religion and adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in adult HIV/AIDS patients. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of 370 patients. Adherence was measured using an adapted adult AIDS clinical trial group (AACTG and visual analogue scale (VAS tools. Spirituality was assessed using Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spirituality Expanded (FACIT-Sp-Ex scale, religiosity with Duke University Religion index (DUREL, and religious coping with Brief Religious Coping (RCOPE scale. Adherence rates were 86.2 and 43.8% using AACTG and VAS tools, respectively. Statistical significant correlation was found between spirituality and adherence to HAART (r = 0.265; p = 0.00. Also, significant correlation was found between positive religious coping and adherence (r = 0.15, p = 0.003. Odds ratio indicated that female respondents were 1.6 times more likely to be adherent, compared with males. Similarly, every unit rise in spirituality score yielded a 1.3 times increased likelihood of adherence to HAART on multiple logistic regression of adherence to HAART with relevant predictors. Both spirituality and positive religious coping have positive influence on optimal adherence. Therefore, the training of health care personnel to assess and provide spiritual care and involvement of chaplains/religious leaders is advocated for improved adherence.

  10. Introductory Remarks on Max Weber’s The Economic Ethics of the World Religions

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    Hartmann Tyrell

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Tyrell’s view, too little attention has been paid by Weber scholars to Max Weber’s ‘Economic Ethics of the World Religions’. The principal cause is that the studies of the ‘Economic Ethics’ have remained a torso, where the Occidental part, above all, is missing. Regrettably the essay collections edited by W. Schluchter and the debate provoked by S.N. Eisenstadt regarding ‘Kulturen der Achsenzeit’ have made little difference here, but the same is also true of the volumes which have so far appeared within the Max Weber Gesamtausgabe. Tyrell’s contribution is thus concerned (on the one hand to determine the position of the ‘Economic Ethics’ within Weber’s sociology of religion, but (on the other hand it also seeks to show what it is that “connects” the studies of the ‘Economic Ethics’, so as to counteract the impression that, at any one moment, we are dealing with “isolated pieces of work” in the form of monographs regarding particular world religions.

  11. (Inadvertently) Instructing Missionaries in (Public University) World Religions Courses: Examining a Pedagogical Dilemma, Its Dimensions, and a Course Section Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapanagiotis, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I explore an ethical and pedagogical dilemma that I encounter each semester in my world religions courses: namely, that a great number of students enroll in the courses as part of their missionary training programs, and come to class understanding successful learning to mean gathering enough information about the world's religious…

  12. The Treatment of the Monotheistic Religions in World History High School Textbooks: A Comparison of Sample Editions 2001-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jason Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the treatment of the three most practiced monotheistic religions, Christianity, Islam, and Judaism, within the pages of High School World History Textbooks. The results find that within World History textbooks Christianity and Islam receive more coverage than Judaism in narrative content, word usage, illustrations, and…

  13. Modeling the decline of religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Richard; Yaple, Haley; Abrams, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    People claiming no religious affiliation constitute the fastest growing ``religious'' minority in many countries throughout the world. Here we use a minimal model of competition between social groups to explain historical data on the growth of religious non-affiliation in 85 regions around the world. We also describe numerical experiments that support the validity of the model. According to the model, for societies in which the perceived utility of not adhering is greater than the utility of adhering, religion will be driven toward extinction. This work was funded by Northwestern University and The James S. McDonnell Foundation.

  14. USE OF DISTANCE EDUCATION BY CHRISTIAN RELIGION TO TRAIN, EDIFY AND EDUCATE ADHERENTS

    OpenAIRE

    P. Satyanarayana; Emmanuel DK MEDURI

    2013-01-01

    Distance Education has been growing fast, in a marvelously diverse fashion. The efficiency, effectiveness, validity and utility of distance teaching-learning are on increase. All communities and religious groups are making use of distance learning methodology to upgrade their knowledge, skills and attitudes. Christina educational institutions in all the parts of the world are being benefitted by the Christian distance education programme. Christian websites make up more than 80 percent of...

  15. NOTE FOR EDITOR: Use Of Distance Education By Christian Religion To Train, Edify And Educate Adherents

    OpenAIRE

    P. Satyanarayana; MEDURI, Emmanuel DK

    2013-01-01

    Distance Education has been growing fast, in a marvelously diverse fashion. The efficiency, effectiveness, validity and utility of distance teaching-learning are on increase. All communities and religious groups are making use of distance learning methodology to upgrade their knowledge, skills and attitudes. Christina educational institutions in all the parts of the world are being benefitted by the Christian distance education programme. Christian websites make up more than 80 percent of...

  16. POSTMODERNITY AND GLOBALIZATION IN THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD - BRIEF THEOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS ON HUMANS AND RELIGION -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian MANOLACHE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays-world is under the sign of the triadic concept of globality, globalization and postmodernity. While the first concept refers to an entire system of socio-political and ethical-theoretical relations, which, in their dynamism, lead to the appearance of new knowledge, globalization is the practical phenomenon of manifestation of the relations inside the globaliy, aiming for the economic and utilitarian domain. The domain of the practical globalization is moved by the mechanism of the new informatics technological revolutions, stimulating the production and the consumption, by cohabitating in its civilizational demarche, questioning al the former historical stages, through the encouragement of the perfidious triad of Profit, Consumption and Entertainment a show. In this context, the world tends to shape as a global universal village (Marshall McLuhan, continuously celebrating, in a climate of moral and metaphysical incertitude, with a flatten and flattening consciousness, not interested, even abandoning, in the spiritual values, proposing and launching in the first rows only the utilitarian-values (Dumitru Popescu, 2005. We discuss in the present study this real utopia of horrors (Joseph Ratzinger, 2005, with continuously moving ideas, where the most radical and profound mutation is on the ontological level, the man and the religion being reduced in a nihilist manner to the stage of object merchandise value.

  17. Michele Renee Salzman, Marvina A. Sweeney & William Adler (eds., The Cambridge History of Religions in the Ancient World (2 vols. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013

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    Giorgio Baruchello

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Michele Renee Salzman, Marvina A. Sweeney & William Adler (eds., The Cambridge History of Religions in the Ancient World (2 vols. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013

  18. The religion of thinness

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    Michelle Lelwica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the almost religious-like devotion of especially women in pursuing the goal of a thinner body. The quest for a slender body is analysed as a ‘cultural religion’, which the author calls the ‘Religion of Thinness’. The analysis revolves around four observations. The first is that for many women in the US today, the quest for a slender body serves what has historically been a ‘religious’ function: providing a sense of purpose that orients and gives meaning to their lives, especially in times of suffering and uncertainty. Second, this quest has many features in common with traditional religions, including beliefs, myths, rituals, moral codes, and sacred images—all of which encourage women to find ‘salvation’ (i.e., happiness and well-being through the pursuit of a ‘better’ (i.e., thinner body.Third, this secular faith draws so many adherents in large part because it appeals to and addresses what might be referred to as spiritual needs—including the need for a sense of purpose, inspiration, security, virtue, love, and well-being—even though it shortchanges these needs, and, in the long run, fails to deliver the salvation it promises. Fourth, a number of traditional religious ideas, paradigms and motifs tacit­ly inform and support the Religion of Thinness. More specifically, its soteri­ology resurrects and recycles the misogynist, anti-body, other-worldly, and exclusivist aspects of patriarchal religion. Ultimately, the analysis is not only critical of the Religion of Thinness; it also raises suspicions about any clear-cut divisions between ‘religion’, ‘culture’, and ‘the body’. In fact, examining the functions, features, and ideologies embedded in this secular devotion gives us insight into the constitutive role of the body in the production and apprehension of religious and cultural meanings.

  19. How Teaching World Religions Brought a Truce to the Culture Wars in Modesto, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Emile; Roberts, Patrick S.

    2009-01-01

    Despite a growing consensus among scholars and activists about the importance of religion, proposals for teaching about it have often been a source of division rather than unity in American public school districts. Faced with familiar cultural conflicts, Modesto, California, chose to become the first public school district in the USA to require…

  20. Art, Religion and the Supernatural in an African World: The Limit of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article takes an analytical look at Andrew Horn's Ritual, Drama and the Theatrical: the Case of Bori Spirit Mediumship (1981), in which he employs a graphic model to delineate the dynamic relationship between art and religion in Africa. Although Horn uses observations and analysis of spirit mediumship in the bori (cult ...

  1. A systematic review of religious beliefs about major end-of-life issues in the five major world religions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rajshekhar; El-Jawahri, Areej R; Litzow, Mark R; Syrjala, Karen L; Parnes, Aric D; Hashmi, Shahrukh K

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the religious/spiritual beliefs of followers of the five major world religions about frequently encountered medical situations at the end of life (EoL). This was a systematic review of observational studies on the religious aspects of commonly encountered EoL situations. The databases used for retrieving studies were: Ovid MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid PsycINFO, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus. Observational studies, including surveys from healthcare providers or the general population, and case studies were included for review. Articles written from a purely theoretical or philosophical perspective were excluded. Our search strategy generated 968 references, 40 of which were included for review, while 5 studies were added from reference lists. Whenever possible, we organized the results into five categories that would be clinically meaningful for palliative care practices at the EoL: advanced directives, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide, physical requirements (artificial nutrition, hydration, and pain management), autopsy practices, and other EoL religious considerations. A wide degree of heterogeneity was observed within religions, depending on the country of origin, level of education, and degree of intrinsic religiosity. Our review describes the religious practices pertaining to major EoL issues and explains the variations in EoL decision making by clinicians and patients based on their religious teachings and beliefs. Prospective studies with validated tools for religiosity should be performed in the future to assess the impact of religion on EoL care.

  2. Monitoring Pharmacy Student Adherence to World Health Organization Hand Hygiene Indications Using Radio Frequency Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Andrew S; Cipriano, Gabriela C; Tsouri, Gill; Lavigne, Jill E

    2016-04-25

    Objective. To assess and improve student adherence to hand hygiene indications using radio frequency identification (RFID) enabled hand hygiene stations and performance report cards. Design. Students volunteered to wear RFID-enabled hospital employee nametags to monitor their adherence to hand-hygiene indications. After training in World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene methods and indications, student were instructed to treat the classroom as a patient care area. Report cards illustrating individual performance were distributed via e-mail to students at the middle and end of each 5-day observation period. Students were eligible for individual and team prizes consisting of Starbucks gift cards in $5 increments. Assessment. A hand hygiene station with an RFID reader and dispensing sensor recorded the nametag nearest to the station at the time of use. Mean frequency of use per student was 5.41 (range: 2-10). Distance between the student's seat and the dispenser was the only variable significantly associated with adherence. Student satisfaction with the system was assessed by a self-administered survey at the end of the study. Most students reported that the system increased their motivation to perform hand hygiene as indicated. Conclusion. The RFID-enabled hand hygiene system and benchmarking reports with performance incentives was feasible, reliable, and affordable. Future studies should record video to monitor adherence to the WHO 8-step technique.

  3. What is Religion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Sinding

    Religious belief is one of the most pervasive and ubiquitous characteristics of human society. Religion has shadowed and illuminated human lives since primitive times, shaping the world views of cultures from isolated tribes to vast empires. Starting from the premise that religion is a concept...... which can be analysed and compared across time and cultures, What is Religion? brings the most up-to-date scholarship to bear on humankind’s most enduring creation. The book opens with a brief history of the idea of religion, then divides the study of religion into four essential topics - types...

  4. What the world's religions teach, applied to vaccines and immune globulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabenstein, John D

    2013-04-12

    medical products, explain facts about content and processes, and suggest further dialog with informed religious leaders. Key considerations for observant believers for each populous religion are described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The good in nature and humanity: connecting science, religion, and spirituality with the natural world

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kellert, Stephen R; Farnham, Timothy J

    2002-01-01

    ... reflects our commitment to bringing the best of an expanding body of literature to the environmental community throughout North America and the world. Support for Island Press is provided by The Bullitt Foundation, The Mary Flagler Cary Charitable Trust,The Nathan Cummings Foundation, Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation, Doris Duke Charitable Foundati...

  6. Desvendando a religião e as religiões mundiais em Max Weber (Revealing religion and the world religions in Max Weber - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2009v7n14p136

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arilson Silva Oliveira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos Max Weber como um dos sociólogos e historiadores mais importantes dentre aqueles que se dedicaram ao estudo do fenômeno religioso. Na verdade, é possível afirmar que a análise da religião compreende um dos aspectos mais fundamentais de sua obra sócio-histórica. De modo geral, esse tema aparece em seus textos de duas maneiras diferentes, quais sejam: enquanto um objeto analisado em sua singularidade e enquanto uma manifestação social que influencia de maneira significativa os demais aspectos da vida comunitária. Aqui, observamos como ele muniu-se de um método particular e o utilizou como parâmetro para compreender historicamente a religião. Ao se debruçar sobre as religiões mundiais (confucionismo-taoísmo, judaísmo-cristianismo e hinduísmo-budismo, Weber estuda a racionalização cultural de suas cosmovisões. Todavia, para ele, a influência da religião sobre a vida prática varia muito segundo o caminho da salvação/libertação que é prescrito e segundo a qualidade psíquica (ou imaginada da salvação que se pretende alcançar. Palavras-chave: Max Weber; Religião; Religiões Mundiais; Racionalização.   AbstractWe present Max Weber as one of the most important sociologists and historians among those who dedicated themselves to the study of the religious phenomenon. Actually, it is possible to say that the analysis of religion involves one of the most fundamental aspects of his socio-historical work. As a whole, this subject appears in his texts in two different forms, i.e., as an analyzed object in its particularities, and as a social manifestation which influences, in a significant way, the other aspects of communitarian life. Here, we observe how he equipped himself with a particular method, rescued Kantian rationality and applied it as a parameter to historically understand religion. While he dedicated himself to study world religions (Confucianism-Taoism, Judaism-Christianity, and Hinduism

  7. What is Religion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Sinding

    Religious belief is one of the most pervasive and ubiquitous characteristics of human society. Religion has shadowed and illuminated human lives since primitive times, shaping the world views of cultures from isolated tribes to vast empires. Starting from the premise that religion is a concept...... in how and why humans came and continue to be religious....

  8. Danmark. Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten, Martin Schwarz

    1991-01-01

    Danmarks kirkehistorie fra begyndelsen til nyere tid. Kirkehistorie, historie, folkekirke, religion......Danmarks kirkehistorie fra begyndelsen til nyere tid. Kirkehistorie, historie, folkekirke, religion...

  9. On the Social Nature of Monotheistic and Ethnic Religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A E Kapishin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents criticism of a widely spread assertion of the progressive nature of the world's monotheistic religions. The author identifies the differences in understanding the social nature of religions in different cultures: religion as private faith; religion as the duty of respect towards the community, its Gods and ancestors; religion as the path of cognition. Ethnic religions are considered, primarily, as social ones; while metaphysical religions are viewed as religions of the elites.

  10. Religion, theology and cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Fitzgerald

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cosmology is one of the predominant research areas of the contemporary world. Advances in modern cosmology have prompted renewed interest in the intersections between religion, theology and cosmology. This article, which is intended as a brief introduction to the series of studies on theological cosmology in this journal, identifies three general areas of theological interest stemming from the modern scientific study of cosmology: contemporary theology and ethics; cosmology and world religions; and ancient cosmologies. These intersections raise important questions about the relationship of religion and cosmology, which has recently been addressed by William Scott Green and is the focus of the final portion of the article.

  11. Is analytical psychology a religion? Rationalist and romantic approaches to religion and modernity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, R A

    1999-10-01

    The relationship between analytical psychology and religion is part of the larger issue of the relationship between modernity and religion. There are three main views on the issue. The fundamentalist position sets religion against modernity and opts for religion over modernity. What I call the 'rationalist' position likewise sets religion against modernity but opts for modernity over religion. By contrast to both views, what I call the 'romantic' position reconciles religion with modernity. Rationalists maintain that religion can exist only in so far as it serves as an explanation of the physical world, which the rise of science now precludes. Romantics maintain that religion, while serving as an explanation of the physical world till dislodge by science, is at heart anything but an explanation. The toppling of the religions explanation by the scientific one, far from dooming religion, prods religion into making explicit what it has in fact been all along. By this categorization, Jung is overwhelmingly a romantic. For him, the function of religion has always been more psychological than explanatory, and the rise of science does not preclude the continuing existence of religious myths as a psychological rather than an explanatory phenomenon. For those for whom science does spell the demise of religion, secular myths can replace religious ones, and those secular myths are more secular versions of religions myths than secular alternatives to religions myths. Yet even if for Jung religion can still exist today because religion is in fact psychology, it does not follow that psychology is therefore a religion.

  12. Kinesisk Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Esben; Nielsen, Klaus Bo

    Bogen Kinesisk Religion omhandler kongfuzianisme, daoisme, buddhisme, maoisme, folkereligion og nye religioner i ind- og udland. Den indeholder klassiske myter og magiske ritualer, historiske milepæle og moderne udfordringer, politisk religion og levende folkereligiøsitet. Bogen henvender sig...

  13. Greek Religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Jan N.

    1994-01-01

    Students of Greek religion are fortunate in having at their disposal the best recent study of a 'dead' religion: Walter Burkert's Greek Religion (Oxford: Blackwell, 1985). Since the English edition is not essentially different from the German original of 1977, my survey will concentrate on

  14. Representing Two Worlds: Illustrations in Spanish Textbooks for the Teaching of Religion and Object Lessons (1900-1970)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badanelli, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to give an overview of the use and the meaning of images in two types of school textbooks used in Spain from the early twentieth century until the end of the 1960s: the textbooks "Lecciones de cosas" ("object lessons") and those used for the teaching of religion. For this analysis the iconographic-iconological…

  15. Bob Dylan and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Häger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article, which is located within the field of research on religion and popular culture, is a discussion of the relations of one particular rock artist, Bob Dylan, to religion. Religion can be seen as a recurring topic in Dylan’s work—particularly during a period at the end of the 1970s and beginning of the 1980s, often referred to as his ‘Christian era’—and also in the discourses around him. This article explores how the topic of religion appears in discourses around Bob Dylan. In this article one particular aspect of the connection between religion and popular culture is looked at: the construction of certain artists or stars as religious figures, and more specifically Bob Dylan as a case. The author does not try to discover whether Dylan is religious or not; or which religion he possibly adheres to. Rather, the author looks at how rock artists and in this case Bob Dylan are ‘constructed’ as religious figures.

  16. Real-world factors affecting adherence to insulin therapy in patients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, M J; Gagliardino, J J; Gray, L J; Khunti, K; Mohan, V; Hughes, R

    2013-05-01

    To identify real-world factors affecting adherence to insulin therapy in patients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A literature search was conducted in PubMed and EMBASE in November 2011 to identify studies reporting factors associated with adherence/non-adherence to insulin therapy in adults with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes. Seventeen studies were identified; six used self-reported measures and 11 used calculated measures of adherence. Most (13/17) were conducted exclusively in the USA. Four categories of factors associated with non-adherence were identified: predictive factors for non-adherence, patient-perceived barriers to adherence, type of delivery device and cost of medication. For predictive factors and patient-perceived barriers, only age, female sex and travelling were associated with non-adherence in more than one study. Fear of injections and embarrassment of injecting in public were also cited as reasons for non-adherence. Conversely, adherence was improved by initiating therapy with, or switching to, a pen device (in four studies), and by changing to an insurance scheme that lowered the financial burden on patients (in two studies). Adherence to insulin therapy is generally poor. Few factors or patient-perceived barriers were consistently identified as predictive for non-adherence, although findings collectively suggest that a more flexible regimen may improve adherence. Switching to a pen device and reducing patient co-payments appear to improve adherence. Further real-world studies are warranted, especially in countries other than the USA, to identify factors associated with non-adherence and enable development of strategies to improve adherence to insulin therapy. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  17. Adherence and persistence of mirabegron and anticholinergic therapies in patients with overactive bladder: a real-world claims data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, D; Yehoshua, A; Kowalski, J; Lee, W; Kish, J; Chaudhari, S; Murray, B

    2017-03-01

    Adherence and persistence rates of anticholinergic (ACH) therapies have been well described. To date, few studies describe these metrics for mirabegron in patients with overactive bladder. This retrospective analysis of MarketScan® database assessed adherence and persistence of patients receiving either mirabegron or ACH. Study eligibility required an index date (first prescription filled) between July 2012 and June 2013 with 12 months of continuous enrolment preindex date and 12 months of follow-up. Adherence was defined as a proportion of days covered of ≥ 80% among patients with at least 2 fills of index medication. Persistence measures included treatment failure described as either treatment discontinuation (medication supply gap ≥ 30 days) or switching to a different medication. A medication supply gap of ≥ 45 days was used as a sensitivity analysis. The mean age of mirabegron users (n = 4037) was 67 years and 43% were ACH naïve while the mean age of ACH users was 62 years (n = 67,943). Over the 12-month follow-up period, 44% of patients treated with mirabegron and 31% of patients treated with ACH were adherent to their indexed medications. Treatment failure was 81% for mirabegron and 88% for ACH. Most mirabegron treatment failures were because of treatment discontinuation (67%) versus switching to ACH therapy (14%). The ACH discontinuation rate was 84% and treatment switching rate was 4%. The mean (standard deviation) time to treatment failure was 143 (130) days for mirabegron and 69 (69) days for ACH. Adherence and persistence patterns were similar in the sensitivity analysis using a ≥ 45-day supply gap threshold. This real-world study demonstrated low adherence and persistence to mirabegron similar to ACH therapies. © 2017 Allergan. International Journal of Clinical Practice Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Strategies to Improve Adherence to Dietary Weight Loss Interventions in Research and Real-World Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Alice A; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2017-07-11

    Dietary interventions are the cornerstone of obesity treatment. The optimal dietary approach to weight loss is a hotly debated topic among health professionals and the lay public alike. An emerging body of evidence suggests that a higher level of adherence to a diet, regardless of the type of diet, is an important factor in weight loss success over the short and long term. Key strategies to improve adherence include designing dietary weight loss interventions (such as ketogenic diets) that help to control the increased drive to eat that accompanies weight loss, tailoring dietary interventions to a person's dietary preferences (and nutritional requirements), and promoting self-monitoring of food intake. The aim of this paper is to examine these strategies, which can be used to improve adherence and thereby increase the success of dietary weight loss interventions.

  19. Strategies to Improve Adherence to Dietary Weight Loss Interventions in Research and Real-World Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice A. Gibson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary interventions are the cornerstone of obesity treatment. The optimal dietary approach to weight loss is a hotly debated topic among health professionals and the lay public alike. An emerging body of evidence suggests that a higher level of adherence to a diet, regardless of the type of diet, is an important factor in weight loss success over the short and long term. Key strategies to improve adherence include designing dietary weight loss interventions (such as ketogenic diets that help to control the increased drive to eat that accompanies weight loss, tailoring dietary interventions to a person’s dietary preferences (and nutritional requirements, and promoting self-monitoring of food intake. The aim of this paper is to examine these strategies, which can be used to improve adherence and thereby increase the success of dietary weight loss interventions.

  20. Religion, marketing and market: An adjustment in the language of faith.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rubens L. Jardilino

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work if considers to make an analysis of social categories that the first sight does not have proximity, in the truth, can, also, seem antagonistic. One is about the relations between Religion, Marketing and Market. The theoretical reference it is a Social Sciences, however, considers the Religion, in its institutional expression –the church– as a social enterprise, a company of the modern times. Search to demonstrate that, to adhere to the modern world, shaped for the idea of competition and consumption of the capitalist society, the religion reorganized its language to take care of the requirements of these times, already considered post-modernity. This is analysis is made from the Brazilian case, that, as many country of the Latin America, accommodates in its social groups the most recent expressions of the Christian religion, in special, the evangelicals groups, that proliferates the peripheries of the greats cities of this American continent.

  1. Spirituality, Religion, and Peace Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantmeier, Edward J., Ed.; Lin, Jing, Ed.; Miller, John P., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Spirituality, Religion, and Peace Education" attempts to deeply explore the universal and particular dimensions of education for inner and communal peace. This co-edited book contains fifteen chapters on world spiritual traditions, religions, and their connections and relevance to peacebuilding and peacemaking. This book examines the…

  2. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turati, Federica; Bravi, Francesca; Di Maso, Matteo; Bosetti, Cristina; Polesel, Jerry; Serraino, Diego; Dalmartello, Michela; Giacosa, Attilio; Montella, Maurizio; Tavani, Alessandra; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2017-11-01

    The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) released in 2007 eight recommendations for cancer prevention on body fatness, diet and physical activity. Our aim is to evaluate the relation between adherence to these recommendations and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. We pooled data from two Italian case-control studies including overall 2419 patients with CRC and 4723 controls. Adherence to the WCRF/AICR guidelines was summarised through a score incorporating seven of the WCRF/AICR recommendations, with higher scores indicating higher adherence to the guidelines. Odds ratios (ORs) of colorectal cancer were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Higher adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations was associated with a significantly reduced CRC risk (OR 0.67, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.56-0.80 for a score ≥5 versus cancer (OR 0.67). Inverse associations were observed with the diet-specific WCRF/AICR score (OR 0.71, 95% CI, 0.61-0.84 for ≥3.5 versus <2.5 points) and with specific recommendations on body fatness (OR 0.82, 95% CI, 0.70-0.97), physical activity (OR 0.86, 95% CI, 0.75-1.00), foods and drinks that promote weight gain (OR 0.70, 95% CI, 0.56-0.89), foods of plant origin (OR 0.56, 95% CI, 0.42-0.76), limiting alcohol (OR 0.87, 95% CI, 0.77-0.99) and salt intake (OR 0.63, 95% CI, 0.48-0.84). Our study indicated that adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations is inversely related to CRC risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fiktionsbaseret religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Jediismen er en ny religion, der bygger på George Lucas' Star Wars-film. Kernen i jediismen er medlemmernes identifikation med jedi-ridderne fra Star Wars, troen på, at Kraften eksisterer uden for det fiktive univers, samt rituel interaktion med Kraften. På baggrund af en analyse af syv jediistiske...... gruppers hjemmesider skitserer artiklen jediismens selvforståelse med fokus på selv-identifikation, læren om Kraften, praksis og etik samt forhandlingen af forholdet til Star Wars. Endvidere argumenteres for, hvorfor jediismen må fortolkes som en religion og ikke blot som et fanfænomen. Endelig foreslås...... kategorien 'fiktionsbaseret religion' introduceret i religionsvidenskaben som betegnelse for en række nye religioner baseret på 'fiktive religioner' indlejret i fiktionstekster....

  4. The origin and mission of material religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, B.; Morgan, D.; Paine, C.; Plate, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    Beginning its sixth year of publication, Material Religion is an interdisciplinary journal that seeks to gather the best work from around the world engaged in materializing the study of religions. The editors welcome original scholarship on any religion and from any period in human history that

  5. Spiritual perspectives and practices at the end-of-life: A review of the major world religions and application to palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer-Wu S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Palliative care professionals promote well-being and ease suffering at the end-of-life through holistic care that addresses physical, emotional, social and spiritual needs. The ways that individuals cope with serious illness and prepare for death are often done so within a religious context. Therefore, it is essential that palliative care practitioners are sensitive to and have an appreciation of different religious perspectives and rituals to meet the unique needs of their patients and families. This paper provides a brief overview of the five major world religions - Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam and Judaism - with particular emphasis of the respective perspectives on suffering, death and afterlife. Despite wide variation in these traditions, an understanding of common rituals surrounding death, funerals and bereavement can improve care for patients, families and communities facing the end-of-life.

  6. National semen analysis reference range reporting: adherence to the 1999 World Health Organization guidelines 10 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Heidi A; Windsperger, Andrew; Smith, Zachary; Parekattil, Sijo J; Kuang, Wayne W; Kolettis, Peter N; Nangia, Ajay K

    2011-06-01

    To determine the adherence by laboratories across the United States to the standard semen analysis guidelines and parameter reference ranges 10 years after being set by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1999 and to compare compliance between regional laboratories vs. specialty assisted reproductive technology (ART) laboratories. Observational study. Regional clinical and reproductive endocrinology andrology laboratories. Blank or deidentified semen analysis reports were collected from laboratories through direct contact or from reports received as part of clinical care for male infertility. Adherence to semen analysis reference range reporting as recommended by the 1999 WHO guidelines. Semen analyses reports were collected from 111 laboratories from 31 different states. Of 111 laboratories, 26 (23%) reported all reference range parameters in accordance with the guidelines. Of 65 ART laboratories, 21 (32%) complied with all reference range parameters as outlined by the guidelines, vs. 5 of 46 non-ART laboratories (11%). Seventy percent of laboratories that did not report 1999 WHO parameters did so because of differences in reference values for normal morphology. Adherence to WHO 1999 semen analysis reference range guidelines has not been achieved by ART and non-ART laboratories 10 years after being introduced. Non-ART laboratories report reference ranges less accurately than ART laboratories. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Media, Religion and Public Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe FALCĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Relations between religion and politics are complex and paradoxical. Both strive to achieve and maintain power. Both politics and religion involve control over social relations and emphasiye social integration (politics in its concern for order in society, and religion in its concern for observance of order and obligations within the congregation. But they differ in respect of specific goals, the values ​​that ascribe to power and differences in their conceptions of the nature and source of power. In the modern world, power, embodied in political institutions, is secular; in the past, its association with religion created a transcendental relationship, causing the possession of power to be of different quality, to come from another world. But, while politics is focused on interpersonal relationships, religion is more oriented towards relations between humans and gods or other spiritual forces.

  8. Computing Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielbo, Kristoffer Laigaard; Braxton, Donald M.; Upal, Afzal

    2012-01-01

    The computational approach has become an invaluable tool in many fields that are directly relevant to research in religious phenomena. Yet the use of computational tools is almost absent in the study of religion. Given that religion is a cluster of interrelated phenomena and that research...... concerning these phenomena should strive for multilevel analysis, this article argues that the computational approach offers new methodological and theoretical opportunities to the study of religion. We argue that the computational approach offers 1.) an intermediary step between any theoretical construct...... and its targeted empirical space and 2.) a new kind of data which allows the researcher to observe abstract constructs, estimate likely outcomes, and optimize empirical designs. Because sophisticated mulitilevel research is a collaborative project we also seek to introduce to scholars of religion some...

  9. [Max Planck--an adversary of Christianity? The debate about Planck's attitude towards religion after World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhr, Gebhard

    2012-03-01

    The article discusses a debate which unfolded in the early 1950s and 1960s between East German Marxist philosophers and historians of science and West German theologians and scientists. The subject treated was the attitude towards religion of famous physicist Max Planck who had died a few years earlier, in 1947. The article analyses the different positions of the contributors, mainly with a view to developing a categorial framework usable in descriptions and analyses of the religious attitudes of natural scientists. Moreover the different stages of the debate are outlined in order to exhibit their connections to the larger historical context, i.e. the unfolding of the cold war. In the light of this the debate can be regarded as a religious or ideological war, albeit a cold one, on German soil, which fortunately did not escalate into a hot conflict. It ended, as can be illustrated in a late contribution to the debate, with the collapse of the GDR in 1989 or shortly thereafter.

  10. “For you is your religion, and for me is my religion” (Qur’an: 109/6 Examples of Religious Tolerance in the Qur’an in Terms of Building a Harmonious World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun ŞAHİN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Faith is a matter of personal conviction, and does not depend on worldly motives. Worship should be performed with sincere and pure intensions rather than for any kind of materialistic expectations. Islam insisted on pure worship of the One True God. The prophet firmly resisted all appeals to worldly motives, and stood firm to his Message of eternal Unit y. When it comes to religious freedom in Islam and especially in its holy book, The Qur’an, we see many verses promoting religious freedom. These are some examples: 1] “ Let there be no compulsion in religion. Truth has been made clear from error. (2:256 2] “For you is your religion, and for me is my religion (Qur’an: 109/6 3] “Say, "The truth is from your Lord": Let him who will believe, and let him who will, reject (it ... (Qur’an: 18/29 As we notice, although Allah desires that His servants (humans follow His path and live accordingly, He, in his very own words in the many verses as mentioned above, declares that there must be complete freedom in accepting or rejecting a belief or a religion in this world. But at the end, He will judge His servants in the Hereafter according to their beliefs and actions performed in this world.

  11. Real-World Adherence and Persistence to Oral Disease-Modifying Therapies in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Over 1 Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kristen M; Zhou, Huanxue; Lin, Feng; Ko, John J; Herrera, Vivian

    2017-08-01

    Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) are indicated to reduce relapse rates and slow disease progression for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) patients when taken as prescribed. Nonadherence or non-persistence in the real-world setting can lead to greater risk for negative clinical outcomes. Although previous research has demonstrated greater adherence and persistence to oral DMTs compared with injectable DMTs, comparisons among oral DMTs are lacking. To compare adherence, persistence, and time to discontinuation among MS patients newly prescribed the oral DMTs fingolimod, dimethyl fumarate, or teriflunomide. This retrospective study used MarketScan Commercial and Medicare Supplemental claims databases. MS patients with ≥ 1 claim for specified DMTs from April 1, 2013, to June 30, 2013, were identified. The index drug was defined as the first oral DMT within this period. To capture patients newly initiating index DMTs, patients could not have a claim for their index drugs in the previous 12 months. Baseline characteristics were described for patients in each treatment cohort. Adherence, as measured by medication possession ratio (MPR) and proportion of days covered (PDC); persistence (30-day gap allowed); and time to discontinuation over a 12-month follow-up period were compared across treatment cohorts. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to examine adherence, and Cox regression models estimated risk of discontinuation. 1,498 patients newly initiated oral DMTs and met study inclusion criteria: fingolimod (n = 185), dimethyl fumarate (n = 1,160), and teriflunomide (n = 143). Patients were similar across most baseline characteristics, including region, relapse history, and health care resource utilization. Statistically significant differences were observed across the treatment cohorts for age, gender, previous injectable/infused DMT use, and comorbidities. Adherence and time to discontinuation were adjusted for age, gender, region, previous oral

  12. Religion and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabih, Joshua

    group breaks totally with the existing Arabic Bible translations that they were in the habit of using. In this translation, the previously strenuous relationship between culture and religion is flattened in a binary sets of oppositions between an unaltered Devine message preserved in ancient Bible...... of this paper to shed some light on Jehovah’s Witnesses theological perception of religion and culture within the context of modern Arab Christianity; a subject that has not received the scholarly attention it deserves. This paper shall also look into Jehovah’s Witnesses’ Arabic Bible Translation New World...... translation of the Holy Scriptures, and address how an originally-American Christian group re-constructs the relationship of religion –universality of one truth and its embodiment in one community of faith – and culture; and specifically, Arabic culture. Culture, in its manifold forms -Jehovah’s witnesses...

  13. The Social Psychology of Religion. Using scientific methodologies to understand religion

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Joël Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Religion plays a vital role in the formation of communities and the interaction of cultures, yet is largely ignored in psychological texts. Contemporary religious trends across the globe are rapidly changing. For example, less people are adhering to traditional forms of religious practice, Atheism and secular beliefs are becoming increasingly common and valid, and acts of terror are commonly perceived as motivated by religion. This chapter discusses the operationalization of religion as a var...

  14. Teaching Religion, Teaching Truth: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives. Religion, Education and Values. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, Jeff, Ed.; Francis, Leslie J., Ed.; Robbins, Mandy, Ed.; Selcuk, Mualla, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Religious educators today are called upon to enable young people to develop as fully-rounded human beings in a multicultural and multi-faith world. It is no longer sufficient to teach about the history of religions: religion is not relegated to the past. It is no longer sufficient to teach about the observable outward phenomena of religions:…

  15. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and head and neck cancers risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Francesca; Polesel, Jerry; Garavello, Werner; Serraino, Diego; Negri, Eva; Franchin, Gianni; La Vecchia, Carlo; Bosetti, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) have proposed eight recommendations for cancer prevention, related to body fatness, diet, and physical activity. Our aim is to evaluate the role of adherence to these recommendations on head and neck cancers risk. We obtained an overall score including seven of the WCRF/AICR recommendations, and examined its relationship with head and neck cancers risk in two Italian case-control studies including 946 patients with oral cavity and pharyngeal (OCP) cancer and 2492 controls, and 689 patients with laryngeal cancer and 1605 controls. Higher adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations was associated to a reduced risk of OCP cancer (odds ratio, OR=0.45, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.33-0.62 for a score of 4-laryngeal cancer were 0.68 (95% CI: 0.50-0.92) for a score of 3-cancer prevention is associated with a substantially decreased risk of head and neck cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Introductory Remarks on Max Weber’s The Economic Ethics of the World Religions

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann Tyrell

    2014-01-01

    In Tyrell’s view, too little attention has been paid by Weber scholars to Max Weber’s ‘Economic Ethics of the World Religions’. The principal cause is that the studies of the ‘Economic Ethics’ have remained a torso, where the Occidental part, above all, is missing. Regrettably the essay collections edited by W. Schluchter and the debate provoked by S.N. Eisenstadt regarding ‘Kulturen der Achsenzeit’ have made little difference here, but the same is also true of the volumes which have so far a...

  17. Religion Theme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrahy, Dennis J.

    One of a series of seven units designed to develop the reading and writing skills of low achievers in the social studies, this activity book focuses on the theme of religion. The booklet can be used for high school classes, individual study in alternative and continuing high schools, and adult education classes. An introduction to polytheism and…

  18. Indigenous religions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2009-01-01

    Dette essay diskuterer en publikation af James L. Cox med titlen From Primitive to Indigenous (2007). Bogen analyserer forskellige forfatteres holdninger til studiet af indfødte kulturers religioner. Cox's analyser tages op i dette essay og de problematiseres i forhold til mit eget arbejde....

  19. Predicting Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the influence of liberal ideas on the capacity for Religious Education (RE) to consider religions critically in a climate of increasing government intervention in education. It finds that criticality in some areas of RE is absent or limited but that in key areas criticality is evident if not always deeply embedded. It…

  20. Toxicity testing of dispersed oil requires adherence to standardized protocols to assess potential real world effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Gina; Clark, James; Aurand, Don

    2013-06-01

    Recently, several researchers have attempted to address Deepwater Horizon incident environmental fate and effects issues using laboratory testing and extrapolation procedures that are not fully reliable measures for environmental assessments. The 2013 Rico-Martínez et al. publication utilized laboratory testing approaches that severely limit our ability to reliably extrapolate such results to meaningful real-world assessments. The authors did not adopt key methodological elements of oil and dispersed oil toxicity standards. Further, they drew real-world conclusions from static exposure tests without reporting actual exposure concentrations. Without this information, it is not possible to compare their results to other research or real spill events that measured and reported exposure concentrations. The 1990s' Chemical Response to Oil Spills: Ecological Effects Research Forum program was established to standardize and conduct exposure characterization in oil and dispersed oil aquatic toxicity testing (Aurand and Coelho, 2005). This commentary raises awareness regarding the necessity of standardized test protocols. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Predicting user adherence to behavioral eHealth interventions in the real world: examining which aspects of intervention design matter most.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumel, Amit; Yom-Tov, Elad

    2018-02-17

    Existing frameworks have identified a range of intervention design features that may facilitate adherence to eHealth interventions; however, empirical data are lacking on whether intervention design features can predict user adherence in the real world-where the public access available tools-and whether some design aspects of behavioral eHealth interventions are more important than others in predicting adherence. This study examined whether intervention design qualities predict user adherence to behavioral eHealth interventions in real-world use and which qualities matter the most. We correlated the online activities of users of 30 web-based behavioral interventions-collected from a proprietary data set of anonymized logs from consenting users of Microsoft Internet Explorer add-on-with interventions' quality ratings obtained by trained raters prior to empirical examination. The quality ratings included: Usability, Visual Design, User Engagement, Content, Therapeutic Persuasiveness (i.e., persuasive design and incorporation of behavior change techniques), and Therapeutic Alliance. We found Therapeutic Persuasiveness (i.e., the incorporation of persuasive design/behavior change principles) to be the most robust predictor of adherence (i.e., duration of use, number of unique sessions; 40 ≤ rs ≤ .58, ps ≤ .005), explaining 42% of the variance in user adherence in our regression model. Results indicated up to six times difference in the percentage of users utilizing the interventions for more than a minimum amount of time and sessions based on Therapeutic Persuasiveness. Findings suggest the importance of persuasive design and behavior change techniques incorporation during the design and evaluation of digital behavioral interventions.

  2. Ethics, religion and humanity: Rethinking religion in 21 st century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, more often than not, religion is alleged for being a root cause of all human predicaments; that it provides viable and abundant fuel for conflict such that in every continent of the world, there are troubled spots rooted in religious conflicts. Although this allegation may have its older roots in Marx and Lenin, however, ...

  3. Poor adherence to the World Health Organization guidelines of treatment of severe pneumonia in children at Khartoum, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Karim Eldin M; Bilal, Jalal A; Alfadeel, Mona A; Hamid, Yassin; Eldouch, Widad; Elsammani, Elfatih; Ibrahim, Salah A; Adam, Ishag

    2014-08-14

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is as a major cause for childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study was conducted to investigate the adherence and response of the WHO guidelines for treatment of severe pneumonia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the period of June 2009 to July 2010 at Khartoum Hospital, Sudan. Children admitted and treated for severe pneumonia were enrolled. Only 39 (18.8%) out of 208 enrolled children received prescriptions that were adherent to the WHO guidelines of treatment of severe pneumonia. In logistic regression none of the investigated variable (age, gender, and clinical presentations) was associated with the adherence to the WHO guidelines. There was no significant difference in the response between adherent and non-adherent prescriptions. There was no association between the demographic, clinical data, treatment-adherence to the guidelines and the patients' response. There is a poor (18.8%) adherence to the WHO guidelines of the treatment of severe pneumonia in the region regardless to the age, gender and clinical presentation.

  4. African Religion and Colonial Rebellion: The Contestation of Power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aside from showing that African religions share many aspects with other world religions; the article rejects Eliade's, and Durkheim's theory of 'the sacred and the profane'. It argues that this separation is hard to establish in African traditional religions and cosmologies. Spirit mediums, for example, employed African sociology ...

  5. Changing perceived importance of religion in mainland China, 1990-2012: An age-period- cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Anning

    2017-08-01

    The comprehensive social reform and relaxation of religious regulation in mainland China have encouraged scholars to propose a revival thesis of religion, predicting a rising prevalence of religious adherence in the Reform Era. This study extends the revival thesis by focusing attention on people's subjective religiosity, and investigates age, period, and cohort effects on the transition in perceived importance of religion from 1990 to 2012. Capitalizing on the repeated cross-sectional data of the China sample in the World Values Survey, this study shows that (1) The senior population, relative to the younger counterpart, attaches greater importance to religion. (2) The net period effect suggests that Chinese citizens' perceived importance of religion follows an upward trend by the early 2000s, but no significant growth is detected henceforward. (3) The cohorts who experienced the anti-religion Mao's Era in their adolescent life course stage have an evidently lower probability of viewing religion to be important, in relation to the cohorts of the Reform Era. Theoretical implications of the empirical age-period-cohort patterns for the religious economies theory and change of Chinese religious landscape are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Textbook Religion and Lived Religion: A Comparison of the Christian Faith as Expressed in Textbooks and by Young Church Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestøl, Jon Magne

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on perspectives from sociocultural theory, this article investigates how Christian denominations are represented in Norwegian textbooks of religious education and by young believers. The main finding is that textbooks and young adherents present religion in substantially different ways. While textbooks relate religion to global and…

  7. How to Talk about Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Given the prevalence of religion talk in today's world, another form of fluency is needed. Civic multilingualism is the ability to converse across different religious and ethical perspectives in search of understanding, compromise, and common ground. According to the author, this may represent the greatest social challenge of the 21st century.…

  8. Religion and the rainbow struggle: does religion factor into attitudes toward homosexuality and same-sex civil unions in Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    The provision of civil liberties to LGBT persons has become part of a global movement in societies across the world. In Brazil, a recent judicial ruling for the first time established the right for homosexual couples to enter into civil unions, despite the presence of widespread disapproval of homosexuality among the population and opposition from prominent religious groups. Picking up on this issue, the following study examines whether religion may factor into the attitudes Brazilians hold toward homosexuality and same-sex civil unions. Using data from the Brazilian Social Research Survey, we find that the most restrictive views toward homosexuality and the strongest opposition to same-sex civil unions are most prevalent among devoted followers of historical Protestant, Pentecostal, and Catholic faith traditions, whereas adherents of Afro-Brazilian and spiritist religions, as well as those with no religious commitment, are inclined to assume a more tolerant moral posture toward such issues. The findings point to religion as a potential influence in future public policy initiatives and social movements involving LGBT issues in Brazil.

  9. Is Buddhism the low fertility religion of Asia?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vegard Skirbekk; Setsuya Fukuda; Conrad Hackett; Marcin Stonawski; Thomas Spoorenberg; Raya Muttarak

    2015-01-01

    .... Although Buddhism is the world's fourth largest religion and is dominant in several Asian nations experiencing very low fertility, the impact of Buddhism on childbearing has received comparatively...

  10. Brief Report: Appraising Viral Load Thresholds and Adherence Support Recommendations in the World Health Organization Guidelines for Detection and Management of Virologic Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Suzanne M; Boum, Yap; Musinguzi, Nicholas; Haberer, Jessica E; Martin, Jeffrey N; Hunt, Peter W; Marconi, Vincent C; Bangsberg, David R; Siedner, Mark J

    2017-10-01

    The World Health Organization defines HIV virologic failure as 2 consecutive viral loads >1000 copies/mL, measured 3-6 months apart, with interval adherence support. We sought to empirically evaluate these guidelines using data from an observational cohort. The Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes study observed adults with HIV in southwestern Uganda from the time of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and monitored adherence with electronic pill bottles. We included participants on ART with a detectable HIV RNA viral load and who remained on the same regimen until the subsequent measurement. We fit logistic regression models with viral resuppression as the outcome of interest and both initial viral load level and average adherence as predictors of interest. We analyzed 139 events. Median ART duration was 0.92 years, and 100% were on a nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen. Viral resuppression occurred in 88% of those with initial HIV RNA 1000 copies/mL (P 1000 copies/mL (P = 0.894; interaction term P = 0.077). Among patients on ART with detectable HIV RNA >1000 copies/mL who remain on the same regimen, only 42% resuppressed at next measurement, and there was no association between interval adherence and viral resuppression. These data support consideration of resistance testing to help guide management of virologic failure in resource-limited settings.

  11. Understanding real-world adherence in the directly acting antiviral era: A prospective evaluation of adherence among people with a history of drug use at a community-based program in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Kate; Dodd, Zoë; Guyton, Mary; Tookey, Paula; Lettner, Bernadette; Matelski, John; Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Altenberg, Jason; Powis, Jeff

    2017-09-01

    Direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatments for Hepatitis C (HCV) are now widely available with sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of >90%. A major predictor of response to DAAs is adherence, yet few real-world studies evaluating adherence among marginalized people who use drugs and/or alcohol exist. This study evaluates patterns and factors associated with non-adherence among marginalized people with a history of drug use who were receiving care through a primary care, community-based HCV treatment program where opiate substitution is not offered on-site. Prospective evaluation of chronic HCV patients initiating DAA treatment. Self-report medication adherence questionnaires were completed weekly. Pre/post treatment questionnaires examined socio-demographics, program engagement and substance use. Missing adherence data was counted as a missed dose. Of the 74 participants, who initiated treatment, 76% were male, the average age was 54 years, 69% reported income from disability benefits, 30% did not have stable housing and only 24% received opiate substitution therapy. Substance use was common in the month prior to treatment initiation with, 11% reported injection drug use, 30% reported non-injection drug use and 18% moderate to heavy alcohol use. The majority (85%) were treatment naïve, with 76% receiving sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (8-24 weeks) and 22% Sofosbuvir/Ribarvin (12-24 weeks). The intention to treat proportion with SVR12 was 87% (60/69). In a modified ITT analysis (excluding those with undetectable RNA at end of treatment), 91% (60/66) achieved SVR12. Overall, 89% of treatment weeks had no missed doses. 41% of participants had at least one missed dose. In multivariate analysis the only factor independently associated with weeks with missed doses was moderate to heavy alcohol use (p=0.05). This study demonstrates that strong adherence and SVR with DAAs is achievable, with appropriate supports, even in the context of substance use, and complex health

  12. Religion, civil society and conflict: What is it that religion does for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different human interpretations of reality lead to a world consisting of multiple realities. Conflict occurs when differing realities (worldviews) encounter one another. Worldviews are ... Thus, a clear definition of both civil society and religion was needed to understand the nature of these relationships. The role of religion in civil ...

  13. Religion and mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behere, Prakash B.; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, the relation between religion and mental health and vice versa has been described. From primitive times different religions have different beliefs and systems of worshipping. Every religion with their belief system has implications on mental health and illness. We described how Hindu system of beliefs and rituals may have an effect in causation of various mental illnesses. It is also described how religion can help an individual to sustain one's life in various domains. The relationship between different religion and symptomatology is described. The impact and outcome of religion on mental health have been highlighted. PMID:23858253

  14. What is Religion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Sinding

    which can be analysed and compared across time and cultures, What is Religion? brings the most up-to-date scholarship to bear on humankind’s most enduring creation. The book opens with a brief history of the idea of religion, then divides the study of religion into four essential topics - types......, practices, and study of religion. Accessible, wide-ranging, engaging, and short, What is Religion? is written primarily for undergraduate students in the study of religion, but it will also be invaluable for students of anthropology, history, psychology, sociology, and theology as well as anyone interested...

  15. Religion, morality, evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Paul

    2012-01-01

    How did religion evolve? What effect does religion have on our moral beliefs and moral actions? These questions are related, as some scholars propose that religion has evolved to enhance altruistic behavior toward members of one's group. I review here data from survey studies (both within and across countries), priming experiments, and correlational studies of the effects of religion on racial prejudice. I conclude that religion has powerfully good moral effects and powerfully bad moral effects, but these are due to aspects of religion that are shared by other human practices. There is surprisingly little evidence for a moral effect of specifically religious beliefs.

  16. What is Religion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Sinding

    which can be analysed and compared across time and cultures, What is Religion? brings the most up-to-date scholarship to bear on humankind’s most enduring creation. The book opens with a brief history of the idea of religion, then divides the study of religion into four essential topics - types......, representations, practices, and institutions – and concludes with a final, eye-opening chapter on religion today. Packed with case studies from a wide range of religions, past and present, What is Religion? offers a very current, comprehensive, yet intellectually challenging overview of the history, theories...

  17. New Religions and Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen er en antologi af bidrag fra en konference under Research Network on New Religions (RENNER). Med bidrag fra specialister i nye religioner og globalisering fra hele verden introduceres empiriske resultater samt teoretiske og metodiske reflektioner over emnet....

  18. Religion and cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2008-01-01

    This is an introductory article in a special issue of a bulletin for researchers and teachers in religion in the USA. The article sketches the main positions and recent trends in the cognitive science of religion, and it attempts to attract scholars of religion to this field. It also profiles...

  19. Danish Regulation of Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet; Vinding, Niels-Valdemar

    Presentation and analysis of current and upcoming conflicts in relations between religion and family; labour market; religion in the public sphere and state support to religion. Part of a comparative European analysis in the context of www.religareproject.eu. based on 18 Danish elite interviews...

  20. Religion, Sexuality, and Internalized Homonegativity: Confronting Cognitive Dissonance in the Abrahamic Religions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meladze, Pikria; Brown, Jac

    2015-10-01

    This research was aimed at investigating how religious beliefs and internalized shame predicted homonegativity. An online survey, which consisted of a self-report questionnaire assessing religious orientation, internalized shame, and internalized homonegativity, was completed by 133 Caucasian and Asian gay men. The respondents also were asked to write a short answer in which they had to explain how they integrated their religion and sexual practices. The quantitative analyses of data demonstrated no significant difference in internalized homonegativity among the two cultural groups. Internalized homonegativity was predicted by the main Abrahamic faiths (i.e. Christianity, Islam, and Judaism) and internalized shame. Qualitative analysis showed that gay men who adhere to a monotheistic religious faith follow a different path to reconciling their religion and homosexuality compared to gay men who adhere to Philosophical/New Age religions or to gay men who have no religious faith. The implications of these findings as well as directions for future research studies were discussed.

  1. Religion, civil society and conflict: What is it that religion does for and to society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Beyers

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Human consciousness instinctively tries to make sense of reality. Different human interpretations of reality lead to a world consisting of multiple realities. Conflict occurs when differing realities (worldviews encounter one another. Worldviews are socially created and determine human behaviour and, as such, most often find expression in religion. The discussion of conflict and the role of religion in civil society take place within the discourse of the sociology of religion. Religion is socially determined. Peter Berger’s insight into the sociology of religion therefore plays an important role in establishing the relationship between religion and civil society as one that takes on different forms. Thus, a clear definition of both civil society and religion was needed to understand the nature of these relationships. The role of religion in civil society with regard to the presence of conflict in society was further investigated in this article. The conditions under which conflict in society occurs were discussed, as were the conditions for tolerance in society, for religion ultimately becomes the provider of moral discernment when conflict occurs in civil society.

  2. Religion, civil society and conflict: What is it that religion does for and to society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Beyers

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Human consciousness instinctively tries to make sense of reality. Different human interpretations of reality lead to a world consisting of multiple realities. Conflict occurs when differing realities (worldviews encounter one another. Worldviews are socially created and determine human behaviour and, as such, most often find expression in religion. The discussion of conflict and the role of religion in civil society take place within the discourse of the sociology of religion. Religion is socially determined. Peter Berger’s insight into the sociology of religion therefore plays an important role in establishing the relationship between religion and civil society as one that takes on different forms. Thus, a clear definition of both civil society and religion was needed to understand the nature of these relationships. The role of religion in civil society with regard to the presence of conflict in society was further investigated in this article. The conditions under which conflict in society occurs were discussed, as were the conditions for tolerance in society, for religion ultimately becomes the provider of moral discernment when conflict occurs in civil society.

  3. The Relationship Between Religion and Cinema in the Context of the Construction of a Harmonious World: “Life of Pi” Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asife ÜNAL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available By the very first movie in 1902, the first sound - on - movie in 1927 and the first Turkish movie in 1914, cinema is an important art form in our lives from 1895. Throughout the history of 120 years of cinema, as with all areas of life, has been a close relati onship with religion or religious phenomena directly or indirectly. This relationship has lead to positive or negative results but has been effective in each case. The movies like "The Message" which issues the spread of Islam and "The Passion” which issue s the last 24 hours of Jesus’ life are religious films. Beside them movies with subliminal messages also reveal how an important force lies to create religious perception created in this area... In this regard, one of the films that are surrounded by the i nfluence of Hinduism's belief in God “Life of Pi "is an important example. Life of Pi (2012 is an 4 Oscar - winning movie which adapted to the cinema by David Magee by Yann Martel's novel of the same name and directed by Ang Lee. In the movie Pi (Piscine Pa ttel is an Indian boy who struggles for survival in a lifeboat in the Pacific Ocean during 227 days with a Bengal tiger after the sinking of a ship. The movie has a clear message which “leads to belief in God”. Alongside this message it uses many metaphor s to impress the audience and gives a magnificent example for how religion could be used in the cinema. According to the film Pi is a boy questioning beliefs from childhood to find the meaning of life, to recognize God. It’s possible to see him as a child who wants to be a baptized Christian and prays like a Muslim besides being a Hindu. He is questioning a combination of religion. After his father’s quote "there is no difference between to believe in everything at the same time and nothing to believe in" h e understands that it’s not probable to be a follower of all beliefs, but this does not also mean to prevent from understanding the others. Today movies like

  4. Jaina religion and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gada, Manilal

    2015-01-01

    Jaina religion has existed for thousands of years. Lord Mahavir was the last of the 24 Tirthankaras, 23 having preceded him. The principals of Jaina religion teach us: (1) Self-control, which includes: (a) Control over physiological instinct of hunger and sex; (b) control over desires; (c) control over emotions; (2) meditation; (3) introspection; (4) concentration; and (5) healthy interpersonal relationship. The principles of Jaina Religion can contribute to Positive Mental Health.

  5. Jaina Religion and Psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Manilal Gada

    2015-01-01

    Jaina religion has existed for thousands of years. Lord Mahavir was the last of the 24 Tirthankaras, 23 having preceded him. The principals of Jaina religion teach us: (1) Self-control, which includes: (a) Control over physiological instinct of hunger and sex; (b) control over desires; (c) control over emotions; (2) meditation; (3) introspection; (4) concentration; and (5) healthy interpersonal relationship. The principles of Jaina Religion can contribute to Positive Mental Health.

  6. The return of religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Griffioen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Religion is back in Philosophy as a respectable subject. Part 1 first charts what MacIntyre, Taylor and Derrida have meant in this regard. Subsequently, it turns to the Enlightenment to determine what constituted the breakthrough. It is found that even where the Enlightenment gave maximum room to religion i.e. as a civic religion and as “religion of the heart” it still excluded a constitutive relation to a transcendent revelation. Part 2 centres on the religion-faith distinction in reformational philosophy. Similar to the Enlightenment, religion is understood as part of human nature. However, human nature itself is conceived as intrinsically religious and depending for its light on revelation. Secondly, “religion” in this context also encompasses idols and religious substitutes. Thus, it directs attention to shopping malls, football stadiums, health policy, et cetera, as possible contexts of a return of religion. Examples show that this has become a popular approach. However, most of the publications surveyed fail to distinguish between an “analogical” and a “pistically qualified” use of religion, and are open to exaggerations (the shopping mall and football stadiums as temples, etc.. At this junction, the relevance is shown of the religion-faith distinction as well as of Elaine Botha’s theory of metaphors. The epilogue offers an integration of parts one and two.

  7. Adherence to antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola Farinde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While major depression is considered a frequent mental illness there are ongoing reports of high non-adherence to antidepressant medications which places suffers at high risk for relapse, recurrence, or greater impairment,. The World Health Organization (WHO defines adherence as the extent to which a person′s behavior (e.g. taking medications can align with the agreed recommendations of a health care provider. Unfortunately while patient may recognize the importance of adherence to antidepressant medications the majority of patients do not adhere to their prescribed antidepressants. Some of the factors that may contribute to or lead to non-adherence include knowingly or unknowingly missing doses, taking extra doses, delaying administration times, or taking drug holidays. Pharmacists have the unique ability to deter non-adherence through the performance of continuous assessment and monitoring of adherence in this population given these accessibility. Additionally, pharmacists are able to develop therapeutic alliances with patients that can help to increase the likelihood of achieving positive patient outcomes. Antidepressant non-adherence can be viewed as a significant public health concern so it is important for patients to be educated about the importance of adherence, and health care professionals should be aware of factors or patient characteristics that can serve as barriers to non-adherence.

  8. Facilitating Religion in Life Orientation Programmes: Challenges for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article will argue that religion in education needs to change in order to fulfil the requirements of world trends in education, OBE in general, and the needs of learners in particular. A perspective on the integration of religion in Life Orientation or Life Skills programmes, especially in a developing multicultural society, will ...

  9. Teaching Religion in America's Public Schools: A Necessary Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passe, Jeff; Willox, Lara

    2009-01-01

    Religion plays an important role in social studies content and is difficult to ignore, especially because of current world events. In our global society, it is more important than ever to know about and understand the religious beliefs of others. The social studies curriculum is infused with religion, but teachers circumvent the issue, mistakenly…

  10. Religion and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Religion and politics provide an interesting juxtaposition. On the one hand, both may initially come across as rather self-evident categories, with religion dealing with human perceptions and what people hold as sacred, and politics addressing the control and governance of fellow human beings...

  11. Overview of religions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Nicky

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of 9 religions: Christianity, Judaism, Jehovah's Witnesses, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Christian Science, Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism, and Buddhism. Basic information on the origins, language, naming practices, diet, personal hygiene, and dress requirements is provided. For additional information, Web sites for each of these religions are also provided.

  12. Religion and cultural integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn; Ahlin, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The relations and possible causality between religion, ethnicity, and cultural integration is discussed using empirical data from survey on a group people with Vietnamese origin in Denmark......The relations and possible causality between religion, ethnicity, and cultural integration is discussed using empirical data from survey on a group people with Vietnamese origin in Denmark...

  13. Religion 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, René Dybdal

    17 artikler som hver især fremviser og diskuterer aktuelle temaer i forhold til religion i Danmark i dag......17 artikler som hver især fremviser og diskuterer aktuelle temaer i forhold til religion i Danmark i dag...

  14. Suicide and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Christopher C H

    2014-01-01

    Much of the evidence that religion provides a protective factor against completed suicide comes from cross-sectional studies. This issue of the Journal includes a report of a new prospective study. An understanding of the relationship between spirituality, religion and suicide is important in assessing and caring for those at risk.

  15. Religion and finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.; Baker, H.K.; Nofsinger, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals' economic attitudes are frequently observed to vary in a systematic manner with religious affiliation or religiosity. As a consequence, religion is also correlated with a range of financial-economic outcomes. Research has established the importance of religion at the macro-economic

  16. Art and Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shusterman, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Since the nineteenth century's interest in "art for art's sake," many thinkers have argued that art would supplant traditional religion as the spiritual locus of the increasingly secular society of Western modernity. If art can capture the sort of spirituality, idealism, and expressive community of traditional religions but without being ensnared…

  17. Ancient Greek Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albinus, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Oversigtskapitel til indføring i græsk religion, opdatering af forskningen inden for området.......Oversigtskapitel til indføring i græsk religion, opdatering af forskningen inden for området....

  18. Sekularisering og religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kirsten Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    Sammendrag: Sekularisering og religion: En studie i fortællingens nøglerolle i folkeskolens religionsundervisning Kirsten M. Andersen Ph.d. afhandling, indleveret ved institut for Uddannelse og Pædagogik, Aarhus Universitet, d. 23. oktober 2014 Indledning Afhandlingens sigte er at bidrage til en...... fortsat udvikling af religionsundervisningen i skolen ud fra en almen pædagogisk interesse. Skolen har sit eget formål og derfor må religion ombrydes, så den gøres pædagogisk. Religionshistorisk, religionssociologisk og antropologisk opfattes religion og kultur i et kontinuum. Det betyder, at religion...... fænomenologiske overvejelser over, hvorfor filosofien har behov for at formulere en religionshermeneutik med henblik på en almen pædagogisk begrundelse for skolens religionsundervisning. I Del: Kap. 2: Afhandlingen indledes med at indkredse og definere både religion og sekularisering som kulturelle og kollektive...

  19. Religion And Conflict: Religiously Driven Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Chifu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We are witnessing several trends in the post-modern world: Immigration and alienation in big cities, inadaptability at the second and third generation immigrants and some new forms of radicalization in Germany, France, the US. The second would be the phenomenon of convertion to either radical forms of religions, Jihadist ones – or so called “new religions” – Apocalyptic, Hedonistic or Satanist ones. The problem still stands in the hands of the big religions of the world. They became more and more commercial institutions – selling faith and moral comfort, and less – and less moral references models. That leads our citizens to move to find other alternatives, and falling in the hands of radical Islam, Jihadist sects and crocs in other types of cults and newly born religions.

  20. Adherence to a healthy diet according to the World Health Organization guidelines and all-cause mortality in elderly adults from Europe and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Nicole; Geelen, Anouk; Streppel, Martinette T; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Orfanos, Philippos; van den Hooven, Edith H; Pikhart, Hynek; Boffetta, Paolo; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bobak, Martin; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Kee, Frank; Franco, Oscar H; Park, Yikyung; Hallmans, Göran; Tjønneland, Anne; May, Anne M; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Kubinova, Růžena; Amiano, Pilar; Kampman, Ellen; Feskens, Edith J

    2014-11-15

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has formulated guidelines for a healthy diet to prevent chronic diseases and postpone death worldwide. Our objective was to investigate the association between the WHO guidelines, measured using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and all-cause mortality in elderly men and women from Europe and the United States. We analyzed data from 396,391 participants (42% women) in 11 prospective cohort studies who were 60 years of age or older at enrollment (in 1988-2005). HDI scores were based on 6 nutrients and 1 food group and ranged from 0 (least healthy diet) to 70 (healthiest diet). Adjusted cohort-specific hazard ratios were derived by using Cox proportional hazards regression and subsequently pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. During 4,497,957 person-years of follow-up, 84,978 deaths occurred. Median HDI scores ranged from 40 to 54 points across cohorts. For a 10-point increase in HDI score (representing adherence to an additional WHO guideline), the pooled adjusted hazard ratios were 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87, 0.93) for men and women combined, 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.92) for men, and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.95) for women. These estimates translate to an increased life expectancy of 2 years at the age of 60 years. Greater adherence to the WHO guidelines is associated with greater longevity in elderly men and women in Europe and the United States. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Hot Topics in Primary Care: Medication Adherence in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Real-World Strategies for Addressing a Common Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Stephen A; Polonsky, William H

    2017-04-01

    The importance of treatment adherence is well established, as poor adherence contributes to disease progression and increased morbidity and mortality. Analysis of 11,272 veterans with T2DM with a mean follow-up of 5 years showed that for each 10% increase in the medication possession ratio, the mean glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) decreased by 0.24%. Poor adherence also leads to increased health care resource utilization and costs, including more frequent hospitalizations. Conversely, while improved adherence increases medication costs, it can decrease overall health care resource utilization and costs. Improved medication adherence also contributes to improvement in diabetes-related quality of life.

  2. Science and religion: implications for science educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2010-03-01

    A religious perspective on life shapes how and what those with such a perspective learn in science; for some students a religious perspective can hinder learning in science. For such reasons Staver's article is to be welcomed as it proposes a new way of resolving the widely perceived discord between science and religion. Staver notes that Western thinking has traditionally postulated the existence and comprehensibility of a world that is external to and independent of human consciousness. This has led to a conception of truth, truth as correspondence, in which our knowledge corresponds to the facts in this external world. Staver rejects such a conception, preferring the conception of truth as coherence in which the links are between and among independent knowledge claims themselves rather than between a knowledge claim and reality. Staver then proposes constructivism as a vehicle potentially capable of resolving the tension between religion and science. My contention is that the resolution between science and religion that Staver proposes comes at too great a cost—both to science and to religion. Instead I defend a different version of constructivism where humans are seen as capable of generating models of reality that do provide richer and more meaningful understandings of reality, over time and with respect both to science and to religion. I argue that scientific knowledge is a subset of religious knowledge and explore the implications of this for science education in general and when teaching about evolution in particular.

  3. Shinto: The Traditional Religion of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Carol S.; Miley, Lois M.

    A lesson plan, divided into five learning activities, explores certain fundamental beliefs and practices associated with Shintoism, the ancient religion of the Japanese. It is designed for integration into a course on world cultures or global studies. The unit is organized to allow high school students an opportunity to observe the variety of ways…

  4. The religion paradox: if religion makes people happy, why are so many dropping out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed; Tay, Louis; Myers, David G

    2011-12-01

    As we estimate here, 68% of human beings--4.6 billion people--would say that religion is important in their daily lives. Past studies have found that the religious, on average, have higher subjective well-being (SWB). Yet, people are rapidly leaving organized religion in economically developed nations where religious freedom is high. Why would people leave religion if it enhances their happiness? After controlling for circumstances in both the United States and world samples, we found that religiosity is associated with slightly higher SWB, and similarly so across four major world religions. The associations of religiosity and SWB were mediated by social support, feeling respected, and purpose or meaning in life. However, there was an interaction underlying the general trend such that the association of religion and well-being is conditional on societal circumstances. Nations and states with more difficult life conditions (e.g., widespread hunger and low life expectancy) were much more likely to be highly religious. In these nations, religiosity was associated with greater social support, respect, purpose or meaning, and all three types of SWB. In societies with more favorable circumstances, religiosity is less prevalent and religious and nonreligious individuals experience similar levels of SWB. There was also a person-culture fit effect such that religious people had higher SWB in religious nations but not in nonreligious nations. Thus, it appears that the benefits of religion for social relationships and SWB depend on the characteristics of the society.

  5. Religion and nurses' attitudes to euthanasia and physician assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Joris; van den Branden, Stef; Broeckaert, Bert

    2009-05-01

    In this review of empirical studies we aimed to assess the influence of religion and world view on nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia and physician assisted suicide. We searched PubMed for articles published before August 2008 using combinations of search terms. Most identified studies showed a clear relationship between religion or world view and nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia or physician assisted suicide. Differences in attitude were found to be influenced by religious or ideological affiliation, observance of religious practices, religious doctrines, and personal importance attributed to religion or world view. Nevertheless, a coherent comparative interpretation of the results of the identified studies was difficult. We concluded that no study has so far exhaustively investigated the relationship between religion or world view and nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia or physician assisted suicide and that further research is required.

  6. When world views meet: religion and science in the formation trajectory of protestant students in a biological sciences teacher preparation course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sepulveda

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes how religious and scientific backgrounds interact in the educational development of protestant students enrolled in a teacher education undergraduate course in Biological Sciences, in the State University of Feira de Santana (UEFS, Brazil. The analysis was based on the mapping of the students’ conceptions of nature and the characterization of their strategies for managing the coexistence of scientific knowledge and religious beliefs in their world view. We employed as tools for gathering the data semi-structured interviews about conceptions of nature, adapted from the methods developed by William Cobern , and personal statements of the students about their lives. The treatment of the data involved, first, the construction of first person interpretive narratives, by means of an organization of literal passages of the interviews about conceptions of nature in order to arrange them in a coherent order which preserved, nevertheless, the students’ original discourse. These narratives were shown to each interviewee, so that he or she could verify the accuracy of the narrative as well as suggest possible modifications, introduced or not in the narrative after critical appraisal by the researchers. We built, then, general characterizations of the students’ conceptions of nature and science, and, also, of the strategies they were employing to manage the coexistence of their scientific and religious knowledge. The second procedure used for treating the data consisted in the construction of general characterizations of the students’ trajectories of religious and professional education, based on the personal statements. The results showed that protestant students react to the scientific discourse in different ways. It was possible to clearly discriminate, in the sample investigated, two distinct groups, one showing a total and systematic refusal of that discourse, the other apprehending it by means of a synthesis between

  7. Material Religion - Hinduism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Comprehensive bibliography on material religion in Hinduism. Monographs, anthologies, anthology chapters, journal articles, web articles, documentation on cultic elements of the landscape (mountains, rivers, trees, stones), three- and two-dimensional cultic artefacts, textiles, ritual accessories...

  8. Roman Religion and its Religiosity

    OpenAIRE

    小堀, 馨子

    2002-01-01

    This essay examines the intrinsic qualities of the "religiosity" of popular Roman religion in the period between the late republic and the principate, through a comparison of Roman religion and Shinto, the traditional religion of Japan. Firstly, in chapter 1, there is a review of issues specifically pertaining to Roman religion. The inherent religiosity of the Roman religious tradition has not been adequately evaluated due to difficulties surrounding the definition of the term "religion." The...

  9. SIMPLE LIFE AND RELIGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet YILDIRIM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals in terms of the economy in which we live is one of the most important phenomenon of the century. This phenomenon present itself as the only determinant of people's lives by entering almost makes itself felt. The mo st obvious objective needs of the economy by triggering motive is to induce people to consume . Consumer culture pervades all aspects of the situation are people . Therefore, these people have the blessing of culture , beauty and value all in the name of w hatever is consumed. This is way out of the siege of moral and religious values we have is to go back again . Referred by local cultural and religious values, based on today increasingly come to the fore and the Muslim way of life appears to be close to th e plain / lean preferred by many people life has been a way of life. Even the simple life , a way of life in the Western world , a conception of life , a philosophy, a movement as it has become widely accepted. Here in determining the Muslim way of life Pr ophet. Prophet (sa lived the kind of life a very important model, sample, and determining which direction is known. Religious values, which is the carrier of the prophets, sent to the society they have always been examples and models. Because every aspect of human life, his life style and the surrounding area has a feature. We also value his life that he has unknowingly and without learning and skills and to understand it is not possible to live our religion . We also our presentation, we mainly of Islam o utlook on life and predicted life - style, including the Prophet of Islam 's (sa simple life to scrutinize and lifestyle issues related to reveal , in short Islam's how life has embraced and the Prophet. Prophet's will try to find answers to questions reg arding how to live.

  10. First Handbooks on History of Religion and Comparative Religion Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barashkov Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important aspects of institutionalization of the religious studies in 1870– 1910s was the publishing of the fi rst handbooks on history of religion and comparative religion. The aim of the paper is to analyze methods and approaches of religious studies, as they described in these handbooks. The main characteristic of religion for the historians of religion was its universality. The most important methods, according to them, were historical approach, comparative approach, using of the notion «development». It is important, that we deal foremost with the «history of religion» in these handbooks, not with the «history of religions». Primitive religions were usually excluded from these handbooks, because they «have not history». First handbooks on history of religion often were edited in the series of theological handbooks, that’s why Christianity was described in them quite often as «higher» religion. Researches on comparative religion were based upon the history of religion. One of the main principles of comparative religion was that it should not deal with religious values, but only with a comparison of facts. The author concludes that scholars of religion nowadays should not only collect the facts, but also realize projects on the general history (theory of religion.

  11. Religion and morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ryan; Whitehouse, Harvey

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between religion and morality has long been hotly debated. Does religion make us more moral? Is it necessary for morality? Do moral inclinations emerge independently of religious intuitions? These debates, which nowadays rumble on in scientific journals as well as in public life, have frequently been marred by a series of conceptual confusions and limitations. Many scientific investigations have failed to decompose "religion" and "morality" into theoretically grounded elements; have adopted parochial conceptions of key concepts-in particular, sanitized conceptions of "prosocial" behavior; and have neglected to consider the complex interplay between cognition and culture. We argue that to make progress, the categories "religion" and "morality" must be fractionated into a set of biologically and psychologically cogent traits, revealing the cognitive foundations that shape and constrain relevant cultural variants. We adopt this fractionating strategy, setting out an encompassing evolutionary framework within which to situate and evaluate relevant evidence. Our goals are twofold: to produce a detailed picture of the current state of the field, and to provide a road map for future research on the relationship between religion and morality. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Religion and American Politics from a Global Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Froese

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Past findings and theory in the sociology of religion support two opposing perspectives concerning the influence of religion on American politics. Looking from within the United States, the commanding influence of religion on political rhetoric and voting patterns seems apparent. From a global perspective, the role that religion plays in American politics is less clear; in fact, one could argue that our political institutions are decidedly secular. I present support for both of these perspectives before turning to an international analysis of images of God using the Gallup World Poll. These data indicate the uniqueness of American religiosity and suggest that the ways in which religion affect politics in the United States is unusual for a post-industrial country. Namely, many Americans understand God as a political actor; because of this, American political culture mixes religious and political language with fervor, all while keeping church and state institutions separate.

  13. Correlation between religion and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingtao; Zhang, Xin; Shi, Rufeng; Liao, Hang; Chen, Xiaoping

    2018-01-25

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the relationship between religion and hypertension, as well as the theoretical mechanism through which religion exerts effect on hypertension. A MEDLINE literature search was performed on articles describing religion and hypertension (N = 543) excluding unqualified ones such as those without expected information, those neither correcting confounding factors nor matching the comparison groups and those reporting repeated trials. Eight extra articles from references of reviews were added to the included studies. Finally, 79 articles were formerly evaluated. Briefly, there are limited trials on correlation between religion and hypertension and their results are inconsistent. First of all, longitudinal investigations, especially the high-quality ones, are deficient. Secondly, studies evaluating religion as an integral are scarce, although they can assess religions most comprehensively. Third, few studies use several religious measurements that represent distinct dimensions of religion. Moreover, divergence exists among diverse populations, even if they are assessed by the same indicator. In addition, 59% studies are concerned with an unspecified species of religion, and Christianity is studied the most among those with a specific category of religion. Finally, the possible mechanism underlying religion and hypertension is complex, which can partially explain the different results among various populations. Comprehensive evaluation of a specific religion should be encouraged. In addition, for a specific population, the correlation between religion and hypertension should be examined particularly, even if similar investigations in other populations have been conducted. Finally, more evidence focused on the effects of distinct religions/sects is also required.

  14. Religion and family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Bojana; Hakim, Marwan; Seidman, Daniel S; Kubba, Ali; Kishen, Meera; Di Carlo, Costantino

    2016-12-01

    Religion is embedded in the culture of all societies. It influences matters of morality, ideology and decision making, which concern every human being at some point in their life. Although the different religions often lack a united view on matters such contraception and abortion, there is sometimes some dogmatic overlap when general religious principles are subject to the influence of local customs. Immigration and population flow add further complexities to societal views on reproductive issues. For example, present day Europe has recently faced a dramatic increase in refugee influx, which raises questions about the health care of immigrants and the effects of cultural and religious differences on reproductive health. Religious beliefs on family planning in, for example, Christianity, Judaism, Islam and Hinduism have grown from different backgrounds and perspectives. Understanding these differences may result in more culturally competent delivery of care by health care providers. This paper presents the teachings of the most widespread religions in Europe with regard to contraception and reproduction.

  15. Religion als soziale Deutungspraxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Lingen-Ali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: During the last decades, the topos religion transformed into a powerful category of difference, which is also relevant for educationsystems and settings. Religion as a tool to differentiate between subjects is linked with power and dominance and, thus,with ideas about the constructed identities of “the other”. With this respects, religion functions as a code to define in- andexclusions and mark “the other”, e.g. “the Muslim” in predominantly Christian societies in Europe. Critical theories on racismenable to recognize, describe and define these practices and their effects. They can provide a useful tool to question and challengeintercultural and interreligious educational approaches which potentially reproduce and, thus, strengthen cultural/religiousdifferentiations. DEUTSCH: Die Differenz- und Heterogenitätskategorie Religion hat sich in den letzten Jahren im europäischen und auch deutschsprachigenDiskursraum zu einer medial, wissenschaftlich und politisch wirkmächtigen Kategorie entwickelt. Dabei zeigt sich Religion sowohlals soziale Unterscheidungspraxis (auch in pädagogischen Arrangements, als auch als Mittel zur Identifikation und Charakterisierungbestimmter Gruppen und Individuen als religiöse Subjekte. Religion stellt in diesem Zusammenhang einen Zugehörigkeitscodedar, mit dem Personen als natio-ethno-kulturell Andere markiert werden, wie die Markierung von MuslimInnen durchAngehörige der mehrheitlich christlichen Dominanzgesellschaft zeigt. Rassismuskritische Ansätze ermöglichen es zumeist eherimplizit an Rassekonstruktionen anschließende Unterscheidungen zu erkennen und zu beschreiben, den Bedingungen ihres Wirksamwerdensnachzugehen sowie ihre Konsequenzen zu bestimmen. Eine rassismuskritische und migrationspädagogisch informierteReligionspädagogik ermöglicht AkteurInnen, weniger auf gewaltvolle Unterscheidungspraxen angewiesen zu sein undalternative Veränderungs- und Handlungsmöglichkeiten zu

  16. Understanding the anatomy of religion as basis for religion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article sprung from previous structural analyses of religion as onticity, but went somewhat further by placing more emphasis on encounters with the numinous as the core of religion, as well as on the dynamic character of religion. In doing so, this analysis methodologically transcended the limitations of a structuralist ...

  17. ethics, religion and humanity: rethinking religion in 21 century africa.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Thus, the intricate relationship among our three concepts: ethics, religion and humanity. In this paper therefore, we shall be grappling with such pertinent issues as, what is religion, what should constitute a right religion, should our religious practices be brought under ethical appraisal? Within the context of humanity, what is.

  18. Truth, body and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarl-Thure Eriksson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the words of welcome to the symposium on Religion and the Body on 16 June 2010. In a religious context ‘truth’ is like a mantra, a certain imperative to believe in sacred things. The concept of truth and falseness arises, when we as humans compare reality, as we experience it through our senses, with the representation we have in our memory, a comparison of new information with stored information. If we look for the truth, we have to search in the human mind. There we will also find religion.

  19. The mediatisation of religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarvard, Stig

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on recent advances in mediatisation theory, the article presents a theoretical framework for understanding the increased interplay between religion and media. The media have become an important, if not primary, source of information about religious issues, and religious information...... and experiences become moulded according to the demands of popular media genres. As a cultural and social environment, the media have taken over many of the cultural and social functions of the institutionalised religions and provide spiritual guidance, moral orientation, ritual passages and a sense of community...

  20. Jung, Religion og Samtid

    OpenAIRE

    Schjødt, Jacob; Bartholin, Frederik Schultz; Draiby, Petros Tobias Petropoulos

    2015-01-01

    In this project we ask how Carl Gustav Jung’s work Psychology and Religion can be read as a critique of his contemporary society and how this critique can be actualized in today’s Denmark. In doing this we have shown Jung’s placement in the field of religion studies. This is primarily done with a focus on the tradition that he took on from the philosopher and psychologist William James. William James was important to Jung in several ways. Especially James’ pragmatic methodology was importa...

  1. The Invisible Worlds of Religion and Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. ter Haar

    2012-01-01

    textabstractTwelve years ago I accepted my Chair at ISS with an inaugural lecture entitled Rats, Cockroaches and People Like Us, in which I discussed the relation between people’s views of humanity and actual human rights. In it I made a plea for an intelligent use of the wide range of religious and

  2. Loving All Your Neighbors: Why Community Colleges Need the Academic Study of Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maley, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explains how the study of world religions prepares the community college student to become a better citizen, worker, and neighbor. The effective middle between the pitfalls of religious relativism and religious dominance in a world religions classroom is central to this discussion of teaching critical thinking, empathy, and…

  3. State, religion and toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    to underline not only the broadmindedness and liberty of individuals or of groups, but also the relevant distinctions and arguments in political philosophy, epistemology, philosophy of religion and philosophical anthropology and their connection with educational issues. Through a discussion of these relations...

  4. African Journals Online: Religion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 6 of 6 ... Acta Theologica is an accredited, South African journal publishing independently reviewed research articles on broad Christian-theological and religion topics, aimed at a national and international academic audience/readership. The Editorial Board accepts and considers for possible publication articles in ...

  5. Religion: A Missing Component of Professional Military Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    which stem from prepoliti- cal sources,”41 and religion shares in the domain of the prepolitical. Religious Illiteracy The phenomenon of religious... illiteracy permeates western diplomatic, development, and military think- ing and policy. As an essential element, religion needs to be included in...Jessica Senehi, and Sean Byrne (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books , 2013), 2. 2. Eric Patterson, Politics in a Religious World: Building a Reli- giously

  6. [Religion and brain functioning (part 2): does religion have a positive impact on mental health?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornreich, C; Aubin, H-J

    2012-01-01

    Religion's impact on mental health has been largely studied, but results are often difficult to interpret due to methodological concerns: definition of religion and of spirituality ; measuring issues ; identification of specific components such as social dimension, cognitive schemas influencing world perception and meditating behaviors such as prayers. Furthermore, correlations between religious dimensions and mental health variables are too often considered as evidence of causality. Despite all those methodological problems, it appears that religiosity, defined as a global concept encompassing all aspects of religious life, might be a protective factor against several mental health problems, namely substance abuse, depression, suicide and anxiety disorders. This protective property isn't likely due to religions per se, but to associated components: risky behaviors' prevention due to shared moral standards, social support, sense of meaning, purposefulness and control, and meditation habits, exercising an inhibiting influence on chronic stress.

  7. Religion as a means to assure paternity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmann, Beverly I.; Kurapati, Nikhil T.; Hug, Brendan F.; Burke, Erin E.; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Hammer, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    The sacred texts of five world religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism) use similar belief systems to set limits on sexual behavior. We propose that this similarity is a shared cultural solution to a biological problem: namely male uncertainty over the paternity of offspring. Furthermore, we propose the hypothesis that religious practices that more strongly regulate female sexuality should be more successful at promoting paternity certainty. Using genetic data on 1,706 father–son pairs, we tested this hypothesis in a traditional African population in which multiple religions (Islam, Christianity, and indigenous) coexist in the same families and villages. We show that the indigenous religion enables males to achieve a significantly (P = 0.019) lower probability of cuckoldry (1.3% versus 2.9%) by enforcing the honest signaling of menstruation, but that all three religions share tenets aimed at the avoidance of extrapair copulation. Our findings provide evidence for high paternity certainty in a traditional African population, and they shed light on the reproductive agendas that underlie religious patriarchy. PMID:22665788

  8. Religion and political identification in Communist Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada Cristina IRIMIE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Orthodox Church has played, from the beginning of the twentieth century, a vital role in building the political architecture of the Romanian state. The establishment of a communist regime in Romania after World War I created a new modus vivendi between Church and State, and placed the Romanian Church’s activities under strict government supervision. This article will look at the role of the religion in the ethnic identity of Romanians, during the communist times. A historical outlook is necessary in understanding the foundation of religion in the Romanian state, thus the article provides a brief background on the role of the Church in the modern Romanian history. Then, the article will examine the unique norms of cooperation between religion and national communism built in Romania, during that period. Subsequently, this will help us observe the interplay between religion and ethnicity evidenced in communist Romania. The cases of the Serbian and the Lipovan Russian communities feature the complexity of this interaction. The goal of this paper is to offer an understanding of the relationship between religious and ethnic identities in Romania, during this particular period.

  9. Robert Bellah, religion og menneskelig evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Jørgen Lundager

    2013-01-01

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Introduction to and discussion of Robert Bellah's major book, Religion in Human Evolution (2011). which defines and describes tribal religion (religion in pre-state societies), archaic religion (religion in early states) and religious currents in the axial age, the period...... to engage in historical and comparative studies. DANSK RESUMÉ: Introduktion til og diskussion af Robert Bellahs hovedværk fra 2011, Religion in Human Evolution, der definerer og beskriver tribal religion, dvs. religion i før-statslige samfund, arkaisk religion, dvs. religion i tidlig-statslige kulturer samt...

  10. Diffused Religion and Prayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cipriani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It is quite likely that the origins of prayer are to be found in ancient mourning and bereavement rites. Primeval ritual prayer was codified and handed down socially to become a deep-rooted feature of people’s cultural behavior, so much so, that it may surface again several years later, in the face of death, danger, need, even in the case of relapse from faith and religious practice. Modes of prayer depend on religious experience, on relations between personal prayer and political action, between prayer and forgiveness, and between prayer and approaches to religions. Various forms of prayer exist, from the covert-hidden to the overt-manifest kind. How can they be investigated? How can one, for instance, explore mental prayer? These issues regard the canon of diffused religion and, therefore, of diffused prayer.

  11. Fantasy som religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen redegør for George Lucas' religionspædagogiske projekt med Star Wars og jediismens brug af Star Wars som religiøs tekst i en fantasybaseret religion. Afslutningsvist gives en række forslag til hvordan man kan anvende Star Wars og jediismen i folkeskolens religionsundervisning.......Artiklen redegør for George Lucas' religionspædagogiske projekt med Star Wars og jediismens brug af Star Wars som religiøs tekst i en fantasybaseret religion. Afslutningsvist gives en række forslag til hvordan man kan anvende Star Wars og jediismen i folkeskolens religionsundervisning....

  12. Religion, migration og integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn

    2010-01-01

    Sammenhængen mellem religion og integration har de sidste år været genstand for debat. Artiklen kommer ind på begreber og sammenhænge relateret til området (migration, diaspora, assimilation, etnicitet, kultur) og ser på religionens mulige rolle som negativ eller positiv ressource i integrationss......Sammenhængen mellem religion og integration har de sidste år været genstand for debat. Artiklen kommer ind på begreber og sammenhænge relateret til området (migration, diaspora, assimilation, etnicitet, kultur) og ser på religionens mulige rolle som negativ eller positiv ressource i...

  13. Religion og film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvithamar, Annika; Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen søger at stipulere en ramme for analyse af religion og film. Dels ved at række ud over den blotte konstatering af tilstedeværelse af religiøse elementer i film, dels ved at anslå en række temaer, der kan anvendes til analyse af sådanne film (individualisering, (de-)sekularisering, banal...

  14. Religion and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Barro, Robert J.; Rachel McCleary

    2003-01-01

    Empirical research on the determinants of economic growth has typically neglected the influence of religion. To fill this gap, we use international survey data on religiosity for a broad panel of countries to investigate the effects of church attendance and religious beliefs on economic growth. To isolate the direction of causation from religiosity to economic performance, we use instrumental variables suggested by our analysis of systems in which church attendance and beliefs are the depende...

  15. Religion and Morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between religion and morality has long been hotly debated. Does religion make us more moral? Is it necessary for morality? Do moral inclinations emerge independently of religious intuitions? These debates, which nowadays rumble on in scientific journals as well as in public life, have frequently been marred by a series of conceptual confusions and limitations. Many scientific investigations have failed to decompose “religion” and “morality” into theoretically grounded elements; have adopted parochial conceptions of key concepts—in particular, sanitized conceptions of “prosocial” behavior; and have neglected to consider the complex interplay between cognition and culture. We argue that to make progress, the categories “religion” and “morality” must be fractionated into a set of biologically and psychologically cogent traits, revealing the cognitive foundations that shape and constrain relevant cultural variants. We adopt this fractionating strategy, setting out an encompassing evolutionary framework within which to situate and evaluate relevant evidence. Our goals are twofold: to produce a detailed picture of the current state of the field, and to provide a road map for future research on the relationship between religion and morality. PMID:25528346

  16. Religion and body weight: a review of quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeary, Karen Hye-Cheon Kim; Sobal, Jeffery; Wethington, Elaine

    2017-10-01

    Increasing interest in relationships between religion and health has encouraged research about religion and body weight, which has produced mixed findings. We systematically searched 11 bibliographic databases for quantitative studies of religion and weight, locating and coding 85 studies. We conducted a systematic review, analysing descriptive characteristics of the studies as well as relevant religion-body weight associations related to study characteristics. We summarized findings for two categories of religion variables: religious affiliation and religiosity. For religious affiliation, we found evidence for significant associations with body weight in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In particular, Seventh-Day Adventists had lower body weight than other denominations in cross-sectional analyses. For religiosity, significant associations occurred between greater religiosity and higher body weight in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In particular, greater religiosity was significantly associated with higher body weight in bivariate analyses but less so in multivariate analyses. A greater proportion of studies that used a representative sample, longitudinal analyses, and samples with only men reported significant associations between religiosity and weight. Evidence in seven studies suggested that health behaviours and psychosocial factors mediate religion-weight relationships. More longitudinal studies and analyses of mediators are needed to provide stronger evidence and further elucidate religion-weight relationships. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  17. Religion and smoking: a review of recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrusi, Behshid; Nakhaee, Nouzar

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke are a major threat to human health worldwide. The effort to prevent tobacco use should be regarded as an important public health strategy. Given the significance of religion and spirituality in the daily life of more than 90% of the world's population, the relationship of religion and smoking should be seen as a critical research area. Religions are many and varied, but most value human well-being highly and so do not approve of tobacco use, even though they do not prohibit it entirely. In recent years, researchers have shown more interest in the subject of religion and health, including drug and tobacco use. Differences of focus and methodology notwithstanding, most studies have ascertained a deterrent role for religion as regards tobacco use, and several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the negative relationship between religion or spirituality and smoking. Many of the studies, however, suffer from shortcomings that need to be acknowledged and addressed, such as using nonstandard data-gathering tools, lack of a unified definition of religion or spirituality, and paucity of research in non-Christian and developing countries. Finally, the cross-sectional nature of many of the studies makes the meaningful interpretation of findings difficult.

  18. The Democratic Turn in the Secularism-Religion Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Bermejo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The revival of the religion in the new context of a global world-society, which is as modern as religious, doesn´t happen only as a sociological result of the dismantling of the postcolonial world –which denies the secularist forecast of the religion decline and provides the pluralism phenomenon with an unthought-of ethical and political complexity and virtuality– , but as a result of the modern reason crisis too, that makes reason rationally unable to justify political life relying on a rationalist ethical monism. The rationalist last foundation crisis affects as much the fundamentalist religious claims –which pretend to interpret the so called “religion resurgence or religion revival” in a “postsecular society” in a rapidly triumphal way, as the secularist claims which pretend to deny the religion any ethical and political virtuality in the public sphere. The democratic turn, antiauthoritarian and antidogmatic, coherently demanded within the context of the modern reason crisis by three well-known representatives of the postmetaphysical, hermeneutical and pragmatist philosophy, such as Vattimo, Habermas and Rorty, replaces the debate between secularism and religion on the basis of true questions with the other on the basis of solidarity questions.

  19. Religion and Development : Reconsidering Secularism as the Norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Carbonnier

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, religion as a key concept in the study and practice of development remained rather marginal in academic and public policy circles. As the notion and early theories of development were embedded in the Enlightenment and modernisation traditions, development studies have widely neglected religion. Given that the origins of development assistance trace back to missionary ventures and religiously inspired initiatives during the colonial era, this is something of a surprise. Today, faith-based organisations remain highly prominent actors in the aid industry. (… The lack of attention to religion and faith in development research and policy thus stands in stark contrast to the paramount role played by religion in the daily lives of individuals and communities, particularly in the most active field of international development cooperation, the developing world.

  20. On religion and language evolutions seen through mathematical and agent based models

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, M

    2011-01-01

    (shortened version) Religions and languages are social variables, like age, sex, wealth or political opinions, to be studied like any other organizational parameter. In fact, religiosity is one of the most important sociological aspects of populations. Languages are also a characteristics of the human kind. New religions, new languages appear though others disappear. All religions and languages evolve when they adapt to the society developments. On the other hand, the number of adherents of a given religion, the number of persons speaking a language is not fixed. Several questions can be raised. E.g. from a macroscopic point of view : How many religions/languages exist at a given time? What is their distribution? What is their life time? How do they evolve?. From a microscopic view point: can one invent agent based models to describe macroscopic aspects? Does it exist simple evolution equations? It is intuitively accepted, but also found through from statistical analysis of the frequency distribution that an ...

  1. Nietzsche – Psychologist of Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remedios Ávila Crespo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the following article is to fight some common misconceptions with respect to Nietzsche’s views on religion, and to show that these views are considerbly complex. Starting from the close relation between the human experience of suffering and the need for religion, as pointed out by Eliade, Freud and Schopenhauer, this essay focuses on the continuity between psychology and genealogy in Nietzsche’s analyses of religion and morality, it then responds to the questions about the essence, kinds and limits of the fact of religion, and ends by pointing out the different ontological status of Nietzsche’s principal philosophical positions.

  2. Storby og religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie Carøe

    2014-01-01

    Det kan diskuteres, hvor bogstavelig man skal tage forudsigelsen om sekularisering eller religionens forsvindende betydning, men i dag kan en nærmere undersøgelse af livet og infrastrukturen i storbyerne bekræfte, at religion som sådan ikke er forsvundet fra byernes offentlige rum. Kan København ...... den baggrund siges at være en post-sekulær by? Dette spørgsmål diskuteres på baggrund af migration og globalisering og via eksempler, som udgøres af islamisk mode i gadebilledet, og opførelsen af moskéer....

  3. Monotheistic religions capacities in the field of international culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ghasemnejad

    2015-09-01

    -building interaction and convergence of monotheistic religions. According to the foundation of the unity and devotion to the monotheistic culture such as human dignity, morality, justice, provinces, spirituality plays a role in shaping the international culture and the achievement of the internationally trained and educated, moral people who are supposed to build a statue of civilization World Unity. Based on the concept and model that offer international religions, cultures and religions capacity in international culture into Is divided basic capacity and Capacity superstructure. Religions interact with each other, interact with all world religions, providing basic and fundamental theology capacity monotheistic religions in the world of international culture. Integration of reason and revelation, combining the material and spiritual life, knowledge, power generation and wealth creation capacity of the international religious Superstructural. The study shows scriptures scriptures have the capacity for international culture. Fortunately, all of the capacity on the basis of religion and Islam Superstructural capacity discuss the most comprehensive and highest capacity in international culture.

  4. [Euthanasia through history and religion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajić, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Euthanasia represents an ethical, social, legal and medical issue, which is being disputed more and more frequently worldwide. In Serbia, it is illegal and punishable by law and subject to a prison sentence. Euthanasia verbatim, meaning "good death", refers to the practice of ending a life in order to relieve pain and suffering. It can be voluntary, when a person knowingly declares the wish to end life, and involuntary, when relatives and family make decisions on behalf of patients in coma. It can be active, when a person applies a medical procedure to end life and passive, when medical procedures which can extend a patient's life are not applied. EUTHANASIA THROUGH HISTORY: The term was known in old Greece, and Hippocrates mentioned it in his oath, which is now taken by all doctors in the world, by which they pledge not to apply a medicine which can lead to death of the patients, nor to give such counsel. Euthanasia had its most vigorous impetus in the mid-20th century when it was being carried out deliberately in Nazi Germany. All leading religions from Christianity, over Buddhism, to Islam, are directly or indirectly against any kind of euthanasia. EUTHANASIA TODAY: At the beginning of the 21st century, euthanasia was legalized in several most developed countries in the world, among them the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Japan, India and some American and Mexican federal states. The World Medical Association from 82 countries has condemned euthanasia, and called all medical workers who practice euthanasia to reconsider their attitudes and to stop this practice.

  5. The Distinction Between the Essence and Reality of Religion: Resolving an Ambiguity in the Method of Phenomenology of Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Zarvani

    2013-12-01

    always consciousness is “consciousness of something”.     Therefore, consciousness is product of ratio between “Noesis” (that is “experience of and attention to object of consciousness and “Noema” (that is “content of experience” or “object of intention” or “belonging of consciousness”. After the stage of epoche,  subject, in stage of "eidetic reduction", descript phenomena –as the matter of knowledge- makes them unequivocal and ideates simultaneously. The main point is that in this stage, what is constituted as essence is wholly different from objective and external reality of religion. Husserl, in stage of “transcendental reduction”, shifts the subject to phenomenological world.    Considering the intentional character of consciousness, every subject notices others in an intentional fashion, and I through a sympathetic procedure they try to make intersubjective reality in external world. But the phenomenologists of religion, influenced by Husserl`s phenomenology and principle of epoche, bracket the objectivist perspective of traditional theology of reality and suffice to subjective perspective. Unlike Husserl who emphasized on rational meditations in eidetic reduction, they stress empirically on “eidetic vision” and intuit historical and empirical phenomena of religion. Therefore, in this stage, they decode religious phenomena. The outcome of this stage is the uncovering of essence of religion, not that of the reality of religion. Moreover, phenomenologists of religion do not pay much attention to transcendental reduction and instead they prefer to be more concentrated on the principle of "sympathy" in the procedure of invention of intersubjective reality.    Musing on religious phenomena, phenomenologist imagines that other believers have religious consciousness and experiences like those ones he himself has. S/he tries to constitute the reality of religion by sympathizing with other believers. Due to the intentional

  6. The Distinction Between the Essence and Reality of Religion: Resolving an Ambiguity in the Method of Phenomenology of Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Ghaeminik

    2014-01-01

    always consciousness is “consciousness of something”.     Therefore, consciousness is product of ratio between “Noesis” (that is “experience of and attention to object of consciousness and “Noema” (that is “content of experience” or “object of intention” or “belonging of consciousness”. After the stage of epoche,  subject, in stage of "eidetic reduction", descript phenomena –as the matter of knowledge- makes them unequivocal and ideates simultaneously. The main point is that in this stage, what is constituted as essence is wholly different from objective and external reality of religion. Husserl, in stage of “transcendental reduction”, shifts the subject to phenomenological world.    Considering the intentional character of consciousness, every subject notices others in an intentional fashion, and I through a sympathetic procedure they try to make intersubjective reality in external world. But the phenomenologists of religion, influenced by Husserl`s phenomenology and principle of epoche, bracket the objectivist perspective of traditional theology of reality and suffice to subjective perspective. Unlike Husserl who emphasized on rational meditations in eidetic reduction, they stress empirically on “eidetic vision” and intuit historical and empirical phenomena of religion. Therefore, in this stage, they decode religious phenomena. The outcome of this stage is the uncovering of essence of religion, not that of the reality of religion. Moreover, phenomenologists of religion do not pay much attention to transcendental reduction and instead they prefer to be more concentrated on the principle of "sympathy" in the procedure of invention of intersubjective reality.    Musing on religious phenomena, phenomenologist imagines that other believers have religious consciousness and experiences like those ones he himself has. S/he tries to constitute the reality of religion by sympathizing with other believers. Due to the intentional

  7. Religion and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Juan Bottasso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ¿Las religiones son necesariamente violentas?Resulta evidente que en la actualidad, muchos de los conflictos, que ensangrientan el planeta, tienen un trasfondo religioso. El que aparece casi a diario en los noticieros es el que contrapone israelíes y palestinos (judíos contra musulmanes, pero con enorme frecuencia se habla también de actos terroristas llevados a cabo por fanáticos religiosos que no dudan en masacrar a civiles inocentes, en nombre de la divinidad. Debe ser bajo el efecto de estas informaciones que, cuando a fines de 2010 el Times de Londres preguntó a los lectores si consideraban la religión útil para la sociedad, éstos contestaron mayoritariamente de manera negativa. En la mira de los críticos se encuentran especialmente las religiones monoteístas, porque, al considerarse exclusivas poseedoras de la única verdad, están particularmente expuestas a la intransigencia, basadas en la premisa que el error no puede tener derechos.

  8. Religions Constructed as Similar or Different by Teachers of Religious Education from a Citizenship Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljestrand, Johan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically explore and theoretically discuss Swedish religious studies (RE) teachers' understanding of religions as similar and different. In Sweden, RE is a mandatory subject and presents all the world's major religions to students. Teachers of RE therefore need to relate to the various relations between the…

  9. Toledo Guiding Principles on Teaching about Religions and Beliefs in Public Schools: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Simona

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author provides an executive summary of the Toledo guiding principles on teaching about religions and beliefs in public schools in Spain. The Toledo Guiding Principles have been prepared in order to contribute to an improved understanding of the world's increasing religious diversity and the growing presence of religion in the…

  10. Spiritual abuse under the banner of the right to freedom of religion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The international endeavour to afford the right to freedom of religion to all world citizens is essential. This right ensures that people can choose their own religion and freely participate in the practice thereof. Although the conventions on religious freedom prohibit the use of unethical coercion in order to proselytise and retain ...

  11. Prolegomena to an International-Comparative Education Research Project on Religion in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolhuter, Charl

    2013-01-01

    Despite claims that the present age is a post-religious one, evidence is not hard to find of the force of religion in the lives of individual people, in societies and in national and world affairs. From the inception of schools millennia ago, religion and education have been closely entangled. The past fifty years witnessed momentous changes…

  12. The Science and Religion Wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singham, Mano

    2000-01-01

    The recent flap over the Kansas State Board of Education's decision to drop knowledge of evolution theory from its science standards has rekindled the perennial science/religion debate in education. This article examines mutual relationships of three knowledge structures (science, mainstream religion, and fringe beliefs) and the middle-ground's…

  13. Immigration and Religion in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2009-01-01

    An overview over legal framework for immigration into Denmark, special clauses on religion as a parameter for residence permit and asylum in churches......An overview over legal framework for immigration into Denmark, special clauses on religion as a parameter for residence permit and asylum in churches...

  14. Teaching Religion and Material Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carp, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    Because religions discipline and interpret bodies; create and define sacred spaces; generate, adore and study images in all media; regulate the intake of food; structure temporal experience; and in general interpenetrate and are permeated by the cultural landscapes in which they exist, religious studies must engage material religion and religious…

  15. Religion in Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, I develop a theoretical framework for the discussion of religion i Scandinavian crime fiction where I consider theories of transgression and religion. Secondly, I run through five relatively popular examples of Scandinavian crime fiction to show how this genre trend works. Lastly, I...

  16. Hegel and the Egyptian Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Jon Bartley

    2015-01-01

    H.s Behandlung der Religion des alten Ägypten gehört zu den faszinierendsten Analysen in seinen Vorlesungen über die Philosophie der Religion. Dieses Thema wird aber nicht nur in diesem Werk, sondern auch in den Vorlesungen über die Philosophie der Geschichte, in den Vorlesungen über die Philosop...

  17. The Potential of Religion in the Promotion and Implementation of the Concept of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Ryszard F.

    2017-12-01

    This article presents religion's potential where the promotion and implementation of the concept of sustainable development are concerned. First inspired by Lynn White in the 1960s, discussion on religion's role in the ecological crisis now allows for an honest assessment of the ecological potential of various religious traditions and their contribution to the building of a sustainable world. This article on the one hand points to the religious inspirations behind the concept of sustainable development, and on the other highlights the joint action of representatives of religion and science in the name of sustainable development, as well as the involvement of religions in the concept's implementation.

  18. Ambivalent Sexism and Religion: Connected Through Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczak, Małgorzata; Pietrzak, Janina

    2014-01-01

    Sexist attitudes do not exist in a limbo; they are embedded in larger belief systems associated with specific hierarchies of values. In particular, manifestations of benevolent sexism (Glick and Fiske 1996, 1997, 2001) can be perceived as a social boon, not a social ill, both because they are experienced as positive, and because they reward behaviors that maintain social stability. One of the strongest social institutions that create and justify specific hierarchies of values is religion. In this paper, we examine how the values inherent in religious beliefs (perhaps inadvertently) propagate an unequal status quo between men and women through endorsement of ideologies linked to benevolent sexism. In a survey with a convenience sample of train passengers in Southern and Eastern Poland (N = 180), we investigated the relationship between Catholic religiosity and sexist attitudes. In line with previous findings (Gaunt 2012; Glick et al. 2002a; Taşdemir and Sakallı-Uğurlu 2010), results suggest that religiosity can be linked to endorsement of benevolent sexism. This relationship was mediated in our study by the values of conservatism and openness to change (Schwartz 1992): religious individuals appear to value the societal status quo, tradition, and conformity, which leads them to perceive women through the lens of traditional social roles. Adhering to the teachings of a religion that promotes family values in general seems to have as its byproduct an espousal of prejudicial attitudes toward specific members of the family.

  19. Religion and Completed Suicide: a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Andrew; Wang, Jing-Yu; Jia, Cun-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a major public health concern and a leading cause of death around the world. How religion influences the risk of completed suicide in different settings across the world requires clarification in order to best inform suicide prevention strategies. A meta-analysis using search results from Pubmed and Web of Science databases was conducted following PRISMA protocol and using the keywords "religion" or "religious" or "religiosity" or "spiritual" or "spirituality" plus "suicide" or "suicidality" or "suicide attempt". Random and fixed effects models were used to generate pooled ORs and I2 values. Sub-analyses were conducted among the following categories: young age (Religion plays a protective role against suicide in a majority of settings where suicide research is conducted. However, this effect varies based on the cultural and religious context. Therefore, public health professionals need to strongly consider the current social and religious atmosphere of a given population when designing suicide prevention strategies.

  20. Television vampire fandom and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minja Blom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Popular culture and fandom provide a setting where people can reflect on the questions of life. A television show defines for many of its fans what it means to be human. It also discusses the way things are, and the way they should, or could, be in our reality. In this article the author shows that tele­vision shows Buffy the Vampire Slayer, True Blood and the Vampire Diaries have made the same kind of impact on their fans. The fan writings of Buffy the Vampire Slayer, True Blood and the Vampire Diaries show that these popular texts, and the communities they have formed, have greatly affected the lives of fans. People have found on their TV screens stories they can get strength and hope from. The vampire shows deal with the supernatural – vampires, werewolves, and witches – and place them in our contemporary world as if they are a natural part of it. Television vampire stories revolve around topics of death, good and evil, and humanity. These stories have created massive fan communities and even life changing fan experiences. The reflections upon existential questions, and the way the shows have empowered fans, make this phenomenon important to study in the context of today’s religions reality.

  1. Happiness in Economics as Understood Across Ism and Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghafar Ismail

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of happiness has been discussed long time ago by economists. Recently, it became the most related and important thing to be studied because of its impact in societies. Discussion about happiness basically interprets within two separate views. First, happiness related with economic variable, for instance, how money can create happiness. Second happiness is discussed within the context of religion. However, the discussion did not combine both contexts, economic variable and religion, to interpret happiness. Therefore, it is important to highlight the concept of happiness in a different way such as in this article. Different cultures will have their own perspective on the determination of happiness. From just “individual perspective” of happiness, they then formed an ism through involvement of a big society from the same culture. Some isms such as hedonism and materialism are synonyms in characterizing the concept of happiness in this modern world. At the same time, the isms are actually working with the economic and non-economic indicators as elements to strengthen the ism itself. On the other hand, the concept of happiness from the perspective of religion will also be a part of discussion in this article. Therefore, this article will reveal that the meaning of happiness is different in terms of religion and ism. So, to carry out both ism and religion simultaneously in shaping a more intrinsic value of happiness is not an easy task. Furthermore, religion is always associated with spiritual value that makes it hard for some people to practice religion and their isms at the same time. Thus, this article will propose that the right interpretation of isms based on their faith in religion can contribute to the concept of genuine happiness.

  2. Patient adherence and persistence with topical ocular hypotensive therapy in real-world practice: a comparison of bimatoprost 0.01% and travoprost Z 0.004% ophthalmic solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell JH

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Joanna H Campbell,1 Gail F Schwartz,2 Britni LaBounty,3 Jonathan W Kowalski,1 Vaishali D Patel1 1Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA; 2Greater Baltimore Medical Center and Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Principled Strategies, Inc., Encinitas, CA, USA Background: Effective control of intraocular pressure is predicated upon patient compliance with pharmacotherapy. We compared patient adherence and persistence with two new ocular hypotensive formulations, using real-world utilization data. Methods: This observational cohort study employed pharmacy claims data from the Source® Lx (Wolters Kluwer Pharma Solutions database. Patients with an initial (index prescription for topical bimatoprost 0.01% or travoprost Z (April to June 2011 and no claim for ophthalmic prostaglandin or prostamide analogs within the previous 18 months were identified. Treatment adherence was expressed as proportion of days covered with study medication during the first 365 days after the index prescription. Treatment persistence with study medication was assessed over the first 12 months using Kaplan–Meier survival analyses, allowing a maximum 30-day gap for prescription refill. Treatment status was determined monthly over this period. Results: A total of 12,985 patients were assessed for treatment adherence, and 10,470 for treatment persistence. Adherence was better with bimatoprost 0.01% than with travoprost Z (mean proportion of days covered 0.540 versus [vs] 0.486, P<0.001, and more patients showed high adherence (proportion of days covered >0.80 with bimatoprost 0.01% than travoprost Z (29.1% vs 22.3%, P<0.001. Continuous 12-month persistence was higher with bimatoprost 0.01% than with travoprost Z (29.5% vs 24.2%, P<0.001. At month 12, more patients were on treatment with bimatoprost 0.01% than travoprost Z (48.8% vs 45.7%, P<0.01. Similar findings were demonstrated in cohorts of ocular hypotensive treatment-naïve patients, branded

  3. De religione: How Christianity Became a Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Červenková

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Following the findings of contemporary theological and religious studies research, the present interdisciplinary study attempts to trace the process of adopting the originally Roman category of “religion” for referring to Christianity. The text notes, in particular, the socio-political role of religio in classical culture and the transformations that the relationship of the society of classical antiquity and the Christian community went through in the first centuries AD, especially the first Christian attempts at communication with the late classical Latin culture and the administrative structures of the Roman Empire. The adaptation of the category is traced back to Tertullian, whose conception appears to have fundamentally influenced later generations of Christians; the second part of the study therefore devotes considerable attention to his works. It is here that justified use of the category of “religion” in connection with the Christian tradition is first encountered, as an expression encompassing the doctrinal and philosophical, as well as ethical and liturgical aspects of Christianity. Analysis of the text of Tertullian’s Apologeticum shows how the apologetic literature of the second century AD conveys the Christian message in an exemplary and highly elaborate form, which serves the dual purpose of providing an adequate definition of the Christian religious identity and preserving it, as well as making it available to recipients of diverse contemporary cultural environments. De religione: Jak se křesťanství stalo náboženstvím Předkládaná interdisciplinární studie se v návaznosti na poznatky současného teologického a religionistického bádání snaží vystopovat proces převzetí původně římské kategorie „náboženství“ pro označení křesťanství. V textu se připomíná zejm. sociopolitická role religio v antické kultuře a proměny, jimiž procházel vztah antické společnosti a k

  4. Controversy or consensus? Recommendations for psychiatrists on psychiatry, religion and spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Peter J

    2012-12-01

    Although there is still a lot of controversy surrounding the debates on religion and psychiatry, working toward consensus based on clinical experience and research seems to be far more fruitful. DISCOURSE: The main idea in this contribution runs as follows. It is no longer appropriate to treat psychiatry and religion as enemies. It is argued here that they are in fact allies. This position is elucidated in the light of two statements. (1) The World Psychiatric Association, indeed representing world psychiatry, needs to change its position toward religion and psychiatry. It should do so by crossing narrow-minded scientific boundaries like reductionist and materialistic boundaries. (2) Science and religion should not be regarded as opposing adversaries against each other, but as allies against nonsense and superstition. Two recommendations are formulated. First, science-and-religion, and in our case psychiatry-and-religion, is not purely about description based on gathering evidence, systematic empirical testing and mathematical modeling. We need an approach of both descriptive and prescriptive aspects of our daily reality, not only how our world is, but also how it should be. Secondly, science-and-religion, in our case psychiatry-and-religion as allies should formulate sensible criteria and develop an appropriate attitude to discernment based on intellectual, moral and spiritual sincerity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. More than Mere Law: Freedom of Religion or Belief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsinger, Ellen S.

    2012-01-01

    Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights establishes that all people, simply because they are human, enjoy the right to freedom of religion and that governments have the obligation to ensure the protection of that right. Yet we witness a world increasingly divided by religious tradition. The failures of many governments to ensure…

  6. True religion and nation building: a biblical perspective | Obielosi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today, Nigeria seems to record the greatest number of sects and religions than her neighbours. Because of the crushing hardship bedeviling our nation, some seem to look up to God for solution. Some have created imaginary God and are living in utopian world. Most so called Men of God seize the opportunity to loot the ...

  7. On "spirituality," "religion," and "religions": a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazenby, J Mark

    2010-12-01

    With increasing research on the role of religion and spirituality in the well-being of cancer patients, it is important to define distinctly the concepts that researchers use in these studies. Using the philosophies of Frege and James, this essay argues that the terms "religion" and "spirituality" denote the same concept, a concept that is identified with the Peace/Meaning subscale of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy--Spiritual Well-being Scale (FACIT-Sp). The term "Religions" denotes the concept under which specific religious systems are categorized. This article shows how muddling these concepts causes researchers to make claims that their findings do not support, and it ends in suggesting that future research must include universal measures of the concept of religion/spirituality in order to investigate further the role of interventions in the spiritual care of people living with cancer.

  8. Rethinking the Space for Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What happens to people’s sense of belonging when globalization meets with proclaimed regional identities resting heavily on conceptions of religion and ethnicity? Who are the actors stressing cultural heritage and authenticity as tools for self-understanding? In Rethinking the Space for Religion....... The case studies exemplify how public intellectuals and academics have taken active part in the construction of recent and traditional pasts. Instead of repeating the simplistic explanation as a “return of religion”, the authors of this volume focus on public platforms and agents, and their use of religion...

  9. Religion and Ethnicity: Theoretical Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Y. Kim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The religion literature in Sociology remains largely disconnected from the ethnicity and immigration literature despite enduring connections between religion and ethnicity. This review helps to close this gap. It shows how the dominant theories in each discipline follow a similar trajectory and examines how exploring the theoretical connections between religion and ethnicity can advance our understanding of each social phenomenon. In particular, it can illuminate why America remains so religious as well as why America’s religious congregations continue to be so divided along ethnic and racial lines.

  10. Religion and culture: Revisiting a close relative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaco Beyers

    2017-01-01

    .... Culture, religion, anthropology, ethnography and reconciliation become central issues related to the conversation. My arguments supporting the relevance of ethnicity and culture in studying religion will be built around three main points: Cultural migrations; religion as cultural identity marker; and the location of religion within culture. It will, how...

  11. Religion, civil society and conflict: What is it that religion does for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldviews are socially created and determine human behaviour and, as such, most often find expression in religion. The discussion of conflict and the role of religion in civil society take place within the discourse of the sociology of religion. Religion is socially determined. Peter Berger's insight into the sociology of religion ...

  12. Adherence to a healthy diet according to the world health organization guidelines and all-cause mortality in elderly adults from europe and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jankovic, N.; Geelen, A.; Streppel, M.T.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de; Orfanos, P.; Hooven, E.H. van den; Pikhart, H.; Boffetta, P.; Trichopoulou, A.; Bobak, M.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Kee, F.; Franco, O.H.; Park, Y.; Hallmans, G.; Tjonneland, A.; May, A.M.; Pajak, A.; Malyutina, S.; Kubinova, R.; Amiano, P.; Kampman, E.; Feskens, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has formulated guidelines for a healthy diet to prevent chronic diseases and postpone death worldwide. Our objective was to investigate the association between the WHO guidelines, measured using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and all-cause mortality in elderly

  13. Portraits of Religion in Introductory American Government Textbooks: Images of Tolerance or Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Marie A.; Clark, April K.

    2013-01-01

    The link between religion and political tolerance in the United States, which has focused predominantly on Christianity, is replete with unfavorable images. Often, religious adherents (largely Evangelicals or the Christian right) are characterized as uneducated, poor, and white, suggesting that members of these groups may act in an intolerant…

  14. The sociologically acceptable definition of religion

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojević Mirko

    2004-01-01

    In this article the author has presented several important issues regarding the sociology of religion, but primarily the issue of the sociologically acceptable definition of religion both in theoretical and empirical research. Bearing in mind the sociology of religion in former Yugoslavia the author has first discussed the possibility of a general definition of the sociology of religion, but has stated the opposite view as well. Then he has dealt with the two basic approaches towards religion...

  15. [Epilepsy and religion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakken, Karl O; Brodtkorb, Eylert

    2011-07-01

    Throughout mankind's history, epilepsy has been perceived as a mysterious and supernatural disorder. People with epileptic seizures were seen either as demonic or holy. Here we present a survey of our current knowledge on the association between epilepsy and religion from a medical viewpoint. The article is based on a non-systematic search of the database PubMed, biographies of Wise-Knut, and the authors' own experiences. A number of people with epilepsy, particularly those with temporal lobe epilepsy, have reported experiencing religious feelings during their seizures. Some experience a feeling of perfect harmony, the presence of God or a state of ecstasy. Insula is probably of importance for the seizure semiology. Postictally, some may develop religious delusions that can last for several days. A subgroup have an interictal personality characterized by a preoccupation with philosophical or religious questions, as well as hypergraphia. Wise-Knut, who lived in the 1800 s, is a well known example of this in Norway. There is now some evidence that a number of religious people, including prophets, saints, and cult founders, may have had temporal lobe seizures. Using epilepsy as a model to explain spiritual experiences is controversial. However, temporal lobe epilepsy has probably influenced our religious and literary history more than has been previously acknowledged.

  16. The rules of implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axt, Jordan R; Ebersole, Charles R; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-09-01

    The social world is stratified. Social hierarchies are known but often disavowed as anachronisms or unjust. Nonetheless, hierarchies may persist in social memory. In three studies (total N > 200,000), we found evidence of social hierarchies in implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age. Participants implicitly evaluated their own racial group most positively and the remaining racial groups in accordance with the following hierarchy: Whites > Asians > Blacks > Hispanics. Similarly, participants implicitly evaluated their own religion most positively and the remaining religions in accordance with the following hierarchy: Christianity > Judaism > Hinduism or Buddhism > Islam. In a final study, participants of all ages implicitly evaluated age groups following this rule: children > young adults > middle-age adults > older adults. These results suggest that the rules of social evaluation are pervasively embedded in culture and mind. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Religion and Globalization in Laos Religion und Globalisierung in Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boike Rehbein

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available According to Eurocentric sociology, modernization is supposed to make religion secular, a functional system, or a private matter. A closer analysis of the impact of contemporary globalization on religion in Laos shows that these tendencies can only be observed in certain social groups and in certain realms of religion. Some social groups preserve or reinvent religious traditions, others construct a new identity, and some do tend towards secularism or differentiation. The paper investigates these tendencies, referring to an empirical case study. It proposes to explain them within a conceptual framework adapted to societies of the global South which focuses on the concepts of social structure, division of work, socioculture, and institution. On the basis of these concepts, the paper proposes to distinguish between different religious realms, namely, belief, performance, and knowledge. In each of these three realms, different tendencies and social distributions can be observed. Der eurozentrischen Soziologie zufolge wird Religion im Zuge der Modernisierung entweder säkularisiert oder privatisiert oder in ein funktionales System verwandelt. Eine genauere Analyse des Einflusses, den die gegenwärtige Globalisierung auf die Religion in Laos ausübt, zeigt jedoch, dass diese Tendenzen auf bestimmte soziale Gruppen und Aspekte der Religion beschränkt sind. Einige soziale Gruppen bewahren oder rekonstruieren religiöse Traditionen, andere konstruieren eine neue Identität und wieder andere tendieren zu Säkularisierung oder funktionaler Differenzierung. Der Aufsatz analysiert diese Phänomene am Beispiel einer Fallstudie auf der Basis eines an den globalen Süden angepassten Begriffsapparats, der um die Begriffe Sozialstruktur, Tätigkeitsteilung, Soziokultur und Institution kreist. Der Aufsatz schlägt vor, zwischen den religiösen Sphären des Glaubens, der Performanz und des Wissens zu unterscheiden. In jeder Sphäre lassen sich unterschiedliche

  18. Religions and extraterrestrial life how will we deal with it?

    CERN Document Server

    Weintraub, David A

    2014-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, the debate about life on other worlds is quickly changing from the realm of speculation to the domain of hard science. Within a few years, as a consequence of the rapid discovery by astronomers of planets around other stars, astronomers very likely will have discovered clear evidence of life beyond the Earth. Such a discovery of extraterrestrial life will change everything.  Knowing the answer as to whether humanity has company in the universe will trigger one of the greatest intellectual revolutions in history, not the least of which will be a challenge for at least some terrestrial religions. Which religions will handle the discovery of extraterrestrial life with ease and which will struggle to assimilate this new knowledge about our place in the universe? Some religions as currently practiced appear to only be viable on Earth. Other religions could be practiced on distant worlds but nevertheless identify both Earth as a place and humankind as a species of singular spiritual re...

  19. Religion and violence against nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lois Ann Lorentzen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of us are well aware of the environmental crisis of our day. Yet, scholars of religion or peace studies rarely consider en­vironmental issues when theorizing about violence. Why think about religion when we ponder environmental degradation? Religion provides a framework by which we can understand a group’s relationship to non-human nature and to actions on behalf of the environment. As is the case with human-to-human violence, religious ideology may also either encourage or discourage assaults on the environment. Taking religious traditions and actors into account, deepens our understanding of the contemporary environmental crisis and environmental struggles and movements, as is argued in this article.

  20. Religion and the Literary Critic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Potter

    1989-05-01

    Full Text Available In a recent article Jonathan Culler, condemned out of hand any use of religious terminology to define literature, seeing this as part of the destructive processes so-called “religion” has brought to American life. The article is an attempt to refute Culler by indicating, through an analysis of William Faulkner’s As I Lay Dying, that an attempt to reject all religion as being destructive or quaintly anachronistic (as Culler ultimately does seriously limits the capacity of the literary critic to explore works of literature. Evidence is brought forward to suggest that while Faulkner rejects the hypocritically pious type of religion as does Culler, he, unlike Culler, seems to be aware that religion is a much broader and deeper concept than this, exploring in an extremely positive way a type of experience universally accepted as religious, which has about it none of the qualities which Culler rejects.

  1. Sociology of religion and the occult revival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Ejerfeldt

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available The "new" that makes the cults of the occult revival to "new religions" of the Western world, is their recently increased social significance. Historically most of modern occultism is anything but new. From the research and theorizing about the occult revival we have picked up some main themes. The first is the social diffusion of the new occultism. In this field, we find some studies of superstition, especially astrology. These illuminate the differences in social connotation between the consumers of superstition and the followers of institutional religion. Secondly the study of the occult revival has made valuable contributions to the conceptualizing of "cult" and the cultic phenomenon. Thirdly, we will look upon the connection between the occult revival and the counter-culture. The problem of the rise of cults as a symptom of socio-cultural change will be briefly discussed with reference to Bell's thesis of "the disjuntion of culture and social structure". Lastly, we proffer some reflections on the occult revival and the new spiritual trends in the churches, which so sharply contrast with the theology and churchmanship of the sixties.

  2. Ethical religion in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torry, Malcolm

    2017-07-01

    Religion is increasingly significant in UK society, and is highly significant for many patients and primary care practitioners. An important task for the practitioner is to ensure that the place of religion in the patient/practitioner relationship is treated with the same ethical seriousness as every other aspect of that relationship. The article finds the 'four principles of biomedical ethics' to be applicable, and recent GMC guidelines to be consistent with the four principles. The article applies the four principles to the particular case of practitioners wearing religious symbolism.

  3. Understanding the anatomy of religion as basis for religion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-07-04

    Jul 4, 2011 ... in the broader community. A Professor of Theology of the Reformed Churches in South Africa, ... abounds with reports about parents and teachers involved in the battle on both sides. Some of the contending parties ... this heuristic enables me to look at religion as such and how it should be regulated in ...

  4. Grænser for religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüchau, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Paper om hvor og under hvilke betingelser danskerne finder religion acceptabel og/eller passende......Paper om hvor og under hvilke betingelser danskerne finder religion acceptabel og/eller passende...

  5. Religion in the public sphere: What can public theology learn from Habermas’s latest work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco S. Dreyer

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The complex and problematic role of religion in the public sphere in modern, democratic societies raises many questions for a public theology. The aim of this article is to contribute to the ongoing debate about the task and methods of public theology by asking what we can learn from the ideas of Jürgen Habermas. Habermas was a leading participant in the thinking process on the secularisation thesis in Western societies. His view was that religion will eventually disappear from the public scene due to the rationalisation of society. In recent years he seems to have changed this view in the light of new developments in the world. He now maintains that religion has something important to offer in the public sphere. Religion could thus participate in this public discussion, provided that it satisfies strict conditions. We argue that public theology can learn from Habermas’s recent ideas regarding religion in the public sphere: attention should be paid to the cognitive potential of religion, especially regarding the importance of the lifeworld and the role of religion in social solidarity with the needy and vulnerable; hermeneutical self-reflection is important; a distinction should be made between the role of religion in faith communities and in public life; we have to accept that we live in a secular state; and we have to learn the possibilities and impossibilities of translating from religious vocabulary into a secular vocabulary in order to be able to participate in the discussions in the public sphere.

  6. A philosophical approach to the 'religion - national mythology' synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomilova Nonka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the philosophical aspects of the 'religion - national mythology' synthesis. The main directions of the study are as follows: 1. Both on the individual and social plan, the orientation of the transcending universalizing power of religion could vary depending on the macro-social movements a community /or an individual/ is involved in. For the individual as for the community, religion could be a cultural position transcending ego and ethno-centrism, mono-cultural tendencies; in situations of internal differentiation and disintegration of these entities, the universalizing binding role of religion is partialized and determined by various social groups, who are often in opposition to each other due to their economic political, ethnic, psychological features; 2. This process is usually related to the invalidation of universally uniting religious-moral bonds and values and intensification of differences: power, property, doctrinal differences to a shift of the weight center from internal spiritual movements /particularly typical of mysticism, asceticism, priesthood/ on to practical social action - reformist heresies, the various practical theologies of revolution, liberation, the religious-motivated wars; 3. When reduced to an ethnic, political, or state emblem, religious affiliation to Judaism, Islam Orthodoxy, Catholicism, Protestantism has become and still remain a tool for the sacralization of military and political conflicts. In religion-motivated conflict situations, opposing parties de-sacralize their Sacred Books as their acts contradict the books' moral content; 4. The power of historical mythologies is in reverse proportion to the capacity of a nation to periodically renew its social life world - its psychological attitudes labour relations, political stereotypes; 5. In this type of situation religion is usually reduced to 'belonging', as G. Davie put it, at the expense of 'believing' and a corresponding moral behavior. The

  7. Prosociality and religion: History and experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Norenzayan et al. are praised for choosing to deal with significant questions in the understanding of religion. They are then criticized for refusing to define religion and for relying on problematic theoretical concepts. The authors discuss Abrahamic religions as the best-known prosocial religions, but the evidence shows that the case does not fit their conceptual framework. Finally, an extension of the authors' ideas about the meaning of priming effects is proposed.

  8. Real-world use of PCSK-9 inhibitors by early adopters: cardiovascular risk factors, statin co-treatment, and short-term adherence in routine clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairman KA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen A Fairman, Lindsay E Davis, David A Sclar Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, Midwestern University-Glendale, Glendale, AZ, USA Background: Inconsistency of real-world medication use with labeled indications may affect cost and clinical value of pharmacotherapy. PCSK-9 inhibitors are labeled in the US for use with statins to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD or familial hypercholesterolemia (FH. Objective: To assess consistency with labeled indications and treatment persistency for early (first 5 post-launch months adopters of PCSK-9 inhibitor pharmacotherapy. Methods: Retrospective analysis of commercially insured cohorts derived from the Truven Health MarketScan® database was performed. Subjects were aged 18–64 years, initiated PCSK-9 inhibitor or highest-intensity statin (rosuvastatin 40 mg/day or atorvastatin 80 mg/day pharmacotherapy from August to December 2015, and were enrolled throughout 2015 and during separate baseline (pre-treatment periods of 6 and 18 months. Baseline ASCVD, FH, and ASCVD events (myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack, and cerebrovascular occlusion were measured. Persistency was measured through December 2015 for subcohorts of patients initiating treatment from August to September 2015. Results: Baseline disease rates were higher for patients treated with PCSK-9 inhibitors (n=390 compared with highest-intensity statins (n=26,306: ASCVD (68.5% vs 33.4%, respectively; FH (39.7% vs 15.5%; both P<0.001. In 18 months pre-treatment, 35.6% of PCSK-9 inhibitor-treated patients had ≥1 ASCVD event, and 87.9% had a labeled indication. Rates of 60-day nonpersistency for PCSK-9 inhibitors and highest-intensity statins were 33.3% and 39.8%, respectively (P=0.207. During PCSK-9 inhibitor pharmacotherapy, 33.8% of patients had evidence of statin supply and, of those initiating treatment from August to September, 40

  9. WHAT IS RELIGION ? AN AFRICAN UNDERSTANDING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-24

    Oct 24, 2009 ... (Mbiti 1990:1). Krüger et al. (2009:35) concede to this fact: 'religions of black Africa are similar enough to talk of African. Religion in a generic sense. They also share a sufficient number of characteristics'. There seems to be a coherent philosophy underlying the different expressions of religion in Africa. The.

  10. Journal for the Study of Religion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal for the Study of Religion is published twice a year in March and September by the Association for the Study of Religion in Southern Africa as a forum for scholarly contributions of up to 6000 words on topics of contemporary significance in the academic study of religion, in the form of articles, responses to articles, ...

  11. The "Make Your Own Religion" Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Chad M.; Hege, Brent A. R.; Kleckley, Russell; Willsky-Ciollo, Lydia; Lopez, Davina C.

    2016-01-01

    The "Make Your Own Religion" class project was designed to address a perceived need to introduce more theoretical thinking about religion into a typical religion survey course, and to do so in such a way that students would experience the wonder of theoretical discovery, and through or because of that discovery hopefully both better…

  12. Studying Religion for Sustainable Development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria is a pluralistic society. This is evident in ethnicity, religion and culture; three concepts that are intertwined and yet different. Most of the conflicts experienced in Nigeria are blamed on these concepts, especially religion. Nigerians do not freely discuss religion. It is a volatile subject to be discussed as a national issue.

  13. Life Interpretation and Religion among Icelandic Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Gunnar J.

    2009-01-01

    Does religion play any specific part in Icelandic teenagers' life interpretation? This paper examines Icelandic teenagers' talk about religion and presents some of the findings in interviews with teenagers in a qualitative research project. The focus is especially on how three individuals express themselves about the influence of religion on their…

  14. Ideology, politics, and personality: shaping forces in Dutch psychology of religion, 1907-1957.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzen, Jacob A

    2009-08-01

    Although the academic establishment of the psychology of religion in the Netherlands has been stronger than in any other Western country, the start of these developments has been remarkably late (in 1957), especially when taking into account that Dutch academic life: (1) before World War II modeled itself after Germany (where psychology of religion flourished); and (2) was to a considerable extent included in the system of pillarization, which characterized Dutch society at large. The general factors that can be distinguished as having played an important role in the shaping of the situation for psychology of religion in the Netherlands had different impacts in the several universities under consideration.

  15. JOURNAL OF RELIGION 2014 CURVEEE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IK

    most fundamental questions regarding life, death and life hereafter. It confess sacred values on people, social laws and institutions, a cohesive and integrative element in society and above all, consoles man in crisis situations. Moreover, religion has produced religious leader in some communities who stand firm in the era ...

  16. Has Political Science Ignored Religion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettell, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A common complaint from political scientists involved in the study of religion is that religious issues have been largely overlooked by political science. Through a content analysis of leading political science and sociology journals from 2000 to 2010, this article considers the extent of this claim. The results show that political science…

  17. UFO Religions – Beginnings and Main Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Sinani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at UFO religions, and considers the major factors that have played a role in the emergence and development of these alternative religious movements - from reports of close encounters of the third and fourth kinds and science fiction production, to alternative ideological elaborations of contacts with extraterrestrial worlds. It looks at the basic theological premises, iconography, activities, and, more generally, cultural precepts of several UFO religious movements (the Aetherius Society, Heaven's Gate, Unarius, the Raelian movement. Attention is drawn to the religious connotations of UFO discourse, and its motifs of "otherness" and "supernaturalness". In addition, the relation between the roles and themes promoted within the contactee movement and the accounts of persons claiming to have been abducted by aliens is explored. Finally, the paper highlights the key existential questions and identifies the themes and motifs with which UFO religionists present themselves to the public.

  18. How to eat: 1 vegetarianism, religion and law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Kroeze

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The approach of Critical Legal Studies that law is a cultural artefact that can be criticised is taken as point of departure in this paper. This insight is applied to food as a very important cultural artefact that permeates virtually every aspect of our personal and social lives. The paper then examines three types of restrictive diets, namely Kosher food production, halal food rules and vegetarianism. From this study it concludes that all three perform a vital social function of providing adherents with a unifying and identifying set of rules to foster social coherence. But it also provides adherents with a strong moral foundation that serves to justify a sense of moral superiority. Most importantly, all three these diets rest on a modernist view of morality in which absolute, unquestioning and universal truths are possible. It therefore serves to provide certainty in the postmodern condition of uncertainty and relativism. For that reason this study concludes that vegetarianism is the new religion – it provides people who no longer believe in traditional religions with a new certainty.

  19. The Faith of Sacrifice: Leadership Trade-Offs in an Afro-Brazilian Religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Montserrat

    2016-12-01

    Despite secular trends in some countries, prestige-based authority in the form of religious leadership remains hugely influential in the everyday lives of millions of people around the world. Here, the costs and benefits of religious leadership are explored in an urban setting in northeastern Brazil. An economic game, within-group cooperation questionnaires, and social network analyses were carried out among adherents of an Afro-Brazilian religion. Results reveal that leaders display high levels of religious commitment and disproportionally provide cooperative services to group members. On the other hand, initiates cooperate less than leaders but do not differ in levels of received cooperation or social cohesion measures. This may indicate some level of exploitation or free-riding. Demographic and group variables also appear to play an important role in the degree of social cohesion a group achieves. These findings are discussed in the context of non-Western urban settings where religious leadership may represent both an alternative to social advancement and a crucial source of material aid, social support, and a strong sense of community.

  20. Sport, Religion and Charisma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Verner

    2017-01-01

    Since the end of the Second World War, the popularity of modern elite sport has grown immensely and so has the economical interests in sport. Athletes have become attractive advertising partners. Much money is at stake so it is understandable that companies are alarmed when their poster boys...... or girls are caught up in scandals. Inspired by a recent study, which found that stock return of primary team sponsors in cycling was not affected if the team was involved in doping scandals, this paper is an attempt to explain why athletes often maintain their marketing value even if they are exposed...... as bad role models. The thesis is that the attraction of athletes relates to the concept of ‘charisma’, and that the success of mass spectator sports is due to sport’s appeal to what psychologist Henry Rutgers Marshall by the end of the 19th Century in an article in Mind identified as man’s ‘religious...

  1. Religion, evolution, and mental health: attachment theory and ETAS theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen

    2010-09-01

    This article reviews the historical origins of Attachment Theory and Evolutionary Threat Assessment Systems Theory (ETAS Theory), their evolutionary basis and their application in research on religion and mental health. Attachment Theory has been most commonly applied to religion and mental health in research on God as an attachment figure, which has shown that secure attachment to God is positively associated with psychological well-being. Its broader application to religion and mental health is comprehensively discussed by Kirkpatrick (2005). ETAS Theory explains why certain religious beliefs--including beliefs about God and life-after-death--should have an adverse association, an advantageous association, or no association at all with mental health. Moreover, it makes specific predictions to this effect, which have been confirmed, in part. The authors advocate the application of ETAS Theory in research on religion and mental health because it explains how religious and other beliefs related to the dangerousness of the world can directly affect psychiatric symptoms through their affects on specific brain structures.

  2. POST-RELIGION: TRADITIONALISTS’ ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill M. Tovbin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study is to describe the phenomenon of post-religion as a specific spiritual sphere of the Post-modernity. Methodology. In the introduction analyzed a variety of methodological approaches, opening his inadequacy applied to the spiritual sphere of Post-modernity: «classic» religious studies, religious studies of traditional spiritual movements and the post-modern religious studies, partly produced Traditionalist school, could - according to the author's hypothesis - become a methodological basis for the most complete analysis of post-religion. Scientific novelty. In the main part of the article crystallized the authorized concept of post-religion, its relation with traditional and religious spiritual realms. Post-religion is positioned as the top of secularism enshrined in the departure from the straight and aggressive secularism of the Modernity, but without recourse to Tradition. Post-religion a simulation spirituality, skillfully imitating the outer areas of traditional spirituality and creates a planar religiosity, radically preventing attached to the vertical line of Traditions. In this regard, are the main artificially selected parameters of post-religion: deconstruction, splitting, virtualization, and collage. Deconstruction is a transformation of spirituality in semiotic set for egocentric selectivity of modern believer. Post-religion’s splitting is deprivation of spirituality center, destruction of sacral Center and the transformation of spirituality in the plane on which the intellectual and sensual wandering post-believer from one semiotic island to another. Virtualization is a displacement field of spiritual tension in a completely virtual area, isolated from the natural conditions of existence and created as his replacement, network discussion sites and galleries. Collage is an arbitrary combination of different semiotic pieces of Tradition with the aim of creating a believable picture of tradition; it is collage leads

  3. Crime fiction and mediatized religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    connected with modernity, modern society and ensuing secularity, but the question is, then, what happens to crime fiction if modern societies no longer uphold its trust in secular ideals. The thesis is that this leaves modern Scandinavian media open for a religious discussion which then also seeps...... into popular crime fiction. In novels by Arne Dahl, Henning Mortensen, Gunnar Staalesen, A.J. Kazinski, Gretelise Holm and several other Scandinavian writers of crime fiction it is possible to locate an interest in theology and topics of religious philosophy which reflects this current trend in modern...... Scandinavian media where religion has become mediatized. Consumers of popular culture no longer endorse confidence in institutionalized religion, but that does not mean that people are losing faith: Faith only seems to adjust itself and tiptoe into popular media and popular fiction. Hence, this paper seeks...

  4. Religion in Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    connected with modernity, modern society and ensuing secularity, but the question is, then, what happens to crime fiction if modern societies no longer uphold its trust in secular ideals. The thesis is that this leaves modern Scandinavian media open for a religious discussion which then also seeps...... into popular crime fiction. In novels by Arne Dahl, Henning Mortensen, Gunnar Staalesen, A.J. Kazinski, Gretelise Holm and several other Scandinavian writers of crime fiction it is possible to locate an interest in theology and topics of religious philosophy which reflects this current trend in modern...... Scandinavian media where religion has become mediatized. Consumers of popular culture no longer endorse confidence in institutionalized religion, but that does not mean that people are losing faith: Faith only seem to adjust itself and tiptoe into popular media and popular fiction. Hence, this paper seeks...

  5. From one Religion, the Other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Cauquelin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Takamoɭi, an extraordinary aboriginal scholar, has played an unusual role during the transition of Nanwang Puyuma religion from traditional shamanism to contemporary forms. Taking advantage of a childhood education in Japanese, and perhaps inspired by observing Japanese scholars’ interest in aboriginal traditions, Takamoɭi set about transcribing Puyuma rituals in the Japanese katakana syllabary. After his conversion to Catholicism, Takamoɭi incorporated the traditional sacred vocabulary in tr...

  6. Lived religion in a plural society: a resource or liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kaul

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently there is a renewed academic interest in religion bringing it back on the global political agenda. Religion in the post modern global order is fast emerging as a new organizing principle in the face of multi-polarity, trans-nationality and sweeping pluralisation of peoples. Contrary to the secularist self believe, the modern has failed to take over the tradition including religion. Rather a logical opposite seems to be happening, questioning the very presumptions of the modernity project. The present paper is a narrative on this creative tension in the religious modern and post modern. The paper is crafted into four sections. First section seeks to pin down the genesis of “religious” in the search for social order and consciousness beyond the material world. Second section deals with the unfolding of enlightenment project and its manifest consequence with the birth of secularism master theory. Third section delves deep into the immediate Indian religious lived experiences under foreign rule up to the sweeping spell of globalisation. Fourth and last part of the essay makes a case for universality of a multicultural world and religious secularism.

  7. Science, religion, and society: the problem of evolution in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Jerry A

    2012-08-01

    American resistance to accepting evolution is uniquely high among First World countries. This is due largely to the extreme religiosity of the United States, which is much higher than that of comparably advanced nations, and to the resistance of many religious people to the facts and supposed implications of evolution. The prevalence of religious belief in the United States suggests that outreach by scientists alone will not have a huge effect in increasing the acceptance of evolution, nor will the strategy of trying to convince the faithful that evolution is compatible with their religion. Because creationism is a symptom of religion, another strategy to promote evolution involves loosening the grip of faith on America. This is easier said than done, for recent sociological surveys show that religion is highly correlated with the dysfunctionality of a society, and various measures of societal health show that the United States is one of the most socially dysfunctional First World countries. Widespread acceptance of evolution in America, then, may have to await profound social change. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Patient adherence to subcutaneous IFN beta-1a injections using the RebiSmart® injection device: a retrospective real-world study among Dutch and German patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krol M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Marieke Krol,1 Gert de Voer,2 Ulrike Osowski3 1QuintilesIMS, Capelle aan den Ijssel, the Netherlands; 2Merck B.V., Schiphol-Rijk, the Netherlands; 3Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany Purpose: Long-term treatment adherence among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS is a general concern, with an established correlation with clinical efficacy. Closely monitoring patients’ treatment behavior may have a beneficial effect on adherence. This study assessed adherence, in daily life, to subcutaneous (sc IFN beta-1a, self-administered using the RebiSmart® electronic injection device (the IFN beta-Ia autoinjector device, in patients with MS. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective observational study analyzing treatment adherence based on injection data, eg, injection date and dose, extracted from the IFN beta-Ia autoinjector devices collected from patients in Germany and the Netherlands. Results: Data recorded in the period from 2007 to 2012 by the IFN beta-Ia autoinjector devices from 1,682 (79.7% from Germany, 20.3% from the Netherlands patients were analyzed. A mean of 94.8% of the multi-dose cartridges (containing sc IFN beta-1a for three injections were used completely, indicating a low incidence of application errors and drug wastage. The mean adherence rate was 90.7% and 82.9% over the entire observation period (mean treatment duration: 150.1 weeks. Median adherence rates were similar between German and Dutch patients (97.9% vs 99.0%. Conclusion: In daily clinical practice, patients using the IFN beta-Ia autoinjector device were highly adherent to sc IFN beta-1a. The injection data stored electronically in the device may help patients to adhere to treatment regimens and, if viewed by physicians, promote discussion of adherence issues with patients. Keywords: multiple sclerosis, injection device, IFN beta-1a, observational study 

  9. Religion and stock price crash risk: Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfei Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether religious traditions influence firm-specific crash risk in China. Using a sample of A-share listed firms from 2003 to 2013, we provide evidence that the more intense the religious environment, the lower the stock price crash risk, implying that religion plays an important role in Chinese corporate governance. Further, we find that (1 religion affects stock price crash risk by reducing earnings management and the management perk problem; (2 different religions have different effects, and Taoism, in particular, is unrelated to crash risk; and (3 the effects of religion are more pronounced with higher quality corporate governance and a stronger legal environment. Religion constrains the management agency problem, thus reducing stock price crash risk in China. Our paper enriches the literature on stock price crash risk and religion, and on new economic geography.

  10. The study of African traditional religion and its challenges in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Traditional Religion is the traditional religion of the African people before the coming of Islam and Christianity. However, the missionaries of the two foreign religions succeeded in converting some African people to the new religions. The African religion was condemned by the Early European scholars, travelers, ...

  11. Religion as a solvent: a lecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Flávio Pierucci

    Full Text Available Contrary to Durkheim, for whom the role of religion is to reconnect the individual with the society to which he belongs, this essay argues that nowadays religion's social power lies in its capacity to dissolve old religious bonds and lineages. Taking Max Weber's work as its base, the text maintains that the universal religion of individual salvation, the religious form that tends to predominate above all others, works as a device that disconnects people from their mother-culture.

  12. [Psychotherapy and Religion: A Representative Survey Among Psychotherapists in Southern Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Michael; Demling, Joachim Heinrich

    2016-12-01

    Objective: Religion and spirituality play an appreciable role as a problem area or as a resource for patients with mental disorders. It is therefore of interest what attitudes psychotherapists assume towards this complex range of issues in their work, but also in their personal lives. The majority of empirical studies on this subject originate from the USA, with little data being available from Europe and Germany. Our own survey among practising psychotherapists was designed to elucidate these questions. Method and Study Population: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the form of a written survey of all accessible practising psychotherapists in the area of Northern Bavaria (Franconian administrative districts; n=1 081, return rate 65%). Results: Around two-thirds of the therapists consider religion to be an important subject in psychotherapy, but only one-fifth of them routinely take a history of the patients' religious beliefs. The therapists' own closeness to religion correlates positively with the tendency to incorporate religion in their therapy. In around one-third of the therapists, religion holds an important place within their own world view, although significantly fewer psychotherapists than the general population of Franconia are bound to a specific confession. Around one-quarter had at least once consulted a pastor due to a patient, while each seventh therapist had at least once actively mediated contact to a pastor. Conclusions: Religion is a subject that is relevant for therapeutic practice, but a history of religious beliefs is rarely taken on a routine basis. The incorporation of religion into psychotherapy correlates with religious characteristics of the therapists ("personal bias"). There appears to be a "religiosity gap" between psychotherapists and the general population. Advanced training on the subject of "religion/spirituality" and increased consideration in supervision may counteract the danger of religious needs and religion

  13. Fiction-based Religion: Conceptualising a New Category against History-based Religion and Fandom

    OpenAIRE

    Davidsen, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, scholars of religion have researched Star Wars-based Jediism, the Tolkien-inspired Elven community, and other religious movements inspired by popular fiction. This article raises two related questions about this new kind of religion: what should we call it?, and what differentiates it from conventional religion on the one hand, and from fandom on the other? Referring to Jean Baudrillard, Adam Possamai has suggested referring to new religions based on popular culture as...

  14. Religion is natural, atheism is not

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.; Markússon, Gudmundur Ingi

    2010-01-01

    leaves room for atheism. This, the authors maintain, is true of both the by-product and adaptationist stances within the cognitive science of religion. In this context the authors also discuss the memetic or "unnaturalness" hypothesis, i.e. that religion is a "virus of the mind". The authors criticize...... its natural ability to take part in semiotic systems of signs, atheism emerges as a natural, cognitive strategy. The authors argue that to reach a fuller account of religion, the cognitive (naturalness) and memetic (unnaturalness) hypotheses of religion must be merged. Finally, a preliminary analysis...

  15. The three main monotheistic religions and gm food technology: an overview of perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omobowale, Emmanuel B; Singer, Peter A; Daar, Abdallah S

    2009-08-22

    Public acceptance of genetically modified crops is partly rooted in religious views. However, the views of different religions and their potential influence on consumers' decisions have not been systematically examined and summarized in a brief overview. We review the positions of the Judaism, Islam and Christianity - the three major monotheistic religions to which more than 55% of humanity adheres to - on the controversies aroused by GM technology. The article establishes that there is no overarching consensus within the three religions. Overall, however, it appears that mainstream theology in all three religions increasingly tends towards acceptance of GM technology per se, on performing GM research, and on consumption of GM foods. These more liberal approaches, however, are predicated on there being rigorous scientific, ethical and regulatory scrutiny of research and development of such products, and that these products are properly labeled. We conclude that there are several other interests competing with the influence exerted on consumers by religion. These include the media, environmental activists, scientists and the food industry, all of which function as sources of information and shapers of perception for consumers.

  16. The three main monotheistic religions and gm food technology: an overview of perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Public acceptance of genetically modified crops is partly rooted in religious views. However, the views of different religions and their potential influence on consumers' decisions have not been systematically examined and summarized in a brief overview. We review the positions of the Judaism, Islam and Christianity – the three major monotheistic religions to which more than 55% of humanity adheres to – on the controversies aroused by GM technology. Discussion The article establishes that there is no overarching consensus within the three religions. Overall, however, it appears that mainstream theology in all three religions increasingly tends towards acceptance of GM technology per se, on performing GM research, and on consumption of GM foods. These more liberal approaches, however, are predicated on there being rigorous scientific, ethical and regulatory scrutiny of research and development of such products, and that these products are properly labeled. Summary We conclude that there are several other interests competing with the influence exerted on consumers by religion. These include the media, environmental activists, scientists and the food industry, all of which function as sources of information and shapers of perception for consumers. PMID:19698118

  17. The three main monotheistic religions and gm food technology: an overview of perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Peter A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public acceptance of genetically modified crops is partly rooted in religious views. However, the views of different religions and their potential influence on consumers' decisions have not been systematically examined and summarized in a brief overview. We review the positions of the Judaism, Islam and Christianity – the three major monotheistic religions to which more than 55% of humanity adheres to – on the controversies aroused by GM technology. Discussion The article establishes that there is no overarching consensus within the three religions. Overall, however, it appears that mainstream theology in all three religions increasingly tends towards acceptance of GM technology per se, on performing GM research, and on consumption of GM foods. These more liberal approaches, however, are predicated on there being rigorous scientific, ethical and regulatory scrutiny of research and development of such products, and that these products are properly labeled. Summary We conclude that there are several other interests competing with the influence exerted on consumers by religion. These include the media, environmental activists, scientists and the food industry, all of which function as sources of information and shapers of perception for consumers.

  18. Religion, civil society and conflict: What is it that religion does for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-01

    Aug 1, 2011 ... Original Research http://www.hts.org.za doi:10.4102/hts.v67i3.949. Religion, civil society and conflict: What is it that religion does for and to society? Author: Jaco Beyers1. Affiliation: ... discussed, as were the conditions for tolerance in society, for religion ultimately becomes the provider of moral discernment ...

  19. Beyond Freud in psychoanalytic psychology of religion? On the discussion of religion as projection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    In 1907, Sigmund Freud initiated the psychoanalytic psychology of religion, until the present day the most important contributor to the psychology of religion literature in general, and the branch of psychological critique of religion best known outside of psychology circles (having drawn attention

  20. Post-religional perspective and secular Buddhism: Stephen Batchelor and the post-metaphysical religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Durazzo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present one of the contemporary trends on Buddhism, specially from the last decades in West, for its encounter with the globalized and dynamic context of present societies. This Buddhist trend, the progressive secularization of its traditions and practices, not to mention its increasing acceptance of historical-textual refutation, finds in Stephen Batchelor - a former monk in two different Buddhist traditions, Tibetan and Korean Zen - a catalyzer and a well-known advocate of secular perspective to the contemporary Buddhism. Here we will present the potential dialogue between the Secular Buddhism - besides the secularizing perspectives over orthodox cultural traditions - and the post-religional subject, as proposed by Marià Corbí and the Ecumenical Association of Third World Theologians. For the purposes of this paper we will focus on the modernizing and secular hermeneutics on Dharma practice, as defended by Stephen Batchelor and others.

  1. Religion and the Literary Critic

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, A M

    1989-01-01

    In a recent article Jonathan Culler, condemned out of hand any use of religious terminology to define literature, seeing this as part of the destructive processes so-called “religion” has brought to American life. The article is an attempt to refute Culler by indicating, through an analysis of William Faulkner’s As I Lay Dying, that an attempt to reject all religion as being destructive or quaintly anachronistic (as Culler ultimately does) seriously limits the capacity of the literary critic ...

  2. Kant and Demystification of Ethics and Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qodratullah Qorbani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Kant's demystification is meant to put away any metaphysical and revealed elements from ethics and religion. Kant, fulfilling this, first argues that metaphysical questions of reason, from theoretical aspect, have no certain answers. In practical reason, he establishes his moral foundations, based on own human being without any referring to metaphysical bases. In fact, Kant places human being as the base, legislator and finally the end of ethics, so that the totality of morality is depended on itself him/her and there is no moral reality out of our humanly understanding. Kant, then, by confirming the necessity of rational religion, believes that the age of revealed religions have been expired, since they were belonged to the childhood age of human being’s reason, while in Kant’s rational religion, this is human being’s subjective intellect that defines the nature and function of God. Therefore, for Kant’s moral and rational religion, there is no credibility for affairs like miracles, blessings and prayers, since they indicate religious misguidance. In Kant’s rational pure religion, the religion is relied on human being’s pure reason in which his/her reason is the only criterion of religious beliefs. Therefore, for Kant, religion means recognizing our duties as divine judgments, and that such religion pertains to our mundane life not for worshiping God in order to get his satisfaction or benefitting his grace. In short, Kant’s religion and morality are totally depended on our humanly and earthy rationality and understanding, and that there is no mystery out of our humanly willing. So the mysteries that are claimed by revealed religions are meaningless, since our reason, itself, determines the nature, function and virtues of God, moral axioms and religious beliefs.

  3. Patient's adherence in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillisen, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    Nonadherence in asthma treatment results in increasing mortality, morbidity, and it is associated with increasing treatment costs. In asthma, adherence rates are often below 50%. Understanding of the needs and behaviors of asthma patients as well as treatment barriers to comply with asthma guidelines is important in developing programs to promote adherence. This article presents information on common types of nonadherence in asthma patients, the causes, and it reviews the literature on interventions to overcome these factors to maximize adherence rates. Although several interventions are effective in improving medication adherence in asthma, only few significantly enhance adherence rates and clinical outcomes of these patients. An improvement in treatment adherence is a complex task, requiring asthma self-management, education programs coupled with educational reinforcements, simplifying treatment planes and applications forms. Good communications skills among clinicians and patient education are also central for improving adherence. Methods to overcoming physician barriers ensure consistency in implementing guideline recommendations in practice.

  4. Religion and the Rwandan genocide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard van’t Spijker

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the problems concerning the relation of religion and the genocide in Rwanda in 1990. One of the most urgent questions – formulated as an accusation by the present political regime in Rwanda – is whether religion and the influence of the churches and church leaders have, in fact, fuelled the genocide, or even was Christian missionary activity the ultimate cause of the genocide? In the broader circles of the present regime that articulate public opinion, it is argued that the presence of Christianity, more precisely the activities of the Roman Catholic Church, has not only contrib­uted to the possibility of the genocide, but has been at the root of the political constellation that led to the genocide, and that during the genocide, Church leaders were actively involved in it. In many documents, it is argued that the Rwandan genocide would never have taken place, if Christian mis­sions, particularly those of the Roman Catholic Church, had not been estab­lished in Rwanda. Related to this is the question of how the religious change after the genocide is to be interpreted, since in fact, after 1994, many new Christian communities have been founded, and a striking growth of Islam may be noticed.

  5. Criminalising defamation of religion and belief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorloos, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the role of criminal law in dealing with defamatory expressions about religion or belief. Defamation of religion and belief is a form of indirect defamation ‘via identification’ which, as the discussion about the Dutch group defamation law shows, stretches up the notion of

  6. Critical Exchange: Religion and Schooling in Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Given the complex and messy contexts of schooling, conversations between religion and schooling can be "admitted" as examples of the sort of situated conversation that goes beyond the "false necessity" of universal state-controlled school-based education. There are distinct claims to be made about religion and schooling in…

  7. Getting Religion Right in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to culture-war rhetoric from the Right, there is more student religious expression and more study about religion in public schools today than at any time in the last 100 years. And contrary to dire warnings from the Left, much of the religion that goes to school these days arrives through the First Amendment door. Of course, this isn't to…

  8. Towards a critique of indigenous African religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Strijdom

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is argued that a postcolonial critique of the colonial study of religion should not preclude a critique of indigenous African religion itself. The latter may be developed from a human rights perspective and a critique of exclusionary views of indigeneity. The argument is illustrated by means of specific case studies.

  9. Religion and depression in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, A.W.; Beekman, A.T.F.; van Tilburg, W.

    1999-01-01

    The recent increase in number of psychiatric epidemiological studies on the role of religion in late life depression suggests that its scientifical and clinical relevance is being re-evaluated. Most studies show that following religion is negatively associated with depression in later life, and

  10. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  11. DOES EVOLUTION REALLY THREATEN RELIGION?

    OpenAIRE

    Ostrowick, John

    2013-01-01

    • What is Creationism? Is it true?• What is The Theory of Evolution? Is it true?• Does theTheory of Evolution threaten religion generally? • Does it threaten some religions? • Does evolution help theism?  

  12. European Religious Education and European Civil Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearon, Liam

    2012-01-01

    This paper challenges a foundational conjecture of the Religion in Education Dialogue or Conflict (REDCo) project, that increased interest in religion in public and political life as manifested particularly in education is evidence of counter-secularisation. The paper argues that rather than representing counter-secularisation, such developments…

  13. Limits to expression on religion in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade conflicts about expression on religion have increased globally. Generally, these conflicts are regarded as a conflict between freedom of speech and freedom of thought, conscience and religion. In France there are many active religious interest groups that aim to protect a

  14. Votives, Places and Rituals in Etruscan Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etruscans were deemed “the most religious of men” by their Roman successors and it is hardly surprising that the topic of Etruscan religion has been explored for some time now. This volume offers a contribution to the continued study of Etruscan religion and daily life, by focusing on the less ex...

  15. Markus Davidsen on Fiction-Based Religions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Markus Altena

    2012-01-01

    Interview with Christ Cotter from the Religious Studies Project. The podcast can be foudn here: http://www.religiousstudiesproject.com/2012/04/02/podcast-markus-davidsen-on-fiction-based-religions/......Interview with Christ Cotter from the Religious Studies Project. The podcast can be foudn here: http://www.religiousstudiesproject.com/2012/04/02/podcast-markus-davidsen-on-fiction-based-religions/...

  16. Comparison in religion: a methodological contribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, C.A.M.; Sterkens, C.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    How do we build theory on religion in cross-religious research? This article deals with four methodological issues in answering this question. What are the goals of cross-religious comparison? What is the object of cross-religious research? What kind of definition of religion is used in

  17. Should religious naturalists promote a naturalistic religion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drees, Willem

    1998-01-01

    Religious naturalism refers here to a view of reality, and it will be contrasted with versions of supernaturalism and of atheistic naturalism. Naturalistic religion refers to certain varieties of religion, especially some inspired by the universality of science and the need for a global ethics. In

  18. Religion and Spirituality Along the Suicidal Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Erminia; Martin, Graham

    2008-01-01

    The inner experience of spiritual and religious feelings is an integral part of the everyday lives of many individuals. For over 100 years the role of religion as a deterrent to suicidal behavior has been studied in various disciplines. We attempt to systematize the existing literature investigating the relationship between religion/spirituality…

  19. Religion, Democratic Community, and Education: Two Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Mario Osbert

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the mediating role that education plays between religion and democratic community. The paper is situated in the Canadian context and examines this mediation through two questions: First, what is the relationship between religion and education and what is the contribution of this relationship to and within a pluralist society?…

  20. RELIGION IN FREUD’S APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukrimin Mukrimin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to examine the essence of religion by using Sigmund Freud’ psychoanalysis. It looks at the Freud’s theories: “the ontogenic” and “the phylogenenic”. The origins of religious and belief traditions, as Freud had mapped, are neurosis, precarious future, and religion’s masculine roots. Freud’s realist approach on religion brought a controversy on the study of religion, i.e., by associating his patients and order cultural phenomena (art, literature, and philosophy. His falsification over religion mad Freud as the most controversial man in his time. For Freud, the truth-value of religious doctrines does not lie within the scope of the present enquiry. It is enough for us, as Freud asserts that we have recognized them as being, in their psychological nature, illusions. Key Words: religion, Freud, philosophy, psycho-analysis.

  1. Religion and bioethics: toward an expanded understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Howard; Macdonald, Arlene

    2013-04-01

    Before asking what U.S. bioethics might learn from a more comprehensive and more nuanced understanding of Islamic religion, history, and culture, a prior question is, how should bioethics think about religion? Two sets of commonly held assumptions impede further progress and insight. The first involves what "religion" means and how one should study it. The second is a prominent philosophical view of the role of religion in a diverse, democratic society. To move beyond these assumptions, it helps to view religion as lived experience as well as a body of doctrine and to see that religious differences and controversies should be welcomed in the public square of a diverse democratic society rather than merely tolerated.

  2. Religion and Suicide Risk: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Ryan E; Oquendo, Maria A; Stanley, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Although religion is reported to be protective against suicide, the empirical evidence is inconsistent. Research is complicated by the fact that there are many dimensions to religion (affiliation, participation, doctrine) and suicide (ideation, attempt, completion). We systematically reviewed the literature on religion and suicide over the last 10 years (89 articles) with a goal of identifying what specific dimensions of religion are associated with specific aspects of suicide. We found that religious affiliation does not necessarily protect against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts. Whether religious affiliation protects against suicide attempts may depend on the culture-specific implications of affiliating with a particular religion, since minority religious groups can feel socially isolated. After adjusting for social support measures, religious service attendance is not especially protective against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts, and possibly protects against suicide. Future qualitative studies might further clarify these associations.

  3. FEATURE OF ISLAM WHICH IS DISTINGUISHED FROM OTHER RELIGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Omar Moftah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The few people who do not understand the meaning of nationalism and the easiness of religions try to attack nationalism by the name of religion without comprehending the sublime meanings of Islam, which have made holy nationalism and called for easiness and facilitation. Easiness and facilitation is considered the first feature of the Islamic civilization, one aspect of its manifestations, and the first that encourages its acceptance by way of its carrying values, legislations, manners and cultural patterns. The importance of this paper is to show easiness and facilitation that Muslim civilization brought and applied in reality. Such feature is what proved such civilization’s reality and by which it won amazing bets in wars of challenge and interaction with the other world civilizations. Due to this, the inductive and historical approach has been adopted to show Islam’s easiness and facilitation. Among the results of this paper is the revelation that Islam put the first universal statement in rights of citizenship without discriminating between followers of religions, doctrines, race, or color. Also, easiness in Islam has established social solidarity: the rich give the poor; and the orphan seeks all Muslims as fathers caring for him.

  4. Religion and the secularisation of health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, John

    2009-07-01

    To assess the claim that conceptualisations of religion and spirituality should be grounded in theology, and acknowledge the global resurgence of religion. Although there is widespread agreement in the nursing literature that 'spirituality' is a broader concept than 'religion,' and should be understood generically, this approximate consensus has occasionally been challenged. A recent paper by Barbara Pesut and colleagues argues that the generic view not only empties spirituality of powerful religious symbols and narratives, but underestimates the continuing social influence of religion, and its resurgence on a global scale. Accordingly, these authors suggest three principles for conceptualising spirituality and religion in health care, one of which is that conceptualisations should be grounded in philosophical and theological thinking, and should not ignore the global resurgence of religion. Critical review. The Pesut principle privileges theology, disregarding other disciplines which theorize religion. Arguably, it privileges specifically Christian theology, the history of which suggests a politics of orthodoxy and an epistemology of authority and obedience. The global resurgence of religion is not, in fact, global, as the industrialised countries have experienced a marked shift towards secular-rational values; and the postindustrial phase of development is associated with self-expression values, which represent a challenge not merely to religious institutions (arguably an affirmation of 'spirituality') but to traditional elites and structures of all kinds. Finally, religion 'resurgent' is not an attractive model for health care, since many of its most obvious manifestations are incompatible with the ideology of health professionals. In the secular societies of Europe, if not North America, there should be no expectation that nurses provide spiritual care. It is a requirement of the great separation between civil order and religion that the health services, as a

  5. Lynn White Jr. and the greening-of-religion hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bron; Van Wieren, Gretel; Zaleha, Bernard Daley

    2016-10-01

    Lynn White Jr.'s "The Historical Roots of Our Ecologic Crisis," which was published in Science in 1967, has played a critical role in precipitating interdisciplinary environmental studies. Although White advances a multifaceted argument, most respondents focus on his claim that the Judeo-Christian tradition, especially Christianity, has promoted anthropocentric attitudes and environmentally destructive behaviors. Decades later, some scholars argue contrarily that Christianity in particular and the world's predominant religions in general are becoming more environmentally friendly, known as the greening-of-religion hypothesis. To test these claims, we conducted a comprehensive review of over 700 articles-historical, qualitative, and quantitative-that are pertinent to them. Although definitive conclusions are difficult, we identified many themes and dynamics that hinder environmental understanding and mobilization, including conservative theological orientations and beliefs about the role of divine agency in preventing or promoting natural events, whether the religion is an Abrahamic tradition or originated in Asia. On balance, we found the thrust of White's thesis is supported, whereas the greening-of-religion hypothesis is not. We also found that indigenous traditions often foster proenvironmental perceptions. This finding suggests that indigenous traditions may be more likely to be proenvironmental than other religious systems and that some nature-based cosmologies and value systems function similarly. Although we conclude White's thesis and subsequent claims are largely born out, additional research is needed to better understand under what circumstances and communication strategies religious or other individuals and groups may be more effectively mobilized to respond to contemporary environmental challenges. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Reign and Religion in Palestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Anne

    Ancient Jewish coinage is one of the few material sources offering detailed insight into the political developments taking place throughout a specific period of ancient Jewish history. Jewish coinage was minted and issued in Palestine, along-side a number of other local coinages, almost consistently...... political messages. Accordingly, the visual appearance of the coinage was subject to continuous alterations. In this book, the iconography of the Jewish coinage as a whole and especially its sacred content is examined in order to shed light on the identities of the issuing authorities, their motivation...... and the political messages they wished to communicate. As religion was a highly complex aspect of the Jewish interrelations with other cultures, the utilization of sacred iconography is not only a precise indicator of cultural-religious affiliation, but also of cultural-religious changes occurring in the Jewish...

  7. Remarriage Timing: Does Religion Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohe Xu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using pooled data from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG 2006–2010, we examine the effects of denominational affiliation, worship service attendance, and religious salience on remarriage timing. Survival analyses indicate that both men and women affiliated with conservative Protestant faith traditions are significantly more likely than their unaffiliated and Catholic counterparts to remarry at an accelerated pace following divorce. Results further show that, net of religious affiliation and socio-demographic characteristics, worship service attendance accelerates remarriage timing, whereas the effects of religious salience are weaker or unobserved. These results are largely consistent with prior research on denominational variations in the timing of first marriage and underscore the robust influence of religion on the institution of marriage.

  8. RELIGION AND PURIFICATION OF SOUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Khodashenas Pelko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Jainism emphasizes three major teachings about the purification of the soul (jiva, Ahimsa, Aparigrapha and anekantwad. Jainism, The focus of this religion has been purification of the soul by means of right conduct, right faith and right knowledge. The ultimate goal of Hinduism is Moksha or liberation (total freedom. In Hinduism, purification of the soul is a goal that one must work to attain. The Buddhism is the science of pursuing the aim of making the human mind perfect, and of purifying the human soul. The knowledge of purifying of the soul and softening of the hearts is as essential for human. They having the correct motivations means purifying our souls from hypocrisy, caprice, and heedlessness. The primary goal of Taoism may be described as the mystical intuition of the Tao, which is the way, the undivided unity, and the ultimate Reality. According to the Christianity access to truth cannot be conceived without purity of the soul

  9. Methodological remarks on studying prehistoric Greek religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Pakkanen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodological approach to the study of Greek religion of the period which lacks written documents, i.e. prehistory. The assumptions and interpretations of religion of that time have to be based on archaeological material. How do we define religion and cultic activity on the basis of primary archaeological material from this period, and which are the methodological tools for this difficult task? By asking questions on the nature and definition of religion and culture scholars of religion have provided us with some methodological apparatus to approach religion of the past in general, but there are models developed by archaeologists as well. Critical combination of these methodological tools leads to the best possible result. Archaeology studies the material culture of the past. History of religion studies the spiritual culture of the past. In the background the two have important theoretical and even philosophical speculations since they both deal with meanings (of things or practices and with interpretation.

  10. Religious Market and Market as Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Mo Sung

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The theory of the religious market begins with the observation of religious pluralism and comes to the conclusion that, in this situation, religion becomes a matter of personal or family choice and it is established a situation of competition among religions subordinated to the logic of the market economy. Thus, religions reduced to the sphere of private life can no longer perform the traditional role of religions in legitimizing the whole social order. This article analyzes the thesis of the subordination of religion to the logic of the market economy and puts forward the hypothesis that the traditional function of the religion of "absolutizing the relative and legitimizing the arbitrary" is exercised today by the capitalist market system itself; and, because of that, the logic of the market economy has become the "natural” way of thinking today, even to think about religion. To this purpose, it dialogues mainly with the thought of P. Berger, P. Bourdieu, M. Weber, W. Benjamin, K. Marx, F. Hinkelammert and H. Assmann, showing how the theme of faith in and sacralization of market appears in discourses of economists.

  11. Religion Beyond God : Relocating the Sacred to the Self and the Digital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.D. Aupers (Stef); D. Houtman (Dick)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe ambition of the present paper is to theorise processes of re-enchantment in the modern western world by drawing on Max Weber’s and Emile Durkheim’s classical sociological insights on modernity, meaning and religion. Our aim in doing so is not only to demonstrate how much the latter

  12. Ideology, politics and personality: shaping forces in Dutch psychology of religion, 1907-1957

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Although the academic establishment of the psychology of religion in the Netherlands has been stronger than in any other Western country, the start of these developments has been remarkably late (in 1957), especially when taking into account that Dutch academic life: (1) before World War II modeled

  13. Religion and parental values in a secularized country : Evidence from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieben, I.J.P.; Halman, L.C.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The authors explore the impact of religion on two key parental values – obedience and autonomy – in contemporary Dutch society, one of the most secularized countries in the world. Three main religious dimensions are investigated: belonging (religious denomination), behaving (church attendance) and

  14. Religion as Cuckoo or Crucible: Beliefs and Believing as Vital for Citizenship and Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Brian E.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of motivational beliefs and, more specifically, religion, is identified as central for both citizenship and citizenship education. Whether they take an expressly religious form, or appear in a purportedly more open form, such as faith or world view, beliefs are at the core of human being. The tendency to speak more of shared values…

  15. Religion is the Opium of the People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esther Oluffa

    2015-01-01

    Marx is notorious for his claim that religion is the opium of the people and thus become famous as one of modern thought's most uncompromising critics of religion. In this article I look deeper into the philosophical connotations of Marx's opium metaphor by presenting and discussing other prominent......Marx's shift from 1845 onwards to a focus on economic theory. The interpretation also underscores that even though Marx thought the criticism of religion was in the main complete within German philosophy he continued to make use of religiously coloured language in order to further the revolutionary agenda...

  16. Religion, spirituality, positive youth development, and thriving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Pamela Ebstyne; Carr, Drew; Boitor, Ciprian

    2011-01-01

    Issues of spirituality and thriving are pertinent to the period of adolescence given the marked changes in body, mind, and relationships. In order to provide an overview of the relationship between religion, spirituality, and positive youth development, this chapter offers a developmental systems perspective and proposes a relational spirituality as a framework for understanding adolescent religious and spiritual development. In addition, the chapter examines various psychological mechanisms through which religion and spirituality may promote positive youth development. Existing empirical research on the relationships between adolescent religion, spirituality, thriving, and specific indicators of positive youth development is reviewed. Finally, future directions for continuing to build the field of study are discussed.

  17. From the History of Religions to the Study of Religion in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim; Geertz, Armin W.

    2014-01-01

    on methods and theories slowly began to have a greater impact, and from the mid-80s and especially mid-90s, also due to conscious efforts not least in Aarhus, methodological issues gained in importance. A turn towards contemporary religion also became evident. Today it may be claimed that a kind of balance......The history of the academic study of religion in Denmark resembles developments in other Nordic and European countries as it has moved from a primarily historical-philological and comparative ‘history of religions’ towards a broader ‘study of religion(s)’ that includes history of religions together...... has been achieved whereby historical and empirical studies of religions go hand in hand with theoretical and methodological reflections, and where a balance between, on the one hand, more classical comparative history of religions materials and approaches, and, on the other hand, new and different...

  18. The Justifications for War and Peace in World Religions. Part III: Comparison of Scriptures from Seven World Religions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    signed by Marko Jovanovic Marko Jovanic for Chair, Knowledge and Information Management Committee © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada...la présente étude a permis de faire ressortir des valeurs fort diversifiées allant du pacifisme absolu qui interdit tout recours à la force armée...fondamentaux des textes sacrés, la présente étude a permis de faire ressortir des valeurs fort diversifiées allant du pacifisme absolu qui interdit tout

  19. Religion in education in South Africa: was social justice served ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The promulgation of South African policy regarding the place of religion in public education was delayed until 2003, after a lively debate. The National Policy on Religion in Education effectively banned confessional, sectarian religion from public schools, but allowed for the teaching of Religion Studies as an academic ...

  20. Adherence to ART in PLWHA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women were less adhering than men and adherence was related to depression among drug users (10). A study in. Brazil showed the cumulative incidence of non- adherence to be 36.9% (11). Adherence among patients in Soweto, South Africa was 88% (12). In Cape Town;. 63% of patients maintained adherence levels of ...

  1. Subjective well-being in the new China: religion, social capital, and social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunsong; Williams, Mark

    2016-12-01

    We present the first nationally representative evidence on the relationship between religion and subjective well-being for the case of China. Research on Western societies tends to find a positive association between being religious and level of well-being. China provides an interesting critical case as the religious population is growing rapidly and the religious and socioeconomic environments are profoundly different from Western societies, implying different mechanisms might be at work. We hypothesize to find a positive association between religion and well-being in China too, but argue social capital, for which strong evidence is often found in Western societies, is unlikely to be an important mechanism because religion in China is generally non-congregational. Instead, we argue that the private and subjective dimension of religion matters for well-being in China by helping adherents have an improved sense of social status relative to the non-religious in the context of rapid social change and growing inequality. Our results generally support these predictions. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  2. Determinants of Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence among Women in Southern Malawi: Healthcare Providers’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbochi McKinney

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to explore healthcare providers’ perspectives on antiretroviral (ART adherence in two ART clinics in southern Malawi. Nonadherence to ART is a significant hindrance to the success of HIV/AIDS treatment. Methods. A one-on-one semistructured interview was conducted with eight healthcare providers in two ART clinics in rural and urban southern Malawi. The interviews were focused on factors facilitating or hindering ART adherence and strategies to improve adherence. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and content-analyzed with the use of the constant comparison approach. Results. Of the eight participants, 63% were between the ages of 20 and 30 years and 37% were HIV counselors. Factors facilitating adherence include patients’ belief and knowledge, HIV/AIDS education, and a supportive network. Barriers to adherence include discrimination, nondisclosure of HIV status, food insecurity, medication side effects, religion, misinformation, and staff and drug shortages. Strategies to improve adherence were identified by participants to include nutritional/food supplementation for malnourished or undernourished patients and patient counseling. Conclusions. There is a need for collaborative efforts between healthcare providers, patients, and faith-based organizations to identify and address hindrances and facilitators to patients’ adherence. Further research is needed to develop strategies addressing religion, staff, and drug shortages.

  3. Journal of Religion and Human Relations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Religion and Human Relations (JORAHR) is an academic journal with focus on religious and human relations issues, but accommodates researches from other disciplines within academic spectrum. The African continent is the main focus.

  4. Spirituality and Religion in Modern Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Darpan Kaur Mohinder; Ajinkya, Shaunak

    2012-01-01

    Man has always yearned for a higher sense of belonging in life. Since ancient ages, human beings have tried to examine and evaluate the relationship between spirituality, religion and medicine. The interface of spirituality, quality of life and mental health is fascinating and sublime. Religion and spirituality play an essential role in the care giving of patients with terminal illnesses and chronic medical conditions. Patient's needs, desires and perspectives on religion and spirituality should be addressed in standard clinical care. Ongoing research in medical education and curriculum design points towards the inclusion of competence, communication and training in spirituality. There are structured and reliable instruments available for assessing the relationship between spirituality, religion and health in research settings. Intervention based scientific studies in the arena of spirituality and modern medicine are needed. Further research should be directed towards making modern medicine more holistic. PMID:23723556

  5. Religion, Psychology and Globalisation Process: Attitudinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion, Psychology and Globalisation Process: Attitudinal. Appraisal. Emmanuel Orok Duke. Lecturer, Department of Religious and Cultural Studies. University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria. Abstract. A key consequence of globalisation is the integrative approach to reality whereby emphasis is placed on interdependence.

  6. The religion under the rule of aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto da Silva Moreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the modern process of aestheticization of culture and religion as consequent unfolding of the expansion of market rationality to the subjective life and the libidinal sphere of subjects. Its main objective is to inquire about the future of religion under the impact of sensation seeking culture and the inflation of aesthetics. Firstly, with the help of Türcke, Welsch, Foucault and Schultze´s investigate the aestheticization process of of social life, its causes and characteristics; Secondly, following Dufour, Türcke Leiss, Kline, Jhally e Welsch, it asks how the dynamics of aesthetical impacts the daily life and the bio-psychic economy of people; thirdly, it applies the results obtained to the analysis of what is happening with religion under the regime of aesthetics and sensational culture. Finally, it asks about the possible emancipatory potential of aestheticized own religious experience and tries to draw some further consequences for religion in the aesthetic field.

  7. Indian rituals bypass racism to revile religion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giago, Tim

    1991-01-01

      Sham rituals, such as the wearing of feathers, smoking of peace pipes and beating of tom-toms, not only border on racism, but they also are direct attacks upon the spirituality, or religion, of the Indian people...

  8. Journal of Religion and Human Relations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Religion and Human Relations. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Journal of Religion and Human Relations: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Rev. Dr. Enoch Patrick Nmah Editor-in-Chief Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Department of Religion and Human Relations P.M.B. 5025. Unizik Awka Nigeria Phone: 08033500348. Email: frches@yahoo.com ...

  10. Journal of Religion and Human Relations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Religion and Human Relations. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 3 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Journal of Religion and Human Relations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Religion and Human Relations. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 2 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Journal of Religion and Human Relations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Religion and Human Relations. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 5 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Journal of Religion and Human Relations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Religion and Human Relations. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 5 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. The Effects of Religion on Enduring Marriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Mullins

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article adds to recent literature in the study of religion and marriage by examining older couples’ use of religion as a cultural repertoire in enduring marriages. The study includes qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with 43 married, Christian couples. Couples reported four predominant social contexts that gave sacred meanings to their marriage: prayer, worship services and sermons, first-rite rituals and communion. These social contexts magnify sacred meanings within religious cultural repertoires by enhancing older couples’ perceptions of their marriages as sacred through formal and public recognition of their marriage longevity, lauding their marriage longevity as a blessing from God to be emulated, promoting religious meanings of familism and giving positive marriage outcomes sacred meanings. Negative effects of religion on marriage outcomes occurred among older couples when lived experiences of religion conflicted with their cultural expectations for enduring marriages.

  15. Digital Religion, Social Media and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contributions on religion and computer-mediated communication cohere around the question: how will core religious understandings of identity, community and authority shape and be (re)shaped by the communicative possibilities of Web 2.0?...

  16. Conceptualising spirituality and religion for healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesut, Barbara; Fowler, Marsha; Taylor, Elizabeth J; Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Sawatzky, Richard

    2008-11-01

    To discuss some of the challenges of conceptualising spirituality and religion for healthcare practice. With the growing interest in spirituality in healthcare, has come the inevitable task of trying to conceptualise spirituality, a daunting task given the amorphous nature of spirituality, the changing understandings of spirituality among individuals and the diverse globalised society within which this task is taking place. Spirituality's relationship to religion is a particularly challenging point of debate. Critical review. Three social and historical conditions - located in the context of Western thought - have contributed to current conceptualisations of spirituality and religion: the diminishment of the social authority of religion as a result of the Enlightenment focus on reason, the rise of a postmodern spirituality emphasising spiritual experience and current tensions over the ideological and political roles of religion in society. The trend to minimise the social influence of religion is a particular Western bias that seems to ignore the global megatrend of the resurgence of religion. Current conceptualisations are critiqued on the following grounds: that they tend to be ungrounded from a rich history of theological and philosophical thought, that a particular form of elitist spirituality is emerging and that the individualistic emphasis in recent conceptualisations of spirituality diminishes the potential for societal critique and transformation while opening the door for economic and political self interest. Constructing adequate conceptualisations of spirituality and religion for clinical practice entails grounding them in the wealth of centuries of philosophical and theological thinking, ensuring that they represent the diverse society that nursing serves and anchoring them within a moral view of practice.

  17. Religion, spirituality and psychiatry: steps towards rapprochement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbott, John

    2004-06-01

    To consider the claim that there is a fundamental epistemological conflict between religion and psychiatry over what constitutes rational explanation, and what impediment this might be to rapprochement between the two. An epistemological gap most certainly exists, but there is a growing acceptance of the importance of religion and spirituality to psychiatry. Rapprochement may best be achieved by increasing psychiatric awareness and knowledge of the issues, and by a willingness to embrace intellectual, cultural and religious pluralism.

  18. Kosovar Society through Secularism and Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Dritero Arifi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will analyze the importance and the effects of religion, in Kosovar society. A great part of the paper, will analyze the social and the political relations in Post-War Kosovo. Initially it will elaborate religion and secularism, especially in theoreticall aspect, what impact have these definitions in modern societies. In order to explain what the importance of the religion in Kosovo is, we will focus on analyzing ethnical, social and political relations within Kosovo society. A considerable component of the paper is also, the elaboration of secularism in Kosovo conditions. This implies that the formulation of the problem and the objective of this research, are the substance of the paper’s theme, which is, religion in Kosovo; its definition and the outlook of the Kosovar society on religion. Is Kosovo post-war society more or less religious? That means the elements of Religions and Secularism will be part of the analysis of developments in post-war Kosovo.

  19. Religion and Completed Suicide: a Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Andrew; Wang, Jing-Yu; Jia, Cun-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Suicide is a major public health concern and a leading cause of death around the world. How religion influences the risk of completed suicide in different settings across the world requires clarification in order to best inform suicide prevention strategies. Methods A meta-analysis using search results from Pubmed and Web of Science databases was conducted following PRISMA protocol and using the keywords “religion” or “religious” or “religiosity” or “spiritual” or “spirituality” plus “suicide” or “suicidality” or “suicide attempt”. Random and fixed effects models were used to generate pooled ORs and I2 values. Sub-analyses were conducted among the following categories: young age (Religion plays a protective role against suicide in a majority of settings where suicide research is conducted. However, this effect varies based on the cultural and religious context. Therefore, public health professionals need to strongly consider the current social and religious atmosphere of a given population when designing suicide prevention strategies. PMID:26110867

  20. Psychiatry, religion and cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathgate, David

    2003-06-01

    To see whether certain findings in cognitive science can serve to bridge the conceptual gap between psychiatry, particularly in its psychotherapeutic aspects, and religious/spiritual understanding. A brief review is given of certain basic differences between psychiatric understanding in its psychotherapeutic aspects, and much of Western religious/spiritual understanding. Reference is then made to certain findings in contemporary cognitive science which might challenge the implicit mind-body split of Western religious tradition and its parallel in psychotherapeutic practice. Attention is also drawn to elements in religious/spiritual tradition that run counter to this dualistic point of view. Much of contemporary religious/spiritual understanding, and of modern psychiatric understanding, especially in terms of psychotherapy, appear to exist in quite separate domains. Psychotherapy and the greater part of Western religious thinking, however, share a belief in the existence of a transcendent mind. Recent developments in cognitive science and certain spiritual traditions, challenge this implicit mind-body split, providing an opportunity for a renewed dialogue between psychiatry and religion and the possibility of collaborative research.

  1. On Religion and Language Evolutions Seen Through Mathematical and Agent Based Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausloos, M.

    Religions and languages are social variables, like age, sex, wealth or political opinions, to be studied like any other organizational parameter. In fact, religiosity is one of the most important sociological aspects of populations. Languages are also obvious characteristics of the human species. Religions, languages appear though also disappear. All religions and languages evolve and survive when they adapt to the society developments. On the other hand, the number of adherents of a given religion, or the number of persons speaking a language is not fixed in time, - nor space. Several questions can be raised. E.g. from a oscopic point of view : How many religions/languages exist at a given time? What is their distribution? What is their life time? How do they evolve? From a "microscopic" view point: can one invent agent based models to describe oscopic aspects? Do simple evolution equations exist? How complicated must be a model? These aspects are considered in the present note. Basic evolution equations are outlined and critically, though briefly, discussed. Similarities and differences between religions and languages are summarized. Cases can be illustrated with historical facts and data. It is stressed that characteristic time scales are different. It is emphasized that "external fields" are historically very relevant in the case of religions, rending the study more " interesting" within a mechanistic approach based on parity and symmetry of clusters concepts. Yet the modern description of human societies through networks in reported simulations is still lacking some mandatory ingredients, i.e. the non scalar nature of the nodes, and the non binary aspects of nodes and links, though for the latter this is already often taken into account, including directions. From an analytical point of view one can consider a population independently of the others. It is intuitively accepted, but also found from the statistical analysis of the frequency distribution that an

  2. Need of improvement of diet and life habits among university student regardless of religion professed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Prado, Silvia; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Perona, Javier S; Montero-Alonso, Miguel A; López-Bueno, Marta; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline

    2017-07-01

    At present, few studies have assessed the possible influence of culture and religion on healthy eating habits among the university population. The aim of this study was to identify differences in healthy and eating habits among university students of different religions. A cross-sectional study was performed with a sample population of 257 students (22.4 ± 4.76 y) at the campus of the University of Granada in Melilla (Spain). The quality of diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and the adherence to the Mediterranean diet by a validated score (MDS). There were a higher prevalence of overweight in Christian boys and girls compared to Muslims. Muslim students omit breakfast and dinner more often than Christians. Significant differences in sodium intake (p skip some meals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychiatry and Religion: Opponents or Collaborators? The Power of Spirituality in Contemporary Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Miro

    2017-04-01

    Religion and psychiatry have had complicated, sometimes neutral or friendly and cooperative, sometimes competitive and antagonistic relations over their long histories. Relations between psychiatry and religion are influenced by complex belief systems, each diverse and changing. Psychiatry has often ignored spiritual and religious dimension in health and illness while religions influenced the treatment of mental disorders directly by defining mental disorders as evil spirit possessions and prescribing exorcism as treatment. It has been a long way to prevail looking for natural over supra-natural explanations for mental disorders. Psychiatry and religion as social practices should be regarded as allies against pseudoscientific nonsense and superstitions. This alliance is based on the next evidence: 1. religious and spiritual well-being is an important component of mental health as well as of health in general; 2. research and empirical evidence reveals that healthy-minded and distorted or sick faith are quite distinct in the effects in the lives of the faithful; 3. psychiatrists are professionally expected to always respect and be sensitive to the spiritual and religious beliefs and practices of their patients; 4. religious and spiritual beliefs and practice is very important aspect of person-centered psychiatry. The enduring task for both psychiatry and religion is to enable human beings to live their lives with courage, sense, and optimism, to strive towards creating conditions of well-being and individual, public and global mental health as well as to dispel beliefs and patterns which trap people in lives of misery and mental disorders. Psychiatry and religion in creative dialogues as allies can significantly contribute to the healing of our broken world and promoting compassionate society and empathic civilization. When psychiatry and religion see each other as opponents or even enemies this is only because of their mutual misreading and pseudoscientific

  4. Reflections on the Role of Religion and Faith in Development Discourse and Practice (abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncef Kartas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This concluding chapter takes up issues arising from the preceding contributions to this volume, with a view towards enriching further debates and policy dialogues relating to religion and development. This chapter is divided into six sections. Following the introduction in section 1, section 2 deals with the (discontinuities in the interaction between religion and development over an extended historical timeframe. Section 3 sheds light on the larger context of the ongoing engagements and confrontations between religion and neoliberal development. This, in turn, leads to an examination in section 4 of the role of new religious movements in conceptualizing and responding to the various existential insecurities generated by globalization. Drawing from the chapters contained in this volume and previous publications by various other authors, section 5 assesses the role of, and challenges to, faith-based organisations in reintegrating values in an increasingly materialistic world. Finally, section 6 summarises the conclusions of the essay.

  5. Health Care between Medicine and Religion : The Case of Catholic Western Germany around 1800

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruchhausen, Walter

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The current revision of the relationship between religion and medicine in the ‘post-secular’ or ‘desecularised’ society invites a new look on their function for each other at the beginning of the modern era, i.e. the political and economic secularisation during the dissolution of the Ancient Empires in Europe. Exemplified by the Prince-Archbishoprics of Western Germany, the consequences of the church’s change from state power to mere pastoral care are demonstrated for the three groups of Catholic physicians in academic medicine, priests in rural health care and nuns in nursing. During the turn from the enlightenment idea of religion serving medicine to the romantic concept of medicine contributing to religion their activities shifted dramatically: Whereas more members of religious congregations entered nursing than before, priests had to give up any medical work and Christian doctors were forced to cope with the separation between academic medicine and the religious world view.

  6. Shaping attitudes about homosexuality: the role of religion and cultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Amy; Pitt, Cassady

    2009-06-01

    Across the globe, the debate over homosexuality continues, with great variation in public opinion about the acceptability of homosexuality, laws regulating same-sex unions and penalties for homosexual sex behaviors. Religion is often seen as an important predictor of attitudes about homosexuality. However, cross-national differences in cultural orientations suggest that the role religion has in explaining homosexual attitudes may depend on a nation's cultural context. In this study, we merge ideas from cultural sociology and religious contextual effects to explain cross-national variation in public opinion about homosexuality. Using data from the fourth wave of the World Values Survey and Hierarchical Modeling techniques, we find support for the micro and macro effects of religion and a survival vs. self-expressive cultural orientation. Moreover, we find that personal religious beliefs have a greater effect on attitudes about homosexuality in countries like the United States, which have a strong self-expressive cultural orientation.

  7. Evolutionary biology as a link between religion and knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. du Toit

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available It would appear that the epistemological tradition of the West is culminating in the present science-religion debate. The evolutionary model is being used increasingly in different disciplines as a guideline to understand humans and their action in the world. The struggle for explaining the action of God has shifted from the world of history and texts to the invisible level of quantum physics and molecular biology. It seems that levels of indeterminacy in quantum mechanics and autopoietic systems offer space to explain the action of God. On the human level integrity is sought by linking the highest level of consciousness and rationality to the very basic level of molecular and genetic structures. These issues are dealt with and specific attention is given to autopoietic systems and the biological roots of rationality.

  8. Science in the Muslim world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khalili, Jim

    2010-04-01

    There are more than a billion Muslims in the world today - over a fifth of the world's total population - spread over many more than the 57 member states of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC) in which Islam is the official religion. These include some of the world's wealthiest nations, such as Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, as well as some of the poorest, like Somalia and Sudan. The economies of some of these countries - such as the Gulf States, Iran, Turkey, Egypt, Morocco, Malaysia and Pakistan - have been growing steadily for a number of years, and yet, in comparison with the West, the Islamic world still appears somewhat disengaged from modern science.

  9. Religious Beliefs in Schizophrenia: Their Relevance for Adherence to Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borras, L; Mohr, S; Brandt, P-Y; Gilliéron, C; Eytan, A; Huguelet, P

    2007-01-01

    The study examined how religious beliefs and practices impact upon medication and illness representations in chronic schizophrenia. One hundred three stabilized patients were included in Geneva's outpatient public psychiatric facility in Switzerland. Interviews were conducted to investigate spiritual and religious beliefs and religious practices and religious coping. Medication adherence was assessed through questions to patients and to their psychiatrists and by a systematic blood drug monitoring. Thirty-two percent of patients were partially or totally nonadherent to oral medication. Fifty-eight percent of patients were Christians, 2% Jewish, 3% Muslim, 4% Buddhist, 14% belonged to various minority or syncretic religious movements, and 19% had no religious affiliation. Two thirds of the total sample considered spirituality as very important or even essential in everyday life. Fifty-seven percent of patients had a representation of their illness directly influenced by their spiritual beliefs (positively in 31% and negatively in 26%). Religious representations of illness were prominent in nonadherent patients. Thirty-one percent of nonadherent patients and 27% of partially adherent patients underlined an incompatibility or contradiction between their religion and taking medication, versus 8% of adherent patients. Religion and spirituality contribute to shaping representations of disease and attitudes toward medical treatment in patients with schizophrenia. This dimension should be on the agenda of psychiatrists working with patients with schizophrenia. PMID:17213479

  10. Multiple Religious Belonging after Religion: Theorising Strategic Religious Participation in a Shared Religious Landscape as a Chinese Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedges Paul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that the concept of Multiple Religious Belonging as normally conceived relies upon a problematic construction of “religion” which can be expressed as the World Religions Paradigm. This relies upon a modern Western Protestant bias as to how “religion” should be understood. It is argued that religion can be understood otherwise, and looking at the Chinese context an argument is made that participation in different religious traditions relies upon a very different construct from Multiple Religious Belonging via the World Religions Paradigm model. This is termed Strategic Religious Participation in a Shared Religious Landscape. It considers the way that Chinese religiosity does not have fixed borders in the same way as the World Religions Paradigm suggests. Indeed, asking whether there is Multiple Religious Belonging in traditional Chinese thought seems to misconstrue the situation. A final reflection asks whether this new paradigm, of Strategic Religious Participation in a Shared Religious Landscape, may be appropriate to look at the contemporary Western context amongst a number of religious “nones”. Although no definitive answer is given to this question, the issue highlights that the World Religions Paradigm which shapes our sense of Multiple Religious Belonging may need to be rethought within different contexts.

  11. Polypill, hypertension and medication adherence: The solution strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmaruta, D; Lombardi, N; Borghi, C; Rosano, G; Rossi, F; Mugelli, A

    2018-02-01

    Hypertension is an important global health challenge and a leading preventable risk factor for premature death and disability worldwide. In current cardiology practice, the main obstacles in the management of patients affected by hypertension are comorbidities and poor adherence to pharmacological treatments. The World Health Organization has recently highlighted increased adherence as a key development need for reducing cardiovascular disease. Principal observational and clinical trial data regarding adherence, reductions in cardiovascular risk and safety of the polypill approach are summarized and reviewed. The polypill approach has been conclusively shown to increase adherence relative to usual care in all cardiovascular patients, furthermore, concomitant risk factor reductions have also been suggested. To date, the use of polypill could represent a solution strategy in patients affected by hypertension, comorbidities and non-adherence even though further studies, especially in the real-world settings, are needed in order to better understand its role in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exposure to science, perspectives on science and religion, and religious commitment in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E; Longest, Kyle C

    2017-07-01

    Social scientists know very little about the consequences of exposure to scientific knowledge and holding different perspectives on science and religion for individuals' religious lives. Drawing on secularization and post-secular theories, we develop and test several hypotheses about the relationships among exposure to scientific knowledge, perspectives on religion and science, and religious commitment using panel data from the National Study of Youth and Religion. Our findings indicate that religious faith is strongest among young adults who: (1) accommodate scientific knowledge into their religious perspective, or (2) reject scientific knowledge that directly contradicts their religious beliefs about the origins of the world. Young adults are also more likely to have lower religious commitment when they view science and religion as independent institutions, lending support to secularization ideas about how social differentiation secularizes individuals. We further find that mere exposure to scientific knowledge, in terms of majoring in biology or acknowledging conflict between the teachings of religion and science, is usually not sufficient to undermine religious commitment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Religion and Politics in Africa: The Future of “The Secular”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Abbink

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the continued importance that religion holds in African life, not only in terms of numbers of believers, but also regarding the varieties of religious experience and its links with politics and the “public sphere(s”. Coinciding with the wave of democratization and economic liberalization efforts since about 1990, a notable growth of the public presence of religion and its political referents in Africa has been witnessed; alongside “development”, religion will remain a hot issue in the future political trajectory of the continent. Its renewed presence in public spheres has also led to new understandings of what religion means and how it figures into both “world-making” and identity politics. This will prolong the challenges associated with the role and status of religion in the “secular state model” found in most African countries. Can these states, while “besieged” by believers, maintain neutrality among diverse worldviews, and if so, how? The paper discusses these issues in a general manner with reference to African examples, some taken from fieldwork by the author, and makes a philosophical argument for the development of a new kind of “secular state” that can respect the religious commitments of African populations.

  14. The study of theology and religion at the University of Pretoria: Two epochs of endeavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. (Kobus Krüger

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the possibility of an alignment of (a theology (understood as study concentrating on one faith from the faith suppositions of that faith and (b a study of world religions, open to all regardless of faith in the context of an encompassing theory. This article argues that far from undermining the dignity and value of any religion, (b could add value to the theological study of any one religion. This article proceeds to develop a model for (b. Utilising a methodology revolving around the strategies of careful historical criticism, faithful intentional understanding and imaginative yet trustworthy tendentional interpretation, this article explores a model harmonising the key concepts of metaphysical mysticism (understood as the peak of religious aspiration, conditionality (emphasising the unique singularity of individual religions, totality (emphasising the religious landscape as one coherent whole and horizon (emphasising the non-absoluteness of all religions, petering out on, and arising from, silence.

  15. [Religion and suicide - part 2: confessions, religiousness, secularisation and national suicide rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Kristina; Zitterl, Werner; Stompe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    National suicide rates differ remarkably. The influence of religion on the frequency of suicides was already stressed by Durkheim, however, character and dimension of this influence are still unclear. Our study claims to assess the association between (a) the distribution of believers of different religions, (b) the secularization, (c) the religiousness and the national suicide rates by gender. Data of the distribution of religious confessions and of the religiousness of the inhabitants of the single countries were correlated with the national suicide rates and illustrated by means of Scatter/Dot-Plots. Independent of gender, low suicide rates were found in Islamic countries. Buddhist countries showed high suicide rates in women, and countries with a high percentage of inhabitants without confession high suicide rates in men. Only catholic countries showed an association between secularisation and suicide rates. In countries with a high proportion of religious inhabitants we found low suicide rates. Although none of the World religions support the human right of suicide, the mosaic religions of resurrection refuse suicide more strictly than the Eastern religions of reincarnation. All in all our study supports the hypothesis that religiousness can be seen as a protective factor against suicide.

  16. Mentalizing and religion : a promising combination for psychology of religion, illustrated by the case of prayer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap-Jonker, Hanneke; Corveleyn, Jozef M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Mentalizing is an important actual topic, both in psychodynamic theory and in clinical practice. Remarkably, mentalizing has been explicitly related to religion or psychology of religion only to a limited extent. This article explores the relevance of the concept of mentalizing for psychology of

  17. Fiction-based Religion : Conceptualising a New Category against History-based Religion and Fandom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidsen, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, scholars of religion have researched Star Wars-based Jediism, the Tolkien-inspired Elven community, and other religious movements inspired by popular fiction. This article raises two related questions about this new kind of religion: what should we call it?, and what

  18. Self-reported intentional and unintentional non-adherence to medication in a general practice population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, L. van; Dulmen, S. van; Sluijs, E.; Heerdink, R.; Ridder, D. de; Bensing, J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Non-adherence to medication is a major public health problem all over the world. Poor adherence to medication regimes accounts for substantial worsening of disease and an increase in health care costs. Few studies on non-adherence distinguished between intentional and unintentional

  19. HIV Medication Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Medication Adherence Last Reviewed: January 17, 2018 Key ...

  20. Riflessioni antropologiche sulla religione - Some anthropological reflections on religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Colajanni

    2015-11-01

    criticize and put on discussion the same religious system existing within the culture of the student of religious ideas and actions. A sort of “religious relativism” appears then to be necessary. In the case of Christianity in particular, it appears necessary to reconstruct carefully the ancient and recent history of Christian religion, with all its transformations, in order to get a sufficient distance from the implicit influences of that very complex cultural-religious system, which could produce a sort of deformation in the process of understanding and interpretation of the religious ideas of the others. The last part of the essay is dedicated to a presentation of an extended text on religious ideas and shamanism, collected among the Shuar Indians of Ecuadorian Amazon, to which the general and methodological suggestions and the reflections presented above have been applied.

  1. A Survey of the Origin and Evolution of Religion from the Points of View Edward Tylor and James Frazer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza khajegir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a universal human phenomenon, religion is rooted in human nature, and human beings instinctively require a superior and supreme power. Besides this internal need for religion, attention to the meaning, function, and interpretation of religion has always been prevalent in the history of human thought from West to East, and scholars have always tried to comment on and analyze this fundamental issue of human life .  From among the approaches that arose about the interpretation and explanation of religion, rationalism tendency—influenced by evolution—has stood up because in the establishment of religion, rationalism takes its genesis and evolution as manifestations of the evolution of human thought, and it takes the development and evolution of religion as equal. This approach considers religion as answer to the need of the cognitive need of human beings. In this anthropological approach, religion is the product of primitive human beings’ effort to identify objects and events in the surrounding environment. As a results, as the man’s knowledge of the world around him increases, the need for religion decreases .  Anthropologist like Edward Tylor and James Frazer have taken this view to the origin and evolution of religion. They emphasize on principles such as the bodily and cognitive unity of the mind, the survival principal, and the evolutionary intellectual pattern of human beings in order to interpret religion stages from animism and magic till monism and monotheism, which will eventually decline during the development of science .  Taylor regards anthropology as the best scientific method to achieve a universal theory to understand the origin of religion. Based on its psychological unity, religion in all times and places—despite its diversity—is a unique phenomenon and has an exclusive identity because the very existence of commonalities in all practices and customs of the people of the world is indicative of the basic

  2. A Survey of the Origin and Evolution of Religion from the Points of View Edward Tylor and James Frazer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza khajegir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a universal human phenomenon, religion is rooted in human nature, and human beings instinctively require a superior and supreme power. Besides this internal need for religion, attention to the meaning, function, and interpretation of religion has always been prevalent in the history of human thought from West to East, and scholars have always tried to comment on and analyze this fundamental issue of human life .  From among the approaches that arose about the interpretation and explanation of religion, rationalism tendency—influenced by evolution—has stood up because in the establishment of religion, rationalism takes its genesis and evolution as manifestations of the evolution of human thought, and it takes the development and evolution of religion as equal. This approach considers religion as answer to the need of the cognitive need of human beings. In this anthropological approach, religion is the product of primitive human beings’ effort to identify objects and events in the surrounding environment. As a results, as the man’s knowledge of the world around him increases, the need for religion decreases .  Anthropologist like Edward Tylor and James Frazer have taken this view to the origin and evolution of religion. They emphasize on principles such as the bodily and cognitive unity of the mind, the survival principal, and the evolutionary intellectual pattern of human beings in order to interpret religion stages from animism and magic till monism and monotheism, which will eventually decline during the development of science .  Taylor regards anthropology as the best scientific method to achieve a universal theory to understand the origin of religion. Based on its psychological unity, religion in all times and places—despite its diversity—is a unique phenomenon and has an exclusive identity because the very existence of commonalities in all practices and customs of the people of the world is indicative of the basic

  3. [Obsessive-compulsive disorders and religion in contemporary perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, K

    2007-10-01

    After a retrospect on former viewpoints about the relationship between psychiatry and religion, especially concerning obsessive-compulsive disorders (S. Freud; "Ekklesiogenic Neurosis") a contemporary perspective shows: religion is hardly mentioned in German-speaking psychiatry textbooks. Pathogenic interaction between religion and psychological disorders is discussed in plurifactorial perspective. Religious views can be distorted by psychic disorders and adapted to the disorders. Starting from an anthropological definition of religion (C. Geertz), the paper presents three functions of religion and explains the relationship of Christian faith and obsessions/compulsions. Teaching programs for students and psychiatrists seem indicated for a better understanding of religion (and its absence) in the context of psychological disorders.

  4. Religion and suicide risk in lesbian, gay and bisexual Austrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralovec, Karl; Fartacek, Clemens; Fartacek, Reinhold; Plöderl, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Religion is known to be a protective factor against suicide. However, religiously affiliated sexual minority individuals often report a conflict between religion and sexual identity. Therefore, the protective role of religion against suicide in sexual minority people is unclear. We investigated the effect of religion on suicide risk in a sample of 358 lesbian, gay and bisexual Austrians. Religion was associated with higher scores of internalized homophobia, but with fewer suicide attempts. Our data indicate that religion might be both a risk and a protective factor against suicidality in religiously affiliated sexual minority individuals.

  5. Diabetes prevention in the real world: effectiveness of pragmatic lifestyle interventions for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and of the impact of adherence to guideline recommendations: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunkley, Alison J; Bodicoat, Danielle H; Greaves, Colin J; Russell, Claire; Yates, Thomas; Davies, Melanie J; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To summarize the evidence on effectiveness of translational diabetes prevention programs, based on promoting lifestyle change to prevent type 2 diabetes in real-world settings and to examine...

  6. Religion i Sverige, Norge og Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2012-01-01

    Hensigten med denne oversigt over forskellige empiriske undersøgelser af religion og tro i Norge, Danmark og Sverige har været at finde yderligere bevismateriale end det, jeg præsenterer i Mord og metafysik. Disse undersøgelser peger på en forandret holdning til tro, en vækst af åndelighed frem...... for institutionel tro, en forståelse der for mange ligger indbygget i betegnelsen religion og i nogen grad også tro. Derfor ser resultatet i den svenske undersøgelse lidt plumret ud; der synes at være et vakuum af respondenter, der ikke kan levere det svar, som de reelt ønsker. Sammenlagt peger disse undersøgelser...... på, at tro og religion er radikalt forandret i de skandinaviske samfund. Den er svundet kraftigt ind, men den er bestemt ikke forsvundet....

  7. Social representations about religion and spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Moema da Silva; Santos, Marília Borges Couto; Pinheiro, Tiago Gomes

    2015-01-01

    to identify the social representations about the concepts of spirituality and religion of of health teachers. exploratory and descriptive study, based on a qualitative approach. 25 subjects participated in it. The following instruments were used to collect data: questionnaire to identify the profile; questionnaire of free association, whose inducing words were religion and spirituality, and an interview based on the scale FICA (Puchalski, 2006). the representations about religion and spirituality, for professors, are forged around the faith in God and it gives them meaning and purpose to deal with the challenges of personal and professional living. there are still barriers that need to be overcome with a view to a comprehensive care. For this, it is essential to incorporate spirituality in the process in the curricula of health courses.

  8. Understanding Relationality: A Challenge for Religion Communicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas F. Cannon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Religion communicators in the United States face a conceptual challenge. Is their mission to sell a product, shape public opinion, package and distribute information, or manage interactions with social groups? These missions assume fundamentally different understandings of relationality. How do faith groups understand relationships? Are they based on community or some other set of attributes? If relationships relate to community, is that community based on shared belief or creation? Which view of community best fosters relationships that encourage cooperation and discourage polarization? The answers guide how faith groups value dialogue, respond to disagreements and understand public relations. This paper uses a hermeneutical approach and results from surveys of U.S. religion communicators and faith group leaders to suggest answers to those questions. The goal is to consider how religion communicators and faith group leaders understand public relations, how communicators approach their work and how they rate their skills for dealing with conflicts.

  9. Religion, culture and political corruption in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhikru A. Yagboyaju

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For so long, development theories and practices have either deliberately neglected or simply overlooked the possible interconnections between religion, culture and the attainment of development goals. Against this background, this article reviews the literature on corruption, as a major factor of underdevelopment in Nigeria, particularly as it relates to religion and culture in the country. In its analysis, this article argues that corruption in Nigeria, especially in view of the country’s multi-ethnic and multi-religious status, must be conceived as a phenomenon transcending legal, political and economic boundaries. The study adopts an interpretative and descriptive methodology for its analysis.

  10. Science and Religion in Liberal Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønch-Clausen, Karin

    and religion question within the framework of public reason, questions like the following arise: Can binding laws and policies be justified with the use of religious reasons? Must public officials who propose and decide on binding laws deliberate in accordance with established science? Does the question......The dissertation explores the role of scientific rationality and religious reasoning in democratic law and policymaking. How does legitimate law and policymaking proceed in light of disagreements on science and religion? This question is addressed within the framework of public reason. Roughly...

  11. Religion, Ethics, and the Meaning of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROLANDO M. GRIPALDO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Religion as a concept has generated some nuances that retain the sense of religiosity or spirituality while negating the idea of a personal anthropomorphic deity. One should therefore be clear as to the usage of this concept in a given context. While religion, ethics, and the meaning of life are intertwined, there are now variants wherein nonbelievers can themselves be ethical and lead meaningful lives. The author believes that the discarded theistic deity can be redeemed and given a reinterpretation that is suitable to our contemporary postmodern setting.

  12. Spiritual Politics, Political Religion, and Religious Freedom in Burma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravers, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    A state of the art artcle on academic work on religion, politics, and religious freedom in Burma......A state of the art artcle on academic work on religion, politics, and religious freedom in Burma...

  13. Religion in human evolution: on some generative and selective mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Sinding

    2012-01-01

    On the use of moral psychology in reconstructing the evolutionary role of religion in human social development......On the use of moral psychology in reconstructing the evolutionary role of religion in human social development...

  14. Defamation of Religions: A Vague and Overbroad Theory that Threatens Basic Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison G. Belnap

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo è pubblicato con il permesso della Brigham Young University Law Review - dove è apparso nel vol. n. 2 del 2010 (Tribute to Professor Michael Goldsmith, alle pp. 101-148 - e dell‖Autrice, che ringraziamo sentitamente. SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. History of and Motivations for the OIC Defamation of Religions Resolutions - 2.a - The OIC Exerts a Concerted Effort to Protect Islam - 2.b - Terrorist Attacks and Danish Cartoons Raise the Stakes - 3. Defamation of Religions: A Permissible Restraint on Freedom of Speech and Expression? - 3.a - History, Basic Elements, and Contemporary Usage of Defamation - 3.b - Interaction Between Defamation of Religions and the Basic Human Rights Enumerated in Major International Instruments - 4. The Evolution of a Resolution - 4.a. 1999-2000: Beginnings - 4.b. 2001: A Pre-9/11 World - 4.c. 2002: Reactions to the Violent Backlash Against Muslims - 4.d. 2003-2004: Fluctuations in Support - 4.e. 2005: Intensification of a Campaign - 4.f. 2006-2007: The Move to the General Assembly - 4.g. 2008: Decreasing Margins of Support - 4.h. 2009: Current Resolution and Recommendations for Application - 5. Consequences of Accepting the Resolutions and Subsequent Enactment of Statutes Designed to Prevent Defamation of Religions - 5.a. Human Rights Committee - 5.b. The European Court of Human Rights - 5.c. Blasphemy, Incitement, and Hate Speech Laws and Their Enforcement - 5.d. Possible Future Statutes and Enforcement Under Defamation of Religions Theory - 6. Alternatives to Defamation of Religions in the U.N. Resolutions - 7. Conclusion.

  15. Religion as memory: How has the continuity of tradition produced collective meanings? – Part one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Urbaniak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Danièle Hervieu-Léger gives an account of religion as a chain of memory, that is, a form of collective memory and imagination based on the sanctity of tradition. According to her theory, in the postmodern world the continuity of religious memory has been broken and all that remains are isolated fragments guarded by religious groups. This twofold study aims at showing, firstly, in what sense religion can be conceived of as memory which produces collective meanings (Part One and, secondly, what may happen when individualised and absolutised memories alienate themselves from a continuity of tradition, thus beginning to function as a sort of private religion (Part Two. Being the first part of the study in question, this article is dedicated to a historical-theological analysis of religious memory as a source of collective meanings, as seen from a Christian perspective. Firstly, it situates Hervieu-Léger’s definition of religion against the background of the most topical religious contexts in which the notion of memory appears today. Secondly, the dialectics of individual and collective memory is discussed, notably through the lens of Ricoeur’s original proposal. This is followed by an overview of the traditional functions of memory in Christianity. Lastly, the interpretation of the way in which Christian tradition, in its premodern continuity, served as a source of collective cultural meanings, is recapitulated. What underlies this analysis is the conviction that to comprehend, and even more so to challenge mechanisms based on which the dominant purveyors of meaning (such as economic and information market function in our day, one should have a clear understanding of what they attempt to substitute for. In brief, before exploring how memories become religion, one ought to be able to conceive of religion as memory.

  16. Is Psalm 104 an expression (also) of dark green religion? | Viviers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The psalm's joy, awe, astonishment, humility and fear (to a limited extent), being almost overwhelmed by awesome nature, are emotions that can also be shared by adherers to the naturalist view, those who doubt if there is some spiritual world running parallel to the natural world. The religious-like experience of naturalists ...

  17. Religious Belief is Not Natural. Why Cognitive Science of Religion Does Not Show That Religious Belief is Trustworthy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Eyghen Hans

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely acknowledged that the new emerging discipline cognitive science of religion has a bearing on how to think about the epistemic status of religious beliefs. Both defenders and opponents of the rationality of religious belief have used cognitive theories of religion to argue for their point. This paper will look at the defender-side of the debate. I will discuss an often used argument in favor of the trustworthiness of religious beliefs, stating that cognitive science of religion shows that religious beliefs are natural and natural beliefs ought to be trusted in the absence of counterevidence. This argument received its most influential defense from Justin Barrett in a number of papers, some in collaboration with Kelly James Clark. I will discuss their version of the argument and argue that it fails because the natural beliefs discovered by cognitive scientists of religion are not the religious beliefs of the major world religions. A survey of the evidence from cognitive science of religion will show that cognitive science does show that other beliefs come natural and that these can thus be deemed trustworthy in the absence of counterevidence. These beliefs are teleological beliefs, afterlife beliefs and animistic theistic beliefs.

  18. The Impact of Religion on Child Behaviour Problems as Perceived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Impact of Religion on Child Behaviour Problems as Perceived by Sudanese Parents and Teachers. ... be concluded that the influence of religion upon family ecology and modes of human development will be an important predictor of children's resilience. Key words: Religion Children Behavior Problems Socialization ...

  19. 132 Studying Religion for Sustainable Development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    S. I. Udoidem made an inciting study of the place of religion in the political life of. Nigeria by carrying out a survey of religious-related crises in. Nigeria since independence. For him, religion and politics are related. After all, it is often said that all power belongs to God. Islam sees a fusion of religion and politics. Christianity,.

  20. Embodiment, Meaning and the Anthropology of Religion | Pillay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Embodiment, Meaning and the Anthropology of Religion. ... two eminent anthropologists of religion, Clifford Geertz and Talal Asad, in order to clarify the ... the modern political community. It questions the self-evident nature of this distinction by considering the historical genealogy of religion as a discrete domain of social life.

  1. Furthering national values through religion in public school education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changing support, rejection or indifference to religion has shaped the relationship between government and religion in the United States, Australia and South Africa. The place of religion as moulder of national values in education has been determined by judicial interpretation in the United States, by legislature in Australia ...

  2. Religion and the Problem of Rationality: Insights from Akan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It illustrates how a correct understanding of Traditional Akan Religion renders untrue claims that seek to dismiss religion on the grounds of irrationality. Utilising philosophical reflection, it shows how rational belief in a Traditional African Religion such as the Akan one is. Key Words. Rationality, revelation, logical positivism, ...

  3. Religion and the Interpretation of the /Xam Narratives | Wessels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper seeks to investigate a single reading of a /Xam text that is based on specific assumptions about /Xam religion and spirituality. In the course of the investigation, particular views about Bushman religion are described and discussed. Several questions are also raised about universal categories such as religion and ...

  4. On the Rationality of Traditional Akan Religion: Analyzing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an attempt to show how logically acceptable (or rational) belief in Traditional Akan religion is. The attempt is necessitated by the tendency by some scholars to (mis) treat all religions in a generic sense; and the potential which Akan religion has to influence philosophical debates on the nature of God and the ...

  5. Beyond Dualism: Expanded Understandings of Religion and Global Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erin

    2010-01-01

    The world’s religions have strong traditions of contributing to theories and practices around justice. Recent debates on global justice within International Relations (IR), however, have largely overlooked possible contributions from religion. This article explores why religion is neglected, despite

  6. 132 Studying Religion for Sustainable Development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    alcohol, sex, abortion, birth control and employment. These are social norms that may be given credence or rejected by any religion in a religiously pluralistic ..... build bridges for religions in Nigeria, especially between Islam and Christianity. They do this through dialogue and communication. Since religion is relational; and ...

  7. Religion and Family in the 1980s: Discovery and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Darwin L.; Cornwall, Marie

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed articles from journals in fields of family, religion, sociology, psychology, and therapy that examined both religion and the family. Review reveals pressing need for more serious theoretical and conceptual work that incorporates multidimensional approaches and is specifically designed to illuminate interrelationships between religion and…

  8. Religion in Chinese Education: From Denial to Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanbu, Hirotaka

    2008-01-01

    In China, from the founding of the People's Republic of China to the beginning of the Cultural Revolution, it was thought that religion would disappear with the development of society and the freedom not to believe in religion was stressed. During the Cultural Revolution religion became the object of oppression. However, from the end of the…

  9. The Golden Rule and its Consequences: A Practical and Effective Solution for World Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rakhshani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Peace is something desirable and requested by all nations in the world. What makes it necessary to address this issue is the critical, undesirable state of the current world that, despite statements by international organizations with the theme of peace, reveals growing conflict and war and irreversible damages caused by them. This article seeks to provide a practical and effective solution for achieving peace in the global community. To this end, it introduces the golden rule (treating others as you wish others to treat you as a rule common to all nations. This rule which has a special place in moral philosophy and has been the common denominator of all religions and schools of thought from ancient times until the present provides peace throughout the world through its mechanism. With the use of analytical methods, this study examines and explains it. The results show that the most effective and powerful way to achieve world peace is the adherence to the golden rule.

  10. Insects in Hopi Indian mythology and religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2017-01-01

    Insekter spiller en vigtig rolle i hopi-indianernes myter og religion. De optræder på helleristninger, vægmalerier og ceremonielle genstande. De spiller en rolle i myter og fortællinger på godt og ondt. Insekter opfattes som gavnlige, livsbærende væsener i ritualernes oprindelsesmyter eller som o...

  11. Michael G. Brennan: George Orwell and Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Crump

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution offers a review of: Michael G. Brennan: George Orwell and Religion. Bloomsbury Academic: London/Oxford/New York/New Delhi/Sydney, 2016. 208 pages, $94.00/£70.00, ISBN (hardback 9781472531940.

  12. Law & Religion in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    En nordisk bog om forholdet mellem stat, kirker og trossamfund; mellem religion og ret; mellem flertal og mindretalsreligioner i det post-sekulære og post-lutherske Norden. Bogen påviser, hvor og hvordan de nordiske modeller har behov for at blive justeret. Men det fremgår også klart, at nordiske...

  13. Religion, postmodernism and postmodern scholarship in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Religion in Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo's Political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It probes into the role of religious references and statement in governance; how socio-religious identities can be negotiated linguistically through induced emotions, and also the patterns and usage of religion by President Obasanjo as a persuasive strategy in political communication. Our findings reveal that such references ...

  15. Religion, Psychology and Globalisation Process: Attitudinal Appraisal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A key consequence of globalisation is the integrative approach to reality whereby emphasis is placed on interdependence. Religion being an expression of human culture is equally affected by this cultural revolution. The main objective of this paper is to examine how religious affiliation, among Christians, influences ...

  16. Religion and religious symbols in commercial communications

    OpenAIRE

    Karasová, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Marketing and commercial communications. Forms of commercial communications. Legal regulations and ethics in an advertising focused on religious elements. Analysis of selected advertising campaigns with religous themes. Qualitative marketing research.Recommendation for the future work with themes of a religion and religious symbols.

  17. Friedrich Heiler and the Psychology of Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Samarina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the work of the celebrated German religious researcher Friedrich Heiler in relation to the problematic surrounding the psychology of religion. Heiler himself subtitled his first classic work, Prayer , with the words a study of religious-history and of religious-psychology . This presumably meant that he considered himself a student of the psychology of religion. The author contrasts Heiler’s ideas on this subject with those put forward by his contemporaries, all of whom studied the psychology of religion: William James, Evelyn Underhill, and Sigmund Freud. The author’s analysis reveals that Heiler was very familiar with the studies produced by several early students of the psychology of religion: Leub, Starbuck, and Sabbate. He often employs them to glean examples for his own research but does not take any of them seriously. James’ division of religious believers into the twice-born and the once-born has similarities with Heiler’s own types of mystic and prophetic religiosity. There are also many similarities between the theory of mystical ascension proposed by Evelyn Underhill and the examples of religious mysticism proposed by Heiler. While analyzing the phenomenon of matrimonial mysticism, Heiler often refers to elements of Freud’s psychoanalysis, thinking it adequate to explain certain erotic elements inherent in religious reflection, but at the same time, unable to explain the religious phenomenon on the whole.

  18. African Religion, Climate Change and Knowledge Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarusarira, Joram

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that as humanity is now changing the composition of the atmosphere at a rate that is very exceptional on the geological time scale, resulting in global warming, humans must deal with climate change holistically, including the often overlooked religion factor. Human-caused climate

  19. Adolescent Satanism: Rebellion Masquerading as Religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Shirley; Syron, Yvonne

    1995-01-01

    Describes adolescent satanic practices of affected families in three Southwestern states in a seven-year period. Counselors need to understand how satanism is related to religion, family dynamics, and adolescent rebellion. A systemic perspective is suggested. Counselors must be aware of their own biases to be able to help satanically involved…

  20. Discursive Study of Religion : Approaches, Definitions, Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Stuckrad, Kocku

    2013-01-01

    The article explores recent approaches to historical analysis of discourse that have been developed in disciplines such as the sociology of knowledge and historical epistemology. These approaches have only sporadically been taken seriously in the academic study of religion, although they have a

  1. Teaching about Teaching Sexuality and Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Darryl W.

    2017-01-01

    Classroom instructors implementing pedagogical strategies for embodied learning about sexuality and religion need institutional support and assistance from colleagues and mentors to be successful. One means of providing institutional and peer support for classroom instructors is to host and lead a pedagogy workshop. Building on the work of Ott and…

  2. Toward a Global Sociology of Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Z. Fareen

    2017-01-01

    This article offers an example of a global approach to teaching the sociology of religion, a course that typically focuses on American religious phenomena. It builds on three interventions in the movement for a global sociology: connecting the local and global, moving beyond methodological nationalism, and developing an ethical orientation toward…

  3. Indigenous communication, religion and education as determinants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined indigenous communication, religion and education as determinants of attitudes towards STIs/HIV/AIDS education in Igando Community Lagos State, Nigeria. A sample of 195 people was randomly selected from the population. The study used four hypotheses to test the respondents' attitude to the use of ...

  4. Religion and spirituality: assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doka, Kenneth J

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the ways that an individual's spirituality influences responses to life-threatening illness and dying. He begins by differentiating between religion and spirituality, and then delineates the spiritual issues that arise in a life-threatening illness including the spiritual needs that arise in the final phases of illness. Recommendations for spiritual assessments and interventions are offered.

  5. Darwin and Religion: Correcting the Caricatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, John Hedley

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written on the subject of Darwinism and religion, but rather less on the development of Darwin's own thinking on religious matters and how it changed over time. What were his religious, or anti-religious, beliefs? Did he believe that his theory of evolution by natural selection was incompatible with belief in a Creator? Was it his…

  6. Black and white civil religion as ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elaine Botha

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available The author points out that the term ideology has changed to a negative connotation following the initially positive connotation it had. The negative connotation has been reinforced following its association with Marxism. In this article it is pointed out that ideology has increasingly gained the nature of civil religion because soteriological issues have come to be settled in terms of some immanent frame of reference. The author looks at White(Afrikaner civil religion in South Africa as well as at Black civil religion. The conclusion is inevitably drawn that in both Black and White civil religion in South Africa the fundamental message of the Gospel has been identified with the suffering, oppression or nationalistic aspirations of some or other specific group. The author concludes by saying that to the extent that Afrikaners have done this in the process of history their experience of history ought to be subjected to a critical test in the light of Scripture. To the extent that Blacks are tempted to harness the fundamental message of the Gospel to their own cultural and national aspirations, the same test has to be applied.

  7. Tzedakah: The True Religion of Spinoza's Tractatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Topolski, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    This article digs into the conceptual history of tzedakah to consider it's relationship to Spinoza's definition of true religion as justita&caritas in the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus.3 I provide a brief explanation of Hebrew and Spinoza's grammar. Next, I consider the original meaning of this

  8. The Meaning of Religion: A Constitutional Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Edward R.

    The problems of formulating a legal definition of religion as used in the U.S. Constitution may be traced through the Supreme Court's interpretation of the word. According to the U.S. Constitution, religious tests cannot be required for any office or public trust under the central government. The Bill of Rights states that the national government…

  9. Theology of religions in Martin Luther

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Luther does mention Jews and Muslims together in his works (Miller 2013:427), but he had different ... advises Christians to ban Jews from society, and advises them to go and live amongst the. Turks (Kaufmann ... good prophet, convinced Luther that Muslims were heretics and followers of the false religion (WA 53, 280, 7).

  10. An assessment of the Theology of Religions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    can benefit. Schillebeecxk (1990:50–51) says, '[t]he unshaken certainty that one continues to possess the truth oneself whilst other are mistaken are [sic] no ... Knitter (2008:8) says, 'religions have to come together not to create a new singular ...... superior, and feels that this would prevent any efforts to enter into dialogue.

  11. The Spiritual Task of Religion in Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefner, Philip

    1998-01-01

    Argues that culture and religion are deeply rooted in human beings and it is their task to understand how this is so and what difference it makes. Asserts that human consciousness must organize itself so that it can identify its most "life-giving" form and thereby continue to direct its own evolution. (Author)

  12. Dreaming as inspiration evidence from religion, philosophy, literature, and film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulkeley, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents evidence from the history of religion, philosophy, literature, and film to suggest that dreaming is a primal wellspring of creative inspiration. Powerful, reality-bending dreams have motivated the cultural creativity of people all over the world and throughout history. Examples include the dream revelations of Egyptian Pharaohs, the philosophical insights of Socrates, the dark literary themes of Fyodor Dostoevsky, and the cinematic artistry of Akira Kurusawa. Although the conclusions that can be drawn from these sources are limited by several methodological factors, the evidence gives contemporary researchers good reasons to explore the creative potentials of dreaming and the impact on waking life behavior of certain types of extraordinary dream experience. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines and risk of death in Europe: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer cohort study1,4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergnaud, A.C.; Romaguera, D.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Gils, C.H. van; Chan, D.S.; Romieu, I.; Freisling, H.; Ferrari, P.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Fagherazzi, G.; Dartois, L.; Li, K.; Tikk, K.; Bergmann, M.M.; Boeing, H.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Dahm, C.C.; Redondo, M.L.; Agudo, A.; Sanchez, M.J.; Amiano, P.; Chirlaque, M.D.; Ardanaz, E.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.J.; Crowe, F.; Trichopoulou, A.; Orfanos, P.; Trichopoulos, D.; Masala, G.; Sieri, S.; Tumino, R.; Vineis, P.; Panico, S.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Ros, M.M.; May, A.; Wirfalt, E.; Sonestedt, E.; Johansson, I.; Hallmans, G.; Lund, E.; Weiderpass, E.; Parr, C.L.; Riboli, E.; Norat, T.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2007, the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) issued recommendations on diet, physical activity, and weight management for cancer prevention on the basis of the most comprehensive collection of available evidence. OBJECTIVE: We

  14. Religion as Non-religion: The Place of Chinese Temples in Phuket, Southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kataoka, Tatsuki

    2012-01-01

    This paper, based on a case study of Chinese temples in Phuket, aims to demonstrate the importance of religious activities lying outside "religion" in the so-called "Buddhist" societies in Thailand, as well as to question the category of "religion" itself. In Thailand, most of the Chinese temples (called sanchao in Thai) are notrecognized as "religious places" by the religious administration (namely the Departmentof Religious Affairs), since they come under the supervision of the Ministryof t...

  15. Religion and the Appresentative Mindset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barber Michael D.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Following Alfred Schutz’s “On Multiple Realities,” the religious province of meaning, like the provinces of phantasy, dreaming, and theoretical contemplation, differs from the “world of working,” everyday life’s form of spontaneity, because its tension of consciousness is more relaxed. The relative passivity characterizing the religious province, which depends on a benevolent transcendent accompanying everyday projects and overcoming the distance between the believer and itself, appears also in religion’s release of subliminal processes (e.g., in religious dreams and in its reliance on passive syntheses. Such syntheses occur in appresentative pairing and apperceptual transfers among diverse symbols and between symbols and the transcendent. Consequently, the religious province becomes a very important site for the “appresentative mindset.” In addition, the peculiar epoché of the province is symbolically induced when the very symbol (e.g. temple or ritual that serves as the gateway into the province and separates it from the “profane” world of everyday life also appresents the transcendent. The unrestrained reliance on appresentative pairing within the religious province overflows its boundaries as the mundane events of everyday life come to appresent the transcendent. The release of subliminal processes and unreflective, passive synthesizing, however, requires critique through theory, Levinasian ethics, and legal and social restraints.

  16. adherence to antiretroviral regimens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to macro- and microeconomic costs.' What soon became evident, however, was the vital importance of patient adherence with prescribed medication in order to garner the benefits that were so rapidly becoming available. As a result, much attention has recently been paid to this aspect of management. Both clinicians and ...

  17. Perceptions of South African Emerging Adult FET College Students on Sexual Practices in Relation to Religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Colleen Gail

    2017-10-01

    HIV and AIDS are rapidly spreading amongst the world's 15- to 24-year age group, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite vigorous government interventions and campaigns, 10 % of South African youth in the age cohort 15-24 are infected with HIV and AIDS. Furthermore, for the first time in history the world has its largest number of individuals under the age of 30 years. Researchers are desperately seeking a solution and have found religion to play an important role in moderating risky sexual behaviour amongst youth. This exploratory qualitative study aims to increase our understanding of emerging adult Further Education and Training (FET) students' perceptions of the role of religion and religious beliefs in their sexual decision-making and practices. The qualitative data emerged from five focus group discussions, each consisting of 12 heterosexual emerging adult FET college students aged 18-24 years, selected using random sampling. Participants were representative of all the major South African racial groups (Blacks, Whites, Coloured and Indians) as well as different religious and cultural groupings. Secularisation theory was used as a theoretical framework for this study. These focus group discussions revealed the following themes: Theme 1-religious institutions need to embrace change in order to become effective social agents of change. Theme 2-a need for open discussion and communication concerning current issues related to young people's sexual health (by religious institutions/religious leaders). Theme 3-perceptions of religion's negative sanctions towards sexual behaviour. Theme 4-religious leaders' indifference and abdication of responsibility to the problems that youth face. Theme 5-religion and condom-related beliefs. Theme 6-perceptions of religious leaders as role models. Theme 7-emerging adults general concern for the moral decay of society. Theme 8-perceptions of whether religion has an influence on young people's sexual decision-making and

  18. Limits of Science and the Importance of Epistemological Functions of Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qodratullah Qorbani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human is encountered by many metaphysical, scientific, religious and other fundamentalquestions which Science, and its potentials, can answer some of them, specially in the material realm.In fact, empirical science is limited to the material world, and it can’t answer human’s fundamentalquestions of his/her living. Then human can’t provide all his/her epistemological requirements byempirical science. In addition, contemporary human’s scientism caused many problems for him/her.Human tried to make empirical science as a worldview which caused some important andfundamental crisis. So he/she needs metaphysical, religious and other sources to know aboutsupernatural facts. Fulfilling this, he/she has to use religious teachings, because religions, in particulardivine ones, have many basic functions. They can make man aware about immaterial realms andexistents including God, origin and resurrection of man, the world system etc. They can give areasonable explanation of the origin and resurrection of human’s life and the meaning of human’sevolution in the mundane universe, and the philosophy of living by explaining the nature of Goodnessand Evil. Religions give some ethical and religious laws to manage and control his/her individual andsocial treatments. In fact, through religious teachings,man can take a suitable framework to managehis/her living, for example, by them man can determine functional results of his/her scientific andtechnological activities. In addition, religions can draw the spiritual future of human’s mundaneliving, and give a good motivation to get mundane and spiritual happiness. In the other word, man,only by the help of religious teachings, can take his/her fundamental requirements. Then, byconsidering the contemporary human epistemological crisis and important limits of human’sknowledge and science, there is the only way to refer to divine religions teachings. In this paper, it istried to explain religion functions in

  19. Freedom of religion in the 21st century : A human rights perspective on the relation between politics and religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziebertz, Hans-Georg; Hirsch Ballin, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Freedom of religion consists of the right to practice, to manifest and to change one’s religion. The modern democratic state is neutral towards the variety of religions, but protects the right of citizens to practice their different religious beliefs. Recent history shows that a number of religious

  20. Effects of religiosity and religious coping on medication adherence and quality of life among people with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Saffari, Mohsen; Koenig, Harold G; Pakpour, Amir H

    2018-01-01

    The epidemiologic information demonstrates the importance of caring people with epilepsy (PWE). Indeed, the impaired quality of life (QoL) and medication nonadherence rate among PWE have been reported. However, religiosity and religious coping could be potential factors for clinicians to foster appropriate intervention on epileptic care. This study investigated two models to further understand the relationships between religiosity, religious coping (including positive and negative coping), medication adherence, and QoL in an Iranian sample with epilepsy. Eligible PWE (n=760) completed the religiosity scale (Duke University Religion Index; DUREL) at baseline; the religious coping scale (Brief Religious Coping Scale; Brief RCOPE) one month later; the medication adherence scale (Medication Adherence Report Scale; MARS-5) two months later; and the QoL scale (Quality of Life in Epilepsy; QOLIE-31) twelve months later. Their antiepileptic drug serum level was measured during the period they completed the MARS. Through structural equation modeling (SEM), we found that religiosity directly correlated with negative religious coping and medication adherence, and indirectly correlated with medication adherence through negative religious coping. Both positive and negative religious coping directly correlated with medication adherence and QoL. Therefore, religiosity and religious coping may be determinants of medication adherence and QoL in PWE; health professionals may consider asking PWE if religion is important to them and how they use it to cope with their epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Role of Religion in Chinese Subethnicity : Christian Communities of Papua New Guinean Chinese in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsu, Ichikawa; National Museum of Ethnology

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to consider the relationship between subethnicity and religion among Chinese in Australia using the Papua New Guinea (PNG) Chinese population in Australia as a case study. By looking at their Christian communities in Australia, the paper analyzes the characteristics of Chinese subethnicity. Australia has had a Chinese community since the late 19^ century. Since the Australian government abandoned its White Australian Policy and adopted multiculturalism after World War...

  2. Psychology and Religion: Two Approaches to Positive Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Haque

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Historically speaking, psychology and religion have worked separately toward the goal of improving mental health among the people. Can psychology and religion work together and reap better results for the client? How important is religion for the people and how important are religious values for psychologists? What is the relationship between religion and mental health? How today's schools of psychology deal with the religious client? How is religion integrated in psychotherapy? These and other related issues are addressed in this paper. It is concluded that psychologists are obligated to work within the value system of the client and that this approach would achieve a more positive therapeutic outcome.

  3. Religion and health-promoting behaviors among emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Shalonda E B

    2015-02-01

    Studies suggest we capitalize upon religion's health benefits to prevent obesity. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to determine how emerging adults used religion to manage their health. Two focus groups were conducted among White and African American participants. Content analysis of the data revealed categories about their attitudes regarding parental and religious influences, religion's influence on behavior, negative health effects of religion, barriers, obesity prevention, and health promotion programs. Society sends out "easy" solutions for unhealthy behaviors, but we should focus on healthy behavior benefits, remove barriers, and consider religion's part in health promotion (obesity prevention).

  4. Methodologic issues in research on religion and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Ellison, Christopher G; Strock, Adrienne L

    2004-12-01

    This study examines several methodologic issues in research on religion and health, including the measurement of the concept of religion, research designs, sampling, and statistical controls for assessing the "net" effects of religion on health outcomes. It briefly discusses differences in analytical perspectives that have contributed to the debate about the effects of religion on health. The authors review some of the methodologic problems of past research in this area of study and address what needs to be done to enhance the quality of the research. The authors conclude that the research methodology used in studies of religion and health has improved over time and that it continues to do so.

  5. Re-envisioning the sites and sights of the late twentieth century study of religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind I. J. Hackett

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author shares some of the findings, observations, and stimulating insights from colleagues and students gathered during visits to various parts of the world.The academic study of religion must now encompass more than it has done until now the effects of modern media and communications technologies, global consumption patterns, cultural mobility, and changing geo-political configurations. Scholars of religion are are being outpaced by these developments, whether because of the limitations of vision, or the shortsightedness of theoretical lenses.' The argument is that sites such as art, the media, Internet, outer space, diasporas, global culture, nature, and the public space deserve critical attention - not just for reasons of content, but because these new or neglected sites offer a potential challenge to our categories and concepts. Focus has to be shifted increasingly from bounded local cultures to transnational cultural flows and the significance of place has to be reexamined. This paper has suggests a number of pathways that are deserving of more exploration by scholars of religion. What we choose to include or exclude from our gaze affects the nature of our discourse(s through and through. The whole business of "seeing" is integral to both the academic enterprise as well as the political economy of the academic study of religion. This paper highlights some of the exciting new areas that face us as students of religious ideas and phenomena, and point to their methodological implications.

  6. The Green Revolution in the World’s Religions: Indonesian Examples in International Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Reuter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Similar to progressive political movements, the programs of many religious and spiritual groups today are converging around a shared commitment to address the impending global ecological crisis. The paper explores this convergence by looking at the impact of environmentalist thought on religious discourses in modern Indonesia, the author’s primary research area, and comparing the findings to similar trends elsewhere. The research shows that the environmental movement is causing a transformation in how people understand the character and practical relevance of religion and spirituality today, in Indonesia and beyond. For some eco-spiritual groups, a heightened environmental awareness has become the central tenet of their monistic religious cosmology. The more significant phenomenon, however, is a socially much broader shift toward more science-friendly and contemporary religious cosmologies within the mainstream of major world religions. Islam and Christianity now officially accept that other forms of life have a right to exist and that humanity has a custodial obligation to protect nature. This new outlook rectifies the previous tendency within dualist religions to view nature as vastly inferior and servile to human interests. It simultaneously is a rejection of materialist-scientific cosmologies widely prevalent in late modern consumer societies, which deny any notion of the sacred. This trend in the world’s religions toward a re-evaluation of the cosmological status of humanity in relation to nature and the sacred, I argue, will enhance the prospects of the global environmental movement’s campaign for environmental sustainability.

  7. Agricola's Ukko in the light of archaeology: a chronological and interpretative study of ancient Finnish religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unto Salo

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available No written sources of ancient Finnish religion have been preserved from the pre-Christian period. Study of the subject is thus based on later historical data, folk poetry and other recorded national traditions, supplemented by etymology and onomastics. A valuable basis for study is provided by the verses of Mikael Agricola in the preface to his Psalms of David from 1551. Here Agricola lists the gods of Karelia and Häme. He admittedly subjects them to Christian censure, but he is also in these verses the first systematizer and the first theologian of our ancient religion. He created twin Olympuses of the old religion, two anthropomorphic god-worlds, the sub-structure of which includes the worship of spirits, animals and the dead. From the point of view of archaeology, Agricola's Ukko, 'old man', is one of the most interesting figures in ancient religion. According to Agricola, Ukko was (only a Karelian god, but scholars have long considered that he was referring to the universally feared Ukko, Ukkonen, the god of thunder, who would have fitted equally well among the gods of Häme (Tavastland.

  8. News Agency Website Agenda on Religion. Comparative Analysis on Mediafax.ro and Agerpres.ro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Ana Vasile

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the “Global Index of Religiosity and Atheism” (WIN-Gallup International, 27 July 2012, retrieved 24 August 2012, which was a global 2012 poll, the reports label 59% of the world's population as “religious” and 36% as not religious, including 13% who are atheists, with a 9% decrease in religious belief from 2005. Thereto, religion is an important issue of inherent influence in the media nowadays. Despite the ongoing secularization process that we are facing these days, humans still feel the need to refer to religion within their attempt to construct one’s own outlook on life, and to make some sense out of existence in general (Max Weber, 19202. A comparative content analysis on Mediafax.ro and Agerpres.ro, performed for an almost nine-and-a-half-month time span (1st January to 13th October 2015, showed interesting facts on how press agency journalists relate to religion as a media topic, both in terms of quality (key words and key topics and in terms of quantity. A comparison between the Orthodox religion of the majority of the Romanians, and other denominations, also accounted for intriguing research findings.

  9. Building Coalitions with NGOs: Religion Scholars and Disability Justice Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jo Iozzio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Council of Churches (WCC, an organization of 348 member churches, is a model of coalition building particularly through its support of individuals, churches, and their ministries for the inclusion, participation, and contributions of people with disabilities in its ecumenical work. The Ecumenical Disability Advocates Network (EDAN informs one of the initiatives of the WCC—faith in Jesus Christ and communion fellowship—in the journey toward visible unity and justice for people who were too often missing the banquet of a church of all and for all. EDAN and other international disability advocates have most recently embedded its agenda of inclusion into the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. The United Nations explicitly recognizes the Human Rights for persons with disabilities and, with the Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006, has raised protections against discrimination, exploitation, and abuse of people with disabilities to the level of international law. The World Health Organization works collaboratively in gathering data and local analyses of efforts to minimize preventable disability and maximize rehabilitation program availability with partners across the globe. These organizations, global in nature, have benefitted from the insights raised by people with disabilities and scholars working at the intersections of disability, religion, and justice. This essay examines the efficacy and opportunities of international coalitions available with these organizations so as to challenge the ethics of simple accommodations with a more robust social justice of affirmation and advocacy for people with disabilities: a new paradigm for our churches and our world.

  10. Adherence to gout management recommendations of Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Feng; Fang, Weigang; Zhang, Bingqing; Sha, Yue; Zeng, Xuejun

    2017-11-01

    Though efficacious and affordable treatments for gout are widely available, gout is still not well controlled in many countries of the world including China.To investigate patient adherence to gout management recommendations and potential barriers in Chinese male gout patients, a survey was carried out by telephone interview in male patients registered in the gout clinic at Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Adherence to dietary and medication recommendations was measured by a food frequency questionnaire and proportion of cumulative time adherent to chemical urate-lowering therapy (ULT), respectively. Dietary adherence was defined as consumption of alcohol, seafood and animal organs less than once per month, and reduced red meat after dietary counseling. Medication adherence was defined as ULT ≥80% of time in the past 12 months for patients with indications. Logistic regression models were used to identify patient characteristics associated with management adherence. Reasons for nonadherence were also sought by open-end questions.Dietary and medication adherence were 44.2% and 21.9%, respectively. Older age (odds ratio [OR] 7.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.49-25.04 for age ≥60), higher serum uric acid (sUA) levels (OR 3.53, 95% CI 1.42-8.75 for the highest quartile), and tophi (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.12-4.77) were associated with dietary adherence independently, while tophi (OR 14.05, 95% CI 2.67-74.08) and chronic kidney disease (OR 16.66, 95% CI 2.63-105.37) were associated with medication adherence independently. Reasons that patients reported for nonadherence to medication included remission after treatment (35.3%), concerns for potential side effects (22.7%), insufficient patient education (8.7%), and adverse events (8.2%).Patient adherence to gout management recommendations is poor in China. Older age, increased disease burden, and specific comorbidities were associated with management adherence.

  11. Dietary counseling adherence during tuberculosis treatment: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacelo, Adriana Costa; do Brasil, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano; Cople-Rodrigues, Cláudia Dos Santos; Ingebourg, Georg; Paiva, Eliane; Ramalho, Andrea; Rolla, Valeria Cavalcanti

    2017-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of dietary counseling to overcome malnutrition for patients with tuberculosis, with or without HIV, however the response to nutritional treatment depends on patient's adherence to nutritional counseling. Identify the degree of adherence to dietary counseling and predictors of adherence among patients undergoing tuberculosis treatment. Observational prospective follow-up study conducted in adults treating for tuberculosis with or without HIV. Self-reported adherence and 24-h diet recall were checked. Diet counseling according to WHO strategy was offered at each visit for all patients. The endpoint was the adherence to the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and total calories consumed during tuberculosis treatment. Data were mainly analyzed with marginal models to estimate adjusted trajectories. Sixty-eight patients were included in the study. The maximum probability of total calories consumption of at least one RDA was 80%. The adherence to dietary counseling was low regardless of HIV infection. The negative determinants of adherence were the presence of loss of appetite and nausea/vomiting. For patients with loss of appetite and nausea/vomiting, the probability of total calories consumption of at least one RDA is less than 20% at any time. The loss of appetite and nausea/vomiting are highly prevalents and were the main causes of non-adherence to dietary counseling. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Les limites entre la religion et la culture à l'occasion de l'interprétation de la religion chinoise antique

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    Gunnar Sjöholm

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author discusses the history of religion in China and the challenges of interpretation concerning this topic. The history of religion in China ranges from religion in ancient China and Confusian philosophy to Maoism.

  13. Patient adherence with COPD therapy

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    C. S. Rand

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there are very few published studies on adherence to treatment regimens in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, the evidence that exists suggests that, as with asthma therapy, adherence is poor. Patient beliefs about COPD, as well as their motivation and expectations about the likelihood of success of medical interventions, can influence adherence rates. Other critical factors include the patient's understanding of their illness and therapy, and the complexity of the prescribed treatment regimen. Incorrect inhaler technique is also a common failing. When prescribing in primary or specialist care, healthcare professionals should address adherence as a vital part of the patient consultation. Improved patient education may also increase adherence rates.

  14. Finding brands and losing your religion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutright, Keisha M; Erdem, Tülin; Fitzsimons, Gavan J; Shachar, Ron

    2014-12-01

    Religion is a powerful force in many people's lives, impacting decisions about life, death, and everything in between. It may be difficult, then, to imagine that something as seemingly innocuous as the usage of brand name products might influence individuals' commitment to religion. However, we demonstrate across 6 studies that when brands are a highly salient tool for self-expression, individuals are less likely to report and demonstrate strong religious commitment. We suggest that a desire to maintain consistency among self-identities is one important driver of this relationship and find that the effect is mitigated when the perceived distance between brands and religious values is minimized. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Late Feyerabend on materialism, mysticism, and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Eric C

    2016-06-01

    Feyerabend's interests in religion and mysticism grew through his career. In his later writings, Feyerabend's numerous critiques of scientific materialism are often accompanied by purported advantages of religious orientations and temperaments. These recommendations do not simply follow from his tolerant theoretical pluralism; they are more positive attempts to articulate distinctive aspects of human life satisfied by religion, but not by scientific materialism. Elevating the human need for mystery, reverence, and love, he contrasts these goods with the deliverances of monistic conceptions of science and reason. I bring attention to some of the common themes in these remarks to argue that they were integral with other parts of his philosophical project and that they could serve as helpful rejoinders to contemporary exhortations to science-based secularism from philosophers of science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The change of religion and the names

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    John Kousgård Sørensen

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available What actually happened at the time when Denmark was christianized? An important viewpoint to the topic is the nomenclature, both personal names and place-names. What happened to these in the missionary period? Can they be exploited as evidence about the change of religion? What happened to these and to the naming practices in connection with the introduction of Christianity? These questions are relevant, because several pre-Christian cultic words entered into the personal nomenclature which the Christian mission found in use on its arrival. The fate of the nomenclature in the period does suggest that the change in religion took place reasonably peacefully and gradually. There are, however, certain features about the place-names suggesting that there were local differences in the conduct of the mission.

  17. Editorial: RADICALISM AND POLITICS OF RELIGION

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    Editorial Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Radical Islamism has become the “sexiest” issue in the international scholarship of religion since the September 11 tragedy in 2001. It has been associated with a number of terrorist attacks not only in the West but also in Muslim countries. Every single of radical Islamism has caught the interest of not only scholars and policy makers but also general public. Interestingly, the general assumption that religion is the source of peace has been seriously challenged, not by non-religious communities, but by the violent practices of particular religious groups, however small they are. Indeed, there are certain groups striving for Islam but by using acts which could give awful image on Islam itself and against humanity.

  18. Flaubert et l’histoire des religions

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    Philippe Dufour

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Qui est-ce qui a généralisé les religions ? Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire a dit : le crâne est une vertèbre aplatie. Qui est-ce qui a prouvé, par exemple, que la religion est une philosophie devenue art, et que la cervelle qui bat dedans, à savoir la superstition, le sentiment religieux en soi, est de la même matière partout, malgré ses différences extérieures, correspond aux mêmes besoins, répond aux mêmes fibres, meurt par les mêmes accidents, etc. ?Flaubert, à Louise Colet, 7 juillet 1853Le numér...

  19. Inter-religions dialogue and civilisations meeting

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    Juan Antonio Estrada

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available After the thesis of Religion’s decadence come the actual interest for the political, economical and cultural consequences of the religious fact. The globalisation’s process and the problematic clash or dialogue of civilisations revalue the different religions. It is important to study the social and anthropological functions of religions and to evaluate it’s humanitarian and it’s destructive violence. These dynamics change from the traditional societies to the post-moderns, because, as nationalism, they are resistence’s factors against cultural colonisation and identity erosion. They can contribute also to world’s peace, to a inter-cultural ethic and to civilisations’ dialogue.

  20. Goodwill in the valley of the shadow: religion, psychotherapy, and politics in Britain from 1945 to the early 1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Graham

    2009-08-01

    The author hypothesizes that the British psychological climate following World War II, from 1945 to approximately 1960, created the conditions for an unusually frank, honest, and collaborative debate on matters related to religion and spirituality generally as well as broader social and political issues. The author first sketches the nature of this climate, before looking more specifically at the interrelationships among religion, psychotherapy and, very briefly, politics during this period. Suggestions regarding the dissipation of this phase after 1960 are examined. The final section considers some qualifications to the case previously outlined and identifies issues and questions that the author feels need addressing further.

  1. Religion and Economic Growth across Countries

    OpenAIRE

    McCleary, Rachel; Barro, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Empirical research on the determinants of economic growth typically neglects the influence of religion. To fill this gap, this study uses international survey data on religiosity for a broad panel of countries to investigate the effects of church attendance and religious beliefs on economic growth. To isolate the direction of causation from religiosity to economic performance, the estimation relies on instrumental variables suggested by an analysis in which church attendance and religious bel...

  2. Tasting Freedom: happiness, religion and economic transition

    OpenAIRE

    Orsolya Lelkes

    2002-01-01

    Economic transition lowered happiness on average, but did not affect all equally. This paper uses Hungarian survey data to study the impact of religion and economic transition on happiness. Religious involvement contributes positively to individuals' self-reported well-being. Controlling for personal characteristics of the respondents, money is a less important source of happiness for the religious. The impact of economic transition has varied greatly across different groups. The main winners...

  3. Does the 'old' media's coverage of religion matter in times of 'digital' religion?

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    Teemu Taira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of digital religion and religion in the ‘new’ media, especially in tracing the transformation of communities, ideas, practices and forms of interaction which people tend to classify as religious, has already proved fruitful. What is not well-justified is the assumption that the ‘old’ media does not really matter anymore. This is something to be examined, although the structures and business models of the mainstream media are changing because of the ‘new’, digital media. Furthermore, we need to explore the interactions between ‘old’ and ‘new’ media, what emerges from their convergence, and start theorising about its implications in the context of religion. Some of the things that will be dealt with apply to the media in general. Only some are religion-specific. However, the intention is not to repeat what media scholars have already said about intermediality, media convergence and the relationship between ‘old’ and ‘new’ media. The reflections shared here are rather based on empirical research of religion in the media, especially in the ‘old’ mainstream mass media in Britain and Finland.

  4. Bulletproof Love : Luke Cage (2016 and Religion

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    Derry, Ken

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways to think about religion and popular culture. One method is to ask where and when we see what might be commonly understood as “religious tradition(s” explicitly on display. Another is to think about superhero narratives themselves as “religious”, using this term as a conceptual tool for categorizing and thereby better understanding particular dimensions of human experience. This article takes a variety of approaches to understanding religion in relation to the recent television series LUKE CAGE (Netflix, US 2016. These approaches take their hermeneutical cues from a range of disciplines, including studies of the Bible; Hip Hop; gender; Black Theology; African American religion; and philosophy. The results of this analysis highlight the polysemic nature of popular culture in general, and of superhero stories in particular. Like religious traditions themselves, the show is complex and contradictory: it is both progressive and reactionary; emphasizes community and valorizes an individual; critiques and endorses Christianity; subverts and promotes violence. Depending on the questions asked, LUKE CAGE (2016 provides a range of very different answers.

  5. Aesthetic surgery and religion: Islamic law perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Kadry, Mohamed; Hayek, Shady N; Moucharafieh, Ramzi S; Musharafieh, Ramzi S

    2008-01-01

    Plastic surgeons are called upon to perform aesthetic surgery on patients of every gender, race, lifestyle, and religion. Currently, it may seem natural that cosmetic surgery should be perceived as permissible, and in our modern liberal age, it seems strange to attempt justifying certain surgical acts in the light of a particular cultural or religious tradition. Yet every day, cruel realities demonstrate that although the foremost intention of any scripture or tradition has been mainly to promote religious and moral values, most religions, including Christianity, Islam, and Judaism, invariably affect human behavior and attitude deeply, dictating some rigid positions regarding critical health issues. A Web search was conducted, and the literature was reviewed using the Medline search tool. Islamic law closely regulates and governs the life of every Muslim. Bioethical deliberation is inseparable from the religion itself, which emphasizes continuities between body and mind, between material and spiritual realms, and between ethics and jurisprudence. The rule in Islam is that individuals should be satisfied with the way Allah has created them. Islam welcomes, however, the practice of plastic surgery as long as it is done for the benefit of patients. Even if it clearly considers "changing the creation of Allah" as unlawful, Islamic law is ambiguous regarding cosmetic surgery. Its objection to cosmetic surgery is not absolute. It is rather an objection to exaggeration and extremism. It has been mentioned that "Allah is beautiful and loves beauty."

  6. Religions and Psychotherapies—Special Issue

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    Klaus Baumann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The birth of modern psychotherapies—along with the birth of psychology as a science on one side and with psychoanalysis, other depth-psychological treatments and behavioral therapies in addition to medical treatments of psychological disorders on the other side—in the 19th and 20th centuries was accompanied by positivistic and mechanistic paradigms underlying empirical research and claims of scientific dignity [1]. Affirmations which could not be tested or observed empirically had to be excluded from science—including any kind of metaphysics and religious belief, notwithstanding pioneering studies by William James [2], Granville Stanley Hall, James Henry Leuba and Edwin Diller Starbuck [3] for psychology in general and for psychology of religion(s in particular. In particular, the critique of religions by Sigmund Freud has continuously exerted a strong impact in the fields of psychiatry and psychotherapies; in addition, regarding psychodynamics and symptoms of psychic disorders, religious phenomena in the lives of patients may be just as affected as other cognitive and emotional aspects and behaviors [4]. Consequently, religious experience and religious behavior of patients in psychiatry and psychotherapies have rarely been object of research and teaching apart from predominantly symptomatic and pathogenic perspectives [5].

  7. Religion and spirituality in psychiatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Mary E

    2011-11-01

    The role of religion and spirituality in psychiatric practice has long been a topic of discussion among mental health providers, patients, and faith communities. This review examines the recent findings in the literature that shape current dialogues on this topic and provide implications for patient care. An increasing body of evidence correlates certain aspects of religion/spirituality with mental and physical health outcomes, and researchers continue to explore how and when psychiatrists should intervene in matters of faith. As this topic is inherently multidisciplinary, many encourage approaches that incorporate neurobiology, faith, and psychology for enhanced understanding of patient experience. Many also stress the importance of effective interpersonal communication between providers and patients, using a person-centered framework. In all of these dialogues, implications for patient care are highlighted. The proper role of religion and spirituality in psychiatry continues as a matter of debate. However, current publications attempt to clarify issues that may lead to more evidence-based and empathic care in this area.

  8. Use of Distance Education by Christian Religion to Train, Edify and Educate Adherents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, P.; DK Meduri, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Distance Education has been growing fast, in a marvelously diverse fashion. The efficiency, effectiveness, validity and utility of distance teaching-learning are on increase. All communities and religious groups are making use of distance learning methodology to upgrade their knowledge, skills and attitudes. Christian educational institutions in…

  9. Art and Religion in Schopenhauer: From Metaphysical Necessity to the Aesthetic Justification of Existence

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Callejón, Encarnación; Universidad de Granada. España.

    2013-01-01

    The thesis that I develop in this paper is that there is a way of affirmation of the existence and the world in Schopenhauer, assuming no foundation, an aesthetic justification of existence or a way of life either as a tragic pessimism or pessimism of strength. This is an additional path to his basic position stated in The World as Will and Representation and is clearly in Parerga and Paralipomena, especially in «On Religion» and in «Aphorisms on the wisdom of life». To develop that thesis, I...

  10. Al-Bīrūnī: Father of Comparative Religion

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    Kamar Oniah Kamaruzzaman

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Abū Rayān al-Bīrūnī is famed as a great scientist and a polymath. The intellectual world, however, is less familiar with the fact that al-Bīrūnī is a great scholar of comparative religion. The religions he studied and the methodology he formulated for a “scientific method” of studying religion are impressive. That his works took place very early in the history of the disciplineof comparative religion, and the fact that no other works of his contemporaries came near in dimension and depth, indeed set him up as the forerunner of this discipline. Abū Rayān al-Bīrūnī should, therefore, be declared the Father of Comparative Religion or Religionswissenschaft.

  11. Religion in Motion: Continuities and Symbolic Affinities in Religion and Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Oscar; Cachán-Cruz, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    One of the major transformations in religion in contemporary societies has been the decline of church institutions and their reconstruction within a diverse network of associations, therapies, markets and other unconventional spiritual services. Based on extensive ethnographic fieldwork on religious behaviours and dynamics in sports contexts, and taking the similarities between sport and religion as the point of departure, this paper analyses, reflects on and theorises about the symbolic affinities of these two contemporary social institutions. The results show that symbolism converges in the religious element, tending to improve aspects related to sports ethics and establishing affective experiences among participants, with positive results for their physical and mental wellbeing. The findings indicate that a symbolic analysis of the various facets of sport is a useful approach for gaining a better understanding of this phenomenon, since besides being biological, diseases are also cultural and social, and thus, disease, religion and ritual are emotionally related.

  12. To adhere or not to adhere: Rates and reasons of medication adherence in hematological cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alix E; Paul, Chris; Bryant, Jamie; Lynagh, Marita C; Rowlings, Philip; Enjeti, Anoop; Small, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    To conduct a comprehensive review to examine among hematological cancer patients: (1) rates of adherence to self-administered cancer treatments; and (2) factors impacting on their adherence. Fifty two eligible publications were identified. The majority focused on Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML) (n=40) and Acute Lymphoid Leukaemia (ALL) (n=11) patients. Adherence rates varied and depended on the definition and measures used. Patient understanding about their disease and treatment, and forgetting to take their medication impacted on patients' level of adherence; while the use of reminders reduced forgetfulness. There is a lack of valid and reliable information relating to medication adherence of hematological cancer patients. Based on the limited data available we provide a profile of CML and ALL patients at potential risk of medication non-adherence, as well as a proposed checklist that can be used by health care providers in assessing and supporting patients in adhering to their medication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Uptake of breast screening is influenced by current religion and religion of upbringing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Dermot; Kinnear, Heather; Rosato, Michael; Mairs, Adrian; Hall, Clare

    2013-12-01

    Research has shown that individuals with a current religious affiliation are more likely to use preventive health services. The aim of this study was to determine whether breast screening uptake in Northern Ireland is higher amongst women with a current affiliation to an organised religion and, for those with no current affiliation, to examine whether their religion of upbringing is associated with uptake of breast screening. The Northern Ireland Longitudinal Study (NILS) was used to link Census and national breast screening data for 37,211 women invited for routine breast screening between 2001 and 2004. Current religious affiliation, religion of upbringing and other demographic and socio-economic characteristics were as defined on the Census form. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between religion affiliation and attendance. Uptake of breast screening is about 25% lower for those without a current religious affiliation. There are modest differences between Catholics and Protestants, with the latter about 11% more likely to attend for screening. For those with no current religion, the religion of upbringing appears to positively influence attendance rates. These differences remain after adjustment for all of the socio-demographic and socio-economic factors that have been shown to influence uptake rates of breast screening in the UK to date. Record linkage is an efficient way to examine equity across demographic characteristics that are not routinely available. The lower uptake amongst those with no religious affiliation may mean that screening services may find it difficult to maintain or improve uptake rate in an increasingly secularised society.

  14. A scientific defence of religion and the religious accommodation of science? Contextual challenges and paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel W. du Toit

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Few human phenomena in our time are as controversial or confusing as religion. People seem to live in two worlds: a mythical and a scientific one. They talk about either of these worlds in isolation but cannot reconcile the underlying presuppositions. Believers are less naïve than the ‘new atheists’ suppose, and atheists do not come without their quota of superstition and belief. Midway between the two opposites is a burgeoning, secular new spirituality that has assumed many forms in recent years. The groups are often marked by some form of naturalism, which try to accommodate science. The premise in this article is that religion, being a product of normal evolutionary processes, is ‘natural’. This implies that cultural evolution is ongoing and supports the thesis that religion (in this case Western Christianity is making a major transition. As for science, I briefly outline the role of metaphysics. That is because science often has to invoke metaphysical constructs to make sense of the bigger picture. Following Aristotle, the metaphysical dimension of science is a blank page which every era fills with its own interpretation. In that sense, it is ‘more than’ just empiricism, verifiability, and it is accompanied by some metaphysical baggage. At this metaphysical level, the traditional dominance of causality makes way for emergence.

  15. A scientific defence of religion and the religious accommodation of science? Contextual challenges and paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel W. du Toit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Few human phenomena in our time are as controversial or confusing as religion. People seem to live in two worlds: a mythical and a scientific one. They talk about either of these worlds in isolation but cannot reconcile the underlying presuppositions. Believers are less naïve than the ‘new atheists’ suppose, and atheists do not come without their quota of superstition and belief. Midway between the two opposites is a burgeoning, secular new spirituality that has assumed many forms in recent years. The groups are often marked by some form of naturalism, which try to accommodate science. The premise in this article is that religion, being a product of normal evolutionary processes, is ‘natural’. This implies that cultural evolution is ongoing and supports the thesis that religion (in this case Western Christianity is making a major transition. As for science, I briefly outline the role of metaphysics. That is because science often has to invoke metaphysical constructs to make sense of the bigger picture. Following Aristotle, the metaphysical dimension of science is a blank page which every era fills with its own interpretation. In that sense, it is ‘more than’ just empiricism, verifiability, and it is accompanied by some metaphysical baggage. At this metaphysical level, the traditional dominance of causality makes way for emergence.

  16. Adherence to oral antineoplastic therapy

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    R. Olivera-Fernandez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral chemotherapy agents offer advantages including cost, patient comfort and potential improvement in quality of life versus intravenous drugs. However ensuring adherence and monitoring adverse effects is more difficult. The aim of this study was to examine the real adherence in patients with oral chemotherapy agents in our hospital, to assess the influence of patient and treatment characteristics, to identify reasons for non adherence, to identify pportunities for improvement pharmaceutical care and to assess the potential relation between adherence and treatment outcomes. Method: observational, prospective study for a period of four month, in the patients who were dispensing oral chemotherapy agents in outpatient setting. The medical prescriptions, medical history and patient interviews were used to collect data. Results: 141 patients were assessing. 72% were considered as fully adherent, while 28% reported some kind of non adherence. Adherence was influenced by time from diagnosis and adverse effects. No relationship between adherence and treatment outcomes was found. Conclusions: Adherence to oral chemotherapy was 72%, identifing opportunities for improvement pharmaceutical care to prevent adverse effects and to improve our patient adherence

  17. MAIN PROBLEMS OF THE PHILOSOPHICAL CRITIQUE OF RELIGION

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    Jowita Guja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a synthetic overview of main problems of the philosophical critique of religion. In the beginning I identify and characterize three general threads of the critique: the enlightenment, the alienational and the thread which focuses on the problem of theodicy. The greater part of my article is devoted to the alienational critique of religion n its two types: atheistic (Feuerbach, Marx, Freud, Nietzsche, Sartre and theistic (Barth. The subjects of my analysis are the sources and foundations of the alienational critique of religion and the most important problems implied by it: the essence of religion, the ideal of the irreligious man, the prospect to remove religion. The analysis presents troubles and confusions connected to these subjects: they emerge in atheistic type of alienational critique of religion.

  18. Islamic Art as Tool to Convergence and Dialogue between Religions- A new Siege Perspective for Cultural and Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Amer Salman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the principles of the Holy Qur'an and religion of Islam, a religion of moderation and tolerance, it has given by the custodian of the two Holy Mosques King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud particularly important in light of the challenges facing world crises, that require cooperation, concerted and complementary steps to make this planet in all its oasis of peace and contentment, an oasis which co-exist where the followers of religions, doctrines and philosophies cooperate and respect each other. If we want this historic co-existence is to succeed it must go to the commonalities that bring people together and renounce the crossfire and focus on the differences and exaggerated. The research has answered the following fundamental question: What are the patterns that have common blueprint among diversity religions, sects and philosophies? The research invent a mechanism to identify these patterns. It has made it clear the possibility of focusing on such patterns at universal scientific studies in educational institutes, and how they are used in building construction and architectural designs in different parts of the world because of their impact on the convergence between the various people. The Study has gathered hundreds of patterns and decorations from widely divergent cultures known as Islamic and non-Islamic, in addition to their geometrical symbols, These designs were studied from various aspects such as technical features, structural fittings and their existing that direct to figure out their properties for finding common denominator, these are used to interact with for spreading the spirit of dialogue and peace establishment. The research methodology focused on symmetry patterns in particular, which has been classified to architectural designs and geometrical religions symbols, then sort the common or similar patterns who have at least two background cultures through symbol religions analysis and constructed indicators based on

  19. How To Save the World: Through Critical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanford, George H.

    Education is the best hope for peace and progress in the world, and because education is best given and received when infused with critical thinking, critical thinking can save the world. Some of the most serious problems facing humankind are overpopulation and famine. The problems of ethnicity, colonialism, and religion further complicate matters…

  20. EDITORIAL: MUSLIM WORLD CURRENT ISSUES

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    Editor Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has proofed its self as a very spectacular phenomenon until no one may deny its impacts, but on the other hand, it reflexively suggests localization of the global. In this context, religion is not exclusion. It remains believed however, that religion still has its formula for solving the problems that emerged from globalisation. Scholars have devoted attempts to propose new ideas for this challenge. Local interpretations of symbols representing “global” Islam, for instance, increasingly grow in line with the growth of Islamic revival. This has drawn very much attention and responses from Muslims, whether to protest against or support for the new idea. The present edition of the journal is designed to more deeply explore the current issues from Muslim world, whether as very local phenomena or in a more global context.

  1. Evangelization and Causes of Religion Conversion from Hindu to Christian at Badung District Bali

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    Ni Kadek Surpi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the effort of evangelization and religious conversion factors from Hinduism to Christianity in Badung, Bali. Bali as a unique island and famous all over the world has long been used as a target of missionary. In the early stages, the process of spreading Christianity is very slow. Even, Dutch East Indies government closed the door to evangelization and prohibited its activities in Bali. This study uses a cross field of knowledge and find that there are many causes behind the religion conversion in the area of study. Findings of this research shows that the reason for religious conversion is the social upheavals because of dissatisfaction on system and religion, individual crises, eco- nomic and socio-cultural factors, the influence of mysticism, spiritual thirst and the promise of salvation, family breakdown and urbanization, wedding and birth order in the family, education and professional evangelistic activity and lack understand- ing of Hinduism.

  2. Iberian Globalization and the Rise of Catholic Theology of Religions in the XVI Century

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    Enrico Beltramini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a synthetic view of the historical and theological components that explain how Catholicism came to understand the great religious systems in Asia as doctrinally inferior during the sixteenth century in response to the discovery/invasion of the “New Worlds” by Iberian Europeans. A strong emphasis on the universal salvific will of God led Catholic theologians to elaborate a doctrine that ultimately altered Catholicism’s understanding of non-Christian religions. The article suggests that the predominant Catholic view of non-Christian religions has been shaped by a specific theological vision that was raised in sixteenth century Southern Europe. In order to sustain its points, the article offers some examples from the history of the Roman Catholic Church in India. Similar to other topics of world history, this one is also bound to contain an approximate degree of accuracy.

  3. (Re)Making a Difference. Religion, Mediatisation and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Mia Lövheim

    2015-01-01

    This article presents and discusses how mediatisation as a theory can be used to analyse two commercial videos, one promoting the organisation Catholics Come Home and the other Coca Cola. A core question in the current debate on mediatisation and religion concerns if and how mediatisation changes not only the social forms of communication about religion but also the meaning of religion in society. The issue in focus for the analysis is whether these videos mirror attributes and roles traditio...

  4. The Promised Savior in Pre-Islamic Great Religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Arab

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the ancient times the belief in the rise of the Reformer has been a fundamental principle. Many of the holy prophets have announced the advent of new prophet. Moreover in the announcements and indications of predecessors there are always allusions to "the Last Promised" and "the Savior of Last Days" under such titles as "Kalki", "Fifth Buddha", "Soshyans", "Messiah", "The Son of Man" and so on and so forth. Of course there are different types of belief in the last reformer in religions. In one place the Savior is merely a social reformer while in another place he is only after the spiritual salvation of people and even sometimes he undertakes both tasks. On the other hand, the Last Promised is once nationalist and once seeks to save the whole world.    This essay seeks to assay the views of pre-Islamic great religions including Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism as to the Promised Savior. This essay is an analytico-descriptive research which has based itself on the first hand works comprising the sacred scriptures of religions and proceeds through the typological analyses of idea of the Promised in religions.    Zoroastrianism: the idea of the Promised has been tied to the notion of Soshyant. Generally speaking, this notion alludes to a group of people who periodically emerge at the end of every millennium of the last three millennia of world's age so as to uproot evil and renew the world, the last one of these reformers is Soshyans. According to the aforementioned typology, Zoroastrian idea of Last Savior is among the Promised who saves the whole world. Moreover Zoroastrian Promised cannot be declared only a social savior as he is not wholly detached from people's spirituality too. From another point of view, Zoroastrian idea of the Promised represents a universal and not nationalist savior who is relatively a human and not divine entity who emerges in the last millennium of world's age.    Judaism: in the

  5. The Promised Savior in Pre-Islamic Great Religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Arab

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the ancient times the belief in the rise of the Reformer has been a fundamental principle. Many of the holy prophets have announced the advent of new prophet. Moreover in the announcements and indications of predecessors there are always allusions to "the Last Promised" and "the Savior of Last Days" under such titles as "Kalki", "Fifth Buddha", "Soshyans", "Messiah", "The Son of Man" and so on and so forth. Of course there are different types of belief in the last reformer in religions. In one place the Savior is merely a social reformer while in another place he is only after the spiritual salvation of people and even sometimes he undertakes both tasks. On the other hand, the Last Promised is once nationalist and once seeks to save the whole world.    This essay seeks to assay the views of pre-Islamic great religions including Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism as to the Promised Savior. This essay is an analytico-descriptive research which has based itself on the first hand works comprising the sacred scriptures of religions and proceeds through the typological analyses of idea of the Promised in religions.    Zoroastrianism: the idea of the Promised has been tied to the notion of Soshyant. Generally speaking, this notion alludes to a group of people who periodically emerge at the end of every millennium of the last three millennia of world's age so as to uproot evil and renew the world, the last one of these reformers is Soshyans. According to the aforementioned typology, Zoroastrian idea of Last Savior is among the Promised who saves the whole world. Moreover Zoroastrian Promised cannot be declared only a social savior as he is not wholly detached from people's spirituality too. From another point of view, Zoroastrian idea of the Promised represents a universal and not nationalist savior who is relatively a human and not divine entity who emerges in the last millennium of world's age.    Judaism: in the

  6. Public perceptions of incompatibility between "science and religion".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph O

    2012-04-01

    Narratives of conflict regarding the connections between science and religion receive considerable attention in multiple forums of public discourse. These discussions tend to focus on philosophical, abstract, and/or polemical, rather than empirical issues. Data from a 2007 national survey indicate that a relatively small proportion of American adults perceive incompatibility between science and religion. Those who do are divided evenly into groups privileging science and privileging religion. These groups are markedly different with regard to sociodemographic and religious characteristics. Overall, I advocate a theoretical perspective on "science and religion" that is culturally constructionist, but methodologically empiricist.

  7. Religion, kinship and health behaviors of African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Kathryn; Keller, Colleen; Walker, Jenelle R

    2015-02-01

    A positive relationship exists between functional health and religion. We present an empirical definition of religion and describe the key elements of religious behavior, building a model that can be used to explore the presumed relationship between religion and health. Semi-structured interactive interviews were conducted with 22 participants over a 6-month period. Head Start programs and churches located in the inner city of a large metropolitan area. Twenty-two African American women were aged from 21 to 45. We focus on social relationships and propose that prophet-created religions mimic kinship relationships and encourage kinship-like cooperation between members.

  8. Unbelievable?! Theistic/Epistemological Viewpoint Affects Religion-Health Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, David

    2017-02-01

    Research suggests that Religion/Spirituality promotes a variety of positive health outcomes. However, despite reporting lower levels of Religion/Spirituality, non-believers report comparable levels of health to believers. The current study tested the hypothesis that Religion/Spirituality does not have a uniform effect on health for all persons, and tested theological/epistemological categories as moderators. Using the 2012 and 2014 General Social Survey (N = 2670), the relationship between Religion/Spirituality and happiness and self-rated health was investigated. Results indicated that Gnostic Theists experienced Religion/Spirituality more positively than their peers did; Agnostic Theists experienced Religion/Spirituality less positively than their peers did; and Negative Atheists experienced Religion/Spirituality less positively than their peers did. These findings suggested that Religion/Spirituality is not associated with salutary effects for all persons, and that whether a person believes in god(s) and how confident he/she was in god(s)' existence, influenced his/her experience with Religion/Spirituality.

  9. ABORTION FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF EASTERN RELIGIONS: HINDUISM AND BUDDHISM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Constantin-Iulian Damian

    2010-01-01

      Considering that contemporary society becomes increasingly pluralistic from the religious viewpoint, non-Christian religions' view on bioethical issues as abortion should concern not only historians...

  10. Treatment Adherence in Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Demirkol

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite developments in treatment options there is no significant increase in treatment adherence ratios. Inadherence in psychiatric disorders is higher than the other diseases. Loss of insight, drugs' side effects, sociodemographic features, personality traits are major factors affecting the treatment adherence. Determining and overcoming these factors for each disorder will help to improve adherence and reduce the treatment costs and hospitalization. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(1: 85-93

  11. The Devaluation of the Subject in Popper's Theory of World 3

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parusniková, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2016), s. 304-317 ISSN 0048-3931 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Karl Popper * World 3 * objective knowledge * criticism * creativity Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.392, year: 2016

  12. Therapeutic Adherence in Smoking Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Salvador Manzano

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic adherence is a complex and multidimensional concept. The percentage of adherence to treatments involving a change in lifestyle, such as quitting smoking, is lower than in other disorders, a fact which has relevant clinical, psychological and economic consequences. This paper aims to review the associated factors with adherence to therapy in smoking treatment. Strategies to enhance therapeutic adherence involve the adequate choice of treatment, to know the smoker´s characteristics, breaking down organizational barriers in health system and the training of health professionals in communication skills with patients.

  13. Implicit religion, explicit religion and purpose in life : an empirical enquiry among 13- to 15-year-old adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    FRANCIS, Leslie J.

    2013-01-01

    In his analysis of the construct "implicit religion" Edward Bailey speaks of those individuals "who believe in Christianity" but who do not display the behaviours of explicit religion, like church attendance. A recent research tradition has tried to operationalise this understanding of implicit religion by studying those who believe that they can be a Christian without going to church. A longer established research tradition has demonstrated the association between explicit religiosity and an...

  14. On the continuity of old Saami religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Kjellström

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of my paper is to draw attention to the fact that old Saami religion is not entirely extinct. For example, sacrificial traditions, continued to live on long after the arrival of missionaries and other such activities among the Saamis. The question now is whether such sacrificing customs and similar traditions were current even later than what research has suggested and if so, how late in time. I wish to cast some light on this problem by presenting a number of examples taken in part from the literature about the Saamis, in part from personal communications from other scholars and in part from my own interviews observations in the field. What we can note is that certain traditional elements of Saami religion—at least in a few individual cases and in part perhaps in somewhat changed form—have continued to exist right up to quite recent times and, indeed, still live on, above all in the southerly parts of the region inhabited by the Lapps. In cases where the practice of making offerings ceased, the people still continued to show respect and veneration for the religious sites and could even experience something of the force emanating from them. They therefore felt a need to shield themselves from these forces and consequently followed the traditional practices. Early Saami religion and Christianity undoubtedly continued to exist side by side. It is possible that in their traditional livelihoods and even in life in general they resorted to their former well-tried religion, especially when all else failed.

  15. Queer(y)ing Religion and Spirituality: Reflections from Difficult Dialogues Exploring Religion, Spirituality, and Homosexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePeau, Lucy

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a student affairs practitioner's experience with co-instructing a course entitled, "Queer(y)ing Religion and Spirituality". The ways practitioners can facilitate difficult dialogues with students about the intersection of spirituality and GLBT issues are explored.

  16. Taboo Religion? A contextual analysis of the marginalization of German psychology of religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Belzen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Taking the history of the psychology of religion as a case, two theses are presented: (1) Psychology has always been determined by a multitude of contextual factors, among them seemingly trivial ones such as "market" and "fashion," and (2) research on its history readily turns into critical

  17. THEORY IN RELIGION AND AGING: AN OVERVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jeff; Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of theory in religion, aging, and health. It offers both a primer on theory and a roadmap for researchers. Four “tenses” of theory are described—distinct ways that theory comes into play in this field: grand theory, mid-range theory, use of theoretical models, and positing of constructs which mediate or moderate putative religious effects. Examples are given of both explicit and implicit uses of theory. Sources of theory for this field are then identified, emphasizing perspectives of sociologists and psychologists, and discussion is given to limitations of theory. Finally, reflections are offered as to why theory matters. PMID:20087662

  18. Religion, Psychology and Globalisation Process: Attitudinal Appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Orok Duke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A key consequence of globalisation is the integrative approach to reality whereby emphasis is placed on interdependence. Religion being an expression of human culture is equally affected by this cultural revolution. The main objective of this paper is to examine how religious affiliation, among Christians, influences attitudes towards the application of psychological sciences to the assuagement of human suffering. The sociological theory of structural functionalism was deployed to explain attitudinal appraisal. Ethnographic methodology, through quantitative analysis of administered questionnaire, was also used. The study reveals that religious tenets largely shape attitudinal appraisal and redefine the borders of globalisation’s metanarratives.

  19. An Investigation Concerning the Philosophical Foundations of “Sabean Mandaean” Religion and their Educational Teachin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Sawari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available  The purpose of this article is to study the philosophical foundations of the "Sabean Mandaean" religion in order to extract their educational teachings. The research method is analytical and deductive. Using this method, the anthropological, epistemological, and axiological foundations of this religion have been studied. The main sources in this study are the Mandaean holy books, especially Genza Rabba and Drasha ed Yaḥya.  Sabean Mandaean is a religious ethnic living peacefully alongside of Karoun, Dejla and Fourat rivers. For more than two thousand years ago, due the tension with Jews, they migrated from their main homeland, Palestine, to Mesopotamia and Khouzestan.  The holy Quran has included them three times as the third great Devine Religion. Some of the Islamic scientists know them as ahlol-kitab, namely persons having a holly religious book. Their holiest religion book is Ganza Rabba which means the great treasure and that has written in Mandaean.  In this religion, the existence is superior to the nature that created by God (Hai Rabbi. The most important characteristics of Hai Rabbi are the unity, Greatness and Creativity. The highest level of existence is called Alma Denhora (the world of light or the heaven, and the lowest level is called Alma Dehshokha (a world of darkness or hell. Human is consisted of two parts; Material (peghra or body and immaterial (Roha and Neshmetha. The truth of human is his Neshmetha or the spirit which is on the contrary to the peghra which is immortal and eternal. The human is dignitary, free and responsible and has a Devine nature.  Knowledge in Mandaean religion is important and has priority over faith and action. Manda, in its origin, means knowledge or cognition. Illiteracy is a great damage. Human being has miscellaneous tools to gain the knowledge. Feeling, heart and wisdom (Mana are the tools that God has given the human beings. The origin of the Mandaean values is God (Hai Rabbi. And

  20. A deep learning approach to adherence detection for type 2 diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohebbi, Ali; Aradóttir, Tinna Björk; Johansen, Alexander Rosenberg

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes has become one of the biggest health problems in the world. In this context, adherence to insulin treatment is essential in order to avoid life-threatening complications. In this pilot study, a novel adherence detection algorithm using Deep Learning (DL) approaches was developed for type 2...

  1. World Literature - World Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast ...

  2. Medical Adherence in Diabetes Hypertension Comorbidity: A Reply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-01

    Jan 1, 2018 ... particularly relevant to the developing world in which 80% of the global diabetic population resides. I would like to make the following observations with respect to this study. The study collected data through evaluation of patient medical records. However, adherence to medications in the study was defined.

  3. Quality of Life and Adherence to Antiretroviral Drugs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sitwala

    the public as a whole. Determination of medication adherence leads to development of innovative, effective interventions needed to facilitate behavior change, improve quality of life and prevent resistance to antiretroviral drugs. Conclusion: The World Health Organization has developed a comprehensive culturally sensitive.

  4. Gender, religion and democratic politics in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Zoya

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the impact of identity politics on gender equality. More specifically it explores the paradoxical and complex relationship of religion and politics in a multi-religious society and the complicated ways in which women's activism has both reinforced and challenged their gender identities. Contrary to the argument that religious politics does not always negate gender equality, the article argues that the Hindu religious politics and women's activism associated with it provides a compelling example of the instrumentalisation of women to accomplish the political goals of the Hindu right. It also examines the approach and strategies of influential political parties, women's organisations and Muslim women's groups towards legal reform and the contested issue of a uniform civil code. Against those who argue that, in the current communal conjuncture, reform within Muslim personal laws or Islamic feminism is the best strategy for enhancing the scope of Muslim women's rights, the article argues that such an approach tends to freeze identities within religious boundaries. It shows how women's and minority rights are used within the politics of religion to sideline the agenda of women's rights.

  5. Lars Levi Laestadius' attitude to Saami religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl F. Hallencreutz

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available How Læstadianism became the "religion of the Saamis" is a process of church and religious history which has not been fully explained. It is a comprehensive development which includes most of Læstadius' entire ministry. In this work he did not regard the Saami religion as something exclusively out of date. Instead, he put his message in a more concrete form by making use of Saami ideas. A central question is how Læstadius took account of—or afforded expression to motives from traditional Saami mythology when he formulated and adapted his own interpretation of Christianity to the Saami environment. For instance, the existence of the mother goddess (Madder-akka and other female deities was something extremely concrete in Saami pre-Christian. In Læstadius' time conceptions and the worship of these deities had ceased. Despite this, Læstadius may have found it of value, in a living Saami interpretation of Christianity, to give a more rounded picture of the deity that was expressed in Christian usage by the old Saami god of thunder and sky, Jubmela by keeping alive the mother aspect of "the heavenly parent". Therefore he may have consciously chosen to use mother symbolism when talking of the secret of atonement.

  6. Religion, the Federalists, and American Nationalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Den Hartog

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It may seem a truism to assert that the Federalist Party in the Early American Republic possessed a nationalist emphasis, but the question remains as to the character of their nationalism. This article draws on categories from the historian John D. Wilsey to determine how “open” or “closed” Federalist nationalism was. It looks to public utterances of Federalist leaders to find that they attempted to hold up the nation as an ideal, but that they avoided expansionistic tendencies in foreign affairs. This allows the article to posit Federalist nationalism as “open.” It then considers what role religion played in supporting this “open” Federalist nationalism. It finds that Federalist religious nationalism developed in three stages: “Republican,” “Federalist,” and “Voluntarist,” as Federalists responded to needs within, and changes to, the new nation. The article concludes that religion (predominantly Protestant Christianity thus operated creatively in support of an “open” Federalist nationalism.

  7. "Good sex" and religion: a feminist overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Mary E; Jung, Patricia Beattie

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an overview of both the processes and the results of an international, interdisciplinary, and interreligious feminist study of "good sex" that resulted in a volume by the same name. We argue that religion (including its secular equivalent, i.e., global capitalism) remains a powerfully influential cultural force that shapes people's lives, in general, and sanctifies their beliefs, in particular, about what makes for good sex. This review seeks to expand conversations about sex in the bedroom and other private arenas (like the confessional) into more public venues and to demonstrate the connections between power, pleasure, and justice. The need to deconstruct religious traditions so as to critically analyze their structures and components is recognized. Several examples of how feminist scholars and activists are retrieving female-friendly religious insights from both their traditions and more transgressive communities of resistance are provided. This article also points to several ways that religious sexual scripts and norms might be reconstructed. Topics addressed include discussions of how to understand footbinding, the tendency of "forbidden" fruit to prove most erotic, whether sexual entanglements are spiritually dangerous distractions, and ways in which religion can make motherhood "compulsory." We examine both the ways in which equating sexual activity with reproductive activity have obscured the value of women's sexual delight and the risks to many women and children of an unqualified validation of sexual pleasure. Both the ambivalence of religious teachings about sexuality and the difficulties posed by monolithic portrayals of religious traditions are identified.

  8. Recommendations for improving ART adherence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on the fi ndings of a study that aimed to explore experts' and patients' opinions and recommendations regarding adherence to antiretroviral medication. This study was prompted firstly by the lack of existing local research on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and secondly by the importance of ...

  9. [Treatment adherence: a key element].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida, Guillermo; Sánchez Montes, Cristina; Aguas, Mariam

    2011-12-01

    A substantial percentage of patients fail to follow health professionals' recommendations, which affects the management of chronic diseases, reducing the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions and increasing the costs of the disease. Lack of adherence is a multidimensional phenomenon and is influenced by numerous factors that should be identified. A multiplicity of measures is available to improve adherence, such as simplifying treatment administration, but none of these measures is effective when used alone. One way of tackling lack of adherence is by identifying patients' barriers to medication and involving them in decision making. Ulcerative colitis (UC) poses a risk for lack of treatment adherence. In this disease, poor adherence correlates with poor disease control (drug effectiveness) and with higher costs. As in other chronic diseases, the causes associated with poor adherence are multiple, including psychosocial factors, the physician-patient relationship and patients' prejudices toward medication. A single dose of aminosalycylates (5-ASA) should be recommended, as this dose is as safe and effective as other regimens. However, by itself, this recommendation does not seem to improve adherence. Identifying the scale of the problem and developing strategies to involve the patient in decision making is crucial to improve treatment adherence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimizing adherence to antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Seema; Reddy, K Srikanth; Dhayarkar, Sampada

    2011-12-01

    HIV has now become a manageable chronic disease. However, the treatment outcomes may get hampered by suboptimal adherence to ART. Adherence optimization is a concrete reality in the wake of 'universal access' and it is imperative to learn lessons from various studies and programmes. This review examines current literature on ART scale up, treatment outcomes of the large scale programmes and the role of adherence therein. Social, behavioural, biological and programme related factors arise in the context of ART adherence optimization. While emphasis is laid on adherence, retention of patients under the care umbrella emerges as a major challenge. An in-depth understanding of patients' health seeking behaviour and health care delivery system may be useful in improving adherence and retention of patients in care continuum and programme. A theoretical framework to address the barriers and facilitators has been articulated to identify problematic areas in order to intervene with specific strategies. Empirically tested objective adherence measurement tools and approaches to assess adherence in clinical/ programme settings are required. Strengthening of ART programmes would include appropriate policies for manpower and task sharing, integrating traditional health sector, innovations in counselling and community support. Implications for the use of theoretical model to guide research, clinical practice, community involvement and policy as part of a human rights approach to HIV disease is suggested.

  11. EAMJ May Adherence.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-05

    May 5, 2009 ... The aim of this study was to determine adherence levels among HIV/AIDS adult patients using timing of medications and keeping of clinic appointments for drug refills as key indicators of adherence. It also determined the association between the two indicators. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Study area and ...

  12. Religion, spirituality, health and medicine: Why should Indian physicians care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chattopadhyay, S.

    2007-01-01

    Religion, spirituality, health and medicine have common roots in the conceptual framework of relationship amongst human beings, nature and God. Of late, there has been a surge in interest in understanding the interplay of religion, spirituality, health and medicine, both in popular and scientific

  13. God, religion and two existentialists: A critical appraisal | Ndubuisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some philosophers see religion as an attitude of mind in recognizing a transcendental power, other than man, while others like Jean-Paul Sartre see it as a practice of Bad faith. It could be said, however, that religion emerged out of man's genuine quest for meaning in his life. This assertion finds expression in the fact that ...

  14. Muslim learners' religion expression through attire in culturally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BlignautAS

    ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 35, 2007. Muslim learners religion expression through attire in culturally diverse public schools in South Africa: A cul-de-sac? Muslim learners' religion ..... educators stereotype them as medieval? (Noorani,. 2002: 93). Many Muslim girls cannot reach ...

  15. Theology of religions: Models for interreligious dialogue in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    also be true is that some Christians might still be blind to people from other religions, or purposely ignore other ..... interreligious dialogue can be, but have witnessed how if not treated with sensitivity, dialogue could ...... breath has to take visible, material shape, then the religions are the first areas we should investigate for ...

  16. Shortcomings of the Human Brain and Remedial Action by Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, K. Helmut

    2010-01-01

    There is no consensus as to whether, and if so, in which regard and to what extent science and religion is needed for human survival. Here a circumscribed domain is taken up: the sovereignty and sufficiency of the human brain in this context. Several of its shortcomings are pointed out. Religion and other aspects of culture are needed for remedial…

  17. Should God Get Tenure? Essays on Religion and Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, David W., Ed.

    Essays on the role of religion in higher education include: "Should God Get Tenure?" (David W. Gill); "On Being a Professor: The Case of Socrates" (Bruce R. Reichenbach); "Academic Excellence: Cliche or Humanizing Vision?" (Merold Westphal); "Religion, Science, and the Humanities in the Liberal Arts Curriculum" (H. Newton Maloney); "Tolstoy and…

  18. The Impact of Culture and Religion on Psychiatric Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Ezra E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Culture and religion have a strong impact on clinical relationships, and attention to these issues has been shown to improve psychiatric care. Current issues in psychiatry and religion are explored, in order to demonstrate the clinical relevance of new findings in this area. PMID:7154101

  19. Religion/Spirituality and Adolescent Psychiatric Symptoms: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Rachel Elizabeth; Daniel, Stephanie S.; Armstrong, Tonya D.; Goldston, David B.; Triplett, Mary Frances; Koenig, Harold G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the current article is to review the literature on religion and spirituality as it pertains to adolescent psychiatric symptoms. One hundred and fifteen articles were reviewed that examined relationships between religion/spirituality and adolescent substance use, delinquency, depression, suicidality, and anxiety. Ninety-two percent of…

  20. The Word Has Become Game : Researching Religion in Digital Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, Frank

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes a multi-layered methodology for researching religion in video games. The author differentiates between five levels at which religion can be encountered in video games and/or video game research: material, referential, reflexive, ritual and meta level. These

  1. Interrogating religious plurality and separation of state and religion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia is a multi-religious country. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Christianity was the official state religion from the 4th century until the fall of Emperor Haile Selassie in 1974. The Socialist Dergue's (1987) constitution separated state and religion, and the FDRE's constitution (1995) reaffirmed the separation, and ...

  2. Religion and Spirituality in Adjustment Following Bereavement: An Integrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortmann, Jennifer H.; Park, Crystal L.

    2008-01-01

    Surprisingly little research has examined the widely held assumption that religion and spirituality are generally helpful in adjusting to bereavement. A systematic literature search located 73 empirical articles that examined religion/spirituality in the context of bereavement. The authors describe the multidimensional nature of…

  3. Die Problematik der Inklusion von Religion in das Schulsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Lindner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: This paper wants to point out, what it might mean to include religion in educational systems. The diversity of religion is a fact insociety and schools today. However, the issue of the proper role of religion in public schools continues to be a subject of greatcontroversy. So it is with inclusion in education, which has taken firm root in many school systems so far. Though, the relationshipof religion to inclusion in the public school is little well known, because schools have failed to recognize the problem ofreligious inclusion, while focusing on other forms of racial, gendered and socio-economic forms of exclusion and inclusion. DEUTSCH: Unter den Fragen, die Schule heute im Besonderen herausfordern, nimmt diejenige nach der Inklusion von Religion zweifelsohneeine Sonderstellung ein. Geht es um die Verhandlung von Differenz in der Migrationsgesellschaft, werden sowohl der Inklusionsbegriffals auch Religion in ihrer Vielfalt in unterschiedlichen Diskursen prominent erörtert. Dabei bleibt zu klären, welche Rolleder Religion vor dem Hintergrund pluraler Gesellschaften in inklusiven Schulen zukommen soll. In diesem Beitrag werden daherunterschiedliche Aspekte und Ansätze von Inklusion mit Blick auf Religion diskutiert und Überlegungen für den schulischenUmgang mit religiöser Heterogenität resümiert.

  4. Intrinsic Religion and Internalized Homophobia in Sexual-Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, Geoffrey L.

    This research investigates the development of conflict between sexual minority identity and religious identity in sexual minority youth, examining religion as both a risk factor and a protective factor. Intrinsic religion was expected to predict self reported conflict between religious and sexual minority identity. Retrospectively reported…

  5. Religion and Sustainable Environment in the Niger Delta: The Ogoni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the belief of the people whatever happens to their land happens to their existence and whatever happens to their lives equally affect their land. In other words, for Ogoni people, land and life are inseparable entities. There exists a symbiotic relationship between religion and environment. The religion of the people abhors ...

  6. NVMEN, the Academic Study of Religion, and the IAHR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim; Geertz, Armin W.

    2016-01-01

    This special volume of articles is compiled to celebrate the occasion of the 60th anniversary of NVMEN: International Review for the History of Religions in 2014. The articles in this volume have been selected under the auspices of the International Association for the History of Religions (IAHR...

  7. Sin, Punishment And Forgiveness In Ancient Greek Religion: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It examines what constitutes hubris and some cases in which hubris has been committed and punished. It demonstrates with examples that hubris is an unforgivable sin in ancient Greek religion and examines the reasons for this concept. Finally, the paper interprets the operation of hubris in Greek religion from the Yoruba ...

  8. The challenges of religion and ethnic identity in Nigeria | Ibezim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the challenges of religion and ethnic identity in Nigeria. Albeit religion and ethnic identity give people a sense of belonging, but there are factors that impede their progress in Nigeria. These factors were identified through secondary source of data collections and simple observation. The findings show ...

  9. Religion, Education, and Religious Education in Irish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Áine; Bocking, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This essay is part of a collection of short essays solicited from authors around the globe who teach religion courses at the college level (not for professional religious training). They are published together with an introduction in "Teaching Theology and Religion" 18:3 (July 2015). The authors were asked to provide a brief overview of…

  10. Recent Observations on Religion Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-Godsey, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Thirteen years have passed since the Minister of Education, Kader Asmal, implemented the National Policy on Religion and Education in 2003 (South African Government 2003). The policy provided a new framework to promote diversity by educating young people about the religions of others as well as respect towards freedom of religious expression, a…

  11. What is religion? An African understanding | Beyers | HTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western thought has influenced the way that religion is understood. Western philosophy supported the separation between the sacred and the profane. Modernism, focusing on human rationality, reduced religion to a set of correctly formulated dogmas and doctrines. Western thought, dominated by Christianity, created a ...

  12. An Ethnographic Eye on Religion in Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    There are many pitfalls associated with teaching about religions. One such pitfall entails the risk of presenting religions as stereotypical monolithic systems; that is, all who belong to a particular religious tradition think and act in the same way. I like to call this sort of stereotyping the "robotic tendency" because it has a habit…

  13. Access to health care and religion among young American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillum, R Frank; Jarrett, Nicole; Obisesan, Thomas O

    2009-12-01

    In order to elucidate cultural correlates of utilization of primary health services by young adult men, we investigated religion in which one was raised and service utilization. Using data from a national survey we tested the hypothesis that religion raised predicts access to and utilization of a regular medical care provider, examinations, HIV and other STD testing and counseling at ages 18-44 years in men born between 1958 and 1984. We also hypothesized that religion raised would be more predictive of utilization for Hispanic Americans and non-Hispanic Black Americans than for non-Hispanic White Americans. The study included a national sample of 4276 men aged 18-44 years. Descriptive and multivariate statistics were used to assess the hypotheses using data on religion raised and responses to 14 items assessing health care access and utilization. Compared to those raised in no religion, those raised mainline Protestant were more likely (p Religion raised was not associated with testicular exams, STD counseling or HIV testing. In multivariate analyses controlling for confounders, significant associations of religion raised with insurance coverage, a physician as usual source of care and physical examination remained which varied by race/ethnicity. In conclusion, although religion is a core aspect of culture that deserves further study as a possible determinant of health care utilization, we were not able to document any consistent pattern of significant association even in a population with high rates of religious participation.

  14. Teaching Religion in Brazil, in Public Schools and Confessional Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Eduardo R.; Soares, Afonso L.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is part of a collection of short essays solicited from authors around the globe who teach religion courses at the college level (not for professional religious training). They are published together with an introduction in "Teaching Theology and Religion" 18:3 (July 2015). The authors were asked to provide a brief overview of…

  15. The Counter Terrorist Classroom: Religion, Education, and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies international cases--from the United States, Europe, and the United Nations--of an emergent interface of religion, education, and security. This is manifest in the uses of religion in education to counter religious extremism, the notional "counter terrorist classroom." To avoid an over-association of extremism with…

  16. Ideologies of Religion and Diversity in Australian Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    In many multicultural democracies, education has a Christian history. However, teaching religion has ideological variation. Progressives teach about many religions, while conservatives favor (often exclusive) instruction into one tradition. Australian secular education controversially prioritizes faith-forming instruction (mostly Christian). In…

  17. Should Science Educators Deal with the Science/Religion Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    I begin by examining the natures of science and religion before looking at the ways in which they relate to one another. I then look at a number of case studies that centre on the relationships between science and religion, including attempts to find mechanisms for divine action in quantum theory and chaos theory, creationism, genetic engineering…

  18. The Challenges of Teaching and Learning Sociology of Religion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The teaching and learning of Sociology of Religion in Nigeria face some grave challenges. As an academic discipline in religious studies, many who teach this specialized discipline are not experts. This makes Sociology of. Religion anybody's game which does not promote sound scholarship, creativity and intellectual ...

  19. Integrating Religion and Spirituality into Counselor Education: Barriers and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Christopher M.; Puig, Ana; Baggs, Adrienne; Wolf, Cheryl Pence

    2015-01-01

    Despite a professionally recognized need for training in religion/spirituality, literature indicates that religious and spirituality issues continue to be inconsistently addressed in counselor education. Ten experts were asked to identify potential barriers to integrating religion and spirituality into counselor education and indicate strategies…

  20. Meaning of Life: Exploring the Relation between Economics and Religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaards, A.; Sent, E.-M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Article Figures & data References Citations Metrics Reprints & Permissions PDF Abstract This paper starts from the perspective that giving meaning to life is a key function of religion: through its narratives, rituals, creeds, and practices, religion clothes life in a meaningful

  1. Religion and Politics: Gandhian Philosophy as a Model | Okorie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, the employment of Gandhism as a working model will reveal that politics pervades all religions, and consequently, Gandhism embraces Christianity, Hinduism, Islam and other religious faiths and creeds provided that such a believer's love for mankind is unshakable. The conclusion will be that religion and politics are ...

  2. Religion and Labour Force Participation in Nigeria: Is there any ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    The logistic models established that religion has a positive significant effect on female labour force .... data while the reverse was the case for whom she worked with (employee) when the data were ..... Table 4: Logistics Regression of Religion and Labour Force Participation (2003-2013). Variables. Unadjusted). Adjusted.

  3. Pastoral care, spirituality, and religion in palliative care journals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermsen, M.A.; Have, H.A.M.J. ten

    2004-01-01

    With the growth and development of palliative care, interest in pastoral care, spirituality, and religion also seems to be growing. The aim of this article is to review the topic of pastoral care, spirituality, and religion appearing in the journals of palliative care, between January 1984 and

  4. Towards a metamodern academic study of religion and a more ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-04-24

    Apr 24, 2017 ... In Religious Studies, the most common name these days for the comparative academic study of religion,1 one does not ... The phrase 'the academic study of religion' will be used in this article to refer to a broad meta-discipline encompassing both Religious .... behind and taking on a non-religious identity.

  5. The role of religion in al-Qaeda’s violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanninga, Pieter; Lewis, James R.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores the role of religion in jihadist violence by applying recent insights from the field of religious studies to the case of al-Qaeda. Whereas religion is often perceived as an explanatory factor in al-Qaeda’s attacks, the chapter demonstrates that the meanings attributed to

  6. The Need to Re-Conceptualize African 'Traditional' Religion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But as this work observes, a misconception about African Religion gave birth to a contraption called „African Traditional Religion‟. On this note, this work sets forth to re-conceptualize a misinformed religious view about the African people. It is the belief of this work that African Religion is more appropriate and should be ...

  7. "Spirituous Consolation": Alcott's Jokes on Drinking and Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    The second book edition of Louisa May Alcott's Hospital Sketches eliminated jokes about drinking and religion. Although these were small changes, the edgy theme of drinking and religion as topics that could and sometimes should be taken lightly (even by a writer who also considered both topics as serious) interested Alcott throughout her career.…

  8. RELIGION, PEACE AND SECURITY IN NIGERIA Osaji, Jacob ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2005-02-07

    Feb 7, 2005 ... day, nor the pestilence that stalks in darkness nor the destruction that wastes at noonday. Islam is another prevailing religion in Nigeria. The purpose of. Islamic law – Maqasidush – Shariah is security. 12. Security of life, property, progeny, intellect, religion and honour is the primary function of. Islamic law.

  9. Towards a metamodern academic study of religion and a more ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The academic study of religion has long enjoyed a variety of philosophies and methodologies. A new entrant to this list has now arisen: metamodernism. This article examines the claims of metamodernism and makes an initial attempt to relate it to the academic study of religion, both in its guise as Religious Studies and, ...

  10. Studying Religion Scientifically: Motive and Method | Nmah | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motive and method provide one of the most contentious and thorny sets of issues in contemporary academic debate in the study of religion. Byrne (1988), opined that the debate on the motives and methods of studying religion academically or scientifically has not yet ended, which can equally be confirmed by a quick survey ...

  11. The Role of Religion in Human Development | Ugorie | UJAH: Unizik ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was on the instances of the above negative manifestations Bertrand Russell, regards religion as a source of untold misery to the human race. This research aimed at discovering the positive contributions of religion in civilizing humanity. To achieve this objective, historical method was adopted and data were collected from ...

  12. Are Religion or "Faith" Necessary for a Moral Sexual Ethos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Marty

    2011-01-01

    Credit the editor of the American Journal of Sexuality Education for inviting an article on whether religion or faith is necessary for a moral sexual ethos. Credit organized religion for creating a global cultural narrative in which this question would even be asked. Most articles answer a central question. This article challenges the central…

  13. Teaching Introductory Upper-Level Religion and Theology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingerman, Forrest; O'Brien, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    The undergraduate study of religion is predominantly undertaken by non-majors who are meeting a general education requirement. This means that, while curricular discussions make important distinctions between the work of lower- and upper-division courses, many religion and theology faculty are teaching hybrid courses that we call…

  14. 'Lived Islam' in India and Bangladesh: negotiating religion to realise reproductive aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Biswamitra; Hutter, Inge

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to answer the question of how Muslim women interpret and negotiate religion in order to realise their reproductive aspirations. A close reading of lived experiences of 32 Muslim women from a varied educational background yields a wider perspective of the different interpretations of reproductive norms employed by adherents of the same religion (Islam), situated in two countries (India/Bangladesh) and group (majority/minority) contexts. Further, this comparative study yields a deeper understanding of agency that is employed by Muslim participants in each country. Muslim women - both in India and Bangladesh - are not passive followers of religious norms, but have agency to bring change in their own life and take an active role in planning their family, thereby transgressing religious norms in reproductive matters. Muslim women in India exercise their agency by adopting sterilisation - a method proscribed by Islam - without the knowledge of their significant others. Muslim women in Bangladesh use their agency by making a flexible interpretation of Islam in reproductive matters. A lesson learned from this comparative study is the need to remove barriers that prevent the adoption of contraceptives by Muslim minorities in India and to design family planning programmes that takes into account their religious needs.

  15. Historical intersections of psychology, religion, and politics in national contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelmann, Robert; Belzen, Jacob A

    2009-08-01

    Various types of psychology have come into existence in and have been interacting with a plurality of contexts, contexts that have been radically varying in different states or nations. One important factor in the development of psychology has been the multiple relationships to the Christian religion, whether understood as an institution, a worldview, or a form of personal spirituality. The articles in this issue focus on the intertwinements between institutional religion and national political structures and on their influence on developing forms of psychology in four different national contexts: Spain, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Within these four settings, aspects of the ways in which varying forms of Christian religion coconstituted, facilitated, and shaped psychology, theoretically, practically, and institutionally, are examined. The formative power of the religions was not independent of the relationships between religion and political power, but rather mediated by these.

  16. Hvorfor, hvorfra (og hvornår) kom religion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2018-01-01

    overtroisk hjerne med tendens til ualmindelige mentale og/eller emotionelle oplevelser. Disse egenskaber er en nødvendig forudsætning for religiøst adfærd. Når man ser på de arkæologiske vidnesbyrd i jagten på det religiøse menneske, skal man gå betydeligt længere tilbage end Homo sapiens, ja, man skal langt...... tilbage i homininlinjen. De første proto-religiøse træk synes at komme til syne med Homo heidelbergensis (mellem 600.000 og 400.000 år siden). KEYWORDS: religion; evolution; cognitive science of religion; definition of religion; neurobiology of religion; method and theory in the study of religion....

  17. Religion, Culture, and Tax Evasion: Evidence from the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadim Strielkowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our paper analyzes the impact of culture and religion on tax evasions in the Czech Republic, which represents one of the most atheistic countries in Europe, and a very interesting example of attitudes to the church and religion, as well as the influence of religion on the social and economic aspects of everyday life. Our results suggest that, in the Czech Republic, religion plays the role of tax compliance, but only through a positive effect of visiting the church. National pride supports tax morality while trust in government institutions and attitudes towards government are not associated with tax compliance. These results suggest that the Czech Republic is no different from other countries regarding the relationship between religion and tax compliance. Moreover, the role of government as the authority for improving tax compliance is different from what is observed in other countries.

  18. The role of religion and spirituality in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Samuel R; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2014-09-01

    There has been increased interest in the relationship between religion and spirituality and mental health in recent years. This article reviews recent research into the capacity of religion and spirituality to benefit or harm the mental health of believers. We also examine the implications this may have for assessment and treatment in psychiatric settings. Studies indicate that religion and spirituality can promote mental health through positive religious coping, community and support, and positive beliefs. Research also shows that religion and spirituality can be damaging to mental health by means of negative religious coping, misunderstanding and miscommunication, and negative beliefs. Tools for the assessment of patients' spiritual needs have been studied, and incorporation of spiritual themes into treatment has shown some promise. Religion and spirituality have the ability to promote or damage mental health. This potential demands an increased awareness of religious matters by practitioners in the mental health field as well as ongoing attention in psychiatric research.

  19. The influence of religion on sexual HIV risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stacey A; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2014-08-01

    This systematic review examines the relationship between religion and sexual HIV risk behavior. It focuses primarily on how studies have conceptualized and defined religion, methodologies, and sexual risk outcomes. We also describe regions where studies were conducted and mechanisms by which religion may be associated with sexual risk. We included 137 studies in this review, classifying them as measuring: (1) only religious affiliation (n = 57), (2) only religiosity (n = 48), and (3) both religious affiliation and religiosity (n = 32). A number of studies identified lower levels of sexual HIV risk among Muslims, although many of these examined HIV prevalence rather than specific behavioral risk outcomes. Most studies identified increased religiosity to be associated with lower levels of sexual HIV risk. This finding persists but is weaker when the outcome considered is condom use. The paper reviews ways in which religion may contribute to increase and reduction in sexual HIV risk, gaps in research, and implications for future research on religion and HIV.

  20. Religion, spirituality and health care: confusions, tensions, opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    This paper raises some issues about understanding religion, religions and spirituality in health care to enable a more critical mutual engagement and dialogue to take place between health care institutions and religious communities and believers. Understanding religions and religious people is a complex, interesting matter. Taking into account the whole reality of religion and spirituality is not just about meeting specific needs, nor of trying to ensure that religious people abandon their distinctive beliefs and insights when they engage with health care institutions and policies. Members of religious groups and communities form an integral part of the structure and fabric of health care delivery, whether as users or in delivery capacities. Religion is both facilitator and resistor, friend and critic, for health care institutions, providers and workers.