WorldWideScience

Sample records for world oilseed situation

  1. The Effect of Biodiesel Policies on World Biodiesel and Oilseed Prices

    OpenAIRE

    de Gorter, Harry; Drabik, Dusan; Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical and empirical model is developed to analyze the effect of a biodiesel mandate, a tax exemption (tax credit) and an exogenous diesel price shock on world soybean and canola markets. The jointness in crushing oil and meal from the oilseed reduces the size of the link between biodiesel and oilseed prices. A diesel price shock with a mandate results in a smaller change in oilseed prices compared with a tax exemption. Higher diesel prices increase biodiesel prices under a tax exempti...

  2. Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade

    OpenAIRE

    Б. В. Духницький; Т. В. Сіліфонов

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To analyze peculiarities of Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade, the situation on the world market, and determine future prospects of its development. Methods. Analysis and synthesis, comparative evaluation, graphic procedure. Results. The role and place of Ukraine in a total grain supply to the world market was determined. Ukraine is a world’s top ten grain producer. Among domestic agricultural products, cereals, oilseeds and sunflower oil are in the highest demand in the w...

  3. The effect of biodiesel policies on world biodiesel and oilseed prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, D.; Gorter, de H.; Timilsina, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical and empirical model is developed to analyze the effect of a biodiesel mandate, a tax exemption (tax credit) and an exogenous diesel price shock on world soybean and canola markets. The jointness in crushing oil and meal from the oilseed reduces the size of the link between biodiesel

  4. VACCINES AND IMMUNIZATION: WORLD SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Brundtland

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The last issue of the report «vaccines and immunization: world situation» stresses considerable success in immunization at the global level since the mid 90 s — completely total eradication of poliomyelitis across the world, as well as the drastic reduction of the new measles and tetanus cases among mothers and newborns in some poor countries. The report also briefly describes the progress in the development and implementation of the new life saving vaccines, which may save millions of lives annually. The authors have explained some of the reasons, why the global community should invest in immunization, as well as the perspectives for the use of vaccines and immunization in future.Key words: vaccine, immunization, children.

  5. The Effect of Biodiesel Policies on World Oilseed Markets and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Drabik, Dusan; de Gorter, Harry; Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2013-01-01

    Using an empirical model, this study provides some insights into the functioning of the oilseed-biodiesel-diesel market complex in a large country that determines the biodiesel price, reflecting market equilibrium changes resulting from volatility in the crude oil price. Oilseed crushing produces joint products -- oil and meal -- and this weakens the link between the biodiesel and oilseed...

  6. Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Б. В. Духницький

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze peculiarities of Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade, the situation on the world market, and determine future prospects of its development. Methods. Analysis and synthesis, comparative evaluation, graphic procedure. Results. The role and place of Ukraine in a total grain supply to the world market was determined. Ukraine is a world’s top ten grain producer. Among domestic agricultural products, cereals, oilseeds and sunflower oil are in the highest demand in the world. In recent years, our state has reinforced its status as one of the leading exporters of cereals. The commodity pattern of cereals and oilseeds export was analyzed with specifying most in-demand positions and the main countries purchasing these pro­ducts. According to the results of 2015, Ukraine obtained the highest foreign currency revenue from export of corn, wheat and barley (in grain structure including soybeans and rapeseed (among oil crops. Key domestic and multinational operators are the main exporters of cereals and oilseeds in Ukraine and still hold their leading position. It was found a significant excess of import price of seeds as compared with export price of crops grown in Ukraine. Assortment of maize and sunflower seeds offered by major companies-producers in Ukraine was studied. Main trends of the world grain market development are considered. Conclusions. It was established that Ukraine is one of the major exporters of cereals and oilseeds. However, volatility of their prices significantly affects the export revenue that was decreasing even with increasing export quantities in kind. The dependence of domestic grain industry development on high-quality imported seed of maize and sunflower hybrids was recorded. It is expected that in the years to come Ukraine will maintain its strong positions in the world’s grain market.

  7. Collective Action Situated in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, Bridget M.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time in the history of collective action, the offline world has experienced a virtually organized and enacted union strike. While this was the first publicly noticed political action in a virtual world, others have been going on for several years now. As virtual worlds continue to grow in popularity, this type of protest of action…

  8. [Current situation of accidents in the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Zinser, José Valente

    2010-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of traffic accidents is of concern. About 1.2 million people die every year on the roadways and about 20 to 50 million suffer from non-lethal trauma. Countries with low or medium incomes have higher rates of lethality by traffic accidents (21.5 and 19.5 per 100,000 habitants, respectively) than countries with higher incomes (10.3 per 100,000). It is estimated that the cost of traffic accidents in countries that are members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), escalate to rates that are between 2-5% of the gross domestic product (GDP). According to data from the health sector in Mexico, these rates are equivalent to 1.3 of GDR The WHO foresees that traffic accident traumas will rise to be the third cause of mortality in 2030. Because of the high complexity of the transport sector, it is necessary that the Transport and Communication Ministry works in a multidisciplinary and intersectorial fashion to ensure that the land transportation systems operate effectively in accordance with national economic development and the quality of life of the Mexican people.

  9. Language Situation in the Slavic World Countries: Topical Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Ayupova L. L.

    2013-01-01

    The article examine the problem of language situation researching in the Slavic world, and in all other countries. These studies are among the topical directions of modern linguistics, in particular – sociolinguistics. The language situation concept as a key scientific concept of modern linguistics approved in works of domestic and foreign scholars.. The article suggests ways of further development of the category on this basis through the study of the language situation in the modern cities ...

  10. Situations in 140 Characters: Assessing Real-World Situations on Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Serfass

    Full Text Available Over 20 million Tweets were used to study the psychological characteristics of real-world situations over the course of two weeks. Models for automatically and accurately scoring individual Tweets on the DIAMONDS dimensions of situations were developed. Stable daily and weekly fluctuations in the situations that people experience were identified. Predicted temporal trends were found, providing validation for this new method of situation assessment. On weekdays, Duty peaks in the midmorning and declines steadily thereafter while Sociality peeks in the evening. Negativity is highest during the workweek and lowest on the weekends. pOsitivity shows the opposite pattern. Additionally, gender and locational differences in the situations shared on Twitter are explored. Females share both more emotionally charged (pOsitive and Negative situations, while no differences were found in the amount of Duty experienced by males and females. Differences in the situations shared from Rural and Urban areas were not found. Future applications of assessing situations using social media are discussed.

  11. Brazilian science teachers conceptions about the world situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Vital dos Santos Abib

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the urgent need of a scientific education thet would provide for citizen participation in decision making regarding problems that affect our survival, this paper reports teachers perceptions about problems that affect the future of human kind and life in our planet. Taking as reference recent studies which approach this issue globally, we analyse science teachers conceptions concerning the present world situation. Results show a fragmentary character and an insufficient conscientization of the extent and serioussness of the problems. This finding points at the need of formative actions that would provide teachers with a more adequate perspection of those problems and of possible solutions.

  12. Understanding Use Situated in Real-world Mobile Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    where the activity is happening) by leveraging three keyenablers: (1) the high penetration of smart phones, (2) their easy programmability and (3) the large-scale distribution channels for mobile applications that come with the platforms. My approach suggests a triggered response solicitation, which......  Our understanding of users' everyday practices in their natural contexts is still very limited. Insights are often only available from studies conducted outside of the context itself. I propose a new approach to study use situated in real-world everyday mobile contexts (at the time and place...

  13. World Food Situation: Pessimism Comes Back Into Vogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Nicholas

    1973-01-01

    Analyzes the recent trends in food supply and demand around the world. Present predictions are pessimistic and indicate that poor harvests will result in world-wide food shortages. Factors affecting the food requirements of under-developed countries, such as population growth, crop yields and weather patterns, are examined. (JR)

  14. World energy situation: perspectives until the year 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziunikowski, K.

    1980-08-01

    World energy balance is discussed. Energy demand and supply as well as reserves of energy sources are evaluated. The following energy sources are considered: oil, natural gas, black and brown coal, nuclear energy, hydroelectric energy and non-conventional energy sources (solar energy, wind power, tidal power). Two kinds of resources are characterized: I. geological resources of black coal seams not thinner than 0.6 m located up to a depth of 2000 m and brown coal geological resources not thinner than 2 m, located up to a depth of 1600 m; II. industrial resources of black coal located not deeper than 1600 m, and brown coal industrial resources not deeper than 600 m. The world geological coal resources amount to 10,125 billion t.c.e. Of this 76% is black coal and 24% brown coal. Seventy one percent of world coal resources are located in Asia and 17% in American. Of brown coal resources 59% are located in America and 37% in Asia. The industrial coal resources of the world amount to 636 billion t.c.e. Prognosis of world energy demand is discussed. It is predicted that in 1985 coal demand will increase from 2.6 to 3.0 billion t.c.e., in 2000 coal demand will range from 4.2 to 5.8 billion t.c.e. and in the year 2020 from 7.8 to 13.8 billion t.c.e. Prognosis of coal production in Poland, USSR, USA and in the world in 1985, 2000 and in 2020 is also presented. Coal output in Poland should increase to 258 Mt in 1985, to 300 Mt in 2000 and to 320 Mt in the year 2020. In the same time span 16 to 17% of coal mined in Poland will be exported. (10 refs.)

  15. Bacillus megaterium A6 suppresses Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in the field and promotes oilseed rape growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses in crops in The People’s Republic of China and other regions of the world. Two formulations of oilseed rape seed containing the plant-growth promoting bacterium Bacillus megaterium A6 were evaluated for suppression of this pathogen on oilseed rap...

  16. Situation in the Albanian territories a$ er World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Seferi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The end of World War I and the victory of the forces of Antante on 11 November 1918 did not result in the end of war in Londonized Albania and in the territories inhabited by Albanian people in Yugoslavia and Greece because neighbouring countries did not withdraw from Albanian territories since their desires were to extend even more to the detriment of the Albanian and were not satisfi ed only with the invasion of Kosovo by Serbia, Cameria by Greece, and Italy aspiring to keep Albania under its supervision. The European countries of Antante, such as England, France and Italy, did not support the Albanian people because they had reached an agreement during the World War 1 to conquer the countries of the triple alliance by promising Albanian territories to the neighbouring countries of Albania. The Protocol of April 1915 was devastating for Albania. The fate of Albanian people was such that European countries could not change the course of the World War 1. The intervention of USA was the one that changed the course of the World War 1, and USA even joined the war by stating that it did not recognize the agreements made during the war with regard to the territorial division. The neighboring countries of Albania had forgo$ en that in the global stage a political-military power was emerging which would lay the foundations of the new world order. Even though the war had ended, the neighboring countries of Albania were making agreements for the supervision of Albania. Italy was interested in keeping Albania under its supervision whereas Greece and Yugoslavia were interested in the division of Albania. Under these circumstances the Albanian people was facing new invasive challenges and they had to get organized both inside and outside the country for their national salvation. Albanians were organized in clubs and associations abroad, in order to help the freedom of Londonized Albania. The Albanians in Albania were fed up with long and savage invasions

  17. RESEARCHES ON OILSEEDS MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SOARE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the evolution of oilseeds market in Romania, during the period 2008-2013. In order to show as concise as possible the reality of the oilseeds sector, the research pictures, on the one hand, an evolution of oilseeds specific indicators and on the other hand, an evolution of external trade. Romania disposes of tradition and favourable pedo-climatic conditions for cultivating the oilseeds plants. This is demonstrated by the favourable results obtained in the last years, especially concerning the sunflower crop. In 2013, Romania registered a record for sunflower, occupying the first position in the European Union for cultivated area and production. A negative aspect is represented by the fact that our country has the best conditions in Europe for soybean crop, but it is still dependent on import. Romania imports a huge quantity of soybean oilcakes for animal feeding. Nowadays, Romania is an important actor in the sunflower world market, covering almost 19% of the global demand. In perspective, one could expect significant oilseeds productions with a positive influence on the agro-food trade balance in our country.

  18. Developing Management Student Cultural Fluency for the Real World: A Situated Cultural Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunxia; Okimoto, Tyler G.; Roan, Amanda; Xu, Henry

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To connect students with the real world of management practice, the purpose of this paper is to extend and operationalize the situated cultural learning approach (SiCuLA) through five learning processes occurring within communities of practice. These include integration of cultural contexts, authentic activities, reflections,…

  19. "My Whole Life Is on My Phone": How Do You Situate Learning for a Digital World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resler, Trina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this teacher research study was to discover what happens in the classroom when high school social studies students enrolled in world history classes are asked to use text messaging as part of the planned curriculum. Lave and Wenger's (1991) Situated Learning Theory was used in order to provide a framework for understanding how…

  20. Comparing presence, workload and situational awareness in a collaborative real world and augmented reality scenario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datcu, D.; Lukosch, S.G.; Lukosch, H.K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares presence, workload and situational awareness in a real world and augmented reality scenario when collaboratively solving a complex problem. A game of jointly building a tower of colored blocks is used as an approximation of a shared task. Individual expertise is modeled as the

  1. Oilseeds business opportunities in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Biersteker, J.; Hiel, R.

    2007-01-01

    In this study the business opportunities for Dutch companies in the Ethiopian oilseeds sector are explored. Opportunities for setting up sustainable export chains should mutually benefit Dutch companies as well as the Ethiopian oilseeds sector in particular and the Ethiopian society in general.

  2. Update on the nutrition situation 1966. Summary of results for the Third Report on the World Nutrition Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Although recent estimates of trends in malnutrition show some improvement worldwide, that improvement has occurred at a far slower rate over the past few years than during the 1980s. The prospect of ending hunger and malnutrition is receding further into the future. Goals from the 1990 World Summit for Children and the 1992 International Conference on Nutrition of halving the prevalence of malnutrition between 1990 and 2000 are becoming increasingly less likely to be met. Urgent action is needed. Adverse economic conditions in many countries and drought in many parts of Africa and Asia are 2 reasons why the slowdown in progress has occurred. Furthermore, continued progress will be slower now that the beneficial effects of child health interventions have almost attained maximum impact and population coverage. Trends in underweight prevalence describe progress in nutrition and, more generally, in human development. The global prevalence of underweight children was 29% in 1995, with more than half being in South Asia. Trends on underweight children aged 0-60 months are presented by world region for the period 1985-95.

  3. Life extension of nuclear power plants: world situation and the Usa case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, P.T.; Cuesta, L.; Serra, E.; Yague, L. [ENDESA (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Life extension of nuclear power plants above 40 years of operation is an important issue in many countries. The Kyoto limits for CO{sub 2} emissions, the security of supply, the costs of renewable energies and the economic crisis have pushed governments to continue operation of nuclear plants over the 40 years design life. In the Usa 59 units have obtained the extension of operation license from 40 to 60 years, and currently 19 units are in the reviewing process. The situation in the rest of the world is different. A list of countries, where nuclear units with a service life over 30 years, are still operating has been drawn up. A few countries like Belgium, Germany, Spain and Sweden are opposed to life extension. Some countries like Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, India, Japan and Usa, have adopted a life extension policy for their nuclear fleet. Other countries like France, Russia, United-Kingdom, Pakistan, South-Korea and Argentina have not yet taken any final decision. United-Kingdom and France have a case by case policy. In some countries like Japan, Indian or Pakistan, the legislation makes no reference to a maximum operating time but the reactors are allowed to continue operating as long as they comply with established safety conditions. (A.C.)

  4. Life extension of nuclear power plants. World situation and the USA case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, Pablo T.; Cuesta, Loreto; Serra, Eduardo; Yaguee, Luis [Endesa. C/ Ribera del Loira, No.60, 28042 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    Life extension of Nuclear Power Plants above 40 years of operation is an important issue in many countries. The Kyoto limits for CO{sub 2} emissions, the security of supply, the costs and predictability of renewable energy, etc., are putting nuclear energy in the agenda of many countries all around the world. The delay, due to the economic crisis, of the new nuclear projects in many countries, push governments to continue operation of nuclear plants above the 40 years design life. This is the case in the USA, where 59 units have obtained the extension of operation license from 40 to 60 years, and currently have 19 units are in the reviewing process. The life extension of these plants permits savings in CO{sub 2} emissions and in the consumption of additional amounts of fossil fuels. In this paper, the position of the different nuclear countries about the Extension of Life will be reviewed, with a special emphasis on the situation in the USA. In this last case, the NRC approach for operation licenses above 40 years will be explained, and actions taken by nuclear companies in the country will be reviewed. In this country, the debate about life extension over 40 years has been surpassed, and the new technical discussion focuses on the operation of nuclear power plants above 60 years. (authors)

  5. The global market for oilseeds: prospects and challenges for Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosselet Nathalie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The global market for oilseeds, grains, vegetable oil and oilseed meal is a complex market which is growing at a very fast pace, and which is characterized by the large volume of production which is traded between countries. Offer is geographically constrained in this market: there are few exporting countries and these are mainly situated on the American continent. Demand on the other hand is more widespread, although highest in Asiatic countries, China in particular. As a result, small importing countries, like Morocco, are in a vulnerable position, and take the full brunt of price volatility. In the 90s, Moroccan oilseed production was relatively high, unfortunately production dropped over the years, and Morocco must now buy vegetable oil and proteins on the global market. Reviving oilseed production in Morocco would considerably help the country and provide numerous benefits, such as food security, improving the country’s trade balance, and enhancing the agronomic management of land thanks to the introduction of break crops. Finally, it would also boost the entire agricultural sector and help increase the income of farmers.

  6. Good Student/Bad Student: Situated Identities in the Figured Worlds of School and Creative Multimodal Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocius, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This study situates young adolescents' multimodal composing practices within two figured worlds--school and creative multimodal production. In a microanalysis of two focal students' multimodal processes and products, I trace how pedagogical, interactional, and semiotic resources both reified and challenged students' developing identities as…

  7. Planting depth for oilseed calendula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) is not only a popular ornamental plant in temperate climates, but also a potential oilseed crop. Its seed oil has high levels of calendic acid, which makes it a highly valued drying oil with important industrial applications. Much basic agronomic information on c...

  8. The World at 7:00: Comparing the Experience of Situations Across 20 Countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guillaume, E.; Baranski, E.; Todd, E.; Bastian, B.; Bronin, I.; Ivanova, C.; Cheng, J. T.; de Kock, F. S.; Denissen, J. J. A.; Gallardo-Pujol, D.; Halama, P.; Han, G. Q.; Bae, J.; Moon, J.; Hong, R. Y.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Izdebski, P.; Lundmann, L.; Penke, L.; Perugini, M.; Costantini, G.; Rauthmann, J.; Ziegler, M.; Realo, A.; Elme, L.; Sato, T.; Kawamoto, S.; Szarota, P.; Tracy, J. L.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Yang, Y.; Funder, D. C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 4 (2016), s. 493-509 ISSN 0022-3506 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : cross-cultural psychology * cultural comparisons * situational assessment * situations Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 3.590, year: 2016

  9. Culture, Learning, and Development and the Natural World: The Influences of Situative Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Megan

    2015-01-01

    The study of human learning and development from situative or sociocultural perspectives has had significant impacts on a wide range of scholarship largely driven by the theoretical and methodological focus on understanding the role of "activity systems" in cognition and development. This article first explores how situative perspectives…

  10. The globalization of international oilseeds trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittaine Jean-François

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In a globalised world, the trade of goods and services constitute the heart of the economic system. But the trade patterns may show extreme diversity depending upon the nature of the concerned products. The technical and functional constraints do impose their laws, particularly when they relate to biological products/commodities. The term globalization is generally used to describe a complex process of international integration. When referring to oilseeds, the term must also relate to agriculture and human nutritional requirements for a rising human population spread all over the world, particularly in large urban environment. With an annual harvest of about 450 Mn T, oilseeds are naturally “globalized” in their production patterns. The complexity of their production schemes associated with the diversity of their usage on widespread geographical regions gives this group of commodities a unique role on the world markets. This process of opened trade channels has enabled the sector to meet the supply requirements of a quickly rising demand coming from both the population and all the industrial usages including alternative “green” energy. However, for the time being, demand growth has not been fully counter-balanced by production growth. As a consequence, unless some strict reallocation of acreage is effectively organized or new high yielding technologies are developed, it is a fact that vegetable oil will keep a strong demand base for a long time, compounded by the mechanical demand from economic growth in highly populated emerging economies. The balancing of supply and demand is expected to remain a tight exercise every year. At the end of the day, the future of the entire industry largely lies in technology because the final stake is to ensure the proper feeding of a 9 billion people population in a not too far future.

  11. Components of a Rice-Oilseed Rape Production System Augmented with Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 Control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Oilseed Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Yinbo; Qin, Lu; Liao, Xing

    2015-10-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. A multicomponent treatment that consisted of the residual rice straw remaining after rice harvest and Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 (Tri-1) formulated with the oilseed rape seedcake fertilizer was used in field soil infested with S. sclerotiorum. This treatment resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than the nontreated control or when the fungicide carbendizem was used in the presence of this pathogen in field trials. Yield data suggested that the rice straw, oilseed rape seedcake, and Tri-1 components of this treatment all contributed incrementally. Similar treatment results were obtained regarding reduction in disease incidence. Slight improvements in yield and disease incidence were detected when this multicomponent treatment was combined with a fungicide spray. Inhibition of sclerotial germination by this multicomponent treatment trended greater than the nontreated control at 90, 120, and 150 days in field studies but was not significantly different from this control. This multicomponent treatment resulted in increased yield relative to the nontreated control in the absence of pathogen in a greenhouse pot study, while the straw alone and the straw plus oilseed rape seedcake treatments did not; suggesting that Tri-1 was capable of promoting growth. Experiments reported here indicate that a treatment containing components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with Tri-1 can control S. sclerotiorum on oilseed rape, be used in integrated strategies containing fungicide sprays for control of this pathogen, and promote plant growth.

  12. Amartya Sen's approach of justice and the world: a situated but influential approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gilardone, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Amartya Sen's work is situated in a general perspective of history, which for him is clearly characterized by the rise of democracy. His whole work is indeed related to the idea that only enlighten democracy can achieve justice. This article aims to show that Sen's philosophical approach is, as every political and scientific thought, a situated approach. While he claims his belonging to a tradition of “realization-focused comparative approaches” pursued in various ways...

  13. Application Exercises Improve Transfer of Statistical Knowledge in Real-World Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Frances; Braasch, Jason L. G.

    2013-01-01

    The present research investigated whether real-world application exercises promoted students' abilities to spontaneously transfer statistical knowledge and to recognize the use of statistics in real-world contexts. Over the course of a semester of psychological statistics, two classes completed multiple application exercises designed to mimic…

  14. Determinants of nectar production in oilseed rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enkegaard, Annie; Kryger, Per; Boelt, Birte

    2016-01-01

    With the aim of contributing to the development of models forecasting the melliferous characteristics and the potential honey yield of oilseed rape, we analyzed data on the temporal pattern of number of oilseed rape flowers, nectar secretion, sugar concentration, and weight of bee hives in relation...... with significantly reduced quality of the nectar in terms of both volume and sugar concentration, and our results suggest that the oilseed rape in this year did not contribute notably to bee colony development. In years in which the oilseed rape flowered around the normal time (beginning of May), the amount...... of secreted sugar decreased over the flowering period, being governed by inherent oilseed rape characteristics modified by climatic factors preceding the onset of flowering, as well as climatic conditions during flowering. The exploitation of oilseed rape nectar by bee colonies was found to be influenced...

  15. 2014 ITS World Congress Connected Vehicle Test Bed Demonstration Intersection Situation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — During the 2014 ITS World Congress a demonstration of the connected vehicle infrastructure in the City of Detroit was conducted. The test site included approximately...

  16. 2014 ITS World Congress Connected Vehicle Test Bed Demonstration Vehicle Situation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — During the 2014 ITS World Congress a demonstration of the connected vehicle infrastructure in the City of Detroit was conducted. The test site included approximately...

  17. 2014 ITS World Congress Connected Vehicle Test Bed Demonstration Traveler Situation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — During the 2014 ITS World Congress a demonstration of the connected vehicle infrastructure in the City of Detroit was conducted. The test site included approximately...

  18. Research fields, challenges and opportunities in European oilseed crops breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincourt Patrick

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the geographical specialization in oilseed world production, Europe has a major role to play in winter oilseed rape and sunflower breeding. Mainly based on the most recen t results, this review aims to identify the main research and breeding targets for these two crops, as seen through publications, with an attempt to suggest what are opportunities and challenges in these research fields. Growing a healthy and yielding crop remains the key driver for agronomic production. However sustainability and environmental profiles of the cultivar are now entering the field of play: The sustainability concern invested the field of resistance to diseases. Nitrogen use efficiency became an important target for Brassica napus, and crop resilience toward drought stresses is the way chosen in Helianthus annuus breeding for yield improvement. Significant advances are underway for quality traits, but the uncertainty on nutritional and industrial demand may explain why the product diversification remains low.

  19. The situation of the nuclear energy in the world; A situacao da energia nucleoeletrica no mundo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de [and others

    1996-12-01

    This work presents an overview of the nuclear energy in the world. It approaches the following main topics: kinds of nuclear power plants; operation experience of the nuclear plants; environmental and social aspects of the nuclear energy; economic aspects of the nuclear energy; development of the reactors technology and supply of the nuclear fuel.

  20. Literacy in the World and Turkey "A General Assessment of the Situation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asici, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Literacy concept has changed and become different as a result of researches carried out in the field of educational sciences, and social and technological developments in the world. Particularly after the 1990s, literacy concept included not a single fact, but multiple facts. The word literacy has started being used along with different…

  1. World energy situation: a study of the Exxon Corporation looks at the year 1990. [To 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    An Exxon study, examining the prospects, until 1990, of keeping the world outside the communist sphere supplied in energy, foresees the serious danger of shortages, lack of flexibility and failures to make political decisions in good time. All these factors represent dangers to the general economic development.

  2. Salinity tolerance of germinating alternative oilseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrating oilseed crops into rotations can improve soil health benefits, nutrient retention, and pollinator provisions. Field margins represent areas where incorporation of oilseeds is feasible. However in the northern Great Plains, field margins can oftentimes be areas of saline soil, which can i...

  3. [Health hazards of energy drinks--the situation in Israel and the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviv, Bennidor; Zaidani, Haitam; Israelit, Shlomo Hanan

    2014-01-01

    Since 1987, with the introduction of the first commercial energy drink in Europe, the level of sale of these drinks increased rapidly throughout the western world. These drinks are based on caffeine that is found in them ndependently, and in other ingredients. Other ingredients in these drinks potentiate the effects of caffeine. Caffeine acts in the organism through inhibition and activation of various receptors, and thus affects almost all the body systems. There is an increasing body of evidence about the medical hazards of uncontrolled use of these drinks, with neurologic, psychiatric, cardiovascular and metabolic complications. There is a direct link between use of energy drinks and abuse of alcohol and drugs. Due to the above, health authorities in Israel and around the world have started addressing the regulatory, medical and informative aspects of the issue. In spite all of the above, there is lack of awareness of the public and medical teams about the hazards of cousuming these drinks.

  4. Prospects concerning the world energy situation. Projections of Exxon until the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    A useful tradition of the EXXON corporation is to publish an annual review setting out trends and facts about the world energy market which can be considered as a helpful base of discussion concerning the long term energy supply and the consequences in the field of energy policy. The corporation obtains the best conditions for such a purpose because of its worldwide organisation with about 120 establishments. Because of this excellent condition EXXON knows the market and is able to form an opinion. The latest outlook until the year 2000 tries to give a complete survey about the future world-energy supply. For the first time the USSR, the People's Republic of China and the Eastern countries were taken into consideration. Real and expected influences depending on energy prices, efforts of saving energy, and technical progress in the case of non-conventional energy sources are taken into account.

  5. American Security and the International Energy Situation. Volume 2. World Energy and the Security of Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-15

    is.aeli war. The acute di sequil ibnum between exporters and importers described in Chapter . I and 1 I I should be juxtaposed aqainst the politica ...interfere with world trade, either for price gouging or for politica ’ influence, depends on five fundamental conditions: First, monopolistic contiol...Interdependence (Cambridge, Mass.: Center for Interna - tional Studies, MIT, November I97A). 278 HI-2239-RR - of i„t_p.ndence

  6. Insecticide residues cross-contamination of oilseeds during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauguet Sylvie

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues are found in oilseeds and crude oils: they are mainly organophosphate insecticides (pirimiphos-methyl, dichlorvos, malathion used in empty storage facilities and for application to stored cereal grains. Even if pests are found in stored oilseeds, French regulation does not permit use of these insecticides on stored oilseeds, as they have affinity for these lipophilic subtances. These residues arise from cross-contamination during mechanical contact with storage bins and grain handling equipment, and not from illegal use. This uptake of insecticide residues from their storage environment by oilseeds can lead to levels that exceed regulatory limits. An investigation of 11 grain storage companies allowed us to follow the course of 27 sunflower seeds batches, from reception at the storage facilities to outloading. Samples from each of these batches, made at outloading, were analysed content for insecticide residues. Traceability of sunflower seeds established by storers allowed us to identify the origine of observed cross-contamination cases. Substances discovered were dichlorvos, pirimiphos-methyl and malathion (and chlorpyriphos-methyl in a single case. Pirimiphos-methyl was most commonly detected, but most cases of non-accordance with regulatory levels were observed with dichlorvos and malathion. Main cross-contamination hazard resulted from treatment of cereals at outloading, just before sunflower seeds were outloaded, especially when these cereals treatments were frequent on that elevator. Other situations led to cross-contaminations, but generally of lower levels: outloading of sunflower seeds after outloading of cereal that was treated at the reception, several weeks or months before; sunflower seeds stored in bin that contained previously treated cereal; empty bins and handling equipment treated before receipt of sunflower seeds.

  7. From a word to a world: the current situation in the interdisciplinary field of synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a carefully designed search query, we describe the field of synthetic biology in terms of leading countries, organizations and funding sources. Besides articles we also paid some attention to patents. The USA is the leading country in this field, followed by China. There is a clear exponential growth in the field of synthetic biology over the latest 14 years. Keywords were analyzed using the notion of year-based h-indices, core gap and relative core gap. We conclude that the term “synthetic biology” hides a large world ready to be explored by interdisciplinary research.

  8. Business TQM culture in the world compared with the situation in the Macedonian companies

    OpenAIRE

    Mitreva, Elizabeta

    2013-01-01

    In this work, it’s given analyses of the Macedonian companies about making up a business culture and a comparison with the business culture in the world. As a result of the researches, a new management system is offered that is based on the TQM (Total Quality Management) philosophy. The solution was found in improvement of the management system by accepting the new TQM philosophy and utilization of its strategy, development of the staff and promotion of the processes, and all of that is done ...

  9. Components of a rice-oilseed rape production system augmented with trichoderma sp. Tri-1 control sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on many crops throughout the world. In two field trials conducted at the same location in consecutive years, a treatment containing formulated Trichoderma harzianum-1 (Tri-1) resulted in oilseed rape seed yield that was significantly greater than...

  10. The overview of nuclear energy situation in the World and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Yusuf Alper; Karagöz, Merve; Sayılmaz, Serhat

    2017-09-01

    The dependence on the energy and its use has increased in every country due to the increasing population and advanced technology. As a result of it, the reserves of fossil fuel have decreased, several energy crises have occurred from time to time and the alternative energy sources have been on the focus. One of these alternative energy sources is nuclear energy. The nuclear power plants, which were built in order to get nuclear energy, have attracted the attention thanks to some disadvantages such as its high cost and emission of radiation while they do not radiate harmful gases towards environment. The nuclear power plants that have already been and are planned to be constructed by a number of countries have become problematic because of the power plant accidents. On one hand, some countries have abandoned the nuclear power plants owing to the accidents mentioned above, on the other hand some other countries have continued to operate the nuclear power plants by claiming the necessity to meet the increasing demand on energy. It is seen that conflicts and problems experienced in the geography in which Turkey is located impacts the energy security of Turkey and it is understood that this situation may have a negative influence on national security of Turkey. Because of all these reasons, actualizing nuclear energy projects are important for Turkey which is dependent in respect of energy.

  11. The overview of nuclear energy situation in the World and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan Yusuf Alper

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence on the energy and its use has increased in every country due to the increasing population and advanced technology. As a result of it, the reserves of fossil fuel have decreased, several energy crises have occurred from time to time and the alternative energy sources have been on the focus. One of these alternative energy sources is nuclear energy. The nuclear power plants, which were built in order to get nuclear energy, have attracted the attention thanks to some disadvantages such as its high cost and emission of radiation while they do not radiate harmful gases towards environment. The nuclear power plants that have already been and are planned to be constructed by a number of countries have become problematic because of the power plant accidents. On one hand, some countries have abandoned the nuclear power plants owing to the accidents mentioned above, on the other hand some other countries have continued to operate the nuclear power plants by claiming the necessity to meet the increasing demand on energy. It is seen that conflicts and problems experienced in the geography in which Turkey is located impacts the energy security of Turkey and it is understood that this situation may have a negative influence on national security of Turkey. Because of all these reasons, actualizing nuclear energy projects are important for Turkey which is dependent in respect of energy.

  12. Perceptions of personal sex discrimination: the role of belief in a just world and situational ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choma, Becky; Hafer, Carolyn; Crosby, Faye; Foster, Mindi

    2012-01-01

    The roles of belief in a just world (BJW) and discrimination against ones' group in perceptions of personal discrimination were examined. Female participants (n = 63) were personally discriminated against in a laboratory setting. We manipulated whether the experimenter appeared to discriminate against other participants, which presumably made the presence of personal discrimination less ambiguous, or did not appear to discriminate against others, which presumably made personal discrimination more ambiguous. In the no group discrimination condition, but not in the group discrimination condition, participants' perceptions of being personally discriminated against depended on individual differences in BJW: Women with a strong BJW perceived less personal discrimination than those with a weak BJW. Also, strong BJW women in the group discrimination condition perceived less personal discrimination than strong BJW women in the no group discrimination condition.

  13. Management of used tires, accomplishments in the world, and situation in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dušan D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that all over the world there are more than 550 million road vehicles in everyday use. Annually, 1.3 billion used tyres are dismantled from these vehicles due to safety reasons. A small number of these tyres end up reused as second-hand tyres or, after being retreated, as new ones. The rest are end of life tyres which are recycled or used as tire derived fuels under controlled combustion conditions. Modern vehicle tyres are a high-technological product containing, on the average, 85% hydrocarbon, 10-15% steel, as well as some other chemical materials. Tyres belong to high caloric materials, with calorific value of a passenger car tyre of approx. 30.2 MJ/kg being more than of hard coal and comparable to calorific value of petrol-coke. Having this in mind many countries use end of life tyres as safe alternative fuel in cement works or power plants. Undeveloped countries dump end of life tyres on legal and illegal scrap stockpiles. End of life tyres, if deposed correctly, don’t endanger the environment because they are chemically inert. However, since they can easily be burnt there is a real possibility of tyre dump fires, which in effect can lead to harmful products emission that extremely pollute the environment. End of life tyres represent a very important secondary material, which when recycled is transformed into a number of raw materials used in rubber industry, for road construction, sports facilities, residential and business buildings, artificial fish habitats in shallow seas, sea walls, steel production, etc. By the industrial procedures of controlled degradation, which have been uneconomical up till now, gaseous and liquid fuel can be obtained by natural rubber, steel and soot recycling. The countries of the EU, together with Norway and Switzerland, were the world leaders in the field of effective end of life tyre management in the year 2009. Out of 2.62 million tonnes of end of life tyres, 95% were restored or used as

  14. Assessment of Undergraduates' Real-World Outcomes of Critical Thinking in Everyday Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Amanda R; Costa, Patrício S; Butler, Heather A; Almeida, Leandro S

    2017-01-01

    Critical thinking is a kind of "good" thinking that integrates a set of cognitive skills and dispositions to use those skills with knowledge to increase the chances of success in academic settings, job market, and daily life. The impact of critical thinking on life events, in face of everyday decisions and challenges, is still unclear, and further research is needed. In this exploratory study, a sample of 230 first-year students of a Bachelor's Degree or a Master's Degree in Portugal completed an experimental Portuguese version of the Real-World Outcomes, a self-report inventory measuring everyday negative life events that are mediated by a lack of critical thinking. Based on exploratory factor analysis results and theoretical premises, changes were made to the Portuguese version of the inventory that was administered, and items were aggregated into six dimensions, creating a new version that is more familiar to Portuguese young adults in college. This original proposal of the inventory presents six types of negative life events resulting from a lack of critical thinking: health neglect, mismanagement, slackness, poor impulse control, academic negligence, and rashness. Both limitations and future potentialities of this version are presented.

  15. NATURE CONSERVATION MOVEMENT IN THE WORLD: ITS HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND PRESENT SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz Kurdoğlu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Although nature conservation is a well recognized topic at present, it is not a new phenomenon. Throughout history, there are numerous examples of efforts made by governments, rulers, or individual land owners to protect certain land areas that possessed unique natural values. While many of these areas were actually isolated as game preserves for hunting, they were also designed to conserve wildlife. The establishment of Yellowstone National Park in 1972 marks the modern concept of a national park as it was designed on a very large protected natural area. Presently, one of the most efficient ways for nature protection is “area conservation approach” that many organizations have been developing various systems and categories about. Unfortunately, in spite of such improvements and the extension of the protected area network, many of these areas are not properly protected and/or managed in some countries. This study summarizes the historical evolution of nature conservation systems and strategies in the world with the related international legislative aspects as well. As it stated in this paper, USA and Europa have a well known history on nature conservation and show great concern in respect to participating to the international convention and arrangements.

  16. Mycotoxin production on rice, pulses and oilseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Fouzia; Samajpati, N.

    Mycotoxin-producing fungi were isolated from contaminated grains of rice, pulses and oilseeds sold in the local markets of Calcutta for human consumption. It was found that aflatoxin B1 was produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, aflatoxin G1 by A. flavus, ochratoxin by Aspergillus ochraceous, sterigmatocystin by Aspergillus japonicus and citrinin by Penicillium citrinum. Aflatoxin B1 (333-10416μg/kg) was produced by Aspergillus spp. in rice, pulses and oilseeds.

  17. Large-scale monitoring of effects of clothianidin-dressed oilseed rape seeds on pollinating insects in Northern Germany: effects on honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolke, Daniel; Fuchs, Stefan; Grünewald, Bernd; Gao, Zhenglei; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    Possible effects of clothianidin seed-treated oilseed rape on honey bee colonies were investigated in a large-scale monitoring project in Northern Germany, where oilseed rape usually comprises 25-33 % of the arable land. For both reference and test sites, six study locations were selected and eight honey bee hives were placed at each location. At each site, three locations were directly adjacent to oilseed rape fields and three locations were situated 400 m away from the nearest oilseed rape field. Thus, 96 hives were exposed to fully flowering oilseed rape crops. Colony sizes and weights, the amount of honey harvested, and infection with parasites and diseases were monitored between April and September 2014. The percentage of oilseed rape pollen was determined in pollen and honey samples. After oilseed rape flowering, the hives were transferred to an extensive isolated area for post-exposure monitoring. Total numbers of adult bees and brood cells showed seasonal fluctuations, and there were no significant differences between the sites. The honey, which was extracted at the end of the exposure phase, contained 62.0-83.5 % oilseed rape pollen. Varroa destructor infestation was low during most of the course of the study but increased at the end of the study due to flumethrin resistance in the mite populations. In summary, honey bee colonies foraging in clothianidin seed-treated oilseed rape did not show any detrimental symptoms as compared to colonies foraging in clothianidin-free oilseed rape. Development of colony strength, brood success as well as honey yield and pathogen infection were not significantly affected by clothianidin seed-treatment during this study.

  18. [Epidemiological situation of infectious diseases in Lvov and Cracow during and after World War I (until the year 1922)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Włodzimierz

    2009-01-01

    In Lvov and Cracow at the times of World War I, the infectious diseases such as tuberculosis followed by typhus fever, typhoid fever, dysentery, as well as scarlet fever, diphtheria, measles, whooping cough, smallpox, cholera and venereal diseases (particularly syphilis) posed one of the most significant and dangerous problems for inhabitants. Their increased prevalence was the result of deteriorating sanitary and living conditions of the city population. The spread of epidemic infectious diseases was enhanced by marching troops, migration of civilians and war prisoners, return of large groups of displaced people and demobilized soldiers after regaining independence in November 1918. Additionally, unfavorable epidemiological situation in Lvov deteriorated at the time of the war with Ukrainians (November 1918-April 1919) and Bolsheviks (July-August 1920). The control of infectious diseases was in the hands of regional local physicians who referred patients to hospitals, isolated homes, bath and disinfection institutions, and conducted vaccinations against smallpox. A decrease in infectious diseases prevalence and deaths to the prewar levels occurred in 1922.

  19. Regulation of erucic acid accumulation in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) : effects of temperature and abscisic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmer, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Vegetable oils are an important commodity world-wide with an annual production of about 70 million tonnes. Oilseed rape is one of the four major crops, providing about 10% of the total production. Quality of vegetable oils is determined by the fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerols

  20. Response of oilseed Brassica cultivars to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucl, P.; Beversdorf, W.D

    1993-10-01

    Research was conducted to determine the sensitivity of four Brassica oilseed crops to ozone under controlled environmental conditions. Cultivars of four Brassica oilseed species were exposed to acute levels of ozone (0.31 or 0.47 [mu]l/l) at the seedling stage. Brassica hirta BHL-926 was the most sensitive to ozone, followed by B. juncea (Newton) and B. rapa (Torch). Injury symptoms ranged from a slight stippling in insensitive species to large bifacial necrotic patches in the most sensitive species. Brassica napus (canola) seedlings exhibited very little foliar injury (0-4% after 24 h exposure to 0.31 [mu]l/l ozone). In Ontario, where a vast majority of canola acreage is seeded to B. napus cultivars, it is unlikely that canola yields are being affected by exposure to ozone. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Assessment of the Impact of the Changes in the Situation of the World Markets on the Regional Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniya Valeryevna Yekimova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the issues of the influence of world economy on the development of regional processes. The nature of the dependence of the modern domestic economy on the trends of the world raw material markets is considered. The heterogeneity of the regional processes to the changes of the world environment indicators is revealed. The channels of the influence of the world market trends changes on the regional processes are investigated. The analysis of the world economy indicators has allowed to create a system of basic indicators whose change reflects the tendencies of the world economy. The offered methodological approach to the assessment of the reaction of the regional processes to the changes in the world market trends is based on the economic cycle concept. The methodological tools include the maps of the time shifts allowing to define the time lag of the retardation of the reaction of certain regional processes to the changes in world economy; the model of the evaluation of the influence of the world economy indicators on the regional process, based on the correlation analysis; the differential matrix of the reactions of regional processes to the changes in world market trends, which enables to group them according to the reaction speed and its value. The authors present the fundamental recommendations for the regional processes management based on the world market dynamics analysis. The approbation of the methodological tools was carried out in the terms of the “Consumer prices level changes” and covered the regional process across 83 regions of Russia. They were classified by the speed and the value of the reaction of the consumer prices level to the changes of world market trends. The research has determined the factors and time limits for necessary involvement of regional authorities into the regulation of the consumer prices level. The selection of the implemented method of the direct and indirect regulation of the

  2. Emphasizing Foreign Language Use to International Marketing Students: A Situational Exercise That Mimics Real-World Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Melin, Tracy L.; Ray, Nina M.

    2007-01-01

    An international marketing exercise consists of students orally providing an introduction in a chosen foreign language of what they, as potential salespeople, might say to a client in that country. Students speak (not read) their prepared statements to the class and are leniently, yet constructively, evaluated on language use and pronunciation and marketing credibility. The objective is to emulate a real business situation and to show students the challenges of working with different language...

  3. A Comparative Study of the Current Situation on Teaching about World War II in Japanese and American Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, James L.

    1992-01-01

    Compares questionnaire results sent to elementary and secondary school teachers in Indiana and Japan. Surveys how and what is taught about World War II. Reports teachers in the United States concentrate more on Europe, Pearl Harbor, and fascism, whereas Japanese teachers are more concerned with Pacific theater. Concludes Japanese teach peace…

  4. Coming down to Earth: Helping Teachers Use 3D Virtual Worlds in Across-Spaces Learning Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Cristóbal, Juan A.; Prieto, Luis P.; Asensio-Pérez, Juan I.; Martínez-Monés, Alejandra; Jorrín-Abellán, Iván M.; Dimitriadis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Different approaches have explored how to provide seamless learning across multiple ICT-enabled physical and virtual spaces, including three-dimensional virtual worlds (3DVW). However, these approaches present limitations that may reduce their acceptance in authentic educational practice: The difficulties of authoring and sharing teacher-created…

  5. Situation in Europe and the World: Nanotechnology and Scientific Policy. Action of UN Agencies in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair-Bedouelle, Shamila

    The modern long-term economy is based on scientific progress and the subsequent technological achievements. Without this, the world would be the same as it was centuries ago, with populations living on the edge of survival, spending most of their time in search of food. Technology provides a way for societies to fight disease, to improve crop yields, to create new energy sources, to spread information, to favour the transport of goods and people, and much more!

  6. [World War II and current care provision: impact of war-related trauma on present professional care situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, I; Zank, S

    2014-07-01

    This study represents the first empirical research into the impact of war-related trauma on present professional care situations in Germany. A total of 105 professional caregivers from North Rhine-Westphalia were questioned in a standardized form about the impact of war-related trauma on the daily work. Of the professional caregivers questioned 82%reported that they were already caring for a person suffering from post-war trauma and 77% stated that war-related trauma had an impact on the daily work. Altogether 63% reported that war-related trauma is highly significant for the daily work. The professional caregivers reported that there was often a lack of knowledge and awareness of the topic among colleagues. The study showed that there is a need for increasing awareness and providing further staff education and training regarding the treatment of people suffering from (war-related) trauma in order to ensure adequate care for those concerned.

  7. Antidoping control in Brazil: history, current situation, and prospects for the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marcos Antonio Pereira dos; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio; Ribeiro, Sergio Luiz Galan; Santos, Azenildo Moura

    2014-07-01

    Brazil will soon host two major sporting events: the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Summer Olympic Games. Given the importance of antidoping control during these competitions, it is important that the scientific community receive a status update on antidoping control in Brazil. In this brief communication, the authors present the status of antidoping control in Brazil from an historical perspective, both the benefits and difficulties to be faced by antidoping control during these events, and the legacy resulting from the efficacy of the drug testing performed during these competitions.

  8. A continuum of research projects to improve extraction of oil and proteins in oilseed plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Martine

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A key challenge in the actual context of fossil sources rarefaction, global warming, and of increase of the world global population, is to promote the use of molecules derived from renewable sources such as plants. Among these molecules, lipids and proteins are targets of interest. Plant lipids from oilseeds are attractive substitutes to the use of fossil oil. Till the beginning of the 20th century, numerous products used in the daily life were derived from natural renewable products. For instance, plant oil was commonly used as fuel for vehicles and was entering in the composition of paintings, lubricants etc. Unfortunately, natural oils have been progressively replaced by cheaper fossil oil in the fabrication of these products. Nowadays, fossil oils are becoming increasingly expensive being a finite comodity. It is thus important to reduce our dependence from fossil oil and develop substitution industries. Oilseeds contain important amounts of proteins which are mainly used in feed. As several kilograms of plant protein are needed to obtain one kilogram of animal protein, the interest toward using plant protein in food is reinforced. The developments of the use of plant lipids, as well as proteins are a major stakes for the competitiveness of European agriculture and industry, as well as for sustainable development. Extraction of oil and proteins from rapeseed has a significant cost, in term of energy and solvent uses, and finally affects the ultimate quality of the products (protein digestibility. In order to quantitatively extract seed reserves under mild conditions, it will be necessary to limit the amount of energy needed, and avoid any use of solvents. Ideally, seeds should be processed in a bio refinery. In this paper, we will describe how oilseeds store their reserves, and roadblocks for improving actual oilseed extraction processes. A continuum of research projects aimed at answering targeted questions will be presented, with selected

  9. Development of a biologically based fertilizer, incorporating Bacillus megaterium A6, for improved phosphorus nutrition of oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Shujie; Liao, Xing

    2013-04-01

    Sustainable methods with diminished impact on the environment need to be developed for the production of oilseed rape in China and other regions of the world. A biological fertilizer consisting of Bacillus megaterium A6 cultured on oilseed rape meal improved oilseed rape seed yield (P rape meal without strain A6 in 1 of 2 experiments, suggesting a role for strain A6 in improving yield. Strain A6 was capable of solubilizing phosphorus from rock phosphate in liquid culture and produced enzymes capable of mineralizing organic phosphorus (acid phosphatase, phytase) in liquid culture and in the biological fertilizer. The biologically based fertilizer, containing strain A6, improved plant phosphorus nutrition in greenhouse pot experiments resulting in significantly greater available phosphorus in natural soil and in significantly greater plant phosphorus content relative to the nontreated control. Seed yield and available phosphorus in natural soil were significantly greater with a synthetic chemical fertilizer treatment, reduced in phosphorus content, than the biological fertilizer treatment, but a treatment containing the biological fertilizer combined with the synthetic fertilizer provided the significantly greatest seed yield, available phosphorus in natural soil, and plant phosphorus content. These results suggest that the biological fertilizer was capable of improving oilseed rape seed yield, at least in part, through the phosphorus-solubilizing activity of B. megaterium A6.

  10. Mycoflora and mycotoxin production in oilseed cakes during farm storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Caroline; Heutte, Natacha; Richard, Estelle; Bouchart, Valerie; Lebailly, Pierre; Garon, David

    2009-02-25

    Agricultural activities involve the use of oilseed cakes as a source of proteins for livestock. Because the storage of oilseed cakes could induce the development of molds and the production of mycotoxins, a survey was conducted during the 5 months of farm storage. Mycoflora was studied by microscopic examinations, and the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. A multimycotoxin method was developed to quantify seven mycotoxins (aflatoxin B(1), alternariol, fumonisin B(1), gliotoxin, ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone) in oilseed cakes by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Among 34 fungal species identified, A. fumigatus and Aspergillus repens were observed during 5 and 4 months, respectively. Gliotoxin, an immunosuppressive mycotoxin, was quantified in oilseed cakes up to 45 microg/kg, which was associated with the presence of toxigenic isolates of A. fumigatus.

  11. [The national strategies for suicide prevention by the United Nation/World Health Organization and the present situation of suicide in the East Asia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshitomo; Takahashi, Sho; Imamura, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Rira

    2014-01-01

    We discussed "Prevention of suicide: Guidelines for the formulation and implementation of national strategies" formulated by the United Nations and the World Health Organization in 1996 and the present situation of suicide in the East Asia. Although much public attention has been paid to a high suicide rate of Japan in the world, the increasing tendency of suicide rates have been found in other East Asian countries as well. For example the Republic of Korea shows a recent suicide rate higher than 30 per 100,000, which surpasses the suicide rate of Japan. Facing the fact, various measures for suicide prevention have been conducted. The UN guidelines for suicide prevention point out that these strategies should be discussed to meet each country's need for more appropriate suicide prevention. The Japanese government had the Basic Law on Suicide Prevention enforced in 2006 to implement measures that society must tackle because various social factors are behind suicides. In recent years, some countries in the East Asia also show increasing suicide rates, which attract the society's serious concern. The rapid economic growth and globalization have led to personnel cut, performance-based compensation, and the widening gap between the rich and the poor and the society cannot maintain the conventional employment system. In addition, socio-economic changes have brought collapse of the original societal and familial system, which might have existed behind the increase of suicide in this region.

  12. Potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellous Marc

    2004-07-01

    characteristics of the herbicide and its current and future use; accounts for herbicide-tolerant varieties belonging to other species, liable to be farmed in French agriculture in the short term; targets, if applicable, the selection of crop/herbicide combinations according to the constraints associated with French agriculture; coordinates the evaluations conducted on herbicide-tolerant crops and those conducted on herbicides; implements a biovigilance system and its associated resources whenever herbicide-tolerant crop farming is envisaged. Our report highlights the need for the management of any herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops. Such a management plan must account for the diverse cropping situations, including crop rotations and farming practices. Management should be based on the prior evaluation of situations encountered, the development of measures commensurate with the risks, and a validation of their efficacy through biovigilance. The Biomolecular Engineering Commission considers that the indirect environmental and agronomic impacts associated with current management practices employed for herbicide-tolerant oilseed rape crops can only be determined, in addition to the knowledge acquired, by continuing ongoing experimental studies initiated. Mathematical and computer models – by formalizing complex scenarios that incorporate the functioning of different oilseed rape populations (farmed, spontaneous, volunteer plants under specific farming practices – enables the simulation of potential impacts and the identification of suitable management measures. Nevertheless, at the present time, the introduction of more extensive farming than that currently practised, or managed progressive introduction, would make it possible to progress in the study of impacts and develop and validate management procedures enabling the limitation of adverse impacts. In the specific case of imports, the Biomolecular Engineering Commission considers that herbicidetolerant GM oilseed rape

  13. A review on the challenges for the increased production of oilseeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review on the challenges for the increased production of oilseeds in Ethiopia. ... Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences ... This paper presents the trends of production, utilization and export of oilseeds and import of vegetable oils; available technologies and the prospects of increasing oilseeds production in Ethiopia.

  14. Oilseeds for use in biodiesel and drop-in renewable jet fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oilseeds, primarily soybean and canola, are currently used as feedstocks for biodiesel production. Oilseeds can also be used to produce drop-in renewable jet fuel and diesel products. While soybean and canola are the most common oilseed crops used for renewable fuel production in the U.S., many othe...

  15. Combination of existing and alternative technologies to promote oilseeds and pulses proteins in food applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chéreau Denis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuous world population growth induces a total protein demand increase based mainly on plant sources. To meet these global nutritional challenges, existing and innovative dry and wet fractionation processes will have to be combined to better valorise plant protein fraction from pulses and oilseeds. The worldwide success of soy protein isolates originate from the intrinsic qualities of soybean proteins but also from a continuous R&D effort since mid-twenty century. Therefore, the soy protein development model can be applied to protein isolates from diverse pulses and oilseeds meals as rapeseed which has already been recognised as novel food protein in Europe. To boost the delivery of plant proteins, agrofood-industries and academics must pool their respective expertise. Innovative and issue solving R&D projects have to be launched to better valorise pulses and oilseed proteins by (i creating oil extraction processes which preserve native proteins structure; (ii developing novel protein extraction processes from lab up to industrial pilot scale; (iii producing plant protein isolates having comparable foaming, emulsifying or gelling functionality than animal; and (iv generating hydrolysed proteins with high digestibility adapted to human nutrition. It is also essential to initiate research programs to innovate in wet and dry fractionations of plants or to design in vitro models to evaluate proteins digestibility and allergenicity. The increased awareness regarding plant protein valorisation resulted in the creation by agro-industries and academics of the open platform IMPROVE which propose a combination of competencies and equipment to boost market uptake of Plant Based Proteins.

  16. Analysis of yield and plant traits of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivated in temperate region in light of the possibilities of sowing in arid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of selected literature on the species of Brassica with the greatest economic significance. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera currently ranks third worldwide among oilseed crops used for oil production and is the most important in the temperate zone. The manifold uses of rape include not only human consumption of oil, but also the use of post-extraction meal to feed livestock as well as industrial applications as a source of bioenergy or cellulose. The improvement in the economic position of rape among crop plants is also due to the doubling of its yield between 1970 and 2009; the average annual increase in seed yield worldwide was 27 kg ha−1 yr−1. The yield level in Europe exceeds the average yields achieved in the world, particularly in Asia. Recently, the cultivation of oilseed rape was started on a relatively large acreage in Iran where the yield amounted 2.1 t ha−1, exceeding the yields of China and India. In Poland, the acreage of oilseed rape cultivation between 1965 and 2013 increased 3–4 times, and during this period the annual increase in seed yield was 29 kg ha−1 yr−1. Under the field conditions of the temperate climate zone, winter oilseed rape yield is mainly determined by agro-climatic conditions during the growing period, the level of nitrogen fertilization, and the production potential of varieties, which is currently highest in hybrids. There is a noticeable tendency of hybrids towards formation of more siliques by individual oilseed plants. Different production categories of plants appear in a rape crop. Semi-dwarf varieties of winter rapeseed are distinguished by greater silique density, particularly on the main shoot. Moreover, these hybrids are characterized by faster growth of the root system, which enables them to take up nitrogen from the soil more efficiently.

  17. Genetic diversity in Carthamus tinctorius (Asteraceae; safflower), an underutilized oilseed crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Stephanie A; Burke, John M

    2014-10-01

    • Underutilized crops are potentially valuable resources for meeting increasing food demands. Safflower, an oilseed crop, is an example of one such underutilized crop that thrives in moisture-limited areas. Characterization of the genetic diversity maintained within the gene pools of underutilized crops such as safflower is an important step in their further development.• A total of 190 safflower individuals, including 134 USDA accessions, 48 breeding lines from two private North American safflower breeding companies, and eight wild safflower individuals, were genotyped using 133 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. We then used the resulting data to assess the amount and distribution of genetic diversity within and among these collections of safflower.• Although just a modest reduction in gene diversity was observed in the commercial breeding lines (relative to the other safflower groupings), safflower domestication was accompanied by a significant decrease in allelic richness. Further, our results suggest that most safflower breeding lines originated from a single pool of diversity within the Old World safflower germplasm.• Taken together, our results suggest that both the safflower germplasm collection and related, wild species harbor previously undocumented genetic diversity that could help fuel future improvement efforts. Paired with analyses of functional diversity, the molecular resources described herein will be thus be useful in the continued development of safflower as an oilseed crop. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  18. Environmental aspects and challenges of oilseed produced biodiesel in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayed, M.H.; Masjuki, H.H.; Saidur, R.; Kalam, M.A.; Jahirul, M.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2009-12-15

    Research on alternative fuel for the vehemently growing number of automotivesis intensified due to environmental reasons rather than turmoil in energy price and supply. From the policy and steps to emphasis the use of biofuel by governments all around the world, this can be comprehended that biofuel have placed itself as a number one substitute for fossil fuels. These phenomena made Southeast Asia a prominent exporter of biodiesel. But thrust in biodiesel production from oilseeds of palm and Jatropha curcas in Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand is seriously threatening environmental harmony. This paper focuses on this critical issue of biodiesels environmental impacts, policy, standardization of this region as well as on the emission of biodiesel in automotive uses. To draw a bottom line on feasibilities of different feedstock of biodiesel, a critical analysis on oilseed yield rate, land use, engine emissions and oxidation stability is reviewed. Palm oil based biodiesel is clearly ahead in all these aspects of feasibility, except in the case of NO{sub x} where it lags from conventional petro diesel. (author)

  19. Oilseed rape genotypes response to boron toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Jasna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of 16 oilseed rape genotypes to B (boron toxicity was analyzed by comparing the results of two experiments conducted in a glasshouse. In Experiment 1 plants were grown in standard nutrient solutions with 10 µMB (control and 1000 µM B. Relative root and shoot growth varied from 20-120% and 31-117%, respectively. Variation in B concentration in shoots was also wide (206.5-441.7 µg B g-1 DW as well as total B uptake by plant (62.3-281.2 µg B g1. Four selected genotypes were grown in Experiment 2 in pots filled with high B soil (8 kg ha-1 B; B8. Shoot growth was not affected by B8 treatment, while root and shoot B concentration was significantly increased compared to control. Genotypes Panther and Pronto which performed low relative root and shoot growth and high B accumulation in plants in Experiment 1, had good growth in B8 treatment. In Experiment 2 genotype NS-L-7 had significantly lower B concentration in shots under treatment B8, but also very high B accumulation in Experiment 1. In addition, cluster analyses classified genotypes in three groups according to traits contrasting in their significance for analyzing response to B toxicity. The first group included four varieties based on their shared characteristics that have small value for the relative growth of roots and shoots and large values of B concentration in shoot. In the second largest group were connected ten genotypes that are heterogeneous in traits and do not stand out on any characteristic. Genotypes NS-L-7 and Navajo were separated in the third group because they had big relative growth of root and shoot, but also a high concentration of B in the shoot, and high total B uptake. Results showed that none of tested genotypes could not be recommended for breeding process to tolerance for B toxicity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 173028

  20. Finding Meaning in a Noisy World: Exploring the Effects of Referential Ambiguity and Competition on 2-5-Year-Olds' Cross-Situational Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, John P.; Scott, Rose M.

    2017-01-01

    While recent studies suggest children can use cross-situational information to learn words, these studies involved minimal referential ambiguity, and the cross-situational evidence overwhelmingly favored a single referent for each word. Here we asked whether 2-5-year-olds could identify a noun's referent when the scene and cross-situational…

  1. Green solvents and technologies for oil extraction from oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S P Jeevan; Prasad, S Rajendra; Banerjee, Rintu; Agarwal, Dinesh K; Kulkarni, Kalyani S; Ramesh, K V

    2017-01-01

    Oilseeds are crucial for the nutritional security of the global population. The conventional technology used for oil extraction from oilseeds is by solvent extraction. In solvent extraction, n-hexane is used as a solvent for its attributes such as simple recovery, non-polar nature, low latent heat of vaporization (330 kJ/kg) and high selectivity to solvents. However, usage of hexane as a solvent has lead to several repercussions such as air pollution, toxicity and harmfulness that prompted to look for alternative options. To circumvent the problem, green solvents could be a promising approach to replace solvent extraction. In this review, green solvents and technology like aqueous assisted enzyme extraction are better solution for oil extraction from oilseeds. Enzyme mediated extraction is eco-friendly, can obtain higher yields, cost-effective and aids in obtaining co-products without any damage. Enzyme technology has great potential for oil extraction in oilseed industry. Similarly, green solvents such as terpenes and ionic liquids have tremendous solvent properties that enable to extract the oil in eco-friendly manner. These green solvents and technologies are considered green owing to the attributes of energy reduction, eco-friendliness, non-toxicity and non-harmfulness. Hence, the review is mainly focussed on the prospects and challenges of green solvents and technology as the best option to replace the conventional methods without compromising the quality of the extracted products.

  2. Flowering dynamics and pollinator visitation of oilseed echium (Echium plantagineum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echium (Echium plantagineum L.) is an alternative oilseed crop in summer-wet temperate regions that provides floral resources to pollinators. Its seed oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as stearidonic acid, which is desired highly by the cosmetic industry. We examined flowering dynamics, polli...

  3. Biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (oilseed rape isolate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) De Bary, the causal agent of stem rot of oilseed rape, is one of the most important phytopathogens. In order to find appropriate biocontrol agents, antagonistic and especially chitinolytical activities of 110 soil actinomycetes were examined. Among assayed isolates, Streptomyces sp. isolate 422 ...

  4. Sesame: the Underexploited Organic Oilseed Crop | Olowe | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an important oilseed crop that ranks sixth among vegetable oils worldwide. Asia and Africa respectively account for 2.55 and 0.95 of the 3.66 million tons produced worldwide. However, Africa's net export of the commodity is just 38% of its production, despite the fact that the Continent has ...

  5. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Oilseed Rape in the Wheat-Oilseed Rape Strip Intercropping Influenced by Chemical and Biological Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Amirmardfar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of wheat (Triticum aestivum and oilseed rape (Brassica napus strip intercropping on yield components, seed and biological yields of oilseed rape, field experiments were carried out as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Research Farm of Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran during 2010-2012 cropping seasons. The first factor consisted of four types of wheat and oilseed rape cropping system, sole crop of oilseed rape (A1,: strip intercropping with 8:3 (A2, 12:4 (A3 and 16:5 (A4 of wheat and oilseed rape rows, respectively and the other factor consisted of two fertilizer levels, B1: 100% chemical fertilizers (urea and triple superphosphate and B2: 50% chemical fertilizers + biofertilizers (Nitrazhin and Barvar2. The results showed that strip intercropping of wheat- oilseed rape resulted in significant increase in yield components, seed yield per occupied unit area and biological yield per occupied unit area of oilseed rape as compared with mono-cropping. The number of silique per plant in intercropping systems was significantly higher than that of mono-cropping. The highest seed yield was obtained in the 16:5 rows of wheat-oilseed rape with 343.76 g.m-2 and the lowest mean was observed in mono-cropping of oilseed rape with 260.21 g.m-2. Biological yield per occupied unit area and seed yield per intercropped unit area in B1 were significantly greater than that of B2, but this treatment had no significant effect on the other traits. Because, B1 and B2 had no significant difference in seed yield per occupied unit area and due to the importance of reduction in chemical fertilizers consumption and food and environmental health care, strip intercropping of wheat-oilseed rape under 50% chemical fertilizers + biofertilizers can be recommended as a suitable cultural method.

  6. In vitro Fermentation, Digestion Kinetics and Methane Production of Oilseed Press Cakes from Biodiesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Palma, S M; Meale, S J; Pereira, L G R; Machado, F S; Carneiro, H; Lopes, F C F; Maurício, R M; Chaves, A V

    2013-08-01

    Following the extraction of oil for biodiesel production, oilseed press cakes are high in fat. As the dietary supplementation of fat is currently considered the most promising strategy of consistently depressing methanogenesis, it follows that oilseed press cakes may have a similar potential for CH4 abatement. As such, this study aimed to characterise the nutritive value of several oilseed press cakes, glycerine and soybean meal (SBM) and to examine their effects on in vitro ruminal fermentation, digestion kinetics and CH4 production. Moringa press oil seeds exhibited the greatest in sacco effective degradability (ED) of DM and CP (pMoringa oilseed press cakes produced the lowest CH4 (mg/g digested DM) at 6 and 12 h of incubation (pmoringa oilseed press cake at 400 g/kg DM has the greatest potential of the oilseed press cakes examined in this study, to reduce CH4 production, without adversely affecting nutrient degradability.

  7. Situated Transgressiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Sullivan, Katie Rose; Rich, Craig

    2016-01-01

    conversations within queer theory, transgender and organization studies by highlighting how situated contexts mediate the political potential of queer bodies at work. By developing the concept ‘situated transgressiveness’, this article challenges notions of transgender as a stable, ideal disruptive category...

  8. Fermentation, Digestion Kinetics and Methane Production of Oilseed Press Cakes from Biodiesel Production

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Olivares-Palma; S. J. Meale; PEREIRA, L. G. R.; MACHADO, F. S.; Carneiro, H.; F.C.F. Lopes; MAURÍCIO, R. M.; Chaves, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Following the extraction of oil for biodiesel production, oilseed press cakes are high in fat. As the dietary supplementation of fat is currently considered the most promising strategy of consistently depressing methanogenesis, it follows that oilseed press cakes may have a similar potential for CH4 abatement. As such, this study aimed to characterise the nutritive value of several oilseed press cakes, glycerine and soybean meal (SBM) and to examine their effects on in vitro ruminal fermentat...

  9. Integrated pests monitoring of oilseed rape in means of biodiesel manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Alasić, Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Because of its high oil content (35 - 44 %) oilseed rape is an important industrial culture. Recently, biodiesel manufacture is especially active. In fact, in the countries of the EU, manufacture of biodiesel has reached its optimum, but sadly, in Republic of Croatia that small amount of biodiesel that is manufactured is obtained from recycled oil. This paper writes about the statistic data in manufacture of oilseed rape, pests of oilseed rape and about presentation of the project: “Integrate...

  10. Seed dressings to control slug damage in oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Louise C; Mullins, Christopher E; Wilson, Michael J

    2002-07-01

    Slugs are major pests of oilseed rape that are poorly controlled by conventional bait pellets. A series of laboratory experiments investigated the potential of seed-dressings to control slug damage in this crop. Four compounds: metaldehyde, methiocarb, cinnamamide and 3,5-dimethoxycinnamic acid (DMCA) were tested at a range of doses for phytotoxicity and ability to reduce damage by Deroceras reticulatum (Müller). Metaldehyde and methiocarb were not phytotoxic at any doses, whereas all doses of cinnamamide and DMCA were. All compounds reduced slug damage, but metaldehyde and methiocarb consistently performed better than cinnamamide and DMCA. Metaldehyde and methiocarb seed-dressings were compared with baited pellets containing the same active ingredients at recommended field doses. The seed-dressings protected plants from damage by D reticulatum and Arion subfuscus (Draparnaud) as well as, or better than, baited pellets. We therefore recommend that metaldehyde and methiocarb should be field-tested as seed dressings to control slugs in oilseed rape.

  11. Applications of Enzymes in Oil and Oilseed Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing

    conventionally high temperature conditioning or cooking is necessary. The good story in industry is the fish oil and olive oil processing. Good quality and higher oil yield have been achieved through the use of enzymes in the processing stages. For the refining stage, the use of enzymes for degumming has......Enzymes, through the last 20-30 years research and development, have been widely explored for the uses in oil and oilseed processing. Following the conventional processing technology from oilseeds, the oil can be produced through pressing or solvent extraction. The crude oil is then refined to meet...... edible requirements. The oil can be also modified to meet functional or even nutritional needs. In each of those steps, enzymes have been used in industry successfully. For the oil processing stage, enzymes have been used to destroy the cell structure so that makes the oil release easier, where...

  12. Finding meaning in a noisy world: exploring the effects of referential ambiguity and competition on 2·5-year-olds' cross-situational word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, John P; Scott, Rose M

    2017-05-01

    While recent studies suggest children can use cross-situational information to learn words, these studies involved minimal referential ambiguity, and the cross-situational evidence overwhelmingly favored a single referent for each word. Here we asked whether 2·5-year-olds could identify a noun's referent when the scene and cross-situational evidence were more ambiguous. Children saw four trials in which a novel word occurred with four novel objects; only one object consistently co-occurred with the word across trials. The frequency of distracter objects varied across conditions. When all distracter referents occurred only once (no-competition), children successfully identified the noun's referent. When a high-probability competitor referent occurred on three trials, children identified the target referent if the competitor was absent on the third trial (short-competition) but not if it was present until the fourth trial (long-competition). This suggests that although 2·5-year-olds' cross-situational learning scales up to more ambiguous scenes, it is disrupted by high-probability competitor referents.

  13. Study of Pea Accessions for Development of an Oilseed Pea

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Khodapanahi; Mark Lefsrud; Valerie Orsat; Jaswinder Singh; Tom D. Warkentin

    2012-01-01

    Global interest in stable energy resources coupled with growing demand for bio-oils in various conventional and arising industries has renewed the importance of vegetable oil production. To address this global interest, oilseed production has been increased in recent decades by different approaches, such as extending the cultivation area of oil crops, or breeding and growing genetically modified plants. In this study, pea ( Pisum sativum L.) accessions were screened for lipid content using a ...

  14. Occurrence of aflatoxins in oilseeds providing cocoa-butter substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, S J

    1982-01-01

    Four oilseeds providing cocoa-butter substitutes--shea, pentadecima, illipe, and salseed--when tested as substrates for aflatoxin production by two strains of Aspergillus parasiticus, gave varying levels of aflatoxin. Aflatoxins were found at low levels occurring naturally in moldy shea-nuts, but none of 21 commercial shea-nut samples contained greater than 20 micrograms of aflatoxin B1 per kg. PMID:6808919

  15. Are pesticide residues in honey related to oilseed rape treatments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karise, Reet; Raimets, Risto; Bartkevics, Vadims; Pugajeva, Iveta; Pihlik, Priit; Keres, Indrek; Williams, Ingrid H; Viinalass, Haldja; Mänd, Marika

    2017-12-01

    Pesticide treatments before and during the flowering of honey bee forage crops may lead to residues in honey. In northern regions oilseed rape belongs to the main forage crops that is mostly cultivated by means of intensive agriculture, including several pesticide treatments. However, in addition to the focal forage crops, pesticides from non-forage crops can spread to wild flowers around fields, and thus the residues in honey would reflect the whole range of pesticides used in the agricultural landscape. The aim of our study was to clarify which currently used pesticides are present in honey gathered from heterogeneous agricultural landscapes after the end of flowering of oilseed crops. Honey samples (N = 33) were collected from beehives of Estonia during 2013 and 2014, and analysed for residues of 47 currently used agricultural pesticides using the multiresidue method with HPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS and a single residue method for glyphosate, aminopyralid and clopyralid. Residues of eight different active ingredients with representatives from all three basic pesticide classes were determined. Although no correlation was detected between the cumulative amount of pesticide residues and percent of oilseed crops in the foraging territory, most of the residues are those allowed for oilseed rape treatments. Among all pesticides, herbicide residues prevailed in 2013 but not in 2014. Despite the relatively small agricultural impact of Estonia, the detected levels of pesticide residues sometimes exceeded maximum residue level; however, these concentrations do not pose a health risk to consumers, also acute toxicity to honey bees would be very unlikely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of Pea Accessions for Development of an Oilseed Pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Khodapanahi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Global interest in stable energy resources coupled with growing demand for bio-oils in various conventional and arising industries has renewed the importance of vegetable oil production. To address this global interest, oilseed production has been increased in recent decades by different approaches, such as extending the cultivation area of oil crops, or breeding and growing genetically modified plants. In this study, pea (Pisum sativum L. accessions were screened for lipid content using a rapid extraction method. This method quantifies lipid concentration in pea seeds and was developed by assessing and comparing the results of existing extraction methods used for canola and soybean, the top two Canadian oilseeds. Seeds of 151 field pea accessions were grown to maturity in 2009 and 2010 at McGill University (Quebec, Canada. Overall, lipid concentration in pea seeds ranged from 0.9 to 5.0%. Among several seed characteristics, only seed shape (wrinkled verses round had a significant effect on the total lipid production in the seeds. Peas are a valuable source of protein and starch, but the lipid concentration in their seeds has been undervalued. This research supports the idea of developing a novel dual-purpose oilseed pea that emulates the protein and oil production in soybean seeds while being conveniently adapted to a colder climate.

  17. Endogaeic ground beetles fauna in oilseed rape field in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka DRMIĆ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae in oilseed rape field can be an important indicator of different agricultural measures in arable land fauna. Surveys about ground beetle fauna in Croatia are generally very scarce and only few research on oilseed rape were conducted. The aim of this study was to determine the endogaeic ground beetle fauna in oilseed rape field and to determine species abundance and frequency. The study was carried out in Podravina region of Croatia, from the end of May till the mid-September in 2015. Ground beetles were collected using endogaeic traps incorporated in the soil. Altogether, 487 individuals classified into 8 species were collected. Species with the highest abundance and frequency was Brachinus (Brachinus psophia Audinet-Serville, 1821, which was classified as eudominant and constant species. The highest ground beetle abundance was observed in summer period. All of the species found were spring breeders, except for species Trechus (Trechus quadristriatus (Schrank, 1781 which breeds in autumn.

  18. Electricity production from wind energy: world situation and the French program EOLE 2005; Production d'electricite par energie eolienne: situation dans le monde et programme francais EOLE 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Electricite de France [ed.] [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-06-07

    The wind electricity world market shows at present an important development stage characterized by an annual increase rate of 20% to 30%. The total installed power in the world reached the value 7,200 MW in November 1997 and, according to forecasts, it could increase fivefold up to 2005. For France's high wind potential sites, namely the DOM-TOM and in Corsica, where the electricity production is more expensive than in inland France, this energy production mode approaches the threshold of competitiveness with other production means. The program EOLE 2005 (targeting 250 to 500 MW from wind turbines to be installed in France until 2005), launched in 1996 by EDF in collaboration with ADEME, on request of public authorities, is thought to implement this demand. The sections of the report are titled as following: - An energy used by man from long time ago; - Momentous developments of the wind power technology since eighties; - From wind turbines of some hundreds kW to 3 MW, based on robust technologies and newly devised methods; - Wind energy becomes equally interesting from economic viewpoint but for which applications?; - This option presents some drawbacks; - Which is the wind potential economically acceptable if the mentioned constraints are taken into account?; - The wind generators will be installed on sea near seashores; - An outstanding change in this field in France since 1996: the programme EOLE 2005; - 35 selected projects of 125,3 MW total power; - Future. The electricity production from wind energy seems promising particularly for the countries that have not resorted to either nuclear energy or hydropower options and which possess important wind resources.

  19. Quantitative Multilevel Analysis of Central Metabolism in Developing Oilseeds of Oilseed Rape during in Vitro Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwender, Jörg; Hebbelmann, Inga; Heinzel, Nicolas; Hildebrandt, Tatjana; Rogers, Alistair; Naik, Dhiraj; Klapperstück, Matthias; Braun, Hans-Peter; Schreiber, Falk; Denolf, Peter; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Rolletschek, Hardy

    2015-07-01

    Seeds provide the basis for many food, feed, and fuel products. Continued increases in seed yield, composition, and quality require an improved understanding of how the developing seed converts carbon and nitrogen supplies into storage. Current knowledge of this process is often based on the premise that transcriptional regulation directly translates via enzyme concentration into flux. In an attempt to highlight metabolic control, we explore genotypic differences in carbon partitioning for in vitro cultured developing embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We determined biomass composition as well as 79 net fluxes, the levels of 77 metabolites, and 26 enzyme activities with specific focus on central metabolism in nine selected germplasm accessions. Overall, we observed a tradeoff between the biomass component fractions of lipid and starch. With increasing lipid content over the spectrum of genotypes, plastidic fatty acid synthesis and glycolytic flux increased concomitantly, while glycolytic intermediates decreased. The lipid/starch tradeoff was not reflected at the proteome level, pointing to the significance of (posttranslational) metabolic control. Enzyme activity/flux and metabolite/flux correlations suggest that plastidic pyruvate kinase exerts flux control and that the lipid/starch tradeoff is most likely mediated by allosteric feedback regulation of phosphofructokinase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Quantitative data were also used to calculate in vivo mass action ratios, reaction equilibria, and metabolite turnover times. Compounds like cyclic 3',5'-AMP and sucrose-6-phosphate were identified to potentially be involved in so far unknown mechanisms of metabolic control. This study provides a rich source of quantitative data for those studying central metabolism. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Quantitative Multilevel Analysis of Central Metabolism in Developing Oilseeds of Oilseed Rape During In Vitro Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwender, Jorg [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hebbelmann, Inga [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Heinzel, Nicholas [Leibniz Inst. of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben (Germany); Hildebrandt, Tatjana [Univ. of Hannover (Germany); Rogers, Alistair [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Naik, Dhiraj [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Indian Inst. of Advanced Research Koba, Gujarat (India); Klapperstuck, Matthias [Monash Univ., Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Braun, Hans -Peter [Univ. of Hannover (Germany); Schreiber, Falk [Monash Univ., Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Univ. Halle-Wittenberg, Melbourne (Australia); Denolf, Peter [Bayer CropScience (Belgium); Borisjuk, Ljudmilla [Leibniz Inst. of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben (Germany); Rolletschek, Hardy [Leibniz Inst. of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Seeds provide the basis for many food, feed, and fuel products. Continued increases in seed yield, composition, and quality require an improved understanding of how the developing seed converts carbon and nitrogen supplies into storage. Current knowledge of this process is often based on the premise that transcriptional regulation directly translates via enzyme concentration into flux. In an attempt to highlight metabolic control, we explore genotypic differences in carbon partitioning for in vitro cultured developing embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We determined biomass composition as well as 79 net fluxes, the levels of 77 metabolites, and 26 enzyme activities with specific focus on central metabolism in nine selected germplasm accessions. We observed a tradeoff between the biomass component fractions of lipid and starch. With increasing lipid content over the spectrum of genotypes, plastidic fatty acid synthesis and glycolytic flux increased concomitantly, while glycolytic intermediates decreased. The lipid/starch tradeoff was not reflected at the proteome level, pointing to the significance of (posttranslational) metabolic control. Enzyme activity/flux and metabolite/flux correlations suggest that plastidic pyruvate kinase exerts flux control and that the lipid/starch tradeoff is most likely mediated by allosteric feedback regulation of phosphofructokinase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Also, quantitative data were used to calculate in vivo mass action ratios, reaction equilibria, and metabolite turnover times. Compounds like cyclic 3',5'-AMP and sucrose-6-phosphate were identified to potentially be involved in so far unknown mechanisms of metabolic control. This study provides a rich source of quantitative data for those studying central metabolism..

  1. Situational Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Süttö, Marián

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is focused on field of leadership, particularly situational leadership model by Hersey and Blanchard. Thesis is mostly theoretical framework aimed to offer the possibility for reader to get overview in leadership issues. Theoretical framework of the thesis is focused on leadership definition, the most important leadership theories in the past, and especially to situational leadership approach. The focus of this thesis is to get detailed insight in this model and therefore offer in...

  2. Milestone – a selective herbicide for the control of important grasses and broadleaved weeds in winter oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zotz, Agnes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available MilestoneTM herbicide contains the active substance propyzamide (500 g/L and aminopyralid (5.3 g a.e./L and is formulated as a suspension concentrate (SC. Registration for Milestone for the use in winter oilseed rape was granted in Germany in July 2014. The active substance propyzamide is well known from the product KerbTM FLO (containing 500 g/L propyzamide, suspension concentrate, SC which is widely used in winter oilseed rape (WITTROCK et al., 2008. Aminopyralid is formulated in the commercial product Runway (clopyralid + picloram + aminopyralid. Milestone is applied with a use rate of 1.5 L/ha as a post-emergence herbicide from growth stage BBCH 14 of the crop at the beginning of November until February. Kerb FLO is applied with a use rate of 1.875 L/ha at the same timing. The efficacy of Milestone and Kerb FLO was tested in randomised and replicated plot trials in Germany, France and the United Kingdom. Milestone and Kerb FLO showed comparable and very high control levels against monocotyledonous species such as Alopecurus myosuroides, Apera spica-venti, Bromus species and volunteer cereals. Milestone shows a broader spectrum of activity vs. Kerb FLO against dicotyledonous weeds such as Matricaria chamomilla, Papaver rhoeas and Centaurea cyanus. The use of Milestone in dense crops (as the situation was in autumn 2014 for many areas in Germany shows very high efficacy levels as well. The comparison of various application timings between end of October until beginning of December confirms the application date early November for best results. Milestone controls herbicide-resistant weed populations and can be considered an important part of a resistance management program not only in winter oilseed rape but as a component of an integrated weed management strategy in cropping systems.

  3. Status of Geothermal Research and Development in the World Situation mondiale de la Recherche et du Développement géothermiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanelli M.

    2006-11-01

    world (1979 is 2,063 MWe. Nowadays the most advanced countries where geothermal energy is concerned are the USA (908 MWe, Italy (421 MWe, New Zealand (202 MWe and Japon (171 MWe. Research is under way in various countries, directed at begining production or increasing present levels. By 1985 the installed geothermoelectric capacity should be around 6,500 MWe. b For non-electric uses. There are various applications of geothermal energy, the main ones being in space-heating and agriculture (especially greenhouses. Iceland and Hungary have developed these uses on a particularly large scale, but the situation in the USA, France and several other countries is also interesting. It is difficult to evaluate the capacity involved in this type of exploitation but the 1977 estimate was given as 6,200 MWt. Le flux de chaleur observé à la surface de la terre (59 mW/m2 en moyenne provient en majeure partie de la désintégration d'éléments radioactifs (U238, 0235, Th232, K40 dans la croûte. La répartition des intensités de flux de chaleur est liée intimement aux phénomènes décrits par la théorie dite tectonique des plaques : la plupart des anomalies géothermiques de surface, et en conséquence la plupart des régions exploitables industriellement pour la géothermie, se situent à proximité des rides d'expansion (champs géothermiques d'Islande, du Kenya, d'Éthiopie ou des zones de subduction (Indonésie, Japon, Himalaya chinois ou indien, Chili, etc. . On peut aussi trouver des champs géothermiques dans des bassins au sein des continents avec des flux de chaleur normaux (par exemple bassin de Paris ou un peu plus élevés (par exemple dépression hongroise. En général ces champs produisent des fluides de moyenne température destinés à des usages non électriques. Le système géothermique le mieux connu, et le seul exploité jusqu'à maintenant, appartient au type dit deconvection géothermique . II se produit lorsqu'une circulation d'eaux, principalement m

  4. Situating Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    everyday lives and the spaces we inhabit. Where email and the telephone have broken down barriers of geography, the relationship of technology with physical locations in people’s lives strengthens. From Occupy to the London riots and the Arab Spring, situated technologies offer new ways through which we......’ civic engagement activities in those spatial contexts that are at stake in land use planning. This approach enables engagement activities to be better integrated with people’s everyday lived experiences through connecting to the places that are personally meaningful and relevant to them. A ’research...... a plethora of different means for citizens to engage with planning issues within a plethora of different contexts and situations. The dissertation makes contributions of two kinds. Conceptually, it offers a richer understanding of what is implicated in the design of technologies for situated engagement...

  5. Effects of NaCl treatment on the antioxidant enzymes of oilseed rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of NaCl treatment on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of oilseed rape seedlings (Brassica napus L.) were studied. The results showed that the relative water content from leaves of oilseed rape seedlings was gradually decreased and the electronic conductivity was increased during 0 - 24 h under 200 ...

  6. Biological control of Sclerotinia disease by Aspergillus sp. on oilseed rape in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses on oilseed rape and other crops worldwide. Aspergillus sp. Asp-4, previously shown to inhibit germination of sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum in vitro and in the field, was evaluated in field trials for suppression of this pathogen on oilseed rape. S...

  7. 7 CFR 1412.35 - Incorrect or false production evidence of oilseeds and pulse crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... false production evidence of oilseeds and pulse crops. (a) If production evidence submitted in... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incorrect or false production evidence of oilseeds and pulse crops. 1412.35 Section 1412.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...

  8. In situ ruminal crude protein degradability of by-products from cereals, oilseeds and animal origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, G.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, M.; Bezabih, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a database on in situ ruminal crude protein (CP) degradability characteristics of by-products from cereal grains, oilseeds and animal origin commonly fed to ruminants in Pakistan and South Asian Countries. The oilseed by-products were soybean meal, sunflower

  9. Effects of NaCl treatment on the antioxidant enzymes of oilseed rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... The effects of NaCl treatment on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of oilseed rape seedlings. (Brassica napus L.) were studied. The results showed that the relative water content from leaves of oilseed rape seedlings was gradually decreased and the electronic conductivity was increased during 0.

  10. Formulations of Bacillus subtilis BY-2 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are developing a collection of Bacillus strains, isolated from different environments, for use in controlling Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in China and elsewhere. Strain BY-2, isolated from internal tissues of an oilseed rape root, was demonstrated to be Bacillus subtilis based on bi...

  11. NMR metabolomics of ripened and developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Vuorinen, Anssi L; Sinkkonen, Jari; Yang, Baoru; Rajala, Ari; Kallio, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    The oilseeds of the commercially important oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa) were investigated with (1)H NMR metabolomics. The compositions of ripened (cultivated in field trials) and developing seeds (cultivated in controlled conditions) were compared in multivariate models using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Differences in the major lipids and the minor metabolites between the two species were found. A higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sucrose were observed in turnip rape, while the overall oil content and sinapine levels were higher in oilseed rape. The genotype traits were negligible compared to the effect of the growing site and concomitant conditions on the oilseed metabolome. This study demonstrates the applicability of NMR-based analysis in determining the species, geographical origin, developmental stage, and quality of oilseed Brassicas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Situated communication:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    the power of mainstream images of "indian-ness" through a representation of Kumeyaay culture as living in the present San Diego county area of the U.S.  This case demonstrates the connection between ideology about Native Americans and the online responses which assert Kumeyaay identity as situated...

  13. Deep situationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matejskova, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    as a Slovak national with immigration experi- ence, a nominal outsider to both the country of research, Germany, and its immigrant subjects, the post-Soviet Russian-speaking migrants. Focusing on the production of time-spaces of proximity as a deeply situational process, I stress in particular the un...

  14. OILSEEDS AS A PERSPECTIVE IN THE NUTRITION ON DAIRY FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Süli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades many researches were made to change the milk product food’s composition. The production of better fat-compound milk and dairy products became a goal in the name of health conscious nutrition. Our researches were motivated by non-adequate milk fat’s compound. With the optimal supplement of the feed can be increased the proportion of the polyunsaturated fatty acids and can decreased the unsaturated fatty acids. The object of our experiment to study the effect of natural-based feed additives, such as oilseeds (whole linseed, extruded linseed, whole rapeseed on the fatty acid composition of milk fat. Further information was gained about of oilseeds in specific amounts to be fitted into technology of an intensive dairy farm in practice. The feed supplements were whole, untreated rapeseed and linseed and cold extruded linseed as a part of total mixed ration. The level of the processing of feed supplements affected the fatty acid composition of milk fat. The effect of full fat linseed feed supplement was more significant than that of the cold extruded linseed, in the increase of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, with special regard to the increase of the α-linolenic acid proportion. Out of the full fat oilseeds the feeding of full fat rapeseed did not result in a considerable change in the fatty acid composition of milk fat. After applying full fat linseed as feed supplement, the proportion of α-linolenic acid, a conjugated linoleic acid, an eicosadienoic acid and a docosapentaenoic acid increased in the fatty acid composition of milk fat, while the concentration of many saturated fatty acids reduced

  15. Antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from residues of different oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthäus, B

    2002-06-05

    Residues of the oil-extracting process of oilseeds contain bioactive substances such as phenolic compounds, which could be used as natural antioxidants for the protection of fats and oils against oxidative deterioration. Thus, the extraction of such constituents from residual material can be considered to contribute to the added value of these residues, which could justify their isolation. In the present work the fat-free residues of eight different oilseeds whose oils are usable for nutritional applications, and also as renewable resources, were extracted with 70% methanol, 70% acetone, water, and ethyl acetate/water, respectively. The resulting extracts were investigated regarding their content of total phenolic compounds by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, sinapine, flavanoids, and the UV-absorption spectra. Further, the antioxidant activity of the extracts was characterized by the DPPH method, the beta-carotene-linoleic acid assay, and ESR investigations. The fat-free residues of the different oilseeds contained considerable amounts of extractable substances. The yields decreased with decreasing polarity of the solvent in the order water, 70% methanol, 70% acetone, and ethyl acetate. The ratio of total phenolic compounds to the extractable compounds ranged from 3 to 19%. There was no significant correlation between the amount of total extractable compounds and the total phenolic compounds (p < 0.001). All extracts showed remarkable antioxidant activities determined with the different methods. The effects depended strongly on the solvent used for the extraction as well as on the extracted residue. A correlation between the methods used for the characterization of the antioxidant activity and the composition of the residues could not be shown.

  16. Situation Songs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolar-Borsky, Agnes; Holck, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the various therapeutic intentions behind the use of one particular improvisation method applied in pediatric music therapy, called the situation song (from the German term “Situationslied”- Plahl & Koch-Temming, 2008, p. 180). According to Plahl & Koch...... the therapeutic relationship; to enhance experience and development in the fields of emotion, behavior, expression and social skills; to express messages in language and to give structure to the child. The overall aim behind the use of situation songs is to offer essential experiences to the child in order...... to support his or her development. This study attempts to give an impulse to more international exchange of clinical terms applied in music therapy. The study was submitted as the first author’s master thesis in Music Therapy at the Aalborg University in Denmark. The second author supervised the process...

  17. Ascorbate peroxidase. A prominent membrane protein in oilseed glyoxysomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkelmann, J R; Trelease, R N

    1996-02-01

    The glyoxysomes of growing oilseed seedlings produce H2O2, a reactive oxygen species, during the beta-oxidation of lipids stored in the cotyledons. An expression library of dark-grown cotton (Gossypium hirsutm L.) cotyledons was screened with antibodies that recognized a 31-kD glyoxysomal membrane polypeptide. A full-length cDNA clone (1258 bp) was isolated that encodes a 32-kD subunit of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) with a single, putative membrane-spanning region near the C-terminal end of the polypeptide. Internal amino acid sequence analysis of the cotton 31-kD polypeptide verified that this clone encoded this protein. This enzyme, designated gmAPX, was immunocytochemically and enzymatically localized to the glyoxysomal membrane in cotton cotyledons. The activity of monodehydroascorbate reductase, a protein that reduces monodehydroascorbate to ascorbate with NADH, also was detected in these membranes. The co-localization of gmAPX and monodehydroascorbate reductase within the glyoxysomal membrane likely reflects an essential pathway for scavenging reactive oxygen species and also provides a mechanism to regenerate NAD+ for the continued operation of the glyoxylate cycle and beta-oxidation of fatty acids. Immunological cross-reactivity of 30- to 32-kD proteins in glyoxysomal membranes of cucumber, sunflower, castor bean, and cotton indicate that gmAPX is common among oilseed species.

  18. Demographic and socioeconomic inequalities for self-rated health and happiness in elderly: the situation for Turkey regarding World Values Survey between 1990 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Isil; Mandiracioglu, Aliye

    2015-01-01

    To define the socioeconomic and demographic determinants for self-rated health and happiness for Turkish elderly (≥60) using the World Values Survey (WVS) database. WVS data for Turkey covering 23 years (1990-2013) with five separate cross-sections (1990, 1996, 2001, 2007, 2013) were pooled for analysis (n=870). Dependent variables were self-rated health (SRH) and perception of happiness.Their relation with age, sex, number of children, marital status, income, education, employment status and class perception were evaluated. Chi-square and logistic regression analysis were used. Regression coefficients and their standard errors were derived to calculate odds ratios. Mean age was 66.96±5.78 (60-91), 58.16% were male and 76.32% were married. The majority (61.10%) was at lowest income level and 80.60% had education attainment at primary level or below. Very happy/quite happy were 81.77% while only 46.59% perceived their health as very good/good. The crisis year (2001) increased the risk of bad self-rated health 4.4 times, being a women 2.0 times, while being a widow had a 2.3-fold, low-income 3.0-fold effect. The odds for unhappy status was increased 4.3 times at low-income levels and 8.4 times for the divorced/separate living partners. Happiness state improved after crisis period. SRH and happiness of Turkish elderly bare demographic and socioeconomic inequalities. The inexistence of a partner, being a women, low-income level and major threats for it, like economic crisis, are important drivers for elderly health and happiness. To improve well-being of elderly, better social policies for income is essential and at economic crisis times, support policies should be prioritized for vulnerable groups, including elderly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hormones and Pod Development in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bouille, Pierre; Sotta, Bruno; Miginiac, Emile; Merrien, André

    1989-01-01

    The endogenous levels of several plant growth substances (indole acetic acid, IAA; abscisic acid, ABA; zeatin, Z; zeatin riboside, [9R]Z; isopentenyladenine, iP; and isopentenyladenosine, [9R]iP were measured during pod development of field grown oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L. var oleifera cv Bienvenu) with high performance liquid chromatography and immunoenzymic (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA) techniques. Results show that pod development is characterized by high levels of Z and [9R]Z in 3 day old fruits and of IAA on the fourth day. During pod maturation, initially a significant increase of IAA and cytokinins was observed, followed by a progressive rise of ABA levels and a concomitant decline of IAA and cytokinin (except iP) levels. The relationship between hormone levels and development, especially pod number, seed number per pod, and seed weight determination, will be discussed. PMID:16666891

  20. Draft genome sequence of the oilseed species Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes P; Crabtree, Jonathan; Zhao, Qi; Lorenzi, Hernan; Orvis, Joshua; Puiu, Daniela; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Jones, Kristine M; Redman, Julia; Chen, Grace; Cahoon, Edgar B; Gedil, Melaku; Stanke, Mario; Haas, Brian J; Wortman, Jennifer R; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D

    2010-09-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is an oilseed crop that belongs to the spurge (Euphorbiaceae) family, which comprises approximately 6,300 species that include cassava (Manihot esculenta), rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and physic nut (Jatropha curcas). It is primarily of economic interest as a source of castor oil, used for the production of high-quality lubricants because of its high proportion of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleic acid. However, castor bean genomics is also relevant to biosecurity as the seeds contain high levels of ricin, a highly toxic, ribosome-inactivating protein. Here we report the draft genome sequence of castor bean (4.6-fold coverage), the first for a member of the Euphorbiaceae. Whereas most of the key genes involved in oil synthesis and turnover are single copy, the number of members of the ricin gene family is larger than previously thought. Comparative genomics analysis suggests the presence of an ancient hexaploidization event that is conserved across the dicotyledonous lineage.

  1. Clubroot – An Emerging Disease Faced by Czech Oilseed Rape Growers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Řičařová V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Clubroot is caused by the pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin and has become a serious problem in oilseed rape production in the Czech Republic. The disease was previously widespread in commercial vegetable production and in hobby gardens. Whereas previously restricted only to the NE, since 2010 oilseed rape clubroot has been spreading across the whole country. A five-year monitoring of clubroot occurrence based on disease symptoms detection on oilseed rape fields was accomplished by the Union of Oilseed Growers and Processors. The presence of P. brassicae and clubroot symptoms was reported in all regions of the Czech Republic, except the Ústecký region, and in 31 out of 76 districts. At present, at least 130 fields are known to be infested by the pathogen, but this number is very likely underestimated. Some soil samples were also tested using the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR method to evaluate the soil usability. All 14 suspected samples tested positive.

  2. Production of mono- and sesquiterpenes in Camelina sativa oilseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Jörg M; Higashi, Yasuhiro; Feng, Xiaohong; Kutchan, Toni M

    2015-09-01

    Camelina was bioengineered to accumulate (4 S )-limonene and (+)-δ-cadinene in seed. Plastidic localization of the recombinant enzymes resulted in higher yields than cytosolic localization. Overexpressing 1-deoxy- d -xylulose-5-phosphate synthase ( DXS ) further increased terpene accumulation. Many plant-derived compounds of high value for industrial or pharmaceutical applications originate from plant species that are not amenable to cultivation. Biotechnological production in low-input organisms is an attractive alternative. Several microbes are well established as biotechnological production platforms; however, their growth requires fermentation units, energy input, and nutrients. Plant-based production systems potentially allow the generation of high-value compounds on arable land with minimal input. Here we explore whether Camelina sativa (camelina), an emerging low-input non-foodstuff Brassicaceae oilseed crop grown on marginal lands or as a rotation crop on fallow land, can successfully be refactored to produce and store novel compounds in seed. As proof-of-concept, we use the cyclic monoterpene hydrocarbon (4S)-limonene and the bicyclic sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (+)-δ-cadinene, which have potential biofuel and industrial solvent applications. Post-translational translocation of the recombinant enzymes to the plastid with concurrent overexpression of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) resulted in the accumulation of (4S)-limonene and (+)-δ-cadinene up to 7 mg g(-1) seed and 5 mg g(-1) seed, respectively. This study presents the framework for rapid engineering of camelina oilseed production platforms for terpene-based high-value compounds.

  3. Forecasting the Adoption of GM Oilseed Rape: Evidence from a Discrete Choice Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Breustedt, Gunnar; Muller-Scheessel, Jorg; Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores farmers’ willingness to adopt genetically modified oilseed rape prior to its commercial release and estimates the ‘demand’ for the new technology. The analysis is based upon choice experiments with 202 German arable farmers. A multinomial probit estimation revealed that GM attributes such as gross margin, expected liability from cross pollination, or flexibility in returning to conventional oilseed rape significantly affect the likelihood of adoption. Neighbouring farmers’...

  4. Evidence for pollinator cost and farming benefits of neonicotinoid seed coatings on oilseed rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, G. E.; Garthwaite, D.; Crowe, A.; Boatman, N. D.; Delaplane, K. S.; Brown, M. A.; Thygesen, H. H.; Pietravalle, S.

    2015-08-01

    Chronic exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides has been linked to reduced survival of pollinating insects at both the individual and colony level, but so far only experimentally. Analyses of large-scale datasets to investigate the real-world links between the use of neonicotinoids and pollinator mortality are lacking. Moreover, the impacts of neonicotinoid seed coatings in reducing subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and increasing crop yield are not known, despite the supposed benefits of this practice driving widespread use. Here, we combine large-scale pesticide usage and yield observations from oilseed rape with those detailing honey bee colony losses over an 11 year period, and reveal a correlation between honey bee colony losses and national-scale imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid) usage patterns across England and Wales. We also provide the first evidence that farmers who use neonicotinoid seed coatings reduce the number of subsequent applications of foliar insecticide sprays and may derive an economic return. Our results inform the societal discussion on the pollinator costs and farming benefits of prophylactic neonicotinoid usage on a mass flowering crop.

  5. Mapping of QTL for seed dormancy in a winter oilseed rape doubled haploid population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzki, Jörg; Schoo, Burkhard; Ecke, Wolfgang; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Feussner, Ivo; Becker, Heiko C; Möllers, Christian

    2013-09-01

    Following winter oilseed rape cultivation, considerable numbers of volunteer oilseed rape plants may occur in subsequent years in following crops. The appearance of volunteer oilseed rape plants is based on the capability of the seeds to become secondary dormant and to survive in this stage for many years in the soil. Genetic reduction of secondary seed dormancy in oilseed rape could provide a means to reduce the frequency of volunteer plants and especially the dispersal of transgenic oilseed rape. The objective of the present study was to analyse the inheritance of primary and secondary seed dormancy in a winter oilseed rape doubled haploid population derived from the cross Express 617 × R53 and to study correlations to other seed traits. Field experiments were performed in Germany for 2 years at two locations with two replicates. Seeds harvested from open pollinated plants were used for all analyses, including a laboratory test for seed dormancy. A previously developed molecular marker map of the doubled haploid population was used to map QTL of the relevant traits. For primary, secondary and total seed dormancy, the results showed significant effects of the genotypes and their interactions, with years and locations. Two, four and five QTL were detected for primary, secondary and total seed dormancy which explained 19, 35 and 42 % of the phenotypic variance, respectively. Results show that secondary seed dormancy is a heritable trait and that selection for low secondary seed dormancy is possible.

  6. Fermentation, Digestion Kinetics and Methane Production of Oilseed Press Cakes from Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Olivares-Palma

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the extraction of oil for biodiesel production, oilseed press cakes are high in fat. As the dietary supplementation of fat is currently considered the most promising strategy of consistently depressing methanogenesis, it follows that oilseed press cakes may have a similar potential for CH4 abatement. As such, this study aimed to characterise the nutritive value of several oilseed press cakes, glycerine and soybean meal (SBM and to examine their effects on in vitro ruminal fermentation, digestion kinetics and CH4 production. Moringa press oil seeds exhibited the greatest in sacco effective degradability (ED of DM and CP (p<0.05. In vitro gas production (ml/g digested DM was not affected (p = 0.70 by supplement at 48 h of incubation. In vitro DMD was increased with the supplementation of glycerine and SBM at all levels of inclusion. Moringa oilseed press cakes produced the lowest CH4 (mg/g digested DM at 6 and 12 h of incubation (p<0.05. The findings suggest that moringa oilseed press cake at 400 g/kg DM has the greatest potential of the oilseed press cakes examined in this study, to reduce CH4 production, without adversely affecting nutrient degradability.

  7. Wild pollinators enhance oilseed rape yield in small-holder farming systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yi; Xiao, Haijun; Bianchi, Felix J J A; Jauker, Frank; Luo, Shudong; van der Werf, Wopke

    2017-02-21

    Insect pollinators play an important role in crop pollination, but the relative contribution of wild pollinators and honey bees to pollination is currently under debate. There is virtually no information available on the strength of pollination services and the identity of pollination service providers from Asian smallholder farming systems, where fields are small, and variation among fields is high. We established 18 winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) fields along a large geographical gradient in Jiangxi province in China. In each field, oilseed rape plants were grown in closed cages that excluded pollinators and open cages that allowed pollinator access. The pollinator community was sampled by pan traps for the entire oilseed rape blooming period. Oilseed rape plants from which insect pollinators were excluded had on average 38% lower seed set, 17% lower fruit set and 12% lower yield per plant, but the seeds were 17% heavier, and the caged plants had 28% more flowers and 18% higher aboveground vegetative biomass than plants with pollinator access. Oilseed rape plants thus compensate for pollination deficit by producing heavier seeds and more flowers. Regression analysis indicated that local abundance and diversity of wild pollinators were positively associated with seed set and yield/straw ratio, while honey bee abundance was not related to yield parameters. Wild pollinator abundance and diversity contribute to oilseed rape yield by enhancing plant resource allocation to seeds rather than to above-ground biomass. This study highlights the importance of the conservation of wild pollinators to support oilseed rape production in small-holder farming systems in China.

  8. Carsharing situation in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Erceg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Carsharing is becoming very popular in the western world as an effective method to contain rising prices of fuel and vehicles. It was brought about as a possible solution to the changing condition of growing economies and population where there is an increased need for travel but there is also a need for expense economizing. Due to its role in reducing fuel consumption, controlling pollution and traffic congestion, there is an increased usage of carsharing services as an alternative transportation option in big cities. Today, worldwide several different carsharing methods are being used. This paper examines the current situation of carsharing in the world and two initiatives for starting carsharing programs in Croatia. The main goal of this paper is to define what carsharing is, how successful it is in the world and if there is potential for it in Croatia. The most developed carsharing regions in the world are Western Europe and North America. In the last several years Asia, Australia and South America have started carsharing projects and have the biggest growth in members and vehicles. Carsharing is still not recognized in Croatia. There were a few initiatives for starting the program but they failed. In order to determine the possibility and potential of carsharing in Croatia it is necessary to conduct further market research.

  9. Low level impurities in imported wheat are a likely source of feral transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Juerg; Brodmann, Peter; Oehen, Bernadette; Bagutti, Claudia

    2015-11-01

    In Switzerland, the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and the use of its seeds for food and feed are not permitted. Nevertheless, the GM oilseed rape events GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 have recently been found in the Rhine port of Basel, Switzerland. The sources of GM oilseed rape seeds have been unknown. The main agricultural good being imported at the Rhine port of Basel is wheat and from 2010 to 2013, 19% of all Swiss wheat imports originated from Canada. As over 90% of all oilseed rape grown in Canada is GM, we hypothesised that imports of Canadian wheat may contain low level impurities of GM oilseed rape. Therefore, waste fraction samples gathered during the mechanical cleaning of Canadian wheat from two Swiss grain mills were analysed by separating oilseed rape seeds from waste fraction samples and testing DNA of pooled seeds for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Furthermore, oilseed rape seeds from each grain mill were sown in a germination experiment, and seedling DNA was tested for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 oilseed rape was detected among seed samples and seedlings of both grain mills. Based on this data, we projected a mean proportion of 0.005% of oilseed rape in wheat imported from Canada. Besides Canadian wheat, the Rhine port of Basel does not import any other significant amounts of agricultural products from GM oilseed rape producing countries. We therefore conclude that Canadian wheat is the major source of unintended introduction of GM oilseed rape seeds into Switzerland.

  10. Consequences of gene flow between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and its relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongbo; Wei, Wei; Ma, Keping; Li, Junsheng; Liang, Yuyong; Darmency, Henri

    2013-10-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the probability of occurrence of gene flow between transgenic crops and their wild relatives and the likelihood of transgene escape, which should be assessed before the commercial release of transgenic crops. This review paper focuses on this issue for oilseed rape, Brassica napus L., a species that produces huge numbers of pollen grains and seeds. We analyze separately the distinct steps of gene flow: (1) pollen and seeds as vectors of gene flow; (2) spontaneous hybridization; (3) hybrid behavior, fitness cost due to hybridization and mechanisms of introgression; (4) and fitness benefit due to transgenes (e.g. herbicide resistance and Bt toxin). Some physical, biological and molecular means of transgene containment are also described. Although hybrids and first generation progeny are difficult to identify in fields and non-crop habitats, the literature shows that transgenes could readily introgress into Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea, while introgression is expected to be rare with Brassica nigra, Hirschfeldia incana and Raphanus raphanistrum. The hybrids grow well but produce less seed than their wild parent. The difference declines with increasing generations. However, there is large uncertainty about the evolution of chromosome numbers and recombination, and many parameters of life history traits of hybrids and progeny are not determined with satisfactory confidence to build generic models capable to really cover the wide diversity of situations. We show that more studies are needed to strengthen and organize biological knowledge, which is a necessary prerequisite for model simulations to assess the practical and evolutionary outputs of introgression, and to provide guidelines for gene flow management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Flowering dynamics and pollinator visitation of oilseed echium (Echium plantagineum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie A Eberle

    Full Text Available Echium (Echium plantagineum L. is an alternative oilseed crop in summer-wet temperate regions that provides floral resources to pollinators. Its seed oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as stearidonic acid, which is desired highly by the cosmetic industry. Seeds were sown in field plots over three years in western Minnesota in spring (early-sown or early summer (late-sown, and flower abundance, pollinator visitation, and seed yields were studied. Initial flowering commenced 41 to 55 d after sowing, and anthesis duration (first flowering to harvest was 34 to 70 d. Late sowing dates delayed anthesis, but increased the intensity of visitation by pollinators. Cumulative flower densities ranged from 1 to 4.5 billion ha-1. Flowers attracted numerous honey bees (Apis mellifera L., as many as 35 per minute of observation, which represented about 50% of all insect visitors. Early-sown echium produced seed yields up to 750 kg ha-1, which were 2-29 times higher than those of late-sown echium. Early sowing of echium in Minnesota provides abundant floral resources for pollinators for up to two months and simultaneously produces seed yields whose profits rival those of corn (Zea mays L..

  12. Evaluation of the Minolta SPAD-502 meter for nitrogen management of oilseed rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhe-yan; He, Yong; Huang, Min

    2006-09-01

    Nitrogen is important for oilseed rape production and even moderate deficiencies will substantially reduce yield and profit, but excessive N can pollute both surface and ground water. Thus, farmers are walking a thin line. In order to find the relationship between the SPAD value and the nitrogen content of oilseed rapes, a Minolta SPAD-502 Meter can be used for on-farm measurement of the N content, and then the Kjeldahl method has been used for measuring the nitrogen content of these oilseed rapes. Every leaf had 10 points SPAD value in average for measuring by SPAD, according to the area of the leaves, the points were increased or decreased. The Kjeldahl method has been used for organic nitrogen determination for over a century. Before using the Kjeldahl method to measuring the nitrogen content, all the leaves has been washed and dried. The results of these two methods has been fitted, as a result, the correlation coefficient is 0.863. Another sample was used to check if the result was perfect, the error of the forecasting value is about 7.4%. A new method for measuring the nitrogen content quickly of oilseed rapes has been found, the nitrogen content of the oilseed rape can be measured nondestructively and quickly.

  13. Cadmium uptake and speciation changes in the rhizosphere of cadmium accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dechun; Xing, Jianping; Jiao, Weiping; Wong, Woonchung

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of cadmium (Cd) uptake kinetics and distribution of Cd speciation in the rhizosphere for Cd accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties were investigated under nutrient solution and rhizobox soil culture conditions. The results showed that the maximal influx (V(max)) for Cd2+ and Km were significantly different for the two oilseed rape varieties. The value of V(max) for Cd accumulator oilseed rape Zhucang Huazi was two-fold greater than that for oilseed rape Chuan you II-93. The exchangeable Cd concentration in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than in non-rhizospheric soils supplemented with CdSO4 for both the varieties. Carbonate-bound Cd in the rhizosphere of Cd accumulator oilseed rape was significantly higher than that in the rhizosphere of non-accumulator oilseed rape and non-rhizospheric soil. Cd accumulator oilseed rape had a higher Cd2+ affinity and more ability to uptake insoluble Cd in the soil than the non-accumulator oilseed rape.

  14. Sensitization to turnip rape and oilseed rape in children with atopic dermatitis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poikonen, Sanna; Puumalainen, Tuija J; Kautiainen, Hannu; Palosuo, Timo; Reunala, Timo; Turjanmaa, Kristiina

    2008-08-01

    Turnip rape and oilseed rape 2S albumins are new allergens in children with atopic dermatitis suspected for food allergy. We recently found that 11% (206/1887) of these children had a positive skin prick test to seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and/or turnip rape (Brassica rapa). In the present case-control study we examined how the children with atopic dermatitis sensitized to turnip rape and oilseed rape had been breast-fed and whether they had some common sensitization pattern to certain foods or pollens. A total of 64 children with atopic dermatitis and a positive skin prick test to turnip rape and/or oilseed rape (>or=5 mm) were examined. Sixty-four age- and sex-matched children with atopic dermatitis but negative skin prick tests to turnip rape and oilseed rape served as case controls. The turnip rape and/or oilseed rape sensitized children with atopic dermatitis had significantly more often positive skin prick tests reactions and IgE antibodies to various foods (cow's milk, egg, wheat, mustard; p children. They had been exclusively breast-fed for a longer period (median 4 months; p Children with atopic dermatitis sensitized to oilseed rape and turnip rape had high frequency of associated sensitizations to all foods and pollens tested showing that oilseed plant sensitization affects especially atopic children who have been sensitized to multiple allergens.

  15. Effect of oilseed source on ruminal fermentation and methane production of a grass-legume diet in continuous culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addition of oilseeds to pasture-based ruminant diets has been shown to decrease enteric CH4 emissions. However, little research has directly compared the effect of oilseed source on ruminal fermentation and Methane (CH4) production. A 4-unit continuous culture fermentor system was used to test 4 oil...

  16. Remote Estimation of Vegetation Fraction and Flower Fraction in Oilseed Rape with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Fang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study developed an approach for remote estimation of Vegetation Fraction (VF and Flower Fraction (FF in oilseed rape, which is a crop species with conspicuous flowers during reproduction. Canopy reflectance in green, red, red edge and NIR bands was obtained by a camera system mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV when oilseed rape was in the vegetative growth and flowering stage. The relationship of several widely-used Vegetation Indices (VI vs. VF was tested and found to be different in different phenology stages. At the same VF when oilseed rape was flowering, canopy reflectance increased in all bands, and the tested VI decreased. Therefore, two algorithms to estimate VF were calibrated respectively, one for samples during vegetative growth and the other for samples during flowering stage. The results showed that the Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARIgreen worked most accurately for estimating VF in flower-free samples with an Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of 3.56%, while the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI2 was the best in flower-containing samples with an RMSE of 5.65%. Based on reflectance in green and NIR bands, a technique was developed to identify whether a sample contained flowers and then to choose automatically the appropriate algorithm for its VF estimation. During the flowering season, we also explored the potential of using canopy reflectance or VIs to estimate FF in oilseed rape. No significant correlation was observed between VI and FF when soil was visible in the sensor’s field of view. Reflectance at 550 nm worked well for FF estimation with coefficient of determination (R2 above 0.6. Our model was validated in oilseed rape planted under different nitrogen fertilization applications and in different phenology stages. The results showed that it was able to predict VF and FF accurately in oilseed rape with RMSE below 6%.

  17. The Emerging Oilseed Crop Sesamum indicum Enters the "Omics" Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossa, Komivi; Diouf, Diaga; Wang, Linhai; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Yanxin; Niang, Mareme; Fonceka, Daniel; Yu, Jingyin; Mmadi, Marie A; Yehouessi, Louis W; Liao, Boshou; Zhang, Xiurong; Cisse, Ndiaga

    2017-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the oldest oilseed crops widely grown in Africa and Asia for its high-quality nutritional seeds. It is well adapted to harsh environments and constitutes an alternative cash crop for smallholders in developing countries. Despite its economic and nutritional importance, sesame is considered as an orphan crop because it has received very little attention from science. As a consequence, it lags behind the other major oil crops as far as genetic improvement is concerned. In recent years, the scenario has considerably changed with the decoding of the sesame nuclear genome leading to the development of various genomic resources including molecular markers, comprehensive genetic maps, high-quality transcriptome assemblies, web-based functional databases and diverse daft genome sequences. The availability of these tools in association with the discovery of candidate genes and quantitative trait locis for key agronomic traits including high oil content and quality, waterlogging and drought tolerance, disease resistance, cytoplasmic male sterility, high yield, pave the way to the development of some new strategies for sesame genetic improvement. As a result, sesame has graduated from an "orphan crop" to a "genomic resource-rich crop." With the limited research teams working on sesame worldwide, more synergic efforts are needed to integrate these resources in sesame breeding for productivity upsurge, ensuring food security and improved livelihood in developing countries. This review retraces the evolution of sesame research by highlighting the recent advances in the "Omics" area and also critically discusses the future prospects for a further genetic improvement and a better expansion of this crop.

  18. Inheritance of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) RAPD markers in a backcross progeny with Brassica campestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.R.; Jensen, J.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1996-01-01

    Different cultivars/transgenic lines of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) were crossed (as females) with different cultivars/populations of Brassica campestris. All cross combinations produced seed, with an average seed set per pollination of 9.8. Backcrossing of selected interspecific hybrids (as...... markers could be assigned to six linkage groups, most probably reflecting six B. napus C-chromosomes. The presence of backcross plants with recombinant genotypes suggests that complex genetic processes can take place during the interspecific hybridisation and backcrossing in these Brassica species....... The implications of our results for the possible choice nf integration sites of transgenes in oilseed rape are discussed....

  19. Solubilization and characterization of diacylglycerol acyltransferase from microspore-derived cultures of oilseed rape.

    OpenAIRE

    Little, D.; Weselake, R; Pomeroy, K; Furukawa-Stoffer, T; Bagu, J

    1994-01-01

    Particulate fractions prepared from microspore-derived (MD) embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Reston) and an embryogenic MD cell suspension culture of oilseed rape (B. napus L. cv. Jet Neuf) were used as a source of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT, EC 2.3.1.20) for enzyme characterization and development of a solubilization procedure. DGAT activity in the 1500-100,000 g fraction from MD embryos was stimulated 4-5-fold by 3 to 4 mg of BSA/ml of reaction mixture. DGAT activity...

  20. Quantitative Multilevel Analysis of Central Metabolism in Developing Oilseeds of Oilseed Rape during in Vitro Culture1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwender, Jörg; Hebbelmann, Inga; Heinzel, Nicolas; Hildebrandt, Tatjana; Rogers, Alistair; Klapperstück, Matthias; Schreiber, Falk; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Rolletschek, Hardy

    2015-01-01

    Seeds provide the basis for many food, feed, and fuel products. Continued increases in seed yield, composition, and quality require an improved understanding of how the developing seed converts carbon and nitrogen supplies into storage. Current knowledge of this process is often based on the premise that transcriptional regulation directly translates via enzyme concentration into flux. In an attempt to highlight metabolic control, we explore genotypic differences in carbon partitioning for in vitro cultured developing embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We determined biomass composition as well as 79 net fluxes, the levels of 77 metabolites, and 26 enzyme activities with specific focus on central metabolism in nine selected germplasm accessions. Overall, we observed a tradeoff between the biomass component fractions of lipid and starch. With increasing lipid content over the spectrum of genotypes, plastidic fatty acid synthesis and glycolytic flux increased concomitantly, while glycolytic intermediates decreased. The lipid/starch tradeoff was not reflected at the proteome level, pointing to the significance of (posttranslational) metabolic control. Enzyme activity/flux and metabolite/flux correlations suggest that plastidic pyruvate kinase exerts flux control and that the lipid/starch tradeoff is most likely mediated by allosteric feedback regulation of phosphofructokinase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Quantitative data were also used to calculate in vivo mass action ratios, reaction equilibria, and metabolite turnover times. Compounds like cyclic 3′,5′-AMP and sucrose-6-phosphate were identified to potentially be involved in so far unknown mechanisms of metabolic control. This study provides a rich source of quantitative data for those studying central metabolism. PMID:25944824

  1. Oilseed Radish (Raphanus Sativus) Effects on Soil Structure and Soil Water Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus spp. oleifera) reduces nematode populations. Fall-incorporated radish biomass may also improve soil physical and hydraulic properties to increase the yield and quality of subsequently grown sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.). This field study determined radish effects on...

  2. Effect of Enzymatic Hydrolysis on the Antioxidant Properties of Alcoholic Extracts of Oilseed Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Arct

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to compare changes in the total phenolic, flavonoid and reducing sugar content and antioxidant activity of alcoholic extracts of Oenothera biennis, Borago officinalis and Nigella sativa oilseed cakes before and after enzymatic hydrolysis. Extraction with ethanol and hydrolysis with different commercially available glycosidases: α-amylase, β-glucosidase, β-glucanase and their combinations in a ratio of 1:1:1 were investigated. Total phenolic, flavonoid and reducing sugar content, iron-chelating activity and antioxidant activity according to DPPH and ABTS tests were measured in non-hydrolysed extracts and compared with the results obtained for the extracts after the application of immobilised enzymes. As a result, the hydrolysed extracts had a higher phenolic and reducing sugar content as well as higher iron-chelating and antioxidant activities. Total phenolic content of Oenothera biennis, Borago officinalis and Nigella sativa oilseed cake extracts after enzymatic hydrolysis was higher in comparison with non-hydrolysed extracts, i.e. 2 times (for the enzyme combination, and 1.5 and 2 times (for β-glucanase (p<0.05, respectively. The best results in increasing the flavonoid and sugar content as well as in iron-chelating activity were obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of oilseed cake extracts by β-glucanase. Oilseed cake extracts after hydrolysis with an enzyme combination in a ratio of 1:1:1 had the highest increase in antioxidant activity.

  3. Effect of unconventional oilseeds (safflower, poppy, hemp, camelina) on in vitro ruminal methane production and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaopu; Kreuzer, Michael; Braun, Ueli; Schwarm, Angela

    2017-08-01

    Dietary supplementation with oilseeds can reduce methane emission in ruminants, but only a few common seeds have been tested so far. This study tested safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), poppy (Papaver somniferum), hemp (Cannabis sativa), and camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds in vitro using coconut (Cocos nucifera) oil and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) as positive controls. All the tested oilseeds suppressed methane yield (mL g-1 dry matter, up to 21%) compared to the non-supplemented control when provided at 70 g oil kg-1 dry matter, and they were as effective as coconut oil. Safflower and hemp were more effective than linseed (21% and 18% vs. 10%), whereas the effects of poppy and camelina were similar to linseed. When methane was related to digestible organic matter, only hemp and safflower seeds and coconut oil were effective compared to the non-supplemented control (up to 11%). The level of methanogenesis and the ratios of either the n-6:n-3 fatty acids or C18:2 :C18:3 in the seed lipids were not related. Unconventional oilseeds widen the spectrum of oilseeds that can be used in dietary methane mitigation. In vivo confirmation of their methane mitigating effect is still needed, and their effects on animal performance still must be determined. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Cultivar and planting date selection for relay-cropping soybean with winter oilseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Double- and relay-cropping soybean with winter camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) and pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) have been shown to be viable cropping systems for the Upper Midwest. Relaying soybean with these winter oilseeds can result in greater total seed yield (i.e., both combined) and ec...

  5. Reduction of antinutritional glucosinolates in Brassica oilseeds by mutation of genes encoding transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Madsen, Svend Roesen; Engelen, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The nutritional value of Brassica seed meals is reduced by the presence of glucosinolates, which are toxic compounds involved in plant defense. Mutation of the genes encoding two glucosinolate transporters (GTRs) eliminated glucosinolates from Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, but translation of loss-o...... glucosinolate content in other oilseed crops, such as Camelina sativa or Crambe abyssinica....

  6. Weevils of the genus Ceutorhynchus Germ associated with oilseed rape in northern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sivčev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Our research of the genus Ceutorhynchus associated with oilseed rape was conducted in northern parts of Serbia (Stari Žednik, Subotica. A specific assemblage of eight weevil species was found. The most numerous were stem weevils Ceutorhynchus napi with 81% of all trapped specimens, followed by C. pallidactylus with 18%. The remaining six weevil specimens were C. obstrictus, C.erysimi, C. minutus, C. picitarsis, C. sulcicollis and C. typhae, comprising 1% of all trapped insects. Stem weevils C. napi and C. pallidactylus began to immigrate into the oilseed rape fields in autumn, as early as November 10 (BBCH 17-18. The maximum flight was recorded at the beginning of oilseed rape stem elongation (BBCH 22-25 on March 23. A new generation of C. pallidactylus emerged from oilseed rape fields in June (BBCH 76-88, while individual specimens occurred during the autumn. The majority of C. napi emerged in March next year, sporadically until May 7. As a consequence of C. napi dominance insecticide treatment should be performed earlier than usual, i.e. when C. pallidactilus is the primary target.

  7. Gas assisted mechanical expression of cocoa butter from cocoa nibs and edible oils from oilseeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Willems, P.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    The current methods used to recover high quality oil from oilseeds have low yields (mechanical expression, aqueous extraction), require the use of toxic chemicals and rigorous purification processes that can reduce the quality of the oil (solvent extraction with hexane) or are unsuitable for the

  8. Negative priming of native soil organic carbon mineralization by oilseed biochars of contrasting quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francischinelli Rittl, T.; Novotny, E.H.; Baliero, F.C.; Hoffland, E.; Alves, B.J.R.; Kuijper, T.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Oilseed-derived biochar, a by-product of pyrolysis for biodiesel production, is richer in aliphatic compounds than the commonly studied wood-derived biochar, affecting both its mineralization in soil and its interaction with native soil organic carbon (nSOC). Here, we investigated the soil C

  9. Sustainability assessment of oilseed fractionation processes: A case study on lupin seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, J.A.M.; Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional ingredient production focusses on high purity and yield, resulting in energy- and resource-intensive fractionation processes. We explored alternative fractionation routes for oilseeds by focussing on functionality and optimal resource use. Lupin seeds were taken as model material because

  10. Investigation into the prospects of five novel oilseed crops within Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marvin, H.J.P.; Mastebroek, H.D.; Becu, D.M.S.; Janssens, R.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The economic potential in Europe of five novel oilseed crops for applications within the chemical industry, particularly in paints and lubricants, was investigated within a multidisciplinary integrated research and development project. The entire production chain was subjected to a study. The

  11. Prediction of oil expression by uniaxial compression using time-varying oilseed properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargale, P. C.; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai; Irudayaraj, J.

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical simulation of uniaxial compression of oilseeds for oil extraction was developed based upon combining Terzaghi's theory of consolidation for saturated soils with Darcy's law for unsaturated flow, while incorporating the time-varying nature of the coefficients of permeability...

  12. Registration of an oilseed sunflower germplasm HA-DM1 resistant to sunflower downy mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    HA-DM1 (Reg. No.xxx, PI 674793) sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm was developed and released cooperatively by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit and the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station in 2015. HA-DM1 is a BC2F4 derived oilseed maintainer line from the cros...

  13. Early osmotic adjustment responses in drought-resistant and drought-sensitive oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzig, Sarah; Zaharia, L Irina; Abrams, Suzanne; Hohmann, Marie; Legoahec, Laurie; Bouchereau, Alain; Nesi, Nathalie; Snowdon, Rod J

    2014-08-01

    The impact of osmotic stress on growth, physiology, and metabolism of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was investigated by detailed analysis of biomass traits, hormone metabolites and osmolytes in two genetically unrelated drought-tolerant genotypes and two unrelated drought-sensitive genotypes. Seedlings were grown in vitro under controlled conditions and osmotic stress was simulated by applying a gradual treatment with polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000), followed by hypo-osmotic treatment of variants used for metabolite determination. The results provide a basis for the identification of reliable selection criteria for drought resistance in oilseed rape. The in vitro cultivation system established during this study enabled effective discrimination of early osmotic stress responses between drought-resistant and -susceptible oilseed rape genotypes that also show large differences in relative seed yield under drought conditions in the field. Clear physiological and metabolic differences were observed between the drought-resistant and drought-sensitive genotypes, suggesting that osmotic adjustment is a key component of drought response in oilseed rape. Unexpectedly, however, the drought-resistant genotypes did not show typical hormonal adjustment and osmolyte accumulation, suggesting that they possess alternative physiological mechanisms enabling avoidance of stress symptoms. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Potential bioetanol and biogas production using lignocellulosic biomass from winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Anneli; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy several raw materials have to be considered for the production of e.g. bioethanol and biogas. In this study, three lignocellulosic raw materials were studied, i.e. (1) winter rye straw (Secale cereale L), (2) oilseed rape straw (Brassica napus L.) and (3)...

  15. Assessing winter oilseed rape freeze injury based on Chinese HJ remote sensing data*

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Bao; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Wang, Hong-bin; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) accounts for about 90% of the total acreage of oilseed rape in China. However, it suffers the risk of freeze injury during the winter. In this study, we used Chinese HJ-1A/1B CCD sensors, which have a revisit frequency of 2 d as well as 30 m spatial resolution, to monitor the freeze injury of oilseed rape. Mahalanobis distance-derived growing regions in a normal year were taken as the benchmark, and a mask method was applied to obtain the growing regions in the 2010–2011 growing season. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was chosen as the indicator of the degree of damage. The amount of crop damage was determined from the difference in the NDVI before and after the freeze. There was spatial variability in the amount of crop damage, so we examined three factors that may affect the degree of freeze injury: terrain, soil moisture, and crop growth before the freeze. The results showed that all these factors were significantly correlated with freeze injury degree (P<0.01, two-tailed). The damage was generally more serious in low-lying and drought-prone areas; in addition, oilseed rape planted on south- and west-oriented facing slopes and those with luxuriant growth status tended to be more susceptible to freeze injury. Furthermore, land surface temperature (LST) of the coldest day, soil moisture, pre-freeze growth and altitude were in descending order of importance in determining the degree of damage. The findings proposed in this paper would be helpful in understanding the occurrence and severity distribution of oilseed rape freeze injury under certain natural or vegetation conditions, and thus help in mitigation of this kind of meteorological disaster in southern China. PMID:25644468

  16. Assessing winter oilseed rape freeze injury based on Chinese HJ remote sensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Bao; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Wang, Hong-bin; Wang, Jing

    2015-02-01

    The winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) accounts for about 90% of the total acreage of oilseed rape in China. However, it suffers the risk of freeze injury during the winter. In this study, we used Chinese HJ-1A/1B CCD sensors, which have a revisit frequency of 2 d as well as 30 m spatial resolution, to monitor the freeze injury of oilseed rape. Mahalanobis distance-derived growing regions in a normal year were taken as the benchmark, and a mask method was applied to obtain the growing regions in the 2010-2011 growing season. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was chosen as the indicator of the degree of damage. The amount of crop damage was determined from the difference in the NDVI before and after the freeze. There was spatial variability in the amount of crop damage, so we examined three factors that may affect the degree of freeze injury: terrain, soil moisture, and crop growth before the freeze. The results showed that all these factors were significantly correlated with freeze injury degree (P<0.01, two-tailed). The damage was generally more serious in low-lying and drought-prone areas; in addition, oilseed rape planted on south- and west-oriented facing slopes and those with luxuriant growth status tended to be more susceptible to freeze injury. Furthermore, land surface temperature (LST) of the coldest day, soil moisture, pre-freeze growth and altitude were in descending order of importance in determining the degree of damage. The findings proposed in this paper would be helpful in understanding the occurrence and severity distribution of oilseed rape freeze injury under certain natural or vegetation conditions, and thus help in mitigation of this kind of meteorological disaster in southern China.

  17. Cognitive dynamic logic algorithms for situational awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, L. I.; Ilin, R.

    2010-04-01

    Autonomous situational awareness (SA) requires an ability to learn situations. It is mathematically difficult because in every situation there are many objects nonessential for this situation. Moreover, most objects around are random, unrelated to understanding contexts and situations. We learn in early childhood to ignore these irrelevant objects effortlessly, usually we do not even notice their existence. Here we consider an agent that can recognize a large number of objects in the world; in each situation it observes many objects, while only few of them are relevant to the situation. Most of situations are collections of random objects containing no relevant objects, only few situations "make sense," they contain few objects, which are always present in these situations. The training data contains sufficient information to identify these situations. However, to discover this information all objects in all situations should be sorted out to find regularities. This "sorting out" is computationally complex; its combinatorial complexity exceeds by far all events in the Universe. The talk relates this combinatorial complexity to Gödelian limitations of logic. We describe dynamic logic (DL) that quickly learns essential regularities-relevant, repeatable objects and situations. DL is related to mechanisms of the brain-mind and we describe brain-imaging experiments that have demonstrated these relations.

  18. Unexpected diversity of feral genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) despite a cultivation and import ban in Switzerland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schulze, Juerg; Frauenknecht, Tina; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012...

  19. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg

    Despite of the potential importance to food and bioenergy purposes effects from climate change on plant oil quality have hardly been characterized. Worldwide Brassica napus, rapeseed or oilseed rape, is the second largest source of vegetable oil and the predominant oil crop in Europe. We found...... significant changes in oil quality and quantity of cultivars of oilseed rape grown in five future climate scenarios with elevated [CO2], [O3], temperature and combinations hereof (~RCP8.5, IPCC 2013)....

  20. Unexpected diversity of feral genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. despite a cultivation and import ban in Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg Schulze

    Full Text Available Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto. The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of GM oilseed rape in more detail, we monitored these two sites in 2013. Leaves and seed pods of feral oilseed rape plants, their possible hybridization partners and putative hybrid plants were sampled in monthly intervals and analysed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Using flow cytometry, we measured DNA contents of cell nuclei to confirm putative hybrids. In total, 2787 plants were sampled. The presence of GT73 oilseed rape could be confirmed at all previously documented sampling locations and was additionally detected at one new sampling location within the Rhine port. Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. To our knowledge, this is the first time that feral MS8xRF3, MS8 or RF3 plants were detected in Europe. Real-time PCR analyses of seeds showed outcrossing of GT73 into two non-GM oilseed rape plants, but no outcrossing of transgenes into related wild species was observed. We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species. GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape. In the future, it will be of major interest to determine the source of GM oilseed rape seeds.

  1. Meteorological and landscape influences on pollen beetle immigration into oilseed rape crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skellern, Matthew P; Welham, Sue J; Watts, Nigel P; Cook, Samantha M

    2017-04-01

    Heavy reliance on pesticide inputs to maintain crop yields has been an important aspect of agricultural intensification. Insecticide use has had detrimental impacts on pollinators and natural pest control agents, contributing to a decline in associated ecosystem services, and has also led to resistance development in pest populations. Throughout Europe, in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) crops, prophylactic use of insecticides against pollen beetles (Meligethes aeneus F. also known as Brassicogethes aeneus) has led to such issues, and there is an urgent need to develop more sustainable pest management practices for the crop. Although advice is available to oilseed rape growers regarding control thresholds, it may not be adhered to due to the expense of pollen beetle monitoring relative to the inexpensive cost of pyrethroid insecticides. Thus, the key to reducing prophylactic insecticide applications may lie with improved, less labour intensive methods of pollen beetle monitoring. For these to be realized, a better understanding is needed of the effects of agri-landscape features and meteorological conditions on pollen beetle immigration into the crop. In this study, based on data from four years of pollen beetle monitoring on a total of 41 field sites, we model the effects of meteorological (wind speed and direction, rainfall and accumulated temperature) and landscape (areas of woodland, residential gardens, the current and previous seasons' oilseed rape crops, and lengths of hedgerows and treelines) variables on directional sticky trap catches, at both the single trap and field scales. Meteorological variables, particularly accumulated temperature and wind speed were more important than landscape variables in predicting the abundance of pollen beetles immigrating into OSR fields. Sticky traps that were facing downwind caught more beetles than those that were facing across-wind or upwind; this is the first study to show at a landscape-scale, direct evidence for

  2. Solutions for Hot Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    From the company that brought the world an integral heating and cooling food service system after originally developing it for NASA's Apollo Program, comes yet another orbital offshoot: a product that can be as thin as paper and as strong as steel. Nextel Ceramic Textiles and Composites from 3M Company offer space-age protection and innovative solutions for hot situations, ranging from NASA to NASCAR. With superior thermal protection, Nextel fabrics, tape, and sleevings outperform other high temperature textiles such as aramids, carbon, glass, and quartz, permitting engineers and manufacturers to handle applications up to 2,500 F (1,371 C). The stiffness and strength of Nextel Continuous Ceramic Fibers make them a great match for improving the rigidity of aluminum in metal matrix composites. Moreover, the fibers demonstrate low shrinkage at operating temperatures, which allow for the manufacturing of a dimensionally stable product. These novel fibers also offer excellent chemical resistance, low thermal conductivity, thermal shock resistance, low porosity, and unique electrical properties.

  3. About Stressful Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... situation for you right now? It can help to write down your thoughts. For example: My family just ... you feel, given your situation. It can help to write down your feelings, too. For example: I feel ...

  4. Agoraphobia: A Situational Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Austin; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Agoraphobia patients answered a questionnaire describing anxiety-producing situations. Home environment was associated with supportive company. Situations requiring patients to venture out alone were most anxiety-producing. The overriding importance of a significant other suggests treatment implications. (JAC)

  5. Dispersal of solitary bees and bumblebees in a winter oilseed rape field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calabuig, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Dispersal distributions of solitary bees and bumblebees were studied in a winter oilseed rape field. Window-traps were placed in the rape field along a line transect perpendicular to the field edge. 19 species of solitary bees were recorded and all but four species are polylectic, including...... Brassicaceae as host-plant family. Through non-linear regression, the decline in solitary bee individuals versus distance from field edge significantly fitted a steep two-parameter exponential decay function. Activity of solitary bees was clearly highest within 30 metres from the field edge. Apparently......, solitary bees do not play any noteworthy role in the pollination of winter oilseed rape in Denmark. The traps yielded ten species of bumblebees, and a significant linear correlation was found between numbers of individuals and distance from the field edge. This result is attributed to bumblebee foraging...

  6. Indications of Selenium Protection against Cadmium and Lead Toxicity in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhilin; Yin, Xuebin; Bañuelos, Gary S.; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Liu, Ying; Li, Miao; Yuan, Linxi

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the beneficial role of selenium (Se) in protecting oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plants from cadmium (Cd+2) and lead (Pb+2) toxicity. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd and Pb concentration in both roots and shoots. Supplementation of the medium with Se (5, 10, and 15 mg kg-1) alleviated the negative effect of Cd and Pb on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative damages caused by Cd and Pb. Furthermore, Se-enhanced superoxide free radicals (O2•¯), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and lipid peroxidation, as indicated by malondialdehyde accumulation, but decreased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Meanwhile, the presence of Cd and Pb in the medium affected Se speciation in shoots. The results suggest that Se could alleviate Cd and Pb toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in oilseed rape plant. PMID:28018407

  7. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia

    The aim of this study was 1) present an oilseed rape whole crop biorefinery; 2) to investigate the best available experimental conditions for production of cellulosic ethanol from rape straw, and included the processes of thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and C6 fermentation......, and 3) to couple cellulosic ethanol production to production of cellulolytic enzymes that are needed for cellulosic ethanol production, inside a rape straw biorefinery. For the first is based less on available experiments, and more on literature review. The second and third study conclusions were drawn...... rapeseed biodiesel plant of Europe to an oilseed rape whole-crop biorefinery by 2020 is envisioned and discussed. The description and discussion of this biorefinery is based partly on literature review, and partly on own experimental data, especially on pretreatment of rape straw, and production...

  8. Effects of Field Conditions on Emergence of Oilseed Rape Seed lots Grown in Khorasan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Yanegh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen irrigated farms of canola from six cities of Khorasan selected to assess the seedling emergence one month after sowing in 2009. Soil texture of each farm determined using the Hydrometer method. The results showed that weather conditions of sowing areas had no significant effect on emergence of oilseed rape. With increasing the temperature (within the range of 19.5 to 21.5 ˚C emergence percentage was not increased significantly. Rainfall also caused no significant effect on seedling emergence. The percentage of emergence in machine-sowing and hand-sowing were 38.4% and 28%, respectively. Soils with loam silt, silt clay loam and loam texture had emergence of 27.2%, 31.2% and 47% respectively. It seems soil texture plays a great roll on the emergence of oilseed rape with epigeal seedlings.

  9. Indications of selenium protection against cadmium and lead toxicity in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the beneficial role of selenium (Se in protecting oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. plants from cadmium (Cd+2 and lead (Pb+2 toxicity. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd and Pb concentration in both roots and shoots. Supplementation of the medium with Se (5, 10 and 15 mg kg-1 alleviated the negative effect of Cd and Pb on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative damages caused by Cd and Pb. Furthermore, Se enhanced superoxide free radicals (O2-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and lipid peroxidation, as indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA accumulation, but decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. Meanwhile, the presence of Cd and Pb in the medium affected Se speciation in shoots. The results suggest that Se could alleviate Cd and Pb toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in oilseed rape plant.

  10. Numerical estimation of deformation energy of selected bulk oilseeds in compression loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, C.; Kabutey, A.; Herak, D.; Gurdil, G. A. K.

    2017-09-01

    This paper aimed at the determination of the deformation energy of some bulk oilseeds or kernels namely oil palm, sunflower, rape and flax in linear pressing applying the trapezoidal rule which is characterized by the area under the force and deformation curve.The bulk samples were measured at the initial pressing height of 60 mm with the vessel diameter of 60 mm where they were compressed under the universal compression machine at a maximum force of 200 kN and speed of 5 mm/min.Based on the compression test, the optimal deformation energy for recovering the oil was observed at a force of 163 kN where there was no seed/kernel cake ejection in comparison to the initial maximum force used particularly for rape and flax bulk oilseeds.This information is needed for analyzing the energy efficiency of the non-linear compression process involving a mechanical screw press or expeller.

  11. Use of reverse micelles for the simultaneous extraction of oil, proteins, and glucosinolates from cruciferous oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, Luisa; De Nicola, Gina; Palmieri, Sandro

    2008-03-12

    Cruciferous oilseeds are important sources of oil, proteins, and glucosinolates (GLs), potentially available when biorefinery processes are used. The proposed extraction technology is based on the use of reverse micelles (RMs) made with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) dispersed in organic solvent. The physicochemical properties of this extraction system and the good water solubility of many high value compounds, such as GLs and some proteins, permit the simultaneous extraction of oil, and these products from cruciferous oilseed meals. This procedure is based on three main steps: (i) seed conditioning; (ii) solid-liquid extraction by RM solution; and (iii) back-transfer of the RM solution for recovery of the extracted compounds. The method makes it possible to simultaneously extract almost the same amount of oil as with pure organic solvents used in the current extraction plants and more than 90% of soluble proteins and GLs. It is a promising biorefinery technology alternative to traditional oil extraction processes.

  12. Ozone dose-response relationships for spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, Maarten; Op de Beeck, Maarten; De Temmerman, Ludwig; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Vandermeiren, Karine

    2011-03-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant with known detrimental effects for several crops. Ozone effects on seed yield, oil percentage, oil yield and 1000 seed weight were examined for spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv. Ability). For broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv. Italica cv. Monaco) the effects on fresh marketable weight and total dry weight were studied. Current ozone levels were compared with an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day, over the entire growing season. Oilseed rape seed yield was negatively correlated with ozone dose indices calculated from emergence until harvest. This resulted in an R2 of 0.24 and 0.26 ( p broccoli the applied ozone doses had no effect on yield.

  13. Sensory evaluation of commercial fat spreads based on oilseeds and walnut

    OpenAIRE

    Dimić Etelka B.; Vujasinović Vesna B.; Radočaj Olga F.; Borić Bojan D.

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of this study was on the sensory evaluation of commercial oilseeds spreads, as the most significant characteristic of this type of product from the consumers’ point of view. Sensory analysis was conducted by five experts using a quantitative descriptive and sensory profile test, applying a scoring method according to the standard procedure. Five different spreads were evaluated: sunflower, pumpkin, sesame, peanut, and walnut. Oil content and ...

  14. Distance from forest edge affects bee pollinators in oilseed rape fields

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, S.; Requier, F.; Nusillard, B.; Roberts, Stuart; Potts, Simon; Bouget, C.

    2014-01-01

    Wild pollinators have been shown to enhance the pollination of Brassica napus(oilseed rape) and thus increase its market value. Several studies have previously shown that pollination services are greater in crops adjoining forest patches or other seminatural habitats than in crops completely surrounded by other crops.\\ud In this study, we investigated the specific importance of forest edges in providing potential pollinators in B. napus fields in two areas in France. Bees were caught with yel...

  15. Potential bioethanol and biogas production using lignocellulosic biomass from winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, Anneli; Thomsen, Mette H.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Anne-Belinda [Risoe National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-11-15

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy several raw materials have to be considered for the production of e.g. bioethanol and biogas. In this study, three lignocellulosic raw materials were studied, i.e. (1) winter rye straw (Secale cereale L), (2) oilseed rape straw (Brassica napus L.) and (3) faba bean straw (Viciafaba L.). Their composition with regard to cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives and ash was evaluated, as well as their potential as raw materials for ethanol and biogas production. The materials were pretreated by wet oxidation using parameters previously found to be optimal for pretreatment of corn stover (195 C, 15 min, 2 g l{sup -1} Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 12 bar oxygen). It was shown that pretreatment was necessary for ethanol production from all raw materials and gave increased biogas yield from winter rye straw. Neither biogas productivity nor yield from oilseed rape straw or faba bean straw was significantly affected by pretreatment. Ethanol was produced by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during simultaneous enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid material after wet oxidation with yields of 66%, 70% and 52% of theoretical for winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean straw, respectively. Methane was produced with yields of 0.36, 0.42 and 0.44 l g{sup -1} volatile solids for winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean straw, respectively, without pretreatment of the materials. However, biogas productivity was low and it took over 50 days to reach the final yield. It could be concluded that all three materials are possible raw materials for either biogas or ethanol production; however, improvement of biogas productivity or ethanol yield is necessary before an economical process can be achieved. (author)

  16. Something in the air? The impact of volatiles on mollusc attack of oilseed rape seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Anne-Emmanuelle; Poppy, Guy M.; Newland, Philip L.; van Dam, Nicole M.; Hanley, Mick E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Mounting concerns about balancing food security with the environmental impacts of agro-chemical use underpin the need to better understand the mechanisms by which crop plants, particularly during the vulnerable seedling stage, attract or repel herbivores. Methods The feeding preferences of the mollusc Helix aspersa were determined for several oilseed rape (Brassica napus) cultivars and a rank order of acceptability was established. This was compared with glucosinolate concentrations and volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles to determine whether seedling acceptability to molluscs was linked to either form of defence. Key Results While VOC profiles for each oilseed rape cultivar could be separated by canonical discriminant analysis and associated with mollusc feeding preferences, glucosinolate profiles were unrelated to snail feeding behaviour. A mixture of monoterpenes (α-pinene, β-myrcene and δ-3-carene) was identified as a putative attractant, while a blend of the green leaf volatiles 3-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol acetate and the monoterpene α-terpinene was identified as a putative repellent mix. Added to the VOC profile of oilseed rape seedlings, the ‘repellent’ mix reduced mollusc selection, while the ‘attractant’ mix had no effect. Conclusions Despite the widespread assumption that seedling selection by generalist herbivores is governed by chemical defence and taste, we show that olfactory cues may be more important. Oilseed rape may be atypical of wild plants, but our ability to identify repellent volatile organic compounds that can influence snail olfactory selection points to new methods for crop protection using modified VOC profiles during the vulnerable seedling stage. PMID:27009912

  17. Oilseeds native to the Cerrado have fatty acid profile beneficial for cardiovascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Medeiros ALVES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess and compare the fatty acid composition of edible seeds and a nut native to the Cerrado (Brazilian savannah to that of traditional oilseeds. Methods: Baru almonds, Cerrado cashew nuts, and pequi almonds were extracted from the fruits using appropriate equipment. All edible seeds and nuts were roasted, except for the Brazil nut. The sample lipids were extracted via cold pressing. The fatty acids were esterified, and the fatty acid esters were analyzed by gas chromatography. Results: The native and traditional edible seeds and nuts contain mostly monounsaturated fatty acids (42.72 g to 63.44 g/100 g, except for the Brazil nut, which showed predominance of polyunsaturated fatty acids (45.48 g/100 g. Pequi almond had the highest saturated fatty acid content (36.14 g/100 g. The fatty acids with the highest concentration were oleic and linoleic acids, and palmitic acid was also found in considerable concentration in the oilseeds studied. The Cerrado cashew nut and the traditional cashew nut have similar fatty acid profiles. As for the ratio of ω-6 to ω-3, the baru almond showed the highest ratio, 9:1, which was the closest to the recommended intake of these fatty acids. Conclusion: The fatty acid profile of the edible seeds and nuts native to the cerrado is similar to those of traditional oilseeds. We suggest the inclusion of native oilseeds in the diet aiming at reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, especially the baru almond and the cerrado cashew nut, due to the fact they have high ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids.

  18. Oilseed rape: learning about ancient and recent polyploid evolution from a recent crop species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, A S; Snowdon, R J

    2016-11-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is one of our youngest crop species, arising several times under cultivation in the last few thousand years and completely unknown in the wild. Oilseed rape originated from hybridisation events between progenitor diploid species B. rapa and B. oleracea, both important vegetable species. The diploid progenitors are also ancient polyploids, with remnants of two previous polyploidisation events evident in the triplicated genome structure. This history of polyploid evolution and human agricultural selection makes B. napus an excellent model with which to investigate processes of genomic evolution and selection in polyploid crops. The ease of de novo interspecific hybridisation, responsiveness to tissue culture, and the close relationship of oilseed rape to the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, coupled with the recent availability of reference genome sequences and suites of molecular cytogenetic and high-throughput genotyping tools, allow detailed dissection of genetic, genomic and phenotypic interactions in this crop. In this review we discuss the past and present uses of B. napus as a model for polyploid speciation and evolution in crop species, along with current and developing analysis tools and resources. We further outline unanswered questions that may now be tractable to investigation. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Hua; Krens, Frans; Smith, Mark A.; Li, Xueyuan; Qi, Weicong; van Loo, Eibertus N.; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Nazarenus, Tara J.; Huai, Dongxin; Taylor, David C.; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Green, Allan G.; Shockey, Jay; Klasson, K. Thomas; Mullen, Robert T.; Huang, Bangquan; Dyer, John M.; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2016-01-01

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petrochemical-type functionalities. A wide array of industrial vegetable oils can be generated through biotechnology, but will likely require non-commodity oilseed platforms dedicated to specialty oil production for commercial acceptance. Here we show the feasibility of three Brassicaceae oilseeds crambe, camelina, and carinata, none of which are widely cultivated for food use, as hosts for complex metabolic engineering of wax esters for lubricant applications. Lines producing wax esters >20% of total seed oil were generated for each crop and further improved for high temperature oxidative stability by down-regulation of fatty acid polyunsaturation. Field cultivation of optimized wax ester-producing crambe demonstrated commercial utility of these engineered crops and a path for sustainable production of other industrial oils in dedicated specialty oilseeds. PMID:26916792

  20. Cold plasma treatment enhances oilseed rape seed germination under drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Li; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Chunlei, Zhang; Yuanhua, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination, seedling growth, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation levels and osmotic-adjustment products of oilseed rape under drought stress were investigated in a drought-sensitive (Zhongshuang 7) and drought-tolerant cultivar (Zhongshuang 11). Results showed that, under drought stress, cold plasma treatment significantly improved the germination rate by 6.25% in Zhongshuang 7, and 4.44% in Zhongshuang 11. Seedling growth characteristics, including shoot and root dry weights, shoot and root lengths, and lateral root number, significantly increased after cold plasma treatment. The apparent contact angle was reduced by 30.38% in Zhongshuang 7 and 16.91% in Zhongshuang 11. Cold plasma treatment markedly raised superoxide dismutase and catalase activities by 17.71% and 16.52% in Zhongshuang 7, and by 13.00% and 13.21% in Zhongshuang 11. Moreover, cold plasma treatment significantly increased the soluble sugar and protein contents, but reduced the malondialdehyde content in seedlings. Our results suggested that cold plasma treatment improved oilseed rape drought tolerance by improving antioxidant enzyme activities, increasing osmotic-adjustment products, and reducing lipid peroxidation, especially in the drought-sensitive cultivar (Zhongshuang 7). Thus, cold plasma treatment can be used in an ameliorative way to improve germination and protect oilseed rape seedlings against damage caused by drought stress. PMID:26264651

  1. Response of seed tocopherols in oilseed rape to nitrogen fertilizer sources and application rates* #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Nazim; Li, Hui; Jiang, Yu-xiao; Jabeen, Zahra; Shamsi, Imran Haider; Ali, Essa; Jiang, Li-xi

    2014-01-01

    Tocopherols (Tocs) are vital scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and important seed oil quality indicators. Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important fertilizers in promoting biomass and grain yield in crop production. However, the effect of different sources and application rates of N on seed Toc contents in oilseed rape is poorly understood. In this study, pot trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and ammonium nitrate). Each source was applied to five oilseed rape genotypes (Zheshuang 72, Jiu-Er-1358, Zheshuang 758, Shiralee, and Pakola) at three different application rates (0.41 g/pot (N1), 0.81 g/pot (N2), and 1.20 g/pot (N3)). Results indicated that urea increased α-, γ-, and total Toc (T-Toc) more than did ammonium nitrate. N3 was proven as the most efficient application rate, which yielded high contents of γ-Toc and T-Toc. Highly significant correlations were observed between Toc isomers, T-Toc, and α-/γ-Toc ratio. These results clearly demonstrate that N sources and application rates significantly affect seed Toc contents in oilseed rape. PMID:24510711

  2. Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Hua; Krens, Frans; Smith, Mark A; Li, Xueyuan; Qi, Weicong; van Loo, Eibertus N; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Nazarenus, Tara J; Huai, Dongxin; Taylor, David C; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Green, Allan G; Shockey, Jay; Klasson, K Thomas; Mullen, Robert T; Huang, Bangquan; Dyer, John M; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2016-02-26

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petrochemical-type functionalities. A wide array of industrial vegetable oils can be generated through biotechnology, but will likely require non-commodity oilseed platforms dedicated to specialty oil production for commercial acceptance. Here we show the feasibility of three Brassicaceae oilseeds crambe, camelina, and carinata, none of which are widely cultivated for food use, as hosts for complex metabolic engineering of wax esters for lubricant applications. Lines producing wax esters >20% of total seed oil were generated for each crop and further improved for high temperature oxidative stability by down-regulation of fatty acid polyunsaturation. Field cultivation of optimized wax ester-producing crambe demonstrated commercial utility of these engineered crops and a path for sustainable production of other industrial oils in dedicated specialty oilseeds.

  3. Influence of top dressing on yield and seed quality components of oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujaković Milka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape is an agronomically important species grown for seed that contains 40-48% oil and 18-25% proteins. Oilseed rape has high demands for nitrogen. The research was performed on four varieties of oilseed rape (Banaćanka, Valeska, Slavica and Express developed at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, during vegetative seasons 2007-2008 and 2008-2009. During vegetation, top dressing was applied with different amounts of KAN: control (0 kg N ha-1, 50 kg N ha-1, 100 kg N ha-1, 150 kg N ha-1 and the N quantity determination were performed applying the balancing method (also known as N-min method. Yield, 1000-seed weight, seed germination, oil and protein content were determined after harvest. Yield and seed germination depended on seed production year. 1000-seed weight depended on seed production year and genotype. Oil and protein content in seed depended on production year, genotype and amount of the N-fertilizer applied by top dressing.

  4. Radiation and nitrogen use in wheat and oilseed rape crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreccer, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    Raising yield potential of crops with an efficient use of nutrients is imperative, given the prospects of increase in world population and the need to reduce environmental problems. Yield potential is proportional to the total biomass of a crop, which is highly responsive to nitrogen

  5. Situational method engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson-Sellers, Brian; Ågerfalk, Pär J; Rossi, Matti

    2014-01-01

    While previously available methodologies for software ? like those published in the early days of object technology ? claimed to be appropriate for every conceivable project, situational method engineering (SME) acknowledges that most projects typically have individual characteristics and situations. Thus, finding the most effective methodology for a particular project needs specific tailoring to that situation. Such a tailored software development methodology needs to take into account all the bits and pieces needed for an organization to develop software, including the software process, the

  6. Cranfield situation awareness scale :

    OpenAIRE

    Dennehy, K.

    1997-01-01

    Training to enhance situation awareness depends upon having satisfactory quantitative methods for measuring situation awareness. Until the development of the Cranfield-SAS, there was no direct subjective rating scale to measure the situation awareness of student (ab initio) civil pilots (see appendix 4 for an overview of the measurement guidelines for an overview of the measurement guidelines for scale development). The development of the scale was part requirement for a Ph.D. at Cranfield Un...

  7. Development of new restorer lines for CMS ogura system with the use of resynthesized oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szała, Laurencja; Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Popławska, Wiesława; Liersch, Alina; Olejnik, Anna; Kozłowska, Katarzyna; Bocianowski, Jan; Cegielska-Taras, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Resynthesized (RS) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is potentially of great interest for hybrid breeding. However, a major problem with the direct use of RS B. napus is the quality of seed oil (high level of erucic acid) and seed meal (high glucosinolate content), which does not comply with double-low quality oilseed rape. Thus, additional developments are needed before RS B. napus can be introduced into breeding practice. In this study, RS oilseed rape was obtained through crosses between B. rapa ssp. chinensis var. chinensis and B. oleracea ssp. acephala var. sabellica. RS plant was then crossed with double-low (00) winter oilseed rape lines containing the Rfo gene for Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS ogu) system. Populations of doubled haploids (DH) were developed from these F1 hybrids using the microspore in vitro culture method. The seeds of semi-RS DH lines were analyzed for erucic acid and glucosinolate content. Among the populations of semi-RS DHs four 00-quality lines with the Rfo gene were selected. Using 344 AFLP markers to estimate genetic relatedness, we showed that the RS lines and semi-RS lines formed clusters that were clearly distinct from 96 winter oilseed rape parental lines of F1 hybrids.

  8. A Situational Maintenance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luxhoj, James T.; Thorsteinsson, Uffe; Riis, Jens Ove

    1997-01-01

    An overview of trend in maintenance management and presentation of a situational model and an analytical tools for identification of managerial efforts in maintenance.......An overview of trend in maintenance management and presentation of a situational model and an analytical tools for identification of managerial efforts in maintenance....

  9. Classification of the wine sites “world heritage Unesco”: Situational analysis and prospects / Classement des sites viticoles « Patrimoine mondial Unesco », état des lieux et perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochard Joël

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The inheritance is the legacy of the past from which we profit today and who we transmit to the generations to come. UNESCO adopted in 1972 a convention concerning heritage protection world, cultural and natural. The cultural heritage relates to the monuments, whole of constructions and goods with historical values, esthetics, archaeological, scientific, ethnological or anthropological. The natural heritage relates to the formations physical, biological and geological remarkable, the surfaces of an exceptional value of the point of the sight of science, conservation or natural beauty and the habitats of threatened animal species and vegetable. The wine landscapes are generally recognized among the most remarkable forms of landscapes resulting from the human activity, at the same time by the mark which they print with the territory and by the cultural traditions which theirs are associated, which leads to the classification of fifteen European wine sites. This approach is integrated in a vision of patrimonial governance of the wine terroir which associate the orientations of the international organization of the vine and the wine opposite in particular of the concept of terroir and Viticulture. The objective of the communication is to establish an inventory of fixtures of the classified as wine sites “World heritage UNESCO” and to put in prospect the patrimonial approach for the world wine sector.

  10. Assessing Operational Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin

    In spite of the high level of automation commonly applied to today’s engineering system, humans’ skill and knowledge still plays a central role in the systems’ daily operation, critical decision making, and accident management. The complexity of the engineered system poses great challenge for human...... operators to perceive and understand the operational situation. The research domain of situation awareness approaches the operational challenges from the human cognition perspective while the presented thesis aims at supporting situation assessment from the system perspective. The thesis has reviewed...... different perspectives on situation awareness in the human factor studies and uses the knowledge reflectively for system representation and analysis. The human cognitive activities during complex plant operation and how they perceive a situation and what kind of knowledge has to be established in the human...

  11. Use of formulated Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 in combination with reduced rates of chemical pesticide for control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorium on oilseed rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable strategies for control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape are needed. Here we tested combinations of Trichoderma sp. Tri-1, formulated with oilseed rape seedcake and straw, with reduced application rates of the chemical pesticide Carbendazim for control of this pathogen on oils...

  12. Effects of plant densities on yield, yield components and some morphological characters of two cultivators of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Barzinjy, M.; Stölen, O.; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog

    2003-01-01

    Effects of Plant Densities on Yield, Yield Components and some Morphological Characters of two Cultivators of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)......Effects of Plant Densities on Yield, Yield Components and some Morphological Characters of two Cultivators of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)...

  13. Status of feral oilseed rape in Europe: its minor role as a GM impurity and its potential as a reservoir of transgene persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squire, Geoffrey R.; Breckling, Broder; Dietz Pfeilstetter, Antje

    2011-01-01

    Feral oilseed rape has become widespread in Europe on waysides and waste ground. Its potential as a source of GM impurity in oilseed rape harvests is quantified, for the first time, by a consistent analysis applied over a wide range of study areas in Europe. The maximum contribution of feral...

  14. Do competitive conditions affect introgression of transgenes from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to weedy Brassica rapa? AS case study with special reference to transplastomic oilseed rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Marina

    In species where chloroplast inheritance is exclusively or predominantly maternal, pollen-mediated flow of transgenes is reduced if transgenes are inserted in chloroplast DNA instead of nuclear DNA. However, transmission of chloroplast-encoded transgeneswill still occur if transgenic individuals......) significantly. As to the proportion between the species, B. rapa was a stronger competitor than B. napus. Theproportion seemed to be a more powerful factor than the density. In conclusion, hybridisation on B. napus seems to be most likely at current field densities of B. napus and when B. rapa is an abundant...... affected the thousand-kernel weight significantly. It was concluded that further introgression of transgenes from transplastomic oilseed rape to B. rapa is mostlikely at current field densities of B. napus and when B. rapa is an abundant weed....

  15. Arthropod Pest Control for UK Oilseed Rape - Comparing Insecticide Efficacies, Side Effects and Alternatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhang

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape (Brassica napus is an important combinable break crop in the UK, which is largely protected from arthropod pests by insecticidal chemicals. Despite ongoing debate regarding the use of neonicotinoids, the dominant seed treatment ingredients used for this crop, there is little publicly available data comparing the efficacy of insecticides in controlling key arthropod pests or comparing the impacts on non-target species and the wider environment. To provide an insight into these matters, a UK-wide expert survey targeting agronomists and entomologists was conducted from March to June 2015. Based on the opinions of 90 respondents, an average of 20% yield loss caused by the key arthropod pests was expected to have occurred in the absence of insecticide treatments. Relatively older chemical groups were perceived to have lower efficacy for target pests than newer ones, partly due to the development of insecticide resistance. Without neonicotinoid seed treatments, a lack of good control for cabbage stem flea beetle was perceived. Wide spectrum foliar insecticide sprays were perceived to have significantly greater negative impacts than seed treatments on users' health, natural enemies, pollinators, soil and water, and many foliar active ingredients have had potential risks for non-target arthropod species in UK oilseed rape fields for the past 25 years. Overall, 72% of respondents opposed the neonicotinoid restriction, while 10% supported it. Opposition and support of the restriction were largely based on concerns for pollinators and the wider environment, highlighting the uncertainty over the side effects of neonicotinoid use. More people from the government and research institutes leaned towards neutrality over the issue, compared to those directly involved in growing the crop. Neonicotinoid restriction was expected to result in greater effort and expenditure on pest control and lower production (0-1 t/ha less. Alternatives for future

  16. Ozone effects on yield quality of spring oilseed rape and broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeiren, Karine; De Bock, Maarten; Horemans, Nele; Guisez, Yves; Ceulemans, Reinhart; De Temmerman, Ludwig

    2012-02-01

    The impact of elevated tropospheric ozone (O 3) on the quality of spring oilseed rape ( Brassica napus cv Ability) and broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. cv Italic cv Monaco) was assessed during a three year Open - Top Chamber (OTC) experiment. Current ambient O 3 levels were compared to an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day over the entire growing season. The qualitative responses were expressed as a function of the accumulated hourly O 3 concentrations over a threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40) and the phytotoxic O 3 dose above a threshold of 6 nmol s -1 m -2 projected leaf area (POD 6). Our results provide clear evidence that O 3 has an influence on the qualitative attributes of the harvested products of these Brassica species. The responses were comparable whether they were expressed as a function of the accumulated O 3 concentrations or of the modelled O 3 uptake. The protein concentration of oilseed rape seeds and broccoli heads was significantly increased in response to O 3. There was also a shift in the fatty acid composition of the vegetable oil derived from seeds of oilseed rape. Oleic acid (18:1) declined significantly ( p broccoli an important shift occurred from indolic to aliphatic GSLs although the total GSL concentration was not changed. The increase in the aliphatic/indolic GSL ratio ( p broccoli were not influenced by O 3; glutathione (GSH) was slightly increased in response to a higher O 3 uptake ( p < 0.05). The consequences of these changes with regard to food and feed quality and human health are discussed.

  17. Partial characterization, antioxidative properties and hypolipidemic effects of oilseed cake of Allanblackia floribunda and Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjeko, Thaddée; Ngomoyogoli, Judith Emery Kanemoto; Woguia, Alice Louise; Yanou, Nicolas Njintang

    2013-12-11

    High fat diet is known to induce oxidative stress and abnormal changes in lipid metabolism. Many traditional plants have been shown to possess antioxidant and lipid-lowering activities, improving on oxidative status and lipid profile. In this paper, we characterized and examined the antioxidative properties of the oilseed cake of A. floribunda and J. curcas. We also evaluated their effect on lipid profile in the plasma and liver of experimental rats placed on a high fat diet. For a partial characterization, the qualitative and quantitative analyses of storage proteins, dietary fibre and polyphenol content were evaluated. Four extracts (aqueous, ethanolic, methanolic and 0.1 N HCl) were evaluated for their antioxidant properties and scavenging activities. The effect on lipid profile was evaluated after the administration of the crude extracts to albino rats placed on a high fat diet. Our results showed that J. curcas contains 10 times more storage proteins than A. floribunda while A. floribunda contains twice as much total dietary fibre than J. curcas. An evaluation of the different families of storage proteins showed that J. curcas has glutelins as the major storage proteins in its seeds (61.65 mg/g d.m), followed by globulins (25.30 mg/g d.m) and albumins (18.30 mg/g d.m). The electrophoretic analyses revealed a diversity of bands at the level of the different families and for both species. The evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activities showed that A. floribunda extracts had higher antioxidant properties. Although the composition of A. floribunda and J. curcas oilseed cake are different, they lowered serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and blood glucose level. These results show that the oilseed cake of A. floribunda and J. curcas possess antioxidant properties with an effect on blood glucose level and lipid profile.

  18. Estimating the Economic Value of Greenhouse Gases Emissions of Oilseeds in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jamalipor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human life on earth depends on temperature range control due to the effects of greenhouse gases. Earth atmosphere plays an important role to prevent the decrease of temperature. One of the principal factors of environmental pollution and the main source of earth climate and biodiversity changes is greenhouse gas emissions from various sources, particularly agricultural sector. Agriculture sector is a major source of greenhouse gas sequestration, including methane, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and nitric oxide. One of the most important sub-sector of agriculture that produce greenhouse gases is agronomy. Nitrous oxide is one of the most important greenhouse gas and agriculture is the largest source. About 70 percent of N2O emitted into the atmosphere from soil, obtained from biomass. The total cultivation of oilseeds i.e. soybean, canola, corn for grain and other oilseeds, is equal to 534,132 hectares. Materials and Methods: In this study to measure emissions of CO2 and N2O, Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GHGEM was used. This model was employed to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from activities directly and indirectly related to agriculture production and the effects of mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To estimate the total production of N2O and CO2 in the agricultural ecosystem, 2011-12 crop year data reported by the Ministry of Jihad Agriculture has been used. In addition, the provinces divided into different classes based on the scale of production and emissions and their condition through means comparison test was examined. Results and Discussion: The total amount of N2O and CO2 emissions from cereal crops including soybean, canola, corn for grain and other oilseeds was estimated. Khuzestan and Zanjan provinces, with an annual production 341.49 and 0.004 ton of N2O emission are the highest and lowest N2O producers, respectively. In addition, the Golestan and Hormozgan provinces respectively

  19. Plant regeneration from hypocotyl protoplasts of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wacław Orczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Protoplasts were isolated from hypocotyls of six breeding lines and two cultivars of winter oilseed rape (B. napus L.. Under presented culture conditions almost all of the protoplasts regenerated cell walls. Division frequency depended on the genotype and was from 50% to 64%. Shoot regeneration (also depended on the genotype was induced with the frequency of 3.6% (for cv Bolko on the medium containing IAA (0.1 mg•dm-3, zeatin (0.5 mg•dm-3 and BAP (0.5 mg•dm-3 . All shoots were rooted on MS basal medium supplemented with sucrose 30 g•dm-3.

  20. Natural Resources and Local Development: The Argentinian Oilseed Complex and Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Scialabba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Argentina is very rich in natural resources, particularly those linked to the oilseed production. Global demand and improved means of production, have resulted in a mature and developed production infrastructure geared toward export. This generates not just revenue, but also has other positive effects, such as the creation of jobs and sustainable development. In this context, biofuel production adds multidimensional value to the vegetable oil industry and generations many spin-off industries.

  1. Tracking U.S. Grain, Oilseed and Related Product Exports in Mexico (Summary)

    OpenAIRE

    Salin, Delmy

    2014-01-01

    Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Texas A&M Transportation Institute scientists found that rail continues to be the most important mode of transport for U.S. grains, oilseeds, and products entering Mexico, followed by seaports and trucks. Nearly all Mexican land ports of entry are connected with a U.S. railroad, except for Nuevo Progreso, which does not have rail access (Fig. 1). Increased rail efficiency caused by larger trains and gauge uniformity facilitates North America Railroads (Canada, ...

  2. Seed Vigor and Field Performance of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI, Kazem; Javad BAKHSHY; Yaeghoob RAEY; Ayda HOSSAINZADEH-MAHOOTCHY

    2010-01-01

    The effect of seed vigor on field performance of two oilseed rape cultivars (Licord and Okapi) was investigated in 2008 at the Research Farm of the University Tabriz, Iran. The experiment was arranged as factorial based on RCB design with three replications. A sub-sample of seeds of each cultivar was kept as control. The other two sub-samples of each cultivar with about 15% moisture content were artificially deteriorated at 40C for 9 and 12 days (Licord) and 7 and 10 days (Okapi). Cons...

  3. A Situational Change Typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Kotze, Robin

    1972-01-01

    The trainer or internal change agent in a firm undergoing an organizational development program may be instrumental in designing the implementation of a change strategy. Proposes a situational change typology which may be of use as a training instrument. (Author)

  4. Situational major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, R M; Klerman, G L; Andreasen, N C; Clayton, P J; Keller, M B

    1985-11-01

    Fifty-seven patients with situational major depression diagnosed by the Research Diagnostic Criteria were compared with 72 subjects with nonsituational major depression on demographic, clinical, and psychosocial variables. The situational patients tended to be younger and had fewer prior episodes of depression and fewer hospitalizations. No differences were found in categories of life events, in overall clinical picture, in social supports, or in family history.

  5. Meat and bone meal as nitrogen and phosphorus supplier to cereals and oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nogalska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of meat and bone meal (MBM on cultivation of winter triticale, winter oilseed rape, winter wheat and maize. The average annual yields and protein yield achieved in crop rotation were studied. The field trials were carried out in north-eastern Poland in 2006–2010. The factor was dose of MBM: 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 t ha-1 year-1 or 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 t ha-1 every other year. The four-year experiment has proven that MBM is a valuable nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer in cultivation of cereals and oilseed rape. By amendment of the tested meal into the soil it produced crop yield and protein yield similar to that achieved by mineral fertilization. However, the crude fat yield of rape was significantly higher under the influence of all the MBM doses. The yield-stimulating effect of MBM did not depend on the frequency of its application; therefore it is more convenient to apply it once every two years. Increasing MBM from 1.5 to 2.5 t ha-1 did not significantly increase any of the four crop yields, therefore for soils that had satisfactory nutrients content, 1 or 1.5 t ha-1 MBM is enough and increasing MBM will only increase economic burden for farmers and environmental risks.

  6. Airborne molds and mycotoxins associated with handling of corn silage and oilseed cakes in agricultural environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Caroline; Richard, Estelle; Heutte, Natacha; Picquet, Rachel; Bouchart, Valérie; Garon, David

    2010-05-01

    In agricultural areas, the contamination of feedstuffs with molds and mycotoxins presents major environmental and health concerns. During cattle feeding, fungi and mycotoxins were monitored in corn silage, oilseed cakes and bioaerosols collected in Normandy. Most of the corn silages were found to be contaminated by deoxynivalenol (mean concentration: 1883 μg kg -1) while a few of oilseed cakes were contaminated by alternariol, fumonisin B 1 or gliotoxin. In ambient bioaerosols, the values for fungi per cubic meter of air varied from 4.3 × 10 2 to 6.2 × 10 5 cfu m -3. Seasonal variations were observed with some species like Aspergillus fumigatus which significantly decreased between the 2 seasons ( P = 0.0186) while the Penicillium roqueforti group significantly increased during the second season ( P = 0.0156). In the personal bioaerosols, the values for fungi per cubic meter of air varied from 3.3 10 3 to 1.7 10 6 cfu m -3 and the number of A. fumigatus spores significantly decreased between the 2 seasons ( P = 0.0488). Gliotoxin, an immunosuppressive mycotoxin, was quantified in 3 personal filters at 3.73 μg m -3, 1.09 μg m -3 and 2.97 μg m -3.

  7. Phenology of cabbage stem flea beetle (Psylliodes chrysocephala L in oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivčev Lazar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cabbage stem flea beetle (Psylliodeschrysocephala (L. is an important pest of winter oilseed rape in Serbia. Beetles colonize oilseed rape in early October and are active in the field until first frost and wintertime. In autumn, adults can be seen laying eggs in the soil around plants. Larvae of P. chrysocephala developed intensively on leaf petioles in November, reaching their highest numbers at the end of the month. No infested plants were found in a conventional field, while 14.5% of all dissected leaf petioles were infested on an integrated field. On unprotected plants in an organic field, 76.0% of the plants were infested with larvae at the growth-stage BBCH 18-19, with 31.1% infested leaves on average. As a results, the number of plants was reduced by 51%, i.e. from 43.0/m2 recorded in the autumn to 22.0/m2 in the following spring. A new generation of P. chrysocephala beetles emerged from the soil in the first half of June and rapidly escaped the fields from almost dry plants. Our results showed that a part of the population stayed in aestivation and emerged in the following crop during the next season. On the following 5 March, 0.5 beetles/m2 were found in emergence cages in the organic field, while 0.81 beetles/m2 were found in the former trap crop.

  8. Crop Establishment Practices Are a Driver of the Plant Microbiota in Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Ridhdhi; Dowling, David N.; Forristal, Patrick D.; Spink, John; Cotter, Paul D.; Bulgarelli, Davide; Germaine, Kieran J.

    2017-01-01

    Gaining a greater understanding of the plant microbiota and its interactions with its host plant heralds a new era of scientific discovery in agriculture. Different agricultural management practices influence soil microbial populations by changing a soil’s physical, chemical and biological properties. However, the impact of these practices on the microbiota associated with economically important crops such as oilseed rape, are still understudied. In this work we investigated the impact of two contrasting crop establishment practices, conventional (plow based) and conservation (strip–tillage) systems, on the microbiota inhabiting different plant microhabitats, namely rhizosphere, root and shoot, of winter oilseed rape under Irish agronomic conditions. Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequence profiling showed that the plant associated microhabitats (root and shoot), are dominated by members of the bacterial phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The root and shoot associated bacterial communities displayed markedly distinct profiles as a result of tillage practices. We observed a very limited ‘rhizosphere effect’ in the root zone of WOSR, i.e., there was little or no increase in bacterial community richness and abundance in the WOSR rhizosphere compared to the bulk soil. The two tillage systems investigated did not appear to lead to any major long term differences on the bulk soil or rhizosphere bacterial communities. Our data suggests that the WOSR root and shoot microbiota can be impacted by management practices and is an important mechanism that could allow us to understand how plants respond to different management practices and environments. PMID:28848510

  9. Crop Establishment Practices Are a Driver of the Plant Microbiota in Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridhdhi Rathore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gaining a greater understanding of the plant microbiota and its interactions with its host plant heralds a new era of scientific discovery in agriculture. Different agricultural management practices influence soil microbial populations by changing a soil’s physical, chemical and biological properties. However, the impact of these practices on the microbiota associated with economically important crops such as oilseed rape, are still understudied. In this work we investigated the impact of two contrasting crop establishment practices, conventional (plow based and conservation (strip–tillage systems, on the microbiota inhabiting different plant microhabitats, namely rhizosphere, root and shoot, of winter oilseed rape under Irish agronomic conditions. Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequence profiling showed that the plant associated microhabitats (root and shoot, are dominated by members of the bacterial phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The root and shoot associated bacterial communities displayed markedly distinct profiles as a result of tillage practices. We observed a very limited ‘rhizosphere effect’ in the root zone of WOSR, i.e., there was little or no increase in bacterial community richness and abundance in the WOSR rhizosphere compared to the bulk soil. The two tillage systems investigated did not appear to lead to any major long term differences on the bulk soil or rhizosphere bacterial communities. Our data suggests that the WOSR root and shoot microbiota can be impacted by management practices and is an important mechanism that could allow us to understand how plants respond to different management practices and environments.

  10. The presence of turnip yellows virus in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloševic Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 86 oilseed rape samples from six crops in different localities were collected during 2014 and analyzed for the presence of Turnip yellows virus (TuYV, Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV and Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV using commercial double-antibody sandwich (DAS-ELISA kits. TuYV was serologically detected in 60 collected samples (69.77%, and none of the samples tested were positive for CaMV and TuMV. Six selected TuYV isolates were successfully transmitted by Myzus persicae to three test plants, confirming the infectious nature of the disease. In the selected ELISA-positive samples, the presence of TuYV was further confirmed by RT-PCR and sequencing. A comparison of the obtained sequence with those available in GenBank confirmed the presence of TuYV in oilseed rape samples. An analysis of P0 gene sequence data for a subset of these isolates showed they clustered with the known TuYV and were distinct from Beet western yellows virus (BWYV isolates.

  11. Camelina as a sustainable oilseed crop: contributions of plant breeding and genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmann, Johann; Eynck, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Camelina is an underutilized Brassicaceae oilseed plant with a considerable agronomic potential for biofuel and vegetable oil production in temperate regions. In contrast to most Brassicaceae, camelina is resistant to alternaria black spot and other diseases and pests. Sequencing of the camelina genome revealed an undifferentiated allohexaploid genome with a comparatively large number of genes and low percentage of repetitive DNA. As there is a close relationship between camelina and the genetic model plant Arabidopsis, this review aims at exploring the potential of translating basic Arabidopsis results into a camelina oilseed crop for food and non-food applications. Recently, Arabidopsis genes for drought resistance or increased photosynthesis and overall productivity have successfully been expressed in camelina. In addition, gene constructs affecting lipid metabolism pathways have been engineered into camelina for synthesizing either long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, hydroxy fatty acids or high-oleic oils in particular camelina strains, which is of great interest in human food, industrial or biofuel applications, respectively. These results confirm the potential of camelina to serve as a biotechnology platform in biorefinery applications thus justifying further investment in breeding and genetic research for combining agronomic potential, unique oil quality features and biosafety into an agricultural production system. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Molecular mechanism of manipulating seed coat coloration in oilseed Brassica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cheng-Yu

    2013-05-01

    Yellow seed is a desirable characteristic for the breeding of oilseed Brassica crops, but the manifestation of seed coat color is very intricate due to the involvement of various pigments, the main components of which are flavonols, proanthocyanidin (condensed tannin), and maybe some other phenolic relatives, like lignin and melanin. The focus of this review is to examine the genetics mechanism regarding the biosynthesis and regulation of these pigments in the seed coat of oilseed Brassica. This knowledge came largely from recent researches on the molecular mechanism of TRANSPARENT TESTA (tt) and similar mutations in the ancestry model plant of Brassica, Arabidopsis. Some key enzymes in the flavonoid (flavonols and proanthocyanidin) biosynthetic pathway have been characterized in tt mutants. Some orthologs to these TRANSPARENT TESTA genes have also been cloned in Brassica species. However, it is suggested that some alterative metabolism pathways, including lignin and melanin, might also be involved in seed color manifestation. Polyphenol oxidases, such as laccase, tyrosinase, or even peroxidase, participate in the oxidation step in proanthocyanidin, lignin, and melanin biosynthesis. Moreover, some researches also suggested that melanic pigment in black-seeded Brassica was several fold higher than in yellow-seeded Brassica. Although more experiments are required to evaluate the importance of lignin and melanin in seed coat browning, the current results suggest that the flavonols and proanthocyanidin are not the only roles affecting seed color.

  13. Occurrence of Plasmodiophora brassicae in Finnish turnip rape and oilseed rape fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Rastas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin, is a serious plant disease of cruciferous plants. A field survey of occurrence of clubroot in oilseed fields was conducted in Finland in 2007−2009 and in 1984−1989. At present, the disease is distributed throughout the oilseed cultivation area. Clubroot was found on average from 30% of fields, but its severity was low; fields with high numbers of infected plants and plants with severe symptoms were rare. According to the survey, cultivation frequency of cruciferous plants is the most important factor affecting clubroot occurrence and severity. Clubroot was found in soils with a wide range of pH-values (pH 5-7.6, but symptoms were most severe at low pH. According to the survey, and greenhouse and field trials, high temperature and moisture during the early growth period seem to favour disease development and can cause significant yield losses. In a survival trial, clubroot declined to close to zero after four years in the absence of host plants, but traces of the pathogen were still detectable after a 19-year trial period, making eradication of the pathogen very difficult.

  14. Antioxidant Potential of the Extracts, Fractions and Oils Derived from Oilseeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagufta Ishtiaque

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The polyphenolic extracts and oils were obtained from ajwain, mustard, fenugreek and poppy seeds. The extracts were partitioned into acidic and neutral polyphenolic fractions and following estimation of total phenolics in the crude extract, acidic and neutral fractions and oil, all were analyzed for their DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging potential, ferric reducing ability and chelating power. The highest amount of polyphenols was found in ajwain (8330 ± 107, then in mustard seeds (2844 ± 56.00 and in fenugreek (1130 ± 29.00, and least in poppy seeds (937 ± 18.52. The higher amounts of polyphenols were estimated in neutral fraction compared to acidic (p fenugreek and least by poppy seed extracts (p < 0.05. The reducing power and the chelating effect of the oilseeds followed the same order as DPPH, but higher % chelation was shown by neutral than acidic fraction (p < 0.05. Though low in polyphenols, the oil fractions were as strong antioxidants as the acidic one. Though oilseeds are used in very small quantity in food, they are potential sources of natural antioxidants and may replace synthetic ones.

  15. Transgene expression and fitness of hybrids between GM oilseed rape and Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammitzbøll, Henriette; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Jørgensen, Rikke Bagger

    2005-01-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is sexually compatible with its wild and weedy relative B. rapa, and introgression of genes from B. napus has been found to occur over a few generations. We simulated the early stages of transgene escape by producing F1 hybrids and the first backcross generation between two lines of transgenic B. napus and two populations of weedy B. rapa. Transgene expression and the fitness of the hybrids were examined under different environmental conditions. Expression of the transgenes was analyzed at the mRNA level by quantitative PCR and found to be stable in the hybrids, regardless of the genetic background and the environment, and equal to the level of transcription in the parental B. napus lines. Vigor of the hybrids was measured as the photosynthetic capability; pollen viability and seed set per silique. Photosynthetic capability of first generation hybrids was found to be at the same level, or higher, than that of the parental species, whereas the reproductive fitness was significantly lower. The first backcross generation had a significantly lower photosynthetic capability and reproductive fitness compared to the parental species. This is the first study that examines transgene expression at the mRNA level in transgenic hybrids of B. napus of different genetic background exposed to different environmental conditions. The data presented clarify important details of the overall risk assessment of growing transgenic oilseed rape.

  16. Tangent Curve Function Description of Mechanical Behaviour of Bulk Oilseeds: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigalingging R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of tangent curve mathematical model for description of mechanical behaviour of selected bulk oilseeds, namely jatropha, sunflower, rape, garden pea, and common bean in linear compression was reviewed. Based on the review analysis, the tangent curve function has been developed using MathCAD 14 software which employs the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for data fitting optimal for tangent curve approximation. Linear compression parameters including force (N, deformation (mm, energy (J, and/or volume energy (J-m-3 can equally be determined by the tangent model. Additionally, the theoretical dependency between force and deformation characteristic curves can be defined by the force coefficient of mechanical behaviour (N and deformation coefficient of mechanical behaviour (mm-1 of the tangent model. In conclusion, the review results, however, shows that the tangent curve mathematical model which is dependent on experimental boundary conditions is potentialy useful for theoretical description of mechanical properties and deformation characteristics of bulk oilseeds in axial compression.

  17. Planning as situated design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    and situated, too. In this presentation it will be argued that the investigation of systematic planning as conflictual cooperation will help us see that situated activity is not only based on the present conditions, but also relates them to events spread out in time and space, thereby opening up for another......It is common to associate situated activity with concrete, craftlike or manual activity here and now and to reserve theoretical and abstract thinking for activities like theoretical experimentation and systematic planning. Much work has gone into demonstrating that these activities are concrete...... understanding of theoretical thinking. Some material from the empirical research project developed with Klaus Nielsen on the design and engineering of a house will be presented. On this basis a conception of planning will be unfolded. It will be understood differently from the way it is understood...

  18. Personalizing situation awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Linn Marks [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Powell, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roman, Jorge R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Mark L B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mane, Ketan K [RENCI

    2009-01-01

    Emergency responders need access to information but what counts as actionable information depends on their role, task, location, and other variables. For example, experts who have unique knowledge and experience and are called on to serve as scientific and teclmical responders, require correspondingly unique situation awareness in order to do their work. In our research-in-progress we leverage emerging and evolving web and digital library technologies to create personalized situation awareness tools that address the needs of these scientific and technical responders in real time, through focused information collection, extraction, integration, representation, and dissemination. We describe three personalized situation awareness tools in this paper: the Theme Awareness Tool (THEMAT), Social Awareness Tool (SAT), and Expertise Awareness Tool (EXPAT). The concepts and technologies we are developing in collaboration with experts apply to those who use the Web, in general, and offer an approach to the general issue of HCI design for emergencies.

  19. Situational theory of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, D J; Smith, S R; Warnock, J T

    1989-11-01

    The situational theory of leadership and the LEAD instruments for determining leadership style are explained, and the application of the situational leadership theory to the process of planning for and implementing organizational change is described. Early studies of leadership style identified two basic leadership styles: the task-oriented autocratic style and the relationship-oriented democratic style. Subsequent research found that most leaders exhibited one of four combinations of task and relationship behaviors. The situational leadership theory holds that the difference between the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of the four leadership styles is the appropriateness of the leader's behavior to the particular situation in which it is used. The task maturity of the individual or group being led must also be accounted for; follower readiness is defined in terms of the capacity to set high but attainable goals, willingness or ability to accept responsibility, and possession of the necessary education or experience for a specific task. A person's leadership style, range, and adaptability can be determined from the LEADSelf and LEADOther questionnaires. By applying the principles of the situational leadership theory and adapting their managerial styles to specific tasks and levels of follower maturity, the authors were successful in implementing 24-hour pharmacokinetic dosing services provided by staff pharmacists with little previous experience in clinical services. The situational leadership model enables a leader to identify a task, set goals, determine the task maturity of the individual or group, select an appropriate leadership style, and modify the style as change occurs. Pharmacy managers can use this model when implementing clinical pharmacy services.

  20. Situations of dwelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welling, Helen; Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Wiell Nordberg, Lene

    2006-01-01

    values and needs in differnet situations, lifestyles and stages. The study is based on information from users in new housing schemes in and around Copenhagen - 'open building' dwellings that reveal a variety of approaches to these problems? The analysis of the dwellings show that the architecture...... of the 'open dwelling' is dependent on three basic conditions: the static condition, the suitable condition and the situational condition. Each condition has its own powerful way of articulation. Our aim is to translate the observations of the projects in concepts and models that are applicable in new projects....

  1. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE AUDIT OF FINANCIAL SITUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Madalina, Salomia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a business world situated on a market that is becoming more and more active both on an international and national level, the audit of financial situations embodies a veritable varied research domain and with favorable advantages for the Romanian business society, as well as for the interest of the business society located outside the Romanian space.From the result of the auditing of financial situations of a entity, various information may be obtained which is used by different groups that present opinions, knowledge and divergent interests such as:managers, investors, financial creditors, commercial creditors, clients, suppliers, employees, the government and its institutions, bankers, financial analysts, the public, the business community and other entities who base themselves on the objectivity and integrity of the financial situations audited.

  2. Control of slug damage to oilseed rape and wheat with imidacloprid seed dressings in laboratory and field experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simms, L.C.; Ester, A.; Wilson, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Slugs are common pests of oilseed and cereal crops in Europe and are currently controlled using bait pellets that often fail to give adequate protection: Here we investigate the potential of the broad-spectrum insecticide imidacloprid, previously suggested to have activity against slugs, to control

  3. 7 CFR 1412.34 - Submitting production evidence for establishing direct payment yields for oilseeds and pulse crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... oilseeds and pulse crops. (a)(1) Reports of production evidence must be submitted when the owner elects to...-peril crop insurance loss adjustment settlement; or (vii) Other production evidence determined... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submitting production evidence for establishing...

  4. FEASIBILITY OF HYGROMYCIN AS A SELECTION AGENT IN AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF OILSEED RAPE (BRASSICA NAPUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tímea Kuťka Hlozáková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work the feasibility of the antibiotic hygromycin as a selection agent in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. was evaluated. For this, two economically important commercial varieties Haydn and Hunter and tobacco as a model plant were subjected to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The 5-6 days-old oilseed rape hypocotyls and 4-6 weeks-old tobacco leaf segments were transformed with the binary vector pCambia1304. The T-DNA contained the reporter gfp:gus and the selectable marker htp genes. Regeneration of transformed cells was conducted under selection of 10 mg.l-1 (oilseed rape and 30 mg.l-1 (tobacco hygromycin. Putative transgenic plantlets were analysed by the mean of the histochemical GUS and PCR analyses. Transformation efficiency ranged from 1.0% (cv. Haydn to 40.4% (tobacco. No transgenic shoots were detected for the cv. Hunter. It points out the oilseed rape cultivar specificity plays significant role in choice of suitable selection agent.

  5. Leadership: Dispositional and Situational. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    block number) For over four decades, leadership research has examined the issue of whether internal dispositions ( traits ), situational characteristics... leadership research has examined the issue of whether internal dispositions ( traits ), situational characteristics (contexts), or some combination of...Situational 3 Leadership : Dispositional and Situational The person-situation debate has been a key issue in several areas of psychology and management

  6. Post-harvest N2O emissions were not affected by various types of oilseed straw incorporated into soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbke, Sarah; Senbayram, Mehmet; Hegewald, Hannes; Christen, Olaf; Dittert, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Oilseed rape post-harvest N2O emissions are seen highly critical as so far they are considered as one of the most crucial drawbacks in climate-saving bioenergy production systems. N2O emissions may substantially counterbalance the intended savings in CO2 emissions. Carbon-rich crop residues in conjunction with residual soil nitrate are seen as a key driver since they may serve as energy source for denitrification and, they may alter soil-borne N2O emissions. As oilseed rape straw is known to have high N/C ratio compared to other crop residues, its soil incorporation may specifically trigger post-harvest N2O emissions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine post-harvest N2O emissions in soils amended with various types of oilseed rape straw (with different N/C ratio) and barley straw in field and incubation experiments. In the incubation experiment, oilseed rape or 15N labelled barley straw were mixed with soil at a rate of 1.3 t DM ha-1 and studied for 43 days. Treatments consisted of non-treated control soil (CK), 15N labelled barley straw (BST), oilseed rape straw (RST), 15N labelled barley straw + N (BST+N), or oilseed rape straw + N (RST+N). N fertilizer was applied to the soil surface as ammonium-nitrate at a rate of 100 kg N ha-1 and soil moisture was adjusted to 80% water-holding capacity. In the field experiment, during the vegetation period 15N labelled fertilizer (15NH415NO3) was used to generate 15N labelled oilseed rape straw (up to 5 at%). Here, the three fertilizer treatments consisted of 5 kg N ha-1 (RST-5), 150 kg N ha-1 (RST-150) and 180 kg N ha-1 (RST-180). Post-harvest N2O emissions were determined during the period of August 2013 to February 2014 by using static flux chambers. In the incubation trial, cumulative N2O emissions were 5, 29, 40 g N2O-N ha-1 148 days-1 in non-fertilized control, BST and RST treatments, respectively. Here, emissions were slightly higher in RST than BST (p

  7. Learning through Situated Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Eriksén, Sara; Wessels, Bridgette

    2014-01-01

    Specific, situated participatory design (PD) practices have always been at the heart of Participatory Design research. The role of the very situatedness and specificity of PD practice for theory-building within PD research is, however, seldom discussed explicitly. In this article, we explore why...

  8. Dealing with Problematic Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to outline a holistic answer to the following question: How to deal with problematic situations? A framework of a modern approach, a new meta-discipline, based on knowledge and experience from several other disciplines will be presented. We are focusing in those...

  9. Challenging Fieldwork Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Thomas; Østergaard Steenfeldt, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    Researching two different work settings, police work and hospice care, the authors experienced a strange sense of discomfort in their bodies during their fieldwork when investigating professional training and work situations, especially in encounters with citizens and patients. In some of those...

  10. World Literature - World Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast ...

  11. Eso's Situation in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    ESO, the European Southern Observatory, in reply to questions raised by the international media, as well as an ongoing debate about the so-called "Paranal case" in Chilean newspapers, would like to make a number of related observations concerning its status and continued operation in that country [1]. THE ESO OBSERVATORY SITES IN CHILE The European Southern Observatory, an international organisation established and supported by eight European countries, has been operating more than 30 years in the Republic of Chile. Here ESO maintains one of the world's prime astronomical observatories on the La Silla mountain in the southern part of the Atacama desert. This location is in the Fourth Chilean Region, some 600 km north of Santiago de Chile. In order to protect the La Silla site against dust and light pollution from possible future mining industries, roads and settlements, ESO early acquired the territory around this site. It totals about 825 sq. km and has effectively contributed to the preservation of its continued, excellent "astronomical" quality. Each year, more than 500 astronomers from European countries, Chile and elsewhere profit from this when they come to La Silla to observe with one or more of the 15 telescopes now located there. In 1987, the ESO Council [2] decided to embark upon one of the most prestigious and technologically advanced projects ever conceived in astronomy, the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will consist of four interconnected 8.2-metre telescopes and will become the largest optical telescope in the world when it is ready. It is safe to predict that many exciting discoveries will be made with this instrument, and it will undoubtedly play a very important role in our exploration of the distant universe and its many mysteries during the coming decades. THE VLT AND PARANAL In order to find the best site for the VLT, ESO performed a thorough investigation of many possible mountain tops, both near La Silla and in Northern Chile. They showed

  12. Effect of oilseed type on milk fatty acid composition of individual cows, and also bulk tank milk fatty acid composition from commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliem, K E; Humphries, D J; Reynolds, C K; Morgan, R; Givens, D I

    2017-02-01

    Supplementing dairy cow diets with oilseed preparations has been shown to replace milk saturated fatty acids (SFA) with mono- and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA), which may reduce risk factors associated with cardio-metabolic diseases in humans consuming milk and dairy products. Previous studies demonstrating this are largely detailed, highly controlled experiments involving small numbers of animals, but in order to transfer this feeding strategy to commercial situations further studies are required involving whole herds varying in management practices. In experiment 1, three oilseed supplements (extruded linseed (EL), calcium salts of palm and linseed oil (CPLO) and milled rapeseed (MR)) were included in grass silage-based diets formulated to provide cows with ~350 g oil/day, and compared with a negative control (Control) diet containing no supplemental fat, and a positive control diet containing 350 g/cow per day oil as calcium salt of palm oil distillate (CPO). Diets were fed for 28-day periods in a 5×4 Latin Square design, and milk production, composition and fatty acid (FA) profile were analysed at the end of each period. Compared with Control, all lipid supplemented diets decreased milk fat SFA concentration by an average of 3.5 g/100 g FA, by replacement with both cis- and trans-MUFA/PUFA. Compared with CPO, only CPLO and MR resulted in lower milk SFA concentrations. In experiment 2, 24 commercial dairy farms (average herd size±SEM 191±19.3) from the south west of the United Kingdom were recruited and for a 1 month period asked to supplement their herd diets with either CPO, EL, CPLO or MR at the same inclusion level as the first study. Bulk tank milk was analysed weekly to determine FA concentration by Fourier Transform mid-IR spectroscopy prediction. After 4 weeks, EL, CPLO and MR all decreased herd milk SFA and increased MUFA to a similar extent (average -3.4 and +2.4 g/100 g FA, respectively) when compared with CPO. Differing responses

  13. Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies (ASAT) will facilitate exploration of the moon surface, and other planetary bodies. ASAT will create an Advanced Situation...

  14. Situating beyond the social

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soffer, Ann Katrine Bønnelykke

    2016-01-01

    it is applied to contemporary Danish nursing education are introduced. One issue that has arisen is the analytical requirement for an educational program to be a homogeneous, singular, and social phenomenon thereby discounting the varied and different sites and materialities found within nursing education......Situated learning serves as an analytical framework for learning in a community of practice and has been widely used to understand the learning process that is entailed in becoming a nurse. Yet in this paper, the difficulties encountered with the original notion of situated learning once...... framework. I suggest the notion of multi-configured learning, which captures the heterogeneity and materiality encountered during ethnographic fieldwork at a Danish nursing school....

  15. Situated Formative Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukassen, Niels Bech; Wahl, Christian; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    This study addresses the conceptual challenge of providing students with good quality feedback to enhance student learning in an online community of practice (COP). The aim of the study is to identify feedback mechanisms in a virtual learning environment (VLE) and to create a full formative...... feedback episode (FFE) through an online dialogue. The paper argues that dialogue is crucial for student learning and that feedback is not only something the teacher gives to the student. Viewing good quality feedback as social, situated, formative, emphasis is put on the establishment of dialogue. We...... refer to this type of feedback as, Situated Formative Feedback (SFF). As a basis for exploring, identifying and discussing relevant aspects of SFF the paper analyses qualitative data from a Moodle dialogue. Data are embedded in the qualitative analytic program Nvivo and are analysed with a system...

  16. Den retoriske situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Barnholdt

    2009-01-01

    Artiklen, som er skrevet på baggrund af et oplæg, som jeg holdt på  Årsmødet for Sektionen for Gymnasium og HF i Helsingør, oktober 2009, plæderer for anvendelsen af Lloyd F. Bitzers teori om den retoriske situation i retorikundervisningen i gymnasiet. I artiklen benytter jeg Bitzers teori som en...

  17. Reduction of antinutritional glucosinolates in Brassica oilseeds by mutation of genes encoding transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Madsen, Svend Roesen; Engelen, Steven; Jørgensen, Morten Egevang; Olsen, Carl Erik; Andersen, Jonathan Sonne; Seynnaeve, David; Verhoye, Thalia; Fulawka, Rudy; Denolf, Peter; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2017-04-01

    The nutritional value of Brassica seed meals is reduced by the presence of glucosinolates, which are toxic compounds involved in plant defense. Mutation of the genes encoding two glucosinolate transporters (GTRs) eliminated glucosinolates from Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, but translation of loss-of-function phenotypes into Brassica crops is challenging because Brassica is polyploid. We mutated one of seven and four of 12 GTR orthologs and reduced glucosinolate levels in seeds by 60-70% in two different Brassica species (Brassica rapa and Brassica juncea). Reduction in seed glucosinolates was stably inherited over multiple generations and maintained in field trials of two mutant populations at three locations. Successful translation of the gtr loss-of-function phenotype from model plant to two Brassica crops suggests that our transport engineering approach could be broadly applied to reduce seed glucosinolate content in other oilseed crops, such as Camelina sativa or Crambe abyssinica.

  18. Biology and harmfulness of Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. in winter oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draga Graora

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. is an important pest in oilseed rape (Brasica napus L.. It develops two generations per year and overwinters in the larval stage in cocoons in soil. Immigration of the first generation adults lasted from the beginning of April until the end of May. Larvae developed in pods from mid-April to mid-June, causing pod deformation and cracking, which resulted in premature falling out of seeds and yield reduction. Pod damage amounted to 11.6%. The emergence of the second generation adults was detected at the end of May and in the first ten days of June. D. brassicae was found to lay eggs in healthy pods and no correlation was found with the cabbage seed weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis Paykull.

  19. The presence of Bt-transgenic oilseed rape in wild mustard populations affects plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongbo; Stewart, C Neal; Li, Junsheng; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Xitao

    2015-12-01

    The adventitious presence of transgenic plants in wild plant populations is of ecological and regulatory concern, but the consequences of adventitious presence are not well understood. Here, we introduced Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac (Bt)-transgenic oilseed rape (Bt OSR, Brassica napus) with various frequencies into wild mustard (Brassica juncea) populations. We sought to better understand the adventitious presence of this transgenic insecticidal crop in a wild-relative plant population. We assessed the factors of competition, resource availability and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) infestation on plant population dynamics. As expected, Bt OSR performed better than wild mustard in mixed populations under herbivore attack in habitats with enough resources, whereas wild mustard had higher fitness when Bt OSR was rarer in habitats with limited resources. Results suggest that the presence of insect-resistant transgenic plants could decrease the growth of wild mustard and Bt OSR plants and their populations, especially under high herbivore pressure.

  20. Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on calf birth weight, postpartum health, feed intake, milk yield, and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, R; Colazo, M G; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-05-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplemental fat (no oilseed vs. oilseed) during late gestation and the source of fat (canola vs. sunflower seed), on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma metabolite concentrations, milk production and composition, calf birth weight, postpartum health disorders, ovarian function and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Pregnant Holstein cows, blocked by body condition and parity, were assigned to 1 of 3 diets containing rolled canola seed (high in oleic acid; n=43) or sunflower (high in linoleic acid; n=45) at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed (control; n=43), for the last 35±2 d of pregnancy. After calving, all cows received a common lactation diet. Blood samples were collected at wk -3 (i.e., 2 wk after initiation of prepartum diets) and at wk +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5 postpartum to determine the concentration of fatty acids (mEq/dL), β-hydroxybutyrate (mg/dL), and glucose (mg/dL). Ovarian ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to determine the first appearance of dominant (10mm) and preovulatory-size (≥16mm) follicles, and ovulation. Uterine inflammatory status based on the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN; subclinical endometritis: >8% PMN) was assessed at d 25±1 postpartum. Significant parity by treatment interactions were observed for DMI and milk yield. Prepartum oilseed supplementation, more specifically sunflower seed supplementation, increased postpartum DMI in primiparous cows without affecting prepartum DMI or milk yield. Contrarily, in multiparous cows, prepartum oilseed supplementation decreased both prepartum and postpartum DMI and milk yield during the first 2 wk. Regardless of parity, prepartum feeding of canola reduced postpartum DMI compared with those fed sunflower. Mean fatty acids concentrations at wk -3 were greater in cows given supplemental oilseed than those fed no oilseeds. Gestation length and calf birth weight were increased in cows given supplemental oilseed prepartum

  1. A Distributed Model of Oilseed Biorefining, via Integrated Industrial Ecology Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Jeremy C.

    As the demand for direct petroleum substitutes increases, biorefineries are poised to become centers for conversion of biomass into fuels, energy, and biomaterials. A distributed model offers reduced transportation, tailored process technology to available feedstock, and increased local resilience. Oilseeds are capable of producing a wide variety of useful products additive to food, feed, and fuel needs. Biodiesel manufacturing technology lends itself to smaller-scale distributed facilities able to process diverse feedstocks and meet demand of critical diesel fuel for basic municipal services, safety, sanitation, infrastructure repair, and food production. Integrating biodiesel refining facilities as tenants of eco-industrial parks presents a novel approach for synergistic energy and material exchanges whereby environmental and economic metrics can be significantly improved upon compared to stand alone models. This research is based on the Catawba County NC EcoComplex and the oilseed crushing and biodiesel processing facilities (capacity-433 tons biodiesel per year) located within. Technical and environmental analyses of the biorefinery components as well as agronomic and economic models are presented. The life cycle assessment for the two optimal biodiesel feedstocks, soybeans and used cooking oil, resulted in fossil energy ratios of 7.19 and 12.1 with carbon intensity values of 12.51 gCO2-eq/MJ and 7.93 gCO2-eq/MJ, respectively within the industrial ecology system. Economic modeling resulted in a biodiesel conversion cost of 1.43 per liter of fuel produced with used cooking oil, requiring a subsidy of 0.58 per liter to reach the break-even point. As subsidies continue significant fluctuation, metrics other than operating costs are required to justify small-scale biofuel projects.

  2. Use of swine wastewater in oilseed radish crop: agronomic and environmental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Pegoraro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Swine effluent has been applied to soils to promote nutrient cycling and reduce the uncontrolled disposal of effluents into bodies of water. However, the use of these effluents on various crops has raised environmental and public health concerns. Oilseed radish crop (Raphanus sativus L. is a winter crop planted in no-tillage systems as a green fertilizer that also can be used for biodiesel, and it requires high levels of nutrients for its development. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the environmental and agronomic effects of the application of swine wastewater on oilseed radish. The experiment was conducted in a 0.162 ha area with the following treatments: unirrigated (rainfed, irrigated, and fertilized with swine wastewater (370 m3 ha-1 cycle-1. After each rainfall event, analyses were conducted for the main macro and micronutrients in the runoff and percolated material from drainage lysimeters. Changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil were also analyzed, as were the agronomic and nutritional indices of the dry crop phytomass in full blooming stage. Application of swine wastewater at a level of 370 m3 ha-1 produces a crop with better agronomic quality. Over the long term, however, caution should be taken regarding the surface runoff of NO3-, P, K, Mn and total salts and the percolation of NO3-, Na and Cu. Moreover, the rainfall occurred one day after fertigation contributed to the increase of the levels of P, K, Na, Cu, Zn and Mn in the percolated material.

  3. The health condition of spring oilseed crops in relation to the fungi colonising their seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majchrzak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conduced in the years 1999-2000. The aim of the research was to determine the health condition of overground parts and seeds of the following spring oilseed crops: crambe (Crambe abbysinica Hoechst. cv. B o r o w s k i, false flax (Camelina sativa L. cv. B o r o w s k a, spring rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera L. cv. M a r g o and oleiferous radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus L. cv. P e g l e t t a. In all the years of the research alternaria blight was found on the leaves and siliques of spring rape and oleiferous radish and on the leaves and stems of crambe. False flax proved to be weakly infected by pathogens. On its leaves gray mould (Botrytis cinerea was found in all the years of the research. The disease was found on the siliques only in 1999. In 2000 powdery mildew was found on spring rape and false flax (respectively, Erysiphe crucifearum and E.cichoracearum. The weather conditions affected the intensity of the diseases on the studied spring oilseed crops. Alernaria genus, especially A.alternata was most commonly isolated from the seeds of examined plants. It constituted from 37% (in crambe to 63,3% (in spring rape of all the isolates. Of the remaining pathogenic species, numerous fungi of the Fusarium genus (F.avenaceum, F.culmorum, F.equiseti and F.oxysporum were isolated. They constituted from 1,0% (false flax to 17,3% (crambe of the isolates.

  4. Sensory evaluation of commercial fat spreads based on oilseeds and walnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Etelka B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this study was on the sensory evaluation of commercial oilseeds spreads, as the most significant characteristic of this type of product from the consumers’ point of view. Sensory analysis was conducted by five experts using a quantitative descriptive and sensory profile test, applying a scoring method according to the standard procedure. Five different spreads were evaluated: sunflower, pumpkin, sesame, peanut, and walnut. Oil content and amounts of separated oil on the surface were determined for each spread. The results have shown that the color of spreads was very different, depending on the oilseed: gray for sunflower, brown for walnut, yellowish-brown for peanut butter, ivory for sesame and profoundly dark green for pumpkin seeds spread. The flavor and odor of the spreads were characteristic for the raw materials used; however, the sunflower and walnut spreads had a slight rancid flavor. Generally, the spreadability of all spreads was good, but their mouth feel was not acceptable. During the consumption, all of them were sticking immensely to the roof of the mouth, which made the swallowing harder. The highest total score of 16.20 points (max. 20 was obtained for the peanut butter, while the lowest (10.38 was achieved by the sunflower butter. Oil separation (various degrees was noticed in all spreads, which negatively influenced the appearance and entire sensorial quality of the products. The quantity of separated oil depended on the age and total amount of oil in the spreads, and was between 1.13% in the peanut butter and 12.15% in the walnut spread in reference to the net weight of the product. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31014: Development of the new functional confectionery products based on oil crops

  5. Bioactive properties of faveleira (Cnidoscolus quercifolius seeds, oil and press cake obtained during oilseed processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penha Patrícia Cabral Ribeiro

    Full Text Available To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature concerning the bioactive properties of faveleira products. This work focuses on the physicochemical evaluation of faveleira oil, as well as it investigates the bioactive properties of faveleira seeds, faveleira oil and the press cake obtained during the oilseed processing. The seeds were cold pressed and the following tests were performed: physicochemical characteristics (acidity, peroxide values, moisture and volatile matter, density and viscosity and fatty acid profile of faveleira oil; total phenolic and flavonoid content of faveleira seed and press cake; antibacterial activity of seed, oil and press cake; and antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay, total antioxidant capacity, superoxide radical scavenging assay and oxygen radical absorbance capacity of seed, oil and press cake. Our work demonstrated that the faveleira seed oil has low acidity (0.78 ± 0.03% oleic acid and peroxide value (1.13 ± 0.12 mEq/1000g, associated with the relevant concentration of linoleic acid (53.56%. It was observed that important phenolics (398.89 ± 6.34 mg EAG/100 g, especially flavonoids (29.81 ± 0.71 mg RE/g remain in the press cake, which indicates that the by-product of the faveleira oilseed production constitutes a rich residual source of bioactive compounds. No bacterial growth inhibition was detected, but all samples including faveleira seeds, press cake, oil and its fractions have potent antioxidant activities, mainly the press cake, with oxygen radical absorbance capacity of 28.39 ± 4.36 μM TE/g. Our results also show that faveleira oil has potential to be used as edible oil and the press cake should be used to contain the most antioxidants from seed.

  6. Bioactive properties of faveleira (Cnidoscolus quercifolius) seeds, oil and press cake obtained during oilseed processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Penha Patrícia Cabral; Silva, Denise Maria de Lima E; Assis, Cristiane Fernandes de; Correia, Roberta Targino Pinto; Damasceno, Karla Suzanne Florentino da Silva Chaves

    2017-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature concerning the bioactive properties of faveleira products. This work focuses on the physicochemical evaluation of faveleira oil, as well as it investigates the bioactive properties of faveleira seeds, faveleira oil and the press cake obtained during the oilseed processing. The seeds were cold pressed and the following tests were performed: physicochemical characteristics (acidity, peroxide values, moisture and volatile matter, density and viscosity) and fatty acid profile of faveleira oil; total phenolic and flavonoid content of faveleira seed and press cake; antibacterial activity of seed, oil and press cake; and antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay, total antioxidant capacity, superoxide radical scavenging assay and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) of seed, oil and press cake. Our work demonstrated that the faveleira seed oil has low acidity (0.78 ± 0.03% oleic acid) and peroxide value (1.13 ± 0.12 mEq/1000g), associated with the relevant concentration of linoleic acid (53.56%). It was observed that important phenolics (398.89 ± 6.34 mg EAG/100 g), especially flavonoids (29.81 ± 0.71 mg RE/g) remain in the press cake, which indicates that the by-product of the faveleira oilseed production constitutes a rich residual source of bioactive compounds. No bacterial growth inhibition was detected, but all samples including faveleira seeds, press cake, oil and its fractions have potent antioxidant activities, mainly the press cake, with oxygen radical absorbance capacity of 28.39 ± 4.36 μM TE/g. Our results also show that faveleira oil has potential to be used as edible oil and the press cake should be used to contain the most antioxidants from seed.

  7. Elicitation of expert judgments of uncertainty in the risk assessment of herbicide-tolerant oilseed crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayer von Krauss, Martin P; Casman, Elizabeth A; Small, Mitchell J

    2004-12-01

    One of the lay public's concerns about genetically modified (GM) organisms (GMO) and related emerging technologies is that not all the important risks are evaluated or even identified yet--and that ignorance of the unanticipated risks could lead to severe environmental or public health consequences. To some degree, even the scientists who participated in the analysis of the risks from GMOs (arguably the people most qualified to critique these analyses) share some of this concern. To formally explore the uncertainty in the risk assessment of a GM crop, we conducted detailed interviews of seven leading experts on GM oilseed crops to obtain qualitative and quantitative information on their understanding of the uncertainties associated with the risks to agriculture from GM oilseed crops (canola or rapeseed). The results of these elicitations revealed three issues of potential concern that are currently left outside the scope of risk assessments. These are (1) the potential loss of the agronomic and environmental benefits of glyphosate (a herbicide widely used in no-till agriculture) due to the combined problems of glyphosate-tolerant canola and wheat volunteer plants, (2) the growing problem of seed lot contamination, and (3) the potential market impacts. The elicitations also identified two areas where knowledge is insufficient. These are: the occurrence of hybridization between canola and wild relatives and the ability of the hybrids to perpetuate themselves in nature, and the fate of the herbicide-tolerance genes in soil and their interaction with soil microfauna and -flora. The methodological contribution of this work is a formal approach to analyzing the uncertainty surrounding complex problems.

  8. Solubilization and characterization of diacylglycerol acyltransferase from microspore-derived cultures of oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, D; Weselake, R; Pomeroy, K; Furukawa-Stoffer, T; Bagu, J

    1994-12-15

    Particulate fractions prepared from microspore-derived (MD) embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Reston) and an embryogenic MD cell suspension culture of oilseed rape (B. napus L. cv. Jet Neuf) were used as a source of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT, EC 2.3.1.20) for enzyme characterization and development of a solubilization procedure. DGAT activity in the 1500-100,000 g fraction from MD embryos was stimulated 4-5-fold by 3 to 4 mg of BSA/ml of reaction mixture. DGAT activity from MD embryos was stimulated 2-3-fold by fluoride salts and 1.4-fold by NaCl, whereas iodide salts caused substantial inhibition of enzyme activity. The effect of the various 1:1 electrolytes on enzyme activity appeared to be related more to their differential effects on solution structure rather than ionic strength. DGAT was solubilized from membranes of MD embryos and the cell suspension culture by about 80 and 50% respectively, using 2 M NaCl in 1% (w/v) octanoyl-N-methyl-glucamide (MEGA-8) (pH 8.0 buffer) at a detergent to protein ratio of 2:1. The specific activity of solubilized DGAT was about 2-fold greater than that of the particulate enzyme. The mechanism of solubilization appeared to be related to the lowering of the critical micellar concentration of MEGA-8 in the presence of NaCl. DGAT, solubilized from MD embryos, eluted with an M(r) of about 2 x 10(6) during gel-filtration chromatography on a Superose 6 column equilibrated in buffer containing 0.1% (w/v) MEGA-8. The solubilized enzyme exhibited optimal activity at pH 7. At concentrations above 2 microM acyl-CoA, the specificity of solubilized DGAT for oleoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-CoA was considerably greater than for stearoyl-CoA.

  9. Introduction: Situating Scandinavian Colonialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena; Nordin, Jonas M.

    2013-01-01

    of the riches of the world and of pejorative descriptions of the people outside of Europe. The life, the travels and the writing of Matsson Kiöping encapsulate the essential questions of this book – what was Scandinavia’s place in the European exploration and exploitation in the early modern period? How were...

  10. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  11. Mapping Above-Ground Biomass of Winter Oilseed Rape Using High Spatial Resolution Satellite Data at Parcel Scale under Waterlogging Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahui Han

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. is one of the three most important oil crops in China, and is regarded as a drought-tolerant oilseed crop. However, it is commonly sensitive to waterlogging, which usually refers to an adverse environment that limits crop development. Moreover, crop growth and soil irrigation can be monitored at a regional level using remote sensing data. High spatial resolution optical satellite sensors are very useful to capture and resist unfavorable field conditions at the sub-field scale. In this study, four different optical sensors, i.e., Pleiades-1A, Worldview-2, Worldview-3, and SPOT-6, were used to estimate the dry above-ground biomass (AGB of oilseed rape and track the seasonal growth dynamics. In addition, three different soil water content field experiments were carried out at different oilseed rape growth stages from November 2014 to May 2015 in Northern Zhejiang province, China. As a significant indicator of crop productivity, AGB was measured during the seasonal growth stages of the oilseed rape at the experimental plots. Several representative vegetation indices (VIs obtained from multiple satellite sensors were compared with the simultaneously-collected oilseed rape AGB. Results showed that the estimation model using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI with a power regression model performed best through the seasonal growth dynamics, with the highest coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.77, the smallest root mean square error (RMSE = 104.64 g/m2, and the relative RMSE (rRMSE = 21%. It is concluded that the use of selected VIs and high spatial multiple satellite data can significantly estimate AGB during the winter oilseed rape growth stages, and can be applied to map the variability of winter oilseed rape at the sub-field level under different waterlogging conditions, which is very promising in the application of agricultural irrigation and precision agriculture.

  12. Worlds Fantastic, Worlds Familiar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, Bonnie J.

    2017-02-01

    Introduction; 1. Mercury: the hottest little place; 2. Venus: an even hotter place; 3. Mars: the abode of life?; 4. Asteroids and comets: sweat the small stuff; 5. Galileo's treasures: worlds of fire and ice; 6. Enceladus: an active iceball in space; 7. Titan: an Earth in deep freeze?; 8. Iapetus and its friends: the weirdest 'planets' in the Solar System; 9. Pluto: the first view of the 'third zone'; 10. Earths above: the search for exoplanets and life in the universe; Epilogue; Glossary; Acknowledgements; Index.

  13. Multisensory Emplaced Learning: Resituating Situated Learning in a Moving World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fors, Vaike; Backstrom, Asa; Pink, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines the implications of a theory of "sensory-emplaced learning" for understanding the interrelationships between the embodied and environmental in learning processes. Understanding learning as multisensory and contingent within everyday place-events, this framework analytically describes how people establish themselves as…

  14. Situation in Europe and the World: The European Nanotechnology Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, M.

    Nanotechnology is a complex and rapidly changing field, which is often difficult to assess in terms of opportunities, challenges and risks. Due to its strong interdisciplinary nature and rapid evolution, nanotechnology has wide-spread and fragmented impacts. Thus, the creation of a reliable source of data and analysis, which is continuously monitored and updated, is critical to provide comprehensive information to decision makers. Governments and businesses are interested in the market potential of nanotechnology enabled products and processes (estimated to underpin a total market of up to one trillion US dollars by 2015); and the possibility of these products contributing significantly to alleviating global problems such as major diseases, energy, clean drinking water, and environmental pollution. However, it is also recognized that the socio-economic impacts of nanotechnologies are often exaggerated or placed in an over-optimistic time-frame. Furthermore, nanotechnologies, as with any new technology, have potential risks (socio-economic, to human health, and the environment), and it is important that these are identified early on and appropriate actions taken, to ensure that development occurs in a safe and responsible manner. Even more important are the `unknowns' which will inevitably remain by the time nano-enhanced products reach the market, and will require more advanced forms of risk communication and corporate responsiveness to ensure market success.

  15. Carsharing situation in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandar Erceg

    2014-01-01

    Carsharing is becoming very popular in the western world as an effective method to contain rising prices of fuel and vehicles. It was brought about as a possible solution to the changing condition of growing economies and population where there is an increased need for travel but there is also a need for expense economizing. Due to its role in reducing fuel consumption, controlling pollution and traffic congestion, there is an increased usage of carsharing services as an alternative transport...

  16. Subjective Expected Utility Theory with "Small Worlds"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, Jacob; Hansen, Frank

    We model the notion of a "small world" as a context dependent state space embedded into the "grand world". For each situation the decision maker creates a "small world" reflecting the events perceived to be relevant for the act under consideration. The "grand world" is represented by an event space...

  17. Adventitious presence of other varieties in oilseed rape (¤Brassica napus¤) from seed banks and certified seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, T.; Hauser, Thure Pavlo; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    in the soil seed-bank. This information was acquired through DNA analysis of volunteers collected in the field and seedlings derived from the soil seed-bank. DNA profiles of the volunteers and seedlings were obtained using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers, and the profiles were compared with ISSR...... profiles from an assortment of 14 of the most commonly cultivated oilseed rape varieties from 1985 to 2004. This comparison was performed using the assignment program, AFLPOP. The age of the seed bank germinating to become volunteers was assumed from information on previously cultivated oilseed rape...... analysed and, from soil cores, their soil seed-bank was estimated to be 50-100 seeds m(-2). The ISSR analysis of the 14 reference varieties showed that three of the certified seed lots contained other varieties above the allowed threshold. Our findings are discussed in the context of the coexistence...

  18. Ethnography in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumar, Wesley; Madison, Nora

    2013-01-01

    This article situates the discussion of virtual ethnography within the larger political/economic changes of twenty-first century consumer capitalism and suggests that increasingly our entire social world is a virtual world and that there were very particular utopian and dystopian framings of virtual community growing out of that history. The…

  19. Sound Art Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the productions of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...... and combine theories from several fields. Aspects of sound art studies, performance studies and contemporary art studies are presented in order to theoretically explore the very diverse dimensions of the two sound art pieces. Visual, auditory, performative, social, spatial and durational dimensions become...

  20. Situation based housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Welling, Helen; Wiell Nordberg, Lene

    2007-01-01

    In the Nordic countries, there is a century-old tradition of dwellings that can be adapted, rebuilt and recycled regardless of time and place. Functionalism broke with this tradition and created the function-determined dwelling, which was planned on the basis of functional analyses and analyses...... of the average family's lifestyle. These dwellings were ground-breaking when they were built, but today are clearly a product of their time. The reaction to functionalism and the postwar mass production gave rise to flexible dwelling with countless possibilities for room division. The housing of this period has...... for living. The suitable condition consists of the dwelling's ability for physical displacement, spatial changes that can suit changing life styles. The situational condition is the not defined, the unfinished and the transitory, which continuously challenges the imagination and calls for the experiment. Our...

  1. Management Re-situated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    The purpose of this paper is to examine ways to situate management within philosophy, that is, ways to analyze the philosophical assumptions in management history, theory and practice. Since Burrell and Morgan suggested the idea that “all theories of organization are based upon philosophy...... of science“ (Burrell & Morgan, 1979:1), philosophical reflections in terms of a series of “isms” informed by different schools or paradigms (such as positivism, structuralism, phenomenology, critical theory, and so on and so forth) have been a central part of management studies. Thus, today, it has become...... common sense to categorize different approaches to management according to their assumptions of ontology, epistemology and methodology. My paper will argue first (1) that, although sometimes very abstract and obtuse writing that seems to owe more to competition among academics than to illumination...

  2. Sound Art Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Groth, Sanne; Samson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    and combine theories from several fields. Aspects of sound art studies, performance studies and contemporary art studies are presented in order to theoretically explore the very diverse dimensions of the two sound art pieces: Visual, auditory, performative, social, spatial and durational dimensions become......This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the production of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...

  3. Testing for Market Power in Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output Industries: The Australian Grains and Oilseeds Industries

    OpenAIRE

    O?Donnell, Christopher J.; Griffith, Garry R.; Nightingale, John J.; Piggott, Roley R.

    2004-01-01

    Recent empirical studies have found significant evidence of departures from competition in the input side of the Australian bread, breakfast cereal and margarine end-product markets. For example, Griffith (2000) found that firms in some parts of the processing and marketing sector exerted market power when purchasing grains and oilseeds from farmers. As noted at the time, this result accorded well with the views of previous regulatory authorities (p.358). In the mid-1990s, the Prices Surveill...

  4. Genetic variants associated with the root system architecture of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under contrasting phosphate supply

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaohua; Chen, Yanling; Thomas, Catherine L.; Ding, Guangda; Xu, Ping; Shi, Dexu; Grandke, Fabian; Jin, Kemo; Cai, Hongmei; Xu, Fangsen; Yi, Bin; Broadley, Martin R.; Shi, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Breeding crops with ideal root system architecture for efficient absorption of phosphorus is an important strategy to reduce the use of phosphate fertilizers. To investigate genetic variants leading to changes in root system architecture, 405 oilseed rape cultivars were genotyped with a 60K Brassica Infinium SNP array in low and high P environments. A total of 285 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with root system architecture traits at varying phosphorus levels. Nine single-nuc...

  5. Processing-bioprocessing of oilseed rape in bioenergy production and value added utilization of remaining seed components

    OpenAIRE

    Bagger, Christian; Bellostas, Natalia; Jensen, Søren K.; Sørensen, Jens C.; Sørensen, Hilmer; Sørensen, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Cruciferous oilseed crops accumulate relatively high concentrations of oil, proteins and dietary fibres (DF) in their seeds, in addition to bioactive components as glucosinolates and myrosinase isoenzymes (thioglucohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.147). When mixed in the presence of moisture, myrosinase isoenzymes and associated components transform glucosinolates into various types of products, which reduces the value of the extracted oil and the remaining seed components, as well as producing unwanted e...

  6. Mid-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics to detect Sclerotinia stem rot on oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chu; Feng, Xuping; Wang, Jian; Liu, Fei; He, Yong; Zhou, Weijun

    2017-01-01

    Detection of plant diseases in a fast and simple way is crucial for timely disease control. Conventionally, plant diseases are accurately identified by DNA, RNA or serology based methods which are time consuming, complex and expensive. Mid-infrared spectroscopy is a promising technique that simplifies the detection procedure for the disease. Mid-infrared spectroscopy was used to identify the spectral differences between healthy and infected oilseed rape leaves. Two different sample sets from two experiments were used to explore and validate the feasibility of using mid-infrared spectroscopy in detecting Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) on oilseed rape leaves. The average mid-infrared spectra showed differences between healthy and infected leaves, and the differences varied among different sample sets. Optimal wavenumbers for the 2 sample sets selected by the second derivative spectra were similar, indicating the efficacy of selecting optimal wavenumbers. Chemometric methods were further used to quantitatively detect the oilseed rape leaves infected by SSR, including the partial least squares-discriminant analysis, support vector machine and extreme learning machine. The discriminant models using the full spectra and the optimal wavenumbers of the 2 sample sets were effective for classification accuracies over 80%. The discriminant results for the 2 sample sets varied due to variations in the samples. The use of two sample sets proved and validated the feasibility of using mid-infrared spectroscopy and chemometric methods for detecting SSR on oilseed rape leaves. The similarities among the selected optimal wavenumbers in different sample sets made it feasible to simplify the models and build practical models. Mid-infrared spectroscopy is a reliable and promising technique for SSR control. This study helps in developing practical application of using mid-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics to detect plant disease.

  7. Sizing Up the Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Hailstorm damage to the Space Shuttle's External Tank inspired a NASA innovation with extensive photography applications. In order to measure the defects caused by the storm, Kennedy Space Center used telephoto lenses to zoom in on the tank and view the damage clearly. However, since there was no reference object in the image, the engineers could not determine the scale of the damage. In photographic situations similar to this, an object, such as a ruler, is placed within the field of view. This allows a person to look at a photograph and have a visual indication of the scale of the objects in it. In the External Tank situation, however, this procedure was not possible. As a solution, Kennedy developed the Scaling and Measurement Device for Photographic Images, which provides a non-intrusive means of adding a scale to a photograph. In addition to meeting Kennedy's needs, scaling images is extremely important in crime and accident scene investigations, oil and chemical tank monitoring, and aerial photography. The innovation consists of a tool that attaches directly to a camera or charge coupled device using a standard screw. Two lasers fitted to the device provide parallel beams that are set 1 inch apart. These lasers enable the device to project a pattern into the field of view. When a photograph is taken, the image of the laser pattern appears, along with the image of the object under investigation, allowing the viewer quantifiable information as to the size of the object. The laser beams are accurate to approximately 200 feet. Windows-based software was developed to work with the scaling device tool. The software provides further techniques to measure objects in photographs and digital images. By using the software, any object in the image can be measured diagonally, vertically, and horizontally. The device and its software enable the user to determine two-dimensional measurements within a photograph.

  8. EFFICIENCY OF FIELD FARMS SITUATED IN LESS-FAVORED AREAS (LFAS AND BESIDE IN DOLNOŚLĄSKIE AND OPOLSKIE VOIVODESHIPS IN 2011–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Zieliński

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify differences in production potential, organization of production, economic efficiency and investment abilities of two groups of polish field farms with cereals, oilseeds and protein crops situated in Less Favoured Areas (LFA and beside in Dolnośląskie and Opolskie voivodeship. In order to achieve this aim empirical data was used from 64 farms situated in 64 farms that was situated in LFA and from 348 remaining farms that collected data from 2011 to 2013 for Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN in 2011–2013. It was found that farms situated in LFA in comparison to remaining farms characterized larger utilized agricultural – area (UAA and higher share of rented area. Moreover, worse technical equipment of labour and lower family farm income per 1 hectare of UAA is indicated.

  9. The effect of water and salt stresses on the phosphorus content and acid phosphatase activity in oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Flasiński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape plants responded to water and salt stresses (-0.5 MPa, PEG 6000 and NaCI by reduction of the fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots. When PEG was used, the ratio of dry weights of roots:shoots surpassed that of controls. The leaf protein content increased considerably. The phosphorus content decreased only in the roots, most significantly after three days of stress. Immediately after the stresses were induced, an increase in the acid phosphatase (AP activity was noted. Water and salt stresses caused four- and two-fold increases in AP activity in leaves, respectively. Changes in the enzyme activity were negligible in stems and roots. There are nine forms of AP in young leaves of oilseed rape. In the stressed plants, from No. 5 revealed lower activity and forms Nos 8 and 9, higher activities than in the control. The increase in AP activity was directly accompanied by the decrease in the water potential of the tissues. Oilseed rape is considerably less sensitive to salt stress than to water stress, which is manifested as the lower inhibition of plant growth and also by a smaller increase in acid phosphatase activity.

  10. Evaluating the Role of Seed Treatments in Canola/Oilseed Rape Production: Integrated Pest Management, Pollinator Health, and Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Sekulic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The use patterns and role of insecticide seed treatments, with focus on neonicotinoid insecticides, were examined for canola/oilseed rape production in Canada and the EU. Since nearly all planted canola acres in Western Canada and, historically, a majority of planted oilseed acres in the EU, use seed treatments, it is worth examining whether broad use of insecticidal seed treatments (IST is compatible with principles of integrated pest management (IPM. The neonicotinoid insecticide (NNI seed treatment (NNI ST use pattern has risen due to effective control of several early season insect pests, the most destructive being flea beetles (Phyllotreta sp.. Negative environmental impact and poor efficacy of foliar applied insecticides on flea beetles led growers to look for better alternatives. Due to their biology, predictive models have been difficult to develop for flea beetles, and, therefore, targeted application of seed treatments, as part of an IPM program, has contributed to grower profitability and overall pollinator success for canola production in Western Canada. Early evidence suggests that the recent restriction on NNI may negatively impact grower profitability and does not appear to be having positive impact on pollinator health. Further investigation on impact of NNI on individual bee vs. hive health need to be conducted. Predictive models for flea beetle emergence/feeding activity in canola/oilseed rape need to be developed, as broad acre deployment of NNI seed treatments may not be sustainable due to concerns about resistance/tolerance in flea beetles and other pest species.

  11. COMPETITIVE POSITION OF THE MAIN PRODUCERS AND EXPORTERS OF OILSEEDS AND VEGETABLE OILS IN THE INTRA-EU TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Pawlak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to assess the competitive position of the main producers and exporters of oilseeds and vegetable oils in the intra-EU trade in 2004 and 2012. The competitiveness was assessed with the use of a selected set of quantitative measures of international competitive position. Moreover, some shares of the analysed countries in the intra-EU trade, as well as relative export intensity of oilseeds and vegetable oils in these countries were estimated. On the basis of the conducted analyses it is possible to conclude that apart from Germany in trade in rapeseed and soya beans, as well as the Netherlands in trade in rapeseed and sunflower-seed, the main producers and exporters of oilseeds were competitive on the Single European Market. Excluding soya-bean oil produced in the EU mainly from imported raw material, competitive advantage of most of the countries decreased together with the level of processing and was lower in trade in vegetable oils.

  12. Jet fuel from 18 cool-season oilseed feedstocks in a semi-arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brett; Jabro, Jay

    2017-04-01

    Renewable jet fuel feedstocks can potentially offset the demand for petroleum based transportation resources, diversify cropping systems, and provide numerous ecosystem services . However, identifying suitable feedstock supplies remains a primary constraint to adoption. A 4-yr, multi-site experiment initiated in fall 2012 investigated the yield potential of six winter- and twelve spring-types of cool-season oilseed feedstocks. Sidney, MT (250 mm annual growing season precipitation) was one of eight sites in the western USA with others in Colorado, Idaho, Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, Oregon, and Texas. Winter types of Camelina sativa (1), Brassica napus (4), and B. rapa (1) were planted in mid-September, while spring types of Camelina sativa (1), B. napus (4), B. rapa (1), B. juncea (2), B. carinata (2), and Sinapis alba (2) were planted in early to late April. Seeding rates varied by entry and were between 4 to 11 kg/ha. All plots were under no-till management. Plots were 3 by 9 m with each treatment (oilseed entry) replicated four times. Camelina 'Joelle' was the only fall-seeded entry that survived winters with little to no snow cover on plots and where minimum air temperature reached -32°C. Stands of 'Joelle' in the spring of all years were excellent. 'Joelle' plots were typically harvested in July, while spring types were harvested 2-6 weeks later. Severe hailstorms during the late growing seasons of 2013 and 2015 resulted in up to 95% seed loss, preventing normal seed yield harvest of spring types. The B. carinata and spring camelina were the least and most susceptible to hail damage during plant maturity, respectively. 'Joelle' winter camelina was harvested before the severe weather in both years, showing the benefit of an early maturing crop in regions prone to late season hail. Overall, camelina was the only winter type that showed potential as an oilseed feedstock due to its superior winter hardiness. For spring types, B. napus, Camelina sativa, and B

  13. Overexpression of BnWRKY33 in oilseed rape enhances resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Fang, Hedi; Chen, Yu; Chen, Keping; Li, Guanying; Gu, Shoulai; Tan, Xiaoli

    2014-09-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes a devastating disease in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) resulting in a tremendous yield loss worldwide. Studies on various host-pathogen interactions have shown that plant WRKY transcription factors are essential for defence. For the B. napus-S. sclerotiorum interaction, little direct evidence has been found with regard to the biological roles of specific WRKY genes in host resistance. In this study, we isolated a B. napus WRKY gene, BnWRKY33, and found that the gene is highly responsive to S. sclerotiorum infection. Transgenic B. napus plants overexpressing BnWRKY33 showed markedly enhanced resistance to S. sclerotiorum, constitutive activation of the expression of BnPR1 and BnPDF1.2, and inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation in response to pathogen infection. Further, we isolated a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase substrate gene, BnMKS1, and found that not only can BnWRKY33 interact with BnMKS1, which can also interact with BnMPK4, using the yeast two-hybrid assay, consistent with their collective nuclear localization, but also BnWRKY33, BnMKS1 and BnMPK4 are substantially and synergistically expressed in response to S. sclerotiorum infection. In contrast, the three genes showed differential expression in response to phytohormone treatments. Together, these results suggest that BnWRKY33 plays an important role in B. napus defence to S. sclerotiorum, which is most probably associated with the activation of the salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated defence response and inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation, and we propose a potential mechanism in which BnMPK4-BnMKS1-BnWRKY33 exist in a nuclear localized complex to regulate resistance to S. sclerotiorum in oilseed rape. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  14. Presence and Distribution of Oilseed Pumpkin Viruses and Molecular Detection of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vučurović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, intensive spread of virus infections of oilseed pumpkin has resulted in significant economic losses in pumpkin crop production, which is currently expanding in our country. In 2007 and 2008, a survey for the presence and distribution of oilseed pumpkin viruses was carried out in order to identify viruses responsible for epidemics and incidences of very destructive symptoms on cucurbit leaves and fruits. Monitoring andcollecting samples of oil pumpkin, as well as other species such as winter and butternut squash and buffalo and bottle gourd with viral infection symptoms, was conducted in several localities of Vojvodina Province. The collected plant samples were tested by DAS-ELISA using polyclonal antisera specific for the detection of six most economically harmful pumpkin viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMW, Squash mosaic virus (SqMV, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV and Tobaccoringspot virus (TRSV that are included in A1 quarantine list of harmful organisms in Serbia.Identification of viruses in the collected samples indicated the presence of three viruses, ZYMV, WMV and CMV, in individual and mixed infections. Frequency of the identified viruses varied depending on locality and year of investigations. In 2007, WMV was the most frequent virus (94.2%, while ZYMV was prevalent (98.04% in 2008. High frequency of ZYMV determined in both years of investigation indicated the need for its rapid and reliable molecular detection. During this investigation, a protocol for ZYMVdetection was developed and optimized using specific primers CPfwd/Cprev and commercial kits for total RNA extraction, as well as for RT-PCR. In RT-PCR reaction using these primers, a DNA fragment of approximately 1100 bp, which included coat protein gene, was amplified in the samples of infected pumkin leaves. Although serological methods are still useful for large-scale testing of a great number of

  15. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Charlotte Wallenhammar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to planting, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 60% of 45 fields on 10 of 18 farms. In 2014, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 44% of 59 fields in 14 of 36 farms, in the main winter OSR producing region in southern Sweden. P. brassicae was present indicative of a risk for >10% yield loss with susceptible cultivars (>1300 DNA copies g soil−1 in 47% and 44% of fields in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Furthermore, P. brassicae DNA was indicative of sites at risk of complete crop failure if susceptible cultivars were grown (>50 000 copies g−1 soil in 14% and 8% of fields in 2013 and 2014, respectively. A survey of all fields at Lanna research station in western Sweden showed that P. brassicae was spread throughout the farm, as only three of the fields (20% showed infection levels below the detection limit for P.brassicae DNA, while the level was >50,000 DNA copies g−1 soil in 20% of the fields. Soil-borne spread is of critical importance and soil scraped off footwear showed levels of up to 682 million spores g−1 soil. Soil testing is an important tool for determining the presence of P. brassicae and providing an indication of potential yield loss, e.g., in advisory work on planning for a sustainable OSR crop rotation. This soil test is gaining acceptance as a tool that increases the likelihood of success in precision agriculture and in applied research conducted in commercial oilseed fields and at research stations. The present application highlights the importance of

  16. DEBATING ABOUT SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen CÎRSTEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the cirumstances of every day life which requires the need to adapt the leadership style. Leadership needs a lot of abilities and skills, including the capability to communicate. The paper deals with leader’s need of changing the style of leading as organizational circumstances change. The process is efficient only when the leaders and the followers have the right climate. The importance of this process is reflected in the productivity of the organization. As the economic climate changes the leadership style needs to be changed and also the style of communication throughout the leader coaches, coordinates, evaluates and supervises. Leadership is about organizing a group of people to achieve a goal. The leader may or may not have any formal authority. Students of leadership have produced theories involving traits, situational interaction, function, behavior, power, vision and values, charisma, and intelligence, among others. This paper describes the styles of leadership which the leaders must use and switch when is needed in comparison with what leadership is about.

  17. METHODOLOGICAL ELEMENTS OF SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana KOVALCHUK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the investigation of theoretical and methodological principles of situational analysis. The necessity of situational analysis is proved in modern conditions. The notion “situational analysis” is determined. We have concluded that situational analysis is a continuous system study which purpose is to identify dangerous situation signs, to evaluate comprehensively such signs influenced by a system of objective and subjective factors, to search for motivated targeted actions used to eliminate adverse effects of the exposure of the system to the situation now and in the future and to develop the managerial actions needed to bring the system back to norm. It is developed a methodological approach to the situational analysis, its goal is substantiated, proved the expediency of diagnostic, evaluative and searching functions in the process of situational analysis. The basic methodological elements of the situational analysis are grounded. The substantiation of the principal methodological elements of system analysis will enable the analyst to develop adaptive methods able to take into account the peculiar features of a unique object which is a situation that has emerged in a complex system, to diagnose such situation and subject it to system and in-depth analysis, to identify risks opportunities, to make timely management decisions as required by a particular period.

  18. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  19. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates lead-induced photosynthetic and ultrastructural changes in oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, B; Song, W J; Hu, W Z; Luo, X N; Gill, R A; Wang, J; Zhou, W J

    2014-04-01

    The role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in alleviating lead (Pb) induced stress in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was studied under laboratory conditions. Plants were grown hydroponically in greenhouse conditions under three levels (0, 100, and 400 µM) of Pb and three levels (0, 100 and 200 µM) of H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). Application of H2S significantly improved the plant growth, root morphology, chlorophyll contents and photosynthetic activity in leaves of B. napus under Pb stress. Moreover, exogenously applied H2S significantly lowered the Pb concentration in shoots and roots of plants under Pb stress. The microscopic examination indicated that application of exogenous H2S enabled a clean mesophyll cell having a well developed chloroplast with thylakoid membranes and starch grains. A number of modifications could be observed in root tip cell i.e. mature mitochondria, long endoplasmic reticulum and golgibodies under combined application of H2S and Pb. On the basis of these findings, it can be concluded that application of exogenous H2S has a protective role on plant growth, net photosynthesis rate and ultrastructural changes in B. napus plants under high Pb exposures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Storage stability of screwpress-extracted oils and residual meals from CELSS candidate oilseed crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, S. D.; Watkins, B. A.; Nielsen, S. S.

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy of using screwpress extraction for oil was studied with three Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS) candidate oilseed crops (soybean, peanut, and canola), since use of volatile organic solvents for oil extraction likely would be impractical in a closed system. Low oil yields from initial work indicated that a modification of the process is necessary to increase extraction efficiency. The extracted oil from each crop was tested for stability and sensory characteristics. When stored at 23 degC, canola oil and meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. When stored at 65 degC, soybean oil and canola meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. Sensory evaluation of the extracted oils used in bread and salad dressing indicated that flavor, odor intensity, acceptability, and overall preference may be of concern for screwpress-extracted canola oil when it is used in an unrefined form. Overall results with screwpress-extracted crude oils indicated that soybean oil may be more stable and acceptable than canola or peanut under typical storage conditions.

  1. WHAT IS BEHIND BIASED TECHNICAL CHANGE IN PRODUCTION OF CEREAL AND OILSEED CROPS IN SLOVAKIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter FANDEL

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the productivity change in the production of cereal and oilseed crops in Slovakia with special emphasis on technical change analysis. It employs a non-parametric distance function approach to measure Malmquist productivity index which is decomposed into technical efficiency change and technical change. Technical change is further decomposed into technical change magnitude and input- and output-bias indices. The productivity change components provide more detailed information about character of productivity change itself and its sources. Our results indicate that productivity in the analysed sector decreased approximately by 20% within the examined period of 1998-2007. The decrease was caused mostly by worsening the technical change (-41,6%. Indices of input- and output bias of technical change were various from unity what suggests that technical change was not Hicks’- neutral. Results of further analysis of the direction of technical change bias indicate that farms in average tend to apply fertilizers-using/seed-saving, seed-using/labour-saving, and fertilizers-using/labour-saving technical change bias over the whole sample period, as well as in the EU pre-accession and EU post-accession periods.

  2. Evaluating agroclimatic constraints and yield gaps for winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) - A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi; Lu, Jianwei; Cong, Rihuan; Ren, Tao; Li, Xiaokun

    2017-08-10

    Evaluating the effects of agroclimatic constraints on winter oilseed rape (WOSR) yield can facilitate the development of agricultural mitigation and adaptation strategies. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the WOSR yield and agroclimatic factors using the yield data collected from Agricultural Yearbook and field experimental sites, and the climate dataset from the meteorological stations in Hubei province, China. Five agroclimatic indicators during WOSR growth, such as ≥0 °C accumulated temperature (AT-0), overwintering days (OWD), precipitation (P), precipitation at an earlier stage (EP) and sunshine hours (S), were extracted from twelve agroclimatic indices. The attainable yield for the five yield-limiting factors ranged from 2638 kg ha(-1) (EP) to 3089 kg ha(-1) (AT-0). Farmers (Y farm ) and local agronomists (Y exp ) have achieved 63% and 86% of the attainable yield (Y att ), respectively. The contribution of optimum fertilization to narrow the yield gap (NY exp ) was 52% for the factor P, which was remarkably lower than the mean value (63%). Overall, the precipitation was the crucial yield-limiting agroclimatic factor, and restricted the effect of optimizing fertilization. The integrated data suggest that agricultural strategies of mitigation and adaptation to climatic variability based on different agroclimatic factors are essential for improving the crop yield.

  3. Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) as an alternative oilseed: molecular and ecogeographic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamkhar, Kioumars; Croser, Janine; Aryamanesh, Nader; Campbell, Margaret; Kon'kova, Nina; Francis, Clive

    2010-07-01

    Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) is an oilseed known for its potential as a low-input biofuel feedstock and its high levels of beneficial fatty acids. We investigated the role of geographical origin in genetic variation and fatty acid content, expecting to find significant variability among 53 accessions and a link between ecogeography and both origin and key oil traits. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting revealed high levels of diversity within the 53 accessions. Even though sampling was relatively biased towards the Russian-Ukrainian area, this region was identified as a genetic diversity hotspot and possible centre of origin for camelina. The accessions were categorized by principal coordinate analysis using molecular marker data, enabling identification of links between geographical distribution and these categories. The influence of geographic location on four canola oil quality measures in camelina was evaluated using a geographic information system. These measures were (1) more than 30% alpha-linolenic acid, (2) less than 3% erucic acid, (3) less than 10% saturated fatty acids, and (4) a ratio of alpha-linolenic to linoleic acid greater than 1. The results clearly confirm that camelina oil quality characteristics are strongly influenced by environmental factors. The unprecedented high genetic diversity in this group of accessions offers an excellent opportunity to investigate valuable genes for successful adaptation of camelina to specific ecogeographical conditions such as drought.

  4. Oilseed Meal Effects on the Emergence and Survival of Crop and Weed Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie L. Rothlisberger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed crops are being widely evaluated for potential biodiesel production. Seed meal (SM remaining after extracting oil may have use as bioherbicides or organic fertilizers. Brassicaceae SM often contains glucosinolates that hydrolyze into biologically active compounds that may inhibit various pests. Jatropha curcas SM contains curcin, a phytoxin. A 14-day greenhouse study determined that Sinapis alba (white mustard, Brassica juncea (Indian mustard, Camelina sativa, and Jatropha curcas applied to soil at varying application rates [0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.5% (w/w] and incubation times (1, 7, and 14 d prior to planting affected seed emergence and seedling survival of cotton [Gossypium hirsutum (L.], sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench], johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense, and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus. With each species, emergence and survival was most decreased by 2.5% SM application applied at 1 and 7 d incubations. White mustard SM incubated for 1 d applied at low and high rates had similar negative effects on johnsongrass seedlings. Redroot pigweed seedling survival was generally most decreased by all 2.5% SM applications. Based on significant effects determined by ANOVA, results suggested that the type, rate, and timing of SM application should be considered before land-applying SMs in cropping systems.

  5. Generation of transgenic plants of a potential oilseed crop Camelina sativa by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chaofu; Kang, Jinling

    2008-02-01

    Camelina sativa is an alternative oilseed crop that can be used as a potential low-cost biofuel crop or a source of health promoting omega-3 fatty acids. Currently, the fatty acid composition of camelina does not uniquely fit any particular uses, thus limit its commercial value and large-scale production. In order to improve oil quality and other agronomic characters, we have developed an efficient and simple in planta method to generate transgenic camelina plants. The method included Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of plants at early flowering stage along with a vacuum infiltration procedure. We used a fluorescent protein (DsRed) as a visual selection marker, which allowed us to conveniently screen mature transgenic seeds from a large number of untransformed seeds. Using this method, over 1% of transgenic seeds can be obtained. Genetic analysis revealed that most of transgenic plants contain a single copy of transgene. In addition, we also demonstrated that transgenic camelina seeds produced novel hydroxy fatty acids by transforming a castor fatty acid hydroxylase. In conclusion, our results provide a rapid means to genetically improve agronomic characters of camelina, including fatty acid profiles of its seed oils. Camelina may serve as a potential industrial crop to produce novel biotechnology products.

  6. Mathematical modeling of a biogenous filter cake and identification of oilseed material parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Očenášek J.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of the filtration and extrusion process inside a linear compression chamber has gained a lot of attention during several past decades. This subject was originally related to mechanical and hydraulic properties of soils (in particular work of Terzaghi and later was this approach adopted for the modeling of various technological processes in the chemical industry (work of Shirato. Developed mathematical models of continuum mechanics of porous materials with interstitial fluid were then applied also to the problem of an oilseed expression. In this case, various simplifications and partial linearizations are introduced in models for the reason of an analytical or numerical solubility; or it is not possible to generalize the model formulation into the fully 3D problem of an oil expression extrusion with a complex geometry such as it has a screw press extruder.We proposed a modified model for the oil seeds expression process in a linear compression chamber. The model accounts for the rheological properties of the deformable solid matrix of compressed seed, where the permeability of the porous solid is described by the Darcy's law. A methodology of the experimental work necessary for a material parameters identification is presented together with numerical simulation examples.

  7. Does pea lectin expressed transgenically in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) influence honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrman, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is important both for pollination and for honey production. Pollen is the major protein source for bees, which exposes them directly to changes in pollen quality e.g. through genetic engineering. In order to create a worst case scenario regarding pea lectin (PSL) expressed transgenically in oilseed rape anthers and pollen, the maximum amount of dried pollen that could be mixed in an artificial diet without negatively affecting larval performance (1.5% w/w) was fed to bee larvae. Pollen from two transgenic plant lines expressing PSL up to 1.2% of total soluble protein and pollen from one non-transgenic line was added to the same diet and used as a pollen control. When these three pollen diets and the control diet (without added pollen) were compared, no negative effect from the pollen of the transgenic plants could be detected on larval mortality, weight, or development time. An increased weight and a reduced developmental time were recorded for larvae on all diets containing pollen when compared to the diet without pollen.

  8. Energetic balance from biodiesel production of oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Rubens [Parana Agronomical Institute (IAPAR), Londrina, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: siqueira@iapar.br; Gamero, Carlos Antonio [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Boller, Walter [University of Passo Fundo (UPF), RS (Brazil). Agronomical and Veterinary College

    2008-07-01

    It was evaluated the energetic balance and the energetic efficiency of the oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.) crop under the no-tillage system. The energy input totalized 6,718 MJ ha{sup -1} where the industrial processing, the fertilizer and the herbicide had participation of 30.7; 23.0 and 20.2 %, respectively. The energy production was 56,650.94 MJ ha{sup -1} and the produced grains have represented 33.2 % of the total. The energetic demand for the production of one kg of biomass of the aerial part, one kg of oil and one kg of biodiesel were respectively 1,829; 19,000 and 27,422 kJ. There was a return of 8.44 for each energy unit used in the process. The net gain of energy was 49,932 MJ ha{sup -1} which is equivalent in energy to 1,295 L diesel oil. (author)

  9. Patterns of domestication in the Ethiopian oil-seed crop noug (Guizotia abyssinica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempewolf, Hannes; Tesfaye, Misteru; Teshome, Abel; Bjorkman, Anne D; Andrew, Rose L; Scascitelli, Moira; Black, Scott; Bekele, Endashaw; Engels, Johannes M M; Cronk, Quentin C B; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2015-06-01

    Noug (Guizotia abyssinica) is a semidomesticated oil-seed crop, which is primarily cultivated in Ethiopia. Unlike its closest crop relative, sunflower, noug has small seeds, small flowering heads, many branches, many flowering heads, and indeterminate flowering, and it shatters in the field. Here, we conducted common garden studies and microsatellite analyses of genetic variation to test whether high levels of crop-wild gene flow and/or unfavorable phenotypic correlations have hindered noug domestication. With the exception of one population, analyses of microsatellite variation failed to detect substantial recent admixture between noug and its wild progenitor. Likewise, only very weak correlations were found between seed mass and the number or size of flowering heads. Thus, noug's 'atypical' domestication syndrome does not seem to be a consequence of recent introgression or unfavorable phenotypic correlations. Nonetheless, our data do reveal evidence of local adaptation of noug cultivars to different precipitation regimes, as well as high levels of phenotypic plasticity, which may permit reasonable yields under diverse environmental conditions. Why noug has not been fully domesticated remains a mystery, but perhaps early farmers selected for resilience to episodic drought or untended environments rather than larger seeds. Domestication may also have been slowed by noug's outcrossing mating system.

  10. Metabolic engineering of biomass for high energy density: oilseed-like triacylglycerol yields from plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhercke, Thomas; El Tahchy, Anna; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Shrestha, Pushkar; Divi, Uday K; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Mansour, Maged P; Nichols, Peter D; James, Christopher N; Horn, Patrick J; Chapman, Kent D; Beaudoin, Frederic; Ruiz-López, Noemi; Larkin, Philip J; de Feyter, Robert C; Singh, Surinder P; Petrie, James R

    2014-02-01

    High biomass crops have recently attracted significant attention as an alternative platform for the renewable production of high energy storage lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG). While TAG typically accumulates in seeds as storage compounds fuelling subsequent germination, levels in vegetative tissues are generally low. Here, we report the accumulation of more than 15% TAG (17.7% total lipids) by dry weight in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) leaves by the co-expression of three genes involved in different aspects of TAG production without severely impacting plant development. These yields far exceed the levels found in wild-type leaf tissue as well as previously reported engineered TAG yields in vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana and N. tabacum. When translated to a high biomass crop, the current levels would translate to an oil yield per hectare that exceeds those of most cultivated oilseed crops. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and mass spectrometry imaging confirmed the accumulation of TAG within leaf mesophyll cells. In addition, we explored the applicability of several existing oil-processing methods using fresh leaf tissue. Our results demonstrate the technical feasibility of a vegetative plant oil production platform and provide for a step change in the bioenergy landscape, opening new prospects for sustainable food, high energy forage, biofuel and biomaterial applications. © 2013 CSIRO. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Situated ethics in collaborative research with children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    That research ethics are to be renegotiated with the respective participants throughout the research process is a demand strongly promoted throughout feminist research. Ethics are to be re-situated according to the concrete interrelationships, including the power relations and positionings in play......, the agendas, accountabilities and responsibilities at stake. Due to the insight that human beings are situated beings, who have limited possibilities for understanding their respective being in the world, it emerges that a collaborative and yet conflictual exploration of joint becomings is both...... an epistemological as well as an ontological necessity. The paper discusses how a renegotiation of ethics is particularly difficult whilst engaging in a project investigating everyday media experiences of young children (aged 3-6) at a German day care centre. Albeit the children were explicitly considered co-researchers...

  12. How to lead complex situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Pingel

    2013-01-01

    The military leader is experiencing increasingly more complex situations, whether it is as leader in a foreign combat environment or in the home-based public administration. Complex situations like these call for a special set of managerial responses and a special way of leading organisations....... The proposition of this article is that the methods that drive innovative processes, strengthening the creative culture, are necessary to manage complex situations in military contexts....

  13. Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies (ASAT) will facilitate exploration of the moon surface, and other planetary bodies. This powerful technology will also find...

  14. Stress situations in dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, M; Baylard, J F

    1994-01-01

    Several studies indicate that stress is inherently present in dental practice. The present study was conducted to help identify the factors underlying this stress and the relative contribution of each factor. A questionnaire presented participating dentists with 52 potentially-stressful situations related to dental practice. Respondents were asked to rate each situation on a five-point scale, using a range of responses that varied from "not stressful" to "exceedingly stressful," and "I don't know" to "not applicable." The present data are based on the ratings given by the 1,332 dentists practicing in Québec who answered the questionnaire (52 per cent). Ten situations received a mean score of greater than 3.0, and were therefore considered as above average stress-producing situations. The majority of these situations could be classified as being related either to dental procedures and office organization or to interpersonal relationships involving patients and/or office personnel. It was found that the older age groups showed significantly less stress for six of the 10 most stressful situations. This study has indicated the specific situations that most frequently lead to stress in dentists. The precise identification of these situations could lead to reduced stress through the elimination of its vague and insidious character. Furthermore, an understanding of the most common stress-causing situations allows the practitioner to take preventive measures to eliminate its damaging effects in the dental practice.

  15. Situational Awareness and Logistics Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Volpe's Situational Awareness and Logistics Division researches, develops, implements, and analyzes advanced systems to protect, enhance, and ensure resilienceof the...

  16. Production of red-flowered oilseed rape via the ectopic expression of Orychophragmus violaceus OvPAP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wenqin; Chen, Daozong; Pan, Qi; Li, Fengfeng; Zhao, Zhigang; Ge, Xianhong; Li, Zaiyun

    2018-02-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), which has yellow flowers, is both an important oil crop and a traditional tourism resource in China, whereas the Orychophragmus violaceus, which has purple flowers, likely possesses a candidate gene or genes to alter the flower colour of oilseed rape. A previously established B. napus line has a particular pair of O. violaceus chromosomes (M4) and exhibits slightly red petals. In this study, the transcriptomic analysis of M4, B. napus (H3), and O. violaceus with purple petals (OvP) and with white petals (OvW) revealed that most anthocyanin biosynthesis genes were up-regulated in both M4 and OvP. Read assembly and sequence alignment identified a homolog of AtPAP2 in M4, which produced the O. violaceus transcript (OvPAP2). The overexpression of OvPAP2 via the CaMV35S promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana led to different levels of anthocyanin accumulation in most organs, including the petals. However, the B. napus overexpression plants showed anthocyanin accumulation primarily in the anthers, but not the petals. However, when OvPAP2 was driven by the petal-specific promoter XY355, the transgenic B. napus plants produced red anthers and red petals. The results of metabolomic experiments showed that specific anthocyanins accumulated to high levels in the red petals. This study illustrates the feasibility of producing red-flowered oilseed rape, thereby enhancing its ornamental value, via the ectopic expression of the OvPAP2 gene. Moreover, the practical application of this study for insect pest management in the crop is discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Intercropping frost-sensitive legume crops with winter oilseed rape reduces weed competition, insect damage, and improves nitrogen use efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadoux Stéphane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mixing plant species in agroecosystems is highlighted as an agroecological solution to reduce pesticides and fertilizers while maintaining profitability. In the French context, intercropping frost-sensitive legume crops with winter oilseed rape is potentially interesting and began to be implemented by farmers. In this study we aimed at measuring the services and disservices of this intercrop with three different legume mixtures, in terms of growth and yield for rapeseed, ground cover of weeds in autumn and damage caused by rape winter stem weevil. The experiment was carried out at four sites from 2011 to 2014. We showed higher total aerial dry weights and total aerial nitrogen contents in the intercrops compared to sole winter oilseed rape in November. The companion plants contributed to the control of weeds and the mitigation of rape winter stem weevil damage, notably through the increase in the total aerial weight. In spring, after destruction of the companion plants, the intercrops had partially compensated a reduction in the N fertilization rate (–30 kg per hectare in terms of aerial nitrogen content in rapeseed, with no consequences on the yield which was maintained or even increased. There were probably other interactions such as an improvement in rapeseed root exploration. The consequences were an increase in the nitrogen use efficiency in intercrops. The intercrop with faba bean and lentil showed the best results in terms of autumn growth, weed control, reduction in rape winter stem weevil damage, and rapeseed N content in spring and yield. Intercropping frost-sensitive legume crops with winter oilseed rape is thus a promising way to reconcile yield and reduction in pesticides and fertilizer use and perhaps to benefit more widely to the cropping system.

  18. Nitrogen Fertilizer Management for Enhancing Crop Productivity and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in a Rice-Oilseed Rape Rotation System in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yousaf

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of efficient rates of nitrogen (N fertilizer application is important with regard to increasing crop productivity and maintaining environmental sustainability. Rice-oilseed rape rotations are a mainstay of the economy and food security of China. Therefore, a field experiment was carried out during 2011–2013 in Honghu to identify the most appropriate N application rates for enhancing crop productivity and N use efficiency for rice (Oryza sativa L.-oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. rotations. Six N fertilizer treatments (RO1, RO2, RO3, RO4, RO5, and RO6 were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. ROx represented the N fertilizer application rates (kg ha–1 for rice and oilseed rape, respectively. Grain yields from plots receiving N fertilizer were significantly increased by 59–71% (rice and 109–160% (oilseed rape during the total rotation (2011–2013, as compared to RO1 (control; no application. Furthermore, a similar trend was observed for N accumulation, ranging from 88–125% and 134–200% in aerial parts of rice and oilseed rape, respectively. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE was significantly higher (38.5% under RO2 and lower (34.2% under RO6 while apparent N balance (ANB was positively lowest under R05 (183.4 kg ha–1 followed by R02 (234.2 kg ha–1 and highest under R06 (344.5 kg ha–1 during the total rotation. The results of grain yield, NUE, and ANB indicated that the R02 rate of N application was superior. This information should help to develop a cost-effective and environment-friendly N management strategy for rice-oilseed rape rotation systems of central China.

  19. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvaniti, E.

    2010-12-15

    Agricultural residues from rapeseed biodiesel industry (rapeseed cake, rape straw, crude glycerol), which represent the 82%wt. of the oilseed rape, currently have only low-grade applications in the market. For this, a scenario was built on exploiting qualities of rapeseed biodiesel residues for forming added-value products, and expanding and upgrading an existing biodiesel plant, to an oilseed rape biorefinery by 2020 in European ground. Selection of products was based on a technological feasibility study given the time frame, while priority was given to Low-Value-High-Volume readily marketed products, like production of energy and feed. Products selected except rapeseed biodiesel, were ethanol, biogas, enzymes energy, chemical building blocks, and superior quality animal fodder. The production lines were analyzed and prospects for 2020 were projected on a critical basis. Particular merit was given to two products, ethanol from cellulose, and cellulolytic enzymes from rape straw. Cellulosic ethanol from rape straw was optimized for all production steps, i.e. for thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and fermentation of C6 sugars. Thermo-chemical pretreatment was studied with Wet oxidation technique at different conditions of temperature, reaction time, and oxygen pressure, but also factors like pre-soaking straw in warm water, or recycling liquid were also studied. Wet oxidation has been extensively tested in the past for different substrates, and gives promising results with indicators that are important for cellulosic ethanol production; C6 sugars recovery, high digestibility for enzymes, and limited formed degradation products. Here, optimal pretreatment conditions for rape straw were first presoaking rape straw at 80 deg. C for 20 minutes, and then wet-oxidize with 12 bar of oxygen at 205 deg. C for 3 minutes. Recovery of cellulose and hemicellulose under these conditions was 105% and 106% respectively, while recovery of lignin was 86%. When this

  20. Development of an efficient regeneration and transformation method for the new potential oilseed crop Lepidium campestre

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Lepidium campestre is an undomesticated oilseed species with a great potential to become a new crop for both food and industrial feedstocks production. Genetic modification is needed for further improving the oil quantity and quality of Lepidium. Studies on in vitro shoot regeneration of Lepidium are very limited and there is no transformation protocol available. Results We have investigated the effects of different factors, especially the type, concentration and combination of plant growth regulators (PGRs) on in vitro shoot regeneration of Lepidium. The results showed that the 2,4-D treatment was crucial to shoot regeneration from different explants. The duration of 2,4-D exposure between 2-4 days did not show significant difference in shoot regeneration, while the effect of 2,4-D concentration varied greatly depending on the type of explants and cytokinins used, for example, the low concentration of 2,4-D combined with TDZ significantly increased the regeneration frequency of hypocotyls. Cotyledon and hypocotyl explants responded differently to cytokinin, for example, TDZ was more effective than zeatin in promoting shoot regeneration from hypocotyls, but did not affect the regeneration of cotyledons which was more affected by high concentration of zeatin. The results also showed that NAA was not effective for shoot regeneration. Germination in light increased the regeneration frequency compared to that in dark. After optimization of the different conditions, an efficient regeneration protocol was developed with the regeneration efficiency of 92.7%. Using this protocol, the transformation frequency of 6% in average was achieved. The presence of transgenes in the transgenic lines was confirmed by GUS staining, PCR and Southern blot analyses. Conclusion Through systematic investigation of important factors affecting in vitro shoot regeneration, we have developed an efficient regeneration and transformation protocol for the genetic modification of

  1. The Emerging Oilseed Crop Sesamum indicum Enters the “Omics” Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komivi Dossa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. is one of the oldest oilseed crops widely grown in Africa and Asia for its high-quality nutritional seeds. It is well adapted to harsh environments and constitutes an alternative cash crop for smallholders in developing countries. Despite its economic and nutritional importance, sesame is considered as an orphan crop because it has received very little attention from science. As a consequence, it lags behind the other major oil crops as far as genetic improvement is concerned. In recent years, the scenario has considerably changed with the decoding of the sesame nuclear genome leading to the development of various genomic resources including molecular markers, comprehensive genetic maps, high-quality transcriptome assemblies, web-based functional databases and diverse daft genome sequences. The availability of these tools in association with the discovery of candidate genes and quantitative trait locis for key agronomic traits including high oil content and quality, waterlogging and drought tolerance, disease resistance, cytoplasmic male sterility, high yield, pave the way to the development of some new strategies for sesame genetic improvement. As a result, sesame has graduated from an “orphan crop” to a “genomic resource-rich crop.” With the limited research teams working on sesame worldwide, more synergic efforts are needed to integrate these resources in sesame breeding for productivity upsurge, ensuring food security and improved livelihood in developing countries. This review retraces the evolution of sesame research by highlighting the recent advances in the “Omics” area and also critically discusses the future prospects for a further genetic improvement and a better expansion of this crop.

  2. Identification of three genes encoding microsomal oleate desaturases (FAD2) from the oilseed crop Camelina sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jinling; Snapp, Anna R; Lu, Chaofu

    2011-02-01

    Camelina sativa is a re-emerging low-input oilseed crop that may provide economical vegetable oils for industrial applications. It is desirable to increase the monounsaturated oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid, 18:1), and to decrease polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), linoleic (cis, cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid, 18:2) and α-linolenic (all-cis-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, 18:3) acids, in camelina oils to improve oxidative stability. 18:1 desaturation is mainly controlled by the microsomal oleate desaturase (FAD2; EC 1.3.1.35) encoded by the FAD2 gene. Three FAD2 genes, designated CsFAD2-1 to 3, were identified in camelina. Functional expression of these genes in yeast confirmed that they all encode microsomal oleate desaturases. Although the three CsFAD2 genes share very high sequence similarity, they showed different expression patterns. Expression of CsFAD2-1 was detected in all tissues examined, including developing seed, flower, as well as in vegetable tissues such as leaf, root, and stem. Transcripts of CsFAD2-2 and CsFAD2-3 were mainly detected in developing seeds, suggesting their major roles in storage oil desaturation in seed. The introns of the three CsFAD2 genes, which showed greater sequence variations, may provide additional resources for designing molecular markers in breeding. Furthermore, the roles of CsFAD2 in PUFA synthesis were demonstrated by mutant analysis and by antisense gene expression in camelina seed. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Growth and Yield Stimulation of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brasssica Napus L. by Mg-Titanit Fertiliser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kováčik Peter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effort to achieve higher yields at the required qualitative level has led to the intensive studying the problems of the rational usage of the titanium containing fertilisers by the agricultural research in the course the previous thirty years. Therefore, the objective of the experiment was to evaluate the impact of two doses of Mg-Titanit (0.2 l/ha and 0.4 l/ha on the formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass, also on the total chlorophyll in leaves, on the titanium and nitrogen content in the seeds and straw, on the quantity and quality of winter rape yield. The doses were applied two or three times on the leaves of winter rape (BBCH 50-52, BBCH 59, BBCH 66-67. The experiment was realized on the Haplic Chernozem (48°42´ N, 17°70´ E - Western Slovakia during two farming years (2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The results showed that all three applications of Mg-Titanit in both doses stimulated the formation of aboveground and underground phytomass of winter rape. The highest growth of phytomass was detected after the second application. The application of Mg-Titanit in the growth phases BBCH 50-52 and BBCH 59 increased the contents of both chlorophylls (a and b, where the growth of chlorophyll b content was more considerable than the growth of chlorophyll a content. The third spraying by Mg-Titanit decreased the content of the total chlorophyll. The application of Mg-Titanit had the positive impact on the yield of seeds, straw and fat content in the winter oilseed rape seeds.

  4. Effects of experimental warming on fungal disease progress in oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebold, Magdalena; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Global warming will influence the growth and development of both crops and pathogens. The aims of this study were to investigate potential effects of future warming on oilseed rape growth and the epidemiology of the three economically important pathogens Verticillium longisporum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Leptosphaeria maculans (anamorph: Phoma lingam). We utilized climate chambers and a soil warming facility, where treatments represented regional warming scenarios for Lower Saxony, Germany, by 2050 and 2100, and compared results of both approaches on a thermal time scale by calculating degree-days (dd) from day of sowing, December 1st and March 1st until sampling, the latter correlating best with disease progress. Regression analysis showed that plant growth and growth stages in spring responded almost linearly to increasing thermal time until 1000-1500 dd. Colonization of plant tissue by V. longisporum showed an exponential increase when exceeding 1300-1500 dd and reaching plant growth stage BBCH 74/75 (pod development). V. longisporum colonization of plants may be advanced, potentially leading to higher inoculum densities after harvest and increased economic importance of this pathogen under future warming. Sclerotia germination of S. sclerotiorum reached its maximum at 600-900 dd. Advance of these critical degree-days may lead to earlier apothecia production, potentially advancing the infection window, whereas the future importance of S. sclerotiorum may remain constant. Severity of phoma crown canker increased linearly with increasing thermal time, but showed also large variation in response to the warming scenarios, suggesting that factors such as canopy microclimate in fall or leaf shedding over winter may play a bigger role for L. maculans infection and disease severity than higher soil temperatures. Thermal time was a suitable tool to combine and integrate data on biological responses to soil and air temperature increases from climate chamber and field

  5. Composition and fatty acid profile of milk from cows supplemented with pressed oilseed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Neto, Severino Gonzaga; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sa; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Pereira, Elzania Sales; Bagaldo, Adriana Regina; de Pellegrini, Caius Barcellos; Correia, Braulio Rocha

    2016-10-01

    This study compared the productive and nutritional parameters of milk from crossbred lactating cows managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania and with a diet supplemented with different pressed oilseed cakes. The supplements used were as follows: peanut cake, sunflower cake and palm kernel cake for replacement of soybean meal. Sixteen cows with an average weight of 544 ± 57 kg and producing 8 ± 1.4 L of milk per day were used in this study. The animals were randomly assigned to the treatments according to a Latin square design repeated over time, with four treatments, 16 animals and four experimental periods. Supplementation of the diet with peanut cake, sunflower cake and palm kernel cake compared with soybean meal in the diet of cows did not affect the average daily production or composition of the milk. The palm kernel cake promoted an increase in lauric fatty acids (C12:0 ) and palmitoleic acids (C16:1 ) (5.02 and 1.65%, respectively) compared with peanut cake and sunflower cake (4.13 and 4.01%, respectively). The levels of oleic fatty acids (C18:1 ) were higher for the sunflower cake and palm kernel cake supplements (26.01 and 25.01%, respectively) compared with peanut cake (23.11%). The replacement of soybean meal with sunflower cake and palm kernel cake improved the nutritional quality of the milk, with lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids and higher concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids, without compromising the production or nutritional composition of the milk. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Superhabitable worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, René; Armstrong, John

    2014-01-01

    To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) does not need to be located in the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and worlds in the HZ are not necessarily habitable. Here, we illustrate how tidal heating can render terrestrial or icy worlds habitable beyond the stellar HZ. Scientists have developed a language that neglects the possible existence of worlds that offer more benign environments to life than Earth does. We call these objects "superhabitable" and discuss in which contexts this term could be used, that is to say, which worlds tend to be more habitable than Earth. In an appendix, we show why the principle of mediocracy cannot be used to logically explain why Earth should be a particularly habitable planet or why other inhabited worlds should be Earth-like. Superhabitable worlds must be considered for future follow-up observations of signs of extraterrestrial life. Considering a range of physical effects, we conclude that they will tend to be slightly older and more massive than Earth and that their host stars will likely be K dwarfs. This makes Alpha Centauri B, which is a member of the closest stellar system to the Sun and is supposed to host an Earth-mass planet, an ideal target for searches for a superhabitable world.

  7. Emergency situations; Les situations d'urgence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The nuclear activities are exercised so as to prevent the accidents. They are subjected to a rule whom application is controlled by the Asn. The risk of grave accident is so limited to a very low level of probability. He cannot be however completely pushed aside. The expression ' radiological emergency situation ' indicates a situation which ensues from an incident or of an accident risking to lead to an emission of radioactive materials or a level of radioactivity susceptible to strike a blow at the public health. The term ' nuclear crisis ' is used for the events which can lead to a radiological emergency situation on a nuclear basic installation or during a transport of radioactive materials. The preparation and the management of emergency situations, that they are of natural, accidental or terrorist origin, became a major concern of our society. We propose you of to know more about it in this file. (N.C.)

  8. Modeling Being "Lost": Imperfect Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Victor E.

    2011-01-01

    Being "lost" is an exemplar of imperfect Situation Awareness/Situation Understanding (SA/SU) -- information/knowledge that is uncertain, incomplete, and/or just wrong. Being "lost" may be a geo-spatial condition - not knowing/being wrong about where to go or how to get there. More broadly, being "lost" can serve as a metaphor for uncertainty and/or inaccuracy - not knowing/being wrong about how one fits into a larger world view, what one wants to do, or how to do it. This paper discusses using agent based modeling (ABM) to explore imperfect SA/SU, simulating geo-spatially "lost" intelligent agents trying to navigate in a virtual world. Each agent has a unique "mental map" -- its idiosyncratic view of its geo-spatial environment. Its decisions are based on this idiosyncratic view, but behavior outcomes are based on ground truth. Consequently, the rate and degree to which an agent's expectations diverge from ground truth provide measures of that agent's SA/SU.

  9. Improving the fatty acid profile of winter milk from housed cows with contrasting feeding regimes by oilseed supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiadis, S; Leifert, C; Seal, C J; Eyre, M D; Steinshamn, H; Butler, G

    2014-12-01

    Many studies show concentrations of nutritionally desirable fatty acids in bovine milk are lower when cows have no access to grazing, leading to seasonal fluctuations in milk quality if cows are housed for part of the year. This study investigated the potential to improve the fatty acid profiles of bovine milk by oilseed supplementation (rolled linseed and rapeseed) during a period of indoor feeding in both organic and conventional production systems. Both linseed and rapeseed increased the concentrations of total monounsaturated fatty acids, vaccenic acid, oleic acid and rumenic acid in milk, but decreased the concentration of the total and certain individual saturated fatty acids. Linseed resulted in greater changes than rapeseed, and also significantly increased the concentrations of α-linolenic acid, total polyunsaturated fatty acids and total omega-3 fatty acids. The response to oilseed supplementation, with respect to increasing concentrations of vaccenic acid and omega-3 fatty acids, appeared more efficient for organic compared with conventional diets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The use of Pseudomonas fluorescens P13 to control sclerotinia stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) of oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Li, Huaibo; Bai, Yan; Wang, Jing; Nie, Ming; Li, Bo; Xiao, Ming

    2011-12-01

    Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been an increasing threat to oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivation. Efficient and environment-friendly treatments are much needed. Here we focus on microbial control. The Pseudomonas fluorescens P13 that was isolated from oilseed rape cultivation soil, proved to be a useful biocontrol strain for application. Morphology, physiological and biochemical tests and 16S rDNA analysis demonstrated that it was P. fluorescens P13 and that it had a broad antagonistic spectrum, significantly lessening the mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum by 84.4% and suppressing sclerotial formation by 95-100%. Scanning electron microscopy studies attested that P13 deformed S. sclerotiorum mycelia when they were cultured together. P13 did not produce chitinase but did produce hydrogen cyanide (HCN) which was likely one of the antagonistic mechanisms. The density of P13 remained at a high level (≥10(6) CFU/ml) during 5 weeks in the rhizosphere soil and roots. P13 reduced SSR severity at least by 59% in field studies and also promoted seedling growth (psclerotiorum.

  11. Detection and characterization of carbendazim resistance in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates from oilseed rape in Anhui Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D; Pan, Y; Zhang, H; Li, X; Dai, Y; Cao, S; Gao, Z

    2015-12-11

    Stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a devastating disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in Anhui Province of China. The fungicide carbendazim (methyl benzimidazole-2-yl carbamate; MBC) has been used to control this fungal disease since the 1980s. In the present study, 74 isolates of S. sclerotiorum from 13 regions of Anhui were collected, and the sensitivities of these isolates to MBC were examined to monitor fungicide resistance. We found that 22 of the 74 isolates showed resistance to MBC, indicating that S. sclerotiorum has developed resistance in parts of Anhui Province. PCR assays and DNA sequence analysis showed that isolates with high MBC resistance had a point mutation at position 198 in the β-tubulin gene that caused a glutamic acid-to-alanine change in the protein. The β-tubulin gene in low-resistance isolates did not have the mutation. These results indicate that the mutation in β-tubulin gene may be associated with high MBC resistance in S. sclerotiorum. The present study also found no correlation between MBC resistance and pathogenicity of S. sclerotiorum isolates, suggesting that the pathogenicity of S. sclerotiorum isolates on oilseed rape did not vary with MBC resistance status.

  12. Mapping the mosaic of ancestral genotypes in a cultivar of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) selected via pedigree breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, A G; Lydiate, D J

    2003-06-01

    Recent oilseed rape breeding has produced low glucosinolate cultivars that yield proteinaceous meal suitable for animal feed. The low glucosinolate character was introduced into modern cultivars from Brassica napus 'Bronowski', a cultivar that is agronomically inferior in most other respects. Residual segments of 'Bronowski' genotype in modern cultivars probably cause reduced yield, poorer winter hardiness, and lower oil content. The quantity and distribution of the 'Bronowski' genotype in the modern oilseed rape cultivar Brassica napus 'Tapidor' was investigated using a segregating population derived from a cross between 'Tapidor' and its high glucosinolate progenitor. This population was analyzed with 65 informative Brassica RFLP probes and a genetic linkage map, based on the segregation at 77 polymorphic loci, was constructed. The mapping identified 15 residual segments of donor genotype in 'Tapidor', which together occupy approximately 29% of the B. napus genome. Mapping the loci that control variation for the accumulation of total seed glucosinolates in the segregating population has identified three loci that together explain >90% of the variation for this character. All of these loci are in donor segments of the 'Tapidor' genome. This result shows the extent to which conventional breeding programmes have difficulty in eliminating residual segments of donor genotype from elite material.

  13. Temporal Polarimetric Behavior of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L. at C-Band for Early Season Sowing Date Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Spatial monitoring of the sowing date plays an important role in crop yield estimation at the regional scale. The feasibility of using polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR data for early season monitoring of the sowing dates of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. fields is explored in this paper. Polarimetric SAR responses of six parameters, relying on polarization decomposition methods, were investigated as a function of days after sowing (DAS during the entire growing season, by means of five consecutive Radarsat-2 images. A near-continuous temporal evolution of these parameters was observed, based on 88 oilseed rape fields. It provided a solid basis for determining the suitable temporal window and the best polarimetric parameters for sowing date monitoring. A high sensitivity of all polarimetric parameters to the DAS at different growing stages was shown. Simple linear models could be calibrated to estimate sowing dates at early growth stages and were validated on an independent data set. Although Volume and Span parameters provided the highest sowing date estimation accuracy at the earlier growth stages, the other four parameters (Volume/Total, Odd/Total, Entropy and Alpha were more accurate for a wider temporal window. These results demonstrate the capability and high potential of polarimetric SAR data for monitoring the sowing date of crops in the early season.

  14. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of the GRF gene family in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin-Qi; Jian, Hong-Ju; Yang, Bo; Lu, Kun; Zhang, Ao-Xiang; Liu, Pu; Li, Jia-Na

    2017-07-15

    Growth regulating-factors (GRFs) are plant-specific transcription factors that help regulate plant growth and development. Genome-wide identification and evolutionary analyses of GRF gene families have been performed in Arabidopsis thaliana, Zea mays, Oryza sativa, and Brassica rapa, but a comprehensive analysis of the GRF gene family in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) has not yet been reported. In the current study, we identified 35 members of the BnGRF family in B. napus. We analyzed the chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships (Bayesian Inference and Neighbor Joining method), gene structures, and motifs of the BnGRF family members, as well as the cis-acting regulatory elements in their promoters. We also analyzed the expression patterns of 15 randomly selected BnGRF genes in various tissues and in plant varieties with different harvest indices and gibberellic acid (GA) responses. The expression levels of BnGRFs under GA treatment suggested the presence of possible negative feedback regulation. The evolutionary patterns and expression profiles of BnGRFs uncovered in this study increase our understanding of the important roles played by these genes in oilseed rape. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Predictive Situational Awareness Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Situational Awareness is the key element of performing safe and effective operations, and the space vehicle operations carried out by NASA is by no means an...

  16. Situational Prevention of Organised Crimes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bullock, KA; Clarke, R.(Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America); Tilley, N

    2010-01-01

    Situational crime prevention is the art and science of reducing opportunities for crime. Despite accumulating evidence of its value in reducing many different kinds of crime - such as burglary, fraud, robbery, car theft, child sexual abuse and even terrorism - little has previously been published about its role in reducing organised crimes. This collection of case studies, by a distinguished international group of researchers, fills this gap by documenting the application of a situational pre...

  17. MEDIA INFLUENCE ON OPERATIVE SITUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail M. Ardavov

    2016-01-01

    The problems regarding the influence of the media on various aspects of society are viewed in the article. Historical facts of the media influence on large groups of people are given. Concerning the discussed problem views on the concept of operative situation are set out. Analysis of factors affecting the operative situation is given. Based on the analysis of publications devoted to the problem of the media influence on the processes in society, a generalization of areas of their impact on t...

  18. World Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...

  19. Introduction of beet cyst nematode resistance from Sinapis alba L. and Raphanus sativus L. into Brassica napus L. (oil-seed rape) through sexual and somatic hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelivelt, C.L.C.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were performed to select for beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm., abbrev. BCN) resistant genotypes of Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape), and to introduce BCN-resistance from the related species Raphanus

  20. Epidemiology of light leaf spot (Pyrenopeziza brassicae) on winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) = De epidemiologie van 'light leaf spot' (Pyrenopeziza brassicae) in winterkoolzaad (Brassica napus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilles, T.

    2000-01-01

    Forecasts of the severity of light leaf spot of winter oilseed rape are needed to help growers with their decisions on fungicide applications at times when sprays are needed to control light leaf spot, but the disease is difficult to diagnose. A thorough understanding of stages in

  1. Linkage mapping in the oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. reveals a locus controlling the biosynthesis of phorbol esters which cause seed toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King, A.J.; Montes, L.R.; Clarke, J.G.; Affleck, J.; Li, Y.; Witsenboer, H.; Vossen, van der E.; Linde, van der P.; Tripathi, Y.; Tavares, E.; Shukla, P.; Rajasekaran, T.; Loo, van E.N.; Graham, I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Current efforts to grow the tropical oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. economically are hampered by the lack of cultivars and the presence of toxic phorbol esters (PE) within the seeds of most provenances. These PE restrict the conversion of seed cake into animal feed, although naturally occurring

  2. Phytochemistry and Agro-Industrial Potential of Native Oilseeds from West Africa: African Grape (Lannea microcarpa, Marula (Sclerocarya birrea, and Butter Tree (Pentadesma butyracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Hilou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotanical investigations on local oilseed species in Burkina Faso revealed that oils from tree oilseeds are frequently used for food, cosmetics and traditional medicine by local people. To test the bio-preservative capacity, the effect of the oilseed extracts on the stabilization of Shea butter was evaluated. Levels of bioactive phyto-components were evaluated through several methods. Some aspects of the quality of oilcakes were evaluated based on their inhibitory capacity on the endogenous digestive enzymes of cattle. For fat stabilizing quality, the extract from Lannea microcarpa Engl. & K. Krause has showed the largest increase (91.47% in the Rancimat induction time (TIR of Shea butter. Using DPPH and FRAP methods for prevention or scavenging of free radicals, the results evidenced the highest activity with extracts of L. microcarpa. With respect to the feed quality of the oilcakes, the IC50 obtained with α-amylase and trypsin have showed that the ethanolic extracts of Pentadesma butyracea Sabine (1824 is less toxic for cattle. These results suggest that phenolic compounds extracted from these native oilseeds, especially those of Lannea microcarpa, can be used as biological antioxidants for bio-preservation of edible fats. In addition, the by-products of the oil-extraction can be valorized as nontoxic and protein-rich oilcakes for livestock feed.

  3. Formulations of the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape and improve plant vigor in field trials conducted at separate locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses in crops in The People’s Republic of China. Two formulations of oilseed rape seed containing the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 were evaluated for suppression of this pathogen in field trials conducted at two independent locations....

  4. Building online worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Nielsen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    The fantasy genre has proven to be extremely durable in creating blockbuster successes across multiple media platforms, such as books, films, tabletop and especially online computer games. Currently 85 % of all Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) are situated in fantasy...... universes (Van Geel, 2012). This paper will focus on the far most popular fantasy-MMORPG to date, namely World of Warcraft (Blizzard, 2004) as a lens to examine the different potentials of the fantasy genre spanning across various media platforms. Using the concept of “worldness”, traditionally understood...

  5. Ontology of World Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Culture division influences our lives differently in how we identify and evaluate who we are as individuals. We respond to life situations in how we interpret ourselves. How we function in society as a whole signifies invaluable differences in how we base our demeanor. Freedom of speech is a given right in American society. It is the social norm to be able to voice your opinion on diverse issues faced in our global environment. The Ontology of World Politics is a form of mediating issues of concern.

  6. The Economic Situation in Contemporary Africa: Comment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economic situation in contemporary Africa is highly problematic, creating populations that are in general much discontented with matters as they now stand. Africa's populations are now assailed by negative phenomena such as high unemployment; low wages in an environment of high prices (Third World wages and ...

  7. ASIA and OCEANIA: Literacy Experts Discuss the Current Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literacy Work, 1978

    1978-01-01

    A study of the literacy situation in the Asian region served as the basis for a Unesco regional conference. Findings of the study indicate that more than half of the world's illiterate population is in the Asia and Oceania regions. Factors contributing to successful literacy programs are presented. (LRA)

  8. Situational Analysis of Tobacco Control in Kenya | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Situational Analysis of Tobacco Control in Kenya. The looming tobacco epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa and its potential to thwart the development process has prompted most governments in the region to ratify the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). Ratifying countries ...

  9. Situational Analysis of Tobacco Control in Kenya | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Situational Analysis of Tobacco Control in Kenya. The looming tobacco epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa and its potential to thwart the development process has prompted most governments in the region to ratify the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). Ratifying countries ...

  10. Large-scale monitoring of effects of clothianidin-dressed oilseed rape seeds on pollinating insects in northern Germany: residues of clothianidin in pollen, nectar and honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolke, Daniel; Persigehl, Markus; Peters, Britta; Sterk, Guido; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    This study was part of a large-scale monitoring project to assess the possible effects of Elado(®) (10 g clothianidin & 2 g β-cyfluthrin/kg seed)-dressed oilseed rape seeds on different pollinators in Northern Germany. Firstly, residues of clothianidin and its active metabolites thiazolylnitroguanidine and thiazolylmethylurea were measured in nectar and pollen from Elado(®)-dressed (test site, T) and undressed (reference site, R) oilseed rape collected by honey bees confined within tunnel tents. Clothianidin and its metabolites could not be detected or quantified in samples from R fields. Clothianidin concentrations in samples from T fields were 1.3 ± 0.9 μg/kg and 1.7 ± 0.9 μg/kg in nectar and pollen, respectively. Secondly, pollen and nectar for residue analyses were sampled from free flying honey bees, bumble bees and mason bees, placed at six study locations each in the R and T sites at the start of oilseed rape flowering. Honey samples were analysed from all honey bee colonies at the end of oilseed rape flowering. Neither clothianidin nor its metabolites were detectable or quantifiable in R site samples. Clothianidin concentrations in samples from the T site were below the limit of quantification (LOQ, 1.0 µg/kg) in most pollen and nectar samples collected by bees and 1.4 ± 0.5 µg/kg in honey taken from honey bee colonies. In summary, the study provides reliable semi-field and field data of clothianidin residues in nectar and pollen collected by different bee species in oilseed rape fields under common agricultural conditions.

  11. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of the SUC and SWEET gene families of sucrose transporters in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIAN Hongju

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose is the principal transported product of photosynthesis from source leaves to sink organs. SUTs/SUCs (sucrose transporters or sucrose carriers and SWEETs (Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporters play significant central roles in phloem loading and unloading. SUTs/SUCs and SWEETs are key players in sucrose translocation and are associated with crop yields. The SUT/SUC and SWEET genes have been characterized in several plant species, but a comprehensive analysis of these two gene families in oilseed rape has not yet been reported. In our study, 22 and 68 members of the SUT/SUCs and SWEET gene families, respectively, were identified in the oilseed rape (Brassica napus genome through homology searches. An analysis of the chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, motifs and the cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoters of BnSUC and BnSWEET genes were analysed. Furthermore, we examined the expression of the 18 BnSUC and 16 BnSWEET genes in different tissues of ‘ZS11’ and the expression of 9 BnSUC and 7 BnSWEET genes in ‘ZS11’ under various conditions, including biotic stress (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, abiotic stresses (drought, salt and heat, and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinin, brassinolide, gibberellin and salicylic acid. In conclusion, our study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the oilseed rape SUC and SWEET gene families. Information regarding the phylogenetic relationships, gene structure and expression profiles of the SUC and SWEET genes in the different tissues of oilseed rape helps to identify candidates with potential roles in specific developmental processes. Our study advances our understanding of the important roles of sucrose transport in oilseed rape.

  12. Rice Yield and the Fate of Fertilizer Nitrogen as Affected by Addition of Earthworm Casts Collected from Oilseed Rape Fields: A Pot Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    Full Text Available The mechanism associated with improvement of soil nutritional status by oilseed rape crop, leading to better performance of rice crop, in rice-oilseed rape cropping systems is little known. The present study was aimed to test the hypothesis that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season have positive effects on grain yield and fertilizer nitrogen (N utilization in the subsequent flooded rice crop. A 15N-tracing pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of earthworm casts collected from oilseed rape fields on yield attributes in rice and the fate of fertilizer N. Soil treated with earthworm casts (soil: earthworm casts = 4: 1, w/w (EC1 produced 39% higher grain yield than soil only (EC0. EC1 had 18% more panicle number and 10% higher spikelet filling percentage than EC0. Aboveground biomass and harvest index were higher in EC1 than in EC0 by 20% and 15%, respectively. SPAD values in flag leaves were 10% and 22% higher under EC1 than EC0 at 15 and 20 days after heading, respectively. EC1 had 19% higher total N uptake and 18% higher physiological N-use efficiency than EC0. These positive effects of earthworm casts on yield attributes offset negative effects of decreasing N rate from 0.74 g pot-1 (equivalent to the recommended field rate of 150 kg ha-1 to 0.44 g pot-1 (equivalent to 60% of the recommended rate. Fertilizer N retention rate was 7% higher while fertilizer N loss rate was 6% lower in EC1 than in EC0. Our study suggests that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season are expected to have the following benefits on the subsequent flooded rice system: (1 improving growth and physiological processes in rice plants and consequently increasing rice grain yield, and (2 increasing fertilizer N retention rate and hence decreasing fertilizer N loss rate and reducing environmental risk.

  13. Rice Yield and the Fate of Fertilizer Nitrogen as Affected by Addition of Earthworm Casts Collected from Oilseed Rape Fields: A Pot Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Zhou, Xuefeng; Xie, Xiaobing; Zhao, Chunrong; Chen, Jiana; Cao, Fangbo; Zou, Yingbin

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism associated with improvement of soil nutritional status by oilseed rape crop, leading to better performance of rice crop, in rice-oilseed rape cropping systems is little known. The present study was aimed to test the hypothesis that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season have positive effects on grain yield and fertilizer nitrogen (N) utilization in the subsequent flooded rice crop. A 15N-tracing pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of earthworm casts collected from oilseed rape fields on yield attributes in rice and the fate of fertilizer N. Soil treated with earthworm casts (soil: earthworm casts = 4: 1, w/w) (EC1) produced 39% higher grain yield than soil only (EC0). EC1 had 18% more panicle number and 10% higher spikelet filling percentage than EC0. Aboveground biomass and harvest index were higher in EC1 than in EC0 by 20% and 15%, respectively. SPAD values in flag leaves were 10% and 22% higher under EC1 than EC0 at 15 and 20 days after heading, respectively. EC1 had 19% higher total N uptake and 18% higher physiological N-use efficiency than EC0. These positive effects of earthworm casts on yield attributes offset negative effects of decreasing N rate from 0.74 g pot-1 (equivalent to the recommended field rate of 150 kg ha-1) to 0.44 g pot-1 (equivalent to 60% of the recommended rate). Fertilizer N retention rate was 7% higher while fertilizer N loss rate was 6% lower in EC1 than in EC0. Our study suggests that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season are expected to have the following benefits on the subsequent flooded rice system: (1) improving growth and physiological processes in rice plants and consequently increasing rice grain yield, and (2) increasing fertilizer N retention rate and hence decreasing fertilizer N loss rate and reducing environmental risk.

  14. The situation in Italy; La situation en Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-09-01

    Italy is the market leader for Autogas in Europe. It still has major potential for development in a context where environmental concerns are increasing, particularly in cities. Gianni Silvestrini, from the Italian Ministry of the Environment, outlined the situation in his country at the AEGPL Congress held in Prague. This article presents some extracts from his paper.

  15. The France energy situation; La situation energetique de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  16. Contribution of Ruminal Fungi, Archaea, Protozoa, and Bacteria to the Methane Suppression Caused by Oilseed Supplemented Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaopu Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dietary lipids can suppress methane emission from ruminants, but effects are variable. Especially the role of bacteria, archaea, fungi and protozoa in mediating the lipid effects is unclear. In the present in vitro study, archaea, fungi and protozoa were selectively inhibited by specific agents. This was fully or almost fully successful for fungi and protozoa as well as archaeal activity as determined by the methyl-coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit gene. Five different microbial treatments were generated: rumen fluid being intact (I, without archaea (–A, without fungi (–F, without protozoa (–P and with bacteria only (–AFP. A forage-concentrate diet given alone or supplemented with crushed full-fat oilseeds of either safflower (Carthamus tinctorius or poppy (Papaver somniferum or camelina (Camelina sativa at 70 g oil kg−1 diet dry matter was incubated. This added up to 20 treatments with six incubation runs per treatment. All oilseeds suppressed methane emission compared to the non-supplemented control. Compared to the non-supplemented control, –F decreased organic matter (OM degradation, and short-chain fatty acid concentration was greater with camelina and safflower seeds. Methane suppression per OM digested in –F was greater with camelina seeds (−12 vs.−7% with I, P = 0.06, but smaller with poppy seeds (−4 vs. −8% with I, P = 0.03, and not affected with safflower seeds. With –P, camelina seeds decreased the acetate-to-propionate ratio and enhanced the methane suppression per gram dry matter (18 vs. 10% with I, P = 0.08. Hydrogen recovery was improved with –P in any oilseeds compared to non-supplemented control. No methane emission was detected with the –A and –AFP treatments. In conclusion, concerning methanogenesis, camelina seeds seem to exert effects only on archaea and bacteria. By contrast, with safflower and poppy seeds methane was obviously reduced mainly through the interaction with protozoa or archaea

  17. [Situational reactions in suicidologic practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrumova, A G; Vrono, E M

    1985-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the description of suicidal manifestations in mentally normal adolescents among typical behavioural disorders characteristic of situational reactions of this age. Three types of suicido-dangerous situational responses of adolescents were specified with regard to their age and auto-and heteaggressiveness ratio: reaction of deprivation, explosive reaction and reaction of auto-elimination. Suicidogenic conflicts were analyzed and spheres of age-specific suicidal conflicts were defined. It is advisable that outpatient management of mentally normal adolescents with a history of a suicidal attempt be conducted in a special room of presentive suicidological service.

  18. Upper secondary students’ situational interest:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2013-01-01

    ’ interest was investigated by a descriptive interpretive approach, based on data from classroom and field trip observations, video recording, and interviews. The findings provided evidence that substantial situational interest can be generated during a fieldtrip to a zoo. Students’ interest was triggered......This paper comprises a presentation of the findings of a case study that investigated how situational factors triggered 12th grade students’ interest during a field trip to a zoo. The purpose was to identify sources of interest and to investigate the attributes that make them interesting. Students...

  19. Cyber defense and situational awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Kott, Alexander; Erbacher, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first publication to give a comprehensive, structured treatment to the important topic of situational awareness in cyber defense. It presents the subject in a logical, consistent, continuous discourse, covering key topics such as formation of cyber situational awareness, visualization and human factors, automated learning and inference, use of ontologies and metrics, predicting and assessing impact of cyber attacks, and achieving resilience of cyber and physical mission. Chapters include case studies, recent research results and practical insights described specifically for th

  20. The Role of Biofuels Coproducts in Feeding the World Sustainably.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurson, Gerald C

    2017-02-08

    One of the grand challenges facing our society today is finding solutions for feeding the world sustainably. The food-versus-fuel debate is a controversy embedded in this challenge, involving the trade-offs of using grains and oilseeds for biofuels production versus animal feed and human food. However, only 6% of total global grain produced is used to produce ethanol. Furthermore, biofuels coproducts contribute to sustainability of food production because only 1% to 2.5% of the overall energy efficiency is lost from converting crops into biofuels and animal feed, and approximately one-third of the corn used to produce ethanol is recovered as feed coproducts. Extensive research has been conducted over the past 15 years on biofuels coproducts to (a) optimize their use for improving caloric and nutritional efficiency in animal feeds, (b) identify benefits and limitations of use in various animal diets, (c) characterize their unique nutraceutical properties, and (d) evaluate their environmental impacts.

  1. Spinning worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, H.

    2017-01-01

    The thesis "Spinning Worlds" is about the characterisation of two types of gas-giant exoplanets: Hot Jupiters, with orbital periods of fewer than five days, and young, wide-orbit gas giants, with orbital periods as long as thousands of years. The thesis is based on near-infrared observations of 1

  2. Situated Learning: Conceptualization and Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Lakshmi; Johnson, Norman; Junglas, Iris; Ives, Blake

    2010-01-01

    A focus on the interaction between cognitive schemas and context in situ has been suggested as fundamental in organizational decision making and information interpretation. Past research suggests that the situation and the social interaction that occur during learning at the cognitive level consist of factors that affect the process, but the…

  3. Average Convexity in Communication Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we study inheritance properties of average convexity in communication situations. We show that the underlying graph ensures that the graphrestricted game originating from an average convex game is average convex if and only if every subgraph associated with a component of the

  4. Albanian: Basic Course. Basic Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    The purpose of this volume is to provide the student with a vehicle for reviewing the grammar and vocabulary of Lessons 1-120 of "Albanian: Basic Course," and, with practice and the help of new words and idioms, increasing his fluency and scope of expression. The volume contains eleven units, each unit describing a situation, which in turn is…

  5. The Language Situation in Macao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xi

    2017-01-01

    In postcolonial societies, forces associated with globalization operate along with local geopolitical changes. The complex and multifaceted interactions between local, national, and global forces may take different sociolinguistic shapes in postcolonial societies. This study provides an overview of the language situation in Macao. The Portuguese…

  6. Preferential exclusion of hybrids in mixed pollinations between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and weedy B. campestris (Brassicaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, T.P.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Østergård, Hanne

    1997-01-01

    In most experimental hybridizations between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and weedy B. campestris, either intra- or interspecific pollen has been applied to individual flowers. Under field conditions, however, stigmas will often receive a mixture of the two types of pollen, thereby allowing...... for competition between male gametophytes and/or seeds within pods. To test whether competition influences the success of hybridization, pollen from the two species was mixed in different proportions and applied to stigmas of both species. The resulting seeds were scored for paternity by isozyme and randomly...... survival of hybrid zygotes in B. napus pods. This is in contrast to the higher survival of hybrid seeds in B. napus than in B. campestris pods when pollinations are made with pure pollen. Altogether, the likelihood of a foreign pollen grain producing a seed was much lower on B. napus than on B. campestris...

  7. Digestibility and postprandial ammonia excretion in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing different oilseed by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Fialor, Simon Cudjoe

    2015-01-01

    the trial period. The inclusions of the plant proteins caused a reduction in ammonia excretion rates with the palm kernel meal diet recording the lowest mean excretion rates of 117 mg kg(-1) day(-1) which was twofold lower than the highest mean daily ammonia excretion rate of the fish group fed the fishmeal-based....... A fishmeal-based diet served as control against three test diets in which 30 % of each of the oilseed by-products was included. Diets were randomly assigned to triplicate groups of fish (similar to 1 kg bulk weight) for the digestibility trials which spanned a total of 9 days. The partial inclusion...... control diets. Overall, the study confirmed the potential of using copra and palm kernel meals to partially replace fishmeal in Nile tilapia diets based on their effects on short-term growth and feed utilization, nutrient digestibilities and lower ammonia excretion rates, while soybean meal...

  8. Non-destructive determination of Malondialdehyde (MDA) distribution in oilseed rape leaves by laboratory scale NIR hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wenwen; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Chu; Zhang, Jianfeng; Feng, Hailin

    2016-10-01

    The feasibility of hyperspectral imaging with 400-1000 nm was investigated to detect malondialdehyde (MDA) content in oilseed rape leaves under herbicide stress. After comparing the performance of different preprocessing methods, linear and nonlinear calibration models, the optimal prediction performance was achieved by extreme learning machine (ELM) model with only 23 wavelengths selected by competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), and the result was RP = 0.929 and RMSEP = 2.951. Furthermore, MDA distribution map was successfully achieved by partial least squares (PLS) model with CARS. This study indicated that hyperspectral imaging technology provided a fast and nondestructive solution for MDA content detection in plant leaves.

  9. Genotypic Variation in Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) Under Contrasting N Supply in Pot and Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huiying; Yang, Rui; Li, Yajun; Ma, Aisheng; Cao, Lanqin; Wu, Xiaoming; Chen, Biyun; Tian, Hui; Gao, Yajun

    2017-01-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) characteristically has high N uptake efficiency and low N utilization efficiency (NUtE, seed yield/shoot N accumulation). Determining the NUtE phenotype of various genotypes in different growth conditions is a way of finding target traits to improve oilseed rape NUtE. The aim of this study was to compare oilseed rape genotypes grown on contrasting N supply rates in pot and field experiments to investigate the genotypic variations of NUtE and to identify indicators of N efficient genotypes. For 50 oilseed rape genotypes, NUtE, dry matter and N partitioning, morphological characteristics, and the yield components were investigated under high and low N supplies in a greenhouse pot experiment and a field trial. Although the genotype rankings of NUtE were different between the pot experiment and the field trial, some genotypes performed consistently in both two environments. N-responder, N-nonresponder, N-efficient and N-inefficient genotypes were identified from these genotypes with consistent NUtE. The correlations between the pot experiment and the field trial in NUtE were only 0.34 at high N supplies and no significant correlations were found at low N supplies. However, Pearson coefficient correlation (r) and principal component analysis showed NUtE had similar genetic correlations with other traits across the pot and field experiment. Among the yield components, only seeds per silique showed strong and positive correlations with NUtE under varying N supply in both experiments (r = 0.47**; 0.49**; 0.47**; 0.54**). At high and low N supply, NUtE was positively correlated with seed yield (r = 0.45**; 0.53**; 0.39**; 0.87**), nitrogen harvest index (NHI, r = 0.68**; 0.82**; 0.99**; 0.89**), and harvest index (HI, r = 0.79**; 0.83**; 0.90**; 0.78**) and negatively correlated with biomass distribution to stem and leaf (r = −0.34**; −0.45**; −0.37**; 0.62**), all aboveground plant section N concentration (r from −0.30* to −0

  10. Genotypic Variation in Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus Under Contrasting N Supply in Pot and Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying He

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape (Brassica napus characteristically has high N uptake efficiency and low N utilization efficiency (NUtE, seed yield/shoot N accumulation. Determining the NUtE phenotype of various genotypes in different growth conditions is a way of finding target traits to improve oilseed rape NUtE. The aim of this study was to compare oilseed rape genotypes grown on contrasting N supply rates in pot and field experiments to investigate the genotypic variations of NUtE and to identify indicators of N efficient genotypes. For 50 oilseed rape genotypes, NUtE, dry matter and N partitioning, morphological characteristics, and the yield components were investigated under high and low N supplies in a greenhouse pot experiment and a field trial. Although the genotype rankings of NUtE were different between the pot experiment and the field trial, some genotypes performed consistently in both two environments. N-responder, N-nonresponder, N-efficient and N-inefficient genotypes were identified from these genotypes with consistent NUtE. The correlations between the pot experiment and the field trial in NUtE were only 0.34 at high N supplies and no significant correlations were found at low N supplies. However, Pearson coefficient correlation (r and principal component analysis showed NUtE had similar genetic correlations with other traits across the pot and field experiment. Among the yield components, only seeds per silique showed strong and positive correlations with NUtE under varying N supply in both experiments (r = 0.47**; 0.49**; 0.47**; 0.54**. At high and low N supply, NUtE was positively correlated with seed yield (r = 0.45**; 0.53**; 0.39**; 0.87**, nitrogen harvest index (NHI, r = 0.68**; 0.82**; 0.99**; 0.89**, and harvest index (HI, r = 0.79**; 0.83**; 0.90**; 0.78** and negatively correlated with biomass distribution to stem and leaf (r = −0.34**; −0.45**; −0.37**; 0.62**, all aboveground plant section N concentration (r from −0.30* to

  11. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg

    2015-01-01

    stearic acid, C 18:0. For example we found that in the two factor treatment, where elevated [CO2] and temperature were combined, the essential fatty acid omega-3, C18:3, decreased by 45% and oil content declined 10%.Total losses in fatty acid and oil yields would be even larger, when also considering...... fatty acids was changed for the worse. Facing this outlook, breeding for climate tolerant cultivars seems essential for oil yield and quality. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V......Despite of the potential importance to food and bioenergy purposes, effects from climate change on plant oil quality have hardly been characterized.On a global basis Brassica napus L., rapeseed or oilseed rape, is the second largest source of vegetable oil after soybean and the predominant oil crop...

  12. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg

    2015-01-01

    found that in the two- factor treatment, where elevated [CO2] and temperature were combined, the essential fatty acid omega-3, C18:3, decreased by 45% and oil content declined 10%.Total losses in fatty acid and oil yields would be even larger, when also considering reported reductions in seed biomass....... Facing this outlook, breeding for climate tolerant cultivars seems essential for oil yield and quality.......Despite of the potential importance to food and bioenergy purposes, effects from climate change on plant oil quality have hardly been characterized.On a global basis Brassica napus L., rapeseed or oilseed rape, is the second largest source of vegetable oil after soybean and the predominant oil crop...

  13. Applying Cognitive Fusion to Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, S.; Shaw, M.; Chan, M.

    With recent increases in capability and frequency of rocket launches from countries across the world, maintaining a state-of-the-art Space Situational Awareness model is all the more necessary. We propose a fusion of real-time, natural language processing capability provided by IBM cognitive services with ground-based sensor data of positions and trajectories of satellites in all earth orbits. We believe such insight provided by cognitive services could help determine context to missile launches, help predict when a satellite of interest could be in danger, either by accident or by intent, and could alert interested parties to the perceived threat. We seek to implement an improved Space Situational Awareness model by developing a dynamic factor graph model informed by the fusion of ground-based ”structured” sensor data with ”unstructured” data from the public domain, such as news articles, blogs, and social media, in real time. To this end, we employ IBM’s Cognitive services, specifically, Watson Discovery. Watson Discovery allows real-time natural language processing of text including entity extraction, keyword search, taxonomy classification, concept tagging, relation extraction, sentiment analysis, and emotion analysis. We present various scenarios that demonstrate the utility of this new Space Situational Awareness model, each of which combine past structured information with related open source data. We demonstrate that should the model come to estimate a satellite is ”of interest”, it will indicate it as so, based on the most pertinent data, such as a reading from a sensor or by information available online. We present and discuss the most recent iterations of the model for satellites currently available on Space-Track.org.

  14. Hydroponics versus field lysimeter studies of urea, ammonium and nitrate uptake by oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkoun, Mustapha; Sarda, Xavier; Jannin, Laëtitia; Laîné, Philippe; Etienne, Philippe; Garcia-Mina, José-Maria; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Ourry, Alain

    2012-09-01

    N-fertilizer use efficiencies are affected by their chemical composition and suffer from potential N-losses by volatilization. In a field lysimeter experiment, (15)N-labelled fertilizers were used to follow N uptake by Brassica napus L. and assess N-losses by volatilization. Use of urea with NBPT (urease inhibitor) showed the best efficiency with the lowest N losses (8% of N applied compared with 25% with urea alone). Plants receiving ammonium sulphate, had similar yield achieved through a better N mobilization from vegetative tissues to the seeds, despite a lower N uptake resulting from a higher volatilization (43% of applied N). Amounts of (15)N in the plant were also higher when plants were fertilized with ammonium nitrate but N-losses reached 23% of applied N. In parallel, hydroponic experiments showed a deleterious effect of ammonium and urea on the growth of oilseed rape. This was alleviated by the nitrate supply, which was preferentially taken up. B. napus was also characterized by a very low potential for urea uptake. BnDUR3 and BnAMT1, encoding urea and ammonium transporters, were up-regulated by urea, suggesting that urea-grown plants suffered from nitrogen deficiency. The results also suggested a role for nitrate as a signal for the expression of BnDUR3, in addition to its role as a major nutrient. Overall, the results of the hydroponic study showed that urea itself does not contribute significantly to the N nutrition of oilseed rape. Moreover, it may contribute indirectly since a better use efficiency for urea fertilizer, which was further increased by the application of a urease inhibitor, was observed in the lysimeter study.

  15. Overexpression of sinapine esterase BnSCE3 in oilseed rape seeds triggers global changes in seed metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Kathleen; von Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda; Böttcher, Christoph; Roth, Mary R; Welti, Ruth; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Scheel, Dierk; Milkowski, Carsten; Strack, Dieter

    2011-03-01

    Sinapine (O-sinapoylcholine) is the predominant phenolic compound in a complex group of sinapate esters in seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Sinapine has antinutritive activity and prevents the use of seed protein for food and feed. A strategy was developed to lower its content in seeds by expressing an enzyme that hydrolyzes sinapine in developing rape seeds. During early stages of seedling development, a sinapine esterase (BnSCE3) hydrolyzes sinapine, releasing choline and sinapate. A portion of choline enters the phospholipid metabolism, and sinapate is routed via 1-O-sinapoyl-β-glucose into sinapoylmalate. Transgenic oilseed rape lines were generated expressing BnSCE3 under the control of a seed-specific promoter. Two distinct single-copy transgene insertion lines were isolated and propagated to generate homozygous lines, which were subjected to comprehensive phenotyping. Sinapine levels of transgenic seeds were less than 5% of wild-type levels, whereas choline levels were increased. Weight, size, and water content of transgenic seeds were significantly higher than those of wild-type seeds. Seed quality parameters, such as fiber and glucosinolate levels, and agronomically important traits, such as oil and protein contents, differed only slightly, except that amounts of hemicellulose and cellulose were about 30% higher in transgenic compared with wild-type seeds. Electron microscopic examination revealed that a fraction of the transgenic seeds had morphological alterations, characterized by large cavities near the embryonic tissue. Transgenic seedlings were larger than wild-type seedlings, and young seedlings exhibited longer hypocotyls. Examination of metabolic profiles of transgenic seeds indicated that besides suppression of sinapine accumulation, there were other dramatic differences in primary and secondary metabolism. Mapping of these changes onto metabolic pathways revealed global effects of the transgenic BnSCE3 expression on seed metabolism.

  16. Detecting the Hormonal Pathways in Oilseed Rape behind Induced Systemic Resistance by Trichoderma harzianum TH12 to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkooranee, Jawadayn Talib; Aledan, Tamarah Raad; Ali, Ali Kadhim; Lu, Guangyuan; Zhang, Xuekun; Wu, Jiangsheng; Fu, Chunhua; Li, Maoteng

    2017-01-01

    Plants have the ability to resist pathogen attack after infection or treatment with biotic and abiotic elicitors. In oilseed rape plant Brassica napus AACC and in the artificially synthesized Raphanus alboglabra RRCC, the root-colonizing Trichoderma harzianum TH12 fungus triggers induced systemic resistance (ISR), and its culture filtrate (CF) triggers a systemic acquired resistance (SAR) response against infection by the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) are plant hormone signals that play important roles in the regulation of ISR and SAR. In this study, at six different time points (1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days post-infection [dpi]), six resistance genes were used as markers of signaling pathways: JA/ET signaling used AOC3, PDF1.2 and ERF2 genes, while PR-1, TGA5 and TGA6 genes were used as markers of SA signaling. The results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed that AOC3, PDF1.2 and ERF2 expression levels in infected leaves of AACC and RRCC increase at 1 and 2 dpi with S. sclerotiorum or inoculation with TH12. PR-1, TGA5 and TGA6 expression levels increased at 8 and 10 dpi in infected leaves. PR-1, TGA5 and TGA6 expression levels increased early in plants treated with CF in both of the healthy genotypes. Furthermore, induction of SA- and JA/ET-dependent defense decreased disease symptoms in infected leaves at different times. The results suggest that the RRCC genotype exhibits resistance to disease and that the ability of TH12 and its CF to induce systemic resistance in susceptible and resistant oilseed rape genotypes exists. In addition, the results indicate for the first time that in RRCC the SA signaling pathway is involved in resistance to necrotrophic pathogens.

  17. Detecting the Hormonal Pathways in Oilseed Rape behind Induced Systemic Resistance by Trichoderma harzianum TH12 to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawadayn Talib Alkooranee

    Full Text Available Plants have the ability to resist pathogen attack after infection or treatment with biotic and abiotic elicitors. In oilseed rape plant Brassica napus AACC and in the artificially synthesized Raphanus alboglabra RRCC, the root-colonizing Trichoderma harzianum TH12 fungus triggers induced systemic resistance (ISR, and its culture filtrate (CF triggers a systemic acquired resistance (SAR response against infection by the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET are plant hormone signals that play important roles in the regulation of ISR and SAR. In this study, at six different time points (1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days post-infection [dpi], six resistance genes were used as markers of signaling pathways: JA/ET signaling used AOC3, PDF1.2 and ERF2 genes, while PR-1, TGA5 and TGA6 genes were used as markers of SA signaling. The results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR showed that AOC3, PDF1.2 and ERF2 expression levels in infected leaves of AACC and RRCC increase at 1 and 2 dpi with S. sclerotiorum or inoculation with TH12. PR-1, TGA5 and TGA6 expression levels increased at 8 and 10 dpi in infected leaves. PR-1, TGA5 and TGA6 expression levels increased early in plants treated with CF in both of the healthy genotypes. Furthermore, induction of SA- and JA/ET-dependent defense decreased disease symptoms in infected leaves at different times. The results suggest that the RRCC genotype exhibits resistance to disease and that the ability of TH12 and its CF to induce systemic resistance in susceptible and resistant oilseed rape genotypes exists. In addition, the results indicate for the first time that in RRCC the SA signaling pathway is involved in resistance to necrotrophic pathogens.

  18. Nuclear situation in Japan; La situation du nucleaire au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This analysis takes stock on the nuclear situation in Japan. It discusses the ambitious equipment program in collaboration with the France, the destabilization of the japanese nuclear industry following the accidents and the energy policy evolutions. It presents the projects of the japanese nuclear industry: the Monju reactor restart, the Pluthermal project, the reprocessing power plant of Rokkasho Mura, the new reactors, the russian weapons dismantling, the ITER site selection and the buy out of Westinghouse by Toshiba. (A.L.B.)

  19. Present situation of refractories in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittencourt, P. (Magnesita S.A., (Brazil))

    1992-11-10

    This paper outlines the present situation of refractories in Brazil, particularly the use of refractories in the steel industry which is one of the major industries in this country. Brazil is the 8th largest steel producer in the world, and about 64% of all the production is exported. Because of increasing competitions in the world market, high-level production techniques are required, and active improvements of refractories are also being carried out. The specific consumption of refractories in 1 ton of steel has gradually decreased to produce high-quality refractories. In Brazil, 95% of all demand except for special items such as submerged nozzles and blast furnace carbon blocks can be provided domestically. It is characteristic that raw materials for refractories, such as magnesite, bauxite, and graphite can also be self-supporting. Compositions and physical properties of typical refractories used for various purposes in iron and steel manufactures including blast furnaces, torpedo cars, BOF converters, electric are furnaces, and electric arc ladles are described, and the direction toward their conversion into new materials is shown. Moreover, the trends of refractories for the cement industry and for nonferrous metals such as aluminum are introduced. 6 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. Upper secondary students’ situational interest:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2013-01-01

    This paper comprises a presentation of the findings of a case study that investigated how situational factors triggered 12th grade students’ interest during a field trip to a zoo. The purpose was to identify sources of interest and to investigate the attributes that make them interesting. Students......’ interest was investigated by a descriptive interpretive approach, based on data from classroom and field trip observations, video recording, and interviews. The findings provided evidence that substantial situational interest can be generated during a fieldtrip to a zoo. Students’ interest was triggered....... The study implies that zoo visits can provide students with affective experiences, which can be a powerful way to stimulate students’ learning motivation....

  1. Situational Analysis of Engineering Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    STS inspired studies of engineering work practices provide new material for a richer understanding of engineering culture. However, the specific and strictly situated focus of many of these studies threatens to limit discussions of engineering practices to departmental and discrete institutional...... settings. This micro perspective potentially overlooks the inherent and overarching normativities that inform engineering culture. Furthermore, the micro perspective has difficulties in transgressing institutional boundaries in order to investigate the dynamics of cultural reproduction in engineering....... The paper will propose a research agenda that – inspired by George Marcus’ multi-sited ethnographic methodology (Marcus 1998) and Adele Clarke’s situational analysis (Clarke 2005) – analyze (and contrasts) engineering practices in diverse settings (e.g. engineering education and engineering work) in order...

  2. On viewing culture as situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    Practicing technical communicators deal with culture as an integral part of language and communication practices. Yet, etic models of culture based on dimensions of culture related to values (i.e. Hofstede, Trompenaars, Edward T. Hall, Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck) are so abstract that they are difficult......, the cultural dimension of power distance from Hofstede helps technical communicators approach the notion of context, but cannot be directly operationalized in design decisions for translating a product manual. To undo the reversal of scope which renders etic dimensions of cultures difficult to operationalize...... participate in social action (Bazerman 1988 & Miller 1984, 1994). To begin to define culture as situation, I will engage the cultural systems perspective (Kampf & Kastberg 2005). This perspective is based on the interaction between norms of behaviour and context in which Hofstede situated his dimensions...

  3. A tutorial on situated learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Clancey, William J.

    1995-01-01

    The theory of situated learning claims that every idea and human action is a generalization, adapted to the ongoing environment, because what people see and what they do arise together. From this perspective, thinking is a physical skill. As we create names for things, shuffle around sentences in a paragraph, and interpret what our statements mean, every step is controlled not by reinstantiated grammars and previously constructed plans, but adaptively recoordinated from previous ways of seein...

  4. Cognitive empathy in conflict situations

    OpenAIRE

    Gauer, Florian; Kuzmics, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Two individuals are involved in a conflict situation in which preferences are ex ante uncertain. While they eventually learn their own preferences, they have to pay a small cost if they want to learn their opponent's preferences. We show that, for sufficiently small positive costs of information acquisition, in any Bayesian Nash equilibrium of the resulting game of incomplete information the probability of getting informed about the opponent's preferences is bounded away from zero and one.

  5. Bridging worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Memon, Saifullah Hassan

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a case study where Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) was used to help automate a largely manual administrative (examination) information system in a Pakistani university. Various design suggestions for information system improvements, both administrative and IT-supported were made...... analysis tools into the design process. The research extends SSM in information system development (ISD) - from a single situational analysis to a comparative process and can be adapted as a pattern for practitioners with similar automation needs....... (and implemented) through comparison with another university in Denmark which is well supported by computer systems. An action design research approach with an interpretative epistemology/ontology was adopted. Though the single comparison experience is difficult to generalise, we conclude that SSM...

  6. Examining study habits in undergraduate STEM courses from a situative perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hora, Matthew T; Oleson, Amanda K

    2017-01-01

    ... on how undergraduate students in STEM courses actually study in real-world settings. Using a practice-based approach informed by situated cognition theory, we analyzed data from 61 STEM students about their study...

  7. Resource Management in Constrained Dynamic Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Jinwoo

    Resource management is considered in this dissertation for systems with limited resources, possibly combined with other system constraints, in unpredictably dynamic environments. Resources may represent fuel, power, capabilities, energy, and so on. Resource management is important for many practical systems; usually, resources are limited, and their use must be optimized. Furthermore, systems are often constrained, and constraints must be satisfied for safe operation. Simplistic resource management can result in poor use of resources and failure of the system. Furthermore, many real-world situations involve dynamic environments. Many traditional problems are formulated based on the assumptions of given probabilities or perfect knowledge of future events. However, in many cases, the future is completely unknown, and information on or probabilities about future events are not available. In other words, we operate in unpredictably dynamic situations. Thus, a method is needed to handle dynamic situations without knowledge of the future, but few formal methods have been developed to address them. Thus, the goal is to design resource management methods for constrained systems, with limited resources, in unpredictably dynamic environments. To this end, resource management is organized hierarchically into two levels: 1) planning, and 2) control. In the planning level, the set of tasks to be performed is scheduled based on limited resources to maximize resource usage in unpredictably dynamic environments. In the control level, the system controller is designed to follow the schedule by considering all the system constraints for safe and efficient operation. Consequently, this dissertation is mainly divided into two parts: 1) planning level design, based on finite state machines, and 2) control level methods, based on model predictive control. We define a recomposable restricted finite state machine to handle limited resource situations and unpredictably dynamic environments

  8. Effects of dietary inclusions of oilseed meals on physical characteristics and feed intake of diets for the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Fialor, Simon Cudjoe

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the inclusion of three oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals) on some physical characteristics of pelletized feeds as well as on voluntary feed intake and faecal matter production by the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The die......The present study investigated the effects of the inclusion of three oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals) on some physical characteristics of pelletized feeds as well as on voluntary feed intake and faecal matter production by the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus......) was significantly higher in the tilapia groups fed the copra and palm kernel meals. The results obtained from this study show that 30% inclusions of unrefined forms of copra and palm kernel meal in Nile tilapia diets is possible, without adversely affecting feed intake or pellet nutrient losses prior to ingestion....

  9. Landscape-scale distribution and persistence of genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knispel, Alexis L; McLachlan, Stéphane M

    2010-01-01

    Genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) oilseed rape (OSR; Brassica napus L.) was approved for commercial cultivation in Canada in 1995 and currently represents over 95% of the OSR grown in western Canada. After a decade of widespread cultivation, GMHT volunteers represent an increasing management problem in cultivated fields and are ubiquitous in adjacent ruderal habitats, where they contribute to the spread of transgenes. However, few studies have considered escaped GMHT OSR populations in North America, and even fewer have been conducted at large spatial scales (i.e. landscape scales). In particular, the contribution of landscape structure and large-scale anthropogenic dispersal processes to the persistence and spread of escaped GMHT OSR remains poorly understood. We conducted a multi-year survey of the landscape-scale distribution of escaped OSR plants adjacent to roads and cultivated fields. Our objective was to examine the long-term dynamics of escaped OSR at large spatial scales and to assess the relative importance of landscape and localised factors to the persistence and spread of these plants outside of cultivation. From 2005 to 2007, we surveyed escaped OSR plants along roadsides and field edges at 12 locations in three agricultural landscapes in southern Manitoba where GMHT OSR is widely grown. Data were analysed to examine temporal changes at large spatial scales and to determine factors affecting the distribution of escaped OSR plants in roadside and field edge habitats within agricultural landscapes. Additionally, we assessed the potential for seed dispersal between escaped populations by comparing the relative spatial distribution of roadside and field edge OSR. Densities of escaped OSR fluctuated over space and time in both roadside and field edge habitats, though the proportion of GMHT plants was high (93-100%). Escaped OSR was positively affected by agricultural landscape (indicative of cropping intensity) and by the presence of an

  10. Mapping of QTL for the seed storage proteins cruciferin and napin in a winter oilseed rape doubled haploid population and their inheritance in relation to other seed traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzki, Jörg; Ecke, Wolfgang; Becker, Heiko C; Möllers, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Cruciferin (cru) and napin (nap) were negatively correlated and the cru/nap ratio was closely negative correlated with glucosinolate content indicating a link between the two biosynthetic pathways. Canola-type oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is an economically important oilseed crop in temperate zones. Apart from the oil, the canola protein shows potential as a value-added food and nutraceutical ingredient. The two major storage protein groups occurring in oilseed rape are the 2 S napins and 12 S cruciferins. The aim of the present study was to analyse the genetic variation and the inheritance of napin and cruciferin content of the seed protein in the winter oilseed rape doubled haploid population Express 617 × R53 and to determine correlations to other seed traits. Seed samples were obtained from field experiments performed in 2 years at two locations with two replicates in Germany. A previously developed molecular marker map of the DH population was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) of the relevant traits. The results indicated highly significant effects of the year and the genotype on napin and cruciferin content as well as on the ratio of cruciferin to napin. Heritabilities were comparatively high with 0.79 for napin and 0.77 for cruciferin. Napin and cruciferin showed a significant negative correlation (-0.36**) and a close negative correlation of the cru/nap ratio to glucosinolate content was observed (-0.81**). Three QTL for napin and two QTL for cruciferin were detected, together explaining 47 and 35 % of the phenotypic variance. A major QTL for glucosinolate content was detected on linkage group N19 whose confidence interval overlapped with QTL for napin and cruciferin content. Results indicate a relationship between seed protein composition and glucosinolate content.

  11. Contribution of nitrogen uptake and retranslocation during reproductive growth to the nitrogen efficiency of winter oilseed-rape cultivars (Brassica napus L.) differing in leaf senescence

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian Koeslin-Findeklee; Horst, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    Genotypic variation in N efficiency defined as high grain yield under limited nitrogen (N) supply of winter oilseed-rape line-cultivars has been predominantly attributed to N uptake efficiency (NUPT) through maintained N uptake during reproductive growth related to functional stay-green. For investigating the role of stay-green, N retranslocation and N uptake during the reproductive phase for grain yield formation, two line cultivars differing in N starvation-induced leaf senescence were grow...

  12. Differences between winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars in nitrogen starvation-induced leaf senescence are governed by leaf-inherent rather than root-derived signals

    OpenAIRE

    Koeslin-Findeklee, Fabian; Martin A. Becker; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas; Horst, Walter J.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) efficiency of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) line-cultivars (cvs.), defined as high grain yield under N limitation, has been primarily attributed to maintained N uptake during reproductive growth (N uptake efficiency) in combination with delayed senescence of the older leaves accompanied with maintained photosynthetic capacity (functional stay-green). However, it is not clear whether genotypic variation in N starvation-induced leaf senescence is due to leaf-inherent fact...

  13. Başlangıcından Günümüze Dünyada ve Türkiye’de İslâmi Bankacılığın Genel Durumu / From the Past to the Present the General Situation of Islamic Banking in the World and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Atar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The global financial crisis that emerged in the US in 2008 rekindled the debate on capitalism. The efforts of large-capitalist banks to shake up and save the states with their big-budget institutions have made the free-market economy or capitalism, once more controversial. These controversies that took place in that period are also handled in intellectual dimensions, and Karl Marx's famous work Das Capital broke sales records. While the critique of capitalism is made especially in the context of Marxist literature, there is another alternative into the mainstream economics: Islamic economics. The term of Islamic economics was firstly used by Seyyid Ebu’l-A’la Mevdudi (1903-1979. In fact, Islamic economics was born as a reaction to mainstream economics, with being a modern concept introduced in the 1960s. This new approach has been specifically addressed by Indian Muslims. In other words, if we are talking about Islamic economics as an independent discipline today, it is a great need for the supremacy of the West to get into the economics and for Muslims to benefit from this discipline to overcome it. The main sources of the Islamic economics are the Qur'an and Sunnah, the main sources of Islam. And also, ijma’ and qiyas can be thought as sources of Islam. In this article, firstly, to be able to understand the background of the subject we will reveal emergence conditions of Islamic banks by giving in the chronological order. We will present the magnitudes of Islamic banking in the world today by comparing it with the general banking system (conventional banks. After analyzing the global general situation of Islamic banking, we will analyze the history of Islamic banking in Turkey and its share in the sectoral and domestic banking system in the world. Öz 2008’de ABD’de ortaya çıkan küresel finans krizi, kapitalizm eksenli tartışmaları yeniden alevlendirmişti. Büyük sermayeli bankaların sarsıntı geçirdiği ve

  14. The Interplay of Cross-Situational Word Learning and Sentence-Level Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Judith; Crocker, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of mechanisms contribute to word learning. Learners can track co-occurring words and referents across situations in a bottom-up manner (cross-situational word learning, CSWL). Equally, they can exploit sentential contexts, relying on top-down information such as verb-argument relations and world knowledge, offering immediate constraints…

  15. Effects of fungicides on in vitro spore germination and mycelial growth of the phytopathogens Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa (phoma stem canker of oilseed rape).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Maria R; Rossall, Stephen; Selley, Andrew; Fitt, Bruce D L

    2010-04-01

    Phoma stem canker, caused by the coexisting related fungal pathogens Leptosphaeria maculans (Des.) Ces. & de Not and L. biglobosa Shoemaker & H Brun, is a major disease of winter oilseed rape in the UK. Annually, over 90% of UK crops receive at least one foliar application of fungicide, but little is known about the sensitivity of the more damaging L. maculans and the less damaging L. biglobosa to these fungicides. The effects of flusilazole, tebuconazole and Methyl Benzimidazole Carbamate (MBC) fungicides (benomyl and carbendazim) on the germination of ascospores, conidia and germ tube growth of both species were examined. Isolates collected from different oilseed rape crops in England and Wales were assessed for their mycelial growth on fungicide-amended medium, and ED(50) values were calculated. Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa differed in their sensitivity to fungicides. Conidial germination of L. maculans was more sensitive to these fungicides than that of L. biglobosa. Isolates of L. maculans had smaller ED(50) values for mycelial growth for all fungicides tested than isolates of L. biglobosa. These results suggest that fungicide applications might affect the structure of L. maculans/L. biglobosa populations in UK winter oilseed rape crops.

  16. Effect of microwave radiation on seed viability, survival of Aspergillus niger van Tieghem and oil quality of oilseeds crops canola, soybean and safflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahad MOTALLEBI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of microwave's radiation on seed viability of three different oilseed crops, spores of Aspergillus niger and quality of extracted oil from treated seeds over various exposure times was evaluated. The seeds were exposed to 2450 MHz. at five different power levels of 0, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 W for two exposure times of three and five minutes. At a given time, a direct negative relationship between seed viability and microwave's radiation power level was detected. Substantial variation in the lethality of tested seeds to microwave's power levels was apparent in the fiducial limits of the estimated LD50 values in probit analysis approach. A similar trend of A. niger spores’ susceptibility to microwave radiation was detected. The microwaves' radiation and exposure time did not impact one another and a significant interaction was not detected. Short term fungal infection did not cause substantial quantitative and qualitative damage to the oilseeds. The oil quality was generally unaffected by microwave radiation and fungal infestation for tested oilseeds. Moreover, microwave radiation decreased seed germination percentage and vigor index. The microwave radiation could provide an effective and friendly environmental treatment technique for improving the dietary consumption of the oil in any seed disinfestation program.

  17. Ultrasound-assisted extraction for the determination of Cu, Mn, Ca, and Mg in alternative oilseed crops using flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peronico, Vanessa Cruz Dias; Raposo, Jorge Luiz

    2016-04-01

    An ultrasound-assisted extraction procedure was evaluated for the multi-element determination of Cu, Mn, Ca, and Mg in alternative oilseed crops using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The best results were obtained when 0.3g of samples were used to extract the mineral content using 10 mL of a 1.40 mol L(-1) HNO3 solution for 10 min at 25 °C. The accuracy and precision of the analysis were evaluated using two oilseed reference materials, and the results were in agreement with reference values at 95% confidence level (paired t-test). The method was used to analyze five oilseed samples and the results were in agreement with those obtained using a closed-vessel microwave-assisted acid digestion system for sample preparation. The relative standard deviations were 0.52-6.13% for all of the standard and sample measurements, and the limits of detection were 666.7, 416.7, 333.4 μg g(-1), and 3.5 mg g(-1) for Cu, Mn, Ca, and Mg, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Senescence-specific alteration of hydrogen peroxide levels in Arabidopsis thaliana and oilseed rape spring variety Brassica napus L. cv. Mozart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieker, Stefan; Riester, Lena; Stahl, Mark; Franzaring, Jürgen; Zentgraf, Ulrike

    2012-08-01

    In order to analyze the signaling function of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production in senescence in more detail, we manipulated intracellular H(2)O(2) levels in Arabidopsis thaliala (L.) Heynh by using the hydrogen-peroxide-sensitive part of the Escherichia coli transcription regulator OxyR, which was directed to the cytoplasm as well as into the peroxisomes. H(2)O(2) levels were lowered and senescence was delayed in both transgenic lines, but OxyR was found to be more effective in the cytoplasm. To transfer this knowledge to crop plants, we analyzed oilseed rape plants Brassica napus L. cv. Mozart for H(2)O(2) and its scavenging enzymes catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) during leaf and plant development. H(2)O(2) levels were found to increase during bolting and flowering time, but no increase could be observed in the very late stages of senescence. With increasing H(2)O(2) levels, CAT and APX activities declined, so it is likely that similar mechanisms are used in oilseed rape and Arabidopsis to control H(2)O(2) levels. Under elevated CO(2) conditions, oilseed rape senescence was accelerated and coincided with an earlier increase in H(2)O(2) levels, indicating that H(2)O(2) may be one of the signals to inducing senescence in a broader range of Brassicaceae. © 2012 Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. The Economics of Biofuel Policies. Impacts on Price Volatility in Grain and Oilseed Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, de H.; Drabik, D.

    2015-01-01

    The global food crises of 2008 and 2010 and the increased price volatility revolve around biofuels policies and their interaction with each other, farm policies and between countries. The Economics of Biofuel Policies focuses on the role of biofuel policies in creating turmoil in the world grains

  20. Soil salinity: Germination tolerance of alternative oilseed crops for soil health

    Science.gov (United States)

    World-wide, saline soils contribute to over US$27.3 billion in agricultural losses annually by reducing plant growth through osmotic imbalances and ion toxicity. Nearly 800,000 ha of salt affected land is located in the northern Great Plains. Limited information is available on the germination of al...

  1. Library Marketing in the World

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel Enache; Simona Gheorghe

    2008-01-01

    The article is a sequel to the previous one published in the previous issue of the Librarianship and Information Science magazine. A presentation of several experiences concerning the implementation of library marketing in Europe being already made, in what follows we will deal with other situations from different countries of the world. All these examples can be useful to the infodocumentary structures in Romania which marketing is a new domain, still discreet.

  2. Personality and the Construal of Situations

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Elysia Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The same situation may be perceived to have different qualities depending on who is making the assessment of the situation. Since situations have important implications for behavior, there is clearly value in pursuing an understanding of how people's perceptions of situations differ and what the predictors of these differences might be. However, few researchers have investigated this topic and none have examined its relationship to situations in a comprehensive manner. Following the developme...

  3. Typical worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jeffrey A.

    2017-05-01

    Hugh Everett III presented pure wave mechanics, sometimes referred to as the many-worlds interpretation, as a solution to the quantum measurement problem. While pure wave mechanics is an objectively deterministic physical theory with no probabilities, Everett sought to show how the theory might be understood as making the standard quantum statistical predictions as appearances to observers who were themselves described by the theory. We will consider his argument and how it depends on a particular notion of branch typicality. We will also consider responses to Everett and the relationship between typicality and probability. The suggestion will be that pure wave mechanics requires a number of significant auxiliary assumptions in order to make anything like the standard quantum predictions.

  4. Shell worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kenneth I.; Kennedy, Robert G., III; Fields, David E.

    2013-02-01

    The traditional concept of terraforming assumes ready availability of candidate planets with acceptable qualities: orbiting a star in its "Goldilocks zone", liquid water, enough mass, years longer than days, magnetic field, etc. But even stipulating affordable interstellar travel, we still might never find a good candidate elsewhere. Whatever we found likely would require centuries of heavy terraforming, just as Mars or Venus would here. Our increasing appreciation of the ubiquity of life suggests that any terra nova would already possess it. We would then face the dilemma of introducing alien life forms (us, our microbes) into another living world. Instead, we propose a novel method to create habitable environments for humanity by enclosing airless, sterile, otherwise useless planets, moons, and even large asteroids within engineered shells, which avoids the conundrum. These shells are subject to two opposing internal stresses: compression due to the primary's gravity, and tension from atmospheric pressure contained inside. By careful design, these two cancel each other resulting in zero net shell stress. Beneath the shell an Earth-like environment could be created similar in almost all respects to that of Home, except for gravity, regardless of the distance to the sun or other star. Englobing a small planet, moon, or even a dwarf planet like Ceres, would require astronomical amounts of material (quadrillions of tons) and energy, plus a great deal of time. It would be a quantum leap in difficulty over building Dyson Dots or industrializing our solar system, perhaps comparable to a mission across interstellar space with a living crew within their lifetime. But when accomplished, these constructs would be complete (albeit small) worlds, not merely large habitats. They could be stable across historic timescales, possibly geologic. Each would contain a full, self-sustaining ecology, which might evolve in curious directions over time. This has interesting implications

  5. Steps towards a situational ethic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, P J

    1978-08-01

    The Australian Royal Commission on Human Relationships summarized the problems of adolescents and family planning by declaring there is a level of teenage sexual activity that cannot be ignored. Young single people have a low rate of effective contraception. Teenagers suffer a very high proportion of unwanted pregnancies and abortions. Placing the ethical questions in a contemporary social context enables society to face the issues in a practical, realistic fashion. Historically preserved traditions, like the taboo against premarital sex, are and will continue to be important in the bonding of families, individuals, and societies. A situational ethic applies to changes in the social fabric and addresses them. Society has changed from rural to urban, from agrarian to technological, from literacy to mass media, from superstitious knowledge of reproduction to scientific methods of birth control. The realities of change should be faced with a sense of ethics that is grounded in tradition and adjusted to the needs of the actual situation which is that too many teenagers have too many unwanted pregnancies. They can be helped.

  6. A traffic situation analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidla, Oliver; Rosner, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    The observation and monitoring of traffic with smart visions systems for the purpose of improving traffic safety has a big potential. For example embedded vision systems built into vehicles can be used as early warning systems, or stationary camera systems can modify the switching frequency of signals at intersections. Today the automated analysis of traffic situations is still in its infancy - the patterns of vehicle motion and pedestrian flow in an urban environment are too complex to be fully understood by a vision system. We present steps towards such a traffic monitoring system which is designed to detect potentially dangerous traffic situations, especially incidents in which the interaction of pedestrians and vehicles might develop into safety critical encounters. The proposed system is field-tested at a real pedestrian crossing in the City of Vienna for the duration of one year. It consists of a cluster of 3 smart cameras, each of which is built from a very compact PC hardware system in an outdoor capable housing. Two cameras run vehicle detection software including license plate detection and recognition, one camera runs a complex pedestrian detection and tracking module based on the HOG detection principle. As a supplement, all 3 cameras use additional optical flow computation in a low-resolution video stream in order to estimate the motion path and speed of objects. This work describes the foundation for all 3 different object detection modalities (pedestrians, vehi1cles, license plates), and explains the system setup and its design.

  7. Geoheritage protection of Serbia: Present situation and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jojić-Glavonjić Tamara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neglected for decades in relation to the biodiversity and cultural heritage protection, the geoheritage protection has become a new concept, having more and more supporters in the world. The middle of the 1990s marked the beginning of the systematic geoheritage protection in Serbia. The basic components of that process are represented in the paper with the aim of evaluating the situation and noticing the key problems.

  8. Visual analytics of social media for situation awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Thom, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    With the emergence of social media services and other user-centered web platforms the nature of the modern internet changed substantially. While it has since been a vast source of information and news on all kinds of topics, it recently grew into a continuous stream of knowledge, observations, thoughts, and situation reports. They are provided in real-time by millions of people from all over the world. This change also offers completely new possibilities for domains that rely on good situatio...

  9. A Prolegomenon to Situation Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    but by how they describe things to be... Frege adopted a third strategy. He postulated a third realm, a realm neither of ideas nor of worldly events...enough, indexicality gave nightmares to both Frege and Russell. 12 It might seem that the issue of indexicality did not escape Montague’s attention; and...24 The conventional wisdom, from Frege through to its logical culmination in Montague, has been that propositional attitude constructions are

  10. Genetic mapping of rust resistance genes in confection sunflower line HA-R6 and oilseed line RHA 397.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, L; Gulya, T J; Markell, S G; Hulke, B S; Qi, L L

    2013-08-01

    Few widely effective resistance sources to sunflower rust, incited by Puccinia helianthi Schwein., have been identified in confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The USDA inbred line HA-R6 is one of the few confection sunflower lines resistant to rust. A previous allelism test indicated that rust resistance genes in HA-R6 and RHA 397, an oilseed-type restorer line, are either allelic or closely linked; however, neither have been characterized nor molecularly mapped. The objectives of this study are (1) to locate the rust resistance genes in HA-R6 and RHA 397 on a molecular map, (2) to develop closely linked molecular markers for rust resistance diagnostics, and (3) to determine the resistance spectrum of two lines when compared with other rust-resistant lines. Two populations of 140 F2:3 families each from the crosses of HA 89, as susceptible parent, with HA-R6 and RHA 397 were inoculated with race 336 of P. helianthi in the greenhouse. The resistance genes (R-genes) in HA-R6 and RHA 397 were molecularly mapped to the lower end of linkage group 13, which encompasses a large R-gene cluster, and were designated as R 13a and R 13b, respectively. In the initial maps, SSR (simple sequence repeat) and InDel (insertion and deletion) markers revealed 2.8 and 8.2 cM flanking regions for R 13a and R 13b, respectively, linked with a common marker set of four co-segregating markers, ORS191, ORS316, ORS581, and ZVG61, in the distal side and one marker ORS464 in the proximal side. To identify new markers closer to the genes, sunflower RGC (resistance gene candidate) markers linked to the downy mildew R-gene Pl 8 and located at the same region as R 13a and R 13b were selected to screen the two F2 populations. The RGC markers RGC15/16 and a newly developed marker SUN14 designed from a BAC contig anchored by RGC251 further narrowed down the region flanking R 13a and R 13b to 1.1 and 0.1 cM, respectively. Both R 13a and R 13b are highly effective against all rust races

  11. Effects of oilseed supplements on milk production and quality in dairy cows fed a hay-based diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kasal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of rapeseed (Brassica napus L. and linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. on feed consumption, milk yield, composition and fatty acid (FA profile was investigated in lactating dairy cows. According to a Latin square design, twelve cows were assigned to three experimental settings which received a haybased diet supplemented with one of the following mixtures: cracked barley (1.0 kg and cracked maize (0.5 kg as Control diet (C-diet; full fat ground rapeseed (1.0 kg, cracked barley (1.0 kg and cracked maize (0.5 kg as Rapeseed diet (R-diet and extruded linseed (1.2 kg, cracked barley (1.0 kg and cracked maize (0.5 kg as Linseed diet (L-diet. Diet supplemented with rape- and linseed did not affect dry matter intake. As result of the high amount of dietary ether extract R- and L-diet showed higher crude fat intake as compared to the control. Despite the higher intake of crude fat and, in particular, of the polyunsaturated fraction, milk yield and composition resulted similar among treatments. Compared to C-diet, R-diet resulted in milk containing significantly lower amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA (60.9 vs 66.9% of total detected SFA as well as higher amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA (30.6 vs 24.2%. However, R-diet had no effect on polyunsaturated fatty acid content (PUFA. With respect to C-diet, L-diet also significantly reduced the content of SFA (59.8 vs 66.9% and increased both MUFA (29.1 vs 24.2% and PUFA (4.7 vs 4.1% contents. Feeding about 1 kg of whole oilseeds per head per day had no clear effects on milk vaccenic acid and conjugated linoleic acid contents. The inclusion of rapeseed in the diet significantly reduced the content of n-6 FA in the milk, whereas the linseed-supplemented diet significantly increased the content of n-3 FA. In comparison to C-diet, n-6/n-3 ratio was lower in L-diet milk and intermediate in R-diet milk. Feeding lactating dairy cows with oilseeds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA did not

  12. Conceptual and methodological tools for analyzing situations of vulnerability on the road. Examples from a motorcycle riding study

    OpenAIRE

    Aupetit, Samuel; Riff, Jacques; GALLIER, Virginie; Espie, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    Motivation – This paper presents some theoretical and methodological tools that help to identify and analyze 'situations of vulnerability' for drivers. Research approach – This study refers to 'Course-of-Action Centred Design' that highly considers the situational aspects of activity to improve situations. Findings – Examples have been drawn from a field study of the 'situations of vulnerability' of novice motorcyclists in real world with a view to improving initial tr...

  13. ANT, tourism and situated globality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannesson, Gunnar Thór; Ren, Carina Bregnholm; van der Duim, René

    2015-01-01

    are used to define as the separate spheres of nature and culture. This paper explores and relates the central tenets of ANT in tourism with regard to the concept of the Anthropocene. It presents the ANT approach as a flat and object-oriented ontology and methodology and explores its potentials to carve out...... viable descriptions of the collective condition of humans and more-than-humans in the Anthropocene. Also and moving past a merely descriptive approach, it discusses it as a useful tool to engage with the situated globalities which come into being through the socio-spatial coupling of tourism...... and the Anthropocene through, as we propose improvisation, valuing and caring....

  14. Power restoration in emergency situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, B.R.; Mann, L.; Triantaphyllou, E.; Mahankali, S. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper addresses a problem of assigning electric power repair crews and depots to various locations (cells) in a damaged area during emergency situations such as natural disasters. The problem takes into account the damage levels and consequent demand for various resources at different cells in the area, along with the capacity restrictions of the depots. Two mixed integer quadratic programming models - one for single resource and another for multiple resources allocation are presented in this paper. The objective is to locate the depots, and assigning the crews and other resources to depots to various cells, at a minimum cost. The problem is solved optimally for various dimensions of the problem (e.g., number of cells in the region, number of depots considered and the number of resources) for a limited instance. (UK)

  15. Situating forensic traces in time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyermann, Céline; Ribaux, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    Situating events and traces in time is an essential problem in investigations. To date, among the typical questions issued in forensic science, time has generally been unexplored. The reason for this can be traced to the complexity of the overall problem, addressed by several scientists in very limited projects usually stimulated by a specific case. Considering that such issues are recurrent and transcending the treatment of each trace separately, the formalisation of a framework to address dating issues in criminal investigation is undeniably needed. Through an iterative process consisting of extracting recurrent aspects discovered from the study of problems encountered by practitioners and reported in the literature, common mechanisms were extracted and provide understanding of underlying factors encountered in forensic practise. Three complementary approaches are thus highlighted and described to formalise a preliminary framework that can be applied for the dating of traces, objects, persons and indirectly events. Copyright © 2011 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Innovative teaching in situational awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Audrey; Hogg, George; Ker, Jean

    2015-10-01

    In the UK the publication of the Health Select Committee Report highlighted the need to incorporate human factors training in health care education. In response there has been a rise in health care professional training in human factors, focusing on non-technical skills, such as teamwork, leadership and situational awareness. Using simulation and contextualised learning, we have developed a non-technical skills programme for undergraduate medical students that introduces situational awareness training in the first year. Early integration of human factors into the undergraduate programme can be built upon in a constructivist approach throughout the undergraduate curriculum. Initially no formal ethical approval was required as this was an integral part of the undergraduate teaching programme and did not involve patients; however, ethical approval was gained for the analyses of this session from the local University Research Ethics Committee. Approval included the information sheets and consent forms provided to students, which permitted use of data 'in future posters/publications/presentations'. Students were introduced to hazards and cues that they may find in clinical areas, encouraged to explore the simulated clinical areas gathering information, interpret their findings and then consider future states. There has been a rise in health care professional training in human factors, focusing on non-technical skills Initial feedback from both the students and the tutors involved has been positive. In addition, the opportunity for linking this to other non-technical skills developments in different clinical settings and in interprofessional settings is being considered. The next stage is to explore students' perceptions of this session and their learning through questionnaires and focus-group interviews before developing further. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Online worlds as media and communication format

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Digital media and network communication technology have not changed this setup, but rather have opened the possibility for encountering and experiencing additional types of worlds and performing additional types of spatial practices. Being situated online and being globally networked...... with the possibility of both synchronous and asynchronous communication, digitally mediated worlds provide possible interactions between users which are radically more independent of time and place than the ones facilitated by older media. From this perspective, the concept of online worlds both challenges...... and broadens our understanding of how media shape the world and how the media technology creates new social structures...

  18. Rhetoric and Reality: World Bank and CIDA Gender Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The picture the World Bank paints of the world is an optimistic one: living standards are higher than ever before, humanity is progressing, and situations for women are improving. If this is really the case, why then does "the impoverishment of hundreds of millions of people" throughout the world continue? (Chossudovsky 1997, 33). Why do "the…

  19. Intergeneric hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus containing traits of agronomic importance for oilseed rape breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Hansen, N.; Laursen, J.; Dixelius, C.; Andersen, B.

    2002-11-01

    Protoplast fusions between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus for transfer of valuable traits to oilseed rape resulted in 257 somatic hybrid plants. Hybridity was confirmed by morphological, cytological and molecular means. Symmetric fusions gave rise to 131 plants. Fifty eight of these plants had an intermediate morphology and contained nuclear DNA corresponding to the sum of the parental species. All 131 plants were sterile with no pollen grains observed upon flowering. Another 126 plants were derived from asymmetric fusions in which protoplasts of the donor parent O. violaceus were irradiated by 100 or 200-Gy X-rays prior to fusion. Morphologically these plants showed a larger variation compared to the plants regenerated from symmetric fusion experiments. In contrast to plants obtained from symmetric fusions, fertile hybrids were recovered among regenerants from the asymmetric fusions. Twenty four of these plants released viable pollen grains and 14 of the determined 17 plants set seeds after either selfing or backcrossing to B. napus. Fourteen male-sterile plants were identified with female fertility. This observed male sterility most-likely originated from alloplasmic recombination and would be of great potential for the development of a new cytoplasmic male sterility system. The fatty acid composition of the fertile hybrids and their progenies showed a biased distribution towards the B. napus parent, which has a high erucic acid-content type. However, increased levels of palmitic and linoleic acids compared to B. napus were found in subsequent generations, as well as a reduced level of erucic acid.

  20. Divergent patterns of allelic diversity from similar origins: the case of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in China and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S; Nelson, M N; Ghamkhar, K; Fu, T; Cowling, W A

    2008-01-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in Australia and China have similar origins, with introductions from Europe, Canada, and Japan in the mid 20th century, and there has been some interchange of germplasm between China and Australia since that time. Allelic diversity of 72 B. napus genotypes representing contemporary germplasm in Australia and China, including samples from India, Europe, and Canada, was characterized by 55 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers spanning the entire B. napus genome. Hierarchical clustering and two-dimensional multidimensional scaling identified a Chinese group (China-1) that was separated from "mixed group" of Australian, Chinese (China-2), European, and Canadian lines. A small group from India was distinctly separated from all other B. napus genotypes. Chinese genotypes, especially in the China-1 group, have inherited unique alleles from interspecific crossing, primarily with B. rapa, and the China-2 group has many alleles in common with Australian genotypes. The concept of "private alleles" is introduced to describe both the greater genetic diversity and the genetic distinctiveness of Chinese germplasm, compared with Australian germplasm, after 50 years of breeding from similar origins.

  1. Protocol: optimisation of a grafting protocol for oilseed rape (Brassica napus) for studying long-distance signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostendorp, Anna; Pahlow, Steffen; Deke, Jennifer; Thieß, Melanie; Kehr, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Grafting is a well-established technique for studying long-distance transport and signalling processes in higher plants. While oilseed rape has been the subject of comprehensive analyses of xylem and phloem sap to identify macromolecules potentially involved in long-distance information transfer, there is currently no standardised grafting method for this species published. We developed a straightforward collar-free grafting protocol for Brassica napus plants with high reproducibility and success rates. Micrografting of seedlings was done on filter paper. Grafting success on different types of regeneration media was measured short-term after grafting and as the long-term survival rate (>14 days) of grafts after the transfer to hydroponic culture or soil. We compared different methods for grafting B. napus seedlings. Grafting on filter paper with removed cotyledons, a truncated hypocotyl and the addition of low levels of sucrose under long day conditions allowed the highest grafting success. A subsequent long-term hydroponic cultivation of merged grafts showed highest survival rates and best reproducibility.

  2. Hyperspectral and thermal imaging of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) response to fungal species of the genus Alternaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Piotr; Jedryczka, Malgorzata; Mazurek, Wojciech; Babula-Skowronska, Danuta; Siedliska, Anna; Kaczmarek, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, thermal (8-13 µm) and hyperspectral imaging in visible and near infrared (VNIR) and short wavelength infrared (SWIR) ranges were used to elaborate a method of early detection of biotic stresses caused by fungal species belonging to the genus Alternaria that were host (Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicae, and Alternaria brassicicola) and non-host (Alternaria dauci) pathogens to oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). The measurements of disease severity for chosen dates after inoculation were compared to temperature distributions on infected leaves and to averaged reflectance characteristics. Statistical analysis revealed that leaf temperature distributions on particular days after inoculation and respective spectral characteristics, especially in the SWIR range (1000-2500 nm), significantly differed for the leaves inoculated with A. dauci from the other species of Alternaria as well as from leaves of non-treated plants. The significant differences in leaf temperature of the studied Alternaria species were observed in various stages of infection development. The classification experiments were performed on the hyperspectral data of the leaf surfaces to distinguish days after inoculation and Alternaria species. The second-derivative transformation of the spectral data together with back-propagation neural networks (BNNs) appeared to be the best combination for classification of days after inoculation (prediction accuracy 90.5%) and Alternaria species (prediction accuracy 80.5%).

  3. Metabolic network reconstruction and flux variability analysis of storage synthesis in developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, J.; Schwender, J.

    2011-08-01

    Computational simulation of large-scale biochemical networks can be used to analyze and predict the metabolic behavior of an organism, such as a developing seed. Based on the biochemical literature, pathways databases and decision rules defining reaction directionality we reconstructed bna572, a stoichiometric metabolic network model representing Brassica napus seed storage metabolism. In the highly compartmentalized network about 25% of the 572 reactions are transport reactions interconnecting nine subcellular compartments and the environment. According to known physiological capabilities of developing B. napus embryos, four nutritional conditions were defined to simulate heterotrophy or photoheterotrophy, each in combination with the availability of inorganic nitrogen (ammonia, nitrate) or amino acids as nitrogen sources. Based on mathematical linear optimization the optimal solution space was comprehensively explored by flux variability analysis, thereby identifying for each reaction the range of flux values allowable under optimality. The range and variability of flux values was then categorized into flux variability types. Across the four nutritional conditions, approximately 13% of the reactions have variable flux values and 10-11% are substitutable (can be inactive), both indicating metabolic redundancy given, for example, by isoenzymes, subcellular compartmentalization or the presence of alternative pathways. About one-third of the reactions are never used and are associated with pathways that are suboptimal for storage synthesis. Fifty-seven reactions change flux variability type among the different nutritional conditions, indicating their function in metabolic adjustments. This predictive modeling framework allows analysis and quantitative exploration of storage metabolism of a developing B. napus oilseed.

  4. Genetic variants associated with the root system architecture of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under contrasting phosphate supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Chen, Yanling; Thomas, Catherine L; Ding, Guangda; Xu, Ping; Shi, Dexu; Grandke, Fabian; Jin, Kemo; Cai, Hongmei; Xu, Fangsen; Yi, Bin; Broadley, Martin R; Shi, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Breeding crops with ideal root system architecture for efficient absorption of phosphorus is an important strategy to reduce the use of phosphate fertilizers. To investigate genetic variants leading to changes in root system architecture, 405 oilseed rape cultivars were genotyped with a 60K Brassica Infinium SNP array in low and high P environments. A total of 285 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with root system architecture traits at varying phosphorus levels. Nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms corroborate a previous linkage analysis of root system architecture quantitative trait loci in the BnaTNDH population. One peak single-nucleotide polymorphism region on A3 was associated with all root system architecture traits and co-localized with a quantitative trait locus for primary root length at low phosphorus. Two more single-nucleotide polymorphism peaks on A5 for root dry weight at low phosphorus were detected in both growth systems and co-localized with a quantitative trait locus for the same trait. The candidate genes identified on A3 form a haplotype 'BnA3Hap', that will be important for understanding the phosphorus/root system interaction and for the incorporation into Brassica napus breeding programs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  5. [Effects of simulated acid rain on oilseed rape (Brassica napus) physiological characteristics at flowering stage and yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chun-Xin; Zhou, Qin; Han, Liang-Liang; Zhang, Pei; Jiang, Hai-Dong

    2010-08-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of different acidity simulated acid rain on the physiological characteristics at flowering stage and yield of oilseed rape (B. napus cv. Qinyou 9). Comparing with the control (pH 6.0), weak acidity (pH = 4.0-5.0) simulated acid rain stimulated the rape growth to some extent, but had less effects on the plant biomass, leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic characteristics, and yield. With the further increase of acid rain acidity, the plant biomass, leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, antioxidative enzyme activities, and non-enzyme antioxidant contents all decreased gradually, while the leaf malonyldialdehyde (MDA) content and relative conductivity increased significantly. As the results, the pod number per plant, seed number per pod, seed weight, and actual yield decreased. However, different yield components showed different sensitivity to simulated acid rain. With the increasing acidity of simulated acid rain, the pod number per plant and the seed number per pod decreased significantly, while the seed weight was less affected.

  6. Breeding histories and selection criteria for oilseed rape in Europe and China identified by genome wide pedigree dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Long, Yan; Wang, Nian; Zou, Jun; Ding, Guangda; Broadley, Martin R; White, Philip J; Yuan, Pan; Zhang, Qianwen; Luo, Ziliang; Liu, Peifa; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Ying; Cai, Hongmei; King, Graham J; Xu, Fangsen; Meng, Jinling; Shi, Lei

    2017-05-15

    Selection breeding has played a key role in the improvement of seed yield and quality in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). We genotyped Tapidor (European), Ningyou7 (Chinese) and their progenitors with the Brassica 60 K Illumina Infinium SNP array and mapped a total of 29,347 SNP markers onto the reference genome of Darmor-bzh. Identity by descent (IBD) refers to a haplotype segment of a chromosome inherited from a shared common ancestor. IBDs identified on the C subgenome were larger than those on the A subgenome within both the Tapidor and Ningyou7 pedigrees. IBD number and length were greater in the Ningyou7 pedigree than in the Tapidor pedigree. Seventy nine QTLs for flowering time, seed quality and root morphology traits were identified in the IBDs of Tapidor and Ningyou7. Many more candidate genes had been selected within the Ningyou7 pedigree than within the Tapidor pedigree. These results highlight differences in the transfer of favorable gene clusters controlling key traits during selection breeding in Europe and China.

  7. Spillage of Viable Seeds of Oilseed Rape along Transportation Routes: Ecological Risk Assessment and Perspectives on Management Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Pascher

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed spillage during handling and transportation promotes establishment and invasion of feral crops into adjacent semi-natural habitats. This is also the case for oilseed rape (OSR, Brassica napus, where seed spillage may lead to establishment of herbicide resistant OSR populations in countries without cultivation of genetically modified OSR. Using data from Austria—where cultivation and import of genetically modified OSR are banned—as a prime example, we demonstrate that ports, oil mills, switchyards, and border railway stations to countries with different electric current systems—where trains have to stop—are the sites of primary concern with respect to seed spillage. Based on the results of the Austrian case study we discuss common measures to limit crop seed spillage which include intensified controls at border railway stations and the mode of seed packing during transportation. We further recommend sufficient cleaning both of goods wagons and of loading areas of trucks and ships as well as an appropriate weed management.

  8. The potential of decision support systems to improve risk assessment for pollen beetle management in winter oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Andrew W; Skellern, Matthew P; Johnen, Andreas; von Richthofen, Julia-Sophie; Watts, Nigel P; Bardsley, Eileen; Murray, Darren A; Cook, Samantha M

    2016-03-01

    The reliance on and extensive use of pyrethroid insecticides have led to pyrethroid resistance in pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus). Widespread adoption of best practice in pollen beetle management is therefore needed. Decision support systems (DSSs) that identify the risk period(s) for pest migration can help to target monitoring and control efforts, but they must be accurate and labour efficient to gain the support of growers. Weather data and the phenology of pollen beetles in 44 winter oilseed rape crops across England over 4 years were used to compare the performance of two risk management tools: the DSS proPlant expert, which predicts migration risk according to a phenological model and local weather data, and 'rule-based advice', which depends on crop growth stage and a temperature threshold. Both risk management tools were effective in prompting monitoring that would detect breaches of various control thresholds. However, the DSS more accurately predicted migration start and advised significantly fewer days of migration risk, consultation days and monitoring than did rule-based advice. The proPlant expert DSS reliably models pollen beetle phenology. Use of such a DSS can focus monitoring effort to when it is most needed, facilitate the practical use of thresholds and help to prevent unnecessary insecticide applications and the development of insecticide resistance. © 2015 Rothamsted Research Ltd. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. World-line perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    van Holten, Jan-Willem

    2016-01-01

    The motion of a compact body in space and time is commonly described by the world line of a point representing the instantaneous position of the body. In General Relativity such a world-line formalism is not quite straightforward because of the strict impossibility to accommodate point masses and rigid bodies. In many situations of practical interest it can still be made to work using an effective hamiltonian or energy-momentum tensor for a finite number of collective degrees of freedom of the compact object. Even so exact solutions of the equations of motion are often not available. In such cases families of world lines of compact bodies in curved space-times can be constructed by a perturbative procedure based on generalized geodesic deviation equations. Examples for simple test masses and for spinning test bodies are presented.

  10. System dynamics modelling of situation awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the requirements for effective Command and Control is good situation awareness. As situation awareness is a complex phenomenon due to social and cognitive interaction factors, its modelling, prediction and calculation can be difficult...

  11. Diagnosing Educational Leadership Problems: A Situational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Philip E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Discusses Situational Leadership Theory, a conceptual framework that can help managers improve their performance by varying their leadership style in various situations to fit the needs and capabilities of their subordinates. (JG)

  12. Distribution and metabolism of D/L-, L- and D-glufosinate in transgenic, glufosinate-tolerant crops of maize (Zea mays L ssp mays) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L var napus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhland, Monika; Engelhardt, Gabriele; Pawlizki, Karlheinz

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether post-emergence application of glufosinate to transgenic crops could lead to an increase in residues or to the formation of new, hitherto unknown metabolites. Transgenic oilseed rape and maize plants were treated separately with L-glufosinate, D-glufosinate or the racemic mixture. Whereas about 90% of the applied D-glufosinate was washed off by rain and only 5-6% was metabolised, 13-35% of the applied L-glufosinate remained in the form of metabolites and unchanged herbicide in both transgenic maize and oilseed rape. The main metabolite was N-acetyl-L-glufosinate with total residues of 91% in oilseed rape and 67% in maize, together with small amounts, of 5% in oilseed rape and 28% in maize, of different methylphosphinyl fatty acids. These metabolites were probably formed from L-glufosinate by deamination and subsequent decarboxylation. The residues were distributed in all fractions of the plants, with the highest contents in treated leaves and the lowest in the grains (0.07-0.3% in maize and 0.4-0.6% in oilseed rape). There was no indication of an accumulation of total residues or of residue levels above the official tolerances for glufosinate.

  13. Situated Learning : Rethinking a Ubiquitous Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rod Pederson

    2012-01-01

    .... The purpose of this paper is to unpack how the basic theory of situated learning is related to a wide array of theories that use the basic concept of situating knowledge as a central tenet. In doing so, the author suggests that a more inclusive theory of situated learning is warranted.

  14. Emergency situations in SMEs : Are entrepreneurs prepared?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, E.; Montfort, van K.; Masurel, E.

    2012-01-01

    The article examines how entrepreneurs prepare for emergency situations in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Netherlands. It identifies the characteristics of SMEs and the theory related to emergency situations and the preparations for such situations. It also provides a detailed

  15. Understanding the Situation in the Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-15

    provides situational awareness refinement in the visualization of the battlefield. "The staff helps the commander communicate his battlefield... technolgy that enable situational awareness and situational understanding cannot be decisive. Explain how to obtain analysis and judgment. In obtaining the...Experience is best gained through training. An Additional Study The Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences conducted an Infantry

  16. MAPPING A COMPLEX DECISIONAL SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin OGARCA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Any organization is confronted with a multitude of problems in a dynamic andcomplex environment. These problems can be independent, but, many times,they are interconnected. In this myriad of situations, it is difficult to identify thecausality relations between problems, which, logically, should also determinethe solving order. An organization is faced with a cash crisis, a substantialloss of clients, production equipment wear, poorly qualified personnel, andunsuitable products from a quality- related perspective. And in this context,what is the original problem, primary, and through its solving, the solution tothe other problems could be found? Is this the loss of clients, or cash crisis?Are we facing a cash crisis because the products are of poor quality anddon’t sell, or is it because we are facing a cash crisis we are unable to investin research- development, in order to increase product quality?We will try to find an answer to such dilemmas in this material. The problemis not a new one in the specialized literature. In the first part of the article wewill present a couple of previous solutions this problem has been given, andduring the second part we will propose a model derived from those known inthe specialized literature.

  17. Putting the World into World History Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, William A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews whether textbook publishers have put the "world" in world history textbooks by comparing the editions of four different world history textbooks over 25 years. Evaluates 10 current editions of world history textbooks. Offers questions to consider and discusses additional content concerns. Includes charts and references of the reviewed…

  18. Measuring the Evolutionarily Important Goals of Situations: Situational Affordances for Adaptive Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Nicolas A; Neel, Rebecca; Sherman, Ryne A

    2015-01-01

    .... This article introduces the Situational Affordances for Adaptive Problems (SAAP), a measure of situation characteristics that promotes or prevents the achievement of these evolutionarily important goals...

  19. Extreme situations due to gender violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Meneghel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a synthesis of the third Critical Paths Seminar, held in Porto Alegre/Brazil in 2011, whose focus was extreme situations of gender violence. The extreme situations are human rights violations that include femicide or murder motivated by the situation of gender; LGBT murders, human rights violations of ethnic and racial minorities, sexual exploitation, violence to women in vulnerable situations and other violence caused by gender. The meeting objective was given space to share experiences, reflect critically and build strategies for facing violence and extreme situations resulting from gender systems.

  20. Sharing Space Situational Awareness Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, D.

    2010-09-01

    The Commander, United States Strategic Command (CDRUSSTRATCOM) accepted responsibility for sharing space situational awareness (SSA) information/services with commercial & foreign entities from the US Air Force on 22 Dec 09 (formerly the Commercial & Foreign Entities Pilot Program). The requirement to share SSA services with non-US Government (USG) entities is derived from Title 10, United States Code, Section 2274 (2010) and is consistent with the new National Space Policy. US Strategic Command’s (USSTRATCOM’s) sharing of SSA services consists of basic services (Two-Line Elements, decay data and satellite catalog details) available on www.space-track.org and advanced services (conjunction assessment, launch support, etc) available with a signed agreement. USSTRATCOM has requested USG permission to enter into international agreements to enable SSA data exchange with our foreign partners. USSTRATCOM recently authorized Joint Functional Component Command for Space (JFCC SPACE) to share Conjunction Summary Messages (CSMs) with satellite owner/operators whose satellites have been identified as closely approaching another space object. CSMs contain vector and covariance data computed using Special Perturbations theory. To facilitate the utility of the CSMs, USSTRATCOM has and is hosting CSM Workshops to ensure satellite operators fully understand the data contained in the CSM in order to provide an informed recommendation to their leadership. As JFCC SPACE matures its ability to accept ephemeris data from a satellite operator, it will be necessary to automatically transfer that data from one security level to another. USSTRATCOM and Air Force Space Command are coordinating the integration of a cross domain solution that will allow JFCC SPACE to do just that. Finally, USSTRATCOM is also working with commercial and governmental organizations to develop an internationally-accepted conjunction assessment message. The United States Government (USG), specifically the

  1. Learning situation models in a smart home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdiczka, Oliver; Crowley, James L; Reignier, Patrick

    2009-02-01

    This paper addresses the problem of learning situation models for providing context-aware services. Context for modeling human behavior in a smart environment is represented by a situation model describing environment, users, and their activities. A framework for acquiring and evolving different layers of a situation model in a smart environment is proposed. Different learning methods are presented as part of this framework: role detection per entity, unsupervised extraction of situations from multimodal data, supervised learning of situation representations, and evolution of a predefined situation model with feedback. The situation model serves as frame and support for the different methods, permitting to stay in an intuitive declarative framework. The proposed methods have been integrated into a whole system for smart home environment. The implementation is detailed, and two evaluations are conducted in the smart home environment. The obtained results validate the proposed approach.

  2. Situation Change: Stability and Change of Situation Variables between and within Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauthmann, John F; Sherman, Ryne A

    2015-01-01

    When, how, and why situations flow into one another is important for understanding dynamic personality processes, but the topic of situation change has traditionally been a thorny issue in personality/social psychology. We explore conceptual and methodological issues in research on situation change: (1) What is situation change, which variables could we measure, and how can situation change be methodologically captured and analyzed (at between- and within-person levels)? (2) Which person-situation transaction mechanisms (situation management strategies) could entail stability and change of situations in daily life? (3) How do single or repeated instances of situation change impact short-, middle-, and long-term outcomes (e.g., intra- and interpersonal adjustment)? Besides laying out a research program for situation change, we present preliminary data from participants who wore mini-video cameras recording their situations so that they could be rated later in the lab. We demonstrate rater consensus on when situations change, mean-level changes of situation characteristics across situations, similarity of situation characteristics across adjacent situations, and inter-individual differences in intra-individual situation change in change networks.

  3. Situation Change: Stability and Change of Situation Variables Between and Within Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Rauthmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When, how, and why situations flow into one another is important for understanding dynamic personality processes, but the topic of situation change has traditionally been a thorny issue in personality/social psychology. We explore conceptual and methodological issues in research on situation change: (1 What is situation change, which variables could we measure, and how can situation change be methodologically captured and analyzed (at between- and within-person levels? (2 Which person-situation transaction mechanisms (situation management strategies could entail stability and change of situations in daily life? (3 How do single or repeated instances of situation change impact short-, middle-, and long-term outcomes (e.g., intra- and interpersonal adjustment? Besides laying out a research program for situation change, we present preliminary data from participants who wore mini-video cameras recording their situations so that they could be rated later in the lab. We demonstrate rater consensus on when situations change, mean-level changes of situation characteristics across situations, similarity of situation characteristics across adjacent situations, and inter-individual differences in intra-individual situation change in change networks.

  4. Long-Term Monitoring of Field Trial Sites with Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Fifteen Years Persistence to Date but No Spatial Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belter, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Oilseed rape is known to persist in arable fields because of its ability to develop secondary seed dormancy in certain agronomic and environmental conditions. If conditions change, rapeseeds are able to germinate up to 10 years later to build volunteers in ensuing crops. Extrapolations of experimental data acted on the assumption of persistence periods for more than 20 years after last harvest of rapeseed. Genetically-modified oilseed rape—cultivated widely in Northern America since 1996—is assumed not to differ from its conventional form in this property. Here, experimental data are reported from official monitoring activities that verify these assumptions. At two former field trial sites in Saxony-Anhalt genetically-modified herbicide-resistant oilseed rape volunteers are found up to fifteen years after harvest. Nevertheless, spatial dispersion or establishment of GM plants outside of the field sites was not observed within this period. PMID:26784233

  5. Long-Term Monitoring of Field Trial Sites with Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Fifteen Years Persistence to Date but No Spatial Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belter, Anke

    2016-01-16

    Oilseed rape is known to persist in arable fields because of its ability to develop secondary seed dormancy in certain agronomic and environmental conditions. If conditions change, rapeseeds are able to germinate up to 10 years later to build volunteers in ensuing crops. Extrapolations of experimental data acted on the assumption of persistence periods for more than 20 years after last harvest of rapeseed. Genetically-modified oilseed rape-cultivated widely in Northern America since 1996-is assumed not to differ from its conventional form in this property. Here, experimental data are reported from official monitoring activities that verify these assumptions. At two former field trial sites in Saxony-Anhalt genetically-modified herbicide-resistant oilseed rape volunteers are found up to fifteen years after harvest. Nevertheless, spatial dispersion or establishment of GM plants outside of the field sites was not observed within this period.

  6. Genetic variation and inheritance of phytosterol and oil content in a doubled haploid population derived from the winter oilseed rape Sansibar × Oase cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Lishia; Möllers, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Identification of QTL for phytosterol content, oil content, fatty acids content, protein content of defatted meal, and seed weight by multiple interval mapping in a Brassica napus DH population. Phytosterols are minor seed constituents in oilseed rape which have recently drawn wide-interest from the food and nutrition industry due to their health benefit in lowering LDL cholesterol in humans. To understand the genetic basis of phytosterol content and its relationship with other seed quality traits in oilseed rape, QTL mapping was performed in a segregating DH population derived from the cross of two winter oilseed rape varieties, Sansibar and Oase, termed SODH population. Both parental lines are of canola quality which differ in phytosterol and oil content in seed. A genetic map was constructed for SODH population based on a total of 1638 markers organized in 23 linkage groups and covering a map length of 2350 cM with a mean marker interval of 2.0 cM. The SODH population and the parental lines were cultivated at six environments in Europe and were phenotyped for phytosterol content, oil content, fatty acids content, protein content of the defatted meal, and seed weight. Multiple interval mapping identified between one and six QTL for nine phytosterol traits, between two and six QTL for four fatty acids, five QTL for oil content, four QTL for protein content of defatted meal, and three QTL for seed weight. Colocalizations of QTL for different traits were more frequently observed than individual isolated QTL. Major QTL (R (2) ≥ 25%) were all located in the A genome, and the possible candidate genes were investigated by physical localization of the QTL to the reference genome sequence of Brassica rapa.

  7. The impact of sulfate restriction on seed yield and quality of winter oilseed rape depends on the ability to remobilize sulfate from vegetative tissues to reproductive organs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eGirondé

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our current knowledge about sulfur (S management by winter oilseed rape to satisfy the S demand of developing seeds is still scarce, particularly in relation to S restriction. Our goals were to determine the physiological processes related to S use efficiency that led to maintain the seed yield and quality when S limitation occurred at the bolting or early flowering stages. To address these questions, a pulse-chase 34SO42- labelling method was carried out in order to study the S fluxes from uptake and remobilization at the whole plant level. In response of S limitation at the bolting or early flowering stages, the leaves are the most important source organ for S remobilization during reproductive stages. By combining 34S-tracer with biochemical fractionation in order to separate sulfate from other S-compounds, it appeared that sulfate was the main form of S remobilized in leaves at reproductive stages and that tonoplastic SULTR4-type transporters were specifically involved in the sulfate remobilisation in case of low S availability. In response to S limitation at the bolting stage, the seed yield and quality were dramatically reduced compared to control plants. These data suggest that the increase of both S remobilization from source leaves and the root proliferation in order to maximize sulfate uptake capacities, were not sufficient to maintain the seed yield and quality. When S limitation occurred at the early flowering stage, oilseed rape can optimize the mobilization of sulfate reserves from vegetative organs (leaves and stem to satisfy the demand of seeds and maintain the seed yield and quality. Our study also revealed that the stem may act as a transient storage organ for remobilized S coming from source leaves before its utilization by seeds. The physiological traits (S remobilization, root proliferation, transient S storage in stem observed under S limitation could be used in breeding programs to select oilseed rape genotypes with high S

  8. Evaluation of nine genotypes of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) for larval infestation and performance of rape stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Heike L; Brandes, Haiko; Ulber, Bernd; Becker, Heiko C; Vidal, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The rape stem weevil, Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll., is a serious pest of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) crops in Europe causing severe yield loss. In currently used oilseed rape cultivars no resistance to C. napi has been identified. Resynthesized lines of B. napus have potential to broaden the genetic variability and may improve resistance to insect pests. In this study, the susceptibility to C. napi of three cultivars, one breeding line and five resynthesized lines of oilseed rape was compared in a semi-field plot experiment under multi-choice conditions. Plant acceptance for oviposition was estimated by counting the number of C. napi larvae in stems. The larval instar index and the dry body mass were assessed as indicators of larval performance. The extent of larval feeding within stems was determined by the stem injury coefficient. Morphological stem traits and stem contents of glucosinolates were assessed as potential mediators of resistance. The resynthesized line S30 had significantly fewer larvae than the cultivars Express617 and Visby and the resynthesized lines L122 and L16. The low level of larval infestation in S30 was associated with a low larval instar and stem injury index. Low numbers of larvae were not correlated with the length or diameter of stems, and the level of stem glucosinolates. As indicated by the low larval infestation and slow larval development the resistance of S30 to C. napi is based on both antixenotic and antibiotic properties of the genotypes. The resynthesized line S30 should therefore be introduced into B. napus breeding programs to enhance resistance against C. napi.

  9. Evaluation of nine genotypes of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. for larval infestation and performance of rape stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike L Schaefer

    Full Text Available The rape stem weevil, Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll., is a serious pest of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. crops in Europe causing severe yield loss. In currently used oilseed rape cultivars no resistance to C. napi has been identified. Resynthesized lines of B. napus have potential to broaden the genetic variability and may improve resistance to insect pests. In this study, the susceptibility to C. napi of three cultivars, one breeding line and five resynthesized lines of oilseed rape was compared in a semi-field plot experiment under multi-choice conditions. Plant acceptance for oviposition was estimated by counting the number of C. napi larvae in stems. The larval instar index and the dry body mass were assessed as indicators of larval performance. The extent of larval feeding within stems was determined by the stem injury coefficient. Morphological stem traits and stem contents of glucosinolates were assessed as potential mediators of resistance. The resynthesized line S30 had significantly fewer larvae than the cultivars Express617 and Visby and the resynthesized lines L122 and L16. The low level of larval infestation in S30 was associated with a low larval instar and stem injury index. Low numbers of larvae were not correlated with the length or diameter of stems, and the level of stem glucosinolates. As indicated by the low larval infestation and slow larval development the resistance of S30 to C. napi is based on both antixenotic and antibiotic properties of the genotypes. The resynthesized line S30 should therefore be introduced into B. napus breeding programs to enhance resistance against C. napi.

  10. Collaborative Commercial Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, T. S.; Hendrix, D.; Sibert, D.; Hall, R. A.; Therien, W.

    2013-09-01

    There is an increasing recognition by commercial and civil space operators of the need for space situational awareness (SSA) data to support ongoing conjunction analysis, maneuver planning, and radio frequency interference mitigation as part of daily operations. While some SSA data is available from the Joint Space Operations Center via the Space Track web site, access to raw observations and photometric data is limited due to national security considerations. These data, however, are of significant value in calibrating intra- and inter-operator orbit determination results, determining inter-system biases, and assessing operating profiles in the geostationary orbit. This paper details an ongoing collaborative effort to collect and process optical observations and photometric data using a network of low-cost telescope installations and shows how these data are being used to support ongoing operations in the Space Data Center. This presentation will demonstrate how by leveraging advance photometric processing algorithms developed for Missile Defense Agency and the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) mission ExoAnalytic and AGI have been able to provide actionable SSA for satellite operators from small telescopes in less than optimal viewing conditions. Space has become an increasingly cluttered environment requiring satellite operators to remain forever vigilant in order to prevent collisions to preserve their assets and prevent further cluttering the space environment. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC), which tracks all objects in earth orbit, reports possible upcoming conjunctions to operators by providing Conjunction Summary Messages (CSMs). However due to large positional uncertainties in the forward predicted position of space objects at the time closest approach the volume of CSMs is excessive to the point that maneuvers in response to CSMs without additional screening is cost prohibitive. CSSI and the Space Data Association have been able to screen most

  11. A fatty acid condensing enzyme from Physaria fendleri increases hydroxy fatty acid accumulation in transgenic oilseeds of Camelina sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapp, Anna R; Kang, Jinling; Qi, Xiaoli; Lu, Chaofu

    2014-09-01

    Co-expression of a lesquerella fatty acid elongase and the castor fatty acid hydroxylase in camelina results in higher hydroxy fatty acid containing seeds with normal oil content and viability. Producing hydroxy fatty acids (HFA) in oilseed crops has been a long-standing goal to replace castor oil as a renewable source for numerous industrial applications. A fatty acid hydroxylase, RcFAH, from Ricinus communis, was introduced into Camelina sativa, but yielded only 15 % of HFA in its seed oil, much lower than the 90 % found in castor bean. Furthermore, the transgenic seeds contained decreased oil content and the germination ability was severely affected. Interestingly, HFA accumulation was significantly increased in camelina seed when co-expressing RcFAH with a fatty acid condensing enzyme, LfKCS3, from Physaria fendleri, a native HFA accumulator relative to camelina. The oil content and seed germination of the transgenic seeds also appeared normal compared to non-transgenics. LfKCS3 has been previously characterized to specifically elongate the hydroxylated ricinoleic acid to lesquerolic acid, the 20-carbon HFA found in lesquerella oil. The elongation reaction may facilitate the HFA flux from phosphatidylcholine (PC), the site of HFA formation, into the acyl-CoA pool for more efficient utilization in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. This was demonstrated by increased HFA accumulation in TAG concurrent with reduced HFA content in PC during camelina seed development, and increased C20-HFA in HFA-TAG molecules. These effects of LfKCS3 thus may effectively relieve the bottleneck for HFA utilization in TAG biosynthesis and the feedback inhibition to fatty acid synthesis, result in higher HFA accumulation and restore oil content and seed viability.

  12. Uptake, transport and distribution of molybdenum in two oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars under different nitrate/ammonium ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shi-Yu; Sun, Xue-Cheng; Hu, Cheng-Xiao; Tan, Qi-Ling; Zhao, Xiao-Hu

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effects of different nitrate sources on the uptake, transport, and distribution of molybdenum (Mo) between two oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars, L0917 and ZS11. A hydroponic culture experiment was conducted with four nitrate/ammonium (NO3-:NH4+) ratios (14:1, 9:6, 7.5:7.5, and 1:14) at a constant nitrogen concentration of 15 mmol/L. We examined Mo concentrations in roots, shoots, xylem and phloem sap, and subcellular fractions of leaves to contrast Mo uptake, transport, and subcellular distribution between ZS11 and L0917. Both the cultivars showed maximum biomass and Mo accumulation at the 7.5:7.5 ratio of NO3-:NH4+ while those were decreased by the 14:1 and 1:14 treatments. However, the percentages of root Mo (14.8% and 15.0% for L0917 and ZS11, respectively) were low under the 7.5:7.5 treatment, suggesting that the equal NO3-:NH4+ ratio promoted Mo transportation from root to shoot. The xylem sap Mo concentration and phloem sap Mo accumulation of L0917 were lower than those of ZS11 under the 1:14 treatment, which suggests that higher NO3-:NH4+ ratio was more beneficial for L0917. On the contrary, a lower NO3-:NH4+ ratio was more beneficial for ZS11 to transport and remobilize Mo. Furthermore, the Mo concentrations of both the cultivars' leaf organelles were increased but the Mo accumulations of the cell wall and soluble fraction were reduced significantly under the 14:1 treatment, meaning that more Mo was accumulated in organelles under the highest NO3-:NH4+ ratio. This investigation demonstrated that the capacities of Mo absorption, transportation and subcellular distribution play an important role in genotype-dependent differences in Mo accumulation under low or high NO3-:NH4+ ratio conditions.

  13. Genetic Diversity of Oilseed Rape Fields and Feral Populations in the Context of Coexistence with GM Crops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Bailleul

    Full Text Available Despite growing concern about transgenes escaping from fields, few studies have analysed the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem over several years. Accurate information about the dynamics and relationship of the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem is essential for risk assessment and policies concerning the containment of genetically modified crops and their coexistence with crops grown by conventional practices. Here, we analysed the genetic diversity of oilseed rape plants from fields and feral populations over 4 years in an agricultural landscape of 41 km2. We used exact compatibility and maximum likelihood assignment methods to assign these plants to cultivars. Even pure lines and hybrid cultivar seed lots contained several genotypes. The cultivar diversity in fields reflected the conventional view of agroecosystems quite well: that is, there was a succession of cultivars, some grown for longer than others because of their good performance, some used for one year and then abandoned, and others gradually adopted. Three types of field emerged: fields sown with a single cultivar, fields sown with two cultivars, and unassigned fields (too many cultivars or unassigned plants to reliably assign the field. Field plant diversity was higher than expected, indicating the persistence of cultivars that were grown for only one year. The cultivar composition of feral populations was similar to that of field plants, with an increasing number of cultivars each year. By using genetic tools, we found a link between the cultivars of field plants in a particular year and the cultivars of feral population plants in the following year. Feral populations on road verges were more diverse than those on path verges. All of these findings are discussed in terms of their consequences in the context of coexistence with genetically modified crops.

  14. Genetic Diversity of Oilseed Rape Fields and Feral Populations in the Context of Coexistence with GM Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, Diane; Ollier, Sébastien; Lecomte, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing concern about transgenes escaping from fields, few studies have analysed the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem over several years. Accurate information about the dynamics and relationship of the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem is essential for risk assessment and policies concerning the containment of genetically modified crops and their coexistence with crops grown by conventional practices. Here, we analysed the genetic diversity of oilseed rape plants from fields and feral populations over 4 years in an agricultural landscape of 41 km2. We used exact compatibility and maximum likelihood assignment methods to assign these plants to cultivars. Even pure lines and hybrid cultivar seed lots contained several genotypes. The cultivar diversity in fields reflected the conventional view of agroecosystems quite well: that is, there was a succession of cultivars, some grown for longer than others because of their good performance, some used for one year and then abandoned, and others gradually adopted. Three types of field emerged: fields sown with a single cultivar, fields sown with two cultivars, and unassigned fields (too many cultivars or unassigned plants to reliably assign the field). Field plant diversity was higher than expected, indicating the persistence of cultivars that were grown for only one year. The cultivar composition of feral populations was similar to that of field plants, with an increasing number of cultivars each year. By using genetic tools, we found a link between the cultivars of field plants in a particular year and the cultivars of feral population plants in the following year. Feral populations on road verges were more diverse than those on path verges. All of these findings are discussed in terms of their consequences in the context of coexistence with genetically modified crops.

  15. A high-density genetic map identifies a novel major QTL for boron efficiency in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Didi; Hua, Yingpeng; Wang, Xiaohua; Zhao, Hua; Shi, Lei; Xu, Fangsen

    2014-01-01

    Low boron (B) seriously limits the growth of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), a high B demand species that is sensitive to low B conditions. Significant genotypic variations in response to B deficiency have been observed among B. napus cultivars. To reveal the genetic basis for B efficiency in B. napus, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the plant growth traits, B uptake traits and the B efficiency coefficient (BEC) were analyzed using a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross between a B-efficient parent, Qingyou 10, and a B-inefficient parent, Westar 10. A high-density genetic map was constructed based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assayed using Brassica 60 K Infinium BeadChip Array, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). The linkage map covered a total length of 2139.5 cM, with 19 linkage groups (LGs) and an average distance of 1.6 cM between adjacent markers. Based on hydroponic evaluation of six B efficiency traits measured in three separate repeated trials, a total of 52 QTLs were identified, accounting for 6.14-46.27% of the phenotypic variation. A major QTL for BEC, qBEC-A3a, was co-located on A3 with other QTLs for plant growth and B uptake traits under low B stress. Using a subset of substitution lines, qBEC-A3a was validated and narrowed down to the interval between CNU384 and BnGMS436. The results of this study provide a novel major locus located on A3 for B efficiency in B. napus that will be suitable for fine mapping and marker-assisted selection breeding for B efficiency in B. napus.

  16. A high-density genetic map identifies a novel major QTL for boron efficiency in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didi Zhang

    Full Text Available Low boron (B seriously limits the growth of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., a high B demand species that is sensitive to low B conditions. Significant genotypic variations in response to B deficiency have been observed among B. napus cultivars. To reveal the genetic basis for B efficiency in B. napus, quantitative trait loci (QTLs for the plant growth traits, B uptake traits and the B efficiency coefficient (BEC were analyzed using a doubled haploid (DH population derived from a cross between a B-efficient parent, Qingyou 10, and a B-inefficient parent, Westar 10. A high-density genetic map was constructed based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs assayed using Brassica 60 K Infinium BeadChip Array, simple sequence repeats (SSRs and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs. The linkage map covered a total length of 2139.5 cM, with 19 linkage groups (LGs and an average distance of 1.6 cM between adjacent markers. Based on hydroponic evaluation of six B efficiency traits measured in three separate repeated trials, a total of 52 QTLs were identified, accounting for 6.14-46.27% of the phenotypic variation. A major QTL for BEC, qBEC-A3a, was co-located on A3 with other QTLs for plant growth and B uptake traits under low B stress. Using a subset of substitution lines, qBEC-A3a was validated and narrowed down to the interval between CNU384 and BnGMS436. The results of this study provide a novel major locus located on A3 for B efficiency in B. napus that will be suitable for fine mapping and marker-assisted selection breeding for B efficiency in B. napus.

  17. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) as a resource for farmland insect pollinators: quantifying floral traits in conventional varieties and breeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Jonathan M; Cook, Samantha M; Wright, Geraldine A; Osborne, Juliet L; Clark, Suzanne J; Swain, Jennifer L; Haughton, Alison J

    2017-08-01

    Oilseed rape (OSR; Brassica napus L.) is a major crop in temperate regions and provides an important source of nutrition to many of the yield-enhancing insect flower visitors that consume floral nectar. The manipulation of mechanisms that control various crop plant traits for the benefit of pollinators has been suggested in the bid to increase food security, but little is known about inherent floral trait expression in contemporary OSR varieties or the breeding systems used in OSR breeding programmes. We studied a range of floral traits in glasshouse-grown, certified conventional varieties of winter OSR to test for variation among and within breeding systems. We measured 24-h nectar secretion rate, amount, concentration and ratio of nectar sugars per flower, and sizes and number of flowers produced per plant from 24 varieties of OSR representing open-pollinated (OP), genic male sterility (GMS) hybrid and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) hybrid breeding systems. Sugar concentration was consistent among and within the breeding systems; however, GMS hybrids produced more nectar and more sugar per flower than CMS hybrid or OP varieties. With the exception of ratio of fructose/glucose in OP varieties, we found that nectar traits were consistent within all the breeding systems. When scaled, GMS hybrids produced 1.73 times more nectar resource per plant than OP varieties. Nectar production and amount of nectar sugar in OSR plants were independent of number and size of flowers. Our data show that floral traits of glasshouse-grown OSR differed among breeding systems, suggesting that manipulation and enhancement of nectar rewards for insect flower visitors, including pollinators, could be included in future OSR breeding programmes.

  18. Biological soil attributes in oilseed crops irrigated with oilfield produced water in the semi-arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clarice Melo Azevedo de Meneses

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Wastewater from oil is the main residue of the oil industry. Studies have shown that wastewater, or produced water, can be treated and used as an alternative source for the irrigation of oilseed crops. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of treated produced water on the biological properties of soil cultivated with the castor bean cv. BRS Energy and the sunflower cv. BRS 321 respectively, for two and three successive cycles of grain production. The first cycle in the sunflower and castor bean corresponds to the dry season and the second cycle to the rainy season. The third crop cycle in the sunflower relates to the dry season. The research was carried out from August 2012 to October 2013, in the town of Aracati, in the State of Ceará (Brazil, where both crops were submitted to irrigation with filtered produced water (FPW, produced water treated by reverse osmosis (OPW, or groundwater water from the Açu aquifer (ACW, and to no irrigation (RFD. The treatments, with three replications, were evaluated during the periods of pre-cultivation and plant reproduction for soil respiration (Rs, total organic carbon (TOC and the population density of bacteria (Bact and filamentous fungi (Fung in the soil. In the sunflower crop, these soil attributes are sensitive to the irrigation water used. Irrigation of the castor bean affects soil respiration. Under the conditions of this study, irrigation with FPW may be a short-term alternative in the castor bean and sunflower crops.

  19. A Study of User's Acceptance on Situational Mashups in Situational Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Angus F. M.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Liaw, Shu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Situational awareness and mashups are two key factors influencing the success of situational language teaching. However, traditional situational language teaching cannot smoothly conduct relevant learning activities in changing learning context. This study developed a situational mashups system for detecting users' context and proposed a research…

  20. Sulphur limitation provokes physiological and leaf proteome changes in oilseed rape that lead to perturbation of sulphur, carbon and oxidative metabolisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The decline in industrial emissions of sulphur (S) has led to a sulphate depletion in soil resulting in an alteration of crop performance. In oilseed rape, an S deficiency dramatically reduced the seed yield and/or quality. Paradoxically, little is known about the impact of sulphate limitation on oilseed rape leaf metabolism, despite it being a key determinant of growth. In order to identify the metabolic processes involved in the oilseed rape response to S restriction, an analysis of the young leaf proteome combined with a physiological study was carried out at the vegetative stage. Results S limitation does not significantly reduce the total shoot biomass but inhibits growth and photosynthesis of young leaves. This photosynthesis decline is not due to a decrease in chlorophyll content, which remains similar to Control. The increase in anthocyanins and H2O2 content in young leaves of S-limited plants suggests that S restriction leads to an oxidative stress. Proteomic analysis at 35 d of S limitation also revealed the induction of 12-oxophitodienoate reductase and ACC synthase, respectively involved in jasmonate and ethylene biosynthesis, two phytohormones that could be implicated in oxidative stress. Proteins involved in photosynthesis and carbon metabolism were also modulated by S restriction. In particular, the decrease in plastocyanin and ferredoxin–NADP reductase suggests that H2O2 accumulation is associated with perturbation of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. The accumulation of chloroplastic Cu-Zn SOD reinforces the idea that an oxidative stress probably occurs in the chloroplast. Proteomic results suggest that the maintenance of chlorophyll in S-limited conditions is related to an accumulation of Water Soluble Chlorophyll binding Proteins, involved in the protection of chlorophyll against ROS. The accumulation of the catalytic α–subunit of chloroplastic ATP synthase suggests that energy production is maintained. Conclusion S

  1. Review Essay: Making a Mess with Situational Analysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Mathar

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Adele CLARKE, a student of grounded theory co-founder Anselm STRAUSS, uses situational analysis to develop both a methodology and a method which is able to represent the field's messiness, i.e., its heterogeneous and complex character. Grounded theory, CLARKE's starting point, is stuck in a modernist world-view, particularly by looking too much for a pure and oversimplified "basic social process". In order to make grounded theory post-modern, CLARKE considers discourses that are beyond pragmatism, e.g., those initiated by FOUCAULT, LATOUR, HARAWAY. This review essay argues that even though there remain some uncertainties in engaging in this epistemological hybrid, situational analysis provides a very good instrument for researchers to come into their material more deeply and, therefore, is a convincing tool for practice-oriented social science working with qualitative methods. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs080244

  2. Critiquing Statistics in Student and Professional Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ryan Seth; Lehrer, Richard; Kim, Min-Joung

    2017-01-01

    This article compares students' critiques within a class discussion about an invented statistic to STEM professionals' critiques from interviews to better understand how the situated meanings of a statistic are similar and different across student and professional worlds. We discuss similarities and differences in how participants constructed…

  3. Managing and engineering in complex situations

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa-Poza, Andres

    2013-01-01

    With so many terms available to define the same thing, it would seem nearly irresponsible to introduce yet another term (complex situation) to describe a phenomenological state of such as a system. However, a complex situation infers both a broader meaning and imposes a different perspective. Complex in this context is dependent on understanding and reality rather than observer and knowledge.   Situation imposes a gestalt that cannot be characterized within a singular perspective that relegates paradox to a superior/subordinate hierarchy. This also infers that complex situation has no monotonic definition or each definition is by default incomplete. Therefore the perennial derivations for systems such as complex systems, system of systems, federation of systems is no longer a sufficient descriptor for complex situation.  Ergo system and its genealogy lack the constitution to define complex situations. The books' intent is to explore this pathology through a series of papers written by authors that work in ...

  4. Situative Space Tracking within Smart Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surie, Dipak; Jäckel, Florian; Janlert, Lars-Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes our efforts in modeling and tracking a human agent’s situation based on his/her possibilities to perceive and act upon objects (both physical and virtual) within smart environments. A Situative Space Model is proposed. WLAN signal-strength-based situative space tracking syste......-laboratory smart home environment where a global precision of 83.4% and a global recall of 88.6% were obtained.......This paper describes our efforts in modeling and tracking a human agent’s situation based on his/her possibilities to perceive and act upon objects (both physical and virtual) within smart environments. A Situative Space Model is proposed. WLAN signal-strength-based situative space tracking system...

  5. Reconsideration of the simulated work task situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia; Schneider, Jesper Wiborg

    2010-01-01

    The present paper reports on the initial study and the preliminary findings of how the concept of simulated work task situation is reported used in the research literature. The overall objective of the study is in a systematic manner to learn how and for what types of evaluations the concept...... is applied. In particular we are interested to learn whether the recommendations for how to apply simulated work task situations are followed. The preliminary findings indicate a need for clarifications of the recommendations of how to use simulated work task situations. Particularly with respect to ‘realism......’ of the simulated work task situations, which is emphasised through the need for tailoring of the simulated work task situations towards the group of study participant to ensure the depicted situations are realistic and interesting from the participants’ point of view. Likewise it seems that the recommendation...

  6. Situated Cognition and Strategies for Meaningful Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Díaz Barriga Arceo

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the principles underlying situated cognition linked to the Vygotskian sociocultural perspective, which state that situated cognition is both a part and the result of activity, context and culture. It highlights the importance of mediation, the joint construction of meaning and the mechanism of adapted assistance. There are examples of instructional approaches which vary in cultural relevance and the type of social activity they elicit. It also presents a number of meaningful learning strategies based on situated experiential teaching (authentic problem solving, learning while in service, case studies, projects, situated simulation, among others. Finally, the paper deals with the potentiality of empowerment.

  7. Situated Learning in Computer Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2004-06-01

    Sociocultural theories of learning such as Wenger and Lave's situated learning have been suggested as alternatives to cognitive theories of learning like constructivism. This article examines situated learning within the context of computer science (CS) education. Situated learning accurately describes some CS communities like open-source software development, but it is not directly applicable to other CS communities, especially those that deal with non-CS application areas. Nevertheless, situated learning can inform CS education by analyzing debates on curriculum and pedagogy within this framework. CS educators should closely examine professional CS communities of practice and design educational activities to model the actual activities of those communities.

  8. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  9. Situational pressures on aviation decision making: goal seduction and situation aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Chris; Paletz, Susannah B F; Orasanu, Judith

    2009-06-01

    The context in which a decision is made can shape the decision process in important ways. Of particular interest here are 'strong' situations, that is, contexts where the situation itself exerts an influence on decision making. Borrowing concepts from field theory and approach/avoidance theory, this paper explores the influence of strong situations on pilot decision making. There were 28 pilots flying in Alaska who were interviewed using a critical incident technique where participants were asked to relate stories about challenging flying situations. A bottom-up qualitative analysis of reported social and psychological pressures revealed a range of types, including strong situations, which are described in this paper. Strong situations were mentioned in 67% of the interviews and included situations likely to motivate the pilot toward unsafe behavior (goal seduction) and situations likely to motivate the pilot away from safe behavior (situation aversion). Goal seduction situations included rescuing others, meeting a significant other, time-related constraints, financial pressures, and unspecified goal seduction; aversive situations included physical discomfort, not having maintenance or facilities for the airplane, and a lack of basic necessities (e.g., lodging) for the pilot. Goal seduction describes one broad, unspecified influence on pilot decision making, but situation aversion is also an important motivator for some pilots. Goal seduction and situation aversion may well underlie the phenomena of plan continuation errors, the tendency for pilots to continue despite evidence suggesting it is imprudent. This study suggests some specific factors that constrain decision making for pilots in challenging situations.

  10. Enhanced Cd extraction of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) by plant growth-promoting bacteria isolated from Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fengshan; Meng, Qian; Luo, Sha; Shen, Jing; Chen, Bao; Khan, Kiran Yasmin; Japenga, Jan; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Xiaoe; Feng, Ying

    2017-03-04

    Four plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) were used as study materials, among them two heavy metal-tolerant rhizosphere strains SrN1 (Arthrobacter sp.) and SrN9 (Bacillus altitudinis) were isolated from rhizosphere soil, while two endophytic strains SaN1 (Bacillus megaterium) and SaMR12 (Sphingomonas) were identified from roots of the cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of these PGPB on plant growth and Cd accumulation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) plants grown on aged Cd-spiked soil. The results showed that the four PGPB significantly boosted oilseed rape shoot biomass production, improved soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD) value, enhanced Cd uptake of plant and Cd translocation to the leaves. By fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and green fluorescent protein (GFP), we demonstrated the studied S. alfredii endophytic bacterium SaMR12 were able to colonize successfully in the B. napus roots. However, all four PGPB could increase seed Cd accumulation. Due to its potential to enhance Cd uptake by the plant and to restrict Cd accumulation in the seeds, SaMR12 was selected as the most promising microbial partner of B. napus when setting up a plant-microbe fortified remediation system.

  11. Matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with magnetic ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of triazine herbicides in oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanpeng; Sun, Ying; Xu, Bo; Li, Xinpei; Wang, Xinghua; Zhang, Hanqi; Song, Daqian

    2015-08-12

    A novel method was developed for the determination of six triazine herbicides from oilseeds by matrix solid-phase dispersion combined with magnetic ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (MSPD-MIL-DLLME), followed by ultrafast liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (UFLC-UV). The MIL, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroferrate ([C4mim][FeCl4]), was used as the microextraction solvent to simplify the extraction procedure by magnetic separation. The effects of several important experimental parameters, including type of dispersant, ratio of sample to dispersant, type and volume of collected elution solvent, type and volume of MIL, were investigated. Using the present method, UFLC-UV gave the limits of detection (LODs) of 1.20-2.72 ng g(-1) and the limits of quantification (LOQs) of 3.99-9.06 ng g(-1) for triazine herbicides. The recoveries were ranged from 82.9 to 113.7% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were equal or lower than 7.7%. The present method is easy-to-use and effective for extraction of triazine herbicides from oilseeds and shows the potentials of practical applications in the treatment of the fatty solid samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of nitrification inhibitor DMPP on nitrogen leaching, nitrifying organisms, and enzyme activities in a rice-oilseed rape cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Liang, Xinqiang; Chen, Yingxu; Lian, Yanfeng; Tian, Guangming; Ni, Wuzhong

    2008-01-01

    DMPP (3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate) has been used to reduce nitrogen (N) loss from leaching or denitrification and to improve N supply in agricultural land. However, its impact on soil nitrifying organisms and enzyme activities involved in N cycling is largely unknown. Therefore, an on-farm experiment, for two years, has been conducted, to elucidate the effects of DMPP on mineral N (NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N) leaching, nitrifying organisms, and denitrifying enzymes in a rice-oilseed rape cropping system. Three treatments including urea alone (UA), urea + 1% DMPP (DP), and no fertilizer (CK), have been carried out. The results showed that DP enhanced the mean NH4(+)-N concentrations by 19.1%--24.3%, but reduced the mean NO3(-)-N concentrations by 44.9%--56.6% in the leachate, under a two-year rice-rape rotation, compared to the UA treatment. The population of ammonia oxidizing bacteria, the activity of nitrate reductase, and nitrite reductase in the DP treatment decreased about 24.5%--30.9%, 14.9%--43.5%, and 14.7%--31.6%, respectively, as compared to the UA treatment. However, nitrite oxidizing bacteria and hydroxylamine reductase remained almost unaffected by DMPP. It is proposed that DMPP has the potential to either reduce NO3(-)-N leaching by inhibiting ammonia oxidization or N losses from denitrification, which is in favor of the N conversations in the rice-oilseed rape cropping system.

  13. Nano-TiO2 Is Not Phytotoxic As Revealed by the Oilseed Rape Growth and Photosynthetic Apparatus Ultra-Structural Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    Full Text Available Recently nano-materials are widely used but they have shown contrasting effects on human and plant life. Keeping in view the contrasting results, the present study has evaluated plant growth response, antioxidant system activity and photosynthetic apparatus physiological and ultrastructural changes in Brassica napus L. plants grown under a wide range (0, 500, 2500, 4000 mg/l of nano-TiO2 in a pot experiment. Nano-TiO2 has significantly improved the morphological and physiological indices of oilseed rape plants under our experimental conditions. All the parameters i-e morphological (root length, plant height, fresh biomass, physiological (photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll content, nitrate reductase activity and antioxidant system (Superoxide dismutase, SOD; Guaiacol peroxidase, POD; Catalase, CAT recorded have shown improvement in their performance by following nano-TiO2 dose-dependent manner. No significant chloroplast ultra-structural changes were observed. Transmission electron microscopic images have shown that intact & typical grana and stroma thylakoid membranes were in the chloroplast, which suggest that nano-TiO2 has not induced the stressful environment within chloroplast. Finally, it is suggested that, nano-TiO2 have growth promoting effect on oilseed rape plants.

  14. Analysis of Bioactive Components of Oilseed Cakes by High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography-(Bioassay Combined with Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-Siang Teh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemp, flax and canola seed cakes are byproducts of the plant oil extraction industry that have not received much attention in terms of their potential use for human food instead of animal feed. Thus, the bioactivity profiling of these oilseed cakes is of interest. For their effect-directed analysis, planar chromatography was combined with several (bioassays, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging, acetylcholine esterase inhibition, planar yeast estrogen screen, antimicrobial Bacillus subtilis and Aliivibrio fischeri assays. The streamlined high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC-bioassay method allowed the discovery of previously unknown bioactive compounds present in these oilseed cake extracts. In contrast to target analysis, the direct link to the effective compounds allowed comprehensive information with regard to selected effects. HPTLC-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry via the elution-head based TLC-MS Interface was used for a first characterization of the unknown effective compounds. The demonstrated bioactivity profiling on the feed/food intake side may guide the isolation of active compounds for production of functional food or for justified motivation of functional feed/food supplements.

  15. Coordinate changes in gene expression and triacylglycerol composition in the developing seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Anssi L; Kalpio, Marika; Linderborg, Kaisa M; Kortesniemi, Maaria; Lehto, Kirsi; Niemi, Jarmo; Yang, Baoru; Kallio, Heikki P

    2014-02-15

    Crop production for vegetable oil in the northern latitudes utilises oilseed rape (Brassica napus subsp. oleifera) and turnip rape (B. rapa subsp. oleifera), having similar oil compositions. The oil consists mostly of triacylglycerols, which are synthesised during seed development. In this study, we characterised the oil composition and the expression levels of genes involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in the developing seeds in optimal, low temperature (15 °C) and short day (12-h day length) conditions. Gene expression levels of several genes were altered during seed development. Low temperature and short day treatments increased the level of 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (18:3n-3) in turnip rape and short day treatment decreased the total oil content in both species. This study gives a novel view on seed oil biosynthesis under different growth conditions, bringing together gene expression levels of the triacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway and oil composition over a time series in two related oilseed species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Towards Situation-Oriented Programming Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Tin, Erkan; Akman, Varol; Ersan, Murat

    1995-01-01

    Recently, there have been some attempts towards developing programming languages based on situation theory. These languages employ situation-theoretic constructs with varying degrees of divergence from the ontology of the theory. In this paper, we review three of these programming languages.

  17. Audience and Situational Context in Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeTourneau, Mark S.

    Audience and situational context, the latter defined as a pairing of time and place coordinates, have passed through stages of union, separation, and identification in the history of rhetoric. From Aristotle through Cicero and Quintilian to Hugh Blair and George Campbell, audience was a synecdoche for the situations of utterance that defined…

  18. Situational Influences on Reactions to Observed Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Leonard

    1986-01-01

    Examines data on what situational factors influence people's desire to view violent television programming. Surveys research on the effects on viewer's behavior of the presence of other observers, the nature of the available target, situational features operating as retrieval cues, the viewers' interpretations of the violent scenes, and the…

  19. Cooperative Games arising from Information Sharing Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Tijs, S.H.; Timmer, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Relations are established between information sharing (IS) situations and IS-games on one hand and information collecting (IC) situations and IC-games on the other hand. It is shown that IC-games can be obtained as convex combinations of so-called local games. Properties are described which IC-games

  20. Leadership in Sport: The Situational Leadership Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    Situational leadership theory suggests that to reach maximum leadership effectiveness, the leader must adapt his/her behavior to different situations. For athletic coaches, this means that the amount of direction provided for students should increase or decrease according to the students' maturity levels. Applications of the theory are discussed.…

  1. Situation criticality and basketball officials' stress levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Jason; Basevitch, Itay; Rodenberg, Ryan; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2017-11-01

    Officials are expected to perform impeccably despite the wide range of stressors they experience. A stressor that officials frequently report is situation criticality. Situation criticality is comprised of score differential (i.e., more pressure in close games) and time remaining in a game (i.e., more pressure as time expires), which affects athletes' stress levels. The present study explored the effect of situation criticality on officials' stress levels. High school basketball officials (n = 108) with an average of 18.1 (SD = 11.2) years of officiating experience were given a survey packet containing game situations that varied in criticality. For each game situation (n = 9) officials completed the overall stress and appraisal portions of the Stress Appraisal Measure (SAM). Results revealed that situation criticality has an effect on officials' perceived stress levels. Both threat and challenge appraisals were positively correlated with perceived stress. Overall, these findings indicate that officials' stress levels fluctuate within games depending on score differential and time of game. The findings encourage officials to recognise and manage their stress, possibly through their appraisals. Additionally, the findings can affect the training of officials in the management of stress, as well as prompt the consideration of potential rule changes that reflect the increased situational demands on officials in critical situations (e.g., expanded instant replay).

  2. Employment in Perspective: The Negro Employment Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This report analyzes recent developments in the labor-force status of blacks and examines their job situation relative to whites. The recent slowdown in economic activity has had serious repercussions for Negro workers although their situation has deteriorated less than in previous economic declines. Tables provide employment, unemployment, and…

  3. Management by Grid Principles or Situationalism: Which?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Robert R.; Mouton, Jane S.

    1981-01-01

    Attempts to resolve the leadership theory controversy between situationalism and the one-best-way approach. Indicates the validity of the latter and the lack of predictive value of the former. Results indicated administrators chose the 9,9 alternative and rejected situationally prescribed answers, reflecting a management by principles (behavioral…

  4. Hippocampal frequency shifts in different behavioural situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, A.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Storm van Leeuwen, W.

    1971-01-01

    Electrical activity of the dog's hippocampus was recorded in (a) an operant behaviour situation, and (b) a field situation by a radio-telemetering system. The dominant frequency of the theta rhythm shifted consistently from 4–5 c/sec to 6–7 c/sec when a dog (a) withdrew from a pedal after being

  5. The Language Planning Situation in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coperahewa, Sandagomi

    2009-01-01

    This monograph examines the language planning situation in Sri Lanka with particular emphasis on the planning of Sinhala as an official language of the country. It explores the historical, social, ideological and political processes, changes in language policy decisions, as well as the complexities of the language policy and planning situation in…

  6. Situating Gendered Learning in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to situate the concept of gendered learning in the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents the results of two closely related, qualitative studies of apprenticeship learning in two major industrial companies in Denmark. Findings: The paper finds that the creation of a situated-gendered…

  7. Sexual Arousal, Situational Restrictiveness, and Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodi, Ann

    1977-01-01

    Eighty male college freshmen participated in an experiment designed to investigate the hypothesis that enhanced arousal will facilitate subsequent aggressive behavior and that an increase in aggressive behavior will be more likely to occur in a setting of situational permissiveness rather than situational restrictiveness. (Editor)

  8. Situational Leadership: "Different Strokes for Different Folks."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Kenneth; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the Situational Leadership II model and the four leadership styles and four development levels identified as important components in the development of situational leadership in school administrators. The model is used to teach principals how to vary their leadership style to fit the responses and capacities of their teachers. (MD)

  9. Representation of Objective Situations in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Ye. Veraksa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the types of representations of objective situations, that is, situations which are defined independently of the subject, by certain external perceptible circumstances and social expectations or rules. The author distinguishes between three types of objective situations in which children act: normative, developing and ambiguous. For each of these types there is a corresponding form of representation: sign, dialectical and symbolic. Each form is a product of the subject's cognitive activity, at the core of which lie cognitive abilities — a system of culturally specific means and ways of using them. The paper outlines normative and stabilizing abilities, transformation abilities, and symbolic mediation abilities. They help categorize different objects and features, enable transformation of situations and provide possibilities for orientation in ambiguous situations

  10. Normalization and Personalization of Learning Situation: NPLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounia Abik

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The personalization of learning is a major pedagogical challenge solicited by pedagogues and didacts. There are several projects about the production of personalizable learning situations such as Reload-LDE and Alfanet. These projects are interested in producing new standardized and personalizable learning situations. However, on the Web, an important number of learning situations exist. These situations are rich in information but don't consider all the characteristics of participants taking part in the learning, nor their technical environments. In this paper we suggest a help system that can transform an existing learning situation to another structure standardized and personalizable depending on the context of learning personalization that we have defined.

  11. Extending Situated Language Comprehension (Accounts with Speaker and Comprehender Characteristics: Toward Socially Situated Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Münster

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available More and more findings suggest a tight temporal coupling between (non-linguistic socially interpreted context and language processing. Still, real-time language processing accounts remain largely elusive with respect to the influence of biological (e.g., age and experiential (e.g., world and moral knowledge comprehender characteristics and the influence of the ‘socially interpreted’ context, as for instance provided by the speaker. This context could include actions, facial expressions, a speaker’s voice or gaze, and gestures among others. We review findings from social psychology, sociolinguistics and psycholinguistics to highlight the relevance of (the interplay between the socially interpreted context and comprehender characteristics for language processing. The review informs the extension of an extant real-time processing account (already featuring a coordinated interplay between language comprehension and the non-linguistic visual context with a variable (‘ProCom’ that captures characteristics of the language user and with a first approximation of the comprehender’s speaker representation. Extending the CIA to the sCIA (social Coordinated Interplay Account is the first step toward a real-time language comprehension account which might eventually accommodate the socially situated communicative interplay between comprehenders and speakers.

  12. [Effect of atmospheric CO2 concentration and nitrogen application level on absorption and transportation of nutrient elements in oilseed rape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-ming; Zhang, Zhen-hua; Song, Hai-xing; Liu, Qiang; Rong, Xiang-min; Guan, Chun-yun; Zeng, Jing; Yuan, Dan

    2015-07-01

    Effect of elevated atmospheric-CO2 (780 µmol . mol-1) on the absorption and transportation of secondary nutrient elements (calcium, magnesium, sulphur) and micronutrient elements (iron, manganese, zinc, molybdenum and boron) in oilseed rape at the stem elongation stage were studied by greenhouse simulated method. Compared with the ambient CO2 condition, the content of Zn in stem was increased and the contents of other nutrient elements were decreased under the elevated atmospheric-CO2 with no nitrogen (N) application; the contents of Ca, S, B and Zn were increased, and the contents of Mg, Mn, Mo and Fe were decreased under the elevated atmospheric CO2 with N application (0.2 g N . kg-1 soil); except the content of Mo in leaf was increased, the contents of other nutrient elements were decreased under the elevated atmospheric-CO2 with two levels of N application. Compared with the ambient CO2 condition, the amounts of Ca and S relative to the total amount of secondary nutrient elements in stem and the amounts of B and Zn relative to the total amount of micronutrient elements in stem were increased under the elevated-CO2 treatment with both levels of N application, and the corresponding values of Mg, Fe, Mn and Mo were decreased; no-N application treatment increased the proportion of Ca distributed into the leaves, and the proportion of Mg distributed into leaves was increased by the normal-N application level; the proportions of Mn, Zn and Mo distributed into the leaves were increased at both N application levels. Without N application, the elevation of atmospheric CO2 increased the transport coefficients of SFe, Mo and SS,B, but decreased the transport coefficients of SMg,Fe, SMg, Mn and SS,Fe, indicating the proportions of Mo, S transported into the upper part of plant tissues was higher than that of Fe, and the corresponding value of B was higher than that observed for S, the corresponding value of Mg was higher than that of Fe and Mn. Under normal-N application

  13. Registration of the sunflower oilseed maintainer genetic stocks HOLS1, HOLS2, HOLS3, and HOLS4, possessing genes for high oleic and low saturated fatty acids, and tolerance to imidazolinone herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the primary goals for the oilseed sunflower industry is to provide novel oil products for human consumption. One oil profile of particular interest is high oleic/ low saturated fat, because it combines high oxidative stability of the oil with a reduction in the fatty acids that are detriment...

  14. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) responsive to infection with the pathogenic fungus Verticillium longisporum using Brassica AA (Brassica rapa) and CC (Brassica oleracea) as reference genomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shen, Dan; Suhrkamp, Ina; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shenyi; Menkhaus, Jan; Verreet, Joseph‐Alexander; Fan, Longjiang; Cai, Daguang

    2014-01-01

    .... To identify oilseed rape mi RNA s, we deep‐sequenced two small RNA libraries made from V. longisporum infected/noninfected roots and employed Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea genomes as references for mi RNA prediction and characterization...

  15. Rabies and its present situation in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Gh Nadalian

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a dangerous infections disease which is highly fatal and zoonotic. The disease occurs in many countries of the world and in Iran, rabies is endemic and a major public health Problem. Most warm blooded animals are susceptible to rabies. It is transmitted by the bite of an infected animal to humans and other animals. The saliva of the sufferers is a rich source of rabies virus. Rabies is not seen in countries such as Scandinavia, Britain, Ireland, Scotland, Australia and New Zealand which is related to their geographical situation and being surrounded by water. But in countries like the United States of America, Canada, Europe and Iran the rabies is endemic. Dogs, wild carnivores especially wolves and foxes are the main transmitters of the disease. Rabies has been known approximately from the year 2300 BC with the dog considered as the main vector. Scientists like Avicenna and Sayyed Esmail Jorjani have described rabies. Louis Pasteur presented antirabies treatment and vaccinations in 1885. The Pasteur institute of Iran opened in 1920 and today there are more than 300 antirabies treatment centers in the country involved with the treatment rabies. More than 100000 persons each year in Iran are treated for rabies due to being bitten by animals especially dogs suspected of having rabies. According to the report of the Pasteur institute of Iran, 421 Positive cases of rabies of which 3 were human cases where recorded in the year 2001. These figures for 2002 to 2004 were 356 positive cases with 6 human cases, 314 positive cares with 10 human cases and 325 positive cases with 5 human cases respectively. On average, 6 human cases of rabies were recorded each year with all leading to death. Considering the increasing trend of animal bites and the number of animals and humans affected by rabies the responsible authorities including the National Veterinary Organization, Ministry of health, municipalities, Ministry of Interior and … must present

  16. [Relevance of the World Report on Disability by WHO and World Bank for participation research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, T; Gutenbrunner, C

    2012-12-01

    The World Report on Disability has been presented to the public in 2011 jointly by WHO and World Bank. This paper aims to highlight the importance of the World Report for participation and rehabilitation research. In a first step we provide an overview of the World Report. It includes an introduction of the understanding of disability and its epidemiology, an analysis of different care sectors and further important life domains as well as recommendations for the improvement of the living situation of persons with disability. Then, the importance of context factors for participation is earmarked. We summarize pivotal messages of the World Report, including the estimation of 15% of the world population that experiences some kind of disability. We report on the consequences drawn for the participation and rehabilitation research. Our recommendations complete the present paper. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Situational panic attacks in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Carrie M; Wong, Judy; Heimberg, Richard G; Blanco, Carlos; Liu, Shang-Min; Wang, Shuai; Schneier, Franklin R

    2014-01-01

    Panic attacks (PAs) are common in many psychiatric disorders other than panic disorder, especially social anxiety disorder (SAD). PAs have been associated with increased severity, comorbidity, and impairment in many disorders; therefore, PAs can now be used as a descriptive specifier across all DSM-5 disorders. However, the clinical implications of PAs in SAD remain unclear. The aim of the present investigation was to examine demographic and clinical characteristics associated with SAD-related situational panic attacks in a large, representative epidemiological sample of individuals with SAD (N=1138). We compared individuals with SAD who did and did not endorse situational PAs in terms of demographic factors, fear/avoidance of social situations, distress, impairment, and diagnostic comorbidity. Being male, black, Asian, or over 65 years old was associated with a decreased likelihood of experiencing situational PAs, whereas being unemployed was associated with an increased likelihood. Individuals with situational PAs also exhibited greater fear and avoidance of social situations, impairment, coping-oriented substance use, treatment utilization, and concurrent and longitudinal psychiatric comorbidity. Consistent with most epidemiologic studies, the information collected relied on self-report, and not all participants were available for both waves of assessment. The present findings suggest that SAD-related situational PAs are associated with more severe and complex presentations of SAD. Implications for the assessment and treatment of SAD, as well as for the use of PAs as a descriptive specifier for SAD, are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Yoruba World View and the nature of Psychotic Illness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. 'World view' (Weltanschaung) is a socio-cultural concept that encompasses a people's beliefs about the origins of the universe, and the place of man in it. The world view of a people colours their perception and reaction to every situation. It is especially important when it comes to health and illness. An insight ...

  19. World Public Expenditure: Education and Armaments, 1965-74

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carceles, Gabriel

    1977-01-01

    The latest data on public expenditures show that since 1973 world expenditures on education have exceeded military expenditures in developed nations, but that the opposite situation prevails in developing nations. Beginning with 1965, this article summarizes these expenditures for the world as a whole, including developed and developing nations.…

  20. Memory constraints on infants’ cross-situational statistical learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlach, Haley A.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2014-01-01

    Infants are able to map linguistic labels to referents in the world by tracking co-occurrence probabilities across learning events, a behavior often termed cross-situational statistical learning. This study builds upon existing research by examining infants’ developing ability to aggregate and retrieve word-referent pairings over time. 16- and 20-month-old infants (N = 32) were presented with a cross-situational statistical learning task in which half of the object-label pairings were presented in immediate succession (massed) and half were distributed across time (interleaved). Results revealed striking developmental differences in word mapping performance; infants in both age groups were able to learn pairings presented in immediate succession, but only 20-month-old infants were able to correctly infer pairings distributed over time. This work reveals significant constraints on infants’ ability to aggregate and retrieve object-label pairings across time and challenges theories of cross-situational statistical learning that rest on retrieval processes as successful and automatic. PMID:23545387

  1. Towards an ethical theory in disaster situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    Health Care professionals working in disaster situations have to face urgent choices which diverge from their normal deontological ethos and are more utilitarian. Such is the triage system used to choose whom to treat. Instead of entering a crisis these professionals should be thought that ethics is not harmonizable to all situations and that there are situations in which saving as many lives as possible mean sacrificing others. This calls for defining a perimeter zone in which such choices occur, and a time frame (a space-time niche) in which it ought to be considered ethical and legitimate to use such value laden choices.

  2. Toward a Situated Stance in Organizational Institutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boxenbaum, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Organizational Institutionalism is gradually embracing a more situated, actor-centered stance that is prompting empirical inquiry into how embedded actors respond to institutional complexity. French Pragmatist Sociology can contribute to this endeavor because it provides a situated, relational......, and practice-oriented framework for studying how actors negotiate and justify actions through shared moral “worlds” that are akin to institutional logics. French Pragmatist Sociology can help illuminate three questions that are key to a situated stance in Organizational Institutionalism: (a) How free...

  3. La situation agricole et alimentaire mondiale : causes, conséquences, perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazoyer Marcel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of the development of agri-food system in the world, the disparity in productivity and income the long terme downward trend in international agricultural prices, the world agricultural divide and its conséquences in terms of poverty and malnutrition. Given this situation of poor farmers it analyses what should be the components of an effective policy development.

  4. First Experience from the World Largest fully commercial Solar Heating Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred; Furbo, Simon

    1997-01-01

    The first experience from the largest solar heating plant in the world is given. The plant is situated in Marstal and is has a total area of 8000 square m.......The first experience from the largest solar heating plant in the world is given. The plant is situated in Marstal and is has a total area of 8000 square m....

  5. A Call for a Possible World Argument in Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Borge, Steffen

    2000-01-01

    Ethical theories must be able to deal with not only actual situations, but also counterfactual situations. By applying a possible world argument (PWA) in which we consider a theory's applicability over the space of possible worlds, we see more clearly whether the theory is world-sensitive or not (flexible or nonflexible). In this essay I will argue for the importance of PWA and show, through a case study, how different theories react to PWA. The conclusion will be open-ended: We need to have ...

  6. A improved Network Security Situation Awareness Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fangwei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to reflect the situation of network security assessment performance fully and accurately, a new network security situation awareness model based on information fusion was proposed. Network security situation is the result of fusion three aspects evaluation. In terms of attack, to improve the accuracy of evaluation, a situation assessment method of DDoS attack based on the information of data packet was proposed. In terms of vulnerability, a improved Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS was raised and maked the assessment more comprehensive. In terms of node weights, the method of calculating the combined weights and optimizing the result by Sequence Quadratic Program (SQP algorithm which reduced the uncertainty of fusion was raised. To verify the validity and necessity of the method, a testing platform was built and used to test through evaluating 2000 DAPRA data sets. Experiments show that the method can improve the accuracy of evaluation results.

  7. Guidance for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document addresses the types of asbestos issues that may arise during catastrophic events and how EPA has addressed such issues. It replaces the Guidelines for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos which was issued in 1992.

  8. Situational leadership and persons with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero, Christopher G

    2007-01-01

    Does situational leadership style impact workers with disabilities? Situational leadership as a model and style of organizational management is defined. With a concentration on workers with disabilities, employer and employee perceptions of the workplace environment are analyzed as a contributing factor to the choice of leadership styles. Leadership style and its potential impact on workers with disabilities are included. Advantages of situational leadership style as an organizational model for managers that matches the intricate needs of workers with disabilities are argued. Methods for increasing awareness of the needs of persons with disabilities in the workplace and improving leadership models are discussed. Implications and potential outcomes for workers with disabilities based on the use of situational leadership by managers are discussed.

  9. Observations on the Alaska reindeer situation, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses various topics regarding the situation of Alaskan reindeer in 1968. The production of reindeer by Alaskan natives is discussed, including their...

  10. Issues of the Theory of Criminalistics Situations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Snieguole Matuliene; Rolandas Kriksciunas

    2011-01-01

    ... theoretic meaning, purpose, function and practical application. In the present article, the authors examine the criminalistics situation--one of the most significant categories of the theory of criminalistics and crime investigation techniques...

  11. Decoupling, situated cognition and immersion in art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Situated cognition seems incompatible with strong decoupling, where representations are deployed in the absence of their targets and are not oriented toward physical action. Yet, in art consumption, the epitome of a strongly decoupled cognitive process, the artwork is a physical part of the environment and partly controls the perception of its target by the audience, leading to immersion. Hence, art consumption combines strong decoupling with situated cognition.

  12. Mental health: the current situation and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto Rodríguez, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Information regarding the mental health situation, both at global and national levels, is updated. In the first place, the basic concepts and problems regarding mental health are presented. The burden of disease is also presented, bearing in mind that in developed countries deeper depression occupies second place and in developing countries comes fourth. On the other hand, depressive disorders represent 17% of DALYs. The mental health situation in Colombia is also presented, including its epi...

  13. [Postural control depends on testing situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbanski, Stephan; Schmidtbleicher, Ditmar

    2010-09-01

    Most often postural control is evaluated in posturography, i. e. in a static testing condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate correlations and differences between posturography and dynamic testing situations to get information about the informative value of static testing situations on dynamic conditions. 40 healthy subjects participated in this study (m=23; w=17; age: 23.8±2.9 years; height: 177.0±8.5 cm; weight: 71.5±10.5 kg). Subjects were tested on their ability to maintain postural stability on a force platform (posturography, static condition) and on a movable and instable plate (dynamic condition). Furthermore, we analyzed balance correcting responses to a standardised disturbance of postural stability. EMG-activity was recorded of the following muscles: m. tibialis anterior, m. gastrocnemius lateralis, m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps femoris, and m. erector spinae. Pearson's Correlations were used to examine the relationship between postural control in static and in dynamic testing situations. Student's t-tests were used to examine differences in several parameters between static and dynamic testing situations. Comparisons of postural control in static and in dynamic conditions lead to marginal correlations between performances in these test situations (r=-0.02 to r=0.45). Moreover, EMGactivity showed changes concerning quantitative parameters and coordination patterns. Regarding correlations and analyses of EMG-activity we hypothesised different postural control strategies depending on each testing situation. Therefore, postural control seems not to be a generalizable ability. These data suggest that there is doubt on the use of posturography in static condition to predict performance in dynamic situations that could induce falls in elderly people or injuries in athletes. It appears comprehensible that dynamic testing situations are more suitable.

  14. Postural correlates of viewing painful situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry eLelard

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotional context may play a crucial role in movement production. According to simulation theories, emotional states affect motor systems. The aim of this study was to compare postural responses assessed by posturography and electromyography when subjects were instructed to imagine themselves in a painful or a non-painful situation.Methods: Twenty-nine subjects (22.3 ± 3.7 years participated in this study. While standing quietly on a posturographic platform, they were instructed to imagine themselves in a painful or non-painful situation. Displacement of the centre of pressure (COP, leg muscle electromyographic activity, heart rate, and electrodermal activity were assessed in response to painful and non-painful situations.Results:The anteroposterior path was shorter (p<0.05 when subjects imagined themselves in a painful situation (M = 148.0 ± 33.4 mm compared to a non-painful situation (158.2 ± 38.7 mm. Higher Tibialis Anterior (TA activity (RMS-TA = 3.38 ± 1.95 % vs 3.24 ± 1.85 %; p < 0.001 and higher variability of Soleus (SO activity (variation coefficient of RMS-SO = 13.5 ± 16.2 % vs M = 9.0% ± 7.2 %; p<0.05 were also observed in painful compared to non-painful situations. No significant changes were observed for other physiological data Conclusion: This study demonstrates that simulation of painful situations induces changes in postural control and leg muscle activation compared to non-painful situations, as increased stiffness was demonstrated in response to aversive pictures in accordance with previous results.

  15. Towards artificial situation awareness by autonomous vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    McAree, O.; Aitken, J M; Veres, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to artificial situation awareness for an autonomous vehicle operating in complex dynamic environments populated by other agents. A key aspect of situation awareness is the use of mental models to predict future states of the environment, allowing safe and rational routing decisions to be made. We present a technique for predicting future discrete state transitions (such as the commencement of a turn) by other agents, based upon an uncertain mental model. P...

  16. Action Based Object Separation with Situated Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    Visual scene analysis can be augmented by proper manipulative actions like changing perspective or interacting with elements of the environment. They reveal some of the non-obvious (e.g. non-visual or visually ambiguous) intrinsic qualities of the scene's setting. A framing for actions is formalizable using situation semantics notification. This supports a non-classic view of perception: the perception of the situation is the action taken to inspect it, or is at least inseparably connected to...

  17. How to model and simulate the effects of cropping systems on population dynamics and gene flow at the landscape level: example of oilseed rape volunteers and their role for co-existence of GM and non-GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbach, Nathalie

    2009-05-01

    Agricultural landscapes comprise cultivated fields and semi-natural areas. Biological components of these compartments such as weeds, insect pests and pathogenic fungi can disperse sometimes over very large distances, colonise new habitats via insect flight, spores, pollen or seeds and are responsible for losses in crop yield (e.g. weeds, pathogens) and biodiversity (e.g. invasive weeds). The spatiotemporal dynamics of these biological components interact with crop locations, successions and management as well as the location and management of semi-natural areas such as roadverges. The objective of this investigation was to establish a modelling and simulation methodology for describing, analysing and predicting spatiotemporal dynamics and genetics of biological components of agricultural landscapes. The ultimate aim of the models was to evaluate and propose innovative cropping systems adapted to particular agricultural concerns. The method was applied to oilseed rape (OSR) volunteers playing a key role for the coexistence of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM oilseed rape crops, where the adventitious presence of GM seeds in non-GM harvests (AGMP) could result in financial losses for farmers and cooperatives. A multi-year, spatially explicit model was built, using field patterns, climate, cropping systems and OSR varieties as input variables, focusing on processes and cultivation techniques crucial for plant densities and pollen flow. The sensitivity of the model to input variables was analysed to identify the major cropping factors. These should be modified first when searching for solutions limiting gene flow. The sensitivity to model processes and species life-traits were analysed to facilitate the future adaptation of the model to other species. The model was evaluated by comparing its simulations to independent field observations to determine its domain of validity and prediction error. The cropping system study determined contrasted farm types, simulated

  18. Situational Leadership in Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Marcus; Johansson, Curt R.; Ek, Asa; Akselsson, Roland

    2007-01-01

    In high-risk environments such as air traffic control, leadership on different levels plays a certain role in establishing, promoting, and maintaining a good safety culture. The current study aimed to investigate how leadership styles, leadership style adaptability, and over and under task leadership behavior differed across situations, operative conditions, leadership structures, and working tasks in an air traffic control setting. Study locations were two air traffic control centers in Sweden with different operational conditions and leadership structures, and an administrative air traffic management unit. Leadership was measured with a questionnaire based on Leader Effectiveness and Adaptability Description (LEAD; Blanchard, Zigarmi & Zigarmi, 2003; Hersey & Blanchard, 1988). The results showed that the situation had strong impact on the leadership in which the leadership behavior was more relationship oriented in Success and Group situations than in Hardship and Individual situations. The leadership adaptability was further superior in Success and Individual situations compared with Hardship and Group situations. Operational conditions, leadership structures and working tasks were, on the other hand, not associated with leadership behavior.

  19. Situated Learning: The Feasibility of an Experimental Learning of Information Technology for Academic Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Ayala; Lev-Ari, Lilac; Sharon, Dganit; Amzalag, Meital

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Bachelor's degree of nursing education, nursing students are exposed to the increasingly complex world of Information Technology. Aim: To evaluate the feasibility of a situated learning approach for Information Technology course by assessing students' perceptions at the end of the course. Methods: Course participants completed a pre…

  20. A data model for operational and situational information in emergency response: The Dutch case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dilo, Arta; Zlatanova, Sidi

    2011-01-01

    Many software systems have been created to help the emergency responders in their activities all over the world. These systems are usually dedicated to a specific emergency situation or emergency response sector. Exchange of information between the different systems is difficult or not possible.