WorldWideScience

Sample records for world driving energy

  1. Trip Energy Estimation Methodology and Model Based on Real-World Driving Data for Green Routing Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, Jacob [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Van Til, Harrison J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeffrey D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhu, Lei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-09

    A data-informed model to predict energy use for a proposed vehicle trip has been developed in this paper. The methodology leverages nearly 1 million miles of real-world driving data to generate the estimation model. Driving is categorized at the sub-trip level by average speed, road gradient, and road network geometry, then aggregated by category. An average energy consumption rate is determined for each category, creating an energy rates look-up table. Proposed vehicle trips are then categorized in the same manner, and estimated energy rates are appended from the look-up table. The methodology is robust and applicable to almost any type of driving data. The model has been trained on vehicle global positioning system data from the Transportation Secure Data Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and validated against on-road fuel consumption data from testing in Phoenix, Arizona. The estimation model has demonstrated an error range of 8.6% to 13.8%. The model results can be used to inform control strategies in routing tools, such as change in departure time, alternate routing, and alternate destinations to reduce energy consumption. This work provides a highly extensible framework that allows the model to be tuned to a specific driver or vehicle type.

  2. Suitability of Synthetic Driving Profiles from Traffic Micro-Simulation for Real-World Energy Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Yunfei; Wood, Eric; Burton, Evan; Gonder, Jeffrey

    2015-10-14

    A shift towards increased levels of driving automation is generally expected to result in improved safety and traffic congestion outcomes. However, little empirical data exists to estimate the impact that automated driving could have on energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. In the absence of empirical data on differences between drive cycles from present day vehicles (primarily operated by humans) and future vehicles (partially or fully operated by computers) one approach is to model both situations over identical traffic conditions. Such an exercise requires traffic micro-simulation to not only accurately model vehicle operation under high levels of automation, but also (and potentially more challenging) vehicle operation under present day human drivers. This work seeks to quantify the ability of a commercial traffic micro-simulation program to accurately model real-world drive cycles in vehicles operated primarily by humans in terms of driving speed, acceleration, and simulated fuel economy. Synthetic profiles from models of freeway and arterial facilities near Atlanta, Georgia, are compared to empirical data collected from real-world drivers on the same facilities. Empirical and synthetic drive cycles are then simulated in a powertrain efficiency model to enable comparison on the basis of fuel economy. Synthetic profiles from traffic micro-simulation were found to exhibit low levels of transient behavior relative to the empirical data. Even with these differences, the synthetic and empirical data in this study agree well in terms of driving speed and simulated fuel economy. The differences in transient behavior between simulated and empirical data suggest that larger stochastic contributions in traffic micro-simulation (relative to those present in the traffic micro-simulation tool used in this study) are required to fully capture the arbitrary elements of human driving. Interestingly, the lack of stochastic contributions from models of human drivers

  3. Development of a Trip Energy Estimation Model Using Real-World Global Positioning System Driving Data: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, Jacob [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhu, Lei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeffrey D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Ye [Metropia, Inc.

    2017-09-15

    A data-driven technique for estimation of energy requirements for a proposed vehicle trip has been developed. Based on over 700,000 miles of driving data, the technique has been applied to generate a model that estimates trip energy requirements. The model uses a novel binning approach to categorize driving by road type, traffic conditions, and driving profile. The trip-level energy estimations can easily be aggregated to any higher-level transportation system network desired. The model has been tested and validated on the Austin, Texas, data set used to build this model. Ground-truth energy consumption for the data set was obtained from Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) vehicle simulation results. The energy estimation model has demonstrated 12.1 percent normalized total absolute error. The energy estimation from the model can be used to inform control strategies in routing tools, such as change in departure time, alternate routing, and alternate destinations, to reduce energy consumption. The model can also be used to determine more accurate energy consumption of regional or national transportation networks if trip origin and destinations are known. Additionally, this method allows the estimation tool to be tuned to a specific driver or vehicle type.

  4. Project InitiativE-BW - Real-world driving, energy demand, user experiences and emissions of electrified vehicle fleets

    OpenAIRE

    Dittus, Holger; Kugler, Ulrike; Schmitt, Michael; Özdemir, Enver Doruk

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers see electrified vehicles (EV) as one instrument to reduce local air pollution and also towards a mitigation of climate change. It is known that the “real driving” energy demand of conventional vehicles is significantly higher than the norm consumption. However, there is limited knowledge for the real-world energy demand and charging patterns of EV fleets. Furthermore, first user experiences are important for the uptake of the electrified vehicles. There are not many studies...

  5. World energy insight 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The World Energy Insight 2011 is the official publication of the World Energy Council. It includes interviews, articles and case studies from a distinguished panel of World Energy Council Officers, CEOs, government ministers, academics and opinion formers from all areas of the energy sector and provides perspectives from around the globe. Government, industry and NGO's offer both policy and technology perspectives. The insights within this publication add to the work that WEC is doing to provide the forum for energy leaders, along with the on-going WEC studies and programmes on Energy Policies, 2050 Energy Scenarios, Energy Resources & Technologies, Energy for Urban Innovation, Rules Of Energy Trade and Global Energy Access.

  6. World energy outlook 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    The World Energy Outlook 2006 sets out the IEA's latest projections of world energy supply and demand to 2030 for oil, gas, coal, renewables, nuclear and electricity, plus projections on energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions. The publication is in three parts. Part A: The reference scenario has chapters entitled: Key assumptions; Global Energy Trends; Oil market outlook; Gas market outlook; Coal market outlook; and Power sector outlook. Part B: The alternative policy scenario contains chapters on: Mapping a new energy future; Assessing the cost-effectiveness of alternative policies; Deepening the analysis results by sector; and Getting to and going beyond the alternative policy scenario. Part C: Focus on key topics contains: The impact of higher energy prices; Current trends in oil and gas investment; Prospects for nuclear power; The outlook for biofuels; Energy for coking in developing countries; and Focus on Brazil. 224 figs., 84 tabs., 5 annexes.

  7. World energy outlook 2014

    CERN Document Server

    International Energy Agency. Paris

    2014-01-01

    The global energy landscape is evolving at a rapid pace, reshaping long-held expectations for our energy future. The 2014 edition of the World Energy Outlook (WEO) will incorporate all the latest data and developments to produce a comprehensive and authoritative analysis of medium- and longer-term energy trends. It will complement a full set of energy projections – which extend from today through, for the first time, the year 2040 – with strategic insights into their meaning for energy security, the economy and the environment. Oil, natural gas, coal, renewables and energy efficiency will be covered, along with updates on trends in energy-related CO2 emissions, fossil-fuel and renewable energy subsidies, and universal access to modern energy services.

  8. World energy insight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    The 21st World Energy Congress offers a unique opportunity for all stake-holders of the energy sector to meet and exchange visions, strategies and practices, during four days of very intensive and interesting sessions, round-tables and exhibitions. More than 3,000 energy leaders gather from around the world from both developed and developing countries, from all types of energy, from public and private companies and government organisations, in order to think together about how to bring about a sustainable and acceptable energy future. The truth is that nobody has the choice any longer. All energy leaders have to take decisions every day, and they need to have a clear analysis of what is at stake, what the risks are, and what the solutions can be.

  9. Key World Energy Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.

  10. World Energy Outlook 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-09

    The world appears to be emerging from the worst economic crisis in decades. Many countries have made pledges under the Copenhagen Accord to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions. Commitments have also been made by the G-20 and APEC to phase out inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies. Are we, at last, on the path to a secure, reliable and environmentally sustainable energy system? Updated projections of energy demand, production, trade and investment, fuel by fuel and region by region to 2035 are provided in the 2010 edition of the World Energy Outlook (WEO). It includes, for the first time, a new scenario that anticipates future actions by governments to meet the commitments they have made to tackle climate change and growing energy insecurity. WEO-2010 shows: what more must be done and spent to achieve the goal of the Copenhagen Accord to limit the global temperature increase to 2 deg. C and how these actions would impact on oil markets; how emerging economies -- led by China and India -- will increasingly shape the global energy landscape; what role renewables can play in a clean and secure energy future; what removing fossil-fuel subsidies would mean for energy markets, climate change and state budgets; the trends in Caspian energy markets and the implications for global energy supply; the prospects for unconventional oil; and how to give the entire global population access to modern energy services. With extensive data, projections and analysis, this publication provides invaluable insights into how the energy system could evolve over the next quarter of a century. The book is essential reading for anyone with a stake in the energy sector.

  11. World Energy Outlook 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    The 2008 report provides invaluable analysis to help policy makers around the world assess and address the challenges posed by worsening oil supply prospects, higher energy prices and rising emissions of greenhouse gases. In the WEO-2008 Reference Scenario, which assumes no new government policies, world primary energy demand grows by 1.6% per year on average between 2006 and 2030 - an increase of 45%. This is slower than projected last year, mainly due to the impact of the economic slowdown, prospects for higher energy prices and some new policy initiatives. Demand for oil rises from 85 million barrels per day now to 106 mb/d in 2030 - 10 mb/d less than projected last year. Demand for coal rises more than any other fuel in absolute terms, accounting for over a third of the increase in energy use. Modern renewables grow most rapidly, overtaking gas to become the second-largest source of electricity soon after 2010. China and India account for over half of incremental energy demand to 2030 while the Middle East emerges as a major new demand centre. The share of the world's energy consumed in cities grows from two-thirds to almost three-quarters in 2030. Almost all of the increase in fossil-energy production occurs in non-OECD countries. These trends call for energy-supply investment of $26.3 trillion to 2030, or over 1 trillion US dollars/year. Yet the credit squeeze could delay spending, potentially setting up a supply-crunch that could choke economic recovery. In addition to providing a comprehensive update of long-term energy projections to 2030, WEO-2008 takes a detailed look at the prospects for oil and gas production. Oil will remain the world's main source of energy for many years to come, even under the most optimistic of assumptions about the development of alternative technology. But the sources of oil, the cost of producing it and the prices that consumers will have to pay for it are extremely uncertain. It is far from certain that companies

  12. Contribution of Road Grade to the Energy Use of Modern Automobiles Across Large Datasets of Real-World Drive Cycles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Duran, A.; Gonder, J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the real-world power demand of modern automobiles is of critical importance to engineers using modeling and simulation to inform the intelligent design of increasingly efficient powertrains. Increased use of global positioning system (GPS) devices has made large scale data collection of vehicle speed (and associated power demand) a reality. While the availability of real-world GPS data has improved the industry's understanding of in-use vehicle power demand, relatively little attention has been paid to the incremental power requirements imposed by road grade. This analysis quantifies the incremental efficiency impacts of real-world road grade by appending high fidelity elevation profiles to GPS speed traces and performing a large simulation study. Employing a large real-world dataset from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Transportation Secure Data Center, vehicle powertrain simulations are performed with and without road grade under five vehicle models. Aggregate results of this study suggest that road grade could be responsible for 1% to 3% of fuel use in light-duty automobiles.

  13. Development Trends of World Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yuetong

    2009-01-01

    Energy has been one of the most important issues and challenge humans face in the 21st century which has a bearing on international economic and social development, global climate changes and environment protection. With a focus on development trends of world energy, this paper analyses the current world energy status and from the perspectives of energy sources, regions, end-use sectors, the balance of energy production and consumption, and in the context of its implications on the global env...

  14. World energy perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Basic facts on energy reserves and main environmental effects of energy production are recalled. Physical constraints associated to the different energy production means are summarized, and present cost estimates are given. (author)

  15. Energy Optimal Control of Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Flemming

    This thesis deals with energy optimal control of small and medium-size variable speed induction motor drives for especially Heating, Ventilation and Air-Condition (HVAC) applications. Optimized efficiency is achieved by adapting the magnetization level in the motor to the load, and the basic...... purpose is demonstrate how this can be done for low-cost PWM-VSI drives without bringing the robustness of the drive below an acceptable level. Four drives are investigated with respect to energy optimal control: 2.2 kW standard and high-efficiency motor drives, 22 kW and 90 kW standard motor drives....... The method has been to make extensive efficiency measurements within the specified operating area with optimized efficiency and with constant air-gap flux, and to establish reliable converter and motor loss models based on those measurements. The loss models have been used to analyze energy optimal control...

  16. Key World Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  17. GEOGRAPHY OF ENERGY. A WORLD IN TRANSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Karanikolas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geography and energy are two major scientific fields. From one side Geography is the science which answers fundamental questions of spatial behavior of all environmental and human phenomenon and from the other side energy is actually the «fuel» of economic and social development for many countries and regions especially after industrial revolution. In today’s world energy came to be one of the major fields of development, success or even conflict between countries and societies. The division of energy producers and energy suppliers and the world with access to energy or not came to be one of the major problems of world nations. During the last decades’ geography of energy is a result of the tiny mix of geography and energy science. Tiny, because of the very few publications in the field although it is seriously accelerating during the 21st century. It is only after 1961, when the discussion about the role of geographers in the field of energy and the answers to common geographic questions like patterns and spatial understanding of the production, distribution and needs of energy came up to the foreground. It is true that the world face fundamental changes in the patterns of energy production, distribution and use. International and national policies of the countries are driving energy transitions from «conventional» to «unconventional» fossil fuels (Farrell and Brandt, 2006; Greene et al., 2006 and from non-renewable to renewable energy resources (REN21, 2012. These changes follow a pattern behavior and a spatial analysis of the phenomenon is seriously needed. In this paper the transition of energy forms and the spatial behavior of energy production and needs are discussed. The future of an -energy driven- world sets the background for new tools of analysis of the demand for energy from human race. A theoretical background of the field of geography of energy is also given.

  18. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Lamb, Bradford [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Prudell, Joseph [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Hammagren, Erik [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2016-08-22

    This Project aims to satisfy objectives of the DOE’s Water Power Program by completing a system detailed design (SDD) and other important activities in the first phase of a utility-scale grid-connected ocean wave energy demonstration. In early 2012, Columbia Power (CPwr) had determined that further cost and performance optimization was necessary in order to commercialize its StingRAY wave energy converter (WEC). CPwr’s progress toward commercialization, and the requisite technology development path, were focused on transitioning toward a commercial-scale demonstration. This path required significant investment to be successful, and the justification for this investment required improved annual energy production (AEP) and lower capital costs. Engineering solutions were developed to address these technical and cost challenges, incorporated into a proposal to the US Department of Energy (DOE), and then adapted to form the technical content and statement of project objectives of the resulting Project (DE-EE0005930). Through Project cost-sharing and technical collaboration between DOE and CPwr, and technical collaboration with Oregon State University (OSU), National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) and other Project partners, we have demonstrated experimentally that these conceptual improvements have merit and made significant progress towards a certified WEC system design at a selected and contracted deployment site at the Wave Energy Test Site (WETS) at the Marine Corps Base in Oahu, HI (MCBH).

  19. Analysis of ICT and Management Systems in Driving World Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Rose Mugeni Ndombi; Anthony N. Wakhungu; Sanja Michael Mutongwa

    2014-01-01

    Management Information System (MIS) provides information for the managerial activities in an organization. It provides speedy, in-expensive and convenient means of communication. The main aim of this research is to perform analysis of ICT and management systems in driving world economy. Objectives of the this research includes :the establishment of impact of ICT on Global Economy; to find out how ICT impacts on the composition and structure of knowledge and employment in the world; to establi...

  20. The USGS World Energy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.

    1997-01-01

    The world has recently experienced rapid change to market-driven economies and increasing reliance on petroleum supplies from areas of political instability. The interplay of unprecedented growth of the global population, increasing worldwide energy demand, and political instability in two major petroleum exporting regions (the former Soviet Union and the Middle East) requires that the United States maintains a current, reliable, objective assessment of the world's energy resources. The need is compounded by the environmental implications of rapid increases in coal use in the Far East and international pressure on consumption of fossil fuels.

  1. Key World Energy Statistics 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997 and every year since then it has been more and more successful. Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  2. Superluminal warp drive and dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel A. Catalan' , Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: p.gonzalezdiaz@imaff.cfmac.csic.es

    2007-11-29

    In this Letter we consider a warp drive spacetime where the spaceship can only travel faster than light. Restricting to the two-dimensional case, we find that if the warp drive is placed in an accelerating universe the warp bubble size increases in a comoving way to the expansion of the universe in which it is immersed. Also shown is the result that the apparent velocity of the ship steadily increases with time as phantom energy is accreted onto it.

  3. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth E. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Prudell, Joseph H. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Schacher, Alphonse A. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Hammagren, Erik J. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Zhang, Zhe [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.

    2013-07-29

    The most prudent path to a full-scale design, build and deployment of a wave energy conversion (WEC) system involves establishment of validated numerical models using physical experiments in a methodical scaling program. This Project provides essential additional rounds of wave tank testing at 1:33 scale and ocean/bay testing at a 1:7 scale, necessary to validate numerical modeling that is essential to a utility-scale WEC design and associated certification.

  4. State energy drive toward greater energy independence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    Part two of a state-by-state review of grassroots energy conservation developments covers a local energy center at the St. Louis, Missouri library, 10 regional energy management and information centers in Pennsylvania, and a house doctor program of home energy audits in Pierre, South Dakota. Pierre homeowners may have an infrared scan, but must agree to implement at least some of the conservation recommendations to get the free service. South Dakota also has a pilot program to dispense alternate fuel and conservation information in Clay County and a television series designed to teach homeowners conservation techniques. (DCK)

  5. Comparing Expert Driving Behavior in Real World and Simulator Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiran B. Ekanayake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer games are increasingly used for purposes beyond mere entertainment, and current hi-tech simulators can provide quite, naturalistic contexts for purposes such as traffic education. One of the critical concerns in this area is the validity or transferability of acquired skills from a simulator to the real world context. In this paper, we present our work in which we compared driving in the real world with that in the simulator at two levels, that is, by using performance measures alone, and by combining psychophysiological measures with performance measures. For our study, we gathered data using questionnaires as well as by logging vehicle dynamics, environmental conditions, video data, and users' psychophysiological measurements. For the analysis, we used several novel approaches such as scatter plots to visualize driving tasks of different contexts and to obtain vigilance estimators from electroencephalographic (EEG data in order to obtain important results about the differences between the driving in the two contexts. Our belief is that both experimental procedures and findings of our experiment are very important to the field of serious games concerning how to evaluate the fitness of driving simulators and measure driving performance.

  6. Wormholes, warp drives and energy conditions

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Top researchers in the field of gravitation present the state-of-the-art topics outlined in this book, ranging from the stability of rotating wormholes solutions supported by ghost scalar fields, modified gravity applied to wormholes, the study of novel semi-classical and nonlinear energy conditions, to the applications of quantum effects and the superluminal version of the warp drive in modified spacetime. Based on Einstein's field equations, this cutting-edge research area explores the more far-fetched theoretical outcomes of General Relativity and relates them to quantum field theory. This includes quantum energy inequalities, flux energy conditions, and wormhole curvature, and sheds light on not just the theoretical physics but also on the possible applications to warp drives and time travel. This book extensively explores the physical properties and characteristics of these 'exotic spacetimes,' describing in detail the general relativistic geometries that generate closed timelike curves.

  7. Harnessing Big-Data for Estimating the Energy Consumption and Driving Range of Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    This study analyses the driving range and investigates the factors affecting the energy consumption rate of fully-battery electric vehicles under real-world driving patterns accounting for weather condition, drivers’ characteristics, and road characteristics. Four data sources are used: (i) up...... to six months driving pattern data collected from 741 drivers, (ii) drivers’ characteristics; (iii) road characteristics; (iv) weather data. We found that the real-world driving range of BEVs is highly sensitive to driving pattern and weather variables. The most important determinants of energy......-effects econometrics model used in this paper predicts that the energy saving speed of driving is between 45 and 56 km/h. In addition to the contribution to the literature about energy efficiency of electric vehicles, the findings from this study enlightens consumers to choose appropriate cars that suit their travel...

  8. Positive effects of Red Bull® Energy Drink on driving performance during prolonged driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mets, Monique A J; Ketzer, Sander; Blom, Camilla; van Gerven, Maartje H; van Willigenburg, Gitta M; Olivier, Berend; Verster, Joris C

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if Red Bull® Energy Drink can counteract sleepiness and driving impairment during prolonged driving. Twenty-four healthy volunteers participated in this double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. After 2 h of highway driving in the STISIM driving simulator, subjects had a 15-min break and consumed Red Bull® Energy Drink (250 ml) or placebo (Red Bull® Energy Drink without the functional ingredients: caffeine, taurine, glucuronolactone, B vitamins (niacin, pantothenic acid, B6, B12), and inositol) before driving for two additional hours. A third condition comprised 4 h of uninterrupted driving. Primary parameter was the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), i.e., the weaving of the car. Secondary parameters included SD speed, subjective driving quality, sleepiness, and mental effort to perform the test. No significant differences were observed during the first 2 h of driving. Red Bull® Energy Drink significantly improved driving relative to placebo: SDLP was significantly reduced during the 3rd (p Red Bull® Energy Drink significantly reduced the standard deviation of speed (p Red Bull® Energy Drink (p Red Bull® Energy Drink significantly improved each parameter. Red Bull® Energy Drink significantly improves driving performance and reduces driver sleepiness during prolonged highway driving.

  9. An Evolutionary Analysis of World Energy Consumption and World Population

    OpenAIRE

    Kriegel, U.; Mende, W.; Grauer, M.

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of large-scale systems is described by a model based on the assumption of hyperbolic growth and saturation processes. It is shown that this Hyper-Logistic Evolution Model (HLEM) successfully describes the development of world population and global primary energy consumption over the past century; the model is also used to provide projections of world population and primary energy consumption up to the year 2100.

  10. World potential of renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, B.; Devin, B.; Pharabod, F.

    1991-07-01

    A comprehensive analysis, region by region, of the actually accessible renewable energies at a given horizon, is presented. The same methodology as the one employed to derive ``proven fossil energy reserves`` from ``energy resources`` is adopted, in which resources are defined by quantitative information on physical potential, while reserves take into account technical and economical accessibility. As renewable resources are fluctuating with time and are diluted in space and not readily transportable or storeable, it is necessary to consider the presence of populations or activities near enough to be able to profit by these diluted and volatile energies.

  11. World energy outlook to the year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    International Energy Agency examines the evolution of world energy markets through to the year 2010. World demand for energy is expected to increase significantly through the first decade of the next century as population and real incomes rise. Demand will increase in OECD countries but growth will be strongest in non-OECD countries - particularly in China, India and the dynamic Asian economies. By 2010, OECD countries will account for less than half of total world oil consumption. On the supply side, the study projects a large increase in the role of natural gas, especially in Europe. The impacts of these and other supply and demand developments on energy use patterns will be significant. As the world enters the 21st century, electricity will become an increasingly important energy form. How electricity is generated, as well as how transportation systems develop, will affect how successful countries will be in meeting their energy needs and achieving their environmental objectives. 16 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. Energy planning in the Arab world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elshafei, A.N.

    1979-09-01

    Efficient use of energy is of interest to the energy-surplus regions as well as the energy-deficit regions. Similarly, concern about energy conservation is not confined to the industrially developed regions of the world. This article discusses energy planning from the Arab point of view. A framework for Arab energy modeling is first described. Then the application of a computer model - that of Mesarovic and Pestel - to Arab energy-planning needs is discussed and some of the results are presented. Finally, current priorities in Arab energy-modeling studies are outlined. The Appendix surveys some existing models which address regional and international energy problems.

  13. World Energy Prospects and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    In recent years, demand for energy has surged. This unrelenting increase has helped fuel global economic growth but placed considerable pressure on suppliers buffeted by geopolitics, violent weather conditions and other potentially disruptive factors.

  14. Thorium Energy for the World

    CERN Document Server

    Revol, Jean-Pierre; Bourquin, Maurice; Kadi, Yacine; Lillestol, Egil; De Mestral, Jean-Christophe; Samec, Karel

    2016-01-01

    The Thorium Energy Conference (ThEC13) gathered some of the world’s leading experts on thorium technologies to review the possibility of destroying nuclear waste in the short term, and replacing the uranium fuel cycle in nuclear systems with the thorium fuel cycle in the long term. The latter would provide abundant, reliable and safe energy with no CO2 production, no air pollution, and minimal waste production. The participants, representatives of 30 countries, included Carlo Rubbia, Nobel Prize Laureate in physics and inventor of the Energy Amplifier; Jack Steinberger, Nobel Prize Laureate in physics; Hans Blix, former Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Rolf Heuer, Director General of CERN; Pascal Couchepin, former President of the Swiss Confederation; and Claude Haegi, President of the FEDRE, to name just a few. The ThEC13 proceedings are a source of reference on the use of thorium for energy generation. They offer detailed technical reviews of the status of thorium energy ...

  15. Power electronic converter systems for direct drive renewable energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents power electronic conversion systems for wind and marine energy generation applications, in particular, direct drive generator energy conversion systems. Various topologies are presented and system design optimization and reliability are briefly discussed....

  16. World energy: Building a sustainable future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.; Meyers, S.

    1992-04-01

    As the 20th century draws to a close, both individual countries and the world community face challenging problems related to the supply and use energy. These include local and regional environmental impacts, the prospect of global climate and sea level change associated with the greenhouse effect, and threats to international relations in connection with oil supply or nuclear proliferation. For developing countries, the financial cost of providing energy to provide basic needs and fuel economic development pose an additional burden. To assess the magnitude of future problems and the potential effectiveness of response strategies, it is important to understand how and why energy use has changed in the post and where it is heading. This requires study of the activities for which energy is used, and of how people and technology interact to provide the energy services that are desired. The authors and their colleagues have analyzed trends in energy use by sector for most of the world`s major energy-consuming countries. The approach we use considers three key elements in each sector: the level of activity, structural change, and energy intensity, which expresses the amount of energy used for various activities. At a disaggregated level, energy intensity is indicative of energy efficiency. But other factors besides technical efficiency also shape intensity.

  17. Thorium: An energy source for the world of tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revol J.-P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet the tremendous world energy needs, systematic R&D has to be pursued to replace fossil fuels. Nuclear energy, which produces no green house gases and no air pollution, should be a leading candidate. How nuclear energy, based on thorium rather than uranium, could be an acceptable solution is discussed. Thorium can be used both to produce energy and to destroy nuclear waste. The thorium conference, organized by iThEC at CERN in October 2013, has shown that thorium is seriously considered by some major developing countries as a key element of their energy strategy. However, developed countries do not seem to move fast enough in that direction, while global cooperation is highly desirable in this domain. Thorium is not fissile. Various possible ways of using thorium will be reviewed. However, an elegant option is to drive an “Accelerator Driven System (ADS” with a proton accelerator, as suggested by Nobel Prize laureate Carlo Rubbia .

  18. Energy [r]evolution - a sustainable world energy outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teske, S.; Muth, J.; Sawyer, S.; Pregger, T.; Simon, S.; Naegler, T.; O'Sullivan, M.; Schmid, S; Pagenkopf, J.; Frieske, B.; Graus, W.H.J.; Kermeli, K.; Zittel, W.; Rutovitz, J.; Harris, S.; Ackermann, T.; Ruwahata, R.; Martense, N.

    2012-01-01

    Energy [R]evolution 2012 provides a consistent fundamental pathway for how to protect our climate: getting the world from where we are now to where we need to be by phasing out fossil fuels and cutting CO2 emissions while ensuring energy security.The Energy [R]evolution Scenario has become a well

  19. World energy: Building a sustainable future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.; Meyers, S.

    1992-04-01

    As the 20th century draws to a close, both individual countries and the world community face challenging problems related to the supply and use energy. These include local and regional environmental impacts, the prospect of global climate and sea level change associated with the greenhouse effect, and threats to international relations in connection with oil supply or nuclear proliferation. For developing countries, the financial cost of providing energy to provide basic needs and fuel economic development pose an additional burden. To assess the magnitude of future problems and the potential effectiveness of response strategies, it is important to understand how and why energy use has changed in the post and where it is heading. This requires study of the activities for which energy is used, and of how people and technology interact to provide the energy services that are desired. The authors and their colleagues have analyzed trends in energy use by sector for most of the world's major energy-consuming countries. The approach we use considers three key elements in each sector: the level of activity, structural change, and energy intensity, which expresses the amount of energy used for various activities. At a disaggregated level, energy intensity is indicative of energy efficiency. But other factors besides technical efficiency also shape intensity.

  20. Stochastic Real-World Drive Cycle Generation Based on a Two Stage Markov Chain Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balau, A.E.; Kooijman, D.; Vazquez Rodarte, I.; Ligterink, N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology and tool that stochastically generates drive cycles based on measured data, with the purpose of testing and benchmarking light duty vehicles in a simulation environment or on a test-bench. The WLTP database, containing real world driving measurements, was used as

  1. Harnessing big data for estimating the energy consumption and driving range of electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Kaplan, Sigal; Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    2017-01-01

    electric vehicles (BEVs) and provides insight into the factors that affect their energy consumption by harnessing big data from real-world driving. The analysis relied on four data sources: (i) driving patterns collected from 741 drivers over a two-year period; (ii) drivers’ characteristics; (iii) road...... type; (iv) weather conditions. The results of the analysis measure the mean ECR of BEVs at 0.183 kW h/km, underline a 34% increase in ECR and a 25% decrease in driving range in the winter with respect to the summer, and suggest the electricity tariff for BEVs to be cost efficient with respect...... to conventional ones. Moreover, the results of the analysis show that driving speed, acceleration and temperature have non-linear effects on the ECR, while season and precipitation level have a strong linear effect. The econometric model of the ECR of BEVs suggests that the optimal driving speed is between 45...

  2. Nuclear energy education scenario around the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabas, Roberta de Carvalho; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: praroberta@uol.com.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear energy has been used as a source of clean energy with many benefits. Nevertheless, it is still addressed with prejudice. The atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II (1945), the Three Mile Island accident (1979), Chernobyl accident (1986), the crash of the cesium-137 in Goiana, Brazil (1987), and the recent accident in Fukushima (2011) may have been responsible for the negative image of nuclear energy. Researches on education have been conducted with students concerning the conceptual and practical issues of nuclear energy. This work aims to review the literature about nuclear energy education around the world in both, elementary school and high school. Since most educational researches on nuclear energy were published after 1980, this literature review covered the researches that have been published since 1980. The data were presented in chronological order. The results from the literature review provided a clear visualization of the global nuclear energy educational scenario, showing that the theme is still addressed with prejudice due to an incorrect view of nuclear energy and a limited view of its benefits. Concerning the science textbooks, the literature reports that the theme should be better addressed, encouraging students to research more about it. The data from this literature review will serve as a reference for a future proposal for a teaching training program for Brazilian science/physics high school teachers using a new teaching approach. (author)

  3. The world energy book. Issue 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    This issue contains ten short articles. The first section, world overview, has a paper on Johannes Teywssen of E.On/Energie about liberalisation. The second section on Europe includes an article by Georg Rosenbauer of Siemens Power Generation entitled 'Clean coal: bringing CCS to market' and one by Clair Gough and others called 'CCS: a realistic option of the UK'. The section on energy statistics gives figures for usage and output of electricity, coal, oil and gas for 2003 for Europe. Additional statistics are available online at www.worldenergybook.com. The book is produced and published on behalf of the World Energy Council by the Petroleum Economist Ltd.

  4. How a future energy world could look?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, M.

    2012-10-01

    The future energy system will change significantly within the next years as a result of the following Mega Trends: de-carbonization, urbanization, fast technology development, individualization, glocalization (globalization and localization) and changing demographics. Increasing fluctuating renewable production will change the role of non-renewable generation. Distributed energy from renewables and micro generation will change the direction of the energy flow in the electricity grids. Production will not follow demand but demand has to follow production. This future system is enabled by the fast technical development of information and communication technologies which will be present in the entire system. In this paper the results of a comprehensive analysis with different scenarios is summarized. Tools were used like the analysis of policy trends in the European countries, modelling of the European power grid, modelling of the European power markets and the analysis of technology developments with cost reduction potentials. With these tools the interaction of the main actors in the energy markets like conventional generation and renewable generation, grid transport, electricity storage including new storage options from E-Mobility, Power to Gas, Compressed Air Energy storage and demand side management were considered. The potential application of technologies and investments in new energy technologies were analyzed within existing frameworks and markets as well as new business models in new markets with different frameworks. In the paper the over all trend of this analysis is presented by describing a potential future energy world. This world represents only one of numerous options with comparable characteristics.

  5. How a future energy world could look?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewert M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The future energy system will change significantly within the next years as a result of the following Mega Trends: de-carbonization, urbanization, fast technology development, individualization, glocalization (globalization and localization and changing demographics. Increasing fluctuating renewable production will change the role of non-renewable generation. Distributed energy from renewables and micro generation will change the direction of the energy flow in the electricity grids. Production will not follow demand but demand has to follow production. This future system is enabled by the fast technical development of information and communication technologies which will be present in the entire system. In this paper the results of a comprehensive analysis with different scenarios is summarized. Tools were used like the analysis of policy trends in the European countries, modelling of the European power grid, modelling of the European power markets and the analysis of technology developments with cost reduction potentials. With these tools the interaction of the main actors in the energy markets like conventional generation and renewable generation, grid transport, electricity storage including new storage options from E-Mobility, Power to Gas, Compressed Air Energy storage and demand side management were considered. The potential application of technologies and investments in new energy technologies were analyzed within existing frameworks and markets as well as new business models in new markets with different frameworks. In the paper the over all trend of this analysis is presented by describing a potential future energy world. This world represents only one of numerous options with comparable characteristics.

  6. Mobilizing private finance to drive an energy industrial revolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, John A. [Eni Chair in Competitive Dynamics and Global Strategy, LUISS Guido Carli University, Viale Romania, 32, 00197 Roma (Italy); Kidney, Sean [ClimateRisk Ltd, London (United Kingdom); Mallon, Karl; Hughes, Mark [ClimateRisk Ltd, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    While uptake of renewable energies as a solution to climate change is widely discussed, the issue of public vs. private financing is not yet adequately explored. The debates over the Kyoto Protocol and its successor, culminating in the COP15 Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen in December 2009, maintained a strong preference for public over private financing. Yet it is also clear to most observers that the energy revolution will never happen without the involvement of private finance to drive private investment. In this Viewpoint, we discuss the ways in which private financing could be mobilized to drive the energy industrial revolution that is needed if climate change mitigation is to succeed. (author)

  7. Evaluating the Impact of Road Grade on Simulated Commercial Vehicle Fuel Economy Using Real-World Drive Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopp, Sean; Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-13

    Commercial vehicle fuel economy is known to vary significantly with both positive and negative road grade. Medium- and heavy-duty vehicles operating at highway speeds require incrementally larger amounts of energy to pull heavy payloads up inclines as road grade increases. Non-hybrid vehicles are then unable to recapture energy on descent and lose energy through friction braking. While the on-road effects of road grade are well understood, the majority of standard commercial vehicle drive cycles feature no climb or descent requirements. Additionally, existing literature offers a limited number of sources that attempt to estimate the on-road energy implications of road grade in the medium- and heavy-duty space. This study uses real-world commercial vehicle drive cycles from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet DNA database to simulate the effects of road grade on fuel economy across a range of vocations, operating conditions, and locations. Drive-cycles are matched with vocation-specific vehicle models and simulated with and without grade. Fuel use due to grade is presented, and variation in fuel consumption due to drive cycle and vehicle characteristics is explored through graphical and statistical comparison. The results of this study suggest that road grade accounts for 1%-9% of fuel use in commercial vehicles on average and up to 40% on select routes.

  8. Brazil in the global energy world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Frank D.; Vossoughi, Shapour [University of Kansas (KU), KS (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Brazil is the 10th largest energy consumer in the world and the third largest in the Western Hemisphere, behind the United States and Canada. Total primary energy consumption in Brazil has increased significantly in recent years; and over the past decade, Brazil has made great strides in increasing its total energy production, particularly oil. Brazil has the second-largest crude oil reserves in South America (behind Venezuela), and is one of the fastest growing oil producers in the world. According to United States Energy Information Administration (EIA), Brazil had 12.2 billion barrels of proven oil reserves in 2008. In 2007, Brazil's state owned Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS) announced that it had discovered an estimated 5-8 billion barrels of recoverable reserves (including both oil and natural gas) in the Tupi field, located in the Santos Basin. In 2008, subsequent discoveries were announced, to include Jupiter and Carioca (aka Sugar Loaf). Although PETROBRAS has yet to confirm the size of the discoveries, some industry analysts estimate the total extent of recoverable oil and natural gas reserves in the entire pre-salt layer have approached 40 to 80 billion barrels of oil equivalent. The reserves occur below a salt zone that is estimated to be 7,000 meters below the ocean surface. However, Brazil faces many challenges to recover the hydrocarbons to include technical, political, fiscal, and infrastructure hurdles. In spite of the challenges ahead, these discoveries transformed the nature and focus of Brazil's oil industry, economy, and future; and the potential impact of the pre-salt discoveries upon world oil markets is vast. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the recent discoveries will affect Brazil's future and the impact it will have on the global energy world. (author)

  9. Effective World Modeling: Multisensor Data Fusion Methodology for Automated Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Elfring

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The number of perception sensors on automated vehicles increases due to the increasing number of advanced driver assistance system functions and their increasing complexity. Furthermore, fail-safe systems require redundancy, thereby increasing the number of sensors even further. A one-size-fits-all multisensor data fusion architecture is not realistic due to the enormous diversity in vehicles, sensors and applications. As an alternative, this work presents a methodology that can be used to effectively come up with an implementation to build a consistent model of a vehicle’s surroundings. The methodology is accompanied by a software architecture. This combination minimizes the effort required to update the multisensor data fusion system whenever sensors or applications are added or replaced. A series of real-world experiments involving different sensors and algorithms demonstrates the methodology and the software architecture.

  10. Effective World Modeling: Multisensor Data Fusion Methodology for Automated Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfring, Jos; Appeldoorn, Rein; van den Dries, Sjoerd; Kwakkernaat, Maurice

    2016-10-11

    The number of perception sensors on automated vehicles increases due to the increasing number of advanced driver assistance system functions and their increasing complexity. Furthermore, fail-safe systems require redundancy, thereby increasing the number of sensors even further. A one-size-fits-all multisensor data fusion architecture is not realistic due to the enormous diversity in vehicles, sensors and applications. As an alternative, this work presents a methodology that can be used to effectively come up with an implementation to build a consistent model of a vehicle's surroundings. The methodology is accompanied by a software architecture. This combination minimizes the effort required to update the multisensor data fusion system whenever sensors or applications are added or replaced. A series of real-world experiments involving different sensors and algorithms demonstrates the methodology and the software architecture.

  11. Ternary-fragmentation-driving potential energies of 252Cf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikraj, C.; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2017-12-01

    Within the framework of a simple macroscopic model, the ternary-fragmentation-driving potential energies of 252Cf are studied. In this work, all possible ternary-fragment combinations of 252Cf are generated by the use of atomic mass evaluation-2016 (AME2016) data and these combinations are minimized by using a two-dimensional minimization approach. This minimization process can be done in two ways: (i) with respect to proton numbers (Z1, Z2, Z3) and (ii) with respect to neutron numbers (N1, N2, N3) of the ternary fragments. In this paper, the driving potential energies for the ternary breakup of 252Cf are presented for both the spherical and deformed as well as the proton-minimized and neutron-minimized ternary fragments. From the proton-minimized spherical ternary fragments, we have obtained different possible ternary configurations with a minimum driving potential, in particular, the experimental expectation of Sn + Ni + Ca ternary fragmentation. However, the neutron-minimized ternary fragments exhibit a driving potential minimum in the true-ternary-fission (TTF) region as well. Further, the Q -value energy systematics of the neutron-minimized ternary fragments show larger values for the TTF fragments. From this, we have concluded that the TTF region fragments with the least driving potential and high Q values have a strong possibility in the ternary fragmentation of 252Cf. Further, the role of ground-state deformations (β2, β3, β4, and β6) in the ternary breakup of 252Cf is also studied. The deformed ternary fragmentation, which involves Z3=12 -19 fragments, possesses the driving potential minimum due to the larger oblate deformations. We also found that the ground-state deformations, particularly β2, strongly influence the driving potential energies and play a major role in determining the most probable fragment combinations in the ternary breakup of 252Cf.

  12. Future petroleum energy resources of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    and gas endowment estimates. Whereas petroleum resources in the world appear to be significant, certain countries such as the United States may run into import deficits, particularly oil imports from Mexico and natural gas from both Canada and Mexico. The new assessment has been used as the reference supply case in energy supply models by the International Energy Agency and the Energy Information Agency of the Department of Energy. Climate energy modeling groups such as those at Stanford University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and others have also used USGS estimates in global climate models. Many of these models using the USGS estimates converge on potential oil shortfalls in 2036-2040. However, recent articles using the USGS (2000) estimates suggest peaking of oil in 2020-2035 and peaking of non-OPEC (Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries) oil in 2015-2020. Such a short time framework places greater emphasis on a transition to increased use of natural gas; i.e., a methane economy. Natural gas in turn may experience similar supply concerns in the 2050-2060 time frame according to some authors. Coal resources are considerable and provide significant petroleum potential either by extracting natural gas from them, by directly converting them into petroleum products, or by utilizing them to generate electricity, thereby reducing natural gas and oil requirements by fuel substitution. Non-conventional oil and gas are quite common in petroleum provinces of the world and represent a significant resources yet to be fully studied and developed. Seventeen non-conventional AU including coal-bed methane, basin-center gas, continuous oil, and gas hydrate occurrences have been preliminarily identified for future assessment. Initial efforts to assess heavy oil deposits and other non-conventional oil and gas deposits also are under way.

  13. The world energy outlook: Latin America`s role

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, G. [International Energy Agency, Paris (France)

    1993-12-31

    Latin America`s role in helping to provide the world`s energy supplies is discussed. The following topics are discussed: crude oi lprice assumptions, world oil supply by region, OECD gas consumption by sectors, world primary energy shares, final world energy demand, world total primary energy demand, Latin American primary energy demand, and fuel shares of electricity output. It was concluded that the world`s energy use will remain carbon based, world enregy consumption will significantly increase with the non-OECD share increasing to over 50%, and the rising importance of non-OECD countries means that no solution to the world`s energy or environmental problems can be achieved without their participation.

  14. World Water Day 2014 – Water & Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Majewski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available World Water Day was established in 1992 at the United Nations conference – Environment and Development. It was approved to be held every year on 22 March under the heading, theme selected for a given year. The purpose of WWD was to draw the attention of societies, politicians and decision-makers to the fact that water is essential for life and for conducting economic and social activity. The first WWD was held in 1994 under the theme: Caring for our Water Resources is Everybody’s Business. For the subsequent 20 years, the WWD has been held under headings closely related to water and use of water resources. In 2014, the WWD subject has been extended by the issue of energy. It results from the fact that energy – just like water – is a factor essential for global economic and social development. Moreover, both these areas (water and energy are strictly related to each other and are interdependent.

  15. Fifteen Years of Operation at NASA's National Transonic Facility with the World's Largest Adjustable Speed Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydnor, George H.; Bhatia, Ram; Krattiger, Hansueli; Mylius, Justus; Schafer, D.

    2012-01-01

    In September 1995, a project was initiated to replace the existing drive line at NASA's most unique transonic wind tunnel, the National Transonic Facility (NTF), with a single 101 MW synchronous motor driven by a Load Commutated Inverter (LCI). This Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) system also included a custom four-winding transformer, harmonic filter, exciter, switch gear, control system, and feeder cable. The complete system requirements and design details have previously been presented and published [1], as well as the commissioning and acceptance test results [2]. The NTF was returned to service in December 1997 with the new drive system powering the fan. Today, this installation still represents the world s largest horizontal single motor/drive combination. This paper describes some significant events that occurred with the drive system during the first 15 years of service. These noteworthy issues are analyzed and root causes presented. Improvements that have substantially increased the long term viability of the system are given.

  16. Hybrid-Electric Passenger Car Carbon Dioxide and Fuel Consumption Benefits Based on Real-World Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmén, Britt A; Sentoff, Karen M

    2015-08-18

    Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) have lower fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions than conventional vehicles (CVs), on average, based on laboratory tests, but there is a paucity of real-world, on-road HEV emissions and performance data needed to assess energy use and emissions associated with real-world driving, including the effects of road grade. This need is especially great as the electrification of the passenger vehicle fleet (from HEVs to PHEVs to BEVs) increases in response to climate and energy concerns. We compared tailpipe CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of an HEV passenger car to a CV of the same make and model during real-world, on-the-road network driving to quantify the in-use benefit of one popular full HEV technology. Using vehicle specific power (VSP) assignments that account for measured road grade, the mean CV/HEV ratios of CO2 tailpipe emissions or fuel consumption defined the corresponding HEV "benefit" factor for each VSP class (1 kW/ton resolution). Averaging over all VSP classes for driving in all seasons, including temperatures from -13 to +35 °C in relatively steep (-13.2 to +11.5% grade), hilly terrain, mean (±SD) CO2 emission benefit factors were 4.5 ± 3.6, 2.5 ± 1.7, and 1.4 ± 0.5 for city, exurban/suburban arterial and highway driving, respectively. Benefit factor magnitude corresponded to the frequency of electric-drive-only (EDO) operation, which was modeled as a logarithmic function of VSP. A combined model explained 95% of the variance in HEV benefit for city, 75% for arterial and 57% for highway driving. Benefit factors consistently exceeded 2 for VSP classes with greater than 50% EDO (i.e., only city and arterial driving). The reported HEV benefits account for real-world road grade that is often neglected in regulatory emissions and fuel economy tests. Fuel use HEV benefit factors were 1.3 and 2 for the regulatory highway (HWFET) and city (FTP) cycles, respectively, 18% and 31% higher than the EPA adjusted

  17. The drive to life on wet and icy worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Michael J; Barge, Laura M; Bhartia, Rohit; Bocanegra, Dylan; Bracher, Paul J; Branscomb, Elbert; Kidd, Richard; McGlynn, Shawn; Meier, David H; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Shibuya, Takazo; Vance, Steve; White, Lauren; Kanik, Isik

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a reformulation of the submarine alkaline hydrothermal theory for the emergence of life in response to recent experimental findings. The theory views life, like other self-organizing systems in the Universe, as an inevitable outcome of particular disequilibria. In this case, the disequilibria were two: (1) in redox potential, between hydrogen plus methane with the circuit-completing electron acceptors such as nitrite, nitrate, ferric iron, and carbon dioxide, and (2) in pH gradient between an acidulous external ocean and an alkaline hydrothermal fluid. Both CO2 and CH4 were equally the ultimate sources of organic carbon, and the metal sulfides and oxyhydroxides acted as protoenzymatic catalysts. The realization, now 50 years old, that membrane-spanning gradients, rather than organic intermediates, play a vital role in life's operations calls into question the idea of "prebiotic chemistry." It informs our own suggestion that experimentation should look to the kind of nanoengines that must have been the precursors to molecular motors-such as pyrophosphate synthetase and the like driven by these gradients-that make life work. It is these putative free energy or disequilibria converters, presumably constructed from minerals comprising the earliest inorganic membranes, that, as obstacles to vectorial ionic flows, present themselves as the candidates for future experiments. Key Words: Methanotrophy-Origin of life. Astrobiology 14, 308-343. The fixation of inorganic carbon into organic material (autotrophy) is a prerequisite for life and sets the starting point of biological evolution. (Fuchs, 2011 ) Further significant progress with the tightly membrane-bound H(+)-PPase family should lead to an increased insight into basic requirements for the biological transport of protons through membranes and its coupling to phosphorylation. (Baltscheffsky et al., 1999 ).

  18. World Sustainable Energy Days Next 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Egger, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    These conference proceedings contain contributions to one of Europe’s largest annual conferences on energy efficiency and renewable energy. From two main fields – biomass and energy efficiency in buildings – contributions offer an insight into the research work and the scientific findings and developments of young researchers from all over the world. The papers were selected by a high-level scientific committee for oral presentation. They also communicate results, trends and opinions that will concern and influence the world’s energy experts and policy makers over the next decades. The conference was held from 26-27 February 2014. The conference The conference is organized by the Energy Agency of Upper Austria (OÖ Energiesparverband) and held in Wels annually in February or March. It attracts more than 700 experts from over 50 countries every year. The Editors Christiane Egger is the deputy managing director of the OÖ Energiesparverband and the Manager of the Ökoenergie-Cluster, a network of 160 co...

  19. Open-wheel race car driving: energy cost for pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaune, Bruno; Durand, Sylvain; Mariot, Jean-Pierre

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the energy cost of speedway open-wheel race car driving using actimetry. Eight pilot students participated in a training session consisting of 5 successive bouts of around 30 minutes driving at steady speed on the Bugatti speedway of Le Mans (France). Energy expenditure (EE, kcal) was determined continuously by the actimetric method using the standard equation. Energy cost was estimated through physical activity ratio (PAR = EE/BMR ratio, Mets) calculation after basal metabolism rate (BMR, kcal·min-1) estimation. A 1-met PAR value was attributed to the individual BMR of each volunteer. Bout durations and EE were not significantly different between driving bouts. Mean speed was 139.94 ± 2.96 km·h-1. Physical activity ratio values ranged 4.92 ± 0.50 to 5.43 ± 0.47 Mets, corresponding to a 5.27 ± 0.47-Mets mean PAR values and a 1.21 ± 0.41 kcal·min-1 mean BMR value. These results suggest that actimetry is a simple and efficient method for EE and PAR measurements in motor sports. However, further studies are needed in the future to accurately evaluate relationships between PAR and driving intensity or between PAR and race car type.

  20. World Energy Outlook Special Report 2012: Iraq Energy Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Iraq is already the world’s third largest oil exporter. It has the resources and intention to increase its oil production vastly. Contracts are already in place. Will Iraq’s ambitions be realised? And what would the implications be for Iraq’s economy and for world oil markets? The obstacles are formidable: political, logistical, legal, regulatory, financial, lack of security and sufficient skilled labour. One example: in 2011 grid electricity could meet only 55% of demand. The International Energy Agency has studied these issues with the support and close cooperation of the government of Iraq and many other leading officials, commentators, industry representatives and international experts. This special report, in the World Energy Outlook series, presents the findings.

  1. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume V. International organization data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. WENDS has acquired and organized information on the following energy-related organizations: Asian Development Bank; European Economic Community; Inter-American Development Bank; International Atomic Energy Agency; International Energy Agency; Nuclear Energy Agency; United Nations; and World Bank. Within each organizational grouping most of the following topics are addressed: organization background, government background, energy background (energy policy and objectives), energy research and development activities, and international activities.

  2. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume VI. International agreement profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on world energy. The international agreement profiles in WENDS are all energy-related and are organized by energy technology. These are: coal; conservation; fusion; geothermal; nuclear fission; oil, gas, and shale; solar, wind, and ocean thermal; and other (cooperation in electrical power equipment acquisition, energy, energy research, etc.). The agreement profiles are accessible by energy technology and alphabetically by country.

  3. Variable speed drives principles and applications for energy cost savings

    CERN Document Server

    Spitzer, David William

    2014-01-01

    Simply put, a variable speed drive is a controller that allows a motor and its associated equipment to run at different speeds depending upon automated input from an industrial process. That in turn provides the ability to provide smoother operations, and most importantly, energy savings by slowing down machinery when a process does not have to run at full speed. Long a leading book on this technology, this new edition by industry authority David William Spitzer provides insights to improving the applications of variable speed drives. Whether you have basic knowledge or advanced knowledge, you will find this book to be an extremely useful introduction to how variable speed drivers work, how they are best applied, and what to do and what to avoid when employing them as part of an overall automated industrial enterprise, all with an eye on energy savings. Inside, you will find: A basic overview of electrical, hydraulic, and instrumentation principles of variable speed drives. Coverage of the role that variabl...

  4. World energy supply and demand outlook to the year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    International Energy Agency

    1989-09-01

    The long-term outlook for world energy demand and supply presented here by the International Energy Agency is intended to be only indicative of the possible evolution of worldwide energy trends, given that considerable uncertainty affects every energy forecast. The analysis, through two crude oil price scenarios and certain assumptions about world economic activity over the period to 2005, shows an estimate of both world oil demand and supply by area and total world primary energy requirements, by fuel and by area, for the projection period.

  5. Study of emissions and fuel economy for parallel hybrid versus conventional vehicles on real world and standard driving cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Samari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Parallel hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs increasing rapidly in the automobile markets. However, the benefits out of using this kind of vehicles are still concerned a lot of costumers. This work investigated the expected benefits (such as decreasing emissions and increasing fuel economy from using the parallel HEV in comparison to the conventional vehicle model of the real-world and standard driving cycles. The software Autonomie used in this study to simulate the parallel HEV and conventional models on these driving cycles.The results show that the fuel economy (FE can be improved significantly up to 68% on real-world driving cycle, which is represented mostly city activities. However, the FE improvement was limited (10% on the highway driving cycle, and this is expected since the using of brake system was infrequent. Moreover, the emissions from parallel HEV decreased about 40% on the real-world driving cycle, and decreased 11% on the highway driving cycle. Finally, the engine efficiency, improved about 12% on the real-world driving cycle, and about 7% on highway driving cycle. Keywords: Emissions, Hybrid electric vehicles, Fuel economy, Real-world driving cycle

  6. COMMUNICATION SUPPORT INCREASING ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THE WORLD

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Syrkiewicz-Switala; Jerzy Szkutnik; Ewa Moroz

    2010-01-01

    The increase of energy consumption in the world has been confirmed by several prognostic studies. This fact leads to specific actions to increase energy efficiency in the world and thereby reduce its consumption. The reason why the energy consumption growths is the development of our civilization and thus increase in demand for energy carriers by both individual as well as collective consumers. The ability to prevent surges in energy consumption is to conduct systematic social campaigns to pr...

  7. Crossed-beam energy transfer in direct-drive implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seka, W; Edgell, D H; Michel, D T; Froula, D H; Goncharov, V N; Craxton, R S; Divol, L; Epstein, R; Follett, R; Kelly, J H; Kosc, T Z; Maximov, A V; McCrory, R L; Meyerhofer, D D; Michel, P; Myatt, J F; Sangster, T C; Shvydky, A; Skupsky, S

    2012-05-22

    Direct-drive-implosion experiments on the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] have showed discrepancies between simulations of the scattered (non-absorbed) light levels and measured ones that indicate the presence of a mechanism that reduces laser coupling efficiency by 10%-20%. This appears to be due to crossed-beam energy transfer (CBET) that involves electromagnetic-seeded, low-gain stimulated Brillouin scattering. CBET scatters energy from the central portion of the incoming light beam to outgoing light, reducing the laser absorption and hydrodynamic efficiency of implosions. One-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations including CBET show good agreement with all observables in implosion experiments on OMEGA. Three strategies to mitigate CBET and improve laser coupling are considered: the use of narrow beams, multicolor lasers, and higher-Z ablators. Experiments on OMEGA using narrow beams have demonstrated improvements in implosion performance.

  8. Crossed-beam energy transfer in direct-drive implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igumenshchev, I. V.; Seka, W.; Edgell, D. H.; Michel, D. T.; Froula, D. H.; Craxton, R. S.; Epstein, R.; Follett, R.; Kelly, J. H.; Kosc, T. Z.; Myatt, J. F.; Sangster, T. C.; Shvydky, A.; Skupsky, S.; Stoeckl, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Goncharov, V. N.; Maximov, A. V. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Divol, L.; Michel, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); McCrory, R. L. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); and others

    2012-05-15

    Direct-drive-implosion experiments on the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] have showed discrepancies between simulations of the scattered (non-absorbed) light levels and measured ones that indicate the presence of a mechanism that reduces laser coupling efficiency by 10%-20%. This appears to be due to crossed-beam energy transfer (CBET) that involves electromagnetic-seeded, low-gain stimulated Brillouin scattering. CBET scatters energy from the central portion of the incoming light beam to outgoing light, reducing the laser absorption and hydrodynamic efficiency of implosions. One-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations including CBET show good agreement with all observables in implosion experiments on OMEGA. Three strategies to mitigate CBET and improve laser coupling are considered: the use of narrow beams, multicolor lasers, and higher-Z ablators. Experiments on OMEGA using narrow beams have demonstrated improvements in implosion performance.

  9. The Mechanism for the Energy Buildup Driving Solar Eruptive Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knizhnik, K. J.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Wyper, P. F.

    2017-12-01

    The underlying origin of solar eruptive events (SEEs), ranging from giant coronal mass ejections to small coronal-hole jets, is that the lowest-lying magnetic flux in the Sun’s corona undergoes continual buildup of stress and free energy. This magnetic stress has long been observed as the phenomenon of “filament channels:” strongly sheared magnetic field localized around photospheric polarity inversion lines. However, the mechanism for the stress buildup—the formation of filament channels—is still debated. We present magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a coronal volume that is driven by transient, cellular boundary flows designed to model the processes by which the photosphere drives the corona. The key feature of our simulations is that they accurately preserve magnetic helicity, the topological quantity that is conserved even in the presence of ubiquitous magnetic reconnection. Although small-scale random stress is injected everywhere at the photosphere, driving stochastic reconnection throughout the corona, the net result of the magnetic evolution is a coherent shearing of the lowest-lying field lines. This highly counterintuitive result—magnetic stress builds up locally rather than spreading out to attain a minimum energy state—explains the formation of filament channels and is the fundamental mechanism underlying SEEs. Furthermore, this process is likely to be relevant to other astrophysical and laboratory plasmas.

  10. Nematomorph parasites drive energy flow through a riparian ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takuya; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Kanaiwa, Minoru; Niizuma, Yasuaki; Harada, Yasushi; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2011-01-01

    Parasites are ubiquitous in natural systems and ecosystem-level effects should be proportional to the amount of biomass or energy flow altered by the parasites. Here we quantified the extent to which a manipulative parasite altered the flow of energy through a forest-stream ecosystem. In a Japanese headwater stream, camel crickets and grasshoppers (Orthoptera) were 20 times more likely to enter a stream if infected by a nematomorph parasite (Gordionus spp.), corroborating evidence that nematomorphs manipulate their hosts to seek water where the parasites emerge as free-living adults. Endangered Japanese trout (Salvelinus leucomaenis japonicus) readily ate these infected orthopterans, which due to their abundance, accounted for 60% of the annual energy intake of the trout population. Trout grew fastest in the fall, when nematomorphs were driving energy-rich orthopterans into the stream. When infected orthopterans were available, trout did not eat benthic invertebrates in proportion to their abundance, leading to the potential for cascading, indirect effects through the forest-stream ecosystem. These results provide the first quantitative evidence that a manipulative parasite can dramatically alter the flow of energy through and across ecosystems.

  11. Statistical Characterization of Medium-Duty Electric Vehicle Drive Cycles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, R.; Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Kelly, K.

    2015-05-03

    With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts real-world performance evaluations of advanced medium- and heavy-duty fleet vehicles. Evaluation results can help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and assist fleet managers in selecting fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their economic and operational goals. In 2011, NREL launched a large-scale performance evaluation of medium-duty electric vehicles. With support from vehicle manufacturers Smith and Navistar, NREL research focused on characterizing vehicle operation and drive cycles for electric delivery vehicles operating in commercial service across the nation.

  12. Energy storage in drive systems of servo presses for reduction of peak power and energy recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Putz, Matthias; Blau, Peter; Kolesnikov, Artem; Richter, Mark; Pierer, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The development approach for energy storage systems focuses on optimally sized capacitor modules to reduce peak power and to avoid energy recovery of production machines. Using servo presses as an example, the application of two different energy storage systems in the DC link is practically examined. A simulation model in Matlab/Simulink and a test stand of a servo press are proposed for representing the power flows between the mains supply, the electric drives and the storage systems. The de...

  13. Energy Efficiency Policies around the World: Review and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    Since 1992 the World Energy Council (WEC) and ADEME (Agency for Environment and Energy Efficiency, France) have been collaborating on a joint project ''Energy Efficiency Policies and Indicators'' with technical assistance by ENERDATA (France). The latest report presents and evaluates energy efficiency policies in nearly 70 countries around the world, with a specific focus on five policy measures: mandatory energy audits, ESCO's, energy incentives for cars, energy efficiency obligations for utilities, and 'packages of measures' for solar water heaters. The report describes the implemented measures and identifies those proven most effective.

  14. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 1: World and regional fossil energy dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Isaak, D.T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Fridley, D.; Johnson, C.; Long, S.

    1993-12-01

    This report in the Hawaii Energy Strategy Project examines world and regional fossil energy dynamics. The topics of the report include fossil energy characteristics, the world oil industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, refining, products and their uses, history and trends in the global oil market and the Asia-Pacific market; world gas industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, processing, gas-based products, international gas market and the emerging Asia-Pacific gas market; the world coal industry including reserves, classification and quality, utilization, transportation, pricing, world coal market, Asia-Pacific coal outlook, trends in Europe and the Americas; and environmental trends affecting fossil fuels. 132 figs., 46 tabs.

  15. Wind energy in a global world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjuler Jensen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    For the past 25 years there has been a dramatic development in the wind energy sector, with regard to the increase in overall utilisation of wind energy as well as technological development, the development of markets and expectations to the role of wind energy in the global electricity supply...... system. The purpose of this paper is to outline developments in the global capacity of wind energy this past quarter of a century, including technology, market aspects, scientific developments, testing and certification, formulation of standards and scenarios for the future development of wind energy...

  16. Size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions using positive matrix factorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domínguez-Sáez, A.; Viana, M.; Barrios, C.C.; Rubio, J.R.; Amato, F.; Pujadas, M.; Querol, X.

    2012-01-01

    A novel on-board system was tested to characterize size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions, running in a EURO4 diesel vehicle and in a typical urban circuit in Madrid (Spain). Emission profiles were determined as a function of driving conditions. Source

  17. Worlds Largest Wave Energy Project 2007 in Wales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars; Friis-Madsen, Erik; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    a large number of fundamentally different technologies are utilised to harvest wave energy. The Wave Dragon belongs to the wave overtopping class of converters and the paper describes the fundamentals and the technical solutions used in this wave energy converter. An offshore floating WEC like the Wave......This paper introduces world largest wave energy project being developed in Wales and based on one of the leading wave energy technologies. The background for the development of wave energy, the total resource ands its distribution around the world is described. In contrast to wind energy turbines...

  18. Differences in Energy Consumption in Electric Vehicles: An Exploratory Real-World Study in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezhen Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles (EVs are widely regarded as a promising solution to reduce air pollution in cities and key to a low carbon mobility future. However, their environmental benefits depend on the temporal and spatial context of actual usage (journey energy efficiency and the rolling out of EVs is complicated by issues such as limited range. This paper explores how the energy efficiency of EVs is affected and shaped by driving behavior, personal driving styles, traffic conditions, and infrastructure design in the real world. Tests have been conducted with a Nissan LEAF under a typical driving cycle on the Beijing road network in order to improve understanding of variations in energy efficiency among drivers under different urban traffic conditions. Energy consumption and operation parameters were recorded in both peak and off-peak hours for a total of 13 drivers. The analysis reported in this paper shows that there are clear patterns in energy consumption along a route that are in part related to differences in infrastructure design, traffic conditions, and personal driving styles. The proposed method for analyzing time series data about energy consumption along routes can be used for research with larger fleets of EVs in the future.

  19. World energy outlook 2007 -- China and India insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-07

    World leaders have pledged to act to change the energy future. Some new policies are in place. But the trends in energy demand, imports, coal use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030 in this year's World Energy Outlook are even worse than projected in WEO 2006. China and India are the emerging giants of the world economy. Their unprecedented pace of economic development will require ever more energy, but it will transform living standards for billions. There can be no question of asking them selectively to curb growth so as to solve problems which are global. So how is the transition to be achieved to a more secure, lower-carbon energy system? WEO 2007 provides the answers. With extensive statistics, projections in three scenarios, analysis and advice, it shows China, India and the rest of the world why we need to co-operate to change the energy future and how to do it.

  20. World Energy Outlook 2007 Special Report: Focus on Energy Poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Energy poverty affects many Indians and is an important issue for the Indian government. The number of households with access to electricity has risen over the past couple of decades, but access is still far from universal and the availability of modern cooking fuels and technologies is still limited, especially in rural areas. We use an energy development index, based on access to electricity and cleaner cooking fuels and on overall electricity generation per capita, to emphasise the disparity in energy poverty across India and relative to other developing countries. There are still some 412 million people without access to electricity in India. In all three WEO scenarios, the number of people without access declines, but it falls much faster in the High Growth Scenario. In that scenario, all households in India have access to electricity in 2030. In the Reference Scenario, the electrification rate in 2030 in India is 96% but nearly 60 million people in rural areas will still lack access. At an investment cost of $41 per person, it would cost some $17 billion to connect all those without electricity today to the central grid. But gridbased electrification is often not available to remote villages and households, because of the high cost of expanding the network. Diesel generators, mini-hydro, wind turbines, biomass gasifiers and photovoltaics, or a combination of these, could be more economic. The number of people relying on fuelwood and dung for cooking and heating declines from 668 million in 2005 to 395 million in 2030 in the High Growth Scenario, 77 million fewer people than in the Reference Scenario. About 22% of the population would still rely on these fuels in India in 2030, even with higher growth. According to the World Health Organization, the use of fuelwood and dung for cooking and heating causes over 400 000 premature deaths in India annually, mostly women and children. The concentration of particulate matter in the air in Indian households using

  1. Materials aspects of world energy needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Plenary session papers presented by participants from both developed and developing countries contributed to the information base on materials and energy outlook, international cooperation, economic aspects, and environmental considerations and established the theme for the subsequent workshop sessions. Workshops on ten major aspects of materials-energy interrelationships provided the opportunity of open and informal discussion of critical issues in each area and the development of reasonable consensus on problems and potential solutions. A separate abstract for each of the 10 plenary-session papers, the 10 workshop reports, and the 4 selected papers will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). The brief issue summaries (preprints) will appear individually (total of 75) only in the DOE Energy Data Base.

  2. The strictest energy requirements in the world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jensen, Jens Stissing

    2013-01-01

    50 years of progressively strengthened energy requirements in the Danish building code appear to be a success, as the energy consumption has remained constant despite an increase in the total area in requirement of heating. This article however argues that the building code mechanism is heavily...... influenced by path dependent regime structuration processes, and that the mechanism constitutes a barrier to more radical developments within low energy housing. Few and poorly organized frontrunner activities within low energy housing have accordingly taken place in a Danish context during the past decades....... Finally it is proposed that the current development within the energy system provides opportunities for cultivating an improved transitional awareness and for carrying out experimental activities that may challenge the path dependencies of prevailing regime structuration processes....

  3. Energy independence versus world market; Independance energetique versus marche mondial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P

    2003-07-01

    The geo-policy is the unity of the rules and political actions coming from taking into account the problem of the national energy demands facing the world energy market. The aim of this paper is to show that these actions are confronted to two paradigms of public policy. One is the research of the energy policy, the other is the effort of building and safety of the world market. (A.L.B.)

  4. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-09-01

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. World Energy Resources and New Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyd, Janusz S.

    2016-01-01

    The development of civilisation is linked inextricably with growing demand for electricity. Thus, the still-rapid increase in the level of utilisation of natural resources, including fossil fuels, leaves it more and more urgent that conventional energy technologies and the potential of the renewable energy sources be made subject to re-evaluation. It is estimated that last 200 years have seen use made of more than 50% of the available natural resources. Equally, if economic forecasts prove accurate, for at least several more decades, oil, natural gas and coal will go on being the basic primary energy sources. The alternative solution represented by nuclear energy remains a cause of considerable public concern, while the potential for use to be made of renewable energy sources is seen to be very much dependent on local environmental conditions. For this reason, it is necessary to emphasise the impact of research that focuses on the further sharpening-up of energy efficiency, as well as actions aimed at increasing society's awareness of the relevant issues. The history of recent centuries has shown that rapid economic and social transformation followed on from the industrial and technological revolutions, which is to say revolutions made possible by the development of power-supply technologies. While the 19th century was "the age of steam" or of coal, and the 20th century the era of oil and gas, the question now concerns the name that will at some point come to be associated with the 21st century. In this paper, the subjects of discussion are primary energy consumption and energy resources, though three international projects on the global scale are also presented, i.e. ITER, Hydrates and DESERTEC. These projects demonstrate new scientific and technical possibilities, though it is unlikely that commercialisation would prove feasible before 2050. Research should thus be focused on raising energy efficiency. The development of high-efficiency technologies that

  6. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Project Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At the present time, nearly 80% of the US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle truck research, and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership whose stretch goals involve a reduction by 50% of the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles on a ton-mile basis. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) Project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency and is unique in that there is no other national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks. It involves the collection of real-world data for various situational characteristics (rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather, etc.) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips), to provide a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for fuel efficiency and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support heavy vehicle energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involves a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles, each from two vocations (urban transit and dry-box delivery) were instrumented for one year of data collection. The Part-2 FOT will involve the towing/recovery and utility vocations. The vehicles participating in the MTDC project are doing so

  7. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Thomas, Neil [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Barker, Alan M [ORNL; Knee, Helmut E [ORNL

    2012-11-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At present, nearly 80% of US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle research and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership and the SuperTruck development effort. Both of these efforts have the common goal of decreasing the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles. In the case of SuperTruck, a goal of improving the overall freight efficiency of a combination tractor-trailer has been established. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency; it is unique in that there is no other existing national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks based on collecting data from Class 6 and 7 vehicles. It involves the collection of real-world data on medium trucks for various situational characteristics (e.g., rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips). This research provides a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for FE and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involved a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles each from two vocations (urban transit and

  8. World Energy Outlook - 2050: Policy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghouri, Salman Saif

    2007-07-01

    The paper analyzes the historical trends, resource distribution and forecasts the regional total primary energy consumption (TPEC) to 2050. The purpose is to provide a most probable path so that appropriate policies can be made to enhance/slowdown the energy consumption without hampering economic growth. Global TPEC is most likely to reach 763-1259 Quadrillion Btu (QBtu) to 2050 with reference case trending between and stood at 978 QBtu. By 2050 the equation of TPEC is expected to be tilted in favor of developing countries when their share is increased from 47 percent in 2003 to 59 percent. Asia developing region becomes the largest consumer of TPEC; however on per capita basis it remains the lowest after Africa. The forecast gives some guidance to policy makers. Which policy measures should be taken to ensure availability of predicted level of energy resources? How should we mobilize sizeable investment to increase the expected production/capacity/logistic both in the producing and consuming countries? Simultaneously, what strategic measures should be taken: to improve energy efficiency/conservation, development/promotion of renewable sources of energies and check population growth to downward shift the probable TPEC path without compromising economic growth, productivity and quality of life? (auth)

  9. Clean fuel technology for world energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunjay, Sunjay

    2010-09-15

    Clean fuel technology is the integral part of geoengineering and green engineering with a view to global warming mitigation. Optimal utilization of natural resources coal and integration of coal & associated fuels with hydrocarbon exploration and development activities is pertinent task before geoscientist with evergreen energy vision with a view to energy security & sustainable development. Value added technologies Coal gasification,underground coal gasification & surface coal gasification converts solid coal into a gas that can be used for power generation, chemical production, as well as the option of being converted into liquid fuels.

  10. World energy demands and coal reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Kovács

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the expected increase in the world’s population and taking the estimated improvement in both technology and living standards into account, the paper forecasts energy demands. In 2000, actual energy consumption was 380-400 EJ.year-1, the forecast for the year 2050 is 600-1,050 EJ.year-1, while for the year 2100 it is 900-3,600 EJ.year-1. On the basis of the expected shares of the different fuels (coal, mineral oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energies, it can be assumed that in 2050 coal demand will be between 122-200 EJ.year-1 while the total coal demand for the 45 years ahead is estimated to be 5,500-6,900 EJ.year-1. This rate of demand basically involves an approximately 2 % increase every year.On the basis of data in relevant literature, the world’s coal reserves are: the industrial coal reserve is 800-1,000 · 109 tons, the geological stock is 5-15 1012 tons and the expected stock is 8-35 1012 tons. The world’s industrial coal reserve (which is economically exploitable at the present technological level guarantees supply for 200 years while the detected geological stock guarantees supply for a round 1,000 years.

  11. High tropical net diversification drives the New World latitudinal gradient in palm (Arecaceae) species richness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenning, J.-C.; Borchsenius, Finn; Bjorholm, Stine Wendelboe

    2008-01-01

    within the phylogeny, and supplemented with the purely tip-level measure, mean number of species per genus (MS/G). Correlations and regressions, in combination with eigenvector-based spatial filtering, were used to assess the relationship between species richness, the net diversification measures......Aim Species richness exhibits striking geographical variation, but the processes that drive this variation are unresolved. We investigated the relative importance of two hypothesized evolutionary causes for the variation in palm species richness across the New World: time for diversification...... and evolutionary (net diversification) rate. Palms have a long history in the region, with the major clades diversifying during the Tertiary (65-2 Ma). Location Tropical and subtropical America (34° N-34° S; 33-120° W). Methods Using range maps, palm species richness was estimated in a 1° × 1° grid. Mean lineage...

  12. EFFECTS OF FATIGUE ON REAL-WORLD DRIVING IN DISEASED AND CONTROL PARTICIPANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey; Tippin, Jon; Lee, John D; Rizzo, Matthew

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated real world driver errors and sleepiness in 66 drivers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and 34 matched controls (24 younger and 22 older). Driving errors and driver state were derived from analyses of video data from "black-box" event recorders. Sleep fragmentation data in OSA was derived from actigraphy for 15 days prior to beginning standard treatment (positive airway pressure, PAP) and 15 days after beginning PAP treatment. Prior to starting PAP, OSAs appeared sleepier than controls in general and particularly at intersections, while making safety errors following nights with high levels of fragmented sleep compared to matched controls. Adverse effects of sleep fragmentation during the pre-PAP phase were reduced post-PAP. Greater hours of PAP-use were associated with lower sleepiness and errors on the road. PAP-use was associated with a decrease in high sleep fragmented nights. Findings suggest reduction in acute sleepiness is unlikely to be the only mediating factor that explains the driving safety benefits of PAP in OSA.

  13. Ecological divergence and sexual selection drive sexual size dimorphism in New World pitvipers (Serpentes: Viperidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, C R; Guiher, T J; Pyron, R A

    2014-04-01

    Hypotheses for the origin and maintenance of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) fall into three primary categories: (i) sexual selection on male size, (ii) fecundity selection on female size and (iii) ecological selection for gender-specific niche divergence. We investigate the impact of these forces on SSD evolution in New World pitvipers (Crotalinae). We constructed a phylogeny from up to eight genes (seven mitochondrial, one nuclear) for 104 species of NW crotalines. We gathered morphological and ecological data for 82 species for comparative analyses. There is a strong signal of sexual selection on male size driving SSD, but less evidence for fecundity selection on female size across lineages. No support was found for allometric scaling of SSD (Rensch's rule), nor for directional selection for increasing male size (the Fairbairn-Preziosi hypothesis) in NW crotalines. Interestingly, arboreal lineages experience higher rates of SSD evolution and a pronounced shift to female-biased dimorphism. This suggests that fecundity selection on arboreal females exaggerates ecologically mediated dimorphism, whereas sexual selection drives male size in terrestrial lineages. We find that increasing SSD in both directions (male- and female-biased) decreases speciation rates. In NW crotalines, it appears that increasing magnitudes of ecologically mediated SSD reduce rates of speciation, as divergence accumulates within species among sexes, reducing adaptive divergence between populations leading to speciation. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Energy [R]evolution 2010-a sustainable world energy outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teske, S.; Pregger, T.; Simon, S.; Naegler, T.; Graus, W.H.J.; Lins, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy [R]evolution 2010 scenario is an update of the Energy [R]evolution scenarios published in 2007 and 2008. It takes up recent trends in global energy demand and production and analyses to which extent this affects chances for achieving climate protection targets. The main target is to

  15. Third World energy statistics: problems of collection and interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W.F.; Modiano, A.L.

    1980-06-01

    Energy consumption in the Third World is likely to grow more quickly than in industrialized countries and could account for as much as 25% of world energy consumption by 2000. There is little detailed information on how energy is used in the rural and industrial sectors of these countries. The International Energy Agency responded to this problem in December 1978 by holding a week-long workshop on the gathering and analysis of Third World energy data. A report on its findings and recommendations concludes that a worsening supply problem during the remainder of the century increases the importance of coordinating supply and demand to maximize the economic benefits for all. A consistent set of international data, with uniform conventions for collecting and reporting statistics and comparable definitions, is a first step.

  16. World Energy Council: energy scenario till the year 2020. Weltenergierat: Energieszenario bis 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer

    1993-02-01

    With its study ''Energy for Tomorrow's World'', the World Energy Council has outlined the global and regional energy perspectives till the year 2020 at the 15th World Conference on Energy. The study is based on three possible development pathways: the reference scenario, the ecological scenario, and the growth scenario. The three scenarios are discussed for total primary energy consumption, for energy consumption relative to regions and to energy carriers, for the development of coal consumption relative to regions and to CO[sub 2] stabilization. (BWI)

  17. Coalbed methane: Clean energy for the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A.-J.; Johnston, S.; Boyer, C.; Lambert, S.W.; Bustos, O.A.; Pashin, J.C.; Wray, A.

    2009-01-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) has the potential to emerge as a significant clean energy resource. It also has the potential to replace other diminishing hydrocarbon reserves. The latest developments in technologies and methodologies are playing a key role in harnessing this unconventional resource. Some of these developments include adaptations of existing technologies used in conventional oil and gas generations, while others include new applications designed specifically to address coal's unique properties. Completion techniques have been developed that cause less damage to the production mechanisms of coal seams, such as those occurring during cementing operations. Stimulation fluids have also been engineered specifically to enhance CBM production. Deep coal deposits that remain inaccessible by conventional mining operations offer CBM development opportunities.

  18. Energy and the world: a physicist's view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobin, J.L. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    The evolution of human societies depends upon the availability of energy resources. Since the word energy does not have the same meaning for physicists and the general public, this point is clarified first. Then, a selection of energy and societal problems are reviewed. Although energy per se does not drive society, it has played a major role in the successive industrial revolutions which have occurred since the end of the 18th century. Political power belongs to those who possess or control energy resources. As time elapses, a slow process of energy substitution takes place, wood being replaced by coal, then coal being replaced by oil and natural gas. Whether there will be a new shift towards nuclear energy is not yet clear. Recent concerns such as environmental impacts and health hazards are of growing importance and could influence future evolutions. Scenarios ranging from catastrophic collapse to sustainable development are elaborated; their content and implications are discussed. (author)

  19. Future World Energy Constraints and the Direction for Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lightfoot, H.D.

    2004-09-12

    This paper was originally written in response to the concern that rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere caused by burning of fossil fuels will ultimately contribute to global warming. Now we are beginning to see evidence of coming problems in the supply of fuels for transportation. This paper describes the benefits of adequate energy supply and the problems of future energy supply. Partial solutions are suggested for immediate application as well as longer term solutions to address both of these concerns. To evaluate the situation and solutions we must understand: (1) how much primary energy is currently used world-wide and might be needed in 2100, (2) how important energy is to the welfare of people, (3) the forms of energy sources and end uses and (4) where new sources may come from. The major portion of world primary energy demand is provided by fossil fuels. This portion dropped from 93% in 1970 to 85% in 1995, mainly because of the increased use of nuclear energy. How ever, since the mid-1990s fossil fuels have maintained their 85% share of world energy supply. The importance of the relationship between per capita energy consumption and per capita income for the world is discussed. The limits of conservation, energy efficiency and renewable energies are examined. The contribution of renewable energies is compared to 41 different views of world energy demand in 2100. Without new technology for large scale storage of intermittent electricity from wind and solar the contribution of renewable energies is not likely to grow significantly beyond the current level of 7-8%. The paper offers conclusions and partial solutions that we can work on immediately. Examination of the forms of energy supplied by the sun, which is powered by nuclear fusion, and the way in which nuclear fission currently supplies energy to the world sets the research framework for longer term solutions. This framework points towards two possible longer term complementary res earch projects which

  20. World energy situation: perspectives until the year 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziunikowski, K.

    1980-08-01

    World energy balance is discussed. Energy demand and supply as well as reserves of energy sources are evaluated. The following energy sources are considered: oil, natural gas, black and brown coal, nuclear energy, hydroelectric energy and non-conventional energy sources (solar energy, wind power, tidal power). Two kinds of resources are characterized: I. geological resources of black coal seams not thinner than 0.6 m located up to a depth of 2000 m and brown coal geological resources not thinner than 2 m, located up to a depth of 1600 m; II. industrial resources of black coal located not deeper than 1600 m, and brown coal industrial resources not deeper than 600 m. The world geological coal resources amount to 10,125 billion t.c.e. Of this 76% is black coal and 24% brown coal. Seventy one percent of world coal resources are located in Asia and 17% in American. Of brown coal resources 59% are located in America and 37% in Asia. The industrial coal resources of the world amount to 636 billion t.c.e. Prognosis of world energy demand is discussed. It is predicted that in 1985 coal demand will increase from 2.6 to 3.0 billion t.c.e., in 2000 coal demand will range from 4.2 to 5.8 billion t.c.e. and in the year 2020 from 7.8 to 13.8 billion t.c.e. Prognosis of coal production in Poland, USSR, USA and in the world in 1985, 2000 and in 2020 is also presented. Coal output in Poland should increase to 258 Mt in 1985, to 300 Mt in 2000 and to 320 Mt in the year 2020. In the same time span 16 to 17% of coal mined in Poland will be exported. (10 refs.)

  1. Potential of energy efficiency measures in the world steel industry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, Tjebbe

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The world steel industry plays a major role in energy use and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions now and in the future. Implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost-effective investments that the industry could make in improv

  2. World in transition 3 towards sustainable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    'The publication of World in Transition: Towards Sustainable Energy Systems is timely indeed. The World Summit on Sustainable Development gave great prominence to this challenge, but failed to agree on a quantitative, time-bound target for the introduction of renewable energy sources. The German Advisory Council on Global Change (WBGU) has now produced a report with a global focus, which is essential in view of the global impacts of climate change. The report provides a convincing long-term analysis, which is also essential. Global energy policies have to take a long-term perspective, over the

  3. Driving and driven architectures of directed small-world human brain functional networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaogan Yan

    Full Text Available Recently, increasing attention has been focused on the investigation of the human brain connectome that describes the patterns of structural and functional connectivity networks of the human brain. Many studies of the human connectome have demonstrated that the brain network follows a small-world topology with an intrinsically cohesive modular structure and includes several network hubs in the medial parietal regions. However, most of these studies have only focused on undirected connections between regions in which the directions of information flow are not taken into account. How the brain regions causally influence each other and how the directed network of human brain is topologically organized remain largely unknown. Here, we applied linear multivariate Granger causality analysis (GCA and graph theoretical approaches to a resting-state functional MRI dataset with a large cohort of young healthy participants (n = 86 to explore connectivity patterns of the population-based whole-brain functional directed network. This directed brain network exhibited prominent small-world properties, which obviously improved previous results of functional MRI studies showing weak small-world properties in the directed brain networks in terms of a kernel-based GCA and individual analysis. This brain network also showed significant modular structures associated with 5 well known subsystems: fronto-parietal, visual, paralimbic/limbic, subcortical and primary systems. Importantly, we identified several driving hubs predominantly located in the components of the attentional network (e.g., the inferior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area, insula and fusiform gyrus and several driven hubs predominantly located in the components of the default mode network (e.g., the precuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, medial prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobule. Further split-half analyses indicated that our results were highly reproducible between two

  4. An Energy Efficient Hydraulic Winch Drive Concept Based on a Speed-variable Switched Differential Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben O.; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2017-01-01

    The application of valve driven hydraulic winch drives is related to substantial power losses, primarily due to throttle generated valve flows. More energy efficient solutions are also commonly applied in terms of conventional hydrostatic closed circuit drives as well as so-called secondary......, originally designed for direct drive of hydraulic differential cylinders. This concept utilizes three pumps, driven by a single electric servo drive. The concept is redesigned for usage in winch drives, driven by flow symmetric hydraulic motors and single directional loads as commonly seen in e.g. active...

  5. A Data-Driven Method for Energy Consumption Prediction and Energy-Efficient Routing of Electric Vehicles in Real-World Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric De Cauwer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Limited driving range remains one of the barriers for widespread adoption of electric vehicles (EVs. To address the problem of range anxiety, this paper presents an energy consumption prediction method for EVs, designed for energy-efficient routing. This data-driven methodology combines real-world measured driving data with geographical and weather data to predict the consumption over any given road in a road network. The driving data are linked to the road network using geographic information system software that allows to separate trips into segments with similar road characteristics. The energy consumption over road segments is estimated using a multiple linear regression (MLR model that links the energy consumption with microscopic driving parameters (such as speed and acceleration and external parameters (such as temperature. A neural network (NN is used to predict the unknown microscopic driving parameters over a segment prior to departure, given the road segment characteristics and weather conditions. The complete proposed model predicts the energy consumption with a mean absolute error (MAE of 12–14% of the average trip consumption, of which 7–9% is caused by the energy consumption estimation of the MLR model. This method allows for prediction of energy consumption over any route in the road network prior to departure, and enables cost-optimization algorithms to calculate energy efficient routes. The data-driven approach has the advantage that the model can easily be updated over time with changing conditions.

  6. World energy outlook. [Projection to year 2000; monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This outlook, projecting energy supply and demand to the year 2000, is based on an assessment of world economic activity which indicates that the rate of world economic growth will probably be about two-thirds the 1965 to 1973 level. The results may be summarized as follows: (1) energy demand may grow only half as rapidly as in the 1965 to 1973 period; nonetheless, by 2000 the world will probably be consuming two-thirds more energy than at present; (2) oil demand is projected to grow at an annual rate of less than 1 percent, compared to over 7 percent from 1965 to 1973; the amount of oil used in industrial nations is expected to remain essentially constant, but its use will increase in developing countries; (3) conventional oil production will probably plateau around the turn of the century; transition to greater reliance on other energy forms will be well under way by that time; (4) the transition to greater reliance on energy forms other than conventional oil will be eased by a reduction in the energy intensity of overall economic activity; less energy will be consumed per unit of output as a result of conservation, new technology, and investments to increase energy efficiency, as well as further shifts in the mix of economic output to less-energy-intensive activities. The projections set forth here were prepared in a period of particularly rapid change in perceptions of world energy supply and demand and in oil prices. Factors that shaped the projections continue to change. For example, the extent of price changes by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in late 1979 was not anticipated in the outlook. However, the data shown in the charts are broadly representative of possible future trends, if assumptions about future public policies are correct.

  7. Comparison of the regulated air pollutant emission characteristics of real-world driving cycle and ECE cycle for motorcycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung; Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Lai, Yen-Ming; Lee, Ting-Yi

    2014-04-01

    Motorcycles are an important means of transportation, and their numbers have increased significantly in recent years. However, motorcycles can emit significant amounts of air pollutants; therefore, the emission characteristics and driving patterns of motorcycles are necessary baseline information for the implementation of control measures for motorcycles in urban areas. The selected motorcycles were equipped with global positioning systems (GPS) to obtain speed-time data for determination of the characteristics of real-world driving parameters, and an on-board exhaust gas analyser with data logger was employed to determine the instantaneous concentration of regulated air pollutants from motorcycle exhaust. Results indicated that the time proportions of acceleration, cruising, and deceleration are different from those of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) driving cycle, and the time percentages of acceleration and deceleration of the ECE cycle are much less than those in Taichung city. In general, the emission factors of the Taichung motorcycle driving cycle (TMDC) were higher HC and lower NOx emission than those of the ECE cycle. The average fuel consumption of tested motorcycles on three roads during workdays was 5% higher than that on weekends. The fuel consumption in the real-world motorcycle driving cycle was also about 7% higher than that of the ECE cycle, which again indicates that the ECE cycle is unsuitable for measuring fuel consumption in the Taichung metropolitan area. Therefore, understanding the local driving cycle is necessary for developing accurate emission data for air pollution control measures for urban areas.

  8. Size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions using positive matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Sáez, Aida; Viana, Mar; Barrios, Carmen C; Rubio, Jose R; Amato, Fulvio; Pujadas, Manuel; Querol, Xavier

    2012-10-16

    A novel on-board system was tested to characterize size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions, running in a EURO4 diesel vehicle and in a typical urban circuit in Madrid (Spain). Emission profiles were determined as a function of driving conditions. Source apportionment by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was carried out to interpret the real-world driving conditions. Three emission patterns were identified: (F1) cruise conditions, with medium-high speeds, contributing in this circuit with 60% of total particle number and a particle size distribution dominated by particles >52 nm and around 60 nm; (F2) transient conditions, stop-and-go conditions at medium-high speed, contributing with 25% of the particle number and mainly emitting particles in the nucleation mode; and (F3) creep-idle conditions, representing traffic congestion and frequent idling periods, contributing with 14% to the total particle number and with particles in the nucleation mode (world emission patterns and regulatory cycles (NEDC) are also presented, which evidence that detecting particle number emissions world driving conditions.

  9. The Role of Fusion in the Future World Energy Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, John

    1996-05-01

    The energy world, in which fusion energy must compete, has changed in recent years with the prospect of a 40-year supply of low-cost oil and gas. This cheap fuel represents a one-time opportunity for developing countries to raise their standards of living, and if historical trends continue, lower their rate of population growth. This brief opportunity for cheap fossil-fuel and the similar 40-year period to commercialize fusion are transients when viewed against the time scale of civilization. We need to develop and deploy the long-term energy sources, such as fusion (fission and 'renewables'), and in all cases improve energy efficiency before the fossil fuels rise in cost and a large fraction of a burgeoning world population is condemned to permanent poverty.

  10. Development of low-noise CCD drive electronics for the world space observatory ultraviolet spectrograph subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Mike; Clapp, Matthew; King, James; Morse, Tom; Mihalcea, Ionut; Waltham, Nick; Hayes-Thakore, Chris

    2016-07-01

    World Space Observatory Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) is a major Russian-led international collaboration to develop a large space-borne 1.7 m Ritchey-Chrétien telescope and instrumentation to study the universe at ultraviolet wavelengths between 115 nm and 320 nm, exceeding the current capabilities of ground-based instruments. The WSO Ultraviolet Spectrograph subsystem (WUVS) is led by the Institute of Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences and consists of two high resolution spectrographs covering the Far-UV range of 115-176 nm and the Near-UV range of 174-310 nm, and a long-slit spectrograph covering the wavelength range of 115-305 nm. The custom-designed CCD sensors and cryostat assemblies are being provided by e2v technologies (UK). STFC RAL Space is providing the Camera Electronics Boxes (CEBs) which house the CCD drive electronics for each of the three WUVS channels. This paper presents the results of the detailed characterisation of the WUVS CCD drive electronics. The electronics include a novel high-performance video channel design that utilises Digital Correlated Double Sampling (DCDS) to enable low-noise readout of the CCD at a range of pixel frequencies, including a baseline requirement of less than 3 electrons rms readout noise for the combined CCD and electronics system at a readout rate of 50 kpixels/s. These results illustrate the performance of this new video architecture as part of a wider electronics sub-system that is designed for use in the space environment. In addition to the DCDS video channels, the CEB provides all the bias voltages and clocking waveforms required to operate the CCD and the system is fully programmable via a primary and redundant SpaceWire interface. The development of the CEB electronics design has undergone critical design review and the results presented were obtained using the engineering-grade electronics box. A variety of parameters and tests are included ranging from general system metrics, such as the power and mass

  11. How the IRR drives bias in energy investment decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Tanja

    The project evaluation tool known as the IRR will often provide misleading or meaningless estimations of renewable energy investments......The project evaluation tool known as the IRR will often provide misleading or meaningless estimations of renewable energy investments...

  12. Improving Energy Conversion Efficiency by means of Power Splitting in Dual Drive Train EV Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roscher, Michael A; Michel, Roland; Leidholdt, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

      The limited amount of energy stored on board of battery electric vehicles (BEV) spurs research activities in the field of efficiency optimization for electric drive train applications in order to achieve an enhanced mileage...

  13. REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY PASSENGER CAR WITH USING OF NON-ELECTRICAL HYBRID DRIVE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Skrucany

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Not only electrical hybrid technology is used for drivetrain of passenger cars. Also other systems using non-electrical principles (hydraulic or air pressure, mechanical energy storage can be found in current vehicles. There is a quantification of the spared energy by using a hybrid vehicle in the paper. Driving cy-cle ECE 15 was chosen as a platform for simulation of driving resistances.

  14. Alternative World Energy Outlook (AWEO) and the role of hydrogen in a changing energy landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerta, Martin; Schmidt, Patrick R.; Stiller, Christoph; Landinger, Hubert [Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik GmbH (LBST), Daimlerstrasse 15, D-85521 Ottobrunn (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    The global energy situation is about to change at an accelerating pace and society is largely unprepared. Common energy analyses, such as the International Energy Agency's 'World Energy Outlook', do not take into account foreseeable supply mismatches from conventional primary energy sources. It is thus the purpose of this paper to provide a progressive view based on an accelerated transition to renewable energies in the framework of LBST's 'Alternative World Energy Outlook'. A transition to renewable energies appears feasible; however, with an intermediate period with limited supplies between 2015 and 2025. Furthermore, the potential role of hydrogen as a secondary energy carrier is reflected in this context. Hydrogen used for transportation can increase the penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources through offering the ability to convert electricity to fuel. (author)

  15. An Energy Efficient Hydraulic Winch Drive Concept Based on a Speed-variable Switched Differential Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben O.; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2017-01-01

    , originally designed for direct drive of hydraulic differential cylinders. This concept utilizes three pumps, driven by a single electric servo drive. The concept is redesigned for usage in winch drives, driven by flow symmetric hydraulic motors and single directional loads as commonly seen in e.g. active......The application of valve driven hydraulic winch drives is related to substantial power losses, primarily due to throttle generated valve flows. More energy efficient solutions are also commonly applied in terms of conventional hydrostatic closed circuit drives as well as so-called secondary...... heave compensation applications. A general drive configuration approach is presented, along with a proper control strategy and design. The resulting concept is evaluated when applied for active heave compensation. Results demonstrate control performance on level with conventional valve solutions...

  16. Simulation of Trolleybus Traction Induction Drive With Supercapacitor Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazis, V.; Latkovskis, L.; Grigans, L.

    2010-01-01

    The article considers the possibilities of saving the regenerative braking energy in Škoda 24Tr type trolleybuses by installing the onboard supercapacitor energy storage system (ESS) and improving its performance with automated switching to the autonomous traction mode. Proposed is an ESS control system with constant DC bus voltage in the supercapacitor charging mode and supercapacitor current proportional to the AC drive current in the discharging mode. The authors investigate stability of the trolleybus ESS control system operating together with AC traction drive in various overhead voltage failure modes. The co-simulation of ESS operation was done by Matlab/Simulink AC drive and PSIM ESS continuous models.

  17. Comparison of Real World Energy Consumption to Models and Department of Energy Test Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Kar, Rahul [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Foley, Kevin [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the real-world energy performance of appliances and equipment as it compared with models and test procedures. The study looked to determine whether the U.S. Department of Energy and industry test procedures actually replicate real world conditions, whether performance degrades over time, and whether installation patterns and procedures differ from the ideal procedures. The study first identified and prioritized appliances to be evaluated. Then, the study determined whether real world energy consumption differed substantially from predictions and also assessed whether performance degrades over time. Finally, the study recommended test procedure modifications and areas for future research.

  18. EEG-based decoding of error-related brain activity in a real-world driving task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Chavarriaga, R.; Khaliliardali, Z.; Gheorghe, L.; Iturrate, I.; Millán, J. d. R.

    2015-12-01

    Objectives. Recent studies have started to explore the implementation of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) as part of driving assistant systems. The current study presents an EEG-based BCI that decodes error-related brain activity. Such information can be used, e.g., to predict driver’s intended turning direction before reaching road intersections. Approach. We executed experiments in a car simulator (N = 22) and a real car (N = 8). While subject was driving, a directional cue was shown before reaching an intersection, and we classified the presence or not of an error-related potentials from EEG to infer whether the cued direction coincided with the subject’s intention. In this protocol, the directional cue can correspond to an estimation of the driving direction provided by a driving assistance system. We analyzed ERPs elicited during normal driving and evaluated the classification performance in both offline and online tests. Results. An average classification accuracy of 0.698 ± 0.065 was obtained in offline experiments in the car simulator, while tests in the real car yielded a performance of 0.682 ± 0.059. The results were significantly higher than chance level for all cases. Online experiments led to equivalent performances in both simulated and real car driving experiments. These results support the feasibility of decoding these signals to help estimating whether the driver’s intention coincides with the advice provided by the driving assistant in a real car. Significance. The study demonstrates a BCI system in real-world driving, extending the work from previous simulated studies. As far as we know, this is the first online study in real car decoding driver’s error-related brain activity. Given the encouraging results, the paradigm could be further improved by using more sophisticated machine learning approaches and possibly be combined with applications in intelligent vehicles.

  19. World Energy Balance Outlook and OPEC Production Capacity: Implications for Global Oil Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh M. Rouhani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The imbalance between energy resource availability, demand, and production capacity, coupled with inherent economic and environmental uncertainties make strategic energy resources planning, management, and decision-making a challenging process. In this paper, a descriptive approach has been taken to synthesize the world’s energy portfolio and the global energy balance outlook in order to provide insights into the role of Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC in maintaining “stability” and “balance” of the world’s energy market. This synthesis illustrates that in the absence of stringent policies, i.e., if historical trends of the global energy production and consumption hold into the future, it is unlikely that non-conventional liquid fuels and renewable energy sources will play a dominant role in meeting global energy demand by 2030. This should be a source of major global concern as the world may be unprepared for an ultimate shift to other energy sources when the imminent peak oil production is reached. OPEC’s potential to impact the supply and price of oil could enable this organization to act as a facilitator or a barrier for energy transition policies, and to play a key role in the global energy security through cooperative or non-cooperative strategies. It is argued that, as the global energy portfolio becomes more balanced in the long run, OPEC may change its typical high oil price strategies to drive the market prices to lower equilibria, making alternative energy sources less competitive. Alternatively, OPEC can contribute to a cooperative portfolio management approach to help mitigate the gradually emerging energy crisis and global warming, facilitating a less turbulent energy transition path while there is time.

  20. Thorium: An energy source for the world of tomorrow ?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    To meet the tremendous world energy needs, systematic R&D has to be pursued to replace fossil fuels. The ThEC13 conference organized by iThEC at CERN last October has shown that thorium is seriously considered by developing countries as a key element of their energy strategy. Developed countries are also starting to move in the same direction. How thorium could make nuclear energy (based on thorium) acceptable to society will be discussed. Thorium can be used both to produce energy and to destroy nuclear waste. As thorium is not fissile, one elegant option is to use an accelerator, in so-called “Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS)”, as suggested by Carlo Rubbia. CERN’s important contributions to R&D on thorium related issues will be mentioned as well as the main areas where CERN could contribute to this field in the future.

  1. Future of Energy in Egypt and the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Nokraschy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available If the whole world, which Egypt is a part of, continues business as usual in the field of electricitygeneration, namely, using the same regimes adopts today, burning fossil fuels and Uranium fission,both fuels will run out within sixty years at most and the world will definitely return to the Stone Age.Shall this be the end of the Egyptian people … the history makers?Generating energy is the next necessity to human life after water and food, since it is the majorstimulus of development. However, what is the aim of development if it is only momentary; thenfollowed by an endless abyss?Shall we wait till fossil and nuclear fuels run out? Jostling over the remaining fuel will certainly befierce and we will pay a high price for it, a matter that will subsequently lead to demolishing theingredients of development.Considering that oil is now dominating our way of life, it shall be wise to start immediately planning forthe post-oil age, provided that it is a sustainable plan set up to continue its validity as long as humanslive on this planet; this cannot be achieved except if we shift to renewable energies.Looking at Egypt and its available renewable energy sources, it becomes evident that the solarenergy, particularly in Upper Egypt, can give more than the present and future needs of the Egyptiansociety and even cover the demand of the whole world for electricity.

  2. Simulated Real-World Energy Impacts of a Thermally Sensitive Powertrain Considering Viscous Losses and Enrichment: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Gonder, J.; Lopp, S.; Jehlik, F.

    2015-02-01

    It is widely understood that cold ambient temperatures increase vehicle fuel consumption due to heat transfer losses, increased friction (increased viscosity lubricants), and enrichment strategies (accelerated catalyst heating). However, relatively little effort has been dedicated to thoroughly quantifying these impacts across a large set of real world drive cycle data and ambient conditions. This work leverages experimental dynamometer vehicle data collected under various drive cycles and ambient conditions to develop a simplified modeling framework for quantifying thermal effects on vehicle energy consumption. These models are applied over a wide array of real-world usage profiles and typical meteorological data to develop estimates of in-use fuel economy. The paper concludes with a discussion of how this integrated testing/modeling approach may be applied to quantify real-world, off-cycle fuel economy benefits of various technologies.

  3. Energy Drink Use Patterns Among Young Adults: Associations with Drunk Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Bugbee, Brittany A; Vincent, Kathryn B; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2016-11-01

    Highly caffeinated "energy drinks" (ED) are commonly consumed and sometimes mixed with alcohol. Associations between ED consumption, risk-taking, and alcohol-related problems have been observed. This study examines the relationship between ED consumption-both with and without alcohol-and drunk driving. Data were derived from a longitudinal study of college students assessed annually via personal interviews. In Year 6 (modal age 23; n = 1,000), participants self-reported their past-year frequency of drunk driving, ED consumption patterns (frequency of drinking alcohol mixed with energy drinks [AmED] and drinking energy drinks without alcohol [ED]), alcohol use (frequency, quantity), and other caffeine consumption. Earlier assessments captured suspected risk factors for drunk driving. Structural equation modeling was used to develop an explanatory model for the association between ED consumption patterns and drunk driving frequency while accounting for other suspected risk factors. More than half (57%) consumed ED at least once during the past year. Among ED consumers, 71% drank AmED and 85% drank ED alone; many (56%) engaged in both styles of ED consumption while others specialized in one or the other (29% drank ED alone exclusively, while, 15% drank AmED exclusively). After accounting for other risk factors, ED consumption was associated with drunk driving frequency in 2 ways. First, a direct path existed from ED frequency (without alcohol) to drunk driving frequency. Second, an indirect path existed from AmED frequency through alcohol quantity to drunk driving frequency. Among this sample, ED consumption with and without alcohol was common, and both styles of ED consumption contributed independently to drunk driving frequency. Results call for increased attention to the impact of different patterns of ED consumption on alcohol-related consequences, such as drunk driving. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Energy Management Strategy Based on the Driving Cycle Model for Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy management strategy (EMS for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV is proposed based on the driving cycle model and dynamic programming (DP algorithm. A driving cycle model is constructed by collecting and processing the driving data of a certain school bus. The state of charge (SOC profile can be obtained by the DP algorithm for the whole driving cycle. In order to optimize the energy management strategy in the hybrid power system, the optimal motor torque control sequence can be calculated using the DP algorithm for the segments between the traffic intersections. Compared with the traditional charge depleting-charge sustaining (CDCS strategy, the test results on the ADVISOR platform show a significant improvement in fuel consumption using the EMS proposed in this paper.

  5. Grand Challenge Portfolio: Driving Innovation in Industrial Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-01-04

    Under the Recovery Act, AMO provided cost-shared funding for early-stage, low-cost, "concept definition studies" of 47 promising innovations for next-generation manufacturing, energy-intensive processes, advanced materials, and greenhouse gas emissions reduction. The brochure provides information on each of these projects.

  6. Stability Analysis of Static Slip-Energy Recovery Drive via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stability of the sub synchronous static slip energy recovery scheme for the speed control of slip-ring induction motor is presented. A set of nonlinear differential equations which describe the system dynamics are derived and linearized about an operating point using perturbation technique. The Eigenvalue analysis of the ...

  7. Control Aspects for Energy-Efficient and Sensorless AC Motor Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Zengcai

    2015-01-01

    This research proposes control methods for improving the energy efficiency and stability of sensorless AC motor drives. The study focuses on induction motors (IMs) and synchronous reluctance motors (SyRMs). Loss-minimizing methods are developed for both IM and SyRM drives. The loss-minimizing control applies dynamic space-vector motor models which take into account hysteresis losses and eddy-current losses as well as the magnetic saturation. The minimum points of the loss function are numeric...

  8. Energy Barriers and Driving Forces Associated with the Dynamic Transformation of Ti-6Al-4V (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0516 ENERGY BARRIERS AND DRIVING FORCES ASSOCIATED WITH THE DYNAMIC TRANSFORMATION OF TI-6AL-4V (PREPRINT) S.L...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 11 December 2017 Interim 19 March 2014 – 11 November 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ENERGY BARRIERS AND DRIVING FORCES...The energy barriers and driving forces associated with dynamic transformation in Ti-6Al-4V are evaluated. It is shown that the stored energy is less

  9. Energy Efficiency and Its Driving Factors in China’s Three Economic Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-An Shi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency improvement is essential for China’s sustainable development of its social economy. Based on the provincial panel data of China’s three economic regions from 1990 to 2013, this research uses the data envelopment analysis (DEA model to measure the total-factor energy efficiency, and the Tobit regression model to explore the driving factors of efficiency changes. Empirical results show: (1 Energy efficiency, energy consumption structure, and government fiscal scale are significantly positively correlated. (2 Industrial structure and per capita income level have negative correlation to energy efficiency; the impact of industrial structure on energy efficiency is relatively small. (3 The increase of carbon dioxide emissions will decrease the energy efficiency. Furthermore, with people becoming less conscious of energy conservation and emission reduction, energy efficiency will also decrease. (4 Specific energy policies will improve energy efficiency, and greater openness in coastal areas will also have the similar effect.

  10. Bibliometric analysis of energy research at the world level and benchmarking of CANMET energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambault, E.; Cote, G.

    2009-02-15

    CANMET, part of Natural Resources Canada, is a Canadian organization specializing in energy research, working on the development of renewable energy technologies and processes. Science Metrix conducted a study for Natural Resources Canada in 2009, resulting in the preparation of a report. In this document, Science-Metrix analyzes the involvement in energy research in different countries and at the world level and compares the scientific contribution of CANMET to that of other organizations around the world specialized in the same field. The study is based on the contents of papers prepared by CANMET researchers published between 1996 and 2007 and on the definitions of several bibliometric indicators. 1 tab., 15 figs.

  11. Asia energy outlook to 2030: Impacts of energy outlook in China and India on the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiyama, R.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents an international energy outlook, focusing on an analysis of energy impacts of Asia, particularly China and India, on the world energy markets to 2030. Based on vigorous economic growth, soaring electricity demand and progressive motorisation in China and India, Asia's primary energy demand is expected to double, eventually positioning Asia as the largest energy-consuming region with largest CO{sub 2} emissions in the world. This paper also discusses energy security challenges for Asia, in particular East Asian region, where steady oil demand growth will lead to increasing dependency on imported oil from Middle East and sea lane security in the Malacca Strait. Furthermore, this paper explores various future scenarios for Asia including 'Technological Advanced Scenario' to highlight the differences in possible energy futures in Asia and its implication to the global energy market. In Technological Advanced Scenario, which assumes the stepped-up implementation of energy and environmental policies in Asian countries, Asia's primary energy demand in 2030 is expected to be 15%, or 943 Mtoe, lower than the Reference Scenario. The paper concludes that successful implementation of such an energy strategy will decrease the energy demand and greatly mitigate the growth of CO{sub 2} emissions from the energy sector. (auth)

  12. Merging Energy Policy Decision Support, Education, and Communication: The 'World Energy' Simulation Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney-varga, J. N.; Franck, T.; Jones, A.; Sterman, J.; Sawin, E.

    2013-12-01

    To meet international goals for climate change mitigation and adaptation, as well as energy access and equity, there is an urgent need to explore and define energy policy paths forward. Despite this need, students, citizens, and decision-makers often hold deeply flawed mental models of the energy and climate systems. Here we describe a simulation role-playing game, World Energy, that provides an immersive learning experience in which participants can create their own path forward for global energy policy and learn about the impact of their policy choices on carbon dioxide emissions, temperature rise, energy supply mix, energy prices, and energy demand. The game puts players in the decision-making roles of advisors to the United Nations Sustainable Energy for All Initiative (drawn from international leaders from industry, governments, intergovernmental organizations, and citizens groups) and, using a state-of-the-art decision-support simulator, asks them to negotiate a plan for global energy policy. We use the En-ROADS (Energy Rapid Overview and Decision Support) simulator, which runs on a laptop computer in renewable, or carbon-neutral energy technologies; taxes and subsidies for different energy sources; performance standards and energy efficiency; emissions prices; policies to address other greenhouse gas emissions (e.g., methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, etc.); and assumptions about GDP and population. In World Energy, participants must balance climate change mitigation goals with equity, prices and access to energy, and the political feasibility of policies. Initial results indicate participants gain insights into the dynamics of the energy and climate systems and greater understanding of the potential impacts policies.

  13. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy – 33rd scale experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth E. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Prudell, Joseph H. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Schacher, Alphonse A.; Hammagren, Erik J.; Zhang, Zhe [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.

    2013-07-29

    Columbia Power Technologies (ColPwr) and Oregon State University (OSU) jointly conducted a series of tests in the Tsunami Wave Basin (TWB) at the O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory (HWRL). These tests were run between November 2010 and February 2011. Models at 33rd scale representing Columbia Power’s Manta series Wave Energy Converter (WEC) were moored in configurations of one, three and five WEC arrays, with both regular waves and irregular seas generated. The primary research interest of ColPwr is the characterization of WEC response. The WEC response will be investigated with respect to power performance, range of motion and generator torque/speed statistics. The experimental results will be used to validate a numerical model. The primary research interests of OSU include an investigation into the effects of the WEC arrays on the near- and far-field wave propagation. This report focuses on the characterization of the response of a single WEC in isolation. To facilitate understanding of the commercial scale WEC, results will be presented as full scale equivalents.

  14. The International Energy Agency`s role in world-wide wind energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangi, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Ancona, D. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Wind energy is now being deployed world-wide at a rapidly increasing rate and the International Energy Agency (IEA) has a changing role in its growth. IEA was founded in 1974 within the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to collaborate on comprehensive international energy programs. IEA membership consists of eighteen parties from sixteen countries and the European Commission. Recently there has been increasing interest in IEA participation from both OECD and non-OECD countries. Non-OECD countries participating in various IEA Agreements include: China, India, Israel, Korea, and Russia. Because of its diverse international makeup, the IEA is viewed as a source of reliable technical and economic information. The World Bank has approached the Executive Committee for Wind Energy R & D, through the IEA Renewable Energy Working Party, to assist in the expansion of wind deployment. In addition, IEA is moving from R & D programs to include tracking of implementation incentives offered by its members.

  15. Energy and the public as viewed by the World Energy Conference. Energie und Oeffentlichkeit aus der Sicht der WEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, P.M. (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Programmgruppe Technik und Gesellschaft); Jungermann, H. (Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Psychologie)

    1989-09-01

    The committee 'Energy and the Public', set up by the World Energy Conference, at this year's meeting of the WEK presented a comparative international study on the attitude of the public towards systems of energy production, respectively energy supply. Attitudes towards a certain energy system depend on different aspects: With nuclear energy it is above all the safety aspect; for the rest, environmental-protection and economic aspects are important. But the conflict between materialistic and postmaterialistic values also influences people's energy-political convictions. What this study documents is the origin of a world-wide problem-consciousness that energy policy has to contend with if it wants to be economically, environmentally, and socially compatible. (orig./UA).

  16. World Energy Outlook Special Report 2013: Redrawing the Energy Climate Map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Governments have decided collectively that the world needs to limit the average global temperature increase to no more than 2°C and international negotiations are engaged to that end. Yet any resulting agreement will not emerge before 2015 and new legal obligations will not begin before 2020. Meanwhile, despite many countries taking new actions, the world is drifting further and further from the track it needs to follow. The energy sector is the single largest source of climate-changing greenhouse-gas emissions and limiting these is an essential focus of action. The World Energy Outlook has published detailed analysis of the energy contribution to climate change for many years. But, amid major international economic preoccupations, there are worrying signs that the issue of climate change has slipped down the policy agenda. This Special Report seeks to bring it right back on top by showing that the dilemma can be tackled at no net economic cost.

  17. World Energy Outlook Special Report 2013: Redrawing the Energy Climate Map (Executive Summary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Governments have decided collectively that the world needs to limit the average global temperature increase to no more than 2 °C and international negotiations are engaged to that end. Yet any resulting agreement will not emerge before 2015 and new legal obligations will not begin before 2020. Meanwhile, despite many countries taking new actions, the world is drifting further and further from the track it needs to follow. The energy sector is the single largest source of climate-changing greenhouse-gas emissions and limiting these is an essential focus of action. The World Energy Outlook has published detailed analysis of the energy contribution to climate change for many years. But, amid major international economic preoccupations, there are worrying signs that the issue of climate change has slipped down the policy agenda. This Special Report seeks to bring it right back on top by showing that the dilemma can be tackled at no net economic cost.

  18. Energy-efficient electrical drives in the education of professionals; Energieeffiziente elektrische Antriebe in der Ausbildung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, R.

    2007-03-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses how the electricity consumption of drive systems can be reduced. Such electrical drive systems are responsible for approximately 45% of Switzerland's electricity consumption. The paper discusses how this amount could be reduced by 10-20% by employing more energy-efficient drive systems. The authors are of the opinion that, in future, this fact should be taken into account by professors and teachers in their courses at all levels of education for technicians and electrical engineers. The results of a survey made on the present situation are discussed. Teaching modules that are to help facilitate the integration of this subject in the educational curricula at various levels are looked at. The report is completed with a comprehensive appendix on teaching modules, documentation and check-lists from the University of Applied Sciences of North-western Switzerland.

  19. Improving Energy Conversion Efficiency by means of Power Splitting in Dual Drive Train EV Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Roscher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The limited amount of energy stored on board of battery electric vehicles (BEV spurs research activities in the field of efficiency optimization for electric drive train applications in order to achieve an enhanced mileage. In this work a control method for BEV applications with two drive trains (e.g., one at the front and one at the rear axle is presented. Herein, a simple optimization algorithm is introduced enabling to operate the two drives with different torque values, depending on the instantaneous operation point, leading to a reduction of apparent power losses on board. Simulations on a virtual BEV yield a decrease in the cumulated energy consumptions during typical BEV operation, leading to an increase in the achievable mileage.

  20. Energy Consumption Prediction for Electric Vehicles Based on Real-World Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric De Cauwer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle (EV energy consumption is variable and dependent on a number of external factors such as road topology, traffic, driving style, ambient temperature, etc. The goal of this paper is to detect and quantify correlations between the kinematic parameters of the vehicle and its energy consumption. Real-world data of EV energy consumption are used to construct the energy consumption calculation models. Based on the vehicle dynamics equation as underlying physical model, multiple linear regression is used to construct three models. Each model uses a different level of aggregation of the input parameters, allowing predictions using different types of available input parameters. One model uses aggregated values of the kinematic parameters of trips. This model allows prediction with basic, easily available input parameters such as travel distance, travel time, and temperature. The second model extends this by including detailed acceleration data. The third model uses the raw data of the kinematic parameters as input parameters to predict the energy consumption. Using detailed values of kinematic parameters for the prediction in theory increases the link between the statistical model and its underlying physical principles, but requires these parameters to be available as input in order to make predictions. The first two models show similar results. The third model shows a worse fit than the first two, but has a similar accuracy. This model has great potential for future improvement.

  1. The impact of having a 15-minute break with and without consuming an energy drink on prolonged simulated highway driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Loo, A.; Bervoets, A.; Mooren, L.; Garssen, J.; Roth, T.; Verster, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Driving a car may be negatively affected by driver sleepiness. This is especially seen under monotonous conditions such as prolonged highway driving. This study examined the effects of energy drink (ED) on simulated highway driving. Materials and methods: In a double blind crossover

  2. Algal Biofuels Factsheet: Long-Term Energy Benefits Drive U.S. Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-04

    Algal biofuels are generating considerable interest around the world. In the United States, they represent promising pathways for helping to meet the biofuel production targets set by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

  3. Reducing Energy Demand Using Wheel-Individual Electric Drives to Substitute EPS-Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Römer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy demand of vehicles is influenced, not only by the drive systems, but also by a number of add-on systems. Electric vehicles must satisfy this energy demand completely from the battery. Hence, the use of power steering systems directly result in a range reduction. The “e2-Lenk” joint project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF involves a novel steering concept for electric vehicles to integrate the function of steering assistance into the drive-train. Specific distribution of driving torque at the steered axle allows the steering wheel torque to be influenced to support the steering force. This provides a potential for complete substitution of conventional power steering systems and reduces the vehicle’s energy demand. This paper shows the potential of wheel-individual drives influencing the driver’s steering torque using a control technique based on classical EPS control plans. Compared to conventional power-assisted steering systems, a reduced energy demand becomes evident over a wide range of operating conditions.

  4. Energy-efficient and safe driving using a situation-aware gamification approach in logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Kravcik, Milos; Bohuschke, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Klemke, R., Kravčík, M., & Bohuschke, F. (2013, 23-25 October). Energy-efficient and safe driving using a situation-aware gamification approach in logistics. Presentation at the Games and Learning Alliance Conference (GALAConf 2013), Paris, France. http://www.galaconf.org/

  5. Towards an improved energy efficiency of the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gecić Marko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the possibility of energy efficiency increase in the drives with high speed permanent magnet synchronous motors. The losses are decreased by the proposed procedure, i.e. proper allocation of the available stator current capacity to the direct and quadrature current components. The approach provides increased energy efficiency by varying the ratio between copper and iron losses. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III042004

  6. Discussion on the qd/qd model of slip energy recovery drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpinar, E. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Dokuz Eyluel University, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2007-01-15

    The transient and steady-state models of slip energy recovery drive (SERD) are obtained in synchronously rotating reference frame in [P.C. Krause, O.Wasynczuk, M.S. Hildebrandt, Reference frame analysis of a slip energy recovery system, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers. 3 (2) (1988) 404-408; E. Akpinar, R.E. Trahan, A.D. Nguyen, Modeling and analysis of closed-loop slip energy recovery induction motor drive using a Linerizatio technique, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers. 8 (4) (1993) 688-697; S.A. Papathanassiou, M.P. Papadopoulos, State-space modeling and eigenvalue analysis of slip energy recovery drive, IEE Proc. Electr. Power Appl. 144 (1) (1997) 27-36; M.Y. Uctug, I. Eskadarzadeh, H. Ince, Modelling and output power optimization of a wind turbine driven double output induction generator, IEE Proc. Electr. Power Appl. 141 (2) (1994) 33-38]. The steady-state solution is provided in [P.C. Krause, O.Wasynczuk, M.S. Hildebrandt, Reference frame analysis of a slip energy recovery system, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers. 3 (2) (1988) 404-408; M.Y. Uctug, I. Eskadarzadeh, H. Ince, Modelling and output power optimization of a wind turbine driven double output induction generator, IEE Proc. Electr. Power Appl. 141 (2) (1994) 33-38]. A fourth and fifth order transient models are obtained in [E. Akpinar, R.E. Trahan, A.D. Nguyen, Modeling and analysis of closed-loop slip energy recovery induction motor drive using a Linerizatio technique, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers. 8 (4) (1993) 688-697; S.A. Papathanassiou, M.P. Papadopoulos, State-space modeling and eigenvalue analysis of slip energy recovery drive, IEE Proc. Electr. Power Appl. 144 (1) (1997) 27-36], respectively. These models can be used to predict the performance, when the effect of overlap angle and rectifier input current harmonics are ignored, and the rectifier input power factor is also assumed to be unity. In this paper, both models are solved in Matlab and results are compared to the results of Simulink model of the SERD

  7. A Cost-Effective Energy-Recovering Sustain Driving Circuit for ac Plasma Display Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jae Kwang; Tae, Heung-Sik; Choi, Byungcho; Kim, Seok Gi

    A new sustain driving circuit, featuring an energy-recovering function with simple structure and minimal component count, is proposed as a cost-effective solution for driving plasma display panels during the sustaining period. Compared with existing solutions, the proposed circuit reduces the number of semiconductor switches and reactive circuit components without compromising the circuit performance and gas-discharging characteristics. In addition, the proposed circuit utilizes the harness wire as an inductive circuit component, thereby further simplifying the circuit structure. The performance of the proposed circuit is confirmed with a 42-inch plasma display panel.

  8. The combination of short rest and energy drink consumption as fatigue countermeasures during a prolonged drive of professional truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Adi; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Gershon, Pnina

    2014-06-01

    One of the major concerns for professional drivers is fatigue. Many studies evaluated specific fatigue countermeasures, in many cases comparing the efficiency of each method separately. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of rest areas combined with consumption of energy drinks on professional truck drivers during a prolonged simulated drive. Fifteen professional truck drivers participated in three experimental sessions: control-drivers were asked to drink 500 ml of a placebo drink prior to the beginning of the drive. Energy drink-drivers were asked to drink 500 ml of an energy drink containing 160 mg of caffeine prior to the beginning of the drive, and an Energy drink+Rest session--where the drivers were asked to drink 500 ml of an energy drink prior to driving, and rest for 10 min at a designated rest area zone 100 min into the drive. For all sessions, driving duration was approximately 150 min and consisted of driving on a monotonous, two-way rural road. In addition to driving performance measures, subjective measures, and heart rate variability were obtained. Results indicated that consumption of an energy drink (in both sessions) facilitated lower lane position deviations and reduced steering wheel deviations during the first 80-100 min of the drive relative to the control sessions. Resting after 100 min of driving, in addition to the energy drink that was consumed before the drive, enabled the drivers to maintain these abilities throughout the remainder of the driving session. Practical applications: Practical applications arising from the results of this research may give indication on the possible added value of combining fatigue counter measures methods during a prolonged drive and the importance of the timing of the use for each method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The current status of wind energy in Turkey and in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilkilic, Cumali [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, Elazig 23119 (Turkey); Aydin, Hueseyin; Behcet, Rasim [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Batman University, Batman 72060 (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    The rapid increase in world energy demand, the depletion of conventional energy sources and the pollution caused by conventional fuels have increased the importance of developing new and renewable energy sources. Additionally, technological developments have resulted in increased energy demand for the entire world, including Turkey, especially for electrical energy. At present, wind energy is receiving considerable attention. This report focuses on the current status of wind energy in Turkey and in the world. An overview of wind energy in Turkey is presented, and its current status, application, support mechanisms and associated legislation in Turkey are described. Wind energy and its status in the world are also addressed. It can be concluded from this analysis that wind energy utilization in Turkey and throughout world has sharply increased. Turkey has an abundance of wind energy sources. (author)

  10. Driving under the influence behaviours among high school students who mix alcohol with energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Maria N; Cumming, Tammy; Burkhalter, Robin; Langille, Donald B; Ogilvie, Rachel; Asbridge, Mark

    2017-11-29

    Alcohol and energy drinks are commonly used substances by youth in Canada, and are often mixed (AmED). While several studies have shown that AmED can have dangerous effects, less well understood is how AmED is associated with driving under the influence of either alcohol or drugs. This study sought to determine whether youth who use AmED were more likely to engage in driving, or being a passenger of a driver, under the influence of alcohol or cannabis compared to youth who use either alcohol or energy drinks alone. This study used data from grade 10-12 students who took part in the 2014/2015 Canadian Student Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (N=17,450). The association of past-year AmED use with past-30day: driving under the influence of alcohol or cannabis, and riding with an alcohol- or cannabis-influenced driver, was assessed using logistic regression. One in four youth had consumed AmED in the previous 12months. AmED users were more likely to engage in all risk behaviours except riding with a drinking driver, relative to youth who only consumed alcohol. No association was observed for youth who consumed alcohol and energy drinks on separate occasions. Youth who use AmED demonstrate a higher risk profile for driving under the influence of alcohol or cannabis, than youth who use alcohol alone. Future research should explore the biopsychosocial pathways that may explain why using energy drinks enhances the already heightened risk posed by alcohol on other health-related behaviours such as driving under the influence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Real world financing opportunities for energy conservation projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tramonte, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Do you have the resources, dollars, people expertise and general know-how to do all the energy conservation measures. If you have the funds, do it yourself. Historically you would save more if you hired a private concern because that is the only job the contractor does for you. You have other hats to wear and fires to put out. Using third-party financing can be a good decision based on your specific needs. Procrastination is not the answer - the cost of delay is extensive. Financing energy conservation measures is no different from financing your automobile or home. If the benefits outweigh the negatives, the answer is obvious. Remember, in any case of using private sector financing, your are joining a partnership arrangement. The only way to succeed is to be honest with each other on the front end. There need not be any surprises. Any reputable company will gladly have your attorney evaluate all agreements, amortization schedules, and attachments. Real world financing alternatives will continue to change as the market matures. It's not too good to be true. It is no more than a vehicle to make the efforts of capital improvements streamlined. The money or financing is the catalyst to the project and makes the other areas meld.

  12. Energy-Saving Control of a Novel Hydraulic Drive System for Field Walking Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Delei; Shang, Jianzhong; Xue, Yong; Yang, Junhong; Wang, Zhuo

    2018-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of the hydraulic drive system in field walking robot, this paper proposed a novel hydraulic system based on two-stage pressure source. Based on the analysis of low efficiency of robot single-stage hydraulic system, the paper firstly introduces the concept and design of two-stage pressure source drive system. Then, the new hydraulic system energy-saving control is planned according to the characteristics of walking robot. The feasibility of the new hydraulic system is proved by the simulation of the walking robot squatting. Finally, the efficiencies of two types hydraulic system are calculated, indicating that the novel hydraulic system can increase the efficiency by 41.5%, which can contribute to enhance knowledge about hydraulic drive system for field walking robot.

  13. Energy conversion efficiency of hybrid electric heavy-duty vehicles operating according to diverse drive cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banjac, Titina [AVL-AST d.o.o., Trg Leona Stuklja 5, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Trenc, Ferdinand; Katrasnik, Tomaz [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Ljubljana, Askerceva 6, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-12-15

    Energy consumption and exhaust emissions of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) strongly depend on the HEV topology, power ratios of their components and applied control strategy. Combined analytical and simulation approach was applied to analyze energy conversion efficiency of different HEV topologies. Analytical approach is based on the energy balance equations and considers all energy paths in the HEVs from the energy sources to the wheels and to other energy sinks. Simulation approach is based on a fast forward-facing simulation model for simulating parallel and series HEVs as well as for conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, and considers all components relevant for modeling energy conversion phenomena. Combined approach enables evaluation of energy losses on different energy paths and provides their impact on the fuel economy. It therefore enables identification of most suitable HEV topology and of most suitable power ratios of the components for targeted vehicle application, since it reveals and quantifies the mechanisms that could lead to improved energy conversion efficiency of particular HEV. The paper exposes characteristics of the test cycles that lead to improved energy conversion efficiency of HEVs. Mechanisms leading to improved fuel economy of parallel HEVs through drive-away and vehicle propulsion at low powertrain loads by electric motor are also analyzed. It was also shown that control strategies managing energy flow through electric storage devices significantly influence energy conversion efficiency of series HEVs. (author)

  14. The first world war drives rehabilitation toward the modern concepts of disability and participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfiglioli Stagni, S; Tomba, P; Viganò, A; Zati, A; Benedetti, M G

    2015-06-01

    The First World War produced a huge number of disabled soldiers. During the war, surgeons realized that it was not enough to merely treat the limbs of the wounded soldiers; it was also necessary to train them to use their remaining abilities to their greatest capacity. Governments at the same time realized that such a high number of veterans created a financial burden, by entitling disabled veterans to full healthcare, raising the issues of social welfare. Both in the US and Europe, programs of rehabilitation were instituted, providing injured soldiers with long-term medical care and vocational training aimed at restituting soldier's independence for a speedy return to work. In Italy at the Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, one of the most renowned Hospitals for the treatment of orthopedic deformities, Putti set up a technologically advanced Orthopedic Workshop, and a Rehabilitation House. The so called "reconstruction programs" addressed all aspects of rehabilitation (including physiotherapy, curative workshops and vocational therapy), seeing disability in terms of function. The experience gained in the treatment of war victims markedly enriched rehabilitation techniques, but overall the First World War helped engender the concept of rehabilitative programs to assist disabled veterans reintegrate in the workplace, thus laying the foundations of the modern concept of participation at a social level. In the centenary of Italy's entry into the First World War, it is worth underlining just how much hindsight affords us a new perspective on Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. It reminds us that rehabilitation is not merely the role of medicine, but forms part of a multifaceted approach involving societal roles and expectations, regardless of the psychological and physical impairments suffered by the individuals concerned.

  15. Characteristics of volatile organic compounds from motorcycle exhaust emission during real-world driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2014-12-01

    The number of motorcycles has increased significantly in Asia, Africa, Latin American and Europe in recent years due to their reasonable price, high mobility and low fuel consumption. However, motorcycles can emit significant amounts of air pollutants; therefore, the emission characteristics of motorcycles are an important consideration for the implementation of control measures for motorcycles in urban areas. Results of this study indicate that most volatile organic compound (VOC) emission factors were in the range of several decades mg/km during on-road driving. Toluene, isopentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene were the most abundant VOCs in motorcycle exhaust, with emission factors of hundreds mg/km. Motorcycle exhaust was 15.4 mg/km for 15 carbonyl species. Acetaldehyde, acetone, formaldehyde and benzaldehyde were the major carbonyl species, and their emission factors ranged from 1.4 to 3.5 mg/km 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, 1-butene, toluene, o-xylene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, propene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, isoprene, m-diethylbenzene, and m-ethyltoluene were the main ozone formation potential (OFP) species, and their OFP was 200 mg-O3/km or higher.

  16. Risoe energy report 10. Energy for smart cities in an urbanised world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2011-11-15

    This Risoe Energy Report is the tenth in a series which began in 2002. Volume 10 takes as its point of reference the rapid urbanisation of the world. UN population statistics show that global population is expected to surpass 9 billion by 2050, and nearly 6.3 billion people will be living in urban areas. Urban regions will thus absorb most of the world's population increase in the next four decades while drawing in some of the rural population as well: by 2050 there will be 600 million fewer people in rural areas. The large cities and megacities created by this rapid urbanisation contribute to climate change, and in turn are affected by its consequences. For these and other reasons we need a new approach to what cities should do to become more liveable, economically successful, and environmentally responsible. Megacities of the future need to be smart cities: that is, energy-efficient, consumer-focused and technologydriven. This cannot be achieved simply by improving existing technologies. Instead we need a new smart approach based on smart solutions. With this background the report addresses energy related issues for smart cities, including energy infrastructure, onsite energy production, transport, economy, sustainability, housing, living and governance, including incentives and barriers influencing smart energy for smart cities. (LN)

  17. Daily temperature variation and extreme high temperatures drive performance and biotic interactions in a warming world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoks, Robby; Verheyen, Julie; Van Dievel, Marie; Tüzün, Nedim

    2017-10-01

    We review the major patterns on the effects of daily temperature variation (DTV) and extreme high temperatures (EXT) on performance traits and the resulting outcome of biotic interactions in insects. EXT profoundly affects the outcome of all types of biotic interactions: competitive, predator-prey, herbivore-plant, host-pathogen/parasitoid and symbiotic interactions. Studies investigating effects of DTV on biotic interactions are few but also show strong effects on competitive and host-pathogen/parasitoid interactions. EXT typically reduces predation, and is expected to reduce parasitoid success. The effects of EXT and DTV on the outcome of the other interaction types are highly variable, yet can be predicted based on comparisons of the TPCs of the interacting species, and challenges the formulation of general predictions about the change in biotic interactions in a warming world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  19. Optimal investment and scheduling of distributed energy resources with uncertainty in electric vehicles driving schedules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Goncalo [Technical Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal); Stadler, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Center for Energy and Innovation Technologies (Austria); Bozchalui, Mohammed C. [NEC Laboratories American Inc., Irving, TX (United States); Sharma, Ratnesh [NEC Laboratories American Inc., Irving, TX (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbosa-Povoa, Ana [Technical Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal); Ferrao, Paulo [Technical Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal)

    2013-12-06

    The large scale penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) will introduce technical challenges to the distribution grid, but also carries the potential for vehicle-to-grid services. Namely, if available in large enough numbers, EVs can be used as a distributed energy resource (DER) and their presence can influence optimal DER investment and scheduling decisions in microgrids. In this work, a novel EV fleet aggregator model is introduced in a stochastic formulation of DER-CAM [1], an optimization tool used to address DER investment and scheduling problems. This is used to assess the impact of EV interconnections on optimal DER solutions considering uncertainty in EV driving schedules. Optimization results indicate that EVs can have a significant impact on DER investments, particularly if considering short payback periods. Furthermore, results suggest that uncertainty in driving schedules carries little significance to total energy costs, which is corroborated by results obtained using the stochastic formulation of the problem.

  20. Safe Drive Stay Alive : exploring effectiveness of a real-world driving intervention for pre-drivers and the utility of the health action process approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, Hannah Louise; Ozakinci, Gozde; Scott, C.

    2016-01-01

    Young drivers are greatly overrepresented in road traffic collisions (RTCs) worldwide. Interventions attempt to change driving-related behaviours to reduce injuries and deaths from RTCs. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of the well-established Fife Safe Drive Stay Alive (SDSA) practice-based intervention on determinants of driving behaviour using the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) model. Adolescent participants (predominantly pre-drivers) attending the SDSA intervention fr...

  1. Net discharge anomalies drive uncertainty in catch in the world's largest inland fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Mekong River is one of the world's largest rivers at more than 4,600 km long and a watershed of nearly 800,000 km2. The Tonle Sap Lake (TSL) in Cambodia is believed to be one of the most productive inland fisheries in the world because of its unique hydrologic regime and large input of nutrient-rich sediment from the Mekong. The TSL is the cornerstone of food security in Cambodia yielding ~ 15% of the estimated 2.6M tonne catch in the Mekong basin and providing key nursery habitat for fishes that constitute the catch in other parts of the basin. The TSL fishery is driven by a flood pulse that occurs during and after the SE Asian Monsoon. The timing, duration and magnitude of the monsoon is thought to be a key driver of primary and secondary (fish) production in the system. All three-timing, duration and magnitude--are likely to be different under future climate and as a result of the proposed and recently constructed dams on tributaries in Vietnam and elsewhere. Here I use spectral methods to characterize the timing and magnitude of the flood pulse. Specifically, I use the Discrete Fast Fourier Transform (DFFT) to estimate the seasonal trend in daily discharge for the past 40 years at the Stung Treng gage. The whitened time series represent departures from the long term trend--anomalies--and hence implicitly capture the timing of unusual events. I hypothesize that 'timing is everything' and hence that anomalies will capture variation in the second moment of the fishery. Using a novel metric--the net annual discharge anomaly--I show that catch is significantly more variable in years with net negative flow anomalies; and quite predictable in years with net positive flow anomalies. These results suggest that changes in timing of monsoon flows alone--due to climate change or dams--can significantly increase the uncertainty in catch of a fishery that is vital for food security in the Mekong basin.

  2. FC vehicle hybridisation: an affordable solution for an energy-efficient FC powered drive train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pede, G.; Iacobazzi, A.; Passerini, S.; Bobbio, A.; Botto, G.

    Fuel cells (FCs) have potential as clean and efficient energy sources for automotive applications without sacrifice in performance or driving range. However, the complete FC system must operate as efficiently as possible over the range of driving conditions that may be encountered while maintaining a low cost. To achieve this target, a storage unit can be introduced in the FC system to reduce the size of the fuel cell that is the most expensive component. This "hybrid" concept would not only reduce the drive train total cost but it also allow the recover of the braking energy and the operation at the voltage-current point of maximum efficiency for the FC system. Pro-and-cons of the "full-power" versus the "hybrid" configuration are shown in this work. The "Hybridisation rate" or "Hybridisation degree", a parameter expressed by the relationship between two installed powers, the generation power and the traction power, is also introduced and it is demonstrated that for each category of hybrid vehicles there is an optimal value of hybridisation degree. The storage systems considered are based on high power batteries or ultra capacitors (UCs) or a combination of them. A preliminary design of a sport utility vehicle (SUV) using a combined storage system and a FC energy source (called Triple Hybrid), is proposed. Finally, the experience of the Italian industry in this field is also reviewed.

  3. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF ELECTRIC DRIVE SYSTEMS AND ITS APPLICATION IN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatin Zlatev

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Motors are the most important driving components of industrial and consumer products. Therefore improving the energy efficiency of their work is an important environmental and economic problem. Systematic review of laboratory equipment for training in energy efficiency is made for the integrated influence between curricular practical training and current requirements of the industry. The application of various training tools opens up new possibilities for adapting the teaching methods in universities to the learning style of today’s students. The presented system is improved with application of additional software and hardware components from other manufacturers.

  4. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume III. Country data, LY-PO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Included in this volume, Vol. III, are Libya, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Poland, and Portugal. The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations of energy supplies; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  5. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume II. Country data, CZ-KS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Included in this volume, Vol. II, are Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany (East), Germany (West), Greece, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Japan, and Korea (South). The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations of energy use; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  6. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume IV. Country data, SG-YO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Included in this volume, Vol. IV, are Senegal, South Africa, Soviet Union, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, Upper Volta, Venezuela, and Yugoslavia. The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations of energy supplies; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  7. Experimental Optimization of Direct-Drive Implosions with Cross-Beam Energy Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froula, D. H.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Seka, W.; Edgell, D. H.; Goncharov, V. N.

    2011-10-01

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) in direct-drive implosions is measured to reduce the hydrodynamic efficiency of the laser drive. The outer rays of each beam interact through the ion-acoustic waves to extract energy from the central rays of each beam. This accounts for an ~10% loss of absorption, which results in an ~20% reduction in hydro-efficiency as measured by the scattered light and x-ray bang time. Experiments that reduce the laser energy in the outer rays by reducing the ratio of the laser spot size to target diameter by Rbeam/Rtarget = 60% are shown to eliminate CBET and significantly increase the hydrodynamic coupling; however, the reduction in laser spot size leads to irradiation nonuniformities. An optimum laser spot size is experimentally determined that maximizes neutron yield by balancing the reduced CBET with the illumination nonuniformities. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  8. Detuning Minimization of Induction Motor Drive System for Alternative Energy Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibur Rehman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates different types of AC machines and various control techniques for their suitability for the drive system of Alternative Energy Vehicles (AEV. An Indirect Field Oriented (IFO drive system for the AEV application is chosen and its major problem of detuning is addressed by designing an offline and an online rotor resistance adaptation technique. The offline scheme sets the slip gain at various operating conditions based on the fact that if the rotor resistance is set correctly and field orientation is achieved, then there should be a linear relationship between the torque current and the output torque. The online technique is designed using Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS for the rotor resistance adaptation. For an ideal field oriented machine, the rotor flux along the q-axis should be zero. This condition acts as a reference model for the proposed MRAS scheme. The current model flux observer in the synchronous frame of reference is selected as an adjustable model and its rotor resistance is tuned so that the flux along the q-axis becomes zero. The effectiveness of the offline tuning scheme is evident through performance validation of the drive system, which is implemented in a real Ford vehicle. The experimental results obtained while driving the test vehicle are included in the paper while the proposed online scheme is validated on a 3.75 kW prototype induction motor.

  9. Simulated Real-World Energy Impacts of a Thermally Sensitive Powertrain Considering Viscous Losses and Enrichment (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Gonder, J.; Lopp, S.; Jehlik, F.

    2014-09-01

    It is widely understood that cold-temperature engine operation negatively impacts vehicle fuel use due to a combination of increased friction (high-viscosity engine oil) and temporary enrichment (accelerated catalyst heating). However, relatively little effort has been dedicated to thoroughly quantifying these impacts across a large number of driving cycles and ambient conditions. This work leverages high-quality dynamometer data collected at various ambient conditions to develop a modeling framework for quantifying engine cold-start fuel penalties over a wide array of real-world usage profiles. Additionally, mitigation strategies including energy retention and exhaust heat recovery are explored with benefits quantified for each approach.

  10. Consuming the world's energy: Update series. Energy efficiency trends in oil countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-28

    This issue of Energy Detente addresses energy efficiency in selected oil producing countries over time and compare the varying effects of important crude oil price changes. As economies around the world heighten their benefits from conservation and efficient use of energy, oil producers will be crucial examples not only for their own sakes, but for consuming countries dependent upon their exports. In this sense, their potential for leadership and vision seems greater than ever. Specifically, 6 oil-exporting countries are featured: Australia, Kuwait, Indonesia, Nigeria, the United Kingdom, and Venezuela. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of February 21, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, February, 1992 edition.

  11. Safe Drive Stay Alive: exploring effectiveness of a real-world driving intervention for predrivers and the utility of the health action process approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, H; Scott, C; Ozakinci, G

    2017-04-01

    Young drivers are greatly over-represented in road traffic collisions (RTCs) worldwide. Interventions attempt to change driving-related behaviours to reduce injuries and deaths from RTCs. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of the well-established Fife Safe Drive Stay Alive (SDSA) practice-based intervention on determinants of driving behaviour using the health action process approach (HAPA) model. Adolescent participants (predominantly predrivers) attending the SDSA intervention from schools and colleges in Fife, Scotland, were invited to complete an evaluation at baseline and at 3 months exploring motivational determinants of driving behaviour (eg, risk perception). Intervention content was examined for behaviour change techniques (BCTs). Eighty-seven participants completed both baseline and follow-up evaluations. The motivational HAPA model variables predicted driving intentions. There was no significant overall effect of the SDSA intervention between baseline and 3-month follow-up. Seven negatively framed BCTs were used in the intervention. The effectiveness of SDSA is questioned; however, the study supports the use of the HAPA model in explaining driving intentions, and therefore, may usefully inform driving interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Japan, world leader of photovoltaic energy; Le Japon, leader mondial de l'energie photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strasser, F

    2006-02-15

    Since the beginning of the 1970's, the potentialities of photovoltaic energy has been recognized by the Japanese government which has sustained this technology in two ways. First, by the financing of R and D programs, and second, by giving subsidies to citizens for the installation of solar panels. Today, Japan is the world leader of photovoltaic energy, both for the installed power and for the production of solar cells. In 2003, the International Energy Agency was reporting 1.809 GW of worldwide installed capacity among which 48% was in Japan (0.86 GW) with respect to 0.4 GW in Germany, 0.275 GW in the USA and only 20 MW in France. This capacity would have exceeded 1.1 GW at the end of 2004. Half of the solar modules are manufactured in Japan. The ministry of economy, trade and industry (METI) has fixed ambitious goals for 2010: the overall new energy sources much represent 3% of the primary energy (with respect to 1% today) and the installed capacity must reach 4.8 GW. The road-map of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organisation (NEDO) foresees 100 GW by 2030. (J.S.)

  13. In quest of a new world order: a world organization modeled after the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehring, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of this study was to find or develop an appropriate model for a world order which would maintain a balance between it and the various national governments. Underpinning the problem were the assumptions that the world has, historically, moved in the direction of ever larger units of government and of international cooperation, that nationalism and patriotism have always represented major obstacles to this movement, and that world order is necessary to solve the world's major problems. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) experience, its formal Statute, and its staff were considered as the basis for projecting a model of world order. An autonomous body related to the United Nations, the successes which the IAEA has enjoyed were considered the result of the sound processes and principles on which it is based.

  14. Improving Energy Efficiency in Pharmaceutical ManufacturingOperations -- Part I: Motors, Drives and Compressed Air Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chien; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet,Eric

    2006-04-01

    In Part I of this two-part series, we focus on efficient use of motors, drives and pumps, both for process equipment and compressed air systems. Pharmaceutical manufacturing plants in the U.S. spend nearly $1 billion each year for the fuel and electricity they need to keep their facilities running (Figure 1, below). That total that can increase dramatically when fuel supplies tighten and oil prices rise, as they did last year. Improving energy efficiency should be a strategic goal for any plant manager or manufacturing professional working in the drug industry today. Not only can energy efficiency reduce overall manufacturing costs, it usually reduces environmental emissions, establishing a strong foundation for a corporate greenhouse-gas-management program. For most pharmaceutical manufacturing plants, Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is typically the largest consumer of energy, as shown in Table 1 below. This two-part series will examine energy use within pharmaceutical facilities, summarize best practices and examine potential savings and return on investment. In this first article, we will focus on efficient use of motors, drives and pumps, both for process equipment and compressed air systems. Part 2, to be published in May, will focus on overall HVAC systems, building management and boilers.

  15. Study of Drive System for Linear Induction Motor Using Magnetic Energy Recovery Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Takanori; Takaku, Taku; Kitahara, Tadayuki; Sumitani, Hideo; Shimada, Ryuichi

    This paper proposes a suitable power supply for driving linear induction motors. The power supply consists of a voltage source inverter (VSI) and a magnetic energy recovery switch (MERS). Circuit configuration and operation principles of the power supply are described. Power factor correction by MERS can cause an increase of the output power. Technical advantages of using MERS compared with increasing voltage rating of VSI are discussed. Some experiments with a linear induction motor were conducted. The results confirms that MERS can reduce capacity of the VSI or increase output with the same VSI capacity. The number of devices and losses are evaluated on large scale drive system. A half-bridge type of MERS is proposed and discussed. The half-bridge MERS improves disadvantages of using MERS.

  16. Energy history chronology from World War II to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, P.C.

    1982-08-01

    This report provides a basic guide to the major Presidential, Legislative, Judicial, and Federal agency actions relating to energy policy, research, development, and regulation in recent years. The chronology is arranged synoptically, allowing users to reference easily the historical context in which each event occurred. Summaries of Presidential, Legislative, and Judicial actions relating to energy, rosters of federal energy officials, and a genealogy of federal energy agencies are also provided in separate appendices. The Energy History Chronology was prepared in conjunction with the History Division's series of pamphlets on the Institutional Origins of the Department of Energy. The series includes concise histories of the Department of Energy, the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Federal Energy Administration, and the Atomic Energy Commission. All significant events and achievements noted in the institutional history are also listed.

  17. Determination of Optimal Energy Efficient Separation Schemes based on Driving Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bek-Pedersen, Erik; Gani, Rafiqul; Levaux, O.

    2000-01-01

    A new integrated approach for synthesis, design and operation of separation schemes is presented. This integrated approach is based on driving forces that promote the desired separation for different separation techniques. A set of algorithms needed by the integrated approach for sequencing...... and design of distillation columns and for generating hybrid separation schemes are presented. The main feature of these algorithms is that they provide a 'visual' solution that also appears to be near optimal in terms of energy consumption. Several illustrative examples highlighting the application...

  18. Impact of Generator Stroke Length on Energy Production for a Direct Drive Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Lysekil wave energy converter (WEC, developed by the wave energy research group of Uppsala University, has evolved through a variety of mechanical designs since the first prototype was installed in 2006. The hundreds of engineering decisions made throughout the design processes have been based on a combination of theory, know-how from previous experiments, and educated guesses. One key parameter in the design of the WECs linear generator is the stroke length. A long stroke requires a taller WEC with associated economical and mechanical challenges, but a short stroke limits the power production. The 2-m stroke of the current WECs has been an educated guess for the Swedish wave climate, though the consequences of this choice on energy absorption have not been studied. When the WEC technology is considered for international waters, with larger waves and challenges of energy absorption and survivability, the subject of stroke length becomes even more relevant. This paper studies the impact of generator stroke length on energy absorption for three sites off the coasts of Sweden, Chile and Scotland. 2-m, 4-m, and unlimited stroke are considered. Power matrices for the studied WEC prototype are presented for each of the studied stroke lengths. Presented results quantify the losses incurred by a limited stroke. The results indicate that a 2-m stroke length is likely to be a good choice for Sweden, but 4-m is likely to be necessary in more energetic international waters.

  19. Energy policies and politics for sustainable world-system development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    environmental impacts of renewable energy sources. Normatively, (a) parts of the 1987 Brundtland report and (b) Danish experiences with regulated markets and innovations (Hvelplund 1995) are discussed and supplemented by (c) a critique of EU energy policies, especially the continued support of nuclear industry...... by Euratom (Woodman 2003). A political approach to preconditions for sustainable energy policies is finally developed from (a) Barry Commoner's critique of 1979 of president Carter's energy plan followed by the impasse of the Reagan era with the US government's retreat from federal energy and environmental...

  20. The United States and World Energy: A Discussion Paper, Department of State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ralph Stuart

    This publication is a summary of the world energy situation and its impact on the United States. A brief review of some interrelated diplomatic, commercial, and technical aspects of the energy crisis and their implications for the U.S. and its foreign policy is presented first. Next, discussions of world supplies, uses and problems with different…

  1. The assessment of energy efficiency of electric machines for domestic appliances drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusz Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the division of domestic appliances into categories connected with input power was presented. The authors discussed issues connected with energy efficiency of these devices. An example of such a device power consumption of which affects considerably on overall power consumption from the mains is a vacuum cleaner. Vacuum cleaners are used in almost all households and they were covered by the EU regulations which introduced limitations in power consumption from the mains. In the paper, the assessment of energy efficiency of classic electric motors for vacuum cleaners drive was presented. Results of practical tests of chosen vacuum cleaners were presented. The digital power meter was used to measure electric parameters of tested vacuum cleaners and the PC was used to collect measuring data. The assessment of input power influence on energy consumption and energy efficiency was conducted based on tests results. It was shown in conclusions that the one of development directions of domestic appliances, which can cause improvement of energy efficiency, are alternative technologies of electric machines with much higher efficiency i.e. energy-saving electric machines with electronic commutation.

  2. Combined Use of Alcohol and Energy Drinks Increases Participation in High-Risk Drinking and Driving Behaviors Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Conrad L; Williams, Ronald D; Housman, Jeff M; Barry, Adam E; Jacobson, Bert H; Evans, Marion W

    2015-07-01

    A recent study suggested that college students who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely than students who consumed only alcohol to drive when their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was higher than the .08% limit and to choose to drive despite knowing they had too much alcohol to drive safely. This study sought to replicate those findings with a larger sample while also exploring additional variables related to impaired driving. College students (N = 549) completed an anonymous online survey to assess differences in drinking and driving-related behaviors between alcohol-only users (n = 281) and combined alcohol-energy drink users (n = 268). Combined users were more likely than alcohol-only users to choose to (a) drive when they perceived they were over the .08% BAC limit (35.0% vs. 18.1%, p drinks consumed, number of days drinking, number of days drunk, number of heavy episodic drinking episodes, greatest number of drinks on one occasion, and average hours of consumption. Combined use of alcohol and energy drinks may place drinkers at greater risk when compared with those who consume only alcohol. College students in this sample who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely to participate in high-risk driving behaviors than those who consumed only alcohol.

  3. Impact of Different Driving Cycles and Operating Conditions on CO2 Emissions and Energy Management Strategies of a Euro-6 Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cubito

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs represent one of the key technologies to reduce CO2 emissions, their effective potential in real world driving conditions strongly depends on the performance of their Energy Management System (EMS and on its capability to maximize the efficiency of the powertrain in real life as well as during Type Approval (TA tests. Attempting to close the gap between TA and real world CO2 emissions, the European Commission has decided to introduce from September 2017 the Worldwide Harmonized Light duty Test Procedure (WLTP, replacing the previous procedure based on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC. The aim of this work is the analysis of the impact of different driving cycles and operating conditions on CO2 emissions and on energy management strategies of a Euro-6 HEV through the limited number of information available from the chassis dyno tests. The vehicle was tested considering different initial battery State of Charge (SOC, ranging from 40% to 65%, and engine coolant temperatures, from −7 °C to 70 °C. The change of test conditions from NEDC to WLTP was shown to lead to a significant reduction of the electric drive and to about a 30% increase of CO2 emissions. However, since the specific energy demand of WLTP is about 50% higher than that of NEDC, these results demonstrate that the EMS strategies of the tested vehicle can achieve, in test conditions closer to real life, even higher efficiency levels than those that are currently evaluated on the NEDC, and prove the effectiveness of HEV technology to reduce CO2 emissions.

  4. French participation in the world energy council; Presence francaise au conseil mondial de l`energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carouge, Ch. [Secretariat General du Conseil francais de l`Energie (France); Roussely, F.; Francony, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Ailleret, F. [Conseil francais de l`Energie (France); Bosseboeuf, D.; Moisan, F. [ADEME, Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France); Villaron, Th. [Conseil Mondial de l`Energie (France)

    1999-02-01

    The Revue de l`Energie is presenting the most influential French interventions at the 17. Congress of the World Energy Council held in September 1998 in Houston, (USA). These represent only part of French participation in the congress since a total of 16 individuals from France took part in the various sessions. Their presentations cover very varied topics and are one of the things that testify to the interest that our energy industries have in the works and operations of the WEC. Some other figures also bear witness to this interest: 184 French congress members, which is one of the largest delegations after that of the United States, the host country of the congress; 11 technical presentation, covering a wide range of subjects: from the nuclear reactor of the future to the use of bagasse (cane trash) for the production of electricity, from the underground storage of natural gas to the production of extra-heavy crude petroleum. The technical exhibition associated to the Congress was a great success and there again the French presence was able to make its mark: five exhibitors were gathered in the France of 600 m{sup 2}, the most sizeable non-American national area.But French participation in the work of the WEC is not limited to congresses. The French Energy Council [Conseil francais de l`Energie] is careful to ensure its presence both in the formal proceedings of the WEC and within the studies undertaken under its three-year programme. This active French presence is also essential in order to defend the official English-French bilingualism of the World Energy Council. In spite of the good will of the organizers and the support of the general secretary`s office in London, the Houston Congress showed how difficult it was to maintain the use of the French language on English-speaking territory. This is a difficult task, one that has to be undertaken anew each time, but one that France and other French-speaking nations have decided to pursue to the end. (authors)

  5. BOOK REVIEW: Inertial confinement fusion: The quest for ignition and energy gain using indirect drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1999-06-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is an alternative way to control fusion which is based on scaling down a thermonuclear explosion to a small size, applicable for power production, a kind of thermonuclear internal combustion engine. This book extends many interesting topics concerning the research and development on ICF of the last 25 years. It provides a systematic development of the physics basis and also various experimental data on radiation driven implosion. This is a landmark treatise presented at the right time. It is based on the article ``Development of the indirect-drive approach to inertial confinement fusion and the target physics basis for ignition and gain'' by J.D. Lindl, published in Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 2, November 1995, pp. 3933-4024. As is well known, in the United States of America research on the target physics basis for indirect drive remained largely classified until 1994. The indirect drive approaches were closely related to nuclear weapons research at Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories. In Japan and other countries, inertial confinement fusion research for civil energy has been successfully performed to achieve DT fuel pellet compression up to 1000 times normal density, and indirect drive concepts, such as the `Cannon Ball' scheme, also prevailed at several international conferences. In these circumstances the international fusion community proposed the Madrid Manifesto in 1988, which urged openness of ICF information to promote international collaboration on civil energy research for the future resources of the human race. This proposal was also supported by some of the US scientists. The United States Department of Energy revised its classification guidelines for ICF six years after the Madrid Manifesto. This first book from the USA treating target physics issues, covering topics from implosion dynamics to hydrodynamic stability, ignition physics, high-gain target design and the scope for energy applications is

  6. Analysis of energy-related CO2 emissions and driving factors in five major energy consumption sectors in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Erqian; Ren, Lijun; Sun, Haoyu

    2016-10-01

    Continual growth of energy-related CO2 emissions in China has received great attention, both domestically and internationally. In this paper, we evaluated the CO2 emissions in five major energy consumption sectors which were evaluated from 1991 to 2012. In order to analyze the driving factors of CO2 emission change in different sectors, the Kaya identity was extended by adding several variables based on specific industrial characteristics and a decomposition analysis model was established according to the LMDI method. The results demonstrated that economic factor was the leading force explaining emission increase in each sector while energy intensity and sector contribution were major contributors to emission mitigation. Meanwhile, CO2 emission intensity had no significant influence on CO2 emission in the short term, and energy consumption structure had a small but growing negative impact on the increase of CO2 emissions. In addition, the future CO2 emissions of industry from 2013 to 2020 under three scenarios were estimated, and the reduction potential of CO2 emissions in industry are 335 Mt in 2020 under lower-emission scenario while the CO2 emission difference between higher-emission scenario and lower-emission scenario is nearly 725 Mt. This paper can offer complementary perspectives on determinants of energy-related CO2 emission change in different sectors and help to formulate mitigation strategies for CO2 emissions.

  7. Modelling the Effect of Driving Events on Electrical Vehicle Energy Consumption Using Inertial Sensors in Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jiménez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution and climate change are some of the main problems that humankind is currently facing. The electrification of the transport sector will help to reduce these problems, but one of the major barriers for the massive adoption of electric vehicles is their limited range. The energy consumption in these vehicles is affected, among other variables, by the driving behavior, making range a value that must be personalized to each driver and each type of electric vehicle. In this paper we offer a way to estimate a personalized energy consumption model by the use of the vehicle dynamics and the driving events detected by the use of the smartphone inertial sensors, allowing an easy and non-intrusive manner to predict the correct range for each user. This paper proposes, for the classification of events, a deep neural network (Long-Short Time Memory which has been trained with more than 22,000 car trips, and the application to improve the consumption model taking into account the driver behavior captured across different trips, allowing a personalized prediction. Results and validation in real cases show that errors in the predicted consumption values are halved when abrupt events are considered in the model.

  8. National Renewable Energy Policy in a Global World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Minji

    Increasing trade of renewable energy products has significantly contributed to reducing the costs of renewable energy sources, but at the same time, it has generated protectionist policies, which may negatively affect the trend of the cost reduction. Although a few recent studies examined the rise of renewable energy protectionism and trade disputes, they are limited in addressing the conflict between the original goal of traditional renewable energy policies and the new protectionist policies under the globalized renewable energy industry. To fill this gap, this dissertation explores how the globalized renewable energy industry has changed national renewable energy policies. Through three analyses, three aspects of the globalized renewable energy industry are examined: the rise of multinational corporations, international interactions among actors, and the changes of the global and domestic market conditions. First analysis investigates how multinational renewable energy corporations have affected national policies. A content analysis of the annual reports of 15 solar photovoltaic multinational corporation shows that solar multinationals have been influenced by national policies and have adapted to the changes rather than having attempted to change national policies. Second analysis examines how diverse actors have framed renewable energy trade issues through a network analysis of the Chinese solar panel issue in the United States. The result shows that the Chinese solar panel issue was framed differently from the traditional environmental frame of renewable energy, being dominated by multinational corporations headquartered in other countries. Third analysis explores what has caused the increasing diversity in national renewable energy policies through the case studies of the U.S. and South Korea. The result reveals that the globalization of solar industry has affected the diversification of solar policies in two countries by generating both challenges, which

  9. An assessment of the real-world driving gaseous emissions from a Euro 6 light-duty diesel vehicle using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján, José M.; Bermúdez, Vicente; Dolz, Vicente; Monsalve-Serrano, Javier

    2018-02-01

    Recent investigations demonstrated that real-world emissions usually exceed the levels achieved in the laboratory based type approval processes. By means of on-board emissions measurements, it has been shown that nitrogen oxides emitted by diesel engines substantially exceed the limit imposed by the Euro 6 regulation. Thus, with the aim of complementing the worldwide harmonized light vehicles test cycle, the real driving emissions cycle will be introduced after 1 September 2017 to regulate the vehicle emissions in real-world driving situations. This paper presents on-board gaseous emissions measurements from a Euro 6 light-duty diesel vehicle in a real-world driving route using a portable emissions measurement system. The test route characteristics follow the requirements imposed by the RDE regulation. The analysis of the raw emissions results suggests that the greatest amount of nitrogen oxides and nitrogen dioxide are emitted during the urban section of the test route, confirming that lower speeds with more accelerations and decelerations lead to higher nitrogen oxides emissions levels than constant high speeds. Moreover, the comparison of the two calculation methods proposed by the real driving emissions regulation has revealed emissions rates differences ranging from 10% to 45% depending on the pollutant emission and the trip section considered (urban or total). Thus, the nitrogen oxides emissions conformity factor slightly varies from one method to the other.

  10. Analysis of Spatial Disparities and Driving Factors of Energy Consumption Change in China Based on Spatial Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Hualin Xie; Guiying Liu; Qu Liu; Peng Wang

    2014-01-01

    The changes of spatial pattern in energy consumption have an impact on global climate change. Based on the spatial autocorrelation analysis and the auto-regression model of spatial statistics, this study has explored the spatial disparities and driving forces in energy consumption changes in China. The results show that the global spatial autocorrelation of energy consumption change in China is significant during the period 1990–2010, and the trend of spatial clustering of energy consumption ...

  11. Nuclear energy in a nuclear weapon free world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The prospect of a nuclear renaissance has revived a decades old debate over the proliferation and terrorism risks of the use of nuclear power. This debate in the last few years has taken on an added dimension with renewed attention to disarmament. Increasingly, concerns that proliferation risks may reduce the prospects for realizing the vision of a nuclear-weapon-free world are being voiced.

  12. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume I. Country data, AF-CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Volumes 1 through 4 include energy-related information concerning 57 countries. Additional volumes (5 through 11) present review information on international organizations, summaries of energy-related international agreements, and fact sheets on nuclear facilities. Country data on Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Canada, China, and Colombia are included in Volume 1. The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  13. On-road measurement of NH3 emissions from gasoline and diesel passenger cars during real world driving conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Bertoa, Ricardo; Mendoza-Villafuerte, Pablo; Riccobono, Francesco; Vojtisek, Michal; Pechout, Martin; Perujo, Adolfo; Astorga, Covadonga

    2017-10-01

    NH3 is a precursor of PM2.5 which deteriorates urban air quality, affects human health and impacts the global radiation budget. Since vehicles are important sources of NH3 in urban areas, we have satisfactorily studied the possibility of measuring NH3 emissions from gasoline and SCR-equipped diesel light-duty vehicles during real driving on-road operation using a portable FTIR. The performance of the portable FTIR resulted to be comparable to that of a laboratory-based FTIR during a series of experiments performed in the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VELA) using the World-harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC). Higher on-road NH3 emission factors were obtained for the gasoline vehicle than for the diesel. High NOx emissions were measured from the diesel vehicle, indicating a low efficiency of the DeNOx system, SCR. On-road NH3 emission factors were ∼2 times lower than during the laboratory tests at 23 °C for both vehiclesNH3 emissions were not observed for the diesel vehicle during cold start operation. However, NH3 cold start emissions from the gasoline vehicle were up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than during the entire road trips, ranging from 45 to 134 mg km-1. Cold start emissions are of paramount importance as they commonly take place in urban areas. Hence, future urban reductions in PM2.5 might need to take into consideration the introduction of NH3 emissions limits for passenger cars.

  14. World population growth and the role of annual energy use per capita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, J

    1998-09-01

    In the context of ongoing world population growth, no permanent growth in materials consumption can be sustained into the future. A sustainable future requires that the world's population stabilize. The author considers the possible coupling of the annual energy use per capita and the population growth rate for each region, and the consequences of such a connection if the world's population is to stabilize. Energy is used as a factor because it is a proactive agent in facilitating increases in the standard of living and changes in the social conditions thought to influence the fertility rate. Historical trends and near-term projections for energy use and population growth rate are used to indicate a possible future path for developing regions. Improvements in the efficiency of energy use and modest cultural changes are used in an example projection of coupled energy use and population growth. For each decade, the incremental increase in annual commercial energy use per capita and a corresponding decrease in population growth rate are chosen to continue the historical trends for developing regions of the world. This approach results in population changes which closely follow the projections of the World Bank for the period up to 2150. World energy use is projected to increase from about 9000 million tons of oil equivalent (Mtoe) today to 15,000-21,000 Mtoe/a by the time the world's population has risen from 6 billion to about 12 billion in the 22nd century. The energy demands of each developing region are compared with potential, indigenous energy sources to determine whether each developing region may be able to cope with its increased energy demand without massive energy imports. The availability of readily moveable, cheap fuels will help the developing world make the transition to a more stable population with a decent standard of living.

  15. How energy conversion drives economic growth far from the equilibrium of neoclassical economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, Reiner; Lindenberger, Dietmar

    2014-12-01

    Energy conversion in the machines and information processors of the capital stock drives the growth of modern economies. This is exemplified for Germany, Japan, and the USA during the second half of the 20th century: econometric analyses reveal that the output elasticity, i.e. the economic weight, of energy is much larger than energy's share in total factor cost, while for labor just the opposite is true. This is at variance with mainstream economic theory according to which an economy should operate in the neoclassical equilibrium, where output elasticities equal factor cost shares. The standard derivation of the neoclassical equilibrium from the maximization of profit or of time-integrated utility disregards technological constraints. We show that the inclusion of these constraints in our nonlinear-optimization calculus results in equilibrium conditions, where generalized shadow prices destroy the equality of output elasticities and cost shares. Consequently, at the prices of capital, labor, and energy we have known so far, industrial economies have evolved far from the neoclassical equilibrium. This is illustrated by the example of the German industrial sector evolving on the mountain of factor costs before and during the first and the second oil price explosion. It indicates the influence of the ‘virtually binding’ technological constraints on entrepreneurial decisions, and the existence of ‘soft constraints’ as well. Implications for employment and future economic growth are discussed.

  16. A population-induced renewable energy timeline in nine world regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kevin; Jones, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    Population growth and increasing energy access are incongruous with forecasts of declining non-renewable energy production and climate change concerns. The current world population of 7.3 billion is projected to reach 8.4 billion by 2030 and 11.2 billion by 2100. Currently, 1.2 billion people worldwide do not have access to electricity. The World Bank's Sustainable Energy for All initiative seeks to provide universal global access to energy by the year 2030. Though universal energy access is desirable, a significant reduction in fossil fuel usage is required before mid-century if global warming is to be limited to energy mix is derived from 91% non-renewable (oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear) and 9% renewable (e.g., hydropower, wind, solar, biofuels) sources. Here we use a nine region model of the world to quantify the changes in the global energy mix necessary to address population and climate change under two energy-use scenarios and find that significant restructuring of the current energy mix will be necessary to support the 2014 UN population projections. We also find that renewable energy production must comprise 87-94% of global energy consumption by 2100. Our study suggests >50% renewable energy needs to occur by 2028 in a energy use scenario. Each of the nine regions faces unique energy-population challenges in the coming decades. We find that global energy demand in 2100 will be more than double that of today; of this demand, 82% will need to be derived from renewable sources. More renewable energy production will be required in 2100 than the 2014 total global energy production. Given the required rate and magnitude of this transition to renewable energy, it is unlikely that the energy as quickly as possible in order to supply the projected world energy demand and to limit warming to 2.5-3°C by 2100.

  17. Research on the Multi-Energy Management Strategy of the Electric Drive System of a Tracked Bulldozer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Pan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The multi-energy management strategy of electric drive system of tracked bulldozer was researched. Firstly, based on power requirement of typical working condition of a tracked bulldozer, the power distribution strategy for three energy sources in the front power chain was proposed by using wavelet theory and fuzzy control theory. Secondly, the electric drive system simulation platform was built in MATLAB/Simulink. At last, a driver-controller based HILS (hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform was built and the multi-energy management strategy was verified. The HILS result shows that front power chain’s power output can meet the back power chain’s requirement, the engine-generator set works near the best fuel consumption curve, and the battery pack’s charge-discharge frequency and current are low. Thus the designed multi-energy management strategy can be used in real-time control of electric drive bulldozer.

  18. Energy management in vehicles with alternative drives; Energiemanagement in Fahrzeugen mit alternativen Antrieben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, S.; Schimanski, M.

    2007-11-21

    Within the next few years, the automotive industry will be confronted with many challenges, as for example stricter emission standards and increasing oil prices. To meet the challenges, alternative drive concepts are currently being developed and placed in the market. To ensure a secure and efficient operation of the electric components, the introduction of an integrated energy management is required. It comprises all planning, controlling and predictive measures. The first part of this dissertation presents a new system concept, which can make an online prognosis of expected driving situations, such as speed and altitude profiles by means of internal vehicle information during an operating cycle. Based on this the control strategy can calculate the future power requirement of the vehicle and initiate control commands to enable a more efficient driving. The basis of this system concept is the recognition of routes with characteristic steering angle information and the creation of a history database for the routes driven with the respective vehicle speeds and altitudes. On the basis of an extensive analysis of the vehicle's electrical system in the second part of the dissertation, different effects on the development process for dimensioning the electrical system power supply are discussed. From this follows the necessity to develop a tool chain based on simulations. The tool chain consists of commercial simulation tools and the software Avanti (Advanced Analysis Tool and Simulation Interface) which is developed within the scope of the dissertation. Avanti enables an automated and optimal procedure when dimensioning the vehicle's electrical system in consideration of different control algorithms. A substantial part of this tool chain is the integration of a verified VHDL-AMS model library for the electrical system components. (orig.)

  19. Energy efficiency in urban management: Russian and world experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryadko, Igor

    2017-10-01

    The article discusses the role of energetics in creating a comfortable and safe environment of modern megacities, and the problem is considered in the socio-economic aspect. The object is the energy security of the city, and the subject is the influence of urban society on the formation of energy security. In particular, the problems are raised: ecological problems of urban energy supply, the condition of surface layer of the atmosphere near electric power lines. The author assesses the actions, implemented by the urban authorities in Mytischi, in the southwestern areas of New Moscow. The author assesses these sample areas on the basis of Ch. Landry’s concept of self-training, designated for municipal authorities and urban communities, and offers several successfully implemented self-study cases and in the light of modern methods of ensuring energy security. The forecasts of creation of energy-safe space, made by modern sociologist-urbanist Leo Hollis, are taken into account. The author also considers some of the economic aspects of biosphere safety. In particular, he insists that biosphere safety, convenience, and comfort have developed into competitive advantages in the housing market.

  20. The situation of the nuclear energy in the world; A situacao da energia nucleoeletrica no mundo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de [and others

    1996-12-01

    This work presents an overview of the nuclear energy in the world. It approaches the following main topics: kinds of nuclear power plants; operation experience of the nuclear plants; environmental and social aspects of the nuclear energy; economic aspects of the nuclear energy; development of the reactors technology and supply of the nuclear fuel.

  1. Energy analysis of electric vehicles using batteries or fuel cells through well-to-wheel driving cycle simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanari, Stefano; Manzolini, Giampaolo; Garcia de la Iglesia, Fernando

    This work presents a study of the energy and environmental balances for electric vehicles using batteries or fuel cells, through the methodology of the well to wheel (WTW) analysis, applied to ECE-EUDC driving cycle simulations. Well to wheel balances are carried out considering different scenarios for the primary energy supply. The fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) are based on the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) technology, and it is discussed the possibility to feed the fuel cell with (i) hydrogen directly stored onboard and generated separately by water hydrolysis (using renewable energy sources) or by conversion processes using coal or natural gas as primary energy source (through gasification or reforming), (ii) hydrogen generated onboard with a fuel processor fed by natural gas, ethanol, methanol or gasoline. The battery electric vehicles (BEV) are based on Li-ion batteries charged with electricity generated by central power stations, either based on renewable energy, coal, natural gas or reflecting the average EU power generation feedstock. A further alternative is considered: the integration of a small battery to FCEV, exploiting a hybrid solution that allows recovering energy during decelerations and substantially improves the system energy efficiency. After a preliminary WTW analysis carried out under nominal operating conditions, the work discusses the simulation of the vehicles energy consumption when following standardized ECE-EUDC driving cycle. The analysis is carried out considering different hypothesis about the vehicle driving range, the maximum speed requirements and the possibility to sustain more aggressive driving cycles. The analysis shows interesting conclusions, with best results achieved by BEVs only for very limited driving range requirements, while the fuel cell solutions yield best performances for more extended driving ranges where the battery weight becomes too high. Results are finally compared to those of conventional internal

  2. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation. Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); Brown, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); DeFlorio, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); McKenzie, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); Tao, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  3. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation: Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; DeFlorio, J.; McKenzie, E.; Tao, W.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  4. Simulation of Induction Traction Drive with Supercapacitor Energy Storage System Test Bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stana Girts

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the application of supercapacitor energy storage system for induction traction drive test bench that replaces a real electric public transport for performing testing and researches. The suitability and usage of such bench for research purposes is explained and the importance of the development of software mathematical model for performing simulations to be done before physical implementation measures is reasoned. The working principle of the bench and applied components are described. A virtual model of the bench was built and simulations were performed using Matlab/Simulink software. The basic topology of the virtual bench model is described as well. The calculations of this work show the scaling of supercapacitor energy storage system by setting different limits of working voltage range in order to adjust them to test bench parameters, whereas the modelling compares two simulation cases – the application of less supercapacitors and the application of more supercapacitors with the same common rated voltage. The autonomous mode simulations were also performed. Simulation results are analyzed and recommendations for the application of the supercapacitor energy storage system, with respect to initial supercapacitor circuit voltage, are given.

  5. Local Power -- Global Connections: linking the world to a sustainable future through decentralized energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent, Richard; Sweet, David

    2007-07-01

    Various international dynamics are converging to increase the attractiveness of decentralized energy as a complement to existing centralized energy infrastructures. Decentralized energy (DE) technologies, including onsite renewables, high efficiency cogeneration and industrial energy recycling, offer considerable benefits to those seeking working alternatives to emerging challenges in the energy sector. DE is ideally suited to provide clean affordable energy to areas where modern energy services are currently lacking. Having smaller generators close to where energy is required ensures a safe, reliable and secure energy supply when the energy is required. Furthermore, because DE is a much cleaner alternative than conventional central power plants and the energy provided comes at a much smaller price tag DE is an increasingly acceptable alternative both in the developed and developing world. DE is sure to play a key role in any plan to build a sustainable energy future. (auth)

  6. Proceedings of the Bio-Energy '80 world congress and exposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Many countries are moving with increasing urgency to obtain larger fractions of their energy from biomass. Over 1800 leading experts from 70 countries met on April 21 to 24 in Atlanta to conduct a World Congress and Exposition on Bio-Energy. This summary presents highlights of the Congress and thoughts stimulated by the occasion. Topics addressed include a comparison of international programs, world and country regionalism in the development of energy supplies, fuel versus food or forest products, production of ethyl alcohol, possibilities for expanded production of terrestrial vegetation and marine flora, and valuable chemicals from biomass. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 164 papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  7. World energy perspective. Energy in a finite world analysis up to the year 2030 based on the IIASA report. Die Welt-Energieperspektive. Analyse bis zum Jahr 2030 nach dem IIASA-Forschungsbericht Energy in a finite world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerwin, R.

    1980-01-01

    The International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Vienna, has now presented its research report on the worldwide problems of energy supply which is the most extensive report ever set up and which appered under the headline Energy in a Finite World . Appr. 150 scientists from East and West have participated in this work. On the order of the Max-Planck Society, the supporting organisation of the IIASA in the Fed. Rep. of Germany, the report was summarized by the author for a wide scope of readers and put into a popular language.

  8. Harvesting the decay energy of 26Al to drive lightning discharge in protoplanetary discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Anders; Okuzumi, Satoshi

    2018-01-01

    Chondrules in primitive meteorites likely formed by recrystallisation of dust aggregates that were flash-heated to nearly complete melting. Chondrules may represent the building blocks of rocky planetesimals and protoplanets in the inner regions of protoplanetary discs, but the source of ubiquitous thermal processing of their dust aggregate precursors remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that escape of positrons released in the decay of the short-lived radionuclide 26Al leads to a large-scale charging of dense pebble structures, resulting in neutralisation by lightning discharge and flash-heating of dust and pebbles. This charging mechanism is similar to a nuclear battery where a radioactive source charges a capacitor. We show that the nuclear battery effect operates in circumplanetesimal pebble discs. The extremely high pebble densities in such discs are consistent with conditions during chondrule heating inferred from the high abundance of sodium within chondrules. The sedimented mid-plane layer of the protoplanetary disc may also be prone to charging by the emission of positrons, if the mass density of small dust there is at least an order of magnitude above the gas density. Our results imply that the decay energy of 26Al can be harvested to drive intense lightning activity in protoplanetary discs. The total energy stored in positron emission is comparable to the energy needed to melt all solids in the protoplanetary disc. The efficiency of transferring the positron energy to the electric field nevertheless depends on the relatively unknown distribution and scale-dependence of pebble density gradients in circumplanetesimal pebble discs and in the protoplanetary disc mid-plane layer.

  9. World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for SelectedIndustrial Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Neelis, Maarten; Galitsky,Christina; Zhou, Nan

    2007-06-05

    "World best practice" energy intensity values, representingthe most energy-efficient processes that are in commercial use in atleast one location worldwide, are provided for the production of iron andsteel, aluminium, cement, pulp and paper, ammonia, and ethylene. Energyintensity is expressed in energy use per physical unit of output for eachof these commodities; most commonly these are expressed in metric tonnes(t). The energy intensity values are provided by major energy-consumingprocesses for each industrial sector to allow comparisons at the processlevel. Energy values are provided for final energy, defined as the energyused at the production facility as well as for primary energy, defined asthe energy used at the production facility as well as the energy used toproduce the electricity consumed at the facility. The "best practice"figures for energy consumption provided in this report should beconsidered as indicative, as these may depend strongly on the materialinputs.

  10. What Change Can The New Developments In Energy Sector Bring Into the World`s Energypolitical and Geopolitical Order?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur TUTULMAZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent developments bring US to a leading natural gas and oil producer position. The attempts in last 20 years to bring new horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies together have developed a success in shale gas and oil production in US; the production volumes has reached to a position to redefine the market. Last estimations are bringing more information about the shale capacities of the major basins of the world. However, the estimates are based on a wide range of assumptions and consequently their results vary in a large scale. In any case, these developments have crucial economic, political and geopolitical consequences on the energy market, petroleum producer and consumer countries and regions. Despite the wide range of ambiguity of the estimated size of the resources, the estimations show US and North America has one of the biggest potential, already turning technology into the giant production numbers. Some of the estimations allege so big numbers can even mean to a new world order. The asymmetric nature of the potential, can also be said, increases some of the expected impacts too. In this study, basically, we want to supply an initial solid and economical evaluation to this ambiguity. We are trying to shape a frame for the new energy potential and to put it in a place in the current practice of the world. Secondly, in this context, we are underlying here some of the possible economic and geopolitical consequences each of which can constitute a subject of deeper study.

  11. The world energy production, consumption and productivity in the energy sector, population and the per capita growth: Regression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Josheski, Dushko; Lazarov, Darko; Koteski, Cane; Sovreski, Zlatko

    2011-01-01

    In this paper was investigated the relationship between GDP per capita growth and Log of energy production, energy consumption per capita, the log of productivity in energy sector and population. Data covered sample for 220 countries and world regions, years covered from 1980 to 2002.The results showed that if energy consumption increases by 1% GDP per capita growth will decline by 0,57%, if energy production will rise by 1% growth will rise by 1,51%, if population rise by 1% growth will decl...

  12. Energy Reforms in The Developing World: Sustainable Development Compromised?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Mbogo Abdallah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy sector reforms with an emphasis on electricity growth have been taking place extensively and rapidly worldwide Particularly, motivated chiefly by classical economics’ standpoint of efficiency and market considerations, reforms have been made in the developed North. Models of reforms in the North have in turn been replicated in developing countries. However, questions arise as to whether the models used are suitable for the mostly rural and socioeconomically disadvantaged economies in the South. It is argued in this paper that a sustainability focused mode of reforms guided by futures studies is needed for such economies. Reforms taking place in Kenya and neighbouring countries are in particular examined from a sustainable future perspective; and appropriate improvements and further research are recommended.

  13. Polarization Rotation Caused by Cross-Beam Energy Transfer in Direct-Drive Implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgell, D. H.; Follett, R. K.; Katz, J.; Myatt, J. F.; Shaw, J. G.; Turnbull, D.; Froula, D. H.

    2017-10-01

    The first evidence of polarization rotation caused by cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) during direct-drive implosions has been provided by a new beamlets diagnostic that was fielded on OMEGA. Beamlet images are, in essence, the end points of beamlets of light originating from different regions of each beam profile and following paths determined by refraction through the coronal plasma. The intensity of each beamlet varies because of absorption and many CBET interactions along that path. The new diagnostic records images in two time windows and includes a Wollaston prism to split each beamlet into two orthogonal polarization images recording the polarization of each beamlet. Only the common polarization components couple during CBET so when each beam is linearly polarized, CBET rotates the polarization of each beam. A 3-D CBET postprocessor for hydrodynamics codes was used to model the beamlet images. The predicted images are compared to the images recorded by the new diagnostic. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  14. Prospects concerning the world energy situation. Projections of Exxon until the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    A useful tradition of the EXXON corporation is to publish an annual review setting out trends and facts about the world energy market which can be considered as a helpful base of discussion concerning the long term energy supply and the consequences in the field of energy policy. The corporation obtains the best conditions for such a purpose because of its worldwide organisation with about 120 establishments. Because of this excellent condition EXXON knows the market and is able to form an opinion. The latest outlook until the year 2000 tries to give a complete survey about the future world-energy supply. For the first time the USSR, the People's Republic of China and the Eastern countries were taken into consideration. Real and expected influences depending on energy prices, efforts of saving energy, and technical progress in the case of non-conventional energy sources are taken into account.

  15. Batteries: an important piece in the puzzle of renewable energies for a better world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younesi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Along with the rapid growth in the world population, the concerns regarding the production and consumption of energy originating from fossil fuels have been increasing in recent years. Therefore, there is higher demand to develop “clean” renewable energies to reduce the use of fossil fuel....

  16. Interactions among energy consumption, economic development and greenhouse gas emissions in Japan after World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The long-term dynamic changes in the triad, energy consumption, economic development, and Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in Japan after World War II were quantified, and the interactions among them were analyzed based on an integrated suite of energy, emergy and economic indices...

  17. Cars and Kinetic Energy--Some Simple Physics with Real-World Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2012-01-01

    Understanding energy usage is crucial to understanding modern civilization, as well as many of the challenges it faces. Energy-related issues also offer real-world examples of important physical concepts, and as such have been the focus of several articles in "The Physics Teacher" in the past few decades (e.g., Refs. 1-5, noted further below).…

  18. The energy transition in a climate-constrained world: Regional vs. global optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brede, M.; de Vries, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068361599

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a stylized economy-energy-climate model and discuss the role of the atmosphere, fossil fuels, and a stock of accumulated knowledge about renewable energy technologies in collaboratively and competitively managed worlds. The model highlights that assumptions about the 'degree

  19. The energy in the world; L'energie dans le monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung, M.; Comby, B. [Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN), 78 - Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (France)

    2001-12-01

    In the future the energy demand will double and the electric power demand will treble. In this framework and after a presentation of the energy price and the energy needs, the authors propose actions domains. (A.L.B.)

  20. Building America FY 2016 Annual Report: Building America Is Driving Real Solutions in the Race to Zero Energy Homes -- Appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Sara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rothgeb, Stacey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Polly, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, Lieko [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This document is a set of appendices presenting technical discussion and references as a companion to the 'Building America FY 2016 Annual Report: Building America Is Driving Real Solutions in the Race to Zero Energy Homes' publication.

  1. World energy prospects: to where trends lead?; Perspectives energetiques mondiales a 2030: ou menent les tendances?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This conference was organized after the publication by the International Energy Agency (IEA) of the 2004 World Energy Outlook (WEO) study. The WEO study presented two projection scenarios, a tendentious one and an alternate one, but both unacceptable. Two presentations were given, followed by a debate with the participants. This document gathers the transparencies of the presentations and a summary of the presentations and of the debate. The first presentation by Fatih Birol, Chief Economist at the IEA, is entitled 'World Energy Outlook 2004'. It describes the two scenarios: Global Energy Trends and Strategic Challenges, Oil Markets, European Union Energy Outlook, An Alternative Policy Scenario, Summary and Conclusions. The conclusions are as follows: - On current policies, world energy needs will be almost 60% higher in 2030 than now; - Energy resources are more than adequate to meet demand until 2030 and well beyond; - But projected market trends raise serious concerns: increased vulnerability to supply disruptions, rising CO{sub 2} emissions, huge energy-investment needs, persistent energy poverty; - More vigorous policies would save energy and reduce emissions significantly; - But a truly sustainable energy system will call for faster technology development and deployment; - Urgent and decisive government action is needed. The second presentation by Jean-Marie Chevalier (Paris 9 Dauphine Univ.) is entitled 'IEA Outlook 2004: some important innovations'. It analyzes the following points: the sustainability of demand projections, the role of nuclear energy and its possible re-launching, the key-role of energy efficiency, the access to energy of deprived people; the new articulation of powers: what are the remnants of a national energy policy, what is the European vision of energy: diversification, security of supplies, energy efficiency, abatement of greenhouse gas emissions; the need for a worldwide regulation. It presents also: the world

  2. Driving things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    2015-01-01

    I explore how participants organise involvement with objects brought into the car, relative to the demands of driving and social activity. Objects in cars commonly include phones or other technologies, food, body care products, texts, clothing, bags and carry items, toys, and even animals...... 2004, Haddington et al. 2012). I focus here especially on how the practical and interactional work of locating, seeing, placing, handling, hearing, and relinquishing, is ordered and accomplished relative to the emerging and contingent demands of both driving and social participation...... of in-car distractions, and how they impact driving activities (Nevile & Haddington 2010). Data are video recordings of ordinary journeys, capturing drivers and passengers in real-world real-time driving situations (27 hours, 90 journeys). For driving and road safety, research and experience has...

  3. 75 FR 57016 - Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC's application for...

  4. The projection of world geothermal energy consumption from time series and regression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanullang, Elwin Y.; Supriatna, Agus; Supriatna, Asep K.

    2015-12-01

    World population growth has many impacts on human live activities and other related aspects. One among the aspects is the increase of the use of energy to support human daily activities, covering industrial aspect, transportation, domestic activities, etc. It is plausible that the higher the population size in a country the higher the needs for energy to support all aspects of human activities in the country. Considering the depletion of petroleum and other fossil-based energy, recently there is a tendency to use geothermal as other source of energy. In this paper we will discuss the prediction of the world consumption of geothermal energy by two different methods, i.e. via the time series of the geothermal usage and via the time series of the geothermal usage combined with the prediction of the world total population. For the first case, we use the simple exponential smoothing method while for the second case we use the simple regression method. The result shows that taking into account the prediction of the world population size giving a better prediction to forecast a short term of the geothermal energy consumption.

  5. Modeling and analysis of closed-loop slip energy recovery induction motor drive using a linearization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpinar, E.; Trahan, R.E.; Nguyen, A.D. [Univ. of New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1993-12-01

    In this paper, a fourth order nonlinear model is derived from the previously developed model for an open-loop slip energy recovery induction motor drive. The nonlinear transient model of the open-loop drive is linearized around a steady-state operating point using a small signal perturbation technique and the transfer functions which relate the input and output variables are derived. The block diagram for the closed-loop control system is obtained. The response of the Proportional plus Integral (PI) controller employed to control the rotor speed and the PI controller used to control the dc link current are predicted and compared with experimental results.

  6. Driving forces and barriers to improved energy performance of buildings: an analysis of energy performance of Swedish buildings, 2000-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuglseth, Bente Beckstroem

    2008-06-15

    The building sector is responsible for a substantial part of energy use and green house gas emissions in Europe. This report explores driving forces and barriers to improved energy performance of buildings, using the Swedish building sector as a case. The development of energy performance of buildings in Sweden from 2000 until 2006 is explored by applying a threefold understanding of energy performance of buildings: substitution from fossil fuels to renewable energy, conversion from electrical heating to thermal energy and reduction in energy demand. Three explanatory approaches are used to analyse driving forces and barriers to improved energy performance: the techno-economic approach stresses the physical aspects of infrastructure and technologies, the institutional approach emphasizes the role of institutional factors, while the regulative approach focuses on formal rules and laws. The study concludes that all factors have promoted substitution of fossil fuels with renewable energy, while they have prevented conversion from electrical heating to thermal energy and reduction in energy demand. (author). 95 refs

  7. 10th World Energy Conference. Division 2. Conservation in energy utilization. [30 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 30 papers and a position paper. All of the abstracts will appear both in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (MCW)

  8. Second world renewable energy assembly (WREA) 2007; 2. Weltversammlung fuer Erneuerbare Energien (WREA) 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Within the Second World Renewable Energy Assembly at 19th to 21st November, 2007, in Bonn (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) How to motivate common people, scientists, companies and policy makers for renewable energy (Volker Thomsen); (2) Renewables 2007 Global Status Report (Eric Martinot); (3) Renewable Energy in Africa (Ibrahim Togola); (4) Legislation, the great challenge for renewable energies in Latin America (Mauro Passos); (5) Building Strategic North American Alliances to Maximize the Implementation of Renewable Energy (Jose Etcheverry); (6) Renewable Energy and Sustainable Development (Shi DingHuan); (7) Renewable Energies in EU27 (Wolfgang Palz); (8) The health costs of conventional energies (Susanne Weber-Mosdorf); (9) The need for a EU-wide Moratorium on Incentives for Agrofuels and Imports of Agrofuels (Sergio Oceransky); (10) The nuclear power is no solution (Eike Schwarz); (11) Carbon Trading - a critical conversation on climate change, privatisation and power (Jutta Kil); (12) The culminating energy insecurity (Joerg Schindler); (13) 100 % Renewables Scenarios an Overview (Harry Lehmann); (14) ICLEI's Local Renewables Initiative What local governments can do to promote the generation and use of renewable energy (Monika Zimmermann); (15) 100 % Projects for cities, countries and regions - an overview (Michael Stoehr); (16) Conceptualizing RE Strategies (Heinz-Wolfgang Boehnke); (17) Negawatts and Micropower: The Coming Electrical Revolution (Amory Lovins); (18) Renewable Energies, Sustainability and World Trade - Overcoming the double standard (Doerte Fouquet); (19) Financing strategies for Renewable Energies in Latin America and The Caribbean (Pablo Rosenthal); (20) Overcoming the Double-Standards: Subsidies for Nuclear and Fossil Energy (Doug Koplow); (21) The prepossession of international institutions for energy (Hans-Josef Fell); (22) The bias of the international energy institutions: The case of IAEO

  9. Evidence that magnetic energy shedding in solar filament eruptions is the drive in accompanying flares and coronal mass ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ronald L.

    1988-01-01

    The dependence of the magnetic energy on the field expansion and untwisting of the flux tube in which an erupting solar filament is embedded has been determined in order to evaluate the energy decrease in the erupting flux tube. Magnetic energy shedding by the filament-field eruption is found to be the driving mechanism in both filament-eruption flares and coronal mass ejections. Confined filament-eruption flares, filament-eruption flares with sprays and coronal mass ejections, and coronal mass ejections from quiescent filament eruptions are all shown to be similar types of events.

  10. 'et' special: ''E-world of energy''; 'et'-special: ''E-world of energy''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-02-01

    The 'et' special on the conference 'E-world of energy', held from February 13 - 15, 2001 in Essen (Germany) presents contributions of experts who offer solutions to issues and many topical questions arising in the business of traders and utilities as participants of (international) energy markets at various stages of transition towards workable competition. The translated titles of the 15 contributions reproduced in this 'et' special indicate the major contents of the conference papers: 1. Internet-based wholesale power trading as a competitive option to the power exchange. 2. Forward graphs in European electricity markets. 3. Portfolio management in energy trading. 4. Risk management concepts in energy trading. 5. E-commerce as a driving force of a change in the energy markets. 6. eHuman resources management - a vital aspect of corporate success. 7. A brand policy for electricity? 8. Is it really only the price that counts for the customers? 9. The City Power network: an example of successful customer loyalty strategy for local and regional utilities. 10. The Call Center, an important instrument for customer loyalty programmes. 11. eCommerce or eLlusion? 12. eBusiness as a corporate strategy. 13. Meeting the challenges of increasing IT requirements. 14. IT solutions for transmission and distribution network management. 15. Target costing - pinpointed cost planning and control for the energy supply industry. (orig./CB) [German] In dem 'et'-Special zur Konferenz 'E-world of energy', die vom 13.- 15. Februar 2001 in Essen stattfand, bieten Experten Loesungsvorschlaege fuer die aktuellen Fragen und Probleme an, die sich auf dem Weg zu liberalisierten Energiemaerkten stellen. Die folgenden Titel der 15 Beitraege geben eine Uebersicht ueber den Inhalt der Konferenzbeitraege. Themen: 1. Internetbasierte Grosshandelsmaerkte als Konkurrenz zu Energieboersen 2. Forward-Kurven in europaeischen Strommaerkten 3

  11. Future projections of the Greenland ice sheet energy balance driving the surface melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Franco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, simulations at 25 km resolution are performed over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, using the regional climate model MAR forced by four RCP scenarios from three CMIP5 global circulation models (GCMs, in order to investigate the projected changes of the surface energy balance (SEB components driving the surface melt. Analysis of 2000–2100 melt anomalies compared to melt results over 1980–1999 reveals an exponential relationship of the GrIS surface melt rate simulated by MAR to the near-surface air temperature (TAS anomalies, mainly due to the surface albedo positive feedback associated with the extension of bare ice areas in summer. On the GrIS margins, the future melt anomalies are preferentially driven by stronger sensible heat fluxes, induced by enhanced warm air advection over the ice sheet. Over the central dry snow zone, the surface albedo positive feedback induced by the increase in summer melt exceeds the negative feedback of heavier snowfall for TAS anomalies higher than 4 °C. In addition to the incoming longwave flux increase associated with the atmosphere warming, GCM-forced MAR simulations project an increase of the cloud cover decreasing the ratio of the incoming shortwave versus longwave radiation and dampening the albedo feedback. However, it should be noted that this trend in the cloud cover is contrary to that simulated by ERA-Interim–forced MAR for recent climate conditions, where the observed melt increase since the 1990s seems mainly to be a consequence of more anticyclonic atmospheric conditions. Finally, no significant change is projected in the length of the melt season, which highlights the importance of solar radiation absorbed by the ice sheet surface in the melt SEB.

  12. Forecast of energy and economic world development until the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elman, J.; Stanek, L.

    1981-07-01

    This paper forecasts the future development of world energy sources and economy from 1975 to the year 2100. The following data are forecast: population, gross national product, energy consumption, electric energy consumption, relationship of energy consumption to gross national product, relationship of increase of energy consumption to increase of gross national product. The assessment is divided into developed and developing countries. According to the analysis the proportion of solid fuels in the world energy supply will fall from 32.2% in 1975 to 29.4% in 2000, 28% in 2025 and 6.3% in 2100. In the developed countries proportion of solid fuels will decrease from 27.4% in 1975 to 26.6% in 2000, to 15.2% in 2025 and 2.6% in 2100, and in developing countries proportion of solid fuels in the energy supply will decrease from 53.5% in 1975 to 36.5% in 2000, then will increase to 43.7% in 2025, and decrease for the second time to 7.9% in 2100. In the same period proportion of energy produced by the developing countries will increase from 19% in 1975 to 28.9% in 2000, 45% in 2025 and 70.3% in 2100. Proportion of solid fuels in electric energy production in power plants from 1975 to 2100 is also assessed and shown in 5 tables. (1 ref.) (In Czech)

  13. "Charge while driving" for electric vehicles: road traffic modeling and energy assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francesco Paolo DEFLORIO; Luca CASTELLO; Ivano PINNA; Paolo GUGLIELMI

    2015-01-01

      Issue Title: Special Issue on Electric Vehicles and Their Integration with Power Grid The aim of this research study is to present a method for analyzing the performance of the wireless inductive charge-while-driving (CWD...

  14. Arguing Machines: Perception-Control System Redundancy and Edge Case Discovery in Real-World Autonomous Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Fridman, Lex; Jenik, Benedikt; Reimer, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Safe autonomous driving may be one of the most difficult engineering challenges that any artificial intelligence system has been asked to do since the birth of AI over sixty years ago. The difficulty is not within the task itself, but rather in the extremely small margin of allowable error given the human life at stake and the extremely large number of edge cases that have to be accounted for. In other words, we task these systems to expect the unexpected with near 100% accuracy, which is a t...

  15. World governance for energy; La gouvernance mondiale de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerebel, C.; Keppler, J.H.

    2009-07-01

    As energy is a strategic stake for industrial societies through supply security, economical competitiveness and environmental performance, it is well-founded and useful to consider the way that energy production and consumption are organized. This document introduces the notion of energy governance and its different interpretations, then analyses its stakes and challenges (petroleum, natural gas, investment needs), and discusses some of the debates already in progress, such as the UNO's negotiations on greenhouse gas emission reduction or the impact of the WTO talks on energy exchanges

  16. World energy situation: a study of the Exxon Corporation looks at the year 1990. [To 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    An Exxon study, examining the prospects, until 1990, of keeping the world outside the communist sphere supplied in energy, foresees the serious danger of shortages, lack of flexibility and failures to make political decisions in good time. All these factors represent dangers to the general economic development.

  17. World energy markets and uncertainty to the year 2100: implications for greenhouse policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorpe, S.; Sterland, B.; Jones, B.P.; Wallace, N.A.; Pugsley, S.-A.

    1991-01-01

    This study analyses the implications for long run world and regional economic growth and energy markets of possible international action to counter the enhanced greenhouse effect and examines the design of effective policy responses acceptable to all nations. The implications for energy trade of greenhouse policy responses will be of considerable importance to Australia, a major energy exporter. The main issue examined is the effect of responses to climate change directed at the energy sector on energy markets and economic growth. Regional and global economic growth and energy demands under various policy responses were simulated using a long run partial equilibrium model of world energy markets and fossil fuel pollution. It is concluded that the consequences of the enhanced greenhouse effect are surrounded by uncertainty, which creates problems in the design of a policy regime. The effectiveness of a carbon tax increases with greater international cooperation. The effect of carbon taxes is to encourage switching from fossil fuels to renewable and nuclear technologies rather than to reduce energy consumption or economic growth. New technology to improve the efficiency of power generation from coal, could by reducing costs and promoting fuel switching to coal, actually increase CO{sub 2} emissions. 40 refs., 10 figs., 30 tabs

  18. Locally Appropriate Energy Strategies for the Developing World: A focus on Clean Energy Opportunities in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Rebekah Grace

    This dissertation focuses on an integration of energy modeling tools to explore energy transition pathways for emerging economies. The spate of growth in the global South has led to a global energy transition, evidenced in part by a surge in the development of large scale energy infrastructure projects for the provision of reliable electricity service. The rational of energy security and exigency often usher these large scale projects through to implementation with minimal analysis of costs: social and environmental impact, ecological risk, or opportunity costs of alternative energy transition pathways foregone. Furthermore, development of energy infrastructure is inherently characterized by the involvement of a number of state and non-state actors, with varying interests, objectives and access to authority. Being woven through and into social institutions necessarily impacts the design, control and functionality of infrastructure. In this dissertation I therefore conceptualize energy infrastructure as lying at the intersection, or nexus, of people, the environment and energy security. I argue that energy infrastructure plans and policy should, and can, be informed by each of these fields of influence in order to appropriately satisfy local development needs. This case study explores the socio-techno-environmental context of contemporary mega-dam development in northern Borneo. I describe the key actors of an ongoing mega-dam debate and the constellation of their interaction. This highlights the role that information may play in public discourse and lends insight into how inertia in the established system may stymie technological evolution. I then use a combination of power system simulation, ecological modeling and spatial analysis to analyze the potential for, and costs and tradeoffs of, future energy scenarios. In this way I demonstrate reproducible methods that can support energy infrastructure decision making by directly addressing data limitation barriers. I

  19. World population and energy growth: Impact on the Caribbean and the roles of energy efficiency improvements and renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, J.

    1997-06-01

    This paper briefly describes population and energy use trends and their consequences, particularly to the Caribbean region. Historical trends for transitional countries show a decrease in population growth rate as annual per capita commercial energy use increases. If trends continue, an increase in per capita energy will be important to stabilizing populations of transitional countries. Energy efficiency improvements, the role of fossil energy, and the use of alternative energy sources in Caribbean nations are briefly discussed. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  20. American Security and the International Energy Situation. Volume 2. World Energy and the Security of Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-15

    is.aeli war. The acute di sequil ibnum between exporters and importers described in Chapter . I and 1 I I should be juxtaposed aqainst the politica ...interfere with world trade, either for price gouging or for politica ’ influence, depends on five fundamental conditions: First, monopolistic contiol...Interdependence (Cambridge, Mass.: Center for Interna - tional Studies, MIT, November I97A). 278 HI-2239-RR - of i„t_p.ndence

  1. Analysis of Spatial Disparities and Driving Factors of Energy Consumption Change in China Based on Spatial Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Xie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The changes of spatial pattern in energy consumption have an impact on global climate change. Based on the spatial autocorrelation analysis and the auto-regression model of spatial statistics, this study has explored the spatial disparities and driving forces in energy consumption changes in China. The results show that the global spatial autocorrelation of energy consumption change in China is significant during the period 1990–2010, and the trend of spatial clustering of energy consumption change is weakened. The regions with higher energy consumption change are significantly distributed in the developed coastal areas in China, while those with lower energy consumption change are significantly distributed in the less developed western regions in China. Energy consumption change in China is mainly caused by transportation industry and non-labor intensive industry. Rapid economic development and higher industrialization rate are the main causes for faster changes in energy consumption in China. The results also indicate that spatial autoregressive model can reveal more influencing factors of energy consumption changes in China, in contrast with standard linear model. At last, this study has put forward the corresponding measures or policies for dealing with the growing trend of energy consumption in China.

  2. Topology Comparison of Superconducting Generators for 10-MW Direct-Drive Wind Turbines: Cost of Energy Based

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims at finding feasible electromagnetic designs of superconducting synchronous generators (SCSGs) for a 10-MW direct-drive wind turbine. Since a lower levelized cost of energy (LCoE) increases the feasibility of SCSGs in this application, 12 generator topologies are compared regarding...... their LCoE in a simplified form of levelized equipment cost of energy (LCoE$_{\\text{eq}}$). MgB$_2$ wires are employed in the field winding. Based on the current unit cost and critical current density capability of the MgB $_2$ wire at 20 K, the topologies with more iron have a much lower LCo...

  3. Energy Efficient Control of High Speed IPMSM Drives - A Generalized PSO Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GECIC, M.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a generalized particle swarm optimization (GPSO algorithm was applied to the problems of optimal control of high speed low cost interior permanent magnet motor (IPMSM drives. In order to minimize the total controllable electrical losses and to increase the efficiency, the optimum current vector references are calculated offline based on GPSO for the wide speed range and for different load conditions. The voltage and current limits of the drive system and the variation of stator inductances are all included in the optimization method. The stored optimal current vector references are used during the real time control and the proposed algorithm is compared with the conventional high speed control algorithm, which is mostly voltage limit based. The computer simulations and experimental results on 1 kW low cost high speed IPMSM drive are discussed in details.

  4. Nuclear fusion and its large potential for the future world energy supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ongena Jef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the energy problem in the world is presented. The colossal task of ‘decarbonizing’ the current energy system, with ~85% of the primary energy produced from fossil sources is discussed. There are at the moment only two options that can contribute to a solution: renewable energy (sun, wind, hydro, etc. or nuclear fission. Their contributions, ~2% for sun and wind, ~6% for hydro and ~5% for fission, will need to be enormously increased in a relatively short time, to meet the targets set by policy makers. The possible role and large potential for fusion to contribute to a solution in the future as a safe, nearly inexhaustible and environmentally compatible energy source is discussed. The principles of magnetic and inertial confinement are outlined, and the two main options for magnetic confinement, tokamak and stellarator, are explained. The status of magnetic fusion is summarized and the next steps in fusion research, ITER and DEMO, briefly presented.

  5. Human activities and climate variability drive fast-paced change across the world's estuarine-coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Abreu, Paulo C.; Carstensen, Jacob; Chauvaud, Laurent; Elmgren, Ragnar; Grall, Jacques; Greening, Holly; Johansson, John O.R.; Kahru, Mati; Sherwood, Edward T.; Xu, Jie; Yin, Kedong

    2016-01-01

    Time series of environmental measurements are essential for detecting, measuring and understanding changes in the Earth system and its biological communities. Observational series have accumulated over the past 2–5 decades from measurements across the world's estuaries, bays, lagoons, inland seas and shelf waters influenced by runoff. We synthesize information contained in these time series to develop a global view of changes occurring in marine systems influenced by connectivity to land. Our review is organized around four themes: (i) human activities as drivers of change; (ii) variability of the climate system as a driver of change; (iii) successes, disappointments and challenges of managing change at the sea-land interface; and (iv) discoveries made from observations over time. Multidecadal time series reveal that many of the world's estuarine–coastal ecosystems are in a continuing state of change, and the pace of change is faster than we could have imagined a decade ago. Some have been transformed into novel ecosystems with habitats, biogeochemistry and biological communities outside the natural range of variability. Change takes many forms including linear and nonlinear trends, abrupt state changes and oscillations. The challenge of managing change is daunting in the coastal zone where diverse human pressures are concentrated and intersect with different responses to climate variability over land and over ocean basins. The pace of change in estuarine–coastal ecosystems will likely accelerate as the human population and economies continue to grow and as global climate change accelerates. Wise stewardship of the resources upon which we depend is critically dependent upon a continuing flow of information from observations to measure, understand and anticipate future changes along the world's coastlines.

  6. Human activities and climate variability drive fast-paced change across the world's estuarine-coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E; Abreu, Paulo C; Carstensen, Jacob; Chauvaud, Laurent; Elmgren, Ragnar; Grall, Jacques; Greening, Holly; Johansson, John Olov Roger; Kahru, Mati; Sherwood, Edward T; Xu, Jie; Yin, Kedong

    2016-02-01

    Time series of environmental measurements are essential for detecting, measuring and understanding changes in the Earth system and its biological communities. Observational series have accumulated over the past 2-5 decades from measurements across the world's estuaries, bays, lagoons, inland seas and shelf waters influenced by runoff. We synthesize information contained in these time series to develop a global view of changes occurring in marine systems influenced by connectivity to land. Our review is organized around four themes: (i) human activities as drivers of change; (ii) variability of the climate system as a driver of change; (iii) successes, disappointments and challenges of managing change at the sea-land interface; and (iv) discoveries made from observations over time. Multidecadal time series reveal that many of the world's estuarine-coastal ecosystems are in a continuing state of change, and the pace of change is faster than we could have imagined a decade ago. Some have been transformed into novel ecosystems with habitats, biogeochemistry and biological communities outside the natural range of variability. Change takes many forms including linear and nonlinear trends, abrupt state changes and oscillations. The challenge of managing change is daunting in the coastal zone where diverse human pressures are concentrated and intersect with different responses to climate variability over land and over ocean basins. The pace of change in estuarine-coastal ecosystems will likely accelerate as the human population and economies continue to grow and as global climate change accelerates. Wise stewardship of the resources upon which we depend is critically dependent upon a continuing flow of information from observations to measure, understand and anticipate future changes along the world's coastlines. © 2015 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Comparing World Economic and Net Energy Metrics, Part 2: Total Economy Expenditure Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey W. King

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We translate between energetic and economic metrics that characterize the role of energy in the economy. Specifically, we estimate monetary expenditures for the primary energy and net external power ratio (NEPR direct ; NEPR, net external power ratio, a power return ratio of annual energy production divided by annual direct energy inputs within the energy industry. We estimate these on an annualized basis for forty-four countries from 1978 to 2010. Expressed as a fraction of gross domestic product (GDP, f e , GDP , the forty-four country aggregate (composing >90% world GDP worldwide expenditures on energy decreased from a maximum of 10.3% in 1979 to a minimum of 3.0% in 1998 before increasing to a second peak of 8.1% in 2008. While the global f e , GDP fluctuates significantly, global NEPR direct declined from a value of 34 in 1980 to 17 in 1986 before staying in a range between 14 and 16 from 1991 to 2010. In comparing both of these metrics as ratios of power output over power input, one economic ( f e , GDP - 1 and one biophysical (NEPR direct , we see that when the former divided by the latter is below unity, the world was in a low-growth or recessionary state.

  8. Networks of entrepreneurs driving the Triple Helix: two cases of the Dutch energy system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werker, C.; Ubacht, J.; Ligtvoet, A.

    2017-01-01

    Entrepreneurs are often envisioned as small private start-up firms operating against all odds. Here, we investigate how in the context of the Triple Helix various entrepreneurs form communities and drive institutional and technological change. To theoretically shape a socialized view of

  9. [Health hazards of energy drinks--the situation in Israel and the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviv, Bennidor; Zaidani, Haitam; Israelit, Shlomo Hanan

    2014-01-01

    Since 1987, with the introduction of the first commercial energy drink in Europe, the level of sale of these drinks increased rapidly throughout the western world. These drinks are based on caffeine that is found in them ndependently, and in other ingredients. Other ingredients in these drinks potentiate the effects of caffeine. Caffeine acts in the organism through inhibition and activation of various receptors, and thus affects almost all the body systems. There is an increasing body of evidence about the medical hazards of uncontrolled use of these drinks, with neurologic, psychiatric, cardiovascular and metabolic complications. There is a direct link between use of energy drinks and abuse of alcohol and drugs. Due to the above, health authorities in Israel and around the world have started addressing the regulatory, medical and informative aspects of the issue. In spite all of the above, there is lack of awareness of the public and medical teams about the hazards of cousuming these drinks.

  10. Democratizing Energy Access in a Marketized World: The Cases of Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, M'Lisa Lee

    This thesis explores the experiences, motivations and the imaginary of people who seek to democratize access to energy. Through a survey of the energy democracy movement in Europe and North America and a case study of two participatory and democratically oriented electricity providers in Central America, this thesis examines the differences and similarities between democratizing energy in the Global North and Global South in the context of marketization and the global push to transition to renewable energy. The forces of an expanding global energy economy are increasingly influencing the way that we can access and consume energy in our lives. Local interactions cannot be understood by an isolated analysis without considering the larger structural conditions that implicate them. Today, we are witnessing a global push to transition our energy resources from fossil fuels to renewables due to the emergency of climate change. For the most part, this transition preoccupies itself with changing the technological instruments that source us the energy. Yet few changes are targeting transition from growth focused market-based economic models. Energy Democracy is one new imaginary that people are rallying around to help realize alternatives to drive more equitable and sustainable post-carbon futures. This thesis finds that there are unfounded normative assumptions being made about groups organizing around energy democracy that is causing scatter in the movement. There is an aggressive strand of energy democracy that readily accepts for-profit schemes and risks turning energy democracy into just another space for capital accumulation in the energy sector. This thesis presents two important suggestions for reconciling these problems. Firstly, to look beyond moving the term itself and prioritize connecting on the basis of the underlying principles that define the term. This will ultimately create more meaningful solidarity in the future, and a more grounded and unified movement

  11. A comparison of the combined-use of alcohol & energy drinks to alcohol-only on high-risk drinking and driving behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Conrad L; Jacobson, Bert H; Williams, Ronald D; Barry, Adam E; Davidson, Robert T; Evans, Marion W; Beck, Niels C

    2015-01-01

    The combined-use of alcohol and energy drinks is an emerging public health issue. This investigation examined differences in drinking and driving behaviors among combined-users (CU) and participants who consumed alcohol-only (AO). This study was specifically designed to investigate potential differences in drinker's perceptions of (a) what it means to them to drive over the .08 Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) driving limit and (b) what it means to drive after knowing they have had too much to drink to drive safely. College students (N = 355) were surveyed to assess differences in drinking and driving-related behaviors between the AO (n = 174) and CU (n = 107) groups. CU were more likely than AO to drive over the .08 BAC driving limit (53% vs. 38%; p = .009) and after knowing they were too drunk to drive (57% vs. 44%; p = .025). CU were also more likely (56% vs. 35%; p = .000) to ride with an intoxicated driver while knowing it was unsafe. Conclusions/Importance: Combined-users are more likely to drive after drinking, drive while knowingly drunk, and participate in other high-risk behaviors such as heavy drinking that increase the potential for injury. Public policy makers and health professionals should focus prevention efforts to reduce high-risk combined-use behavior.

  12. Geothermal Program Review XV: proceedings. Role of Research in the Changing World of Energy Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XV in Berkeley, March 24-26, 1997. The geothermal community came together for an in-depth review of the federally-sponsored geothermal research and development program. This year`s theme focussed on {open_quotes}The Role of Research in the Changing World of Energy Supply.{close_quotes} This annual conference is designed to promote technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal developers; equipment and service suppliers; representatives from local, state, and federal agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. Separate abstracts have been indexed to the database for contributions to this conference.

  13. Modelling and Assessing Energy Performance of an Urban Transport System with Electric Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Felea

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation is one of the key priorities of sustainable development strategy. Transport systems are responsible for about one third of energy consumption. As result, the identification of solutions to reduce energy consumption in these systems is essential for the implementation of the sustainable development strategies. The present work is dedicated to identifying the possibilities for a reduction in the consumption of electric energy in electric urban public transport systems, using the audit of their electricity system. After justifying the importance of these concerns, a mathematical model of the electrical energy balance of the electric urban public transport system and its components is presented. The analysis is applied to determine the losses in the system components and useful energy, based on the evaluation and energy consumption measurements. The measurements to reduce energy losses are identified and characterized under technical and economic aspect, optimal electrical energy balances being done on this basis.

  14. Does Renewable Energy Drive Sustainable Economic Growth? Multivariate Panel Data Evidence for EU-28 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ştefan Armeanu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy is crucial to economic progress, but the contemporary worldwide population increase that demands greater energy generated from conventional exhaustible resources, an energy price upsurge, and environmental concerns, imperils sustainable economic growth. Nevertheless, switching to renewable energy produced from naturally replenished resources promotes energy security, likewise addressing issues such as global warming and climate change. This paper aims at exploring the influence and causal relation between renewable energy, both overall and by type, and sustainable economic growth of European Union (EU-28 countries for the period of 2003–2014. We notice that the mean share of renewable energy in the gross final energy consumption is 15%, while the mean share of renewable energy in transport fuel consumption is 3%, which are below the thresholds of 20% and 10%, respectively, as set by the EU Directive 2009/28/EC. By estimating panel data fixed-effects regression models, the results provide support for a positive influence of renewable energy overall, as well as by type, namely biomass, hydropower, geothermal energy, wind power, and solar energy on gross domestic product per capita. However, biomass energy shows the highest influence on economic growth among the rest of renewable energy types. In fact, a 1% increase of the primary production of solid biofuels increases GDP per capita by 0.16%. Besides, cointegrating regressions set on panel fully modified and dynamic ordinary least squares regressions confirm the positive influence related to the primary production of renewable energies on economic growth. A 1% increase in primary production of renewable energies increases GDP per capita by 0.05%–0.06%. However, the results of Granger causality based on panel vector error correction model indicate both in short-run and long-run a unidirectional causal relationship running from sustainable economic growth to the primary production of

  15. Energy R and D in the Industrialized World: Retrenchment and Refocusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JJ Dooley; PJ Runci; E Luiten

    1999-11-01

    This report presents preliminary findings from an ongoing research project examining trends in energy R&D investments in selected industrialized countries (The United States, Japan, Germany, the Netherlands, and the European Union). Its underlying purpose is to assess the adequacy of current energy R&D, in terms of investment levels and programmatic scope considering the likely energy technology demands associated with international efforts to address global climate change. It finds that, while overall levels of public and private investment in all forms of R&D have risen significantly across the countries studied, investments in energy R&D have declined in real terms. Causes of the observed decline might include the ongoing deregulation of the energy industries, the absence of acute energy crises, and shifts in domestic social and policy priorities in the post-Cold War period. In addition, it finds noteworthy shifts within industrialized countries' energy R&D investment portfolios. In most countries, nuclear R&D has declined (by more than 90% in key countries such as the U.S. and Germany) while the remaining R&D resources are shifting toward shorter-term projects, most notably in the energy efficiency area. Research on carbon sequestration, hydrogen production, and fuel cells is gaining in prominence public sector energy R&D, often displacing traditional fossil energy R&D projects. Future research associated with this project will include the preparation of reports on several additional industrialized countries, including the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Canada, and Switzerland. Collectively, the small set of countries addressed in this project account for over 95% of the world's energy R&D.

  16. Large Scale Duty Cycle (LSDC) Project: Tractive Energy Analysis Methodology and Results from Long-Haul Truck Drive Cycle Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaClair, Tim J [ORNL

    2011-05-01

    This report addresses the approach that will be used in the Large Scale Duty Cycle (LSDC) project to evaluate the fuel savings potential of various truck efficiency technologies. The methods and equations used for performing the tractive energy evaluations are presented and the calculation approach is described. Several representative results for individual duty cycle segments are presented to demonstrate the approach and the significance of this analysis for the project. The report is divided into four sections, including an initial brief overview of the LSDC project and its current status. In the second section of the report, the concepts that form the basis of the analysis are presented through a discussion of basic principles pertaining to tractive energy and the role of tractive energy in relation to other losses on the vehicle. In the third section, the approach used for the analysis is formalized and the equations used in the analysis are presented. In the fourth section, results from the analysis for a set of individual duty cycle measurements are presented and different types of drive cycles are discussed relative to the fuel savings potential that specific technologies could bring if these drive cycles were representative of the use of a given vehicle or trucking application. Additionally, the calculation of vehicle mass from measured torque and speed data is presented and the accuracy of the approach is demonstrated.

  17. Calculation of the overlap angle in slip energy recovery drives using a d,q/abc model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpinar, E.; Pillay, P. (Univ. of New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Ersak, A. (Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Electrical and Electronics)

    1993-06-01

    In this paper, a closed-form expression to estimate the overlap angle in a slip energy recovery system is presented. The prediction of the overlap angle is important in the case of doubly-fed induction motor drives, because of its influence on speed and torque. A closed-form expression is derived using a hybrid model of the induction motor and a dynamic model of the rotor rectifier. The ripple content of the dc link current and the inverter input voltage are neglected. The predicted results obtained using the closed form expression are verified experimentally.

  18. Plant virus emergence and evolution: origins, new encounter scenarios, factors driving emergence, effects of changing world conditions, and prospects for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Roger A C

    2009-05-01

    This review focuses on virus-plant pathosystems at the interface between managed and natural vegetation, and describes how rapid expansion in human activity and climate change are likely to impact on plants, vectors and viruses causing increasing instability. It starts by considering virus invasion of cultivated plants from their wild ancestors in the centres of plant domestication in different parts of the world and subsequent long distance movement away from these centres to other continents. It then describes the diverse virus-plant pathosystem scenarios possible at the interface between managed and natural vegetation and gives examples that illustrate situations where indigenous viruses emerge to damage introduced cultivated plants and newly introduced viruses become potential threats to biodiversity. These examples demonstrate how human activities increasingly facilitate damaging new encounters between plants and viruses worldwide. The likely effects of climate change on virus emergence are emphasised, and the major factors driving virus emergence, evolution and greater epidemic severity at the interface are analysed and explained. Finally, the kinds of challenges posed by rapidly changing world conditions to achieving effective control of epidemics of emerging plant viruses, and the approaches needed to address them, are described.

  19. The Integral Drive II: an integrated motor-inverter unit with optimised energy consumption; Projekt Integraldrive II: integrierter Motor-Umformer mit bedarfsoptimierter Energieaufnahme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoev, A.

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that aimed to develop a low-cost induction drive with integrated power restriction. The highly compact and robust assembly is described and its scalability over a wide power range is discussed. Applications proposed include low-power drives (100 to 1000 W) for domestic applications, constant-speed industrial drives in the range 3 to 12 kW and robust, high-power drives that meet high safety and reliability requirements, especially in generator systems for wind turbines. Principles of operation, test-beds and the results obtained are discussed, as are energy consumption and control issues. Cost and efficiency targets are discussed, as are marketing and applications for the drives.

  20. Renewable energy sources for the world's poor: a review of current international development assistance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, J. H.

    1979-10-01

    Foreign assistance funding of the creation, testing, and use of renewable energy sources concerning worldwide efforts to provide energy for Third World development is examined. Donor agencies and developing nations give serious attention to technologies that have been considered exotic and marginal: small-scale hydroelectric generation, solar water heating and distillation, biomass conversion to methane gas and alcohol, wind power, photovoltaic-powered small-scale irrigation, and village-level solar-powered absorption refrigeration. An initial effort to assist in the international coordination of donor activity and in the sharing of information generated by foreign-assistance projects that use renewable energy sources is reported. The report mainly provides information about specific development projects. It contains only a few of the projects that have been approved and funded by 1 June 1979. (MCW)

  1. Using an energy management strategy to drive improved business results and improve manufacturing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroux, Marc

    2010-09-15

    Energy typically represents the single largest controllable cost in manufacturing, and is under constant scrutiny by all levels of management. In this paper we will examine the role and components of an energy management strategy, and focus on the benefits of looking at the strategy from a business perspective. We will then examine the role that an effective program, either existing or new, can play in a collaborative manufacturing environment, and how these improvements can reduce energy requirements while maintaining, or improving productivity.

  2. Country analysis briefs: 1994. Profiles of major world energy producers, consumers, and transport centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Country Analysis Briefs: 1994 is a compilation of country profiles prepared by the Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division (EMCID) of the Office of Energy Markets and End Use. EMCID maintains Country Analysis Briefs (CABs) for specific countries or geographical areas that are important to world energy markets. As a general rule, CABs are prepared for all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), major non-OPEC oil producers (i.e., the North Sea, Russia), major energy transit areas (i.e., Ukraine), and other areas of current interest to energy analysts and policy makers. As of January 1995, EMCID maintained over 40 CABs, updated on an annual schedule and subject to revision as events warrant. This report includes 25 CABs updated during 1994. All CABs contain a profile section, a map showing the country`s location, and a narrative section. The profile section includes outlines of the country`s economy, energy sector, and environment. The narrative provides further information and discussion of these topics. Some CABs also include a detailed map displaying locations of major oil and gas fields, pipelines, ports, etc. These maps were created as a result of special individual requests and so are not typically a standard feature of the CABs. They are presented here wherever available as a supplement to the information contained in the CABs.

  3. Optimizing the energy efficiency of capacitive deionization reactors working under real-world conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Quismondo, Enrique; Santos, Cleis; Lado, Julio; Palma, Jesús; Anderson, Marc A

    2013-10-15

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a rapidly emerging desalination technology that promises to deliver clean water while storing energy in the electrical double layer (EDL) near a charged surface in a capacitive format. Whereas most research in this subject area has been devoted to using CDI for removing salts, little attention has been paid to the energy storage aspect of the technology. However, it is energy storage that would allow this technology to compete with other desalination processes if this energy could be stored and reused efficiently. This requires that the operational aspects of CDI be optimized with respect to energy used both during the removal of ions as well as during the regeneration cycle. This translates into the fact that currents applied during deionization (charging the EDL) will be different from those used in regeneration (discharge). This paper provides a mechanistic analysis of CDI in terms of energy consumption and energy efficiencies during the charging and discharging of the system under several scenarios. In a previous study, we proposed an operational buffer mode in which an effective separation of deionization and regeneration steps would allow one to better define the energy balance of this CDI process. This paper reports on using this concept, for optimizing energy efficiency, as well as to improve upon the electro-adsorption of ions and system lifetime. Results obtained indicate that real-world operational modes of running CDI systems promote the development of new and unexpected behavior not previously found, mainly associated with the inhomogeneous distribution of ions across the structure of the electrodes.

  4. Environmental effects of marine energy development around the world. Annex IV Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea; Hanna, Luke; Whiting, Johnathan; Geerlofs, Simon; Grear, Molly; Blake, Kara (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)); Coffey, Anna; Massaua, Meghan; Brown-Saracino, Jocelyn; Battey, Hoyt (US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States))

    2013-01-15

    Annex IV is an international collaborative project to examine the environmental effects of marine energy devices among countries through the International Energy Agency’s Ocean Energy Systems Initiative (OES). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) serves as the Operating Agent for the Annex, in partnership with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM; formerly the Minerals Management Service), the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Numerous ocean energy technologies and devices are being developed around the world, and the few data that exist about the environmental effects of these technologies are dispersed among countries and developers. The purpose of Annex IV is to facilitate efficient government oversight of the development of ocean energy systems by compiling and disseminating information about the potential environmental effects of marine energy technologies and to identify methods of monitoring for these effects. Beginning in 2010, this three-year effort produced a publicly available searchable online database of environmental effects information (Tethys). It houses scientific literature pertaining to the environmental effects of marine energy systems, as well as metadata on international ocean energy projects and research studies. Two experts’ workshops were held in Dublin, Ireland (September 2010 and October 2012) to engage with international researchers, developers, and regulators on the scope and outcomes of the Annex IV project. Metadata and information stored in the Tethys database and feedback obtained from the two experts’ workshops were used as resources in the development of this report. This Annex IV final report contains three case studies of specific interactions of marine energy devices with the marine environment that survey, compile, and analyze the best available information in one coherent location. These case studies address 1) the physical interactions

  5. Energy optimized sliding-mode control of sensorless induction motor drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajian, M.; Soltani, J.; Hoseinnia, S. [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Isfahan Univ. of Technology, Isfahan (Iran); Arab Markadeh, G.R. [Faculty of Engineering, Univ. of Shahrekord, Shahrekord (Iran)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper a sensorless sliding-mode (SM) direct torque and flux control is described for three-phase induction motor (IM) drive. The IM drive is supplied with a two level space vector modulation (SVM) voltage source inverter. A conventional PI speed controller is employed to generate the desired torque command in the case of speed control. Stator and rotor flux vectors are estimated using a sliding-mode observer and are employed in rotor speed estimation. Moreover, the IM model includes the iron losses through a speed dependent shunt resistance in the motor two axis equivalent circuits. Motor efficiency is also optimized by adjusting the magnitude of the stator flux reference for each value of motor load and speed. For this purpose, an on-line search method (OSM) is adopted. According to this method, for each given value of load torque and rotor speed, the stator flux reference is adjusted so that the average of real input power becomes minimized. Simulation and experimental results are presented to show the capability and validity of the proposed control scheme. (author)

  6. Added sugars drive nutrient and energy deficit in obesity: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Berger, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has traditionally been thought of as a state of caloric imbalance, where the intake of calories exceeds the expenditure or 'burning' of calories. However, a more nuanced appreciation for the complex biochemistry and physiology of cellular energy generation suggests that obesity is a state of hormonal imbalance causing increased shunting of food energy into adipose tissue for storage, resulting in decreased satiety and ultimately leading to increased caloric intake. Adding to this hypothesis, we propose that obesity is also a state of nutrient and energy deficit, leading to decreased fatty acid mobilisation and oxidation, the result of which may be a natural disinclination towards physical activity. Added sugars (sucrose, a.k.a. table sugar and high-fructose corn syrup) may provide energy (4 kcal/g) but at current intakes they do not facilitate-and may even hinder-the production of energy. Not only do added sugars displace nutritionally superior foods in the diet, but they may also deplete nutrients from other foods that have been consumed, as well as from body stores, in order to enable their proper oxidation and liberate their calories as energy. Additionally, the consumption of added sugars damages the mitochondria and hence impairs energy generation. Moreover, overconsuming added sugars may result in a kind of 'internal starvation' (via leptin and insulin resistance) leading to further hunger signals in the body. Added sugars promote nutrient and energy deficit and through this novel pathway promote obesity.

  7. Role of Halden Reactor Project for world-wide nuclear energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, M.A.; Volkov, B.

    2011-07-01

    The great interest for utilization of nuclear materials to produce energy in the middle of last century needed special investigations using first class research facilities. Common problems in the area of nuclear fuel development motivated the establishment of joint research efforts. The OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP) is a good example of such a cooperative research effort, which has been performing for more than 50 years. During that time, the Halden Reactor evolved from a prototype heavy water reactor envisaged as a power source for different applications to a research reactor that is able to simulate in-core conditions of modern commercial power reactors. The adaptability of the Halden Reactor enables the HRP to be an important international test facility for nuclear fuels and materials development. The long-term international cooperation is based on the flexible HRP organizational structure which also provides the continued success. [1,2] This paper gives a brief history of the Halden Reactor Project and its contribution to world-wide nuclear energy development. Recent expansion of the Project to the East and Asian countries may also assist and stimulate the development of a nuclear industry within these countries. The achievements of the HRP rely on the versatility of the research carried out in the reactor with reliable testing techniques and in-pile instrumentation. Diversification of scientific activity in the areas of development of alternative energy resources and man-machine technology also provide the HRP with a stable position as one of the leaders in the world scientific community. All of these aspects are described in this paper together with current experimental works, including the investigation of ULBA (Kazakhstan) production fuel in comparison with other world fuel suppliers, as well as other future and prospective plans of the Project.(Author)

  8. Modelling and Analysis of Distributed Energy Systems with Respect to Sustainable Energy:Focus on Electric Drive Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Juul, Nina; Clausen, Jens; Pisinger, David; Meibom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and CO2 emissions is an important issue on the agenda of many politicians. Trying to decrease CO2 emissions, influences transportation, power production, etc. The power system is characterised by an increasing amount of renewables, with one of the most expanding renewable power sources being wind. Wind energy is fluctuating by nature, calling for increasing flexibility elsewhere in the energy system. For Denmark, hydro power from Norway help stabilizing the system, as does expo...

  9. ANALYSIS OF THE POSSIBILITY OF USING SOLAR ENERGY TO POWER SELECTED MEASURING DRIVES IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marian Kolano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mankind’s misgivings caused by the depletion of fossil fuels have accelerated research on obtaining energy from unconventional sources. One such source is the Sun. The present article reviews the possibility of using solar energy, converted in batteries of photovoltaic cells into electricity, in agriculture and farming. It should also be emphasized that it is energy friendly to the environment, whose acquisition on agricultural land, which often lacks access to the power grid, is now legitimate and profitable. This study presents the results of computer simulations in tabular and graphical form, using the PVSYST program, for a pasture water pumping system for watering grazing cattle.

  10. Ship-Based Nuclear Energy Systems for Accelerating Developing World Socioeconomic Advance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroski, Robert; Wood, Lowell

    2014-07-01

    Technological, economic, and policy aspects of supplying energy to newly industrializing and developing countries using ship-deployed nuclear energy systems are described. The approach analyzed comprises nuclear installations of up to gigawatt scale deployed within currently mass-produced large ship hulls which are capable of flexibly supplying energy for electricity, water desalination and district heating-&-cooling with low latencies and minimized shoreside capital expenditures. Nuclear energy is uniquely suited for mobile deployment due to its combination of extraordinary energy density and high power density, which enable enormous supplies of energy to be deployed at extremely low marginal costs. Nuclear installations on ships also confer technological advantages by essentially eliminating risk from earthquakes, tsunamis, and floods; taking advantage of assured access to an effectively unlimited amount of cooling water, and involving minimal onshore preparations and commitments. Instances of floating nuclear power stations that have been proposed in the past, some of which are currently being pursued, have generally been based on conventional LWR technology, moreover without flexibility or completeness of power output options. We consider nuclear technology options for their applicability to the unique opportunities and challenges of a marine environment, with special attention given to low-pressure, high thermal margin systems with continuous and assured afterheat dissipation into the ambient seawater. Such systems appear promising for offering an exceptionally high degree of safety while using a maximally simple set of components. We furthermore consider systems tailored to Developing World contexts, which satisfy societal requirements beyond electrification, e.g., flexible sourcing of potable water and HVAC services, servicing time-varying user requirements, and compatibility with the full spectrum of local renewable energy supplies, specifically including

  11. The World Economy in the Times of Financial Crisis and its Impact on European Energy Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Baláž

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007, globalization of the world economy has led to the expansion of the financial crisis. It affects the long-term international negative positions of EU members. They reacted to the new situation by carrying out structural reforms and by support of new adaptation programs. An important element of this process was the preparing of the convergence of the national energy policies in the framework of the Europe 20-20-20 program, which should remain one of the determining elements of their success in support of the international competitiveness of the EU.

  12. The "Athena Framework": Solving the World-wide Climate and Energy Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, J S

    2005-10-10

    The energy systems we have enjoyed for the last 100 years has resulted in the advanced standard of living in the developed world and a major emerging problem with climate change. Now we face a simultaneous realization that our reliance on fossil fuels is a source of conflict and economic disruption as well as causing potentially catastrophic global climate change. It is time to give serious thought to how to collectively solve this problem. Collective action is critical since individual effort by one or only a few nations cannot adequately address the issue.

  13. Driving R&D for the Next Generation Work Truck; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendez, M.

    2015-03-04

    Improvements in medium- and heavy-duty work truck energy efficiency can dramatically reduce the use of petroleum-based fuels and the emissions of greenhouse gases. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with industry partners to develop fuel-saving, high-performance vehicle technologies, while examining fleet operational practices that can simulateneously improve fuel economy, decrease emissions, and support bottom-line goals.

  14. Naturalistic drive cycle synthesis for pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zifan; Ivanco, Andrej; Filipi, Zoran

    2015-09-01

    Future pick-up trucks are meeting much stricter fuel economy and exhaust emission standards. Design tradeoffs will have to be carefully evaluated to satisfy consumer expectations within the regulatory and cost constraints. Boundary conditions will obviously be critical for decision making: thus, the understanding of how customers are driving in naturalistic settings is indispensable. Federal driving schedules, while critical for certification, do not capture the richness of naturalistic cycles, particularly the aggressive maneuvers that often shape consumer perception of performance. While there are databases with large number of drive cycles, applying all of them directly in the design process is impractical. Therefore, representative drive cycles that capture the essence of the naturalistic driving should be synthesized from naturalistic driving data. Naturalistic drive cycles are firstly categorized by investigating their micro-trip components, defined as driving activities between successive stops. Micro-trips are expected to characterize underlying local traffic conditions, and separate different driving patterns. Next, the transitions from one vehicle state to another vehicle state in each cycle category are captured with Transition Probability Matrix (TPM). Candidate drive cycles can subsequently be synthesized using Markov Chain based on TPMs for each category. Finally, representative synthetic drive cycles are selected through assessment of significant cycle metrics to identify the ones with smallest errors. This paper provides a framework for synthesis of representative drive cycles from naturalistic driving data, which can subsequently be used for efficient optimization of design or control of pick-up truck powertrains. Manufacturers will benefit from representative drive cycles in several aspects, including quick assessments of vehicle performance and energy consumption in simulations, component sizing and design, optimization of control strategies, and

  15. Scenario analysis of carbon emissions' anti-driving effect on Qingdao's energy structure adjustment with an optimization model, Part II: Energy system planning and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C B; Huang, G H; Liu, Z P; Zhen, J L; Yin, J G

    2017-03-01

    In this study, an inexact multistage stochastic mixed-integer programming (IMSMP) method was developed for supporting regional-scale energy system planning (EPS) associated with multiple uncertainties presented as discrete intervals, probability distributions and their combinations. An IMSMP-based energy system planning (IMSMP-ESP) model was formulated for Qingdao to demonstrate its applicability. Solutions which can provide optimal patterns of energy resources generation, conversion, transmission, allocation and facility capacity expansion schemes have been obtained. The results can help local decision makers generate cost-effective energy system management schemes and gain a comprehensive tradeoff between economic objectives and environmental requirements. Moreover, taking the CO2 emissions scenarios mentioned in Part I into consideration, the anti-driving effect of carbon emissions on energy structure adjustment was studied based on the developed model and scenario analysis. Several suggestions can be concluded from the results: (a) to ensure the smooth realization of low-carbon and sustainable development, appropriate price control and fiscal subsidy on high-cost energy resources should be considered by the decision-makers; (b) compared with coal, natural gas utilization should be strongly encouraged in order to insure that Qingdao could reach the carbon discharges peak value in 2020; (c) to guarantee Qingdao's power supply security in the future, the construction of new power plants should be emphasised instead of enhancing the transmission capacity of grid infrastructure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Driving solutions for clean and economical energy production: Experience and key learnings from Europe and the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torstad, Elisabeth Heggelund; Sigurthorsson, Gudmundur; Green, Richard; Feld, Tove; Selmer-Olsen, Stale; Ferreira, Claudio Bittencourt

    2007-07-01

    The threat of climate change is one of the main factors in defining our energy future. This has become clear at a time of increasing need for adequate and secure energy supply and when the strength and importance of energy as a political tool is more apparent than ever. The International Energy Agency claims that their World Energy Outlook ''maps out a cleaner, more clever and more competitive energy future based on new policies - on energy efficiency, renewables and nuclear. Strong political will and urgent government action is needed to create clear incentives to change existing investment patterns.'' Developing and implementing these policies will involve a variety of uncertainties and risks; ranging from social, to commercial and technical issues. Understanding and managing risk is thus a prerequisite for being able to make decisions and moving forward. When several parties are involved, it is also vital that the decision basis and risk picture is transparent and well understood by all stakeholders. This is an important aspect to consider from policy making to industry implementation. The intent of this paper is to give some indicative examples of such impacts and risks and how they could be managed. (auth)

  17. The biology of appetite control: Do resting metabolic rate and fat-free mass drive energy intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, J E; Finlayson, G; Gibbons, C; Caudwell, P; Hopkins, M

    2015-12-01

    The prevailing model of homeostatic appetite control envisages two major inputs; signals from adipose tissue and from peptide hormones in the gastrointestinal tract. This model is based on the presumed major influence of adipose tissue on food intake. However, recent studies have indicated that in obese people fat-free mass (FFM) is strongly positively associated with daily energy intake and with meal size. This effect has been replicated in several independent groups varying in cultural and ethnic backgrounds, and appears to be a robust phenomenon. In contrast fat mass (FM) is weakly, or mildly negatively associated with food intake in obese people. In addition resting metabolic rate (RMR), a major component of total daily energy expenditure, is also associated with food intake. This effect has been replicated in different groups and is robust. This action is consistent with the proposal that energy requirements — reflected in RMR (and other aspects of energy expenditure) constitute a biological drive to eat. Consistent with its storage function, FM has a strong inhibitory effect on food intake in lean subjects, but this effect appears to weaken dramatically as adipose tissue increases. This formulation can account for several features of the development and maintenance of obesity and provides an alternative, and transparent, approach to the biology of appetite control.

  18. Energy Taxis Drives Campylobacter jejuni toward the Most Favorable Conditions for Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, C.S.; Brondsted, L.; Li, Yiping

    2009-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a serious food-borne bacterial pathogen in the developed world. Poultry is a major reservoir, and C. jejuni appears highly adapted to the gastrointestinal tract of birds. Several factors are important for chicken colonization and virulence, including a taxis mechanism...... for environmental navigation. To explore the mechanism of chemotaxis in C. jejuni, we constructed mutants with deletions of five putative mcp (methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein) genes (tlp1, tlp2, tlp3, docB, and docC). Surprisingly, the deletions did not affect the chemotactic behavior of the mutants compared...

  19. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the Arab world: impact of GDP and energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, S A; Usmani, A M; Qalbani, E

    2017-03-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a rapidly growing and most challenging health issue of the 21st century. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of type-2 DM and its association with Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and energy consumption in the Arab world countries. We identified 88 articles through systematic searches including Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science, PubMed and EMBASE databases published between 1980-2015. The related literature was searched by using the keywords including diabetes mellitus, prevalence, incidence, epidemiology of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and names of the individual Arab world countries. The articles were selected and investigated for the prevalence of T2DM. No limitations were imposed in the design of the study or publication language. Finally, 50 peer-reviewed publications were included and the rest were excluded. Arab world countries with the highest prevalence of T2DM are: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 31.6%, Oman 29%, Kuwait 25.4%, Bahrain 25.0% and United Arab Emirates 25.0%. The lowest prevalence was found in Mauritania (4.7%) and Somalia (3.9%). The highest prevalence was observed in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (25.45%) whilst non-GCC countries had the lowest prevalence (12.69%). The combined mean prevalence of T2DM in both GCC and Non-GCC Arab countries was 16.17%. The prevalence of T2DM was found to be significantly associated with higher Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (p=0.020) and energy consumption (p=0.017). In the Arab world, the countries with the highest prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus are: Saudi Arabia, Oman, Kuwait, Bahrain and UAE, whilst the countries with the lowest prevalence are Mauritania and Somalia. This prevalence was significantly associated with high GDP per capita and energy consumption. Arab states must incorporate diabetes preventive policies on a war-footing basis to minimize the burden of the disease.

  20. Control of a 420 KN Discrete Displacement Cylinder Drive for the Wavestar Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico H.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2014-01-01

    To improve the power production of their 1 MW wave energy converter, Wavestar is developing a new transmission based on discrete hydraulics. The discrete hydraulic system allows all cylinders to supply a common accumulator storage while maintaining low-loss individual force control of the 20...... different area/pressure combinations. Currently, a 420 kN DDC prototype has been implemented and tested at the newly commissioned full size wave energy testbench at Aalborg University. The initial design and control of the DDC had poorly damped switching transients. These issues treated in this paper...

  1. Biofuel: an alternative to fossil fuel for alleviating world energy and economic crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Keshav; Stalick, Wayne M; McKay, Scott; Geme, Gija; Bhattarai, Nimisha

    2011-01-01

    The time has come when it is desirable to look for alternative energy resources to confront the global energy crisis. Consideration of the increasing environmental problems and the possible crisis of fossil fuel availability at record high prices dictate that some changes will need to occur sooner rather than later. The recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is just another example of the environmental threats that fossil fuels pose. This paper is an attempt to explore various bio-resources such as corn, barley, oat, rice, wheat, sorghum, sugar, safflower, and coniferous and non-coniferous species for the production of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel). In order to assess the potential production of biofuel, in this paper, countries are organized into three groups based on: (a) geographic areas; (b) economic development; and(c) lending types, as classified by the World Bank. First, the total fossil fuel energy consumption and supply and possible carbon emission from burning fossil fuel is projected for these three groups of countries. Second, the possibility of production of biofuel from grains and vegetative product is projected. Third, a comparison of fossil fuel and biofuel is done to examine energy sustainability issues.

  2. stability analysis of static slip-energy recovery drive via eigenvalue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    The stability of the sub synchronous static slip energy recovery scheme for the speed control of .... written as;. ((. ( )). (8). Also if the angular, that is the phase relationship between the q-axis and the magnetic axis of the stator and the rotor phases is selected so that they coincide at time t = 0, the q-axis voltages of the stator ...

  3. Microscopic Driving Parameters-Based Energy-Saving Effect Analysis under Different Electric Vehicle Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjian Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid motorization over the recent years, China's transportation sector has been facing an increasing environmental pressure. Compared with gasoline vehicle (GV, electric vehicle (EV is expected to play an important role in the mitigation of CO2 and other pollution emissions, and urban air quality improvement, for its zero emission during use and higher energy efficiency. This paper aims to estimate the energy saving efficiency of EV, especially under different EV penetration and road traffic conditions. First, based on the emission and electricity consumption data collected by a light-duty EV and a light duty GV, a set of electricity consumption rate models and gasoline consumption rate models are established. Then, according to the conversion formula of coal equivalent, these models are transformed into coal equivalent consumption models, which make gasoline consumption and electricity consumption comparable. Finally, the relationship between the EV penetration and the reduction of energy consumption is explored based on the simulation undertaken on the North Second Ring Road in Beijing. The results show that the coal equivalent consumption will decrease by about 5% with the increases of EV penetration by 10% and the maximum energy-saving effect can be achieved when the traffic volume is about 4000 pcu/h.

  4. Energy-efficient and safe driving using a situation-aware gamification approach in logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Kravcik, Milos; Bohuschke, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Safety and energy-efficiency is the main aim of every reasonable driver. But often there is too much relevant information a driver has to take into account and evaluate. A useful support can be provided by technology that can observe the driver’s situation, analyze it, and offer individualized

  5. Energy efficiency in a drive system of induction motors; Eficiencia energetica em um sistema de acionamento de motores de inducao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Arnulfo Barroso de; Kawaphara, Mario Kiyoshi; Apolonio, Roberto; Annunciacao, Luiz de; Silva, Thiago Vieira da; Sao Jose, Bernardo Dias [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Industrial consumers are interested in reducing their monthly expenditure on electricity. Tackling the waste of electrical energy means improving the way you use it, without giving up the comfort and the advantages it provides. Means to reduce consumption, but without compromising safety, quality of product or process or production capacity. In this context, this study presents the results obtained by measurements in a drive system for elevator type pitchers in the laboratory by conventional means and by electronic devices, which simulates a system of operation of a grain transportation industry. We monitored voltages, currents, active power, active power consumption of the system triggered by the conventional method by starting directly and, through microprocessor controls with frequency converter and analyzed the power efficiency obtained with the two processes drive. This study aims at a possible reduction in electricity consumption for active power and active power demand for the automated activation with the frequency inverter. In a broader analysis, conservation of power ends up benefiting society in general, because its effects are felt in different ways. Encourage the reduction or even elimination of new investment to build power plants and power grids, reduce prices of products and services, and ensure availability of electricity supply and service to new consumers. (author)

  6. Comparative analysis of energy economy among different types of electric motor driving; Analise comparativa de economia de energia entre diferentes tipos de acionamento de motores electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Santos da; Oliveira, Carlos Henrique, e-mails: mcelo_sant@ig.com.br; caique1979@yahoo.com.br; Albuquerque, Carlos Jesivan Marques; Fortes, Marcio Zamboti [Universidade Severino Sombra (USS), Vassouras, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: cjesivan@uss.br; mzamboti@uss.br

    2008-07-01

    The application of controlled drives loads of small power can cause undesirable disturbances for electrical installations, but it brings some benefits when comparing the energy consumption that this application has on its regular period of operation. This study analyses using comparatives, the electrical economy using the different types of drives for three phase electric induction motors of low voltage. Running up tests on the test bench didactic, the inverter drives, soft starter and contactor switch were analyzed for different loads (motor without load, 50% and 100% load), rating in S1 and S4. (author)

  7. Wind and solar energy resources on the 'Roof of the World'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandler, Harald; Morche, Thomas; Samimi, Cyrus

    2015-04-01

    The Eastern Pamirs of Tajikistan, often referred to as 'Roof of the World', are an arid high mountain plateau characterized by severe energy poverty that may have great potential for renewable energy resources due to the prevailing natural conditions. The lack of energetic infrastructure makes the region a prime target for decentralized integration of wind and solar power. However, up to date no scientific attempt to assess the regional potential of these resources has been carried out. In this context, it is particularly important to evaluate if wind and solar energy are able to provide enough power to generate thermal energy, as other thermal energy carriers are scarce or unavailable and the existing alternative, local harvest of dwarf shrubs, is unsustainable due to the slow regeneration in this environment. Therefore, this study examines the feasibility of using wind and solar energy as thermal energy sources. Financial frame conditions were set on a maximum amount of five million Euros. This sum provides a realistic scenario as it is based on the current budget of the KfW development bank to finance the modernization of the local hydropower plant in the regions only city, Murghab, with about 1500 households. The basis for resource assessment is data of four climate stations, erected for this purpose in 2012, where wind speed, wind direction, global radiation and temperature are measured at a half hourly interval. These measurements confirm the expectation of a large photovoltaic potential and high panel efficiency with up to 84 percent of extraterrestrial radiation reaching the surface and only 16 hours of temperatures above 25°C were measured in two years at the village stations on average. As these observations are only point measurements, radiation data and the ASTER GDEM was used to train a GIS based solar radiation model to spatially extrapolate incoming radiation. With mean validation errors ranging from 5% in July (minimum) to 15% in December (maximum

  8. Contrasting Strategies of Photosynthetic Energy Utilization Drive Lifestyle Strategies in Ecologically Important Picoeukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly H. Halsey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency with which absorbed light is converted to net growth is a key property for estimating global carbon production. We previously showed that, despite considerable evolutionary distance, Dunaliella tertiolecta (Chlorophyceae and Thalassiosira weissflogii (Bacillariophyceae share a common strategy of photosynthetic energy utilization and nearly identical light energy conversion efficiencies. These findings suggested that a single model might be appropriate for describing relationships between measures of phytoplankton production. This conclusion was further evaluated for Ostreococcus tauri RCC1558 and Micromonas pusilla RCC299 (Chlorophyta, Prasinophyceae, two picoeukaryotes with contrasting geographic distributions and swimming abilities. Nutrient-dependent photosynthetic efficiencies in O. tauri were similar to the previously studied larger algae. Specifically, absorption-normalized gross oxygen and carbon production and net carbon production were independent of nutrient limited growth rate. In contrast, all measures of photosynthetic efficiency were strongly dependent on nutrient availability in M. pusilla. This marked difference was accompanied by a diminished relationship between Chla:C and nutrient limited growth rate and a remarkably greater efficiency of gross-to-net energy conversion than the other organisms studied. These results suggest that the cost-benefit of decoupling pigment concentration from nutrient availability enables motile organisms to rapidly exploit more frequent encounters with micro-scale nutrient patches in open ocean environments.

  9. Mitigation of cross-beam energy transfer in direct-drive inertial-confinement-fusion implosions with enhanced laser bandwidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Jason; Myatt, Jason; Shaw, John; Follett, Russell; Weaver, James; Lehmberg, Robert; Obenschain, Stephen

    2017-10-01

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) is a special category of stimulated Brillouin scattering in which two overlapping laser beams exchange energy by means of an ion acoustic wave in an under-dense expanding plasma. CBET can cause the incident laser energy to be misdirected in direct-drive inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) implosions, thereby reducing both the maximum ablation pressure achieved and the overall symmetry of the implosion. One strategy for mitigating CBET may be to increase the bandwidth of the laser light, thereby disrupting the coherent wave-wave interactions underlying this resonant parametric process. In this presentation, we report on results of two-dimensional planar simulations performed with the code LPSE-CBET that demonstrate a significant reduction in CBET for bandwidths between 2 and 5 THz. Although large compared to OMEGA and NIF values (about 1 and 0.3 THz, respectively), it may be possible to reach such bandwidths with existing ICF lasers using a technique based on stimulated rotational Raman scattering, which is a subject that we also briefly discuss. Work supported by DOE/NNSA.

  10. The hydrophobic effect revisited--studies with supramolecular complexes imply high-energy water as a noncovalent driving force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Frank; Nau, Werner M; Schneider, Hans-Jörg

    2014-10-13

    Traditional descriptions of the hydrophobic effect on the basis of entropic arguments or the calculation of solvent-occupied surfaces must be questioned in view of new results obtained with supramolecular complexes. In these studies, it was possible to separate hydrophobic from dispersive interactions, which are strongest in aqueous systems. Even very hydrophobic alkanes associate significantly only in cavities containing water molecules with an insufficient number of possible hydrogen bonds. The replacement of high-energy water in cavities by guest molecules is the essential enthalpic driving force for complexation, as borne out by data for complexes of cyclodextrins, cyclophanes, and cucurbiturils, for which complexation enthalpies of up to -100 kJ mol(-1) were reached for encapsulated alkyl residues. Water-box simulations were used to characterize the different contributions from high-energy water and enabled the calculation of the association free enthalpies for selected cucurbituril complexes to within a 10% deviation from experimental values. Cavities in artificial receptors are more apt to show the enthalpic effect of high-energy water than those in proteins or nucleic acids, because they bear fewer or no functional groups in the inner cavity to stabilize interior water molecules. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The energy future in the world at the 21. century; L'avenir energetique mondial au 21. siecle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frot, J

    2006-04-15

    After a presentation of the world context of the energy consumption (the growth, the petroleum and the natural gas last, the greenhouse effect gases impacts on the climate), and the today research and development domains in the energy sector (petroleum, gas, generation IV nuclear reactors, carbon sequestration, renewable energies, hydrogen, energy storage), the author examines, using 4 scenario, the margins of action, the energy efficiency, the Gross Domestic Product de-materialization and the costs. Then he discusses the hopes and problems in the domains of the transports and the carbon sequestration. A special attention is devoted to the energy efficiency importance. (A.L.B.)

  12. Solar energy and the Third World: Photovoltaic applications and their implications in rural settings for Zaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badibanga, Maurice Kalombay

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to explore and analyze the level of development attained by flat-plate photovoltaic systems operating around the world and to consider the possibility of using them as an energy solution for the rural areas of Zaire. Methodology. The study was conceived to answer research questions in the following areas: (1) Zaire's overall energy situation; (2) status of photovoltaic applications and their performance in other countries; (3) how the information from this study can be applied toward a possible solution of the energy problem in rural areas of Zaire. The Dual Case Study Method was the mainstay for data and information analysis, based principally on two plants: Tangaye Village PV in Burkina Faso and Kaw Village in French Guiana. Focused Synthesis was the main strategy used to gather the information and data. The analysis of information conveyed an idea of the level of technology readiness for flat-plate photovoltaics and the direction in which future research is headed. Findings and conclusions. The study found that (1) Zaire's rural areas (70 percent of the total population) are deficient in commercial energy provision, when compared to other countries; and (2) government policies, at the time the study took place, favored big projects which benefited mostly urban settings. The rural areas could benefit from photovoltaics, due to its modular and stand-alone characteristics, if it can be afforded by the government. Zaire's geographical position is conducive to successful implementation of the PV program, and is similar to the Tangaye and Kaw situations. Recommendations. (1) The government of Zaire should seriously assess its rural energy needs and consider photovoltaics as an energy solution. (2) Research and development work in the area of energy should be encouraged in the institutions of higher learning in Zaire, where efforts should be made to keep abreast of energy technology updates in developed countries. (3) Systems that

  13. Low-Energy Brane-World Effective Actions and Partial Supersymmetry Breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Matthias

    2003-03-18

    As part of a programme for the general study of the low-energy implications of supersymmetry breaking in brane-world scenarios, we study the nonlinear realization of supersymmetry which occurs when breaking N = 2 to N = 1 supergravity. We consider three explicit realizations of this supersymmetry breaking pattern, which correspond to breaking by one brane, by one antibrane or by two (or more) parallel branes. We derive the minimal field content, the effective action and supersymmetry transformation rules for the resulting N = 1 theory perturbatively in powers of {kappa} = 1/M{sub Planck}. We show that the way the massive gravitino and spin-1 fields assemble into N = 1 multiplets implies the existence of direct brane-brane contact interactions at order {Omicron}({kappa}). This result is contrary to the {Omicron}({kappa}{sup 2}) predicted by the sequestering scenario but in agreement with recent work of Anisimov et al. Our low-energy approach is model independent and is a first step towards determining the low-energy implications of more realistic brane models which completely break all supersymmetries.

  14. The water-energy-food nexus of biofuels in a globalized world

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, P.; Rulli, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    New renewable energy policies, investment opportunities, and energy security needs, have recently led to an escalation in the reliance on first generation biofuels. This phenomenon is contributing to changes in land use, market dynamics, property rights, and systems of agricultural production, with important impacts on rural livelihoods. Despite these effects of biofuels on food security, their nexus with land and water use remains poorly understood. We investigate recent production trends of bioenergy crops, their patterns of trade, and evaluate the associated displacement of water and land use. We find that bioethanol is produced with domestic crops while biodiesel production relies also on international trade and large scale land acquisitions in the developing world, particularly in Southeast Asia. Altogether, biofuels account for about 2-3% of the global water and land use in agriculture, and 30% of the food required to eradicate malnourishment worldwide. We evaluate the food-energy tradeoffs of biofuels and their impact of the number of people the plant can feed.

  15. Influence of the world's most challenging mountain ultra-marathon on energy cost and running mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernillo, Gianluca; Savoldelli, Aldo; Zignoli, Andrea; Trabucchi, Pietro; Pellegrini, Barbara; Millet, Grégoire P; Schena, Federico

    2014-05-01

    To examine the effects of the world's most challenging mountain ultra-marathon (Tor des Géants(®) 2012) on the energy cost of three types of locomotion (cycling, level and uphill running) and running kinematics. Before (pre-) and immediately after (post-) the competition, a group of ten male experienced ultra-marathon runners performed in random order three submaximal 4-min exercise trials: cycling at a power of 1.5 W kg(-1) body mass; level running at 9 km h(-1) and uphill running at 6 km h(-1) at an inclination of +15 % on a motorized treadmill. Two video cameras recorded running mechanics at different sampling rates. Between pre- and post-, the uphill-running energy cost decreased by 13.8 % (P = 0.004); no change was noted in the energy cost of level running or cycling (NS). There was an increase in contact time (+10.3 %, P = 0.019) and duty factor (+8.1 %, P = 0.001) and a decrease in swing time (-6.4 %, P = 0.008) in the uphill-running condition. After this extreme mountain ultra-marathon, the subjects modified only their uphill-running patterns for a more economical step mechanics.

  16. Burst train generator of high energy femtosecond laser pulses for driving heat accumulation effect during micromachining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Saeid; Li, Jianzhao; Herman, Peter R

    2015-05-01

    A new method for generating high-repetition-rate (12.7-38.2 MHz) burst trains of femtosecond laser pulses has been demonstrated for the purpose of tailoring ultrashort laser interactions in material processing that can harness the heat accumulation effect among pulses separated by a short interval (i.e., 26 ns). Computer-controlled time delays were applied to synchronously trigger the high frequency switching of a high voltage Pockels cell to specify distinctive values of polarization rotation for each round-trip of a laser pulse cycling within a passive resonator. Polarization dependent output coupling facilitated the flexible shaping of the burst envelope profile to provide burst trains of up to ∼1  mJ of burst energy divided over a selectable number (1 to 25) of pulses. Individual pulses of variable energy up to 150 μJ and with pulse duration tunable over 70 fs to 2 ps, were applied in burst trains to generate deep and high aspect ratio holes that could not form with low-repetition-rate laser pulses.

  17. International wind energy development. World market update 2009. Forecast 2010-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    This is the fifteenth edition of the annual World Market Update produced by BTM Consult ApS, and covers developments in the wind energy sector during 2009. As in previous editions, the report also assesses important changes over the last three years and forecasts progress for five years ahead. The special topic in this year's WMU is an evaluation of the aftermath of the COP-15 climate change negotiations in relation to future wind power development. The global market for wind power not only produced a record for new installations in 2009 of 38 GW installed capacity, it also created a new order in the balance of international wind power. The rapid increase in the rate of installations in both Asia and the US was already clear in 2008; that trend has continued at a faster pace in 2009. By far the largest number of new wind projects were seen in the US and China. Another new reality is that most of the world's manufacturing of wind turbines now takes place in China. As a result three Chinese companies are among the world's top ten turbine manufacturers. At the same time a rapid expansion of manufacturing capacity by European turbine makers has taken place in the US. Europe contributed 28.2% of the newly added capacity - 10,738 MW - taking the continent's total wind power generation capacity to 76,553 MW. The growth in Asia's markets has once again been staggering. With 14,991 MW of new installations, South and East Asia accounted for 39.4% of the global total in 2009. China was the major contributor, with 13,750 MW of new capacity, more than double that installed in 2008. In terms of cumulative installed wind power, the US is still the world leader, with 35,159 MW. China overtook Germany with a margin of less than 50 MW. China now has a total of 25,853 MW, followed by Germany's 25,813 MW. A new world order in wind power has become a reality. The forecast released in this WMU shows an average growth rate of 13.5% for the period 2010

  18. R'07 World Congress - Recovery of materials and energy for resource efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This final congress report summarises the topics dealt with at the R'07 World Congress on the recovery of materials and energy for resource efficiency. The congress was held in 2007 in Davos, Switzerland. Details on the organisation and participants are given and the experts who held plenary lectures are listed. Brief details are given on oral and poster sessions, along with details on how the proceedings of the congress can be obtained. Workshops held at the conference covered the following topics: Plastics recycling, biofuels and E-waste, workshops on zero wastes, scarce metals and the identification and management of social implications over the product life cycle (footprint). An Internet-address where the results of the sessions can be obtained is given along with a summary of excursions and social events held within the framework of the congress. Finally, participant feedback is presented in graphical form.

  19. World Energy Outlook 2012 Special Report: Golden Rules for a Golden Age of Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Natural gas is poised to enter a golden age, but this future hinges critically on the successful development of the world’s vast unconventional gas resources. North American experience shows unconventional gas - notably shale gas - can be exploited economically. Many countries are lining up to emulate this success. But some governments are hesitant, or even actively opposed. They are responding to public concerns that production might involve unacceptable environmental and social damage. This report, in the World Energy Outlook series, treats these aspirations and anxieties with equal seriousness. It features two new cases: a Golden Rules Case, in which the highest practicable standards are adopted, gaining industry a {sup s}ocial licence to operate{sup ;} and its counterpart, in which the tide turns against unconventional gas as constraints prove too difficult to overcome.

  20. Re-evaluation of the importance of coal in world energy supplies up to the year 2000. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakisch, R.R.; Hempel, C.

    1982-07-29

    The second part of the series gives trends in world energy supply in the eighties and nineties with a special view to coal. Trends in population and economic growth are presented as influencing factors of future world energy demand on the basis of a prognosis made by the authors. There are structural changes in primary energy supply which will result in a bigger contribution of coal. The coal production is estimated at some 3,000 million tonnes coal equivalent for 1985, 3,500 million tonnes coal equivalent for 1990, and at 3,500 million tonnes coal equivalent for 2000.

  1. Assessment of duration of the drive operation in the mode of kinetic energy recovery under power supply voltage sags in electrical grids of mechanical engineering enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonin, O. B.; Novozhilov, N. G.

    2017-02-01

    Voltage sags in electric grids of mechanical engineering enterprises may lead to disconnection of important power consumers with variable frequency drives from the power grid and further interruption of the production process. The paper considers a sensorless V/f control system of еру induction motor drive under normal conditions and under voltage sags on the basis of a computer model of the drive and derivation of a formula for assessment of possible duration of the drive operation in the mode of controlled recovery of kinetic energy accumulated in rotating mass of the drive. Results of simulations have been used to validate results of calculations of the rotor velocity deceleration made in a closed form obtained from the equation reflecting the balance of torques. It is shown that results of calculations practically coincide with results of simulations in the range up to 5% of the velocity initial value. The proposed formula may be useful for estimation of the duration of the drive operation in the mode of recovery of kinetic energy depending on parameters of the motor and driven mechanisms.

  2. Driver headway choice : A comparison between driving simulator and real-road driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risto, M.; Martens, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Driving simulators have become an established tool in driver behaviour research by offering a controllable, safe and cost-effective alternative to real world driving. A challenge for using driving simulators as a research tool has been to elicit driving behaviour that equals real world driving. With

  3. Driver headway choice: a comparison between driving simulator and real-road driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risto, Malte; Martens, Marieke Hendrikje

    2014-01-01

    Driving simulators have become an established tool in driver behaviour research by offering a controllable, safe and cost-effective alternative to real world driving. A challenge for using driving simulators as a research tool has been to elicit driving behaviour that equals real world driving. With

  4. 75 FR 76453 - Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. EG10-65-000; EG10-66-000; EG10-67-000; EG10-68-000; EG10- 69-000; EG10-70-000; EG10-71-000] Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut...

  5. RANK rewires energy homeostasis in lung cancer cells and drives primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shuan; Sigl, Verena; Wimmer, Reiner Alois; Novatchkova, Maria; Jais, Alexander; Wagner, Gabriel; Handschuh, Stephan; Uribesalgo, Iris; Hagelkruys, Astrid; Kozieradzki, Ivona; Tortola, Luigi; Nitsch, Roberto; Cronin, Shane J; Orthofer, Michael; Branstetter, Daniel; Canon, Jude; Rossi, John; D'Arcangelo, Manolo; Botling, Johan; Micke, Patrick; Fleur, Linnea La; Edlund, Karolina; Bergqvist, Michael; Ekman, Simon; Lendl, Thomas; Popper, Helmut; Takayanagi, Hiroshi; Kenner, Lukas; Hirsch, Fred R; Dougall, William; Penninger, Josef M

    2017-10-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Besides smoking, epidemiological studies have linked female sex hormones to lung cancer in women; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB (RANK), the key regulator of osteoclastogenesis, is frequently expressed in primary lung tumors, an active RANK pathway correlates with decreased survival, and pharmacologic RANK inhibition reduces tumor growth in patient-derived lung cancer xenografts. Clonal genetic inactivation of KRasG12D in mouse lung epithelial cells markedly impairs the progression of KRasG12D -driven lung cancer, resulting in a significant survival advantage. Mechanistically, RANK rewires energy homeostasis in human and murine lung cancer cells and promotes expansion of lung cancer stem-like cells, which is blocked by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. Our data also indicate survival differences in KRasG12D -driven lung cancer between male and female mice, and we show that female sex hormones can promote lung cancer progression via the RANK pathway. These data uncover a direct role for RANK in lung cancer and may explain why female sex hormones accelerate lung cancer development. Inhibition of RANK using the approved drug denosumab may be a therapeutic drug candidate for primary lung cancer. © 2017 Rao et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  6. Science of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Science of Driving project focused on developing a collaborative relationship to develop curriculum units for middle school and high school students to engage them in exciting real-world scenarios. This effort involved faculty, staff, and student...

  7. The energy world in the year 2020; Die Energiewelt im Jahr 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupp, H. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Eichhammer, W. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1995-07-10

    The innovation management of enterprises and committees deciding on research policy increasingly rely on analysis for technology assessment. There are several competing methods for a general technology assessment, which seem to be especially suitable for a technology preview. A lot of attention has recently been paid to the ``Delphi-method``. In total the Delphi enquiry about the energy world of tomorrow reveals several evaluations which are generally accepted spread but are hardly proved with respect to quantities. Furthermore it shows several approaches for wrong predictions in the field of energy economy. (UA) [Deutsch] Das unternehmerische Innovationsmanagement sowie forschungspolitische Entscheidungstraeger benoetigen in zunehmendem Masse Analysen zur Technikbewertung. Es gibt verschiedene miteinander konkurrierende Methoden fuer die Technikbewertung allgemein, die speziell fuer die Technikvorausschau geeignet erscheinen. In der letzten Zeit hat das ``Delphi-Verfahren`` verstaerkt Aufmerksamkeit erhalten. Insgesamt zeigt die Delphi-Befragung fuer die Energiewelt von morgen eine Reihe von Einschaetzungen, die sehr weit verbreitet, aber in der Regel quantitativ wenig belegt sind, neben einigen auffaelligen Ansatzpunkten fuer Fehlallokationen im energiewirtschaftlichen Bereich. (orig.)

  8. Large-Scale Battery System Development and User-Specific Driving Behavior Analysis for Emerging Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihe Sun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emerging green-energy transportation, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs, has a great potential for reduction of fuel consumption and greenhouse emissions. The lithium-ion battery system used in these vehicles, however, is bulky, expensive and unreliable, and has been the primary roadblock for transportation electrification. Meanwhile, few studies have considered user-specific driving behavior and its significant impact on (PHEV fuel efficiency, battery system lifetime, and the environment. This paper presents a detailed investigation of battery system modeling and real-world user-specific driving behavior analysis for emerging electric-drive vehicles. The proposed model is fast to compute and accurate for analyzing battery system run-time and long-term cycle life with a focus on temperature dependent battery system capacity fading and variation. The proposed solution is validated against physical measurement using real-world user driving studies, and has been adopted to facilitate battery system design and optimization. Using the collected real-world hybrid vehicle and run-time driving data, we have also conducted detailed analytical studies of users’ specific driving patterns and their impacts on hybrid vehicle electric energy and fuel efficiency. This work provides a solid foundation for future energy control with emerging electric-drive applications.

  9. International wind energy development. World market update 2012. Forecast 2013-2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    The BTM wind report, World Market Update 2012, published by Navigant Research, is the eighteenth edition of this annual wind energy market report. The report includes more than 80 tables, charts and graphs illustrating global wind market development, as well as a wind market forecast for 2013?2017 and highlighted trends for the wind market through 2022. The report delivers several views on the fast?growing wind market, including: 1) More than 285 GW of wind power now installed globally; 2) 45GW of new capacity added in 2012, including 1.1 GW from offshore wind; 3) The United States surpassed China as the largest market in terms of new installations in 2012; 4) Europe lost its position as the largest world region in terms of new installations; 5) Wind installations in the Americas grew by 12.3 percent compared with 2011; 6) Big shake?up in the top ten wind turbine supplier ranking; 7) Strong Chinese presence among top 15 wind owner?operators; 8) Wind market structures continue to evolve; 9) The penetration of wind power in the world's electricity supply has reached 2.62 percent; 10) Offshore wind more than doubled the capacity added in 2011, with more than 4 GW currently under construction. With the addition of 44,951 MW in new installations in 2012, world wind power capacity grew to around 285,700 MW, an increase in the total wind power installation base of 18.6 percent. Market growth year-over-year in 2012, though a modest 7.8 percent, was still higher than in 2011. Average annual growth for the past five years has been 17.8 percent, achieved during the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis, with traditionally large markets for wind power in economic recession in America and Europe. The wind power industry continues to demonstrate its ability to rapidly evolve to meet new demands in markets that face a variety of challenges. The focus on product diversification grows with wind turbine vendors designing machines for maximum energy production in low wind speed

  10. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV......How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV...

  11. Short primary linear drive designed for synchronous and induction operation mode with on-board energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes Neto, Tobias Rafael

    2012-06-28

    The idea of a flexible industrial manufacturing system for the transfer of material, tooling, processing/filling, etc., in which several vehicles can travel with high speed, high degree of independency and high precision is proposed in this thesis. Such flexible systems show a meaningful economic potential for modern manufacturing systems. The basic concept is that a linear motor has the secondary part fixed to the track while the primary (moving winding) travels along the track (short primary topology). The same principle can work in the other way around, arranging the primary in segments and letting the secondary (carrier) to move from segment to segment (long primary topology). The concept's implementation involves technical issues, such as: the position measurement, the energy and information transfer, the individual position and speed control of the vehicle in which varying speeds increase the possibility of collision, and the smooth transition between segments or different types of the secondary. Finally, multiple vehicles traveling at high speed, high positioning repeatability and rapid acceleration rates increase the production throughout and the reliability compared to conventional manufacturing conveyor systems. As an example, a transporting and processing system based on linear drives is a continuous and closed structure with multiple loops, which permits the safe transport of fragile loads. Although such solutions often need higher investment costs, the lack of mechanical coupling parts and wearing elements in these motors greatly increases their reliability. The long primary topology allows a passive and lightweight vehicle (secondary), avoiding brushes and cables to transfer energy and information. For long distances, the primary is arranged in several electrical independent segments. On the other hand, the short primary configuration uses the winding mounted on the moving part (active vehicle) to produce the traveling wave, the secondary as

  12. Energy data visualisation requires additional approaches to continue to be relevant in a world with greater low-carbon generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Grant Wilson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis described in this article proposes that energy visualisation diagrams commonly used need additional changes to continue to be relevant in a world with greater low-carbon generation. The diagrams that display national energy data are influenced by the properties of the type of energy being displayed, which in most cases has historically meant fossil fuels, nuclear fuels or hydro. As many energy systems throughout the world increase their use of electricity from wind or solar based renewables, a more granular display of energy data in the time domain is required. This article also introduces the shared axes energy diagram that provides a simple and powerful way in which to compare the scale and seasonality of the demands and supplies of an energy system. This aims to complement rather than replace existing diagrams, and has an additional benefit of promoting a whole systems approach to energy systems, as differing energy vectors such as natural gas, transport fuels, and electricity can all be displayed together. This in particular, is useful to both policy makers and to industry, to build a visual foundation for a whole systems narrative, which provides a basis for discussion of the synergies and opportunities across and between different energy vectors and demands. The diagram’s ability to wrap a sense of scale around a whole energy system in a simple way is thought to explain its growing popularity.

  13. Re-evaluation of the importance of coal in world energy supplies to the year 2000. Pt. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakisch, R.R.; Hempel, C.

    1982-08-12

    Part three of the series discusses the regional significance of solid fuels and the developments in world coal trade. The development of world coal production from 1935 to 2000 is presented by countries and by regions. All in all, there is an increasing tendency. The trends in the foreign trade of coal and coal products are characterized by a strongly expanding market. Of the consumer regions, the COMECON countries are those in which the contribution of coal to energy supply is highest. Finally, forecasts for the future world coal trade are compared.

  14. Energy-optimized longitudinal guidance of motor vehicles through the use of forward-looking driving strategies; Energieoptimale Laengsfuehrung von Kraftfahrzeugen durch Einsatz vorausschauender Fahrstrategien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radke, Tobias

    2013-10-01

    The present work deals with the energy-optimal longitudinal guidance of motor vehicles, which are anticipatory uses familiar route data in order to realize a maximum energy-efficient driving strategy to suit the driver. To solve this optimization problem, a resource-efficient algorithm is developed and embedded in a driver assistance system for automated longitudinal guide prototypically used. The system achieves a fuel saving of about 10%.

  15. World scenario for energy industries (Problems and responses). ; Creating new values in fuels and restructuring the energy industries. Energy sangyo no sekai shinario (kadai to taio). ; Nenryo no shinkachi no sozo to energy sangyo no saikochiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-05

    This paper describes the following matters on the future images of the energy industries: The following two scenarios may be drawn on the future world order from the changing signs seen in three regions of the geopolitical factors, international economies, and environmental problems : One is the world of mercantilism where several blocks are formed, with the economic power of each block regarded as the ultimate purpose. Trades within a block are executed according to the market principles, while trades between the blocks are operated politically. The energy industries in this case should face incessantly new rules and market restructuring. Another scenario is a coordination maintaining world where international cooperations are preferred to the common benefits. Affluent nations determine the necessity of global systems for trade and environmental problems, while less affluent nations are forced to coordinate with these determinations. In this case, the energy industries will face directly a cost rise associated with conversions to cleaner fuels and industrial restructuring. 8 figs.

  16. Gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission from gasoline and diesel vehicles under real-world driving test cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Ha T; Imanishi, Katsuma; Morikawa, Tazuko; Hagino, Hiroyuki; Takenaka, Norimichi

    2017-04-01

    Reactive nitrogen species emission from the exhausts of gasoline and diesel vehicles, including nitrogen oxides (NOx) and nitrous acid (HONO), contributes as a significant source of photochemical oxidant precursors in the ambient air. Multiple laboratory and on-road exhaust measurements have been performed to estimate the NOx emission factors from various vehicles and their contribution to atmospheric pollution. Meanwhile, HONO emission from vehicle exhaust has been under-measured despite the fact that HONO can contribute up to 60% of the total hydroxyl budget during daytime and its formation pathway is not fully understood. A profound traffic-induced HONO to NOx ratio of 0.8%, established by Kurtenbach et al. since 2001, has been widely applied in various simulation studies and possibly linked to under-estimation of HONO mixing ratios and OH radical budget in the morning. The HONO/NOx ratios from direct traffic emission have become debatable when it lacks measurements for direct HONO emission from vehicles upon the fast-changing emission reduction technology. Several recent studies have reported updated values for this ratio. This study has reported the measurement of HONO and NOx emission as well as the estimation of exhaust-induced HONO/NOx ratios from gasoline and diesel vehicles using different chassis dynamometer tests under various real-world driving cycles. For the tested gasoline vehicle, which was equipped with three-way catalyst after-treatment device, HONO/NOx ratios ranged from 0 to 0.95 % with very low average HONO concentrations. For the tested diesel vehicle equipped with diesel particulate active reduction device, HONO/NOx ratios varied from 0.16 to 1.00 %. The HONO/NOx ratios in diesel exhaust were inversely proportional to the average speeds of the tested vehicles. Photolysis of HONO is a dominant source of morning OH radicals. Conventional traffic-induced HONO/NOx ratio of 0.8% has possibly linked to underestimation of the total HONO budget and

  17. A wave-based model for cross-beam energy transfer in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, J. F.; Follett, R. K.; Shaw, J. G.; Edgell, D. H.; Froula, D. H.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Goncharov, V. N.

    2017-05-01

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) is thought to be responsible for a 30% reduction in hydrodynamic coupling efficiency on OMEGA and up to 50% at the ignition scale for direct-drive (DD) implosions. These numbers are determined by ray-based models that have been developed and integrated within the radiation-hydrodynamics codes LILAC (1-D) and DRACO (2-D). However, ray-based modeling of CBET in an inhomogeneous plasma assumes a steady-state plasma response, does not include the effects of beam speckle, and treats ray caustics in an ad hoc manner. The validity of the modeling for ignition-scale implosions has not yet been determined. To address the physics shortcomings, which have important implications for DD inertial confinement fusion, a new wave-based model has been developed. It solves the time-enveloped Maxwell equations in three dimensions, including polarization effects, plasma inhomogeneity, and open-boundary conditions with the ability to prescribe beams incident at arbitrary angles. Beams can be made realistic with respect to laser speckle, polarization smoothing, and laser bandwidth. This, coupled to a linearized low-frequency plasma response that does not assume a steady state, represents the most-complete model of CBET to date.

  18. Drives for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dustmann, C.H.

    1989-01-01

    Internal combustion and electricity as engine driving forces are compared with regard to their specific weight, engine characteristics, efficiency in converting the primary energy and trends of development. Electric drives show a number of advantages especially in cities where frequent stop-and-go traffic is the rule: low emissions, low noise and good utilization of the primary energy are the main advantages here. Technically one needs to have suitable batteries and driving systems. With the Na-S-heavy duty battery coming on to the market a wave of innovations on the area of high-efficiency electric drives is expected in the following years. (orig.).

  19. Drive Stands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Systems Laboratory (ESL)houses numerous electrically driven drive stands. A drive stand consists of an electric motor driving a gearbox and a mounting...

  20. Re-evaluation of the importance of coal in world energy supplies up to the year 2000. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakisch, R.R.; Hempel, C.

    1982-06-24

    The first part of a paper from the symposium on 'Oil and Money in the Eighties', which took place in London in October 1981, gives a comparative review of the development of the world energy situation since the early Fifties. The data for 1980 are based on estimates.

  1. Development of the World-wide harmonized Light duty Test Cycle (WLTC) and a possible pathway for its introduction in the European legislation

    OpenAIRE

    TUTUIANU MONICA; BONNEL Pierre; CIUFFO BIAGIO; HANIU Takahiro; ICHIKAWA Noriyuki; MAROTTA Alessandro; PAVLOVIC JELICA; STEVEN Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the World-wide harmonized Light duty Test Cycle (WLTC), developed under the Working Party on Pollution and Energy (GRPE) and sponsored by the European Union (with Switzerland) and Japan. India, Korea and USA have also actively contributed. The objective was to design the harmonized driving cycle from "real world" driving data in different regions around the world, combined with suitable weighting factors. To this aim, driving data and traffic statistics of light duty vehic...

  2. Energy conservation in electric drives: a practical approach with applications in a steel lamination; Conservacao de energia em acionamentos eletricos: uma abordagem pratica com aplicacoes numa laminacao siderurgica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Jose Mauricio Gomes

    1991-07-01

    The goal of this work is to propose a method to save energy in electrical drives by exploiting latent potentialities of the equipment. So, a significant reduction of energy consumption may be obtained through inexpensive measures. Although the examples here studied are directed to equipment of Plate Mill at COSIPA works, the analysis methodology is not restricted to steelmaking plants, being applied to any other industrial activities. Was adopted a practical approach, highlighting maintenance viewpoint and focusing their responsibilities in energy saving practices. (author)

  3. Smart and efficient electric drives for mecathronic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Tinazzi, F.

    2016-01-01

    The call for the reduction of energy consumption has manifolds reflections on the mechatronics applications. Electric motors represent one of the biggest electric energy consumers in the world, due to their wide utilisation both in industrial and domestic applications. There is, in turn, a need of more efficient drives that implement energy efficient control techniques for all kind of electric motors. The mechanical sensor for the rotor position represents both an additional cost and a source...

  4. Chapter 18: Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romberger, Jeff [SBW Consulting, Inc., Bellevue, WA (United States)

    2017-06-21

    An adjustable-speed drive (ASD) includes all devices that vary the speed of a rotating load, including those that vary the motor speed and linkage devices that allow constant motor speed while varying the load speed. The Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol presented here addresses evaluation issues for variable-frequency drives (VFDs) installed on commercial and industrial motor-driven centrifugal fans and pumps for which torque varies with speed. Constant torque load applications, such as those for positive displacement pumps, are not covered by this protocol.

  5. The distribution of the electric energy consumed in the World Trade Center building; La distribucion de la energia electrica consumida en el edificio World Trade Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaona de la Fuente, Alvaro; Carrillo Borja, Angel [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document describes the distribution of the electric energy in the World Trade Center building. Also called the Business International Capital, it is a modern international concept that integrates under the same roof services and supports required by the foreign commerce, with a great 50 stories high building, information network, a business center, a commercial center, an international center for exhibits and conventions and a luxury hotel. It is a modern building equipped with a numberless technological advancements an a total installed electrical load of 35000 kVA. The distribution structures utilized for high buildings are described, the structure that was decided to adopt in the World Trade Center, the requirement for the execution of the distribution electric work, the Luz y Fuerza installations in the buildings conglomerate, the operation and maintenance of the distribution network of this building and the basic needs for new installations of this type of buildings [Espanol] En el presente documento se describe la distribucion de la energia electrica del edificio World Trade Center de la ciudad de Mexico. Llamado tambien la capital internacional de los negocios es un moderno concepto internacional que integra bajo un mismo techo servicios y apoyos que se requieren para el comercio exterior contando con una gran torre de 50 pisos, red de informacion, un centro de negocios, un centro comercial, un centro internacional de exposiciones y convenciones y un hotel de lujo. Es un edificio moderno equipado con un sinnumero de adelantos tecnologicos y con una carga total instalada de 35000 kVA. Se describen las estructuras de distribucion utilizadas en edificios altos, la estructura que se decidio implantar en el World Trade Center, los requerimientos para la ejecucion de la obra electrica de distribucion, las instalaciones de Luz y Fuerza en el conjunto de dicho edificio, la operacion y mantenimiento de la red de distribucion de este edificio, y las necesidades

  6. Golden age of gas and its impact on the world energy, the global carbon cycle and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshin, A. G.; Klimenko, A. V.; Klimenko, V. V.

    2015-05-01

    Global and regional resource and environmental problems of production and use of unconventional gas (UG) are studied. Estimations for world and national reserves of various kinds of UG are presented. The dynamics of the gas share in total energy consumption and thermal power generation around the world is analyzed. Projections of the world production of conventional gas and UG are proposed. Variations in carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere and the corresponding changes in average global air temperature are calculated for various scenarios suggesting unconventional gas substitution of different energy sources. The possible consequences of expected climate changes for Russia's power industry are analyzed. It is shown that, despite the uncertainty in the estimates of the economic and environmental consequences of shale gas (SG) production, its use, according to the available resource estimates, can make it possible to solve global and regional problems associated with energy (import substitution) and environment protection (replacing the less clean coal fuel). However, the development of the huge global resources of this type of fuel can have a significant effect on the chemical and thermal radiative balance of the Earth's atmosphere, and it must be noted that the climatic effect of carbon dioxide emissions from the UG combustion greatly exceeds the consequences of methane leakage during its production. In order to sustain the stability of the global climate system, the development of the world's large UG resources must be accompanied by an equivalent reduction in the use of coal. This is the only way for UG to become a safe energy bridge to the future, able to keep the climate system at the threshold of critical values. Direct effects of possible climatic changes on the territory of Russia for the domestic energy complex are estimated as more positive than adverse, mainly due to lower energy costs for space heating.

  7. Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impaired driving is dangerous. It's the cause of more than half of all car crashes. It means operating ... texting Having a medical condition which affects your driving For your safety and the safety of others, do not drive while impaired. Have someone else drive you or take public ...

  8. The energy world in 2002. Statistical yearbook ENERDATA 2003; Le monde de l'energie en 2002. Annuaire statistique ENERDATA 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document summarizes the world energy key data for 2002 (total energy consumption and per gross domestic product unit, petroleum, gas, coal and lignite, and electric power consumptions, CO{sub 2} emissions). Data are grouped according to five main areas (Africa and Middle East, America, Asia and Pacific area, Western Europe, Eastern Europe and ex-USSR). The data show a restart of the world energy consumption (1.4% in 2002 with respect to 0.5% in 2001) despite a relatively low economic growth (1.6% with respect to 2.6% for the previous decade, as an average), a strong growth of the electricity and coal consumption, a restart of the gas consumption and a stagnation of the petroleum consumption. (J.S.)

  9. Transition? What transition? : Changing energy systems in an increasingly carbon constrained world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mc Cahery, J.A.; Lopez de Silanes, Florencio; de Roode, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Energy transitions have been taking place continuously since the Industrial Revolution. These transitions primarily involve national energy mixes. In general, countries keep moving up the energy ladder, meaning that they integrate larger and larger proportions of specialized fuels into their energy

  10. Mexico's energy dilemmas in an interdependent world; Les dilemmes du Mexique dans un monde interdependant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica; Elizalde-Baltierra, A. [Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexico)

    2008-03-15

    Mexico's energy system is overwhelmingly dependent on hydrocarbons. Although a significant producer of oil and gas, and a considerable exporter of crude oil, it is increasingly dependent on imports of oil products and natural gas for its internal energy demand. In a World where free trade is increasing the interdependence of the industrialized economies, Mexico's energy policy dilemma is basically between maintaining as much as possible its self sufficiency; or relying on imports, while generating oil revenues through exports to invest in developing a diversified economy. Energy demand projections to 2030 are carried out that exhibit the limitations of present available oil and gas proved reserves under past policies. Alternative energy policy scenarios are then examined. (authors)

  11. Energy History Chronology from World War II to the Present [1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, P. C.

    1982-08-01

    This report provides a basic guide to the major Presidential, Legislative, Judicial, and Federal agency actions relating to energy policy, research, development, and regulation in recent years. The chronology is arranged synoptically, allowing users to reference easily the historical context in which each event occurred. Summaries of Presidential, Legislative, and Judicial actions relating to energy, rosters of federal energy officials, and a genealogy of federal energy agencies are also provided in separate appendices. The Energy History Chronology was prepared in conjunction with the History Division's series of pamphlets on the Institutional Origins of the Department of Energy. The series includes concise histories of the Department of Energy, the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Federal Energy Administration, and the Atomic Energy Commission. All significant events and achievements noted in the institutional history are also listed.

  12. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  13. Book Review of Russian Energy in a Changing World: What is the Outlook for the Hydrocarbons Superpower? ed. by Jakub M Godzimirski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Smeets

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This volume discusses the impact of the financial crisis on Russia’s energy sector, transforming perceptions of energy as a catalyst of economic growth into a burden of economic dependency on world oil prices.

  14. 18{sup th} world hydrogen energy conference 2010 (WHEC 2010). Proceedings. Speeches and plenary talks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolten, Detlef; Emonts, Bernd (eds.)

    2012-07-03

    A comprehensive and renowned conference offers the opportunity to extend the scope beyond mere technical issues. It allows for having strategic presentations and discussing aspects of market introduction, industrial and Governmental target setting as well as approaches to and actions for implementation. The 18th World Hydrogen Conference 2010, WHEC2010, succeeded in exploiting this opportunity and satisfied the expectations. Strong political support in Germany and in the State of North Rhine Westphalia in particular made it possible to have high profile decision makers at the conference presenting their strategies first hand. Hence, a full day was dedicated to plenary speeches and overview talks. The WHEC2010 came handy at a time when fuel cells are developed to suit the requirements for vehicles, except for cost and durability. At a time when the competition with batteries and whether or how a hydrogen infrastructure can be established and afforded were hot topics in the public debate, which needed answers on a well informed basis. Considering fuel cells and hydrogen at a time at one conference and supplementing it with the current knowledge on batteries and hybridization clarity on the future role of these technologies was gained. Very likely fuel cells and batteries will coexist in a future of electrified vehicular transport. Their different technical characteristics will open the doors to different market segments. Implementing hydrogen infrastructure, being a requirement for fuel cells in transport, is considered doable and affordable. This book presents the speeches and overview papers from the plenary session of the WHEC2010 on May 17, 2010. Six further books of this issue contain the papers of the oral and poster presentations, except for the introductory talks of the sessions. The latter are published separately by Wiley in a book named Hydrogen and Fuel Cells. In total the 18th WHEC is documented on over 3800 pages in a structured way in order to reach

  15. Energy production and storage inorganic chemical strategies for a warming world

    CERN Document Server

    Crabtree, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    Energy production and storage are central problems for our time. In principle, abundant energy is available from the sun to run the earth in a sustainable way. Solar energy can be directly harnessed by agricultural and photovoltaic means, but the sheer scale of the energy demand poses severe challenges, for example any major competition between biomass production and food production would simply transfer scarcity from energy to food. Indirect use of solar energy in the form of wind looks also promising, especially for those regions not blessed with abundant sunlight. Other modes such as tidal

  16. Gender equity in access to and benefits from modern energy and improved energy technologies : world development report background paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.; Winther, Tanja; Matinga, Margaret Njirambo; Oparaocha, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    This background paper has been commissioned as a contribution to the preparation of the World Development Report 2012 which will focus on development and gender equality. It is a companion paper to two other papers which examine gender issues in relation to common property resources and economic

  17. Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development Around the World. Annex IV Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanna, L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whiting, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geerlofs, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Grear, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Blake, K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coffey, A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Massaua, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown-Saracino, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Battey, H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This Annex IV report contains three case studies of specific interactions of marine energy devices with the marine environment addressing the physical interactions between animals and tidal turbines, the acoustic impact of marine energy devices on marine animals, and the effects of energy removal on physical systems.

  18. Energy: Decisions for Today and Tomorrow. [Student's Guide.] Preparing for Tomorrow's World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iozzi, Louis A.; And Others

    The purpose of this module is to engage students (grades 7-8) in examining issues that underlie the "energy crisis" and in considering value aspects involved in decisions regarding energy consumption, distribution, sources, and other energy-related issues. The module is comprised of three parts, each focusing on a current, major source…

  19. Energy efficiency, economic efficiency and future CO{sub 2} emissions form the developing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, P.J.G.; Fouquet, R. [Centre for Environmental Technology, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The authors examine the role of energy and economic efficiency in influencing future carbon dioxide emissions of developing countries. The reasons that controlling emissions of developing countries is important are examined along with future scenarios of future energy related emissions and potential for energy efficiency improvements. A number of the policy options are presented. 56 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Trend in world energy requirements until the year 2020. Die Entwicklung des Weltenergiebedarfs bis zum Jahre 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amelung, T. (Ruhrkohle AG, Essen (Germany). Hauptabteilung Volks- und Energiewirtschaft-Kommunikation)

    1993-05-13

    The WEC study has clearly shown that despite all conceivable efforts in the field of environmental protection an increase in world energy consumption must also be anticipated in the future. The main cause of this increase is the growing energy requirement in the developing countries, which not only anticipate a high growth in population, but also rising per capita income in view of increasing prosperity in the next 30 years. Both will be reflected in an increasing energy requirement in these countries. According to the WEC study oil will still be the most important energy source ahead of coal in the year 2020, although the latter has substantially larger reserves. The background to this situation is the sharp fall in coal production and consumption in the CIS and in Central and Eastern Europe in the course of the transition from planned to market economies. 11 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. Freeway Driving Cycle Construction Based on Real-Time Traffic Information and Global Optimal Energy Management for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a freeway driving cycle (FDC construction method based on traffic information. A float car collected different type of roads in California and we built a velocity fragment database. We selected a real freeway driving cycle (RFDC and established the corresponding time traffic information tensor model by using the data in California Department of Transportation performance measure system (PeMS. The correlation of road velocity in the time dimension and spatial dimension are analyzed. According to the average velocity of road sections at different times, the kinematic fragments are stochastically selected in the velocity fragment database to construct a real-time FDC of each section. The comparison between construction freeway driving cycle (CFDC and real freeway driving cycle (RFDC show that the CFDC well reflects the RFDC characteristic parameters. Compared to its application in plug-in electric hybrid vehicle (PHEV optimal energy management based on a dynamic programming (DP algorithm, CFDC and RFDC fuel consumption are similar within approximately 5.09% error, and non-rush hour fuel economy is better than rush hour 3.51 (L/100 km at non-rush hour, 4.29 (L/km at rush hour. Moreover, the fuel consumption ratio can be up to 13.17% in the same CFDC at non-rush hour.

  2. Competition between the various fossil sources of energy on the European and world markets through the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, G.

    1980-06-01

    Crude oil will continue to dominate the world energy market and play the price-setting role through the year 2000, but its share of the total energy consumption in the non-Communist world should decline to approx. 50%. World crude oil production should stabilize at approx. 65 million bbl/day in the 1990's, of which approx. 30 million bbl/day would be produced by non-OPEC countries. The price of natural gas should remain to be linked to that of fuel oil, as long as the latter is in abundant supply. With the production costs of $45-$100/ton petroleum equivalent (tpe), most of West European coal is not competitive with the imported coal or with fuel oil and is expected to remain so through 2000. Outside Europe, particularly in the U.S., coal is entirely competitive and increasingly will be shipped to Europe and also converted to high-Btu gas. Nuclear energy and coal should progressively replace fuel oil and will compete in electricity production. Petroleum production from heavy crudes, oil shales, and tar sands is not expected to exceed 150 million tpe in 2000 because of the high costs of production, i.e., about $35,000/bbl/day by that time, and environmental problems.

  3. Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak-demand Mitigation: A Solution in Developing and Developed World Alike

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeForest, Nicholas; Mendes, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Feng, Wei; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris

    2013-06-02

    In much of the developed world, air-conditioning in buildings is the dominant driver of summer peak electricity demand. In the developing world a steadily increasing utilization of air-conditioning places additional strain on already-congested grids. This common thread represents a large and growing threat to the reliable delivery of electricity around the world, requiring capital-intensive expansion of capacity and draining available investment resources. Thermal energy storage (TES), in the form of ice or chilled water, may be one of the few technologies currently capable of mitigating this problem cost effectively and at scale. The installation of TES capacity allows a building to meet its on-peak air conditioning load without interruption using electricity purchased off-peak and operating with improved thermodynamic efficiency. In this way, TES has the potential to fundamentally alter consumption dynamics and reduce impacts of air conditioning. This investigation presents a simulation study of a large office building in four distinct geographical contexts: Miami, Lisbon, Shanghai, and Mumbai. The optimization tool DER-CAM (Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model) is applied to optimally size TES systems for each location. Summer load profiles are investigated to assess the effectiveness and consistency in reducing peak electricity demand. Additionally, annual energy requirements are used to determine system cost feasibility, payback periods and customer savings under local utility tariffs.

  4. Promotion COPERNIC Energy and Society the interrogations on the world demand evolution; Promotion COPERNIC Energie et Societe les interrogations sur l'evolution de la demande mondiale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    In the framework of a prospective reflexion emergence on the energy demand, this document presents an analysis of the prospective approach and of recent studies: challenges, interests, limits, validity of the models and hypothesis and results relevance. With this analysis, the authors aim to identify the main interrogations bond to the world energy demand evolution. They then analyse these interrogations in the framework of a sectoral approach (agriculture, industry, transports, residential) in order to detail the demand and to forecast the evolution. Facing the consumption attitudes, they also suggest some new action avenues to favor a sustainable growth. (A.L.B.)

  5. World's largest air shower array now on track of super-high-energy cosmic-rays Pierre Auger Observatory seeks source of highest-energy extraterrestrial particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "With the completion of its hundredth surface detector, the Pierre Auger Observatory, under construction in Argentina, this week became the largest cosmic-ray air shower array in the world. Managed by scientists at the Department of Energy's Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the Pierre Auger project so far encompasses a 70-square-mile array of detectors that are tracking the most violent-and perhaps most puzzling- processes in the entire universe" (1 page).

  6. The overview of nuclear energy situation in the World and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Yusuf Alper; Karagöz, Merve; Sayılmaz, Serhat

    2017-09-01

    The dependence on the energy and its use has increased in every country due to the increasing population and advanced technology. As a result of it, the reserves of fossil fuel have decreased, several energy crises have occurred from time to time and the alternative energy sources have been on the focus. One of these alternative energy sources is nuclear energy. The nuclear power plants, which were built in order to get nuclear energy, have attracted the attention thanks to some disadvantages such as its high cost and emission of radiation while they do not radiate harmful gases towards environment. The nuclear power plants that have already been and are planned to be constructed by a number of countries have become problematic because of the power plant accidents. On one hand, some countries have abandoned the nuclear power plants owing to the accidents mentioned above, on the other hand some other countries have continued to operate the nuclear power plants by claiming the necessity to meet the increasing demand on energy. It is seen that conflicts and problems experienced in the geography in which Turkey is located impacts the energy security of Turkey and it is understood that this situation may have a negative influence on national security of Turkey. Because of all these reasons, actualizing nuclear energy projects are important for Turkey which is dependent in respect of energy.

  7. The overview of nuclear energy situation in the World and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan Yusuf Alper

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence on the energy and its use has increased in every country due to the increasing population and advanced technology. As a result of it, the reserves of fossil fuel have decreased, several energy crises have occurred from time to time and the alternative energy sources have been on the focus. One of these alternative energy sources is nuclear energy. The nuclear power plants, which were built in order to get nuclear energy, have attracted the attention thanks to some disadvantages such as its high cost and emission of radiation while they do not radiate harmful gases towards environment. The nuclear power plants that have already been and are planned to be constructed by a number of countries have become problematic because of the power plant accidents. On one hand, some countries have abandoned the nuclear power plants owing to the accidents mentioned above, on the other hand some other countries have continued to operate the nuclear power plants by claiming the necessity to meet the increasing demand on energy. It is seen that conflicts and problems experienced in the geography in which Turkey is located impacts the energy security of Turkey and it is understood that this situation may have a negative influence on national security of Turkey. Because of all these reasons, actualizing nuclear energy projects are important for Turkey which is dependent in respect of energy.

  8. The Boom of Electricity Demand in the Residential Sector in the Developing World and the Potential for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.

    2008-05-13

    With the emergence of China as the world's largest energy consumer, the awareness of developing country energy consumption has risen. According to common economic scenarios, the rest of the developing world will probably see an economic expansion as well. With this growth will surely come continued rapid growth in energy demand. This paper explores the dynamics of that demand growth for electricity in the residential sector and the realistic potential for coping with it through efficiency. In 2000, only 66% of developing world households had access to electricity. Appliance ownership rates remain low, but with better access to electricity and a higher income one can expect that households will see their electricity consumption rise significantly. This paper forecasts developing country appliance growth using econometric modeling. Products considered explicitly - refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting, washing machines, fans, televisions, stand-by power, water heating and space heating - represent the bulk of household electricity consumption in developing countries. The resulting diffusion model determines the trend and dynamics of demand growth at a level of detail not accessible by models of a more aggregate nature. In addition, the paper presents scenarios for reducing residential consumption through cost-effective and/or best practice efficiency measures defined at the product level. The research takes advantage of an analytical framework developed by LBNL (BUENAS) which integrates end use technology parameters into demand forecasting and stock accounting to produce detailed efficiency scenarios, which allows for a realistic assessment of efficiency opportunities at the national or regional level. The past decades have seen some of the developing world moving towards a standard of living previously reserved for industrialized countries. Rapid economic development, combined with large populations has led to first China and now India to emerging as 'energy

  9. Heterogeneous world model and collaborative scenarios of transition to globally sustainable nuclear energy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Atomic Energy Agency's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO is to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute to meeting global energy needs of the 21st century in a sustainable manner. The INPRO task titled “Global scenarios” is to develop global and regional nuclear energy scenarios that lead to a global vision of sustainable nuclear energy in the 21st century. Results of multiple studies show that the criteria for developing sustainable nuclear energy cannot be met without innovations in reactor and nuclear fuel cycle technologies. Combining different reactor types and associated fuel chains creates a multiplicity of nuclear energy system arrangements potentially contributing to global sustainability of nuclear energy. In this, cooperation among countries having different policy regarding fuel cycle back end would be essential to bring sustainability benefits from innovations in technology to all interested users. INPRO has developed heterogeneous global model to capture countries’ different policies regarding the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle in regional and global scenarios of nuclear energy evolution and applied in a number of studies performed by participants of the project. This paper will highlight the model and major conclusions obtained in the studies.

  10. Real-world personal conversations using a hands-free embedded wireless device while driving: effect on airbag-deployment crash rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard A; Schreiner, Christopher

    2009-02-01

    A wireless device embedded in the vehicle allowed the user to engage in a personal hands-free conversation (HFC), and automatically placed an emergency notification call to an OnStar call center if the vehicle was involved in a crash in which its airbag deployed. A database stored the exact counts, start timestamps, and billed durations of all HFC and airbag notification calls. In 30 months of naturalistic driving, there were 91 million HFC calls from an average of 323,994 drivers per month who made calls. There were 14 airbag deployments in 276 million driver-minutes of HFC conversation for an exposed incidence rate of 5.08 airbag crashes per 100 million driver-minutes. There were 2,023 airbag deployments in an estimated 24.7 billion driver-minutes of no HFC conversation for a not-exposed incidence rate of 8.18 airbag crashes per 100 million driver-minutes. The crash incidence rate ratio (IRR) is the ratio of these two rates or 0.62 (95% C.I. 0.37 to 1.05). Sensitivity analyses controlled for the impact on the crash IRR of estimated time spent driving per day and calls by passengers. Counting all crashes as much as 20 minutes later than a call as related to that call gave similar results. We conclude that for personal conversations using a hands-free embedded device the risk of an airbag crash is somewhere in a range from a moderately lower risk to a risk near that of driving without a recent personal conversation. These results are not consistent with the large increase in crash risk reported in epidemiological studies using the case-crossover method.

  11. World champion with bio energy and ecological bread; Weltmeister bei Bioenergie und Oekobrot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franken, Marcus

    2009-06-15

    Copenhagen wants to be the first climate-neutral capital of the world. The Danes already know how they want to create the first 20 per cent of emission reduction up to 2015. For the next 80 per cent, they have a rough idea and a hope: The wind power is to arrange it.

  12. Degradation of selected industrial dyes using Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales under natural sun light as an alternative driving energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaraju, H. P.; Midhun, G.; Anil Kumar, K. M.; Pallavi, S.; Pallavi, N.; Behzad, Shahmoradi

    2017-11-01

    Designing photocatalytic materials with modified functionalities for the utilization of renewable energy sources as an alternative driving energy has attracted much attention in the area of sustainable wastewater treatment applications. Catalyst-assisted advanced oxidation process is an emerging treatment technology for organic pollutants and toxicants in industrial wastewater. Preparation of visible-light-responsive photocatalyst such as Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales was carried out under mild sol-gel technique. Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales were characterized by powder XRD, SEM, FTIR, and optical and photocatalytic activity techniques. The Mg-doped TiO2 showed a mixed phase of anatase and rutile with an excellent crystallinity, structural elucidations, polyscales morphology, consequent shifting of bandgap energy and adequate photocatalytic activities under visible range of light. Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales were investigated for their efficiencies in the degradation of most commonly used industrial dyes in the real-time textile wastewater. Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales showed excellent photocatalytic degradation efficiency in both model industrial dyes (65-95%) and textile wastewater (92%) under natural sunlight as an alternative and renewable driving energy.

  13. The 2015 Paris Climate Conference: A turning point in the world's energy history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, V. V.; Mikushina, O. V.; Tereshin, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    It has been established that the consistent implementation of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference implies the quick retire of coal from the global energy balance and its replacement with the energy from unconventional and renewable sources. It is shown that even the full-scale implementation of the agreement will not keep global warming within 2°C.

  14. Integrated national energy planning and management: methodology and application to Sri Lanka. World Bank technical paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munasinghe, M.; Meier, P.

    1988-01-01

    Given the importance of energy in modern economies, the first part of the volume is devoted to examining some of the key conceptual and analytical tools available for energy-policy analysis and planning. Policy tools and institutional frameworks that will facilitate better energy management are also discussed. Energy-policy analysis is explained, while effective energy management techniques are discussed to achieve desirable national objectives, using a selected set of policies and policy instruments. In the second part of the volume, the actual application of the principles set out earlier is explained through a case study of Sri Lanka. The monograph integrates the many aspects of the short-term programs already begun with the options for the medium to long term, and ends with the outline of a long-term strategy for Sri Lanka.

  15. Sleepy driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Nelson B; Chau, Jason K M

    2010-05-01

    Sleepiness and drowsiness are neurophysiologic states that may cause attenuation of vigilance and slowing of reaction times, and thus increase the risks of driving. This article reviews selected peer-reviewed publications from the past and present body of knowledge regarding sleepiness and drowsiness while driving and related accidents, injuries, and possible death. Comparative studies of driving drunk and driving sleepy are reviewed because both exhibit similarly dangerous driving behaviors. It is hoped that some of the information from this article could provide new interest in the necessity of education for sleepy drivers.

  16. Analysis of Upper Bound Power Output for a Wrist-Worn Rotational Energy Harvester from Real-World Measured Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, T.; Ma, X.; Rahn, C.; Roundy, S.

    2014-11-01

    Energy harvesting from human motion addresses the growing need for battery-free health and wellness sensors in wearable applications. The major obstacles to harvesting energy in such applications are low and random frequencies due to the nature of human motion. This paper presents a generalized rotational harvester model in 3 dimensions to determine the upper bound of power output from real world measured data. Simulation results indicate much space for improvement on power generation comparing to existing devices. We have developed a rotational energy harvester for human motion that attempts to close the gap between theoretical possibility and demonstrated devices. Like previous work, it makes use of magnetically plucked piezoelectric beams. However, it more fully utilizes the space available and has many degrees of freedom available for optimization. Finally we present a prototype harvester based on the coupled harvester model with preliminary experimental validation.

  17. Serving two purposes: Plans for a MOOC and a World Campus course called Energy, the Environment, and Our Future (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bralower, T. J.; Alley, R. B.; Blumsack, S.; Keller, K.; Feineman, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    We are in the final stages of developing a Massive Open Online Course entitled Energy, the Environment, and Our Future. The course is a broad overview of the implications of the current energy options on Earth's climate and the choices for more sustainable energy sources in the future. The course is founded in concepts explored in the book and PBS series Earth: The Operators' Manual, but it includes more in-depth treatment of renewable energy as well as the ethical issues surrounding energy choices. One of the key aspects of the course is that it is being designed to be taught in two formats, the first, an eight week MOOC through Coursera in Fall semester 2013, and the second, a 16 week online course developed as part of the NSF Geo-STEP InTeGrate program and offered through the Penn State World Campus. The advantage of the MOOC format is the ability to reach out to thousands of students worldwide, exposing them to the science behind important issues that may have a direct impact on the lifestyle decisions they make, while the World Campus course allows us to explore deeper levels of cognition through application of carefully designed pedagogies. The principal difference between the two versions of the course will be assessment. The MOOC will have embedded assessment between pages and end of module quizzes. The InTeGrate course will have a range of assessments that are directly linked to the goals and objectives of the course. These will include active learning exercises built around energy and climate data. Both of the versions are works in progress and we anticipate modifying them regularly based on student feedback.

  18. The Value of Energy Efficiency Programs for U.S. Residential and Commercial Buildings in a Warmer World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J; Dirks, James A; Cort, Katherine A

    2007-06-15

    U.S. residential and commercial buildings currently use about 39 quadrillion Btu (quads) of energy per year and account for 0.6 gigatonnes (GT) of carbon emitted to the atmosphere (38% of U.S. total emissions of 1.6 GT and approximately 9% of the world fossil-fuel related anthropogenic emissions of 6.7 GT). U.S. government buildings-related energy efficiency research and implementation programs are expected to reduce energy consumption in buildings. This has value both in reducing carbon emissions that result in global warming and adapting the U.S. residential and commercial building stock to a potentially warmer world. Analyses conducted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) show that the world’s climate could warm relative to 1990 by 0.4ºC to 1.2°C by the year 2030 and by 1.4°C to 5.8°C by the end of the 21st century. This paper shows that the effect of the regional projected warming on energy consumption in U.S. residential and commercial buildings is a net decrease ranging from about 5% in 2020 to as much as 20% in 2080, but with an increase of as much as 25% in space cooling. Buildings-related energy efficiency programs should reduce energy consumption in buildings by more than 2 quads in 2020, which would more than offset the growth in space cooling due to climate and growth in building stock combined, and would be worth between $28 and $33 billion.

  19. World energy outlook: Chevron forecasts supply and demand to the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zippay, S.

    Chevron analyzes major trends in supply and demand to create a framework for forecasting what the petroleum industry faces in the years ahead. A mulitiplicity of demand factors makes these predictions difficult, but Chevron's forecast differs from others in its attempt to match petroleum product demand with oil supply and refinery capacity for all regions of the world. Charts illustrate that, barring political or military restraints, there is enough recoverable crude oil to meet projected demand through the year 2000, with prices rising as production rates approach the world's capacity rates. Competition from natural gas, shale oil, and coal liquids will increase as price differentials narrow. US projections show an increasing dependence on oil imports from 30% in 1984 to over half of all US supplies by the year 2000. 3 figures.

  20. Matter, Space, Energy, and Political Economy: The Amazon in the World-System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G. Bunker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many authors have attempted co-incorporate the local into the global. World-systems analysis, though, is rooted in processes of production, and all production remains profoundly local. Understanding the expansion and intensification of the social and material relations of capitalism that have created and sustain the dynamic growth of the world-system from the local to the global requires analysis of material processes of natural and social production in space as differentiated by topography, hydrology, climate, and absolute distance betweenplaces. In this article, I consider some of the spatio-material configurations chat have struc-tured local effects on global formations within a single region, the Amazon Basin. I first detail and criticize the tendency in world system and globalization analysis, and in the modern social sciences generally, to use spatial metaphors without examining how space affects the material processes around which social actors organize economy and policy. I next examine thework of some earlier social scientists who analyzed specific materio-spatial configurations as these structured human social, economic, and political activities and organization, searching for possible theoretical or methodological tools for building from local to global analysis. I then review some recent analyses of spatio-material determinants of social and economic organiza-tion in the Amazon Basin. Finally, I show that the 400-year-long sequence of extractive econ-omies in the Amazon reflected the changing demands of expanded industrial production in the core, and how such processes can best be understood by focusing our analysis on spatio-material configurations of local extraction, transport, and production. The Amazon is but one of the specific environments that have supplied raw materials to changing global markets, but close consideration of how its material and spatial attributes shaped the global economy provides insights into the ways

  1. Achieving climate stabilization in an insecure world: does renewable energy hold the key? Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katofsky, Ryan; Stanberry, Matt; Frantzis, Lisa

    2010-07-12

    This renewable energy in global scenarios project has the objective to define an RETD Scenario with a high uptake of renewable energies. Computer models of the global energy system were, for the most part, developed under assumptions of smooth demand growth met primarily with large, centralised infrastructure, and perform well under these conditions. However, these assumptions are being undermined by several changes that require a re-evaluation of modelling algorithms. In an effort to address these changes and better understand their impact, RETD has defined its own scenario and developed it in collaboration with the Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP) Implementing Agreement, making use of a techno-economic bottom-up methodology. The scenario was modelled using the ETSAP-TIAM model.

  2. THE WORLD MAJOR SCIENTIFIC PERIODICALS TO BE USED BY RESEARCHERS OF “RENEWABLE ENERGY, LOCAL AND SECONDARY ENERGY RE-SOURCES”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Lazarev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the selection of аn acceptably representative sample of the world scientific periodicals to be used as backgrounds of a high-quality research should focus not only on specialized journals, but also on periodicals, the topics and the titles of which are formally not related to the research area. In the present study the determination of the best periodicals to be used in research on “Renewable energy, local and secondary energy resources” has been fulfilled with the aid of four varieties of citation analysis, twelve journals specialized in power production being used as the source items of citation data. The methods of the analysis were clarified and elaborated; the concept and the term “discipline receptivity factor” were proposed. The practical result is a list of 378 world periodicals, that is planned to be used in creating a comfortable scientific information environment by using the world leading databases reflecting the most valuable collection of scientific journals that are necessary for quality performance of scientific research on Priority areas of scientific-technical activity in the Republic of Belarus for 2016–2020 followed by the establishment of an operational system of electoral alert leading experts implementing the respective areas.

  3. Approaches for Planning and Implementing Sustainable Energy Growth in a Complex World: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, N.; Schwab, A.

    2012-06-01

    The subject of sustainable energy development has been widely discussed and debated in recent years. However, despite widespread interest, progress toward this goal has been limited. This paper will build on current thinking related to sustainable development, energy forecasting, and complexity theory and show how past roadmapping methodologies fall short. While proposing ways of thinking about our responses to global changes, we consider how we can create and discover the pathways through those unpredictable changes toward high global renewables penetration.

  4. High-power converters and AC drives

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This new edition reflects the recent technological advancements in the MV drive industry, such as advanced multilevel converters and drive configurations. It includes three new chapters, Control of Synchronous Motor Drives, Transformerless MV Drives, and Matrix Converter Fed Drives. In addition, there are extensively revised chapters on Multilevel Voltage Source Inverters and Voltage Source Inverter-Fed Drives. This book includes a systematic analysis on a variety of high-power multilevel converters, illustrates important concepts with simulations and experiments, introduces various megawatt drives produced by world leading drive manufacturers, and addresses practical problems and their mitigations methods.

  5. Exploring the world of physics from simple machines to nuclear energy

    CERN Document Server

    Tiner, John Hudson

    2006-01-01

    Did you know that a feather and a lump of lead will fall at the same rate in a vacuum? Learn about the history of physics from Aristotle to Galileo to Isaac Newton to the latest advances. Discover how the laws of motion and gravity affect everything from the normal activities of everyday life to launching rockets into space. Learn about the effects of inertia firsthand during fun and informative experiments. Exploring the World of Physicsis a great tool for students of all ages who want to have a deeper understanding of the important and interesting ways that physics affects our li

  6. A comparison of global optimization algorithms with standard benchmark functions and real-world applications using Energy Plus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamph, Jerome Henri; Robinson, Darren; Wetter, Michael

    2009-09-01

    There is an increasing interest in the use of computer algorithms to identify combinations of parameters which optimise the energy performance of buildings. For such problems, the objective function can be multi-modal and needs to be approximated numerically using building energy simulation programs. As these programs contain iterative solution algorithms, they introduce discontinuities in the numerical approximation to the objective function. Metaheuristics often work well for such problems, but their convergence to a global optimum cannot be established formally. Moreover, different algorithms tend to be suited to particular classes of optimization problems. To shed light on this issue we compared the performance of two metaheuristics, the hybrid CMA-ES/HDE and the hybrid PSO/HJ, in minimizing standard benchmark functions and real-world building energy optimization problems of varying complexity. From this we find that the CMA-ES/HDE performs well on more complex objective functions, but that the PSO/HJ more consistently identifies the global minimum for simpler objective functions. Both identified similar values in the objective functions arising from energy simulations, but with different combinations of model parameters. This may suggest that the objective function is multi-modal. The algorithms also correctly identified some non-intuitive parameter combinations that were caused by a simplified control sequence of the building energy system that does not represent actual practice, further reinforcing their utility.

  7. Lignite and hard coal: Energy suppliers for world needs until the year 2100 - An outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielemann, Thomas [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hanover (Germany); RWE Power AG, Stuettgenweg 2, D-50935 Cologne (Germany); Schmidt, Sandro; Peter Gerling, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hanover (Germany)

    2007-09-03

    For three years, international hard coal prices have been at rather expensive levels. Some argue that these higher prices might indicate the threat of a physical scarcity of fossil fuels - similar to the situation with oil and gas. This is not true. The supply situations with lignite and hard coal appear to be largely not critical. Adjusted to the rise in global coal consumption, which is expected until 2100, nature by and large can meet the world's coal demand. This is shown for lignite in this article and it is illustrated for hard coal here, differentiated in space and time for a world divided into eight regions and viewed for the years 2005, 2020, 2030, 2050, and 2100. The only area of potential concern is Asia (especially China). But today's and coming eager efforts in China to convert coal resources into reserves will most likely deliver the coal needed for the Chinese market. Up to the year 2100, and from a geoscientific point of view, there will be no bottleneck in coal supplies on this planet. (author)

  8. Pile Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Machine-oriented structural engineering firm TERA, Inc. is engaged in a project to evaluate the reliability of offshore pile driving prediction methods to eventually predict the best pile driving technique for each new offshore oil platform. Phase I Pile driving records of 48 offshore platforms including such information as blow counts, soil composition and pertinent construction details were digitized. In Phase II, pile driving records were statistically compared with current methods of prediction. Result was development of modular software, the CRIPS80 Software Design Analyzer System, that companies can use to evaluate other prediction procedures or other data bases.

  9. Alcohol mixed with energy drink use among u.s. 12th-grade students: prevalence, correlates, and associations with unsafe driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Meghan E; Patrick, Megan E; Schulenberg, John E

    2015-05-01

    The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) is a risky drinking behavior, most commonly studied using college samples. We know little about rates of AmED use and its associations with other risk behaviors, including unsafe driving, among high school students. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of AmED use among high school seniors in the United States. Nationally representative analytic samples included 6,498 12th-grade students who completed Monitoring the Future surveys in 2012 and 2013. Focal measures included AmED use, sociodemographic characteristics, academic and social factors, other substance use, and unsafe driving (i.e., tickets/warnings and accidents) after alcohol consumption. Approximately one in four students (24.8%) reported AmED use during the past 12 months. Rates of AmED use were highest among males and white students. Using multivariable logistic regression models controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, results indicate that students who cut class, spent more evenings out for fun and recreation, and reported binge drinking, marijuana use, and illicit drug use had a greater likelihood of AmED use. AmED use was also associated with greater odds of alcohol-related unsafe driving, even after controlling for sociodemographic, academic, and social factors and other substance use. AmED use among 12th-grade students is common and associated with certain sociodemographic, academic, social, and substance use factors. AmED use is also related to alcohol-related unsafe driving, which is a serious public health concern. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of market penetration of renewable energy alternatives under uncertain and carbon constrained world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Future energy prices and supply, availability and costs can have a significant impact on how fast and cost effectively we could abate carbon emissions. Two-staged decision making methods embedded in U.S. EPA's MARKAL modeling system will be utilized to find the most robust mitig...

  11. PS10: First attempt to commercial solar energy in the world

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    The field of solar energy research has reached a level of maturity where truly commercial applications can be envisaged. The fascinating story of one of the first prototypes will be presented. PLEASE NOTE UNUSUAL TIME: The Colloquium will begin at 16:00

  12. Building America FY 2016 Annual Report: Building America Is Driving Real Solutions in the Race to Zero Energy Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sara Farrar, Stacey Rothgeb, Ben Polly, Lieko Earle, and Tim Merrigan

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America Program enables the transformation of the U.S. housing industry to achieve energy savings through energy-efficient, high-performance homes with improved durability, comfort, and health for occupants. Building America bridges the gap between the development of emerging technologies and the adoption of codes and standards by engaging industry partners in applied research, development, and demonstration of high-performance solutions.

  13. Microlinear piezo drive experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Azin, A. V.; Bogdanov, Evgeny Petrovich; Rikkonen, S. V.; PONOMAREV S.V.; Khramtsov, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The article embraces the experimental description of the micro linear piezo drive intended for the peripheral cord tensioner in the reflecting surface shape regulator system for large-sized transformable spacecraft antenna reflectors. The research target is the experimental investigation of the micro linear piezo drive to determine the stable oscillatory system operating modes which would include improved energy conversion parameters. The following points are briefly presented: test stand con...

  14. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  15. A network analysis of the global energy market: an insight on the entanglement between crude oil and the world economy

    CERN Document Server

    Ruzzenenti, Franco; Papandreou, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    One major hurdle in the road toward a low carbon economy is the present entanglement of developed economies with oil. This tight relationship is mirrored in the correlation between most of economic indicators with oil price. This paper addresses the role of oil compared to the other three main energy commodities -coal, gas and electricity, in shaping the international trading network (ITW or WTW, world trade web) in the light of network theory. It initially surveys briefly the literature on the correlation between oil prices with economic growth and compares the concepts of time correlation with the concept of spatial correlation brought about by network theory. It outlines the conceptual framework underpinning the network measures adopted in the analysis and results are presented. Three measures are taken into account: the ratio of mutual exchanges in the network (reciprocity); the role of distances in determining trades (spatial filling); and the spatial correlation of energy commodities with the whole trad...

  16. The state of exploitation of geothermal energy and some interesting achievements in geothermal research and development in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Rajver

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the latest status of geothermal energy use worldwide and the comparison with the previous period, both in electricity generation as well as in the various categories of direct use. Electricity production takes place in 26 countries and has at the end of 2014 reached 73,700 GWh from geothermal power plants with nearly 12.8 GW of installed power. This is still only 0.31 % of the total electricity produced in the world and it will be interesting to monitor the future share of geothermal energy in doing so. In the last 5-year period the development was particularly rapid in countries where it was slower in the past and, however, with favorable geological (tectonic conditions (Iceland, Kenya, New Zealand, Turkey, etc.. Direct use of geothermal energy covers a signifiant number of countries, today there are 82, although some of them are such where it takes place almost solely by geothermal (ground-source heat pumps (GHP on shallow subsurface energy (Finland. Installed capacity in the direct use is 70,885 MWt and geothermal energy used, including the GHP, is 592,638 TJ/year (end of 2014. Within the used energy the share of GHP dominates with 55.2 %, followed by the bathing and swimming pools complexes incl. balneology by 20.2 %, space heating by 15.0 % (the majority of it is district heating, heating of greenhouses and soil with 4.9 %, etc. The second part presents some interesting technological and scientifi innovations in exploration and exploitation of geothermal energy.

  17. Global energy crunch: How different parts of the world would react to a peak oil scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrichs, Joerg, E-mail: joerg.friedrichs@qeh.ox.ac.u [University of Oxford, Department of International Development, Queen Elizabeth House, 3 Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TB (United Kingdom); St Cross College, 61 St Giles, Oxford OX1 3LZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Peak oil theory predicts that oil production will soon start a terminal decline. Most authors imply that no adequate alternate resource and technology will be available to replace oil as the backbone resource of industrial society. This article uses historical cases from countries that have gone through a similar experience as the best available analytical strategy to understand what will happen if the predictions of peak oil theorists are right. The author is not committed to a particular version of peak oil theory, but deems the issue important enough to explore how various parts of the world should be expected to react. From the historical record he is able to identify predatory militarism, totalitarian retrenchment, and socioeconomic adaptation as three possible trajectories.

  18. Global energy crunch. How different parts of the world would react to a peak oil scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrichs, Joerg [University of Oxford, Department of International Development, Queen Elizabeth House, 3 Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TB (United Kingdom); St Cross College, 61 St Giles, Oxford OX1 3LZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Peak oil theory predicts that oil production will soon start a terminal decline. Most authors imply that no adequate alternate resource and technology will be available to replace oil as the backbone resource of industrial society. This article uses historical cases from countries that have gone through a similar experience as the best available analytical strategy to understand what will happen if the predictions of peak oil theorists are right. The author is not committed to a particular version of peak oil theory, but deems the issue important enough to explore how various parts of the world should be expected to react. From the historical record he is able to identify predatory militarism, totalitarian retrenchment, and socioeconomic adaptation as three possible trajectories. (author)

  19. Wavelength Detuning Cross-Beam Energy Transfer Mitigation Scheme for Direct-Drive: Modeling and Evidence from National Ignition Facility Implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marozas, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) has been shown to significantly reduce the laser absorption and implosion speed in direct-drive implosion experiments on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Mitigating CBET assists in achieving ignition-relevant hot-spot pressures in deuterium-tritium cryogenic OMEGA implosions. In addition, reducing CBET permits lower, more hydrodynamically stable, in-flight aspect ratio ignition designs with smaller nonuniformity growth during the acceleration phase. Detuning the wavelengths of the crossing beams is one of several techniques under investigation at the University of Rochester to mitigate CBET. This talk will describe these techniques with an emphasis on wavelength detuning. Recent experiments designed and predicted using multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations including CBET on the NIF have exploited the wavelength arrangement of the NIF beam geometry to demonstrate CBET mitigation through wavelength detuning in polar-direct-drive (PDD) implosions. Shapes and trajectories inferred from time-resolved x-ray radiography of the imploding shell, scattered-light spectra, and hard x-ray spectra generated by suprathermal electrons all indicate a reduction in CBET. These results and their implications for direct-drive ignition will be presented and discussed. In addition, hydrodynamically scaled ignition-relevant designs for OMEGA implosions exploiting wavelength detuning will be presented. Changes required to the OMEGA laser to permit wavelength detuning will be discussed. Future plans for PDD on the NIF including more-uniform implosions with CBET mitigation will be explored. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  20. NCPV preprints for the 2. world conference on photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The proceedings contain 26 papers arranged under the following topical sections: Silicon (3 papers); Thin-film PV technologies (11 papers): amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, copper indium diselenide, and high efficiency devices; Module and BOS manufacturing (2 papers); Cell, module, and system testing (7 papers); and Market development (3 papers). Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Long-Term Fatigue Life Expenditure of Turbine Shafts Owing to Noncharacteristic Harmonics Produced by Slip Energy Recovery Induction Motor Drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jong-Ian

    In this paper, the long-term effect of noncharacteristic harmonics resulting from a slip energy recovery induction motor drive (SERIMD) on the fatigue life expenditure of turbine-generator shafts is analyzed. A feed-water pump (FP) in power plants is one of the most essential pieces of auxiliary equipment and consumes considerably large quantities of energy. An SERIMD has many advantages and is an adequate candidate for the purpose of variable speed control. However, it gives rise to sustainable variable frequency subharmonics which induce electromechanical subsynchronous oscillations in turbine shafts through proposed deductions. Accordingly, the author has determined that the long-term effect of these subharmonics is a cause of fatigue damage on turbine shafts even under normal operating conditions through fatigue life estimation.

  2. The domestic natural gas and oil initiative. Energy leadership in the world economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    Two key overarching goals of this Initiative are enhancing the efficiency and competitiveness of U.S. industry and reducing the trends toward higher imports. These goals take into account new Federal policies that reflect economic needs, including economic growth, deficit reduction, job creation and security, and global competitiveness, as well as the need to preserve the environment, improve energy efficiency, and provide for national security. The success of this Initiative clearly requires coordinated strategies that range far beyond policies primarily directed at natural gas and oil supplies. Therefore, this Initiative proposes three major strategic activities: Strategic Activity 1 -- increase domestic natural gas and oil production and environmental protection by advancing and disseminating new exploration, production, and refining technologies; Strategic Activity 2 -- stimulate markets for natural gas and natural-gas-derived products, including their use as substitutes for imported oil where feasible; and Strategic Activity 3 -- ensure cost-effective environmental protection by streamlining and improving government communication, decision making, and regulation. Finally, the Initiative will reexamine the costs and benefits of increase oil imports through a broad new Department of Energy study. This study will form the basis for additional actions found to be warranted under the study.

  3. Spatial Heterogeneity of Energy-Related CO2 Emission Growth Rates around the World and Their Determinants during 1990–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yebing Fang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial heterogeneity and driving force identification of energy-related CO2 emissions (ECEs can help build consensus for mitigating CO2 emissions and designing appropriate policies. However, previous studies on ECEs that focus on both the global-regional scale and the interaction of factors have been seldom conducted. In this paper, ECE data from 143 countries from 1990 to 2014 were selected to analyze regional differences in ECE growth rates by using the coefficient of variation. Then a geographical detector was used to analyze the key determinant factors on ECE growth rates around the world and in eight types of regions. The results show that: (1 the ECE growth rate in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD region is low and tended to decrease, while in the non-OECD region it is high and tended to increase; (2 the coefficient of variation and detection factor of ECE growth rates at a regional scale are higher than those at a global scale; (3 in terms of the key determinant factors, population growth rate, growth rate of per capita GDP, and energy intensity growth rate are the three key determinant factors of ECE growth rates in the OECD region and most of the non-OECD regions such as non-OECD European and Eurasian (NO-EE, Asia (NO-AS, non-OECD Americas (NO-AM. The key determinant factors in the African (NO-AF region are population growth rates and natural gas carbon intensity growth rates. The key determinant factors of the Middle East (NO-ME are population growth rate, coal carbon intensity growth rate and per capita GDP growth rate; (4 the determinant power of the detection factor, the population growth rate at the global scale and regional scale is the strongest, showing a significant spatial consistency. The determinant power of per capita GDP growth rate and energy intensity growth rate in the OECD region, respectively, rank second and third, also showing a spatial consistency. However, the

  4. Uranium: War, Energy and the Rock That Shaped the World; Uranium: la biographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoellner, T.

    2009-07-01

    Having traveled extensively through the savannah of Africa, the mountains of Eastern Europe, and the deserts of Utah, the author delves into the complex science, politics and history of uranium, which presents the best and worst of mankind: the capacity for scientific progress and political genius; the capacity for nihilism, exploitation, and terror. Because the author covers so much ground, from the discovery of radioactivity, through the development of the atomic bomb, he does not go into great depth on any one topic. Nonetheless, he paints vivid pictures of uranium's impact, including forced labor in Soviet mines and lucky prospectors who struck it rich in harsh environments, the spread of uranium smuggling, as well as an explanation of why it was absurd to claim that Saddam Hussein was attempting to purchase significant quantities of uranium from Niger. The only shortcoming is the author's omission of the issue of radioactive wastes generated by nuclear power. The author knows well what uranium looks like, why peril pulses in its every atom, and how scientists exploit its nuclear volatility. The drama is found in the weaponry uranium has spawned as demonstrated at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In pursuit of this raw power, the U.S. let Navajos die extracting needed ore and let southwestern cities sicken beneath clouds from reckless testing. The Soviet Union sentenced tens of thousands to lethal gulag mines. Israel diverted ore through deception on the high seas. Pakistan stole European refining technology. Alive with devious personalities, the author's narrative ultimately exposes the frightening vulnerability of a world with too many sources of a dangerous substance and too little wisdom to control it

  5. International wind energy development. World market update 1996. Forecast 1997-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    It is intended topublish and update this report `International Wind Power Development - Market Update 1996` every year in March. The latest issue was published in December of 1995 by BTM Consult ApS. Market data for demand side does normally, where it has been possible, only include installed wind turbines which has been connected to the grid during 1996. Supply side data is based on collected information (reference lists) from the 12-15 largest wind turbine manufacturers in the world. Due to these circumstances there are some conflicts between demand side and supply side data. Another important factor is that all wind turbine manufacturers do not use the same methodology when they are making their reference lists. Some manufacturers include only installed and operating wind turbines, while others include all units shipped from the factory. This is another conflict that might cause some differences in the data. Lately another new issue has been added to the list of uncertain factors, which is: is a Nordex Balcke-Duerr wind turbine Danish or German? And is a Gamesa Eolica wind turbine Danish or Spanish? etc. To minimize annual variations, this report includes the last 3 years data for the largest markets and wind turbine manufacturers. The prognosis includes data for the next 5 years until the year 2001, and an estimate has also been included for development until the year 2005. This version of the report can be found on internet web-pages: http://home4.inet.tele.dk/btmcwind/index.html. (EG)

  6. Short- and long-range energy strategies for Japan and the world after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, K.; Wagner, F.; Yamagata, Y.; Donné, A. J. H.

    2016-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station in 2011 has caused profound effects on energy policies in Japan and worldwide. This is particularly because it occurred at the time of the growing awareness of global warming forcing measures towards decarbonised energy production, namely the use of fossil fuels has to be drastically reduced from the present level of more than 80% by 2050. A dilemma has now emerged because nuclear power, a CO2-free technology with proven large-scale energy production capability, lost confidence in many societies, especially in Japan and Germany. As a consequence, there is a world-wide effort now to expand renewable energies (REs), specifically photo-voltaic (PV) and wind power. However, the authors conjecture that PV and wind power can provide only up to a 40% share of the electricity production as long as sufficient storage is not available. Beyond this level, the technological (high grid power) and economic problems (large surplus production) grow. This is the result of the analysis of the growing use of REs in the electricity systems for Germany and Japan. The key element to overcome this situation is to develop suitable energy storage technologies. This is particularly necessary when electricity will become the main energy source because also transportation, process heat and heating, will be supplied by it. Facing the difficulty in replacing all fossil fuels in all countries with different technology standards, a rapid development of carbon capture and storage (CCS) might also be necessary. Therefore, for the short-range strategy up to 2050, all meaningful options have to be developed. For the long-range strategy beyond 2050, new energy sources (such as thermonuclear fusion, solar fuels and nuclear power—if inherently safe concepts will gain credibility of societies again), and large-scale energy storage systems based on novel concepts (such as large-capacity batteries and hydrogen) is required. It is acknowledged

  7. Driving Demand for Home Energy Improvements: Motivating residential customers to invest in comprehensive upgrades that eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Merrian C.

    2010-09-20

    Policy makers and program designers in the U.S. and abroad are deeply concerned with the question of how to scale up energy efficiency to a level that is commensurate both to the scale of the energy and climate challenges we face, and to the potential for energy savings that has been touted for decades. When policy makers ask what energy efficiency can do, the answers usually revolve around the technical and economic potential of energy efficiency - they rarely hone in on the element of energy demand that matters most for changing energy usage in existing homes: the consumer. A growing literature is concerned with the behavioral underpinnings of energy consumption. We examine a narrower, related subject: How can millions of Americans be persuaded to divert valued time and resources into upgrading their homes to eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy? With hundreds of millions of public dollars flowing into incentives, workforce training, and other initiatives to support comprehensive home energy improvements, it makes sense to review the history of these programs and begin gleaning best practices for encouraging comprehensive home energy improvements. Looking across 30 years of energy efficiency programs that targeted the residential market, many of the same issues that confronted past program administrators are relevant today: How do we cost-effectively motivate customers to take action? Who can we partner with to increase program participation? How do we get residential efficiency programs to scale? While there is no proven formula - and only limited success to date with reliably motivating large numbers of Americans to invest in comprehensive home energy improvements, especially if they are being asked to pay for a majority of the improvement costs - there is a rich and varied history of experiences that new programs can draw upon. Our primary audiences are policy makers and program designers - especially those that are relatively

  8. Solar energy as fuel to move the world; La energia solar como combustible para mover al mundo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Arturo; Gamboa, Sergio [Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Among the technologies that can be used to take properly advantage of the Sun, we have the development of various solar devices, ranging from the solar collectors, equipment that convert the solar radiation into heat, until the solar cells that convert sunlight into electricity. The development and implementation of these devices in various countries of the world, has allowed us to evaluate the technical feasibility of the technologies associated with the development and use of Renewable Energies to solve the global energy problems, and, in this way, achieve the long-awaited energy independence to which aspire all the nations of the planet. [Spanish] Entre las tecnologias que se pueden utilizar para aprovechar de forma adecuada al Sol, tenemos el desarrollo de diversos dispositivos solares, los cuales van desde los captadores solares, equipos que convierten la radiacion solar en calor, hasta las celdas solares, que convierten la luz del Sol en electricidad. El desarrollo e implementacion de estos dispositivos en diversos paises del mundo, han permitido evaluar la factibilidad tecnica de las tecnologias asociadas al aprovechamiento y uso de las Energias Renovables para resolver los problemas energeticos globales, y, de esta forma, conseguir la tan ansiada independencia energetica a la que aspiran todas las naciones del planeta.

  9. Geothermal power plants around the world. A sourcebook on the production of electricity from geothermal energy, draft of Chapter 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo, R.

    1979-02-01

    This report constitutes a consolidation and a condensation of several individual topical reports dealing with the geothermal electric power stations around the world. An introduction is given to various types of energy conversion systems for use with geothermal resouces. Power plant performance and operating factors are defined and discussed. Existing geothermal plants in the following countries are covered: China, El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, Turkey, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and the United States. In each case, the geological setting is outlined, the geothermal fluid characteristics are given, the gathering system, energy conversion system, and fluid disposal method are described, and the environmental impact is discussed. In some cases the economics of power generation are also presented. Plans for future usage of geothermal energy are described for the above-mentioned countries and the following additional ones: the Azores (Portugal), Chile, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Kenya, Nicaragua, and Panama. Technical data is presented in twenty-two tables; forty-one figures, including eleven photographs, are also included to illustrate the text. A comprehensive list of references is provided for the reader who wishes to make an in-depth study of any of the topics mentioned.

  10. Energy Levels of Light Nuclei, A = 3--20, Available from Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheves, C. M.; Chasteler, R. M.; Guillemette, J. F.; Laymon, C. M.; Weller, H. R.; Tilley, D. R.

    1996-10-01

    The Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) Nuclear Data Evaluation Group provides an extensive collection of nuclear data information for A=3--20 on the World Wide Web. Currently included are: Energy Level Diagrams for A=4--20. (2) Abridged versions of TUNL's most recent evaluations, ``Energy Levels of Light Nuclei'' for A=16, 17, 18, 19, and 20 (preliminary). (3) Adopted levels and decay data in ENSDAT style for A=3--20 nuclei as well as reaction data for A=18, 19. This format is similar to the Nuclear Data Sheets style for higher mass nuclei and is based on information from the NNDC Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENSDF). (4) The A=1--20 portion of the Table of Isotopes, which was provided to TUNL by the Berkeley Isotopes Project. (5) Information about the current status of A=3--20 ``Energy Levels of Light Nuclei'' reviews by Fay Ajzenberg-Selove and by the TUNL group. (6) Abridged versions of Fay Ajzenberg-Selove's most recent evaluation for A=5--10. Work supported by DOE Contract Nos. DEFG05-91-ER40619 and DEFG05-88-ER40441.

  11. Bioenergy to save the world. Producing novel energy plants for growth on abandoned land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Peter; Herzig, Rolf; Bojinov, Bojin; Ruttens, Ann; Nehnevajova, Erika; Stamatiadis, Stamatis; Memon, Abdul; Vassilev, Andon; Caviezel, Mario; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2008-05-01

    , where energy and raw material prices have drastically increased over the last decade, they necessitate the development and the establishment of alternative concepts. Biotechnology is available to apply fast breeding to promising energy plant species. It is important that our valuable arable land is preserved for agriculture. The opportunity to switch from low-income agriculture to biogas production may convince small farmers to adhere to their business and by that preserve the identity of rural communities. Overall, biogas is a promising alternative for the future, because its resource base is widely available, and single farms or small local cooperatives might start biogas plant operation.

  12. Distracted Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about 5 seconds, long enough to cover a football field while driving at 55 mph. 4 How ... 8 On September 17, 2010, the Federal Railroad Administration banned cell phone and electronic device use of ...

  13. Characterization of real-world vibration sources with a view toward optimal energy harvesting architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantz, Robert; Roundy, Shad

    2016-04-01

    A tremendous amount of research has been performed on the design and analysis of vibration energy harvester architectures with the goal of optimizing power output; most studies assume idealized input vibrations without paying much attention to whether such idealizations are broadly representative of real sources. These "idealized input signals" are typically derived from the expected nature of the vibrations produced from a given source. Little work has been done on corroborating these expectations by virtue of compiling a comprehensive list of vibration signals organized by detailed classifications. Vibration data representing 333 signals were collected from the NiPS Laboratory "Real Vibration" database, processed, and categorized according to the source of the signal (e.g. animal, machine, etc.), the number of dominant frequencies, the nature of the dominant frequencies (e.g. stationary, band-limited noise, etc.), and other metrics. By categorizing signals in this way, the set of idealized vibration inputs commonly assumed for harvester input can be corroborated and refined, and heretofore overlooked vibration input types have motivation for investigation. An initial qualitative analysis of vibration signals has been undertaken with the goal of determining how often a standard linear oscillator based harvester is likely the optimal architecture, and how often a nonlinear harvester with a cubic stiffness function might provide improvement. Although preliminary, the analysis indicates that in at least 23% of cases, a linear harvester is likely optimal and in no more than 53% of cases would a nonlinear cubic stiffness based harvester provide improvement.

  14. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume IX. Nuclear facility profiles, IN--PL. [Brief tabulated information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    In this compendium each profile of a nuclear facility is a capsule summary of pertinent facts regarding that particular installation. The facilities described include the entire fuel cycle in the broadest sense, encompassing resource recovery through waste management. Power plants and all US facilities have been excluded. To facilitate comparison the profiles have been recorded in a standard format. Because of the breadth of the undertaking some data fields do not apply to the establishment under discussion and accordingly are blank. The set of nuclear facility profiles occupies four volumes; the profiles are ordered by country name, and then by facility code. Each nuclear facility profile volume contains two complete indexes to the information. The first index aggregates the facilities alphabetically by country. It is further organized by category of facility, and then by the four-character facility code. It provides a quick summary of the nuclear energy capability or interest in each country and also an identifier, the facility code, which can be used to access the information contained in the profile.

  15. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume X. Nuclear facility profiles, PO--ZA. [Brief tabulated information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    In this compendium each profile of a nuclear facility is a capsule summary of pertinent facts regarding that particular installation. The facilities described include the entire fuel cycle in the broadest sense, encompassing resource recovery through waste management. Power plants and all US facilities have been excluded. To facilitate comparison the profiles have been recorded in a standard format. Because of the breadth of the undertaking some data fields do not apply to the establishment under discussion and accordingly are blank. The set of nuclear facility profiles occupies four volumes; the profiles are ordered by country name, and then by facility code. Each nuclear facility profile volume contains two complete indexes to the information. The first index aggregates the facilities alphabetically by country. It is further organized by category of facility, and then by the four-character facility code. It provides a quick summary of the nuclear energy capability or interest in each country and also an identifier, the facility code, which can be used to access the information contained in the profile.

  16. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume VIII. Nuclear facility profiles, CO--HU. [Brief tabulated information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    In this compendium each profile of a nuclear facility is a capsule summary of pertinent facts regarding that particular installation. The facilities described include the entire fuel cycle in the broadest sense, encompassing resource recovery through waste management. Power plants and all US facilities have been excluded. To facilitate comparison the profiles have been recorded in a standard format. Because of the breadth of the undertaking some data fields do not apply to the establishment under discussion and accordingly are blank. The set of nuclear facility profiles occupies four volumes; the profiles are ordered by country name, and then by facility code. Each nuclear facility profile volume contains two complete indexes to the information. The first index aggregates the facilities alphabetically by country. It is further organized by category of facility, and then by the four-character facility code. It provides a quick summary of the nuclear energy capability or interest in each country and also an identifier, the facility code, which can be used to access the information contained in the profile.

  17. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume VII. Nuclear facility profiles, AG--CH. [Brief tabulated information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    In this compendium each profile of a nuclear facility is a capsule summary of pertinent facts regarding that particular installation. The facilities described include the entire fuel cycle in the broadest sense, encompassing resource recovery through waste management. Power plants and all US facilities have been excluded. To facilitate comparison the profiles have been recorded in a standard format. Because of the breadth of the undertaking some data fields do not apply to the establishment under discussion and accordingly are blank. The set of nuclear facility profiles occupies four volumes; the profiles are ordered by country name, and then by facility code. Each nuclear facility profile volume contains two complete indexes to the information. The first index aggregates the facilities alphabetically by country. It is further organized by category of facility, and then by the four-character facility code. It provides a quick summary of the nuclear energy capability or interest in each country and also an identifier, the facility code, which can be used to access the information contained in the profile.

  18. Next Generation Intelligent Driver-Vehicle-Infrastructure Cooperative System for Energy Efficient Driving in Connected Vehicle Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Xuewei

    2016-01-01

    Transportation-related fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions have received increasing public concern in recent years. To reduce energy consumption and mitigate the environmental impact of transportation activities, this dissertation research work aims at providing technical solutions by taking advantage of recent technology development in vehicle automation, vehicle connectivity and vehicle electrification. More specifically, a driver-vehicle-infrastructure cooperative framewor...

  19. Low-foot rugby hohlraum experiments on the NIF: Wall-gas mix and a connection with missing x-ray drive energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, Peter; Ross, J. Steven; Schneider, Marilyn; Jones, Oggie; Milovich, Jose; Moody, John

    2014-10-01

    Rugby-shaped hohlraums on the NIF have shown strong symmetry anomalies when simulated with the high-flux model. The wall-gas interface is Rayleigh-Taylor unstable and may lead to the formation of a late-time mix layer that impedes inner- cone propagation, resulting in a drive asymmetry on the capsule. Due to the rugby curvature near the laser entrance hole, the effect of mix may be more pronounced than in cylinders. At the same time a persistent pattern of 15--25% missing energy has been inferred in gas-filled hohlraums (ρ >= 0 . 96 mg/cc). A possible physical connection between formation of a mix layer and the plasma adiabatic lapse rate, where a temperature-gradient reversal is predicted to occur, is explored. Such a profile reversal, in turn, hinders electron conduction to the dense (ρ > 0 . 2 g/cc) Au region responsible for ~900 eV drive x-ray emission, leading to a hotter coronal plasma and reduced hohlraum efficiency. Remedial measures for recovering the loss in hohlraum efficiency through the use of higher-Z gas fills are explored. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Technical prerequisites for efficient drive systems - Fundamentals for SwissEnergy measures; Technische Grundlagen effizienter Antriebssysteme. Grundlagen fuer Aktionen (Massnahmen) von Energieschweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, G.; Ritz, Ch.

    2007-03-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the technical prerequisites necessary for the implementation of various measures that are to be taken to promote efficient electrical drive systems. The document defines the approach taken and describes the methodologies to be used, including market analysis, the collection of basic data, the definition of measures and the acquisition of partners. The potential for making savings is estimated. Eight areas of action are defined, including the organisation of tutorials, exchange of experience, knowledge transfer, basic consulting services, the deployment of consultants, the setting-up of an Internet portal, information transfer in conferences and the optimisation of auxiliaries in domestic installations. A comprehensive annex completes the report.

  1. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  2. Producing an integrated climate-land-energy-water (CLEW) model for glaciated regions in the developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delman, E. M.; Thomas, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Growing concern over the impact of climate change on global freshwater resources has spurred a demand for practical, basin-specific adaptation tools. The potential for water stress is particularly inflated in the glaciated watersheds of the developing world; widespread and rapid glacial retreat has forced regional resource managers to reconcile the reality of a diminishing supply with an overall increase in demand, while accounting for the underlying geopolitical and cultural context. An integrated approach, such as the development of a Climate-Land-Energy-Water (CLEW) model that examines relationships among climate, land-use, and the energy and water sectors, can be used to assess the impact of different climate change scenarios on basin sustainability and vulnerability. This study will first constrain the hydrologic budget in the Río Santa Watershed of Peru using satellite imagery, historical and contemporary stream discharge data, hydrologic modeling, climatic data analysis, and isotopic and chemical tracers. Ultimately, glacier retreat will be examined at the watershed scale and be used as an input in the CLEW model framework to assess hydrologic budget scenarios and the subsequent impact on regional economic and environmental sustainability.

  3. North-East Germany, one of the most challenging regions of the world for the grid integration of renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Harald [Center for Energy Technology Brandenburg (CEBra), Cottbus (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The North-East of Germany is one the regions of the world with the highest density of renewable energies. The consumer demand will vary between 4 - 11 GW. In addition to the conventional generation of 15 GW actually another 12 GW from renewable sources and 7 GW from urban combined cycle were installed in the past decade. It will be expected that this generation capacity will exceed from 34 GW to 50 GW until 2020. This high overcapacity, combined with limitations in the transmission and distribution grids will be a future challenge. Brandenburg University of Technology (BTU) in Cottbus made a detailed governmental study (download www.tu-cottbus.de/cebra/) in 2006-08, how to improve the grid structure for these future needs. Based on this initial work we now focus on the one hand side on different storage solutions, e.g. wide spread use of e-car batteries or use of electrolysers, to store energy in the gas grid. Furthermore we offer professional training of grid control staff together with 50-Hertz Transmission in a new grid training center, which is one of the most powerfully in Europe. (orig.)

  4. XUV-initiated high harmonic generation: driving inner valence electrons using below-threshold-energy XUV light

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, A C

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme for resolving the contribution of inner- and outer-valence electrons in XUV-initiated high-harmonic generation in neon. By probing the atom with a low energy (below the 2s ionisation threshold) ultrashort XUV pulse, the 2p electron is steered away from the core, while the 2s electron is enabled to describe recollision trajectories. By selectively suppressing the 2p recollision trajectories we can resolve the contribution of the 2s electron to the high-harmonic spectrum. We apply the classical trajectory model to account for the contribution of the 2s electron, which allows for an intuitive understanding of the process.

  5. United-Kingdom, world leader for offshore wind energy; Le Royaume-Uni, leader mondial de l'eolien offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poudevigne, E.

    2011-06-15

    Important investments have been made recently in the United-Kingdom from a series of companies: Clipper, Mitsubishi, GE, Siemens, and Gamesa for the development of offshore wind energy. United Kingdom ranks first in the world for offshore wind energy with an installed capacity of 1.3 GW in 2010 which represents 40% of the installed capacity at the world level. At the end of 2010, 436 wind turbines were operating off the UK coasts, moreover 2.2 GW of capacity are being constructed and 1.8 GW more are planned in the next future. The main asset of U.K. is its huge potential for offshore wind energy: 5000 TWh and its large sea area available for wind farms: more than 115.000 km{sup 2}. Offshore wind energy benefits largely from the recent U.K. national renewable energy action plan. (A.C.)

  6. The potential of imposed magnetic fields for enhancing ignition probability and fusion energy yield in indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, L. J.; Ho, D. D.-M.; Logan, B. G.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Rhodes, M. A.; Strozzi, D. J.; Blackfield, D. T.; Hawkins, S. A.

    2017-06-01

    We examine the potential that imposed magnetic fields of tens of Tesla that increase to greater than 10 kT (100 MGauss) under implosion compression may relax the conditions required for ignition and propagating burn in indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. This may allow the attainment of ignition, or at least significant fusion energy yields, in presently performing ICF targets on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) that today are sub-marginal for thermonuclear burn through adverse hydrodynamic conditions at stagnation [Doeppner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 055001 (2015)]. Results of detailed two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic-burn simulations applied to NIF capsule implosions with low-mode shape perturbations and residual kinetic energy loss indicate that such compressed fields may increase the probability for ignition through range reduction of fusion alpha particles, suppression of electron heat conduction, and potential stabilization of higher-mode Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Optimum initial applied fields are found to be around 50 T. Given that the full plasma structure at capsule stagnation may be governed by three-dimensional resistive magneto-hydrodynamics, the formation of closed magnetic field lines might further augment ignition prospects. Experiments are now required to further assess the potential of applied magnetic fields to ICF ignition and burn on NIF.

  7. The Caspian Sea regionalism in a globalized world: Energy security and regional trajectories of Azerbaijan and Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedjazi, Babak

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation is fundamentally about the formation of new regional spaces in Central Eurasia viewed from a dynamic, comparative and historical approach. Analyzing the global-local economic and political interactions and their consequences on resource rich countries of the Caspian Sea enable us to reframe security as a central element of the new global order. In this respect, the dissertation examines how two particular states, Azerbaijan and Iran, respond to the changing global security environment and optimize their capacity to absorb or control change. Here, security as I conceive is multidimensional and engages various social, political and economic domains. My research is articulated along three hypotheses regarding the formation of a new regional space and its consequences on territorial polarization and interstate rivalry. These hypotheses, respectively and cumulatively, elucidate global and domestic contexts of regional space formation, regional strategic and discursive trajectories, and regional tensions of global/local interactions. In order to empirically test these hypotheses, a series of thirty interviews were conducted by the author with local and foreign business representatives, civilian and government representatives, and corroborated by economic data collected from the International Energy Agency. The findings of the research validate the primary assumption of the dissertation that Azerbaijan and Iran have chosen the regional scale to address discrepancies between their aspired place in the new world order and the reality of their power and international status. Extending the argument for structural scarcity of oil towards contenders, this dissertation concludes that the Caspian oil has become a fundamental element of the regional discourse. The mismatch between the rhetoric of sovereign rights and energy security on one side and the reality of regional countries' powerlessness and their need to reach international markets on the other side are

  8. Real-world driving behaviour of cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkeboer, R.C.; Gense, N.L.J.; Burgwal, H.C. van de

    2002-01-01

    A methodology was developed to quantify the emissions of traffic congestion on Dutch motorways. In the first phase of the project a categorisation of traffic flow conditions on motorways was elaborated. This categorisation was eventually linked to a traffic monitoring system that operates with

  9. Joint-research project. The world of renewable energies: powerado. Final report. Part 2; Verbundforschungsprojekt. Erlebniswelt erneuerbare Energien: powerado. Endbericht. Bd. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharp, Michael (ed.)

    2009-02-15

    The objective of the research project 'The world of renewable energies: Powerado' was to improve communication aimed at conveying renewable energies to children. In order to achieve his aim, materials for different age groups and multipliers have been developed. These helped determining successful strategies for communicating renewable energies. There were several reasons for the need of such a project. It may be the case that renewable energies have been included into the syllabus of primary schools, but they still have no prominent role at schools. Additionally, the training of multipliers for renewable energies shows severe deficits. The project consisted of ten interconnected modules which explicitly are described. Overall, the powerado project was a huge success. 58,000 estimated multipliers, children, adolescents and persons generally being interested in renewable energies have been reached by the project and its modules. So the powerado project achieved its main objective improving communication of renewable energies.

  10. Declaration of the G8 of Saint Petersburg, the 16 July 2006 on the world energy security; Declaration du G8 de Saint-Petersbourg, le 16 juillet 2006 sur la securite energetique mondiale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document presents in a first part the energy problems which the G8 is confronted with, the response of the international community and the declaration on the principles of the world energy security. The second part is devoted to the action plan of Saint Petersburg, actions in the following domains: reinforcement of the world energy markets transparency and stability, improvement of the investments climate in the energy sector, reinforcement of the energy efficiency and the energy conservation, diversification of the energies resources, security of the vital energy infrastructures, decrease of the energy dearth, fight against the climatic change and help to the sustainable development. (A.L.B.)

  11. The System ''Energy-Saving Driving'' (ESD) at Deutsche Bahn AG; Das System ''Energiesparende Fahrweise'' (ESF) bei der Deutschen Bahn AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poetsch, G. [Deutsche Bahn AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The driver assistance system ''Energy-Saving Driving'' (ESD) introduced at Deutsche Bahn AG enables energy-saving and punctual train runs. This paper illustrates the fundamentals and technical prerequisites of this application. The suitability of the system in daily operation is proven by results of measurements. Finally, future prospects of system extensions are discussed, which promise additional benefits. (orig.)

  12. The Scales of Time, Length, Mass, Energy, and Other Fundamental Physical Quantities in the Atomic World and the Use of Atomic Units in Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon K.; Li, Wai-Kee

    2011-01-01

    This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the atomic unit (au) system is introduced and the scales of time, space (length), and speed, as well as those of mass and energy, in the atomic world are discussed. In the second part, the utility of atomic units in quantum mechanical and spectroscopic calculations is illustrated with…

  13. Applications of Genome-based Science in Shaping Citrus Industries of the World (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting, 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmitter, Jr., Fred; Rokhsar, Dan

    2012-03-21

    Fred Gmitter from the University of Florida on "Applications of Genome-based Science in Shaping the Future of the World's Citrus Industries" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  14. Driving risk assessment using near-crash database through data mining of tree-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianqiang; Zheng, Yang; Li, Xiaofei; Yu, Chenfei; Kodaka, Kenji; Li, Keqiang

    2015-11-01

    This paper considers a comprehensive naturalistic driving experiment to collect driving data under potential threats on actual Chinese roads. Using acquired real-world naturalistic driving data, a near-crash database is built, which contains vehicle status, potential crash objects, driving environment and road types, weather condition, and driver information and actions. The aims of this study are summarized into two aspects: (1) to cluster different driving-risk levels involved in near-crashes, and (2) to unveil the factors that greatly influence the driving-risk level. A novel method to quantify the driving-risk level of a near-crash scenario is proposed by clustering the braking process characteristics, namely maximum deceleration, average deceleration, and percentage reduction in vehicle kinetic energy. A classification and regression tree (CART) is employed to unveil the relationship among driving risk, driver/vehicle characteristics, and road environment. The results indicate that the velocity when braking, triggering factors, potential object type, and potential crash type exerted the greatest influence on the driving-risk levels in near-crashes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Measuring the electric energy services for the World Trade Center in Mexico city; Medicion de los servicios de energia electrica del World Trade Center de la ciudad de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Nunez, Humberto; Robledo Vera, Humberto [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In conforming the project of measuring the electric power for the World Trade Center of Mexico City, the use of top technology has been considered that in its field represents the application for the first time in our country the automatic reading of the electric energy meters. In this paper the network for the supply of electric power to the World Trade Center is described as well as the measuring systems of this building and mention is made of the characteristics of the system components and the advantages of remote reading. General data is provided on this collection of buildings, the connections in its tower and a feeding one line diagram of the tower itself [Espanol] En la conformacion del proyecto de medicion de la energia electrica para el edificio World Trade Center de la Ciudad de Mexico, se ha considerado el uso de tecnologia de punta que en su campo representa la aplicacion por primera vez en nuestro pais de la lectura automatica de medidores de energia electrica. En esta ponencia se describen la red de suministro al World Trade Center, los sistemas de medicion de este edificio y se mencionan las caracteristicas de los componentes del sistema y las ventajas de las lecturas remotas. Se proporciona datos generales sobre el conjunto de este edificio, las derivaciones en su torre y un diagrama unifilar de alimentacion de la torre del mismo

  16. Energy 2000. A reference projection and alternative outlooks for the European Community and the world to the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmot, J.-F.; McGlue, D.; Valette, P.; Waeterloos, C.

    1986-01-01

    This book represents the first output from the energy systems analysis and modelling research programme funded by the Commission of the European Communities. It provides detailed and consistent energy projections on a country basis and at the level of the EC as a whole using the same methodological approach and harmonized energy data. Results are presented for each country in terms of primary energy source and energy demand by sector.

  17. World energy outlook: how to share the efforts to be achieved by 2030?; Perspectives energetiques mondiales: comment partager les efforts a accomplir d'ici 2030?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This conference was organized a month after the publication by the International Energy Agency (IEA) of the 2007 World Energy Outlook (WEO) study. The energy situation at that time was marked by the repercussions on the environment and on the security of supplies in relation with the accelerated development of China and India. This document gathers the transparencies of the two presentations given at this conference. The first presentation by Fatih Birol, Chief Economist at the IEA, is entitled 'World Energy Outlook 2007: China and India Insights'. It presents the Cooperation with China's National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) and Energy Research Institute (ERI), and with India's Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) for the establishment of energy scenarios. Then the different scenarios are reviewed: Reference Scenario, Alternative Policy Scenario and 450 Stabilisation Case, High Growth Scenario (China/India). Finally, a full global update of projections (all scenarios) is presented and the impact of China and India on global economy, energy markets and environment is analyzed. The conclusions are as follows: - Global energy system is on an increasingly unsustainable path; - China and India are transforming the global energy system by their sheer size; - Challenge for all countries is to achieve transition to a more secure, lower carbon energy system; - New policies now under consideration would make a major contribution; - Next 10 years are critical (The pace of capacity additions will be most rapid, Technology will be 'locked-in' for decades, Growing tightness in oil and gas markets); - Challenge is global so solutions must be global. The second presentation by Jean-Charles Hourcade (CIRED) is entitled 'The WEO 2007 A few comments about the Emerging Giants... and us'. The presentation focusses on 4 points: - What implications of higher growth in the Asian Giants on the world economy through higher pressure on

  18. Measures to enhance rational energy use in electric drives. Final report; Massnahmen zur Foerderung der rationellen Energienutzung bei elektrischen Antrieben. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, J.; Schleich, J.; Herzer, G.; Toensing, E. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Rath, U.; Hellmann, R. [Ingenieurbuero fuer Energieberatung, Haustechnik und Oekologische Konzepte GbR (eboek), Tuebingen (Germany)

    1999-05-01

    Electric drives account for nearly 60 % of the total power consumption in Germany (70 % in the industrial sector and about 44 % in the small consumer sector). There is a high potential for savings (Landwehr et al. 1996, ISR et al. 1996, Nadel et al. 1992) but it is little used so far. The study attempts to identify and systematize the limits set by the market to the application of energy conservation measures in electric motors. This is followed by an outline of strategies to overcome these obstacles. Experience from other countries are integrated where efforts were made to put the potential savings into practice. [German] Der Kraftstrombedarf fuer elektrische Antriebe betraegt in Deutschland knapp 60% des gesamten Stromeinsatzes (ca. 70% des Industriestrombedarfs und ca. 44% des Strombedarfs im Sektor Kleinverbrauch). Trotz dieser hohen Anteile ist bisher bei keinem der Marktteilnehmer (Motoren- und Anlagenhersteller, Haendler und Endanwender) grosses Interesse an Stromsparmassnahmen im Bereich Elektromotoren zu erkennen. Zudem zeigen erste grobe Schaetzungen (Landwehr et al. 1996, ISR et al. 1996, Nadel et al. 1992), dass im Bereich Elektromotoren erhebliche wirtschaftliche Einsparpotentiale bestehen. Durch eine Erhoehung des Wirkungsgrades allein lassen sich ca. 3% einsparen. Groessere Potentiale koennen durch Drehzahlregelung - ca. 10% - und vor allem bei Optimierung des gesamten Systems (Stromuebertragung - Motor - Regelung - Kraftuebertragung - Arbeitsmaschine) - ueber 20% - erschlossen werden. Ziel dieser Studie ist es, zunaechst die Marktbeschraenkungen bei der Umsetzung von Massnahmen zur rationellen Energienutzung bei Elektromotoren zu identifizieren und zu systematisieren. Im Anschluss daran werden moegliche Strategien zur Ueberwindung dieser Marktbeschraenkungen aufgezeigt, systematisiert und analysiert. In diesem Zusammenhang werden auch Erfahrungen aus anderen Laendern, in denen von politischer und wirtschaftlicher Seite zum Teil betraechtliche

  19. The eco-driving effect of electric vehicles compared to conventional gasoline vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Kato

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Eco-driving is attractive to the public, not only users of internal-combustion-engine vehicles (ICEVs including hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs but also users of electric vehicles (EVs have interest in eco-driving. In this context, a quantitative evaluation of eco-driving effect of EVs was conducted using a chassis dynamometer (C/D with an “eco-driving test mode.” This mode comprised four speed patterns selected from fifty-two real-world driving datasets collected during an eco-driving test-ride event. The four patterns had the same travel distance (5.2 km, but showed varying eco-driving achievement levels. Three ICEVs, one HEV and two EVs were tested using a C/D. Good linear relationships were found between the eco-driving achievement level and electric or fuel consumption rate of all vehicles. The reduction of CO2 emissions was also estimated. The CO2-reduction rates of the four conventional (including hybrid vehicles were 10.9%–12.6%, while those of two types of EVs were 11.7%–18.4%. These results indicate that the eco-driving tips for conventional vehicles are effective to not only ICEVs and HEVs but also EVs. Furthermore, EVs have a higher potential of eco-driving effect than ICEVs and HEVs if EVs could maintain high energy conversion efficiency at low load range. This study is intended to support the importance of the dissemination of tools like the intelligent speed adaptation (ISA to obey the regulation speed in real time. In the future, also in the development and dissemination of automated driving systems, the viewpoint of achieving the traveling purpose with less kinetic energy would be important.

  20. Role of coal in the world energy picture until the year 2000. Reserves, resources, and availabilities from the Western European point of view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, R. (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Projektleitung Energieforschung)

    1979-11-01

    The role of coal in the world energy picture is strongly determined, among other factors by the situation of the reserves of fossil primary energy sources. An analysis of the volume of the reserves leads to a higher estimation of crude oil and natural gas than is usual today and to the statement that the established coal reserves are not clearly defined and cannot be directly compared with oil and gas reserves. Altogether, the reserves of the fossil primary energy sources, especially of coal are so high that even a doubling of their present yearly consumption by the year 2000 does not mean that an exhaustion of the actual reserves is to be feared. However, the acutal availability of coal must be judged quite differently. Nature provides adequate coal reserves; yet the question as to whether these can be made available for the energy import countries of the year 2000 must be regarded sceptically.

  1. Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bojda, Nicholas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes the financial impacts on consumers of minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances that could be implemented in 13 major economies around the world. We use the Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), to analyze various appliance efficiency target levels to estimate the net present value (NPV) of policies designed to provide maximum energy savings while not penalizing consumers financially. These policies constitute what we call the “cost-effective potential” (CEP) scenario. The CEP scenario is designed to answer the question: How high can we raise the efficiency bar in mandatory programs while still saving consumers money?

  2. Features of electric drive sucker rod pumps for oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizatullin, F. A.; Khakimyanov, M. I.; Khusainov, F. F.

    2018-01-01

    This article is about modes of operation of electric drives of downhole sucker rod pumps. Downhole oil production processes are very energy intensive. Oil fields contain many oil wells; many of them operate in inefficient modes with significant additional losses. Authors propose technical solutions to improve energy performance of a pump unit drives: counterweight balancing, reducing of electric motor power, replacing induction motors with permanent magnet motors, replacing balancer drives with chain drives, using of variable frequency drives.

  3. Assessment of potential energy savings following the replacement of gear-motor-driven systems by frequency-converter-fed direct drives; Energiesparpotential bei Ersatz von Getriebemotoren durch FU-Antriebe. Potentialanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, R.; Riesen, H. J.

    2007-03-15

    This project deals with the energy saving potential that can be achieved by replacing gear motor driven systems by frequency converter fed direct drives. Estimates have shown that due to the high percentage of gear motor installations, which amounts to approximately 10% of all motor driven systems, a significant amount of energy could be saved. However, several barriers impose major restrictions to the broad application of such actions: With the exception of worm gears that reach about 20% of all gear drives, todays' gears already offer a high efficiency of 97-98%. Gear motors are often included in OEM integrated solutions. Many processes require complex adaptations that can complicate replacements or make it even impractical. For low speed or high torque requirements, gear motors may have a dominant advantage concerning the compactness. Our investigations have shown, that in spite of such barriers the replacement of gear motors by direct motors can sum up to a significant amount of energy savings in many cases. Looking at the worm gear systems and the restricted speed and torque ranges that are covered by the direct drives from several suppliers we assume a total saving potential of about 78 GWh per year for Switzerland. (author)

  4. Vital Signs: Seismology of Icy Ocean Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Steven D.; Kedar, Sharon; Panning, Mark P.; Stähler, Simon C.; Bills, Bruce G.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Huang, Hsin-Hua; Pike, W. T.; Castillo, Julie C.; Lognonné, Philippe; Tsai, Victor C.; Rhoden, Alyssa R.

    2018-01-01

    Ice-covered ocean worlds possess diverse energy sources and associated mechanisms that are capable of driving significant seismic activity, but to date no measurements of their seismic activity have been obtained. Such investigations could reveal the transport properties and radial structures, with possibilities for locating and characterizing trapped liquids that may host life and yielding critical constraints on redox fluxes and thus on habitability. Modeling efforts have examined seismic sources from tectonic fracturing and impacts. Here, we describe other possible seismic sources, their associations with science questions constraining habitability, and the feasibility of implementing such investigations. We argue, by analogy with the Moon, that detectable seismic activity should occur frequently on tidally flexed ocean worlds. Their ices fracture more easily than rocks and dissipate more tidal energy than the seismology investigations of the Moon or Mars.

  5. Perspectives of increasing energy efficiency on designing new and reconstruction of present city districts: World experiences and local recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pucar Mila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available With 20th century along came a significant increase of energy consumption and a serious ecological crisis caused by the extensive usage of fossil fuels (oil, coal. Because of that, many countries have declared regulations to lower the traditional energy consumption and to stimulate usage of renewable energy sources. This problem is particularly evident in residential buildings sector, because over 50% of the overall energy produced is slinked in this way. This paper gives methodological recommendations regarding the principles of energy efficient housing and general comfort improvement as well as evident advantages of passive solar panels compared to traditional energy sources (fossil fuels. These possibilities are considered in two different scenarios: reconstruction of already built city blocks, and energy efficient implementation in case of brand new structures. This paper considers two different case studies, one reconstructive - a city block in France, built in the mid 60’s and the other of energy efficient settlement in Greece "Solar Village", built in the 80’s, which was designed by bioclimatic principles from the very beginning. Energy efficient planning and design methodological recommendations based on these two examples are regarding the New Belgrade block 7/3, which has been built in the 50’s.

  6. Emission Trading System in the SER Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth. Macro-economic calculation by means of WorldScan; ETS in het SER Energieakkoord. Macro-economische doorrekening met WorldScan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, C. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    The Dutch National Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth aims at strengthening the European system for emissions trading by a more strict emission ceiling. Also, the agreement aims at guarantee the competitiveness of global energy intensive businesses by adjusting the allocation method for emission rights. In the calculations for the energy agreement this is reflected in the adjustment of the ETS pricing path. In this memo the calculations with the equilibrium model WordlScan are described and presented [Dutch] Het Nationaal Energieakkoord voor Duurzame Groei zet in op een versterking van het Europees systeem voor emissiehandel (ETS) door aanscherpen van het emissieplafond. Verder wil het akkoord de concurrentiepositie van het mondiaal opererende energie-intensieve bedrijfsleven borgen door aanpassing van de allocatiemethode voor emissierechten. In de doorrekening van het Energieakkoord is deze inzet tot uitdrukking gebracht in een aanpassing van het ETS-prijspad. Deze notitie beschrijft de berekeningen met het algemeen evenwichtsmodel WorldScan waar deze aanpassing van het ETS-prijspad op is gebaseerd.

  7. Wind Energy's New Role in Supplying the World's Energy: What Role Will Structural Health Monitoring Play?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butterfield, S.; Sheng, S.; Oyague, F.

    2009-12-01

    Wind energy installations are leading all other forms of new energy installations in the United States and Europe. In Europe, large wind plants are supplying as much as 25% of Denmark's energy needs and 8% of the electric needs for Germany and Spain, who have more ambitious goals on the horizon. Although wind energy only produces about 2% of the current electricity demand in the United States, the U.S. Department of Energy, in collaboration with wind industry experts, has drafted a plan that would bring the U.S. installed wind capacity up to 20% of the nation's total electrical supply. To meet these expectations, wind energy must be extremely reliable. Structural health monitoring will play a critical role in making this goal successful.

  8. Design of a Fuzzy Logic based Framework for Comprehensive Anomaly Detection in Real-World Energy Consumption Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, M.; Bilgin, A.; Bosse, T.; Bredeweg, B.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the rapid growth of energy consumption worldwide, it has become a necessity that the energy waste caused by buildings is explicated by the aid of automated systems that can identify anomalous behaviour. Comprehensible anomaly detection, however, is a challenging task considering the lack of

  9. Does Energy for the Sustainable Development of the World's Poor Stand a Fighting Chance?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenschuss-Reichl, Irene

    2007-07-01

    Over the past few years, new developments have pushed energy even higher up the political agenda. The EU now sees energy security for its inhabitants as a main foreign policy objective. Climate change concerns have reached the political mainstream and create a push for big reduction projects that are cost effective. International institutions continue to be ineffective to support major paradigm shifts on energy efficiency and renewables. All these factors taken together may make it ever more unlikely for the poor to gain access to modern energy services in a timely and affordable manner. Yet without this access, attainment of the Millennium Development Goals will be elusive. The paper summarizes positive developments both among donors and among partner countries to bring energy to the poor despite the mounting obstacles and proposes further action.

  10. Energia, meio ambiente e economia: o Brasil no contexto mundial Energy, environment and economy: Brazil in the world context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Maron Vichi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The cycle of fossil fuels as an energy source for mankind is approaching its end. Finite resources, coupled with greenhouse gas, have led to an increased effort in the search for alternative renewable energy sources. Brazil has a leading position, due to a 46% participation of renewable sources in its primary energy supply, compared to the global average of 12%. The expansion of the renewable sources in Brazil depends on medium and long term planning, and a large volume of investments. The present financial crisis will have major effects in the energy market. Despite a negative initial impact, it is expected that the rearrangement of the financial system will ultimately lead to an expansion in the use of renewable energy sources. Brazil is a tropical country, with the largest biodiversity in our planet and excellent conditions to expand the use of all forms of renewable sources.

  11. Electric drive design methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Jufer, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    An electric drive that is designed or adapted to a specific application must take into account all the elements of the chain of constituent elements in its use and deployment. In addition to the motor, the transmission, power electronics, control, sensors, and electrical protection systems must be taken into account. The motor and the transmission can be optimized and designed to obtain the best energy efficiency assessment, in particular for dynamic nodes. An inventory and a characterization of these various components is proposed as part of this book's examination and explanation

  12. Measurement of Driving Terms

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, F; Faus-Golfe, A

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 a series of MDs has been performed at the SPS to measure resonance driving terms. Theory predicts that these terms can be determined by harmonic analysis of BPM data recorded after applying single kicks at various amplitudes. Strong sextupoles were introduced to create a sizeable amount of nonlinearities. Experiments at injection energy (26 GeV) with single bunch as well as one experiment at 120 GeV with 84 bunches were carried out. The expected nonlinear content is compared to the experimenteal observation.

  13. Digital control of electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Koziol, R; Szklarski, L

    1992-01-01

    The electromechanical systems employed in different branches of industry are utilized most often as drives of working machines which must be fed with electric energy in a continuous, periodic or even discrete way. Some of these machines operate at constant speed, others require wide and varying energy control. In many designs the synchronous cooperation of several electric drives is required in addition to the desired dynamic properties. For these reasons the control of the cooperation and dynamics of electromechanical systems requires the use of computers.This book adopts an unusual approach

  14. New nuclear projects in the world. Sustainable Nuclear Energy; Nuevos proyectos nucleares en el mundo. energia nuclear sostenible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, P. T.

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear power has experienced a major boom in the last few years, primarily because it is a non-CO{sub 2} emitting energy source, it can be produced at competitive costs and it can boost a country's security of supply. there are still two issues to be addressed in relation to the currently used technologies: the degree to which the energy content of nuclear fuel is used, and wastes. A solution to both these aspects would ut nuclear power in the category of sustainable energy. The article provides details on current nuclear plans in the wold, the impact of the Fukushima accident on different countries nuclear plans and the European initiatives for sustainable nuclear energy development. (Author)

  15. A Critical Review of Validation, Blind Testing, and Real- World Use of Alchemical Protein-Ligand Binding Free Energy Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Robert; Wang, Lingle; Mobley, David L; Friesner, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    Protein-ligand binding is among the most fundamental phenomena underlying all molecular biology, and a greater ability to more accurately and robustly predict the binding free energy of a small molecule ligand for its cognate protein is expected to have vast consequences for improving the efficiency of pharmaceutical drug discovery. We briefly reviewed a number of scientific and technical advances that have enabled alchemical free energy calculations to recently emerge as a preferred approach, and critically considered proper validation and effective use of these techniques. In particular, we characterized a selection bias effect which may be important in prospective free energy calculations, and introduced a strategy to improve the accuracy of the free energy predictions. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. The importance of the industrialization of Brazilian shale when faced with the world energy scenario; A importancia da industrializacao do xisto brasileiro frente ao cenario energetico mundial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marilin Mariano dos; Matai, Patricia Helena Lara dos Santos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Energia], Emails: marilinsantos@usp.br, pmatai@usp.br

    2010-10-15

    This article discusses the importance of the industrialization of Brazilian shale based on factors such as: security of the national energy system security, global oil geopolitical, resources available, production costs, oil prices, environmental impacts and the national oil reserves. The study shows that the industrialization of shale always arises when issues such as peak oil or its geopolitics appear as factors that raise the price of oil to unrealistic levels. The article concludes that in the Brazilian case, shale oil may be classified as a strategic resource, economically viable, currently in development by the success of the retorting technology for extraction of shale oil and the price of crude oil. The article presents the conclusion that shale may be the driving factor for the formation of a technology park in Sao Mateus do Sul, due to the city's economic dependence on PETROSIX. (author)

  17. World Literature - World Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast ...

  18. Dependence of petroleum deliveries from unsteady regions increasing again; World energy market: IEA gives prognostics until the year 2010. Die Abhaengigkeit von Erdoelbezuegen aus labilen Regionen steigt wieder deutlich; Weltenergiemarkt: Internationale Energieagentur stellt Prognose bis zum Jahr 2010 vor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuermann, H.J.

    1994-04-13

    In its last World Energy Forecast, the IEA predicts a worldwide rise by 50% in primary energy consumption and CO[sub 2] emissions by the year 2010. The forecast dows not indicate major changes in the contributions to aggregate supplies from the various energy sources. (HP)

  19. The Development of Vocational Vehicle Drive Cycles and Segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Adam W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Phillips, Caleb T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Konan, Arnaud M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Under a collaborative interagency agreement between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S Department of Energy (DOE), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) performed a series of in-depth analyses to characterize the on-road driving behavior including distributions of vehicle speed, idle time, accelerations and decelerations, and other driving metrics of medium- and heavy-duty vocational vehicles operating within the United States. As part of this effort, NREL researchers segmented U.S. medium- and heavy-duty vocational vehicle driving characteristics into three distinct operating groups or clusters using real world drive cycle data collected at 1 Hz and stored in NREL's Fleet DNA database. The Fleet DNA database contains millions of miles of historical real-world drive cycle data captured from medium- and heavy vehicles operating across the United States. The data encompass data from existing DOE activities as well as contributions from valued industry stakeholder participants. For this project, data captured from 913 unique vehicles comprising 16,250 days of operation were drawn from the Fleet DNA database and examined. The Fleet DNA data used as a source for this analysis has been collected from a total of 30 unique fleets/data providers operating across 22 unique geographic locations spread across the United States. This includes locations with topology ranging from the foothills of Denver, Colorado, to the flats of Miami, Florida. The range of fleets, geographic locations, and total number of vehicles analyzed ensures results that include the influence of these factors. While no analysis will be perfect without unlimited resources and data, it is the researchers understanding that the Fleet DNA database is the largest and most thorough publicly accessible vocational vehicle usage database currently in operation. This report includes an introduction to the Fleet DNA database and the data contained within, a presentation of the

  20. Competition between the various fossil-fuel energy resources on the European and World markets in the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, G.

    1980-05-01

    This paper looks at probable developments between now and the year 2000 in the role played by each of the major primary energy sources : Oil (still occupies a dominant position but is partially on the decline); natural gas (uncertainty over cost prices); coal (substantial developments in international trade due in the main to the increase in European requirements); and nuclear energy (competition with coal over electricity generation). Also looks at other fossil fuels - where production is limited on the grounds of cost and environmental problems. (In French)

  1. Energy-related renovation in the world heritage. Retrofitting 'Glas-Hoffmann' buildings, Berlin; Energetische Sanierung im Weltkulturerbe. Sanierung 'Glas-Hoffmann'-Bauten, Berlin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brensing, Christian

    2012-11-01

    Between 1955 and 1959, the housing estate at the Schiller park in Berlin-Wedding (Federal Republic in Germany) established in the 1920ies was expanded by four-storey house lines, the so-called Glas-Hoffmann buildings. Since 2008, this ensemble belongs to the Unesco World Heritage. In improving the thermal insulation of the building envelope and the adaptation of the building services to today's standards, therefore the architectural aesthetics of these buildings should not be endangered. The retrofitting was a pilot project of the research project ''Monument and energy - Postwar Modernism''.

  2. Comparing a driving simulator to the real road regarding distracted driving speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapper, Allert; Christoph, Michiel; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Brookhuis, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Relative and absolute validity of a driving simulator were assessed regarding effects on mean speed and speed variation during distracting secondary tasks, and normal driving. 16 participants drove the same route four times, twice in a simulator and twice in the real world. They performed way

  3. Helping people build a better world? Barriers to more environmentally friendly energy production in China: the case of Shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buan, Inga Fritzen

    2008-03-15

    China's rapid industrialization and economic expansion are causing massive environmental damage, with consequences beyond the country's borders, especially due to the use of fossil fuels' effect on climate change. Shell China can contribute to making energy production, if not clean and sustainable, then cleaner and more sustainable by making existing energy production more environmentally friendly; by diversifying and developing alternative energy sources; and by creating precedence influencing others to follow in its footsteps. The first goal of this report is to identify and analyze changes that have happened in the Shell Group since the 1990s when energy companies started their 'greening' processes. These changed happened due to stricter environmental legislation, increased civil society pressure and media scrutiny. Changes on the global and headquarters level in a company do not, however, necessitate similar developments in its national and local level operations. The second goal is thus to analyze to which degree the changes in the Shell Group have had relevance for Shell China and whether barriers in the Chinese context influence its prospects to operate in a more environmentally friendly way. (author). 64 refs

  4. Among Demons and Wizards: The Nuclear Energy Discourse in Sweden and the Re-Enchantment of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshelm, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    In 1956, the Swedish Parliament decided to invest in a national nuclear energy program. The decision rested on the conviction that it would be in the interest of the nation to use the assets of natural uranium, the advanced reactor technology, and the expertise on nuclear physics that the country had at its disposal. Since the decision concerned…

  5. The Changing World of the DSO in a Smart Energy System Environment : Key Issues and Policy Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna; Lavrijssen, Saskia; Trias Lopez, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Technological developments – summarised by the term ‘Smart Energy System’ – as well as changes on the supply and demand side of the electricity market (such as the growth of distributed generation and the deployment of charging stations for electric vehicles), are fundamentally changing and

  6. Psychological predictors of college students' cell phone use while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlehofer, Michèle M; Thompson, Suzanne C; Ting, Sarah; Ostermann, Sharon; Nierman, Angela; Skenderian, Jessica

    2010-07-01

    Despite the known risk, many people talk on a phone while driving. This study explored psychological predictors of cell phone use while driving. College students (final N=69) completed a survey and predicted their driving performance both with and without a simultaneous phone conversation. Their actual performance on a driving simulator was then assessed. Cell phone use reduced performance on the simulation task. Further, perceiving oneself as good at compensating for driving distractions, overestimating one's performance on the driving simulator, and high illusory control predicted more frequent cell phone use while driving in everyday life. Finally, those who talked more frequently on a phone while driving had poorer real-world driving records. These findings suggest illusory control and positive illusions partly explain driver's decisions of whether to use cell phones while driving. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Drive Cycle Analysis, Measurement of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a PHEV School Bus: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.; Gonder, J.

    2011-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected and analyzed real-world school bus drive cycle data and selected similar standard drive cycles for testing on a chassis dynamometer. NREL tested a first-generation plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) school bus equipped with a 6.4L engine and an Enova PHEV drive system comprising a 25-kW/80 kW (continuous/peak) motor and a 370-volt lithium ion battery pack. A Bluebird 7.2L conventional school bus was also tested. Both vehicles were tested over three different drive cycles to capture a range of driving activity. PHEV fuel savings in charge-depleting (CD) mode ranged from slightly more than 30% to a little over 50%. However, the larger fuel savings lasted over a shorter driving distance, as the fully charged PHEV school bus would initially operate in CD mode for some distance, then in a transitional mode, and finally in a charge-sustaining (CS) mode for continued driving. The test results indicate that a PHEV school bus can achieve significant fuel savings during CD operation relative to a conventional bus. In CS mode, the tested bus showed small fuel savings and somewhat higher nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions than the baseline comparison bus.

  8. CLIC Drive Beam Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Wegner, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Travelling structures for accelerating the high-current (4.2 A) CLIC Drive Beam to an energy of 2.37 GeV are presented. The structures are optimised for efficiency (full beam loading operation) and a desired filling time. Higher order modes are studied and are reduced by detuning along the structure and by damping with silicon carbide loads.

  9. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

  10. Metabolisable energy consumption in the exclusively breast-fed infant aged 3--6 months from the developed world: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J; Ashworth, Susan; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2005-07-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate evidence on metabolisable energy consumption and pattern of consumption with age in infants in the developed world who were exclusively breast-fed, at around the time of introducing complementary feeding. We carried out a systematic review aimed at answering three questions: how much milk is transferred from mother to infant?; does transfer increase with the age of the infant?; and what is the metabolisable energy content of breast milk? Thirty-three eligible studies of 1041 mother--infant pairs reported transfer at 3--4 months of age, the weighted mean transfer being 779 (SD 40) g/d. Six studies (99 pairs) measured transfer at 5 months, with a weighted mean transfer of 827 (SD 39) g/d. Five studies (72 pairs) measured milk transfer at 6 months, reporting a weighted mean transfer of 894 (SD 87) g/d. Nine longitudinal studies reported no significant increases in milk transfer after 2--4 months. Twenty-five studies on breast-milk energy content were based on 777 mother--infant pairs. The weighted mean metabolisable energy content was 2.6 (SD 0.2) kJ/g. Breast-milk metabolisable energy content is probably lower, and breast-milk transfer slightly higher, than is usually assumed. Longitudinal studies do not support the hypothesis that breast-milk transfer increases markedly with age. More research on energy intake in 5--6-month-old exclusively breast-fed infants is necessary, and information on the metabolisability of breast milk in mid-infancy is desirable. This evidence should inform future recommendations on infant feeding and help to identify research needs in infant energy balance.

  11. Extended driving impairs nocturnal driving performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagaspe, Patricia; Taillard, Jacques; Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Bayon, Virginie; Espié, Stéphane; Chaumet, Guillaume; Bioulac, Bernard; Philip, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3-5 am, 1-5 am and 9 pm-5 am) on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [+/-SD] = 23.4 [+/-1.7] years) participated Inappropriate line crossings (ILC) in the last hour of driving of each session, sleep variables, self-perceived fatigue and sleepiness were measured. Compared to the short (3-5 am) driving session, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings increased by 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1 to 6.0; P<.05) for the intermediate (1-5 am) driving session and by 4.0 (CI, 1.7 to 9.4; P<.001) for the long (9 pm-5 am) driving session. Compared to the reference session (9-10 pm), the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings were 6.0 (95% CI, 2.3 to 15.5; P<.001), 15.4 (CI, 4.6 to 51.5; P<.001) and 24.3 (CI, 7.4 to 79.5; P<.001), respectively, for the three different durations of driving. Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness scores were both positively correlated to driving impairment in the intermediate and long duration sessions (P<.05) and increased significantly during the nocturnal driving sessions compared to the reference session (P<.01). At night, extended driving impairs driving performances and therefore should be limited.

  12. Extended driving impairs nocturnal driving performances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sagaspe

    Full Text Available Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3-5 am, 1-5 am and 9 pm-5 am on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [+/-SD] = 23.4 [+/-1.7] years participated Inappropriate line crossings (ILC in the last hour of driving of each session, sleep variables, self-perceived fatigue and sleepiness were measured. Compared to the short (3-5 am driving session, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings increased by 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1 to 6.0; P<.05 for the intermediate (1-5 am driving session and by 4.0 (CI, 1.7 to 9.4; P<.001 for the long (9 pm-5 am driving session. Compared to the reference session (9-10 pm, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings were 6.0 (95% CI, 2.3 to 15.5; P<.001, 15.4 (CI, 4.6 to 51.5; P<.001 and 24.3 (CI, 7.4 to 79.5; P<.001, respectively, for the three different durations of driving. Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness scores were both positively correlated to driving impairment in the intermediate and long duration sessions (P<.05 and increased significantly during the nocturnal driving sessions compared to the reference session (P<.01. At night, extended driving impairs driving performances and therefore should be limited.

  13. Driving the Energy Transition at Maastricht University? Analysing the Transformative Potential of the Student-Driven and Staff-Supported Maastricht University Green Office

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spira, Felix; Baker-Shelley, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Strategies on how to improve energy efficiency at universities as part of the global energy transition are barely understood. This study aims to contribute to this body of knowledge, by investigating the energy efficiency transition at Maastricht University. Using the Multi-Level Perspective of

  14. Structural Decomposition Analysis of China’s Industrial Energy Consumption Based on Input-Output Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X. Y.; Zhou, J. Q.; Wang, Z.; Deng, L. C.; Hong, S.

    2017-05-01

    China is now at a stage of accelerated industrialization and urbanization, with energy-intensive industries contributing a large proportion of economic growth. In this study, we examined industrial energy consumption by decomposition analysis to describe the driving factors of energy consumption in China. Based on input-output (I-O) tables from the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) website and China’s energy use data from 1995 to 2011, we studied the sectorial changes of energy efficiency during the examined period. The results showed that all industries increased their energy efficiency. Energy consumption was decomposed into three factors by the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) method. The increase in production output was the leading factor that drives up China’s energy consumption. World Trade Organization accession and financial crises had great impact on the energy consumption. Based on these results, a series of energy policy suggestions for decision-makers has been proposed.

  15. Cost-effective choices of marine fuels in a carbon-constrained world: results from a global energy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taljegard, Maria; Brynolf, Selma; Grahn, Maria; Andersson, Karin; Johnson, Hannes

    2014-11-04

    The regionalized Global Energy Transition model has been modified to include a more detailed shipping sector in order to assess what marine fuels and propulsion technologies might be cost-effective by 2050 when achieving an atmospheric CO2 concentration of 400 or 500 ppm by the year 2100. The robustness of the results was examined in a Monte Carlo analysis, varying uncertain parameters and technology options, including the amount of primary energy resources, the availability of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies, and costs of different technologies and fuels. The four main findings are (i) it is cost-effective to start the phase out of fuel oil from the shipping sector in the next decade; (ii) natural gas-based fuels (liquefied natural gas and methanol) are the most probable substitutes during the study period; (iii) availability of CCS, the CO2 target, the liquefied natural gas tank cost and potential oil resources affect marine fuel choices significantly; and (iv) biofuels rarely play a major role in the shipping sector, due to limited supply and competition for bioenergy from other energy sectors.

  16. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  17. Optimisation of drive pulse configuration for a Ni-like Sn X-ray laser at 12 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Lin, J.; Wolfrum, E.; Smith, R.; Danson, C.; Key, M. H.; Lewis, C. L. S.; Neely, D.; Nilsen, J.; Pert, G. J.; Tallents, G. J.; Wark, J. S.; Warwick, P. J.

    1997-02-01

    The current saturated operation of X-ray lasers at wavelengths > 15 nm requires at least kilojoule drive energy, which is only available at the largest laser installations in the world. Using a specially designed drive pulse configuration, saturated operation of a Ni-like Sn X-ray laser at 12 nm has been achieved with only 75 J drive energy. An efficiency as high as 9 × 10 6 in converting laser energy from the 1 eV optical spectral range to the 100 eV soft X-ray range has been reached. This paves the way for applications of saturated X-ray lasers at 12 nm at many other smaller laboratories.

  18. How ambitious can we be in contributing to the world's energy needs with bioenergy, wind, solar and storage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindslev, H. (eds.)

    2009-08-15

    There is broad consensus among climate scientists that to keep the risk of dangerous climate changes to a reasonable level energy production in the world must be virtually free of green house gas emissions well before the end of this century. How far can we go, what stands in the way and what should the leading actors do? That is what the workshop addressed. The aim of the workshop, which was part of the DTU Climate Change Technologies programme (www.dtu.dk/climate), was to define a number of ambitious but realistic targets and describe roadmaps to reach these targets. The roadmaps will be given as input to the UN Climate Change Conference, COP 15, and as inspiration for action to meet climate challenges. The roadmaps describe contributions and commitments needed from industry, research and policy. The workshop addressed the challenges for increasing the contribution from wind power, bioenergy and solar energy. The aim was to identify initiatives that can accelerate development and deployment of these technologies. This includes energy storage and implementation and interaction of storage technologies with the overall energy system. (LN)

  19. Visual inspection technology in the hard disc drive industry

    CERN Document Server

    Muneesawang, Paisarn

    2015-01-01

    A presentation of the use of computer vision systems to control manufacturing processes and product quality in the hard disk drive industry. Visual Inspection Technology in the Hard Disk Drive Industry is an application-oriented book borne out of collaborative research with the world's leading hard disk drive companies. It covers the latest developments and important topics in computer vision technology in hard disk drive manufacturing, as well as offering a glimpse of future technologies.

  20. HARMONIC DRIVE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr FOLĘGA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of types and sizes currently in production harmonic drive is a problem in their rational choice. Properly selected harmonic drive must meet certain requirements during operation, and achieve the anticipated service life. The paper discusses the problems associated with the selection of the harmonic drive. It also presents the algorithm correct choice of harmonic drive. The main objective of this study was to develop a computer program that allows the correct choice of harmonic drive by developed algorithm.

  1. Worlds Fantastic, Worlds Familiar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, Bonnie J.

    2017-02-01

    Introduction; 1. Mercury: the hottest little place; 2. Venus: an even hotter place; 3. Mars: the abode of life?; 4. Asteroids and comets: sweat the small stuff; 5. Galileo's treasures: worlds of fire and ice; 6. Enceladus: an active iceball in space; 7. Titan: an Earth in deep freeze?; 8. Iapetus and its friends: the weirdest 'planets' in the Solar System; 9. Pluto: the first view of the 'third zone'; 10. Earths above: the search for exoplanets and life in the universe; Epilogue; Glossary; Acknowledgements; Index.

  2. Reimagining What's Possible: How NREL's Energy Analysis and Decision Support Capabilities are Guiding Energy Systems Transformation at Home and Around the World; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    This engaging brochure shows examples of how NREL enables energy system transformation through robust capabilities in energy analysis and decision support. By reimagining what's possible for renewable energy, NREL contributes to the Department of Energy mission to create energy systems that are cleaner, more reliable, and more secure.

  3. Final Energy Consumption Trends and Drivers in Czech Republic and Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiqian Yu; Dalia Streimikiene; Tomas Balezentis; Rimantas Dapkus; Radislav Jovovic; Veselin Draskovic

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the trends of final energy consumption in Latvia and Czech Republic. Analysis of final energy consumption during 2000-2013 period indicated the main driving forces of final energy consumption during and after world financial crisis of 2008. The paper aimed to evaluate the impact of economic activity and other factors on final energy consumption. The decomposition of the final energy consumption is assessed by analyzing effect of different drivers by the main end-users sect...

  4. Investigation into the feasibility of the utilisation of renewable energy resources in Libya

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, AMA

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy in Libya, in particular solar and wind energy, can partly cover current local energy demands. It can also, through connections to the Middle East, Africa and Europe, provide neighbouring countries with electricity. Additionally, with the increase in energy demand around the world, and the international effort to reduce carbon emissions from fossil fuels, there has been a drive in many oil-rich countries to diversify their energy portfolios and resources. Libya is currently in...

  5. Reviews Book: The Age of Wonder Equipment: Portoscope DVD: Around the World in 80 Images Book: Four Laws that Drive the Universe Book: Antimatter Equipment: Coffee Saver Starter Set Equipment: Graphite Levitation Kit Book: Critical Reading Video: Science Fiction-Science Fact Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    WE RECOMMEND The Age of Wonder This book tells the stories of inspiring 19th-century scientists Antimatter A fast read that gives an intriguing tour of the antimatter world Science Fiction-Science Fact A video from a set of resources about the facts in science fiction WORTH A LOOK Portoscope Lightweight ×30 microscope that is easy on the purse Four Laws that Drive the Universe In just 124 pages Peter Atkins explains thermodynamics Coffee Saver Starter Kit A tool that can demonstrate the effect of reduced air pressure Graphite Levitation Kit Compact set that demonstrates diamagnetic behaviour Critical Reading A study guide on how to read scientific papers HANDLE WITH CARE Around the World in 80 Images Navigate through images from Envistat, country by country WEB WATCH This month's issue features real-time simulation program Krucible 2.0, which enables learners to run virtual experiments

  6. CO{sub 2} and energy France and world indicators 2007; CO{sub 2} et energie France et Monde reperes edition 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    In the framework of a sustainable development, the carbon dioxide is a very controlled greenhouse effect gases to limit the climatic change. This paper presents and explains the greenhouse effect, the consequences of the climatic change, the other greenhouse effect gases as the CO{sub 2}, the CO{sub 2} emissions from the energy production, the emission factors of CO{sub 2}, the sectorial emissions of CO{sub 2}, the Kyoto protocol and the european market of the CO{sub 2} quotas. (A.L.B.)

  7. Solar energy engineering processes and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kalogirou, Soteris A

    2009-01-01

    As perhaps the most promising of all the renewable energy sources available today, solar energy is becoming increasingly important in the drive to achieve energy independence and climate balance. This new book is the masterwork from world-renowned expert Dr. Soteris Kalogirou, who has championed solar energy for decades. The book includes all areas of solar energy engineering, from the fundamentals to the highest level of current research. The author includes pivotal subjects such as solar collectors, solar water heating, solar space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, solar desalina

  8. Solar energy engineering processes and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kalogirou, Soteris A

    2013-01-01

    As perhaps the most promising of all the renewable energy sources available today, solar energy is becoming increasingly important in the drive to achieve energy independence and climate balance. This new book is the masterwork from world-renowned expert Dr. Soteris Kalogirou, who has championed solar energy for decades. The book includes all areas of solar energy engineering, from the fundamentals to the highest level of current research. The author includes pivotal subjects such as solar collectors, solar water heating, solar space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, solar desalina

  9. Science driving facilities for particle physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    This week, CERN played host to the 10th ICFA (International Committee for Future Accelerators) seminar, which brought together some 200 scientists, government agency representatives and lab directors from around the world to take the pulse of our field. ICFA seminars take place every three years, and this time the emphasis was on science as the driving force for facilities.   The theme of this year’s seminar could not have been more timely. With austerity the global norm, it is more important than ever for science to point the way to the facilities we need, and for the global community to ensure that those facilities are planned at the global level. The LHC is already a machine for the world, and although CERN’s Member States have carried the bulk of the cost, it would not have been possible without contributions from around the globe. In the US, Fermilab’s focus has moved away from the high-energy frontier to the intensity frontier, which is every bit as impor...

  10. Electricity production from wind energy: world situation and the French program EOLE 2005; Production d'electricite par energie eolienne: situation dans le monde et programme francais EOLE 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Electricite de France [ed.] [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-06-07

    The wind electricity world market shows at present an important development stage characterized by an annual increase rate of 20% to 30%. The total installed power in the world reached the value 7,200 MW in November 1997 and, according to forecasts, it could increase fivefold up to 2005. For France's high wind potential sites, namely the DOM-TOM and in Corsica, where the electricity production is more expensive than in inland France, this energy production mode approaches the threshold of competitiveness with other production means. The program EOLE 2005 (targeting 250 to 500 MW from wind turbines to be installed in France until 2005), launched in 1996 by EDF in collaboration with ADEME, on request of public authorities, is thought to implement this demand. The sections of the report are titled as following: - An energy used by man from long time ago; - Momentous developments of the wind power technology since eighties; - From wind turbines of some hundreds kW to 3 MW, based on robust technologies and newly devised methods; - Wind energy becomes equally interesting from economic viewpoint but for which applications?; - This option presents some drawbacks; - Which is the wind potential economically acceptable if the mentioned constraints are taken into account?; - The wind generators will be installed on sea near seashores; - An outstanding change in this field in France since 1996: the programme EOLE 2005; - 35 selected projects of 125,3 MW total power; - Future. The electricity production from wind energy seems promising particularly for the countries that have not resorted to either nuclear energy or hydropower options and which possess important wind resources.

  11. Naturalistic driving : observing everyday driving behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Naturalistic Driving is a relatively new research method for the observation of everyday driving behaviour of road users. For this purpose, systems are installed in subjects’ own vehicles that unobtrusively register vehicle manoeuvres, driver behaviour (such as eye, head and hand manoeuvres) and

  12. (PFC) converters feeding brushless DC motor drive

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    1Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, INDIA ... configurations of PFC converters feeding BLDC motor drive are presented as low ..... In future, it is expected for a continuing research in the quest of energy ...

  13. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Unlock the mysteries of energy! Energy is more than ""the ability to do work""; we present these concepts in a way that makes them more accessible to students and easier to understand. The best way to understand energy is to first look at all the different kinds of energy including: What Is Energy, Mechanical Energy, Thermal, Sound Energy and Waves, as well as Light Energy.

  14. Studies of breakeven prices and electricity supply potentials of nuclear fusion by a long-term world energy and environment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokimatsu, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Konishi, S.; Fujino, J.; Ogawa, Y.; Okano, K.; Nishio, S.; Yoshida, T.; Hiwatari, R.; Yamaji, K.

    2002-11-01

    In response to social demand, this paper investigates the breakeven price (BP) and potential electricity supply of nuclear fusion energy in the 21st century by means of a world energy and environment model. We set the following objectives in this paper: (i) to reveal the economics of the introduction conditions of nuclear fusion; (ii) to know when tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors are expected to be introduced cost-effectively into future energy systems; (iii) to estimate the share in 2100 of electricity produced by the presently designed reactors that could be economically selected in the year. The model can give in detail the energy and environment technologies and price-induced energy saving, and can illustrate optimal energy supply structures by minimizing the costs of total discounted energy systems at a discount rate of 5%. The following parameters of nuclear fusion were considered: cost of electricity (COE) in the nuclear fusion introduction year, annual COE reduction rates, regional introduction year, and regional nuclear fusion capacity projection. The investigations are carried out for three nuclear fusion projections one of which includes tritium breeding constraints, four future CO2 concentration constraints, and technological assumptions on fossil fuels, nuclear fission, CO2 sequestration, and anonymous innovative technologies. It is concluded that: (1) the BPs are from 65 to 125 mill kW-1 h-1 depending on the introduction year of nuclear fusion under the 550 ppmv CO2 concentration constraints; those of a business-as-usual (BAU) case are from 51 to 68 mill kW-1h-1. Uncertainties resulting from the CO2 concentration constraints and the technological options influenced the BPs by plus/minus some 10 30 mill kW-1h-1, (2) tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors (as presently designed, with a COE range around 70 130 mill kW-1h-1) would be favourably introduced into energy systems after 2060 based on the economic criteria under the 450 and 550 ppmv CO2

  15. An Empirical Study on the Driving Path of Optimizing the Resources Allocation of Foreign Trade Enterprises from the Perspective of Energy Supply-side Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yu-cong; Yi, Lu-xia

    2017-11-01

    From the perspective of energy supply-side reform, this paper, by conducting an empirical study on foreign trade enterprises, conducts a research on the cross-role effect of optimizing the resources allocation and enhancing the energy efficiency. Methodologically, this paper creatively introduces the HILE's probabilistic structured property into Granger causality test analysis, forming an HILE–Granger (H-G) model, so as to empirically estimate both the short-term and long-term causal relationship effects between the energy efficiency and resources allocation. Conclusion is drawn that optimization of resources allocation is positively proportional with the energy efficiency enhancement. This paper is to provide a decision-making reference for the supply side reform strategy of foreign trade enterprises under the background of green energy economy.

  16. Perspectives for drive technologies and biogenic energy sources in the transport sector through to the year 2050; Perspektiven fuer Antriebstechnologien und biogene Energietraeger im Verkehr bis 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumann, Karin; Mueller-Langer, Franziska [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gGmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    The supply and use of biofuels as well as perspectively also other renewable energy resources were and will be strongly driven by policies and respective frame conditions. On national and EU level these are set and foreseeable until 2020. However with regard to reaching the 2050-targets no defined measures are in place. In depency how the strategic focus will be led with regard to energy resources and related technologies different scenarios are possible to meet the energy demand in transport until 2050. This is especially true for transport sector like aviation where only very limited alternatives to conventional jetfuel are possible.

  17. Driving segment simulation for determination of the most effective driving features for HEV intelligent control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Morteza; Fotouhi, Abbas; Naderpour, Akbar

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents a methodological approach for determination of the most effective driving features for hybrid electric vehicle intelligent control, using the driving segment simulation. In this approach, driving data gathering is first performed in real traffic conditions using Advanced Vehicle Locator systems. The vehicle's speed time series are then divided into small segments. Subsequently, 19 driving features are defined for each driving segment, and the influence of the driving features on the vehicle's fuel consumption (FC) and exhaust emissions is investigated, using driving the driving segment simulation. The simulation approach is also verified by experimental test. Finally, the driving features are ranked by a new approach based on the definition of an effectiveness index and a correlation analysis. The results demonstrate that the velocity-dependent driving features such as 'energy', 'mean of velocity', 'displacement' and 'maximum velocity' are more effective on vehicle's FC and exhaust emissions. However, because of high dependency between these features, this study suggests independent driving features among the most effective driving features.

  18. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    Instruct the reader in getting most satisfaction out of an EV, especially concerning driving and loading.......Instruct the reader in getting most satisfaction out of an EV, especially concerning driving and loading....

  19. Gear bearing drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  20. How can we restrict the sale of sports and energy drinks to children? A proposal for a World Health Organization-sponsored framework convention to restrict the sale of sports and energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, G

    2017-12-01

    High-sugar drinks, including fruit drinks, soft drinks, sports drinks and energy drinks, are of no nutritional value and contribute to the burden of dental disease in all age groups. The manufacturers of sports and energy drinks have elected to target children in their marketing campaigns and promote a misleading association between their products, healthy lifestyles and sporting prowess. The World Health Organization (WHO) has acknowledged that strategies aimed at prevention of dental disease are the only economically viable options for managing the oral health of children in low- and middle-income countries. Developed nations will also be advantaged by preventive programmes given that the cost of providing dental care to those who cannot pay draws valuable resources away from more pressing health issues. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) obligates governments to develop legislation to protect the health of children. A framework convention modelled on the existing Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, supported by the WHO, would assist governments to proactively legislate to restrict the sale of sports and energy drinks to children. This article will consider how a framework convention would be an advantage with reference to the strategies used by sports and energy drink manufacturers in Australia. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  1. Leveraging the water-energy-food nexus for a sustainability transition: Institutional and policy design choices in a fragmented world (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, R.

    2013-12-01

    Given the critical - but often subtle - feedbacks between water, energy, and food security, a nexus approach that integrates management and governance across sectors and scales is increasingly being advocated in research and policy circles. As a first step, such an approach calls for an integrated multi-disciplinary assessment of the externalities across sectors and tradeoffs involved in enhancing security in one sector on the other sectors. Recent research efforts have focused on understanding these tradeoffs, say, through estimating the energy costs of expanding irrigation for greater food security; or estimating the embodied land and water costs in increased energy production. While such efforts have increased awareness about the inter-connectedness of such issues, the fundamental question of how such an understanding influences decision-making and how it can lead to coordinated action towards a transition to more sustainable pathways still remains largely unanswered. The long legacy of sectoral organization of political and bureaucratic structures has led to a fragmentary policy and institutional landscape, on which cross-sectoral public action and coordination poses several challenges. Moreover, poorly defined property rights, imperfect or absent markets, and uncertainty about resource dynamics imply that economic signals about relative scarcity in one sector are not necessarily clear to decision makers in the other sectors. In this study, we examine these issues related to water-energy food nexus in the context of semi-arid groundwater irrigated regions of western and southern India. Using a social-ecological systems framework, we begin by characterizing some of the key inter-dependencies among food, water, and energy at the farm household, village and state level. We then examine the factors that influence decision-making at these levels, and the extent to which these decisions internalize the externalities. Specifically, we examine the role of energy

  2. Shear-Mode-Based Cantilever Driving Low-Frequency Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Using 0.67Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.33PbTiO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhou; Ren, Bo; Gai, Linlin; Zhao, Xiangyong; Luo, Haosu; Wang, Dong

    2016-08-01

    Energy harvesting from external mechanical excitation has become a hot interest area, and relaxor piezoelectric single crystal ( 1 - x )Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3- x PbTiO3 (PMN- x PT or PMN-PT) has attracted continuous attention due to the well-known ultrahigh shear-mode electromechanical response. To exploit the low-frequency application of excellent shear-mode performance of the PMN-PT single crystal, we proposed a Shear-mode-based CANtilever Driving Low-frequency Energy harvester. The device is composed of two symmetrically assembled sandwich structures and a cantilever, in which sandwich structures can be driven by the cantilever. An analytical method was used to illustrate the high output mechanism, and a finite-element method model of the device was also established to optimize the generated electric energy in this device. The electrical properties of the device under different excitation frequencies and load resistances were studied systematically. The maximum voltage and power density at resonance frequency (43.8 Hz) were measured to be 60.8 V and 10.8 mW/cm(3) under a proof mass of 13.5 g, respectively. Both theoretical and experimental results demonstrate the considerable potential of the resonance-excited shear-mode energy harvester applied to wireless sensors and low-power portable electronics.

  3. Redundant arrays of IDE drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, D. A.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Eschenburg, V.; Lawrence, C. N.; Riley, C.; Summers, D. J.; Petravick, D. L.

    2002-08-01

    The next generation of high-energy physics experiments is expected to gather prodigious amounts of data. New methods must be developed to handle this data and make analysis at universities possible. We examine some techniques that use recent developments in commodity hardware. We test redundant arrays of integrated drive electronics (IDE) disk drives for use in offline high-energy physics data analysis. IDE redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID) arrays prices now equal the cost per terabyte of million dollar tape robots! The arrays can be scaled to sizes affordable to institutions without robots and used when fast random access at low cost is important. We also explore three methods of moving data between sites; internet transfers, hot pluggable IDE disks in FireWire cases, and writable digital video disks (DVD-R) disks.

  4. Shell worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kenneth I.; Kennedy, Robert G., III; Fields, David E.

    2013-02-01

    The traditional concept of terraforming assumes ready availability of candidate planets with acceptable qualities: orbiting a star in its "Goldilocks zone", liquid water, enough mass, years longer than days, magnetic field, etc. But even stipulating affordable interstellar travel, we still might never find a good candidate elsewhere. Whatever we found likely would require centuries of heavy terraforming, just as Mars or Venus would here. Our increasing appreciation of the ubiquity of life suggests that any terra nova would already possess it. We would then face the dilemma of introducing alien life forms (us, our microbes) into another living world. Instead, we propose a novel method to create habitable environments for humanity by enclosing airless, sterile, otherwise useless planets, moons, and even large asteroids within engineered shells, which avoids the conundrum. These shells are subject to two opposing internal stresses: compression due to the primary's gravity, and tension from atmospheric pressure contained inside. By careful design, these two cancel each other resulting in zero net shell stress. Beneath the shell an Earth-like environment could be created similar in almost all respects to that of Home, except for gravity, regardless of the distance to the sun or other star. Englobing a small planet, moon, or even a dwarf planet like Ceres, would require astronomical amounts of material (quadrillions of tons) and energy, plus a great deal of time. It would be a quantum leap in difficulty over building Dyson Dots or industrializing our solar system, perhaps comparable to a mission across interstellar space with a living crew within their lifetime. But when accomplished, these constructs would be complete (albeit small) worlds, not merely large habitats. They could be stable across historic timescales, possibly geologic. Each would contain a full, self-sustaining ecology, which might evolve in curious directions over time. This has interesting implications

  5. Renewable Energy for Electric Vehicles : Price Based Charging Coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richstein, J.C.; Schuller, A.; Dinther, C.; Ketter, W.; Weinhardt, C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the charging coordination of battery electric vehicles (BEV) with respect to the availability of intermittent renewable energy generation considering individual real world driving profiles in a deterministic simulation based analysis, mapping a part of the German power

  6. Driving range estimation for electric vehicles based on driving condition identification and forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chaofeng; Dai, Wei; Chen, Liao; Chen, Long; Wang, Limei

    2017-10-01

    With the impact of serious environmental pollution in our cities combined with the ongoing depletion of oil resources, electric vehicles are becoming highly favored as means of transport. Not only for the advantage of low noise, but for their high energy efficiency and zero pollution. The Power battery is used as the energy source of electric vehicles. However, it does currently still have a few shortcomings, noticeably the low energy density, with high costs and short cycle life results in limited mileage compared with conventional passenger vehicles. There is great difference in vehicle energy consumption rate under different environment and driving conditions. Estimation error of current driving range is relatively large due to without considering the effects of environmental temperature and driving conditions. The development of a driving range estimation method will have a great impact on the electric vehicles. A new driving range estimation model based on the combination of driving cycle identification and prediction is proposed and investigated. This model can effectively eliminate mileage errors and has good convergence with added robustness. Initially the identification of the driving cycle is based on Kernel Principal Component feature parameters and fuzzy C referring to clustering algorithm. Secondly, a fuzzy rule between the characteristic parameters and energy consumption is established under MATLAB/Simulink environment. Furthermore the Markov algorithm and BP(Back Propagation) neural network method is utilized to predict the future driving conditions to improve the accuracy of the remaining range estimation. Finally, driving range estimation method is carried out under the ECE 15 condition by using the rotary drum test bench, and the experimental results are compared with the estimation results. Results now show that the proposed driving range estimation method can not only estimate the remaining mileage, but also eliminate the fluctuation of the

  7. Driving range estimation for electric vehicles based on driving condition identification and forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaofeng Pan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the impact of serious environmental pollution in our cities combined with the ongoing depletion of oil resources, electric vehicles are becoming highly favored as means of transport. Not only for the advantage of low noise, but for their high energy efficiency and zero pollution. The Power battery is used as the energy source of electric vehicles. However, it does currently still have a few shortcomings, noticeably the low energy density, with high costs and short cycle life results in limited mileage compared with conventional passenger vehicles. There is great difference in vehicle energy consumption rate under different environment and driving conditions. Estimation error of current driving range is relatively large due to without considering the effects of environmental temperature and driving conditions. The development of a driving range estimation method will have a great impact on the electric vehicles. A new driving range estimation model based on the combination of driving cycle identification and prediction is proposed and investigated. This model can effectively eliminate mileage errors and has good convergence with added robustness. Initially the identification of the driving cycle is based on Kernel Principal Component feature parameters and fuzzy C referring to clustering algorithm. Secondly, a fuzzy rule between the characteristic parameters and energy consumption is established under MATLAB/Simulink environment. Furthermore the Markov algorithm and BP(Back Propagation neural network method is utilized to predict the future driving conditions to improve the accuracy of the remaining range estimation. Finally, driving range estimation method is carried out under the ECE 15 condition by using the rotary drum test bench, and the experimental results are compared with the estimation results. Results now show that the proposed driving range estimation method can not only estimate the remaining mileage, but also eliminate the

  8. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    Driving was introduced as a program transformation technique by Valentin Turchin in some papers around 1980. It was intended for the programming language REFAL and used in metasystem transitions based on super compilation. In this paper we present one version of driving for a more conventional lisp......-like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data...

  9. High performance AC drives

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Mukhtar

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive view of high performance ac drives. It may be considered as both a text book for graduate students and as an up-to-date monograph. It may also be used by R & D professionals involved in the improvement of performance of drives in the industries. The book will also be beneficial to the researchers pursuing work on multiphase drives as well as sensorless and direct torque control of electric drives since up-to date references in these topics are provided. It will also provide few examples of modeling, analysis and control of electric drives using MATLAB/SIMULIN

  10. Driving Fast Flows with Volumetric Current Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhone, Jason; Endrizzi, D.; Flanagan, K.; Nornberg, M. D.; Peterson, E. E.; Forest, C. B.

    2017-10-01

    Volumetric current drive has been shown to be an efficient method for driving fast flows with high Rm for studying the onset of flow-driven plasma instabilities. High performance plasmas are produced with 20 kW of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and thermally emissive lanthanum hexaboride cathodes. Plasma flow is achieved by injecting current through the plasma across an externally applied weak magnetic field setting up a J × B body force on the plasma volume. Two scenarios for volumetric current drive have been demonstrated. The first injects current across a weak uniform axial magnetic field driving a Keplerian-like flow for magneto-rotational instability (MRI) studies. The second injects current across a weak quadrupole magnetic field for driving a von Karman-like flow for dynamo studies. First results measuring velocity and ion temperature profiles measured by a Fabry-Perot interferometer are shown. Detailed mach probe flow measurements show stronger flow shear in volumetric current drive compared to previous edge-driven plasma flow experiments. Worked funded by NSF and DOE.

  11. High-performance motor drives

    OpenAIRE

    Kazmierkowski, Marian P.; García Franquelo, Leopoldo; Rodríguez, José; Pérez, Marcelo; León Galván, José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the present state and trends in the development of key parts of controlled induction motor drive systems: converter topologies, modulation methods, as well as control and estimation techniques. Two- and multilevel voltage-source converters, current-source converters, and direct converters are described. The main part of all the produced electric energy is used to feed electric motors, and the conversion of electrical power into mechanical power involves motors ranges from...

  12. Population Growth, Energy Use, and Pollution: Understanding the Driving Forces of Global Change. Hands-On! Developing Active Learning Modules on the Human Dimensions of Global Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuby, Michael

    Since the beginning of the scientific revolution in the 1700s, the absolute scale of the human economy has increased many times over, and, with it, the impact on the natural environment. This learning module's activities introduce the student to linkages among population growth, energy use, level of economic and technological development and their…

  13. Energy use and production, demography and the world-market oil price-influencing twenty years of economic performance and environment degradation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Lemus, Luis Gerardo [SUNY College of Environmental Science & Forestry (United States)

    1997-07-01

    I present a compilation of data describing Mexico's economic performance as it relates to demographic and natural resource characteristics. Statistical correlations suggest that long term economic output and energy efficiency are influenced mostly by human population numbers and fuel consumption rate, although its fluctuations have been clearly driven by those of the world-market oil price throughout 1970-90. Neither energy production, agricultural yield, OPEC's oil price or forest coverage appeared important in determining Mexican GDP response for this 20-year period. Significant relations of these fluctuations were found also in the rates of deforestation, air pollution and agricultural production, being all of these variables seemingly independent of the intrinsic human population growth rate. I discuss how Mexico could bridge the GDP gap with its current Nafta partners from this system-energy perspective. [Spanish] Presento una coleccion de datos que describen el comportamiento de la economia de Mexico relacionado con las caracteristicas demograficas y de sus recursos naturales. Las correlaciones estadisticas sugieren que la produccion economica a largo plazo y la eficiencia de la energia estan influenciadas principalmente por las cifras de poblacion humana y por el regimen de consumo de combustible, si bien sus fluctuaciones han sido claramente impulsadas por los precios del petroleo en mercado mundial a traves de 1970 a 1990. Ni la produccion de energia, el rendimiento agricola, el precio del petroleo de OPEC o la extension de los bosques resultaron importantes en la determinacion de la respuesta del PIB de Mexico para este periodo de 20 anos. Se encontraron relaciones significativas de estas fluctuaciones tambien en los regimenes de deforestacion, contaminacion del aire y produccion agricola, siendo todas esta variables de forma similar independientes de regimen intrinseco del crecimiento de la poblacion humana. Analizo como podria Mexico salvar la

  14. Energy flux in chemical engineering design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, H.B.

    1982-10-01

    Energy, money, materials and engineering are all intricately intermixed in the process of design and especially in chemical engineering design. Energy potential and density are important to rates of reaction, flow, and heat transfer for example, which all intimately affect capital charges and operating costs. Different driving forces and rates of change may operate in opposite directions, so the issues involved need to be reconciled. Energy is fundamental to chemical engineering, but its price is now largely determined by politics rather than economics. So Chemical Engineers must use energy to its best advantage for the people of the world they serve.

  15. Consumption of energy in the world should be 50% upper in the year 2020. La consommation energetique mondiale devrait augmenter de 50% d'ici l'an 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadonneix, P. (Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France))

    1994-01-01

    From the study headed: 'Energy for tomorrow world', required by the International Council of Energy, it appeared that worldwide energy consumption would increase about 50%. There is no risk of shortage to satisfy the demand. Fossil fuels would represent 75% of the whole demand. A first consequence of this point is to make difficult the object of stabilizing the carbon dioxide emission. Only industrialized countries are able to make technological and financial efforts needed in this field. The second consequence is an aggravation of energy dependence for the most of countries. Some questions to finish: How is it possible to limit the increasing of energy demand without limiting the growth of economy for developing countries. Can we conciliate economy growth and environment protection. And if thirty thousand milliards of dollars are necessary to develop efficient technologies, as they are only 5% of gross national product over the world for each year, will it be a financial problem.

  16. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased

  17. Acid gradient across plasma membrane can drive phosphate bond synthesis in cancer cells: acidic tumor milieu as a potential energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Gautam; Sen, Suvajit; Chaudhuri, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive cancers exhibit an efficient conversion of high amounts of glucose to lactate accompanied by acid secretion, a phenomenon popularly known as the Warburg effect. The acidic microenvironment and the alkaline cytosol create a proton-gradient (acid gradient) across the plasma membrane that represents proton-motive energy. Increasing experimental data from physiological relevant models suggest that acid gradient stimulates tumor proliferation, and can also support its energy needs. However, direct biochemical evidence linking extracellular acid gradient to generation of intracellular ATP are missing. In this work, we demonstrate that cancer cells can synthesize significant amounts of phosphate-bonds from phosphate in response to acid gradient across plasma membrane. The noted phenomenon exists in absence of glycolysis and mitochondrial ATP synthesis, and is unique to cancer. Biochemical assays using viable cancer cells, and purified plasma membrane vesicles utilizing radioactive phosphate, confirmed phosphate-bond synthesis from free phosphate (Pi), and also localization of this activity to the plasma membrane. In addition to ATP, predominant formation of pyrophosphate (PPi) from Pi was also observed when plasma membrane vesicles from cancer cells were subjected to trans-membrane acid gradient. Cancer cytosols were found capable of converting PPi to ATP, and also stimulate ATP synthesis from Pi from the vesicles. Acid gradient created through glucose metabolism by cancer cells, as observed in tumors, also proved critical for phosphate-bond synthesis. In brief, these observations reveal a role of acidic tumor milieu as a potential energy source and may offer a novel therapeutic target.

  18. Energy compensation in the real world: good compensation for small portions of chocolate and biscuits over short time periods in complicit consumers using commercially available foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Katherine M; McKeown, Pascal P; Woodside, Jayne V

    2015-02-01

    While investigations using covert food manipulations tend to suggest that individuals are poor at adjusting for previous energy intake, in the real world adults rarely consume foods of which they are ill-informed. This study investigated the impact in fully complicit consumers of consuming commercially available dark chocolate, milk chocolate, sweet biscuits and fruit bars on subsequent appetite. Using a repeated measures design, participants received four small portions (4 × 10-11 g) of either dark chocolate, milk chocolate, sweet biscuits, fruit bars or no food throughout five separate study days (counterbalanced in order), and test meal intake, hunger, liking and acceptability were measured. Participants consumed significantly less at lunch following dark chocolate, milk chocolate and sweet biscuits compared to no food (smallest t(19) = 2.47, p = 0.02), demonstrating very good energy compensation (269-334%). No effects were found for fruit bars (t(19) = 1.76, p = 0.09), in evening meal intakes (F(4,72) = 0.62, p = 0.65) or in total intake (lunch + evening meal + food portions) (F(4,72) = 0.40, p = 0.69). No differences between conditions were found in measures of hunger (largest F(4,76) = 1.26, p = 0.29), but fruit bars were significantly less familiar than all other foods (smallest t(19) = 3.14, p = 0.01). These findings demonstrate good compensation over the short term for small portions of familiar foods in complicit consumers. Findings are most plausibly explained as a result of participant awareness and cognitions, although the nature of these cognitions cannot be discerned from this study. These findings however, also suggest that covert manipulations may have limited transfer to real world scenarios. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluación de la eficiencia energética de vehículos pesados en el ciclo // Evaluation of the heavy duty trucks energy efficiency in the modified drive cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Pérez-Gálvez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn este trabajo, se presenta la reformulación de un ciclo teórico que consta de los elementosbásicos de un ciclo de viaje real con condiciones prefijadas de movimiento y operación. En lamodificación se tomaron en cuenta los siguientes elementos: frecuencia de rotación mínima enmovimiento estable; eficiencia de la transmisión variable con la velocidad, la carga y la marchaconectada; un nuevo criterio de frecuencia de rotación del motor para el cambio de marchas; elfrenado con el motor embragado y; nuevas expresiones de cuantificación del consumo decombustible. Obteniéndose nuevos modelos matemáticos para la determinación de los indicadoresdel consumo de combustible de vehículos pesados de transmisión mecánica. Se presenta además,un indicador “Coeficiente de Efectividad del Trabajo del Automóvil” (CETA que describe laeficiencia energética durante el periodo de impulso, expresada a través del grado deaprovechamiento de la energía del automóvil para llevar hasta determinada velocidad la masa de lacarga útil.Palabras claves: ciclo de viaje, consumo de combustible, evaluación vehicular, modelos matemáticos._________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this paper, the new formulation of a theoretical drive cycle is presented. It is integrated by stagesof a real drive cycle with the prefix settings of movement and operation. In the cycle modificationthe following approaches are taken account: minimal rotation frequency in stable movement; thetransmission efficiency is variable with the speed, the weight, and the gear ratio; a new rotationfrequency for gear shifting; a motor braking stage and; a group of new equations for the fuelconsumption. New mathematical models were obtained for the fuel consumption indicators of theheavy duty trucks with manual transmission. Furthermore, the indicator Automobile WorkEffectiveness Coefficient is presented. It describes the energy efficiency in the

  20. Optimal Control of Electrified Powertrains with the Use of Drive Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovee, Katherine

    In today's world, automotive manufacturers face the difficult challenge of building vehicles that are capable of meeting the increasingly stringent fuel economy and emissions standards, while also maintaining the performance and drive quality that consumers have come to expect. The automotive industry's response to this has been to make increasingly advanced vehicles that require more complex control systems, often resulting in longer development times and higher costs. One way to help reduce the development time and cost associated with these advanced vehicles is to use a model-based design approach. This approach allows engineers to design more of the vehicle's control system in a virtual environment, before hardware is available to test the control software. While model-based design techniques have helped reduce the amount of development time and cost that is needed to design the control system for a vehicle, these model-based techniques may not fully account for a vehicle's drive quality characteristics. Many of the energy management optimal control algorithms for hybrid vehicles designed in virtual environments today are capable of achieving high fuel economy numbers, but may result in poor drive quality characteristics when implemented on a vehicle. Therefore, a new methodology is needed to account for a vehicle's drive quality during the initial stages of a vehicle's control development. The research presented here describes a new methodology where drive quality metrics are added to the optimal control algorithm's cost function, in order to allow the algorithm to find a good balance between fuel economy and drive quality. Although some research has been previously published in this area, the majority of research does not specifically link the criteria used to improve drive quality to the physical behavior of the vehicle. Other research solves the optimal energy management problem to minimize fuel consumption, but then filters the results to prevent drive