WorldWideScience

Sample records for world bank policy

  1. Assessment of selected world bank policies and their implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The review x-rayed some World Bank policies and their implications on the fight against poverty in Nigeria. World Bank policies on education, structural adjustment programme, water privatization, deregulation/liberalization and their implications on the fight against poverty in Nigeria were analyzed. In the review it was found ...

  2. World Bank Lending and the Quality of Economic Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Smets, Lode; Knack, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of World Bank development policy lending on the quality of economic policy. It finds that the quality of policy increases, but at a diminishing rate, with the cumulative number of policy loans. Similar results hold for the cumulative number of conditions attached to policy loans, although quadratic specifications indicate that additional conditions may ev...

  3. World Bank Policy on Education: A Personal Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psacharopoulos, George

    2006-01-01

    Based on the author's over two decades of association with the World Bank, this paper reviews the institution's policies and practice on education. It describes why education policy, as revealed by operations, shifted dramatically since the early Bank projects on education and identifies the reasons for such a shift. The paper argues that the…

  4. World Bank Development Policies and Poverty Alleviation in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper looks at how World Bank policies affect the outcomes of efforts at alleviating widespread poverty in Africa. It questions the repercussion of these policies on the stability of African economies by analyzing the survey of the literature. From the evidence gathered from Africa and specific countries on the continent, the ...

  5. World Bank Development Policies and Poverty Alleviation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2007-07-10

    Jul 10, 2007 ... exported them to the same markets as it did in the 1970s and 1980s (Onimode. 2003). Thus, whereas Africa ... their raw material calculations has lessened and by implication export rev- enues have also dwindled, .... Globalisation reinforces Africa's peripheral role in the world economy as it ensures that the ...

  6. Poverty and Policy Selectivity of World Bank Trust Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Eichenauer, Vera; Knack, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, donors of foreign aid quadrupled their annual contributions to trust funds at the World Bank. This earmarking of contributions to donors' preferred recipient countries and issues has raised concerns about the alignment of trust funds with the performance-based allocations of aid by the International Development Association, the World Bank's concessional lending arm, a...

  7. World Bank Education Policy: Do the Neoliberal Critiques Still Apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oise, Francine Menashy

    2007-01-01

    Throughout much of the 1990s, the overriding critique of the World Bank was placed on its neoliberal mandate, reflected in its various education measures. However, recently the Bank seems to have taken a notable shift away from this ideological stance in its rhetoric and initiatives. This paper attempts to ascertain the degree to which the…

  8. Rhetoric and Reality: World Bank and CIDA Gender Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The picture the World Bank paints of the world is an optimistic one: living standards are higher than ever before, humanity is progressing, and situations for women are improving. If this is really the case, why then does "the impoverishment of hundreds of millions of people" throughout the world continue? (Chossudovsky 1997, 33). Why do "the…

  9. Vocational Education and Training: A Major Shift in World Bank Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Phillip

    1992-01-01

    Comments on the World Bank's policy paper on vocational and technical education and training. Argues that past failures in establishing effective vocational and technical education were a result of not applying conventional neoclassical economic theory. Asserts that the World Bank's policy paper corrects this approach. (CFR)

  10. Knowledge Banking in Global Education Policy: A Bibliometric Analysis of World Bank Publications on Public-Private Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashy, Francine; Read, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    As a leading mobilizer of international development and educational knowledge, the World Bank has been critiqued in two key areas: (1) the dominance of economic thinking in its policies, and (2) its Northern-generated knowledge which informs its work in the Global South. In this paper, we investigate the disciplinary foundation of Bank knowledge,…

  11. The World Bank, pharmaceutical policies, and health reforms in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homedes, Núria; Ugalde, Antonio; Forns, Joan Rovira

    2005-01-01

    Health care systems spend a relatively high percentage of their resources on the purchase of medicines, and the poor spend a disproportionate amount of their income on pharmaceuticals. There is ample evidence in the literature that drugs are very poorly used. World Bank-led health reforms aim at improving equity, efficiency, quality, and users' satisfaction, and it will be difficult to achieve these goals without making medicines accessible and affordable. The purpose of this article is to examine the adequacy of World Bank pharmaceutical policies, as recommended in various Bank documents, for Latin America and to examine the implementation of the policy recommendations. The authors found that the World Bank identified and recommended a set of pharmaceutical policies that matched the needs of the region. But, as revealed through fieldwork and a review of the literature, the recommended pharmaceutical interventions were left out of the health reforms, and most of the loans that included pharmaceutical interventions allocated funds only to the purchase of drugs. The authors formulate four hypotheses that may explain the lack of congruence between the recommended policies and the strategies financed by World Bank health reform loans to the Latin American region.

  12. The IMF-World Bank's economic stabilisation and structural adjustment policies and the Uganda economy, 1981-1989

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabudere, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    This research report traces all the main developments in IMF-World Bank policies in Uganda. Most of the material concerns the three IMF standby arrangements with Uganda for 1981-1984 and the World Bank Group's Structural Adjustment Programmes. These programmes introduced two contradictory policies

  13. How International Monetary Fund and World Bank policies undermine labor power and rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Vincent; Weissman, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Based on reviews of hundreds of loan and project documents from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank, this article provides detailed evidentiary support for critics who have long claimed that the international financial institutions require Third World countries to adopt policies that harm the interests of working people. After reviewing loan documents between the IMF and World Bank and 26 countries, the authors show that the institutions' loan conditionalities include a variety of provisions that undermine labor rights, labor power, and tens of millions of workers' standard of living. These include downsizing of the civil service and privatization of government-owned enterprises; promotion of labor flexibility: the notion that firms should be able to hire and fire workers, or change terms and conditions of work, with minimal regulatory restrictions; mandated wage rate reductions, minimum-wage reductions or containment, and spreading the wage gap between government employees and managers; and pension reforms, including privatization, that cut social security benefits. These labor-related policies take place in the context of broader IMF and World Bank structural adjustment packages that emphasize trade liberalization, with macroeconomic policies that further advance corporate interests at the expense of labor.

  14. Uncommon Knowledge: World Bank Policy and the Unmaking of the Knowledge Economy in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obamba, Milton O.

    2013-01-01

    The World Bank is clearly one of the most influential global intergovernmental operators for international development assistance. In recent decades, the Bank and other agencies have invested immense technical and financial resources in a troubled and unprecedented mission of revitalizing and restructuring the development of education in Africa. A…

  15. Interrogating an Omission: The Absence of a Rights-Based Approach to Education in World Bank Policy Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashy, Francine

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a discursive analysis of World Bank policy documents in order to reveal the stark omission of a rights-based approach to education, while highlighting instead the support of an economic-instrumentalist approach. Plausible explanations are provided to shed light on this exclusion, including the feasibility critique of education…

  16. The application of the environmental and social standards (safeguard policies) of the World Bank to pipeline projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, E. [Elke Nickel Consultant, Leipzig (Germany); Robelus, R. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-07-01

    In 1998, the World Bank applied environmental and social standards in connection with dam and pipeline projects. Their position on international lending was consolidated by the strict application of safeguard policies. This paper focused on the use of safeguard policies in pipeline projects during the planning and implementation phases. The standards have been analyzed according to the role of safeguard policies in the examination for credit rating; the structure and nature of the safeguard policies; and, new trends in the application of standards. The example of the Baku-Tiblisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline was presented along with the requirements established under the World Bank Operational Directive (OP) 4.01 on environmental assessment. In 2003, the largest internationally active commercial banks voluntarily complied with the World Bank standards in major projects. The safeguard policies of the World Bank refer to standards which are the foundation for environmental and ecological risk assessment in the context of credit-rating reviews. Although the safeguard policies were modeled largely on the specifications of the United States Environmental Protection Act, they requires consideration of the national legislation of the host country, and ratified international environmental agreements. The following elements compose the development of a financing model for credit rating review: internal check of the pipeline project; discussion of the project outline with financing institutions; execution of feasibility studies; project-preparatory phase; and, conclusion of contracts. The safeguards include procedural and qualitative guidelines for environmental assessment, natural habitats, pest management, cultural property, indigenous people, involuntary resettlement, forestry, dam safety, international waterways, disputed areas, and information disclosure. 8 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  17. World Bank Group/World Bank Corporate Scorecards, April 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    This pamphlet presents the World Bank Group and World Bank Corporate Scorecards updated with latest data available for Tier 3 (Performance Tier) as of December 31, 2015. Tiers 1 and 2 present data from end of fiscal year 2015. The World Bank Group Corporate Scorecard monitors the implementation of the World Bank Group Strategy. The Scorecard provides an apex view of the results and performance indicators of the three World Bank Group institutions—the World Bank (WB), ...

  18. The World Bank and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, T; Tomson, G

    2000-03-01

    Within less than a decade the World Bank has become the largest single source of finance (loans) for health in low and middle income countries as well as a major player in the field of pharmaceuticals. Often 20-50% of the recurrent government health budget in developing countries is used to procure drugs. Drugs are among the most salient and cost-effective elements of health care and often a key factor for the success of a health sector reform. However, pharmaceuticals are frequently being used irrationally, mainly due to market imperfections in health care, such as information asymmetries, leading to serious health problems and a heavy financial burden on the health system. Lending priorities set by the World Bank could be used to promote public health sector reform, leading to the rational use of affordable and available drugs of good quality in developing countries. This report provides the first analysis of World Bank activity in the pharmaceutical sector worldwide. The analysis of 77 staff appraisal reports, describing the planning phase of World Bank country projects, shows that 16% of the total World Bank health, nutrition and population budget, or approximately US$1.3 billion, has been committed to loans or credits supporting pharmaceutical activities in the programme countries between 1989-95. Roughly US$1.05 billion has been committed to procurement of drugs and medical equipment. Only 5% of the total pharmaceutical sector lending is committed to software components such as drug policy work and rational use of drugs. No more than 45% of the projects were developed in collaboration with pharmaceutical expertise. The World Bank is recommended to improve its pharmaceutical sector involvement by promoting drug policy research and development including national and international dialogue on pharmaceutical issues to ensure rational use of both drugs and loans. In this, the World Bank has an advantage given its experience from working with both the private and

  19. WORLD BANK: Status of Grievance Process Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    In June 1998, in response, to concerns about the fairness of its employee grievance process and as part of a broader effort to reform its human resource policies, the World Bank appointed an internal...

  20. The World Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangoura, O

    2008-09-01

    The control of human onchocerciasis (river blindness) is one of the most successful global partnerships ever supported by the World Bank. Mectizan mass treatments have greatly contributed to this success and have shaped the strategies of the programmes in which the World Bank has been involved - the Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP), which covered onchocerciasis control in West Africa until 2002, and the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC), which is currently working in 30 countries, to protect millions of people from onchocerciasis. Through the strategy of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI), onchocerciasis control in Africa was transformed from a technologically-driven and vertical health initiative to a community-directed process of treatment and empowerment. Together, CDTI and the donation of Mectizan also reduced costs, producing one of the most effective and affordable disease-control schemes ever seen, and the CDTI strategy is now being applied to other disease-control initiatives. The onchocerciasis programmes have also been exemplary in shaping partnerships with communities, countries, the World Health Organization, governments, non-governmental development organizations, and the private sector. The Bank's involvement in onchocerciasis control has helped mobilize funds, giving confidence to other donors. More than U. S.$800 million was raised for both the OCP and APOC (excluding the initial costs of Mectizan). With these funds and the commitment of the partners involved, high coverages have been achieved in the Mectizan distributions. The Bank is confident that, during the years to come, the partners will continue their success, and that the APOC will achieve its goals by the target date for its closure, in 2015.

  1. Policies for teacher education and recommendations of the World Bank: interfaces with the current context of literacy teacher education in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Alves da Silva Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the recommendations of the World Bank and its relation to the policies of teacher education in Brazil, in order to identify the concordances between current policies for teacher education in the literacy context. This is a document analysis of theoretical and critical nature, which permitted to observe that current policies for teacher education are consistent with the recommendations of the World Bank. Such guidelines generate the allocation of responsibility to the teachers for the success or failure of school students, verified through external assessments and based on the assessed performance.

  2. World Bank Education Policy and Human Resource Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutamba, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the intersection of education and training through societal development in the developing world, a concept linked to national human resource development (NHRD). In addition, education and training is known to correlate strongly with employment outcomes that are connected to economic success, health and family…

  3. Learning to lend for off-grid solar power: policy lessons from World Bank loans to India, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Damian; Hope, Chris [Cambridge Univ., Judge Inst. of Management Studies, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2000-02-01

    The World Bank has sought to advance the diffusion of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology for off-grid applications in the developing world. As these systems are fundamentally different to centralised power stations and conventional rural electrification, the World Bank has been learning how best to lend for such technology. This study seeks to highlight the lessons learnt from the World Bank's first loans for off-grid PV to India, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka. It uses lifetime cost analysis to justify continued intervention in this sector, and it draws on theories of innovation diffusion to guide analysis and ultimately policy recommendations. Because of the special role of entrepreneurial start up companies in the rural PV sector, the paper also uses a company cash flow model to demonstrate the efficacy of various supply-side policies. Finally, the study concludes with a checklist of policy lessons and a consideration of the role of the International Finance Corporation in this sector. (Author)

  4. Payments and Central Bank Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Søren

    This thesis consists of three chapters. The rst, "Paying for Payments", examines the role of interchange fees in payment card networks. The second, "Bank Liquidity and the Interbank Market" (co-authored with Mikael Reimer Jensen), investigates how banks' liquidity holdings at the central bank a ect...... outcomes in the money market. The third, "Collateralized Lending and Central Bank Collateral Policy", considers the emergence of credit constraints under collateralized lending, and how central banks use collateral policy to mitigate these constraints. While the chapters can be read independently......, they share common themes. Each chapter is concerned with payments in one way or another, each is concerned with the e ciency of market outcomes, and, to the extent that there is scope for improving these outcomes, each discusses the appropriate role for policy, in particular central bank policy....

  5. Six Questions about The World Bank's 2020 Education Sector Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2011-01-01

    Based on interviews with World Bank staff in April 2011, this article answers six questions about the World Bank's Education Sector Strategy 2020 (ESS 2020): (1) What is the ESS 2020? (2) What is it not? (3) How was the development process of the ESS 2020 different from that of past Strategies? (4) How are the policy recommendations of the ESS…

  6. Review of the World Bank Road Safety website.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Road Safety website of The World Bank needs to be redeveloped. The website should reflect the new developments in the work field and the IT policy of The World Bank and support its implementation. The report is meant as a brief business case, describing the target audience, purposes of the site,

  7. Seeing Like the World Bank on Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetterlein, Antje

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the way in which the World Bank constructs knowledge on poverty by identifying analytic institutions inside the organisation where ideas are developed, ‘anti-poverty advocates’ that populate these institutions and the strategies they employ to foster their agenda. By doing...... the discursive level with developments on the policy and operational level reveals that the poverty or social agenda has grown incrementally from the late 1960s even in times when neoliberalism dominated world politics and economy. The article goes beyond such an organisational analysis in critically assessing...

  8. Mitigating Evidentiary Bias in Planning and Policy-Making Comment on "Reflective Practice: How the World Bank Explored Its Own Biases?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, Justin

    2016-07-20

    The field of cognitive psychology has increasingly provided scientific insights to explore how humans are subject to unconscious sources of evidentiary bias, leading to errors that can affect judgement and decision-making. Increasingly these insights are being applied outside the realm of individual decision-making to the collective arena of policy-making as well. A recent editorial in this journal has particularly lauded the work of the World Bank for undertaking an open and critical reflection on sources of unconscious bias in its own expert staff that could undermine achievement of its key goals. The World Bank case indeed serves as a remarkable case of a global policy-making agency making its own critical reflections transparent for all to see. Yet the recognition that humans are prone to cognitive errors has been known for centuries, and the scientific exploration of such biases provided by cognitive psychology is now well-established. What still remains to be developed, however, is a widespread body of work that can inform efforts to institutionalise strategies to mitigate the multiple sources and forms of evidentiary bias arising within administrative and policy-making environments. Addressing this gap will require a programme of conceptual and empirical work that supports robust development and evaluation of institutional bias mitigation strategies. The cognitive sciences provides a scientific basis on which to proceed, but a critical priority will now be the application of that science to improve policy-making within those agencies taking responsibility for social welfare and development programmes. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  9. Mitigating Evidentiary Bias in Planning and Policy-Making; Comment on “Reflective Practice: How the World Bank Explored Its Own Biases?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Parkhurst

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The field of cognitive psychology has increasingly provided scientific insights to explore how humans are subject to unconscious sources of evidentiary bias, leading to errors that can affect judgement and decision-making. Increasingly these insights are being applied outside the realm of individual decision-making to the collective arena of policy-making as well. A recent editorial in this journal has particularly lauded the work of the World Bank for undertaking an open and critical reflection on sources of unconscious bias in its own expert staff that could undermine achievement of its key goals. The World Bank case indeed serves as a remarkable case of a global policy-making agency making its own critical reflections transparent for all to see. Yet the recognition that humans are prone to cognitive errors has been known for centuries, and the scientific exploration of such biases provided by cognitive psychology is now well-established. What still remains to be developed, however, is a widespread body of work that can inform efforts to institutionalise strategies to mitigate the multiple sources and forms of evidentiary bias arising within administrative and policy-making environments. Addressing this gap will require a programme of conceptual and empirical work that supports robust development and evaluation of institutional bias mitigation strategies. The cognitive sciences provides a scientific basis on which to proceed, but a critical priority will now be the application of that science to improve policy-making within those agencies taking responsibility for social welfare and development programmes.

  10. Reflective Practice: How the World Bank Explored Its Own Biases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2015-12-10

    While many international organisations have independent evaluations, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Health organization (WHO), uniquely the World Bank in its 2015 World Development Report sought to ascertain the potential biases that influence how its staff interpret evidence and influence policy. Here, we describe the World Bank's study design, including experiments to ascertain the impact on Bank staff's judgements of complexity, confirmation bias, sunk cost bias, and an understanding of the wishes of those whom they seek to help. We then review the Bank's proposed mechanisms to minimise the impact of the biases they identified. We argue that this approach, that we refer to as 'reflective practice,' deserves to be adopted more widely among institutions that seek to use evidence from research to inform policy and practice. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  11. Targeting Aid: What the World Bank Has (Not Achieved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nunnenkamp

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In a report presented at the UN Conference on Financing for Development in March 2002, the World Bank claims that the effectiveness of its financial aid has improved substantially by targeting aid at poor developing countries pursuing sound economic policies. This paper argues that the World Bank's success story rests on a weak empirical foundation. The evidence does not support the view that poverty concerns and policy assessments dominated the distribution of World Bank financing in the 1990s. We conclude that the task of improving the allocation of aid is far from being accomplished. Finally, we discuss some implications of our findings for the future role of the World Bank in development financing.

  12. World Bank in Nepal's Education: Three Decades of Neoliberal Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2017-01-01

    This paper critically analyses key educational policy documents produced by the World Bank mainly from the mid-1980s to 2010 with regard to implementing major educational projects in Nepal. Using critical policy sociology as a methodological tool, the paper explores how a small Himalayan nation with per capita income of about US$730 (2014) plunged…

  13. Why Educational Policies Can Fail: An Overview of Selected African Experiences. World Bank Discussion Papers 82. Africa Technical Department Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psacharopoulos, George

    This paper reviews a number of educational policy statements in East African countries, on issues ranging from combining education with production at the primary level to the financing of higher education. An assessment is made as to how successful the policies have been in achieving their original intention. The paper's conclusion is that policy…

  14. Poverty and Hunger: Issues and Options for Food Security in Developing Countries. A World Bank Policy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutlinger, Shlomo; And Others

    Food security means access by all people at all times to enough food for an active and healthy life. Available data suggest that more than 700 million people in the developing world lack the food necessary for such a life. No problem of underdevelopment may be more serious or have such important implications for the long-term growth of low-income…

  15. Viewpoint – The World Bank Versus the World Commission on Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Goodland

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Bank Group (WBG has long resisted guidelines from reformers and the World Commission on Dams (WCD requiring large dam projects to internalise the social and environmental costs of dam construction. Despite some progress, the Bank continues to resist calls for it to eschew countries’ use of violence in removing residents from areas to be flooded by reservoirs, compensate residents adequately for their losses, or involve affected people in planning for big dams. Suggestions are made for more humane and economically responsible Bank policies.

  16. The World Bank, Support for Universities, and Asymmetrical Power Relations in International Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christopher S.; Rhoads, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of the World Bank in advancing higher education sectors in the developing world, considering in particular the increasing power and strength of a global knowledge-based economy. Given the powerful role that intergovernmental organizations such as the World Bank play in shaping global economic policies, the authors…

  17. Summary of World Bank Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative Education Review, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Identifies the main educational issues in Africa today as stagnation of enrollments and erosion of quality. Outlines policy strategies involving adjustment to demographic and fiscal realities, revitalization of the educational infrastructure, and selective expansion of services. Discusses the role of the international donor community. (SV)

  18. The World Bank Pension Conceptual Framework

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid 1980's, the World Bank has responded to the need to strengthen social insurance and contractual savings systems providing old age income support in developing countries. Such support has also been driven by pressures of global population aging, the erosion of informal and traditional family support systems, and weaknesses in the governance and administration of existing pensi...

  19. 12 CFR 917.4 - Bank Member Products Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank Member Products Policy. 917.4 Section 917... BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.4 Bank Member Products Policy. (a) Adoption and review of member products policy—(1) Adoption. Beginning November 15...

  20. Poverty Reduction and the World Bank. Progress in Fiscal 1996 and 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report reviews progress in implementation of the World Bank's poverty reduction strategy during fiscal 1996-97. Chapter 1, "The World Bank's Poverty Reduction Strategy and Future Directions," outlines elements in the poverty reduction strategy: policies to promote broad-based labor-demanding growth and increase the productivity and…

  1. Pay and grade differentials at the World Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Filmer, Deon; Grosh, Margaret; King, Elizabeth; Walle, Dominique van de

    1998-01-01

    Large international organizations such as the World Bank pursue many objectives in hiring policies, including reduced costs, cultural diversity, and the avoidance of discrimination. There can be sharp tradeoffs between these objectives. Diversity is enhanced by recruiting from an international labor market, for example, but international organizations face unusually large differences in reservation wages for staff capable of doing the same work. One way to reduce costs would be to pay employe...

  2. Afghanistan : The World Bank Country Survey FY 2012

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2012-01-01

    The Country Survey for FY2012 in Afghanistan assists the World Bank in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Afghanistan perceive the Bank. It provides the Bank with systematic feedback from stakeholders in Afghanistan about the following: 1) their views regarding the general environment in Afghanistan; 2) their overall attitudes toward the World Bank in Afghanistan; 3) ove...

  3. World bank and the environment: A progress report, fiscal year 1993. Annual report; Banque mondiale et l`environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This fourth annual report examines how well the World Bank`s environmental policies have worked during fiscal year 1993. It presents an agenda of actions that will help countries manage their environment better and link environmental protection with sustainable development. It describes ways to improve environmental impact studies of Bank-financed projects. The report notes the World Bank`s improved public communications network and increased cofinancing for environmental projects. The Bank`s work in implementing Global Environment Facility (GEF) policies and the Montreal Protocol is also reviewed.

  4. Daniel Stufflebeam and The World Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russon, Craig; Russon, Karen

    2018-01-30

    Circa 2000 when The Evaluation Center on the campus of Western Michigan University was undergoing a renovation, staff were encouraged to clean out their filing cabinets. One of the authors rescued two manila files from the garbage dealing with a presentation that Daniel Stufflebeam made to The World Bank on 13 December 1993 and a subsequent World Bank conference on evaluation and development in which he participated 5-6 December 1994. In these documents, Dan set out some of his early thinking on international evaluation and other topics. The authors used these materials to write a tribute article to Dan publishing some of these ideas for the historical record. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. World Bank Editorial Style Guide 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    This guide is an essential reference for manuscript editors (substantive and mechanical editors), proofreaders, and production editors. It is a supplement to other editorial references, in particular, The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, and Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th edition. It focuses on issues specific to the World Bank for which the Chicago manual provides multiple choices. The professional recommendations made in this guide are designed to ensure that every publ...

  6. Supervision and Performance : The Case of World Bank Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilby, C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores empirical aspects of the relation between supervision and project performance. I focus on development projects funded by the World Bank and on supervision done by the World Bank. The World Bank is the preeminent international development organization both in terms of money lent

  7. Credit Policy within BRD Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraru Camelia

    2017-01-01

    It has been found that credit is indispensable to an economy, which is why the method of granting itis significant and, in this sense, the function of the bank of financial analyst plays an important rolein orienting resources towards the most efficient placements.

  8. Unconventional Monetary Policy and bank supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Gieck, Jana; Traczyk, Adam

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of unconventional monetary policy on the economy and its interactions with bank supervisory rules. In particular, we look at the impact of liquidity injections (quantitative easing) and repurchases of impaired loans (qualitative easing) under increased capital requirements for banks. We show that quantitative easing is most effective in terms of reducing losses in GDP and consumption which occur after a financial shock but leads to high fluctuation...

  9. Regulation of Communication Policy of Modern Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketova Natalia, P.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the need for effective communication commercial banks, revealed the possibility of interaction with customers through advertising, sponsorship, philanthropy, sales promotion, lobbying of interests of banking institutions. The principles for the regulation of communications to ensure consistency of communication complex, which cause a complex effect on the external environment, the creation of adaptive system of marketing communications. It is proved that the possibilities of implementing an active communication policy of modern banks in recent years is constantly increasing. This contributes to the extension of Internet technologies, the creation of remote service channels, the emergence of new tools and technologies to attract and retain customers. On the example of JSC "Sberbank of Russia" presented the technology of using the traditional tools of ATL and BTL communications, the formation of the system CSR – corporate social responsibility, building contact with customers, enhancing their loyalty to the Bank. Reveals the areas of regulation of the savings Bank of its activities on the creation of the daily value of services based on the principles of involvement and co-operation of the system "Client - Bank", "Bank - Company", "Bank – Employees".

  10. The World Bank's "Employing Workers" index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Sangheon; McCann, Deirdre; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    This note provides an update on the ongoing debate over the World Bank's Doing Business project with a particular focus on its "Employing Workers" index, which is intended to measure difficulty of hiring, rigidity of working hours and difficulty of firing. The authors review the findings of studies...... that have used this index or been influenced by it and of those that inspired its construction. They go on to examine criticisms of this instrument, highlighting both conceptual and empirical problems. Their paper concludes with suggestions for alternative approaches and future research....

  11. The World Bank's Shift Away from Neoliberal Ideology: Real or Rhetoric?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Rino Wiseman

    2012-01-01

    Some literature on World Bank education policies after 1999 tries to project a shift away of the Bank from its 1980s neoliberal mandate. This article argues that the shift is only in the form of rhetoric, which facilitates a hidden agenda of creating a worldwide higher education market, leaving the poor with primary education only. At the…

  12. Macroprudential policies on banking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Mircea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The macro-prudential tool kit deals with those risks that contributed to the outbreak of the last economic crisis or materialized during it, namely the excessive credit growth, the excessive price assets growth driven by the credit growth, the excessive increase in leverage, the liquidity risk, the volatile capital flows and foreign currency lending. It can be argued that macro-prudential policies underestimated the systemic risks mentioned, although they were better positioned than other policies aimed at financial stability. The impact of macro-prudential policy is difficult to be determined, because is usually applied simultaneously and in the same direction with other macroeconomic policies. Thus, it is necessary a better coordination of policies and a better calibration of instruments in order to get a quick and effective response during their implementation. These must be in line with national specificities and the risks identified. Until the new macro-prudential tools introduced by Basel III will prove their effectiveness, the issue of finding proper tools is still open.

  13. Central bank independence and public debt policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    The various proposals for the institutional design of the European Monetary Union have drawn fresh attention to the link between monetary and public debt policies. This paper explores the strategic interaction between fiscal authorities setting public debt and the central bank controlling monetary

  14. Bank-characteristics, lending channel and monetary policy in Malaysia: evidence from bank-level data

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Majid, Muhamed Zulkhibri

    2010-01-01

    Based on a bank-level panel dataset for Malaysian banks from 1997 to 2005, this paper analyzes the effects of bank-specific characteristics, bank specialization and portfolio concentrations on the transmission of monetary policy via bank lending channel in a fairly well-developed financial system. The dynamic panel regression results provide evidence in favour of the bank lending channel theory and consistent with other empirical evidences that the bank lending channel operating via small and...

  15. Gangs, Soldiers and "Idle Girls": Constructions of Youth and Development in World Bank Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell-Rowland, Mikaela

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the World Bank's recent World Development Report on youth and development (2007) as an empirical example to explore the links between the employment of "group identity" and the use of policy frameworks. Drawing on feminist theory to analyse the representations of young people put forward within the report, this article…

  16. Rethinking the World Bank Agenda for Chinese Higher Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinyuan

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the way in which the World Bank has worked effectively with China in higher education. It investigates whether or not the cooperation between the two has changed in line with their changing relationship. More specifically, it discusses whether the World Bank's China agenda reflects the reform package of socio-institutional…

  17. The World Bank and the Third World: Reflections of a Skeptic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Milagros

    1981-01-01

    Examines the impact of the World Bank on education funding in developing countries. The author concludes that the bank's objectives make education an instrument of national economic growth rather than contributing to individual development. (AM)

  18. Lessons Learned from World Bank Education Management Information System Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Hamid, Husein; Saraogi, Namrata; Mintz, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Lessons Learned from World Bank Education Management Information System Operations provides an overview of the World Bank’s portfolio in the area of Education Management Information Systems (EMISs) over the course of 17 years, from 1998 to 2014. It seeks to identify overall trends and characteristics of World Bank support in this area, with the intent of informing future project preparation and analytical work. The portfolio review revealed that although several good practices were evident, o...

  19. The Bank Lending Channel of Monetary Policy Transmission in A Dual Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansor H. Ibrahim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of monetary policy on bank lending in a dual banking system, i.e. Malaysia. Making use of an unbalanced panel data set of 38 Islamic and conventional banks covering mostly 2001-2014, we find evidence that variations in monetary policy affect lending growth of Islamic banks and, to some extent, conventional banks. The results further reveal that, in conformity with studies using aggregate Islamic financing data, the Islamic financing growth reacts more strongly to monetary policy changes. Moreover, we find no marked difference between full-fledged Islamic banks and Islamic bank subsidiaries in their responses to monetary policy. While we also document some evidence indicating the significant relations between bank-specific variables and lending growth, the bank-specific variables do not seem to have any role in impacting the potency of the bank lending channel. Finally, we find that lending growth is directly related to economic growth, suggesting procyclicality of bank lending/financing in Malaysia. These results have important implications for effective implementation of monetary policy and further development of Islamic banks in Malaysia.

  20. Monetary policy and banking supervision: still at arm's length? A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Masciandaro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available By the early 2000s an increasing number of countries had adopted a well-defined central bank framework, characterized by two intertwined features: stronger specialization for the banking authority in achieving monetary policy goals, and a lessening of its traditional responsibilities for the safeguard of financial stability within its institutional perimeter. The fundamental effect was that Central Bank Involvement in Supervision (CBIS generally decreased. But then, after the Financial Crisis erupted in 2008, reforms have been undertaken and projects are being discussed to reconsider the role of the central bank in the field of supervisory tasks. The main research question is then: how is CBIS moving? This article offers two contributions. Firstly, the economics of the relationship between central banking, monetary policy and banking supervision is reviewed. Secondly, the current situation of CBIS in 88 countries around the world is analyzed.

  1. The transmission of monetary policy through conventional and islamic banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaheer, S.; Ongena, S.; van Wijnbergen, S.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the differences in banks' responses to monetary policy shocks across bank size, liquidity, and type, i.e., conventional versus Islamic, in Pakistan between 2002:II to 2010:I. We find that following a monetary contraction, small banks with liquid balance sheets cut their lending less

  2. Dividend Payout Policy of Conventional Banking and Islamic Banking in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the difference between the dividend payout policy of Islamic banks and conventional banks in Pakistan for a period from 2012 to 2016 analyzing the data through regression using Least Square Method (OLS. Specifically, the study aims to study the impact of the profitability, liquidity, revenue growth and financial leverage on the dividend payout policy of the Islamic Banks and conventional banks of Pakistan and how Islamic banks dividend policy differs from conventional banks. This study concludes that the factors like liquidity and financial leverage should be considered and addressed accordingly, because these are key indicators to help policymakers and investors in assessing the performance of the Islamic Banking Industry. DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v10i1.6103

  3. Knowledge Aid as Instrument of Regulation: World Bank's Non-Lending Higher Education Support for Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Tebeje

    2014-01-01

    In the context of low-income countries, the role of donors in public policymaking is of great importance. Donors use a combination of lending and non-lending instruments as pathways of influence to shape policy directions in aid-recipient countries. This paper reports some findings from a doctoral study on the role of the World Bank in the recent…

  4. What the World Bank's shift from public to private funding means for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Something new is afoot at the World Bank. But there's no reason for developing countries to be hopeful that development funding is about to get a much needed fillip after decades of dismal performance and inappropriate policy prescriptions. It's just that Santa Claus will only give gifts to the investor kids from now on.

  5. ROLE OF DEPOSIT POLICY FOR UKRAINIAN BANKING INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Bova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to define and demonstrate the role of deposit policy for banking institutions, summarize and highlight the problems and its solutions in deposit policy of Ukraine that provides economic downturn and recovery. Appropriate selection and implementation of the deposit policy objectives, its operational structure and tools determines the degree of development of financial inclusion, which generate developed financial market, ensures public confidence to the deposit services, and increases the level of savings that positively affects the banking system financial stability and economy in the country in whole. It is because of availability and security deposit services, commercial banks of Ukraine have the opportunity to increase its resource base due to savings of the population. Methodology. The paper is based on a synthesis of data to explore the bank deposit policy situation. The paper considers the scientific and theoretical approaches for the developing the deposit policy management. It contains the analysis of the dynamics and current situation and conditions of the resource potential of banking institutions in Ukraine. Results of the article shows direct dependency between savings, consumption and deposit policy, therefore every banking institution includes the mechanism of banking management of the development and implementation of deposit policy. Also, this management defines the deposit policy directions according to the conditions of bank resources mobilization and its applying in active operations. The obtained results confirm that the term “deposit policy” is too complex, but it is investigated in interaction with banking activity. It is explained how deposit policy influences banking system and has impact on economic growth in general. Practical implications. The research creates methodological approaches to the measurement of effectiveness of deposit policy. Also, it studies the existing ones. It provides

  6. The World Bank Annual Report 2010

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The Annual Report is prepared by the Executive Directors of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA) in accordance with the by-laws of the two institutions. The President of the IBRD and IDA and the Chairman of the Boards of Executive Directors submit the Report, together with the accompanying administrative budgets and audited financial statements, to the Board of Governors.

  7. The changing role of the World Bank in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2005-01-01

    The World Bank began operations on June 25, 1946. Although it was established to finance European reconstruction after World War II, the bank today is a considerable force in the health, nutrition, and population (HNP) sector in developing countries. Indeed, it has evolved from having virtually no presence in global health to being the world's largest financial contributor to health-related projects, now committing more than $1 billion annually for new HNP projects. It is also one of the world's largest supporters in the fight against HIV/AIDS, with commitments of more than $1.6 billion over the past several years. I have mapped this transformation in the World Bank's role in global health, illustrating shifts in the bank's mission and financial orientation, as well as the broader changes in development theory and practice. Through a deepened understanding of the complexities of development, the World Bank now regards investments in HNP programs as fundamental to its role in the global economy.

  8. Dividend Policy and Share Price Valuation in Nigerian Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Adesina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined dividend policy and share price valuation in the Nigerian banks. The study which covered a ten-year period made use of secondary data sourced from published financial statements of four major banks in Nigeria, namely; Access Bank, First Bank, United Bank for Africa and Guarantee Trust Bank. The study employed the Ordinary Least Square (OLS regression model in the analyzing the data obtained. Findings from the study show that a significant positive relationship exist between earnings per share and market price. The study concluded that banks should put in place efficient and robust dividend policy and leverage on the new e-dividend payment initiative for a better performance. An amendment should be carried out on Company and Allied Matter Act (CAMA 2004 as amended to compel any company with a total asset value in excess of N10billion to be listed on the Nigerian capital market with a view to attracting more investors.

  9. THE CRUCIAL ROLE OF CENTRAL BANK TRANSPARENCY IN ASSESSING THE MONETARY POLICY COMMITTEE MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumiter Florin Cornel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past, central banks used to be very reserved regarding their activities, strategies and monetary policy decisions and actions. As central banks become more and more independent, transparency gained importance based upon accountability arguments. An important fact for adopting an increasing central bank transparency lies in its importance of influencing the development of expectations. The concept of central bank transparency has emerged in the economic literature relatively later than some other key concepts. The widespread agreement of an inflation targeting regime and a more transparent central bank is desired by the most central banks around the world in the context of the need of the public disclosure of macroeconomic models, the quarterly time series for indicators like: inflation, output, budgetary deficit, public debt, interest rate, inflation expectations, the public announcement of the monetary policy decisions, objectives and targets, the publication of some key monetary tools like: inflation report, financial stability report, monetary policy committee report, annual report. These are all key issues in the construction of a more transparent and independent central bank in the context of a good global governance. Moreover, for the fruitful success of the central bank, latum sensu, and monetary policy, stricto sensu, it must be encompassed a complex monetary policy committee mechanism. This complex mechanism must by edowed with the collegial approach of the monetary policy committee, structure of the voting mechanism within the committee, the importance of the person which announces the changes within the interest rates and the public disclosure of these information’s enriched in a communication strategy. This communication strategy is very important for assessing and public understanding of the central bank’s actions but also for communicating the objectives, targets and forward looking approaches of the monetary

  10. Assessing women's knowledge and attitudes toward cord blood banking: policy and ethical implications for Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Monica M; Dajani, Rana; Khader, Yousef; Matthews, Kirstin R W

    2016-08-01

    Despite the global expansion of umbilical cord blood (CB) banking, little is known about public opinion and awareness, especially among Arab Muslim populations. CB banking raises policy questions about funding sustainability and quality standards, as well as ethical debates about profitability, informed consent, and medical justification. This study is the first of its kind in the Arab world, and Jordan has a unique, understudied, yet highly relevant setting, especially as a regional medical hub with advanced medical and health policy infrastructures. In addition, the first private and public CB banks are expected to open in 2016. The authors developed and administered, over a 5-month period, an anonymous survey to investigate public opinion and knowledge about CB banking in Jordan. The survey was administered to women in maternity outpatient clinic waiting rooms at five different hospitals. More than 75% of respondents indicated they knew nothing about CB banking in Jordan, and more than 50% had never heard of CB banking before. However, overall public opinion about CB storage is positive. Important factors related to public opinion were also identified, demonstrating that most women want more information on CB banking, especially from their obstetrician. This widespread lack of awareness is likely contributing to misinformation, lack of knowledge, and unfavorable perspectives toward CB donation and research. The results have important implications for the development of national and regional policies and educational campaigns on CB banking targeting both physicians and patients. © 2016 AABB.

  11. Oil, debt, banking and the world recession

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, Ferdinand E.

    1983-01-01

    The threat of a major debt crisis is presently hanging over the international financial community like Damocles' sword. Behind the crisis lies the flood of petrodollars into the financial institutions of the industrial world since the mid 1970s and the consequent large-scale lending to “doubtful customers”. A simple solution to the problem is not in sight.

  12. Banks' risk appetite, heterogeneity and monetary policy: evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to avoid distress or crisis in the financial system. Again, the unsystemic banks that are seen to be performing poorly should be encouraged to either merge or be acquired to form mega banks which will eventually make the entire system stronger. Keywords: Heterogeneity, risk appetite, monetary policy, monetary authority ...

  13. The effects of credit policy on bank performance: Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banks have unusually high and increasing average interest rate spreads and interest rate margins showing both highly poor competition and inefficiency. Bad debts still exist though declining and therefore banks should continue to improve their lending policies. The findings imply that Rwanda can accelerate its economic ...

  14. The transmission of monetary policy through conventional and Islamic banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaheer, S.; Ongena, S.; van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the differences in banks’ responses to monetary policy shocks across bank size, liquidity, and type—i.e., conventional versus Islamic—in Pakistan between 2002:Q2 and 2010:Q1. We find that following a monetary contraction, small banks with liquid balance sheets cut their lending less

  15. The Transmission of Monetary Policy through Conventional and Islamic Banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaheer, S.; Ongena, S.; van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the differences in banks’ responses to monetary policy shocks across bank size, liquidity, and type, i.e., conventional versus Islamic, in Pakistan between 2002:II to 2010:I. We find that following a monetary contraction, small banks with liquid balance sheets cut their lending less

  16. Holding the World Bank accountable for leakage of funds from Africa's health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouf, Fatma E

    2010-06-15

    This article explores the accountability of international financial institutions (IFIs), such as the World Bank, for human rights violations related to the massive leakage of funds from sub-Saharan Africa's health sector. The article begins by summarizing the quantitative results of Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys performed in six African countries, all showing disturbingly high levels of leakage in the health sector. It then addresses the inadequacy of good governance and anticorruption programs in remedying this problem. After explaining how the World Bank's Inspection Panel may serve as an accountability mechanism for addressing the leakage of funds, discussing violations of specific Bank policies and procedures that would support a claim related to leakage and examining the relevance of human rights concerns to such as claim, the article explores some of the Panel's limitations and the positive steps taken to address these concerns.

  17. The World Bank's Position on Early Child Education in Brazil: A Critical Assessment of Contributions and Shortcomings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the World Bank published a policy study on early child education (ECE) developments in Brazil, entitled "Early Child Education: Making Programs Work for Brazil's Most Important Generation. Development." This paper analyses the report's assessment of ECE policy in Brazil as well as the recommendations it provides. A critical…

  18. World Bank Okays Public Interest in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David; Clipper, Lutitia; Enkhbaatar, D.; Manning, Anitra; Riley, Thomas; Zaman, Husam

    2004-01-01

    This essay review discusses the report of The Task Force on Higher Education and Society (TFHES), convened in 1998 by the World Bank but independently financed and staffed in collaboration with UNESCO and several foundations. "Peril and Promise" marks an historic turning point in the framework for postsecondary educational planning. Rate-of-return…

  19. US politics and World Bank IDA-lending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Hansen, Henrik; Markussen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the role of US political factors in the allocation of World Bank concessional lending, where US political interests are proxied by voting similarity in the United Nations General Assembly on issues identified as important by the US Department of State. In contrast to previous...

  20. The World Bank's Africa Virtual University Project: A Revisit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafukho, Fredrick M.; Muyia, Machuma Helen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of using technology in the delivery of virtual learning programs in higher education in Africa is to ensure access and equity as a strategy to develop human resources. Examining how specific educational innovations in higher education are working is necessary. The purpose of this study is to examine the World Bank's…

  1. Retrenched Journals: Further on the World Bank Loan in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olorunsola, R.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews collection development difficulties encountered at Nigeria's University of Ilorin as a result of the inflation of serial subscription prices and the poor state of the Nigerian economy in the 1980s. Describes the library's successful use of the World Bank loan of 1990-1993 to fund journal renewals and purchases. (JMV)

  2. PENSION REFORMS AND WORLD BANK-REGULATED LAWS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    humanitarian act aimed at improving the welfare of those who left service and therefore handicapped by age. Such act ..... (2.199m bb1/day) and has 53.0 per cent of her labour force in services. The World Bank ... Europeans insist that social security, particularly pension benefits, should aim at the general enrichment of the ...

  3. Poverty in Albania: A Qualitative Assessment. World Bank Technical Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Soto, Hermine; Gordon, Peter; Gedeshi, Ilir; Sinoimeri, Zamira

    This World Bank qualitative assessment of poverty in Albania outlines five objectives: (1) it seeks to develop the understanding of poverty in the country by involving poor Albanians in a process of exploring the causes, nature, extent of poverty and its effects; (2) it is intended to support the Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (GPRS),…

  4. Influence over Time: Community-Driven Development and the Changing Nature of the World Bank's Impact in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Storen, Inga

    2017-01-01

    Much literature has focused on the influence of the World Bank with regard to policy reform in low-income countries. While this literature has been produced over the course of many decades, the underlying studies have not tended to take a multi-decade approach to examining the way that World Bank influence changes in a given country. Put…

  5. IS THE BRICS NEW DEVELOPMENT BANK A FLEDGLING ALTERNATIVE TO THE WORLD BANK?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vazquez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2001, the world began talking about BRIC – Brazil, Russia, India and China – as a potential powerhouse in the world economy. After the 2008 international financial crisis, BRIC gained prominent momentum and the world saw them as a serious actor to be watched. Today, BRICS (South Africa became a member of the bloc in 2010 are being closely watched because there is no certainty as to their future.The Shanghai-based New Development Bank was launched in this context and in answer to the institutional crisis that the world observed with concern when US-guided international economic institutions could not lead the way out of the 2008 crisis and into recovery.While each country around the globe lives its own domestic reality, the Trump phenomenon in the United States has erupted on the international stage and is proving to lead the still largest economy in the world onto the opposite path of the one set by the United Nations in its 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.These events as well as the roles played by the UN and the G20 are the subject of this article. They are analyzed in order to provide a framework from which to answer the following questions: Is the Shanghai-based New Development Bank a fledgling alternative to the World Bank, and are the BRICS a possible alternative to a more cooperative future? 

  6. Hazards of Nature, Risks to Development : An IEG Evaluation of World Bank Assistance for Natural Disasters

    OpenAIRE

    Independent Evaluation Group

    2006-01-01

    The World Bank's Independent Evaluation Group examined the World Bank's experience in disaster prevention and response over the past 20 years and found that the scale of Bank operations has grown over the period. The report found that the Bank has demonstrated considerable flexibility in its approach, but actions have tended to be more reactive than proactive, with disaster response taking...

  7. 12 CFR 225.143 - Policy statement on nonvoting equity investments by bank holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy statement on nonvoting equity investments by bank holding companies. 225.143 Section 225.143 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.143 Policy statement...

  8. FRANK A. VANDERLIP AND THE NATIONAL CITY BANK DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Roberts

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the First World War policies of the National City Bankof New York, drawing attention to the internal disputes within the bank over war financing. Some historians have suggested that during the First World War New York banks associated with the National City Bank favored fierce competition with the Allied powers for markets and overseas investment opportunities, whereas those linked to J. P Morgan and Company preferred cooperation with the Allied powers, concentrating upon handling the massive war financing the Allied war effort required. In reality the picture was more complex. The National City Bank participated substantially in Allied war loans and, with the First National Bank and Morgan’s, was one of the “Trio” of leading New York banks that handled such financing. Simultaneously, Frank A. Vanderlip, the National City president and a long-time advocate of the expansion of American foreign trade and investment, launched a major initiative to expand the National City’s overseas activities, through the establishment of foreign branches around the world and the creation of the American International Corporation, a foreign investment trust. Although Vanderlip suggested that he wished to cooperate with British financial interests in these activities, they generated conflict between the National City and the fiercely pro-Allied Morgan firm. Within the bank, they also created substantial tension between the broadly neutral Vanderlip and his staunchly pro-Allied patron, the bank’s chairman, James Stillman, who diedin 1918, and other strongly pro-Allied National City officers. Shortly afterthe war, Vanderlip proposed a massive and visionary scheme to provide American financing for European economic regeneration, causing the National City’s directors, who considered it impractical and outside their bank’s remit of maximizing profits, to dismiss him.

  9. Saving Saba bank: policy implications of biodiversity studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Hoetjes

    Full Text Available Saba Bank has always been an area of special importance to the neighboring island of Saba in the Netherlands Antilles. Sabans traditionally fished on the Bank as far back as 1907, but increasing foreign fishing pressures on the Bank in the 1970s and 1980s forced many Saban fishermen out. Concerns were compounded by the suspicion that shipping was also damaging the benthic habitat of the bank. Fishery legislation, enacted in 1996, brought an end to unlicensed fishing and established Coast Guard enforcement on the Bank, but also led to protests from neighboring countries that previously fished on the Bank.Research was necessary to support the need for protection. Review of available research of Saba Bank and rapid biological assessments and fisheries surveys since 1996 emphasized the richness of Saba Bank's biodiversity and the need for protection of fisheries stocks. The national nature policy plan recognized this and encouraged further research to base conservation measures on.Recent biological surveys of corals, fishes, and algae presented in this collection of articles emphasized habitat heterogeneity and the relative richness of the marine flora and fauna. These assessments formed the basis for a management plan to protect Saba Bank's biodiversity and a draft proposal to the International Maritime Organization (IMO seeking Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA status for the Bank. The intention of the PSSA proposal is to protect the benthic habitat on Saba Bank from anchor damage. This paper serves to provide the context for the results of the recent biodiversity surveys of Saba Bank. It is hoped that this collection will serve as a knowledge baseline and engender further research in the area.

  10. Bank Liquidity, Interbank Markets, and Monetary Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freixas, X.; Martin, A.; Skeie, D.

    2010-01-01

    A major lesson of the recent financial crisis is that the interbank lending market is crucial for banks facing large uncertainty regarding their liquidity needs. This paper studies the efficiency of the interbank lending market in allocating funds. We consider two different types of liquidity shocks

  11. Opposite policy implications in the theory of money and banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson D. P. Bertolai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis creates a demand for welfare-based models of financial regulation and liquidity shortages. In this paper, we review policy implications from two cornerstone models and show that they imply different responses in terms of intertemporal returns of financial liabilities. In the first case, a version of the Cavalcanti and Wallace (1999, random-matching model, monitored agents are led to promote inflation in bank-issued money. In the second case, a sequential-service version of the Diamond and Dybvig (1983 model of bank runs with insolvency, increases in long-run returns can prevent bank runs by reducing the provision of liquidity.

  12. Factors Affecting the Financing Policy of Commercial Banks in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W/Michael Shibru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Determining the optimal capital structure is one of the most fundamental policy decisions faced by financial managers. Since optimal debt ratio influences firm’s value, different firms determine capital structures at different levels to maximize the value of their firms. Thus, this study examines the relationship between leverage and firm specific (profitability, tangibility, growth, risk, size and liquidity determinants of capital structure decision, and the theories of capital structure that can explain the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In order to investigate these issues a mixed method research approach is utilized, by combining documentary analysis and in-depth interviews. More specifically, the study uses twelve years (2000 - 2011 data for eight banks in Ethiopia.   The findings show that profitability, size, tangibility and liquidity of the banks are important determinants of capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. However, growth and risk of banks are found to have no statistically significant impact on the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In addition, the results of the analysis indicate that pecking order theory is pertinent theory in Ethiopian banking industry, whereas there are little evidence to support static trade-off theory and the agency cost theory. Therefore, banks should give consideration to profitability, size, liquidity and tangibility when they determine their optimum capital structure.

  13. Factors Affecting the Financing Policy of Commercial Banks in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W/Michael Shibru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Determining the optimal capital structure is one of the most fundamental policy decisions faced by financial managers. Since optimal debt ratio influences firm’s value, different firms determine capital structures at different levels to maximize the value of their firms. Thus, this study examines the relationship between leverage and firm specific (profitability, tangibility, growth, risk, size and liquidity determinants of capital structure decision, and the theories of capital structure that can explain the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In order to investigate these issues a mixed method research approach is utilized, by combining documentary analysis and in-depth interviews. More specifically, the study uses twelve years (2000 - 2011 data for eight banks in Ethiopia.   The findings show that profitability, size, tangibility and liquidity of the banks are important determinants of capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. However, growth and risk of banks are found to have no statistically significant impact on the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In addition, the results of the analysis indicate that pecking order theory is pertinent theory in Ethiopian banking industry, whereas there are little evidence to support static trade-off theory and the agency cost theory. Therefore, banks should give consideration to profitability, size, liquidity and tangibility when they determine their optimum capital structure.

  14. MONETARY POLICY SHOCKS AND ISLAMIC BANKS DEPOSITS IN INDONESIAN DUAL BANKING SYSTEM AFTER THE FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Affandi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of riba (usury in the economic system remained a key factor that led to financial crisis since theinception of modern economy in the late of 17th century. Implementation of interest based monetary policystipulated rampant speculation as common practices in the global financial sector. Although Islamic bankingwas governed by syariah (Divine Law, which was assumed to be resilient from distress, the volatility ofinterest movement would generally affect Islamic banks operations in a dual banking system. This paperwould look at this issue and would empirically explore the dynamic inter-relationships between deposits ofIslamic banks with monetary policy variables in Indonesia. In terms of market share, as of 2009, Islamicbanking asset in Indonesia was a meager 2%. The industry had been affected by few monetary policy shockson its deposits and financing. The study would employ vector auto regression model (VAR to explore thedynamics between the variables. The study would focus on data from 2004 to 2008 or performance after theAsian financial crisis. The results from these tests determined that shariah based deposits played significantrole in transmitting monetary policy effects to the economy. This study found that Islamic banking depositsin Indonesia were not sensitive to monetary policy changes. This study also concluded that IndonesianIslamic banks were resilient to financial crisis.

  15. Formation of strategy and policy of banking credit operations management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Lysenok

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the strategic management of credit operations as the activities on credit strategies of banking institutions, the formation of goals, objectives, and the choice of methods to achieve them. The basis of this is the strategic management analysis of the factors affecting the lending operations, strategic planning, communication mechanisms of strategic and tactical decisions, monitoring the implementation of the strategy and timely adjustments. For the purpose of effective implementation of the developed strategy, the article argues that banks in modern conditions should develop their own internal credit policy which should cover the essential elements and principles of credit at these banks. The study determines that the credit policy is based on the factors determined by the amount of capital assets and loan portfolio, the structure of its clientele, specialization, location, presence of branch network, the situation in the money market.

  16. The Asymmetric Effects of Monetary Policy and Bank Credits in Taiwan Banking Industry - A Dynamic Panel Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jui-Chuan (Della) Chang; Ching-Chuan Tsong; Chieh-Tsung Wu

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates whether distributional effect arising from the impact of monetary policy on bank credits will be different when monetary policy is asymmetric. Methodologically, we use a set of high frequency panel data for Taiwan commercial banks and adopt Arellano and Bond's (1991) generalized method of moments approach to conduct our empirical analysis. First of all, we investigate whether there exist the distributional effects of monetary policy on bank lending behavior which is as...

  17. Cord Blood Banking in the Arab World: Current Status and Future Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Monica M; Dajani, Rana; Matthews, Kirstin R W

    2015-07-01

    Umbilical cord blood transplants are now used to treat numerous types of immune- and blood-related disorders and genetic diseases. Cord blood (CB) banks play an important role in these transplants by processing and storing CB units. In addition to their therapeutic potential, these banks raise ethical and regulatory questions, especially in emerging markets in the Arab world. In this article, the authors review CB banking in five countries in the region, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates, selected for their different CB banking policies and initiatives. In assessing these case studies, the authors present regional trends and issues, including religious perspectives, policies, and demographic risk factors. This research suggests strong incentives for increasing the number of CB units that are collected from and available to Arab populations. In addition, the deficit in knowledge concerning public opinion and awareness in the region should be addressed to ensure educated decision-making. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Industrial policy and the World Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Deaglio Mario

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that with the present world financial crisis national governments, particularly in eurozone countries, are left with little more than industrial policy as a tool to steer the economy. Present day industrial policy will of course be very different from the "classical" one, whose pillars must be drastically reinterpreted in the wake of globalisation. For this reinterpretation, this paper synthetically reappraises the evolution of economic thought during the first (Victorian) m...

  19. Reforming the World Bank: From Social-Liberalism to Neo-Liberalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girdwood, John

    2007-01-01

    Using an analytics of government perspective, it is argued that neo-liberalism as an art of government, especially its form as North American advanced liberal political reason, has shaped enterprise governance and managerial reform at the World Bank. With a focus on the World Bank as a financial banking enterprise, the article explores questions…

  20. Monetary policy, banking and heterogeneous agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolski, M.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of heterogeneous expectations on monetary policy performance has gained a lot of attention in the recent years. It proved to be an important factor that, under some circumstances, may even destabilize the economy (Massaro, 2012). This paper investigates the phenomenon of heterogeneous

  1. The Missing Link in Donor Prescribed Educational Reforms: Lack of Ownership (The Case of the World Bank in Ethiopian Higher Education)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garomssa, Habtamu Diriba

    2016-01-01

    The World Bank (WB) as an international policy transfer and diffusion agent has been actively involved in orchestrating and driving Higher Education (HE) reforms globally. Such impact of the Bank has arguably, been more evident in the context of loan recipient countries. By using a hard mode of influence (financial), and more subtle or soft modes…

  2. Monetary Policy and Bank Excessive Risk-Taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Zaghdoudi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between monetary policy and bank excessive risk-taking for a panel of 22 countries over the period 1990- 2014. The sample covers countries from Latin America, OECD and South East Asia. By performing panel cointegration and panel GMM models, results indicate that the adoption of an expansionary monetary policy through high money supply and low interest rates increases non-performing loans. However, a restrictive monetary policy with high interest rates attracts riskier investors.

  3. [Relevance of the World Report on Disability by WHO and World Bank for participation research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, T; Gutenbrunner, C

    2012-12-01

    The World Report on Disability has been presented to the public in 2011 jointly by WHO and World Bank. This paper aims to highlight the importance of the World Report for participation and rehabilitation research. In a first step we provide an overview of the World Report. It includes an introduction of the understanding of disability and its epidemiology, an analysis of different care sectors and further important life domains as well as recommendations for the improvement of the living situation of persons with disability. Then, the importance of context factors for participation is earmarked. We summarize pivotal messages of the World Report, including the estimation of 15% of the world population that experiences some kind of disability. We report on the consequences drawn for the participation and rehabilitation research. Our recommendations complete the present paper. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. The reaction of bank lending to monetary policy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Takeda

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the relevance of the "bank lending channel'' of monetary policy transmission in Brazil. Disaggregated monthly data of the Brazilian banks balance sheets from December 1994 to December 2001 are analyzed. In addition to the short-term interest rate, we consider the effects of another monetary policy instrument frequently used in Brazil, represented by reserve requirements on overall banks deposits - demand, savings, and time deposits. Dynamic panel data techniques are employed. Our results suggest that the impact of reserve requirements is relevant and stronger for larger banks loans. This finding results from the progressive reserve rates required from banks, which affect to a greater extent banks with larger deposit volumes.Este artigo avalia o canal de empréstimos bancários na transmissão da política monetária. A análise foca os dados mensais desagregados do balanço patrimonial dos bancos comerciais brasileiros de dezembro de 1994 a dezembro de 2001. Em adição à taxa básica de juros de curto prazo, este estudo considera também os efeitos de um outro instrumento de política monetária usado freqüentemente no Brasil, representado pelos recolhimentos compulsórios sobre os depósitos à vista, de poupança e a prazo. A partir de técnicas de análise de dados em painel dinâmico, os resultados dos testes sugerem que o impacto dos compulsórios é relevante e é mais forte sobre os empréstimos dos grandes bancos, conclusão que decorre de recolhimentos compulsórios de caráter progressivo, que afetam mais fortemente os bancos com maiores volumes de depósitos.

  5. Impact of Liquidity Level on the Monetary Policy Transmission Effectiveness of the Moroccan Central Bank (Bank Al Maghrib)

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Moumni; Benaissa Nahhal

    2014-01-01

    In the context of international financial crisis, this paper aims to analyze the impact of the liquidity level on the monetary policy transmission effectiveness of the Moroccan Central Bank (Bank Al Maghrib, BAM). After a long period of liquidity excess, the Moroccan banking system through, since 2007, a liquidity shortage that forces BAM to inject a regular and massive quantity of liquidity. Thus, to evaluate the influence of liquidity level on the monetary policy transmission effectiveness ...

  6. The Determinants of Bank Internationalisation in Times of Financial Globalisation: Evidence from the World's Largest Banks (1980-2007)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, Gerarda; Mulder, Arjen

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the determinants of bank internationalisation, of the world's largest banks from the period 1980–2007. The purpose of the article is twofold. First, we show how a mixed-methods research design, in which we combine a variables-based research with three case studies, can

  7. Too Many to Fail - An Analysis of Time Inconsistency in Bank Closure Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya, Viral V; Yorulmazer, Tanju

    2004-01-01

    While the ‘too-big-to-fail’ guarantee is explicitly a part of bank regulation in many countries, this paper shows that bank closure policies also suffer from an implicit ‘too-many-to-fail’ problem: when the number of bank failures is large, the regulator finds it ex-post optimal to bail out some or all failed banks, whereas when the number of bank failures is small, failed banks can be acquired by the surviving banks. This gives banks incentives to herd and increases the risk that many banks ...

  8. Community monitoring of integrated pest management versus conventional pesticide use in a World Bank project in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii-Eiteman, Marcia J; Ardhianie, Nila

    2002-01-01

    Pesticide Action Network North America (PANNA) collaborated with a local Indonesian nongovernmental organization (NGO), Yayasan Duta Awam (YDA), in monitoring impacts of the World Bank-financed Integrated Swamps Development Project (ISDP). This paper reports the results of the community-based investigation, which found wide disparities between the World Bank's policy on pest management and its implementation. Instead of reducing farmers' reliance on pesticides as required, the ISDP led to increased intensity and frequency of pesticide use and adverse health and environmental effects from pesticide exposures. YDA and PANNA presented the findings to the Indonesian government and World Bank officials, and farmers requested training in IPM among other recommendations. After NGOs undertook joint advocacy efforts to reduce pesticide dependence in the project, the World Bank withdrew hazardous pesticides from input packages, IPM training was initiated, and community monitors became local leaders in their villages. The study demonstrates the importance and efficacy of independent community-based monitoring in documenting pesticide problems and replacing pesticides with IPM in World Bank development projects.

  9. The Economic Impact of IMF and World Bank Programs in the Middle East and North Africa: A Case Study of Jordan, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia, 1983-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Harrigan, Jane; El-Said, Hamed

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines whether the economic reforms attached to IMF and World Bank policy-based lending in the Middle East and North Africa have stimulated sustained economic growth. In order to investigate this, we chose four countries to study in depth: Jordan, Egypt, Tunisia and\\ud Morocco. These were chosen as they have been put forward by both the IMF and the World Bank as successful reformers who, for prolonged periods, carried out World Bank and IMF guided economic reform programs. We exa...

  10. World Bank: Management Controls Stronger, But Challenges in Fighting Corruption Remain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    Concerns about corruption have intensified in recent years as there is a growing realization among international financial donors, including the World Bank, that corruption may undermine development...

  11. The Threads They Follow: Bank Street Teachers in a Changing World. Teaching for a Changing World: The Graduates of Bank Street College of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lit, Ira; Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This summary report is one of five publications from the larger study, "Teaching for a Changing World: The Graduates of Bank Street College of Education." This report focuses on graduates of Bank Street College Graduate School of Education teacher certification programs by examining the quality of their preparation, their teaching…

  12. 12 CFR 225.142 - Statement of policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... money market instruments. 225.142 Section 225.142 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED... with maintaining a safe and sound banking system. In any cases where bank holding companies are found... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statement of policy concerning bank holding...

  13. The World Bank and Brazilian Higher Education in the First Decade of the New Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Regina de Souza Lima

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes higher education policies promoted by the World Bank in peripheral countries in the 1990s and the first decade of the new century. It found that the central guidelines of these policies (diversification of institutions of higher education, schools and financing sources were implemented in Brazil by the government of President Luís Inácio Lula da Silva. Higher education has been treated as a business and placed in the hands of public-private partnerships in higher education through management contracts. This process has led to the deconstruction of Brazilian public education as a social right and to the formation of a type of university suitable to the current phase of capital accumulation, particularly in a dependent capitalist country such as Brazil.

  14. Economics, health and development: some ethical dilemmas facing the World Bank and the international community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, A.

    2001-01-01

    The World Bank is committed to "work[ing] with countries to improve the health, nutrition and population outcomes of the world's poor, and to protect[ing] the population from the impoverishing effects of illness, malnutrition and high fertility".1 Ethical issues arise in the interpretation of these objectives and in helping countries formulate strategies and policies. It is these ethical issues—which are often not acknowledged by commentators—that are the subject of this paper. It asks why there should be a focus on the poor, and explores the link between improving the health of the poor, and reducing health inequalities between the poor and better-off. It discusses difficult ethical issues at both the global level (including debt relief and the link between country ownership and donor commitment) and the country level (including user fees and whether providing assistance to the non-poor may in the long run be a way of helping the poor). Key Words: World Bank • poverty • health • population • health economics • global ethics PMID:11479358

  15. Post-crisis asymmetries of the world market development of banking services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladyslav Тіpanov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article there were analyzed theoretical backgrounds for defining the concept «banking service» by scientists from different countries: considered its main characteristics and classification, determined the key peculiarities of the world market functioning of banking services and its structure, found out the present-day developments of the world market of banking services under conditions of post-crisis period.

  16. THE IMPACT OF MONETARY POLICY ON BANK CREDIT DURING ECONOMIC CRISIS: INDONESIA’S EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Mongid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The monetary policy mechanism by which monetary policy was transmitted to thereal economy had emerged as the pivotal discussion topic recently. This paper tried to discussthe impact of Bank Indonesia’s monetary policy on loan bank. By using simple loan bankframework we concluded that monetary policies were able to influence loan bank. Themonetary variables such as discount rate policy, base money and exchange rate policy werevery important in determining the banking credit. As the credit was very important to influencesthe economic activitiy, the result provided evidence that monetary policy was important as atool to control economic activity via credit channel. The validity of this study challenged thehypotheses that monetary policy was death. However, monetary policy maker should carefullyconsider the soundness of the banking industry because it was a strategic partner for monetaryauthority to control the economic activities.

  17. Faith-based Organisations, Development and the World Bank (abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Haynes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Faith-based organisations (FBOs have increasingly become important actors in international development cooperation. Many international institutions recognise them as valuable partners and declare to have ‘mainstreamed faith’ within their own activities. But is this really the case? And how has this happened? Focusing on the activities of the World Bank in the 1995–2005 period, when, under the leadership of President James Wolfensohn and Katherine Marshall, then Head of the Bank’s Development Dialogue on Values and Ethics (DDVE, the institution engaged with some selected FBOs, this chapter enquires into the reasons for the Bank’s interest in faith as well as its sudden disappearance. It argues that the main rationale for engagement with faith lay in the disappointing results of previous secular strategies and the feeling that religion had a positive role to play in fighting poverty. However, diverging perceptions of poverty and development between states and religious entities, along with lingering suspicions among state officials about dealing with faith in the public realm, derailed the collaboration.

  18. Technology, world politics, and American policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basiuk, V.

    1977-01-01

    This book concentrates on modern technology, analyzing its present and future impact on international relations. Beginning with the socio-political impact of technological trends around the world, Dr. Basiuk examines the aspects of future military (nuclear and ''conventional'') technology that will likely reinforce the growing stalemate between the U. S. and USSR. He surveys the integrative power of technology which is ''shrinking'' the modern world into global interdependence devoting detailed chapters to an assessment of the major strengths and weaknesses that characterize the ability of the United States, the Soviet Union, Western Europe, and Japan to deal with the problems arising from future developments in science and technology. As technology changes societies, ''power over'' people is becoming less important, while ''power toward,'' the ability to lead people and mobilize resources for the solution of contemporary problems and toward new frontiers of human achievement, tends to gain. Although technological impact can modify the international system, leading to transnationalism and a proliferation of actors on the global scene, nation-states will remain a principal element in world politics for some time to come. The current role of technology in America's domestic, foreign, and security policies is discussed. The final section examines the complexities of the postindustrial society. Projecting the direction of societal development well into the twenty-first century, Dr. Basiuk identifies two seemingly contradictory trends: the need for strengthening scientific and technological policy to achieve higher levels of material capability, accompanied by a reorientation in values to a limited-growth, semistationary society which de-emphasizes material rewards.

  19. Policy and Economics of Managed Aquifer Recharge and Water Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon B. Megdal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR and water banking are of increasing importance to water resources management. MAR can be used to buffer against drought and changing or variable climate, as well as provide water to meet demand growth, by making use of excess surface water supplies and recycled waters. Along with hydrologic and geologic considerations, economic and policy analyses are essential to a complete analysis of MAR and water banking opportunities. The papers included in this Special Issue fill a gap in the literature by revealing the range of economic and policy considerations relevant to the development and implementation of MAR programs. They illustrate novel techniques that can be used to select MAR locations and the importance and economic viability of MAR in semi-arid to arid environments. The studies explain how MAR can be utilized to meet municipal and agricultural water demands in water-scarce regions, as well as assist in the reuse of wastewater. Some papers demonstrate how stakeholder engagement, ranging from consideration of alternatives to monitoring, and multi-disciplinary analyses to support decision-making are of high value to development and implementation of MAR programs. The approaches discussed in this collection of papers, along with the complementary and necessary hydrologic and geologic analyses, provide important inputs to water resource managers.

  20. Innovation Funds for Higher Education: A Users' Guide for World Bank Funded Projects. Education Working Paper Series. Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint, William

    2005-01-01

    The Education Working Paper Series is produced by the Education Unit at the World Bank (HDNED). It provides an avenue for World Bank staff to publish and disseminate preliminary education findings to encourage discussion and exchange ideas within the World Bank and among the broader development community. This Guide seeks to help those who design…

  1. Abortion Law and Policy Around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this paper is to provide a panoramic view of laws and policies on abortion around the world, giving a range of country-based examples. It shows that the plethora of convoluted laws and restrictions surrounding abortion do not make any legal or public health sense. What makes abortion safe is simple and irrefutable—when it is available on the woman’s request and is universally affordable and accessible. From this perspective, few existing laws are fit for purpose. However, the road to law reform is long and difficult. In order to achieve the right to safe abortion, advocates will need to study the political, health system, legal, juridical, and socio-cultural realities surrounding existing law and policy in their countries, and decide what kind of law they want (if any). The biggest challenge is to determine what is possible to achieve, build a critical mass of support, and work together with legal experts, parliamentarians, health professionals, and women themselves to change the law—so that everyone with an unwanted pregnancy who seeks an abortion can have it, as early as possible and as late as necessary. PMID:28630538

  2. Perspectives of co-operation with the World Bank towards elimination of low emission sources in Krakow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerlich, K.

    1995-12-31

    I am not going to speak about or for the World Bank. More time and a different scope of the conference would be needed in order to more deeply assess the role of the World Bank and other international lenders and donors in the environmental and energy sectors in Poland. I am going to stay within the context of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project financed by the US AID and managed by the US DOE (called here for simplicity the Krakow Programme). However, in order to assess a role of the World Bank and other international lenders and donors in the pro-environment transformation of the energy systems of Krakow, one needs to briefly discuss: the possibilities and confinements related to the {open_quotes}technology{close_quotes} of disbursement of the financial resources by the multilateral development banks (MDB`s) in Poland, the type of results obtained within the {open_quotes}Krakow Programme{close_quotes} and a concept of involving American commercial companies to implement the clean-air policy for Krakow.

  3. New perspectives of malaria control in India under World Bank Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, R K; Thakor, Hitendrasinh G; Sonal, G S; Dhillon, G P S

    2009-12-01

    The World Bank has been assisting Government of India (GoI) for a number of years with development of effective health services for the control of vector borne diseases (VBDs). An Enhanced Malaria Control Project (EMCP) under financial assistance from Bank was implemented in selected tribal states and districts from 1997 to 2005. While most of the project districts did report a decline in malaria incidence, the Implementation Completion Report (ICR) highlighted the need for major reform. Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria, which accounts for almost all malaria related mortality, has been increasing in India and there is widespread resistance to chloroquine. The needed reform would require, first and foremost, updating of policy on malaria case management in public and private sectors. Also needed are innovative approaches for promoting the use of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and strengthening institutions at the district and state levels for effective implementation of new policies. Several important changes in the policy on diagnosis and treatment of malaria are being implemented in this new project. The most important of these are: Use of artesunate combination therapy (ACT) as the first line treatment for all confirmed Pf malaria cases, introduction of rapid diagnostic kits for quick diagnosis of Pf cases, promotion of long lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) in vulnerable population. Supervision and monitoring will be strengthened by deployment of Malarial/Kala azar Technical Supervisors (MTS/KTS) and VBD consultants at district level. The project has also envisaged two important components like Environment Management Plan (EMP) for safe use of insecticides and materials and Vulnerable Community Plan (VCP) for the benefit of underprivileged population.

  4. Educational Neocolonialism and the World Bank: A Rancièrean Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwaruddin, Sardar M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I employ Jacques Rancière's conception of an explicative order to explore how the World Bank contributes to the global project of educational neocolonialism. I argue that the Bank operates as a Master Explicator who taps into students' "inability" to learn by themselves. It explicates concepts such as…

  5. Can policy research institutions help to transform the world? | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-03-30

    Mar 30, 2017 ... an elderly woman completing a cash transfer in the town of Betafo, Madagascar. Photo credit: Mohammad Al-Arief / World Bank. “17 goals to transform our world.” The United Nations made this bold statement on 1 January 2016, when the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the 2030 Agenda for ...

  6. Foreign Banks in the United States Since World War II: A Useful Fringe

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian E. Tschoegl

    2000-01-01

    Foreign banks have had an organizational presence in the United States since the early 1800s. Until after World War II, the foreign banks' presence was generally limited. They engaged in trade finance, and in some cases ethnic banking. The growth really dates to the period from the mid-1960s to 1990. Banks are service firms, and their growth reflects a demand for their services. This growth in demand is itself the consequence of the growth of four other activities: trade, the Eurodollar marke...

  7. The Formation of New Monetary Policies: Decisions of Central Banks on the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Esther Castro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect that the Great Recession had on monetary policies has led to the profound reorientation of central banks’ actions from 2007 to 2013. The purpose of this work is to analyze the monetary policies applied by the main central banks, mainly the European Central Bank, the Federal Reserve System of USA and the Bank of Japan, in order to raise thoughts on the guidelines that central banks should follow in the future. In the first section the bases of monetary policy before the crisis are described; in the second we explain the change in the orientation of the role of central banks during the crisis; and finally, we synthesize the bases on which the economic debate is taking place on the orientation of future monetary policies. We conclude that, in so far as the inoperativeness of transmission mechanisms still persists, monetary policies will remain in a process of change.

  8. Challenges of the banking regulation systems in the climate of the world economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlarević Lazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the 20th century, banking systems of the developed countries have undergone multiple changes, where the basic dimensions of those changes were integration, deregulation and globalisation of activities. The resultant of these factors' actions was the creation of highly risky banking environment, which acted as a catalyst of the world economic crisis effects. These effects brought to the forefront weaknesses of the banking sector and of the banking regulation system, while emphasizing the need for their redefining. Hence this work examines in detail concrete models of the banking regulation systems in the European Union area and in the United States of America. In addition, directions of redefining regulation system were highlighted, and also the relevant differences between banking business regulation in the European Union and in the United States of America.

  9. An evaluation of the feedback loops in the poverty focus of world bank operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardoust, Shahrokh; Kanbur, Ravi; Luo, Xubei; Sundberg, Mark

    2017-09-01

    The World Bank Group in 2013 made the elimination of extreme poverty by 2030 a central institutional focus and purpose. This paper, based on an evaluation conducted by the Independent Evaluation Group of the World Bank Group, examines how, and how well, the Bank uses feedback loops to enhance the poverty focus of its operations. Feedback loops are important for every element of the results chain running from data, to diagnostics, to strategy formulation and finally to strategy implementation. The evaluation uses a range of instruments, including surveys of stakeholders and World Bank staff, focus group meetings, country case studies and systematic reviews of Bank lending and non-lending operations. We find that while the Bank generates useful information on poverty reduction from its projects and programs, the feedback loops - from outcomes to data analysis to diagnostics to strategy formulation and implementation - have generally been weak, with sizable variation across countries. Copyright © 2017 The World Bank. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. 12 CFR 1500.6 - What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What risk management, record keeping and... Banking DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS MERCHANT BANKING INVESTMENTS § 1500.6 What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking investments? (a) What...

  11. World Bank Research Digest, Vol. 4(1)

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    In this issue: changing the climate for development; focus: foreign direct investment (FDI) protectionism on the rise; do poorer countries have less capacity for redistribution? Does trade credit substitute for bank credit during a financial crisis? Demographic and socioeconomic patterns of HIV/AIDS prevalence in Africa; making (more) sense of subjective rankings; and legacy of the caste s...

  12. PENSION REFORMS AND WORLD BANK-REGULATED LAWS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ankpa: Association of Women in Colleges of Education and Cuca. Communications. Ahmad, M.K. (2006) The contributory pension scheme: institutional and legal frameworks. Billion. (Central Bank of Nigeria Publication). Vol. 30, No2. Bonturi, Marcos (2002) “The Brazilian pension system: reforms and challenges ahead”.

  13. Investing in amnesia, or fantasy and forgetfulness in the World Bank's approach to healthcare reform in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epprecht, M

    1997-01-01

    "Investing in Health," the World Bank's 1993 World Development Report, and a follow-up report, "Better Health in Africa," advocate investments in Third World health sectors as a means of increasing individual productivity and strengthening economic growth. Both reports maintain that structural adjustment policies have enhanced the physical health of low-income populations by improving the fiscal health of business elites. This essay critiques the World Bank's approach through a historical analysis of health care problems in sub-Saharan Africa with an emphasis on the devastating effects of colonialism, patriarchy, and imperialism. Although these documents contain many useful recommendations for Western donors (e.g., recognition of the destructive potential of alcohol and tobacco, the need for state regulation over key parts of the health sector, and the effects of gender on health status), they reflect an "investment in amnesia" regarding historical evidence on health care reform in Africa and an erroneous assumption that Western biomedicine is politically neutral. Foreign aid has tended to serve the needs of multinational corporations rather than African populations. Recommended, in place of structural adjustment policies, are measures such as a massive rebuilding of Africa's urban infrastructure, the enforcement of minimum wage laws, the preservation of ecosystems that supply traditional medicines, attention to the ecologic and health consequences of economic growth, and a feminist-led reproductive rights movement.

  14. Economic growth and decline in mortality in developing countries: an analysis of the World Bank development datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renton, A; Wall, M; Lintott, J

    2012-07-01

    The 1999 World Bank report claimed that growth in gross domestic product (GDP) between 1960 and 1990 only accounted for 15% of concomitant growth in life expectancy in developing countries. These findings were used repeatedly by the World Health Organization (WHO) to support a policy shift away from promoting social and economic development, towards vertical technology-driven programmes. This paper updates the 1999 World Bank report using the World Bank's 2005 dataset, providing a new assessment of the relative contribution of economic growth. Time-series analysis. Cross-sectional time-series regression analysis using a random effect model of associations between GDP, education and technical progress and improved health outcomes. The proportion of improvement in health indicators between 1970 and 2000 associated with changes in GDP, education and technical progress was estimated. In 1970, a 1% difference in GDP between countries was associated with 6% difference in female (LEBF) and 5% male (LEBM) life expectancy at birth. By 2000, these values had increased to 14% and 12%, explaining most of the observed health gain. Excluding Europe and Central Asia, the proportion of the increase in LEBF and LEBM attributable to increased GDP was 31% and 33% in the present analysis, vs. 17% and 14%, respectively, estimated by the World Bank. In the poorest countries, higher GDPs were required in 2000 than in 1970 to achieve the same health outcomes. In the poorest countries, socio-economic change is likely to be a more important source of health improvement than technical progress. Technical progress, operating by increasing the size of the effect of a unit of GDP on health, is likely to benefit richer countries more than poorer countries, thereby increasing global health inequalities. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of credit policy on bank performance: Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ' soundness and performance has ... and non-banking financial institutions with entry of new private and foreign banks. Yet, the collective performance of the .... an introduction to broad case credit Engineering, academic press; California, USA.

  16. Empowering Communities for Improved Educational Outcomes: Some Evaluation Findings from the World Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, H. Dean

    2007-01-01

    Community involvement in the management of schools--community empowerment--is a growing phenomenon in the developing world. Many see it as a way to increase the relevance of schools, school attendance, and ultimately to improve learning outcomes. Increasingly, World Bank lending for basic education includes growing support for community…

  17. Educational Policy and Literacy Instruction: Worlds Apart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between federal and state educational policymaking and classroom reading instruction. The past 50 years of federal literacy education policy is summarized, particularly emphasizing the connections of these policies to reading curriculum and classroom assessment. The paper concludes with a discussion of the…

  18. 76 FR 35959 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines; Small Bank Holding Company Policy Statement: Treatment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... companies that are no less than the generally applicable minimum risk- based and leverage capital... for Bank Holding Companies: Risk-Based Measure * * * * * II. * * * A. * * * 1. * * * a. * * * iv... CFR Part 225 Capital Adequacy Guidelines; Small Bank Holding Company Policy Statement: Treatment of...

  19. A Parallel World for the World Bank: A Case Study of Urgent: Evoke, An Educational Alternate Reality Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I. Waddington

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the World Bank launched Urgent: Evoke, an alternate reality game. Conceived in response to the demands of African universities, the game was designed to promote the World Bank Institute’s vision of positive global change through social innovation, and made substantial use of Web 2.0 tools such as blogs, personal profiles, and social networks. This article offers a case study of Urgent: Evoke, divided into four sections: first, the potential to use video games as citizenship education tools is discussed; second, the unique game genre (alternate reality games into which Evoke falls is explained and some possible uses of this genre in higher education are examined; third, the functioning of the Evoke game world is explained; and fourth, the results of the Evoke educational project are assessed. The case study concludes with some commentary on Evoke’s ideological message, which those less sympathetic to capitalism may view as problematic.

  20. Health policy in a globalising world

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fustukian, Suzanne; Buse, Kent; Lee, Kelley

    2002-01-01

    ... reform since the 1980s 97 KELLEY LEE AND HILARY GOODMAN viiviii Contents 7 The globalisation of health sector reform policies: is 'lesson drawing' part of the process? 120 BARBARA MCPAKE 8 Cost-...

  1. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES AND COMPETITION IN WORLD AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Duma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural policies have had a guiding role inagriculture development and implicitly in their marketing. Usually they belongto each state and government and are issued in accordance with their specificclimate, social-economic and cultural background which includes food andgastronomic traditions. Agricultural policies have in view home and foreignmarket demand, as well as the socio-demographic, political and military contextat a certain point in the socio-economic development

  2. World Bank Research Digest, Vol. 6(4)

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    In this issue: restoring the Lustre of the European economic model; investing in the power sector; how much does Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increase when public spending increases? Inclusive green growth; what are the health effects of universal health care? Policy barriers to international trade in services; and using performance incentives to improve health outcomes.

  3. World Bank Research Digest, Vol. 5(3)

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    In this issue: the impact of migration on rural poverty and inequality in China; how would a global expansion of biofuel production effect developing countries? How resilient were emerging economies to the global crisis? Small but effective: India's targeted unconditional cash transfers; good countries or good projects? Fiscal policies for growth in Africa in light of the crisis; and emplo...

  4. Revisiting Bank Pricing Policies in Brazil: evidence from loan and deposit markets

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo S. Alencar

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the micro and macroeconomic determinants of interest rates in the Brazilian banking market. The results suggest that banks fully adjust their loan interest rates to a change in the monetary policy rate, but we also observe a rigid short-term response for some loan product categories. The study confirms that pricing policies can vary substantially depending on the market. For example, microeconomic factors did not seem to be a major determinant of retail loan rates, but th...

  5. Determining factors determinants of bank employees’ reading habits of information security policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Allassani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to answer the question ‘What factors determine bank employee reading habits of security policies? Using the chi-square test, this research analyses the reading habits of bank staff to ascertain whether there is significant difference in their reading habits with regards to the following independent variable- gender, the section of bank the employee works (whether department or branch, number of years the staff has worked with the bank and the ownership status of the bank (public, private or foreign owned. In addition, logistic regression was employed to determine the predictors of these reading habits. This paper adopts a quantitative research methodology to study the information security reading habits of 136 Ghanaian bank staff from various banks and concludes that bank staffs working in departments are more likely to regularly read their banks policies than employees working in a branch. This paper also shows that there is statistical significant difference in reading habits with regards to the number of years an employee has worked with the bank. The paper finally shows that there is no statistical significant difference in security reading habits with regards to gender and ownership status of the bank. The logistic regression analysis also reveals that a respondent in a department is 4.4 times more likely to read the security policies relative to those in a branch. The analysis also concludes that , respondents who have worked for less than 5 years were less likely to read the policy relative to those who have worked more than 5 years (OR=.51

  6. The World Bank and the Building of Local Institutionality in Senegal: A Path toward Municipal Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mebometa Ndongo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impacts of municipal adjustment strategies on territorial governance in Africa, with specific reference to Senegal, as the result of the action of the World Bank. The paper identifies the process through which the World Bank is reconfiguring the system of actors and changing the local institutional environment to embody its philosophy of governance modernization. The paper shows how the local actor is brought to contribute to the new focus on governance and the reshaping of local institutions, which together comprise a type of urban development that aligns with the tenets of globalization.

  7. HETEROGENEOUS BANK LENDING RESPONSES TO MONETARY POLICY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Kovtun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The monetary policy affects the regional economy through interest rates and its main parameter the Bank of Russia key rate. But do all the banks in the regions respond uniformly to monetary policy changes? The effects of monetary policy actions can vary across the regions within an economic entity, depending on the regional industrial output, the financial structure, household incomes, lending activity, etc. The analysis of the article aims to determine the monetary policy instruments that influence the development or degradation of the regional banking sector in Russia. This helps to identify the heterogeneous commercial bank responses to changes in conducted monetary policy. In order to assess the effects of macroeconomic shocks and instruments of banking supervision on lending activity, the Ordinary Least Squares estimator and Generalized Least Squares technique were applied. The Taylor rule was used to calculate the desired level of interest rate for the each region and, then, to compare the results with the Central Bank interest rate. The empirical results, described in the context of the regional analysis, demonstrate that Central Bank’s interest rate does not affect the lending activity in most of the regions. Finally, the author summarizes conclusions one can draw from the results and provides recommendations for economic policy makers, based on the results of empirical analysis.

  8. Producing The Poor: The World Bank's new discourse of domination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secretary of State for International Development in UK. and James D. Wolfensohn, President of the World ... anti-neo-liberal and anti-ANC movements of the poor to South African society and in the weaving of these ... deals with local white elites and international capital' (2002:10) with cata- strophic consequences for poor ...

  9. assessment of selected world bank policies and their implications on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    ). Public expenditure per student as a percentage of GDP was found to be higher in the case of higher education students than in the case of primary and secondary schools students. Biao (2009) noted that the damage caused to the psyche of ...

  10. The impact of monetary policy on bank lending rate in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Matemilola

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The pass-through of the policy rates to bank lending rate is an important subject matter because it measures the effectiveness of monetary policy to control inflation or stabilize the economy. This study investigates the long-run interest rate pass-through of the money market rate to the bank lending rate and asymmetric adjustment of the bank lending rate. The study applies the momentum threshold autoregressive and asymmetric error correction models. The asymmetric error correction results reveal that bank lending rate adjusts to a decrease in the money market rate in South Africa. The findings suggest that the South African commercial banks adjust their lending rate downward but the lending rate appears rigid upward, which supports the customer reaction hypothesis.

  11. A discussion paper for emerging markets: The role of IMF and the World Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo R. Lizarzaburu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available While both the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, are two separate entities, often not clear the role of each of them is therefore that this paper seeks to consolidate diverse information reviewed from both entities with the purpose of being able to understand the functioning and scope of each of these important institutions that have had successes and setbacks and ultimately have an active role in global finance and economy, despite the many detractors who are at levels world. There is an anecdote which is worth mentioning. “John Maynard Keynes, recognized at the inaugural meeting of the International Monetary Fund was confused by the names he thought the Fund should be called a bank, and the World Bank should be called a bottom. Confusion has reigned ever since. The Bank and the IMF are two intergovernmental pillars supporting the structure of economic and financial world”. The fundamental difference between the two is understood as: the Bank institution primarily for the development, while the IMF is a cooperative institution that seeks to maintain an orderly system of payments and receipts between nations. The manner followed to choose the head of each organization has a different procedure, but the important thing is that in the next few years, several countries such as Brazil, India have more active participation and Latin America as a group may perhaps lead some of them.

  12. Intermediary Policy of Qatar in Arab World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Bukin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The tiny state of Qatar could become one of the most influential player in the Middle East. Before it become a regional leader, Qatar came a long way. Mediation policy of Qatar in Sudan, Yemen, Lebanon was the first step in the implementation of the “Arab Spring”.

  13. Water Banks: Using Managed Aquifer Recharge to Meet Water Policy Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon B. Megdal

    2014-05-01

    . This paper describes water banking in Arizona from a policy perspective and identifies reasons for its implementation. It goes on to explore conditions under which water banking could successfully be applied to other parts of the world, specifically including Australia.

  14. World Energy Outlook - 2050: Policy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghouri, Salman Saif

    2007-07-01

    The paper analyzes the historical trends, resource distribution and forecasts the regional total primary energy consumption (TPEC) to 2050. The purpose is to provide a most probable path so that appropriate policies can be made to enhance/slowdown the energy consumption without hampering economic growth. Global TPEC is most likely to reach 763-1259 Quadrillion Btu (QBtu) to 2050 with reference case trending between and stood at 978 QBtu. By 2050 the equation of TPEC is expected to be tilted in favor of developing countries when their share is increased from 47 percent in 2003 to 59 percent. Asia developing region becomes the largest consumer of TPEC; however on per capita basis it remains the lowest after Africa. The forecast gives some guidance to policy makers. Which policy measures should be taken to ensure availability of predicted level of energy resources? How should we mobilize sizeable investment to increase the expected production/capacity/logistic both in the producing and consuming countries? Simultaneously, what strategic measures should be taken: to improve energy efficiency/conservation, development/promotion of renewable sources of energies and check population growth to downward shift the probable TPEC path without compromising economic growth, productivity and quality of life? (auth)

  15. The Crisis of Funding Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: African Perspectives versus World Bank Prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanu, K. E.

    1996-01-01

    Reforms of African educational systems with World Bank assistance are likely to fail unless they are based on a fundamentally African vision of society. This vision involves creating a habitat for human resource development, the use of intermediate technology, and space for the informal sector. (SK)

  16. Pension reforms and world bank-regulated laws of the jungle: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peripheral societies (or better still, non-industrialized, raw materialsexporting states) are originally (and still remain) designed as raw resources supply zone not only in World Bank lexicon but also in global planning and programming of industrialized societies in general. Worker welfare of those both retired and in service ...

  17. Issues in the Development of Multigrade Schools. World Bank Technical Paper Number 172.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher; Shaw, Christopher

    Multigrade schools, which combine students of different ages and abilities in one classroom under one teacher's direction, are supported by numerous World Bank projects. This paper aims to increase staff awareness of the complexity of such components and their economic and pedagogical benefits. Pedagogical techniques and outcomes form the core of…

  18. Education in Asia: A Comparative Study of Cost and Financing. World Bank Regional and Sectoral Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jee-Peng; Mingat, Alain

    Data analyzed in this study are drawn from varied sources including documents provided by governments in the context of the World Bank's operational activity. The data on a basic set of indicators were assembled for a core of 11 Asian countries (Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Sri…

  19. Efficiency in Reaching the Millennium Development Goals. World Bank Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Ruwan, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provide clear targets and areas of focus for international organizations such as the World Bank. At a conceptual level, to reduce poverty and hunger, to improve education and health indicators, and to promote gender equality and sustainable development, countries can either increase the resources they…

  20. Girls' Education World Bank Support through the International Development Association (IDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Carolyn; Macina, Rebecca

    This report presents World Bank statistical data on International Development Association (IDA) support of girls' education. The report cites the reasons for focusing on girls' education and traces IDA funding for various education projects. It discusses the situation for girls' education in many developing countries and lists objectives for the…

  1. The Preparation, Professional Pathways, and Effectiveness of Bank Street Graduates. Teaching for a Changing World: The Graduates of Bank Street College of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Eileen; Zheng, Xinhua; Lit, Ira; Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This technical report is one of five publications from the larger study, "Teaching for a Changing World: The Graduates of Bank Street College of Education." This report documents the influence of Bank Street teacher preparation programs based upon surveys of graduates, surveys of comparison teachers, surveys of employers, and an analysis…

  2. Financial management information systems 25 years of World Bank experience on what works and what doesn't

    CERN Document Server

    Dener, Cem; Dorotinsky, William Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Since 1984, the World Bank has financed 87 Financial Management Information System (FMIS) projects in 51 countries totaling over US 2.2 billion, of which US 938 million was for FMIS related information and communication technology (ICT) solutions. This study presents the World Bank?s experience with these investment operations to share the achievements and challenges observed, and provide guidance for improving the performance of future projects. The report is structured according to four overarching questions:?What historical patterns emerge from World Bank financed Treasury/FMIS projects?Thi

  3. Energy Efficiency Policies around the World: Review and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    Since 1992 the World Energy Council (WEC) and ADEME (Agency for Environment and Energy Efficiency, France) have been collaborating on a joint project ''Energy Efficiency Policies and Indicators'' with technical assistance by ENERDATA (France). The latest report presents and evaluates energy efficiency policies in nearly 70 countries around the world, with a specific focus on five policy measures: mandatory energy audits, ESCO's, energy incentives for cars, energy efficiency obligations for utilities, and 'packages of measures' for solar water heaters. The report describes the implemented measures and identifies those proven most effective.

  4. The World Bank Inspection Panel and Quasi-Judicial Oversight: In Search of the 'Judicial Spirit' in Public International Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Naudé Fourie (Andria)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis PhD dissertation conceptualizes the World Bank Inspection Panel as a mechanism of quasi-judicial review or oversight, aimed at enhancing the accountability and legitimacy of the World Bank – which is conceived as an international institution exercising public power. The author

  5. Adjusting policy to institutional, cultural and biophysical context conditions: The case of conservation banking in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsten Mann; James D. Absher

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the political construction of a policy instrument for matching particular institutional, biophysical and cultural context conditions in a social–ecological system, using the case of conservation banking in California as an example. The guiding research question is: How is policy design negotiated between various actors on its way from early...

  6. Credit supply and monetary policy : Identifying the bank balance-sheet channel with loan applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez Porras, G.; Ongena, S.; Peydro, J.L.; Saurina, J.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the impact of monetary policy on the supply of bank credit. Monetary policy affects both loan supply and demand, thus making identification a steep challenge. We therefore analyze a novel, supervisory dataset with loan applications from Spain. Accounting for time-varying firm

  7. Creating religiously compliant milk banks in the Muslim world: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnakshabandi, Kholoud; Fiester, Autumn

    2016-02-01

    Human milk banks are vital for providing donor milk to infants for whom there are maternal or postnatal barriers to the mother's own milk. Although more than 35 countries have active milk banks, not one of those is a Muslim country.(1) Despite widespread support for breastfeeding across the Muslim world, religious constraints surrounding milk-sharing have created challenging barriers to the creation of milk banks. The religious objection centres around the Islamic tenet that consuming human milk builds a kinship bond between individuals who have consumed the same woman's milk which prohibits future marriage between the 'milk-brothers and sisters.' While a small-scale, experimental 'milk exchange' programme has been attempted in two Muslim countries (Kuwait and Malaysia), the only proposed milk bank in the Muslim world was a pilot programme in Turkey that was halted because of religious concerns. The problem with milk banking is the step in the process during which the milk from individual donors is pooled and de-identified, making it impossible to trace its origins and acknowledge the newly formed kinship relationship. To meet the need for Muslim children to be able to access human milk while remaining compliant with the prevalent understanding of Islamic doctrine on milk-sharing, we propose a new approach to milk banking that we term the Conditional Identified Milk Banking System (CIMBS). In this new system, both the donor's and recipient's identities are accessible to all parties through a voluntary registry, and the milk-pooling is limited to three milk donors. Based on recent survey data, we believe that there would be receptivity among practicing Muslims and religious leaders to this alternative approach.

  8. Big Policies and a Small World: An Analysis of Policy Problems and Solutions in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses Ball's [1998. Big policies/small world: An introduction to international perspectives in education policy. "Comparative Education," 34(2), 119-130] policy analysis and Bernstein's [1990. "The structuring of pedagogic discourse. Volume IV class, codes and control". London: Routledge; 2000, "Pedagogy,…

  9. Interest Rate Policy Of Selected Central Banks In Central And Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRABIA TOMASZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present and evaluate interest rate policies of three selected central banks in Central and Eastern Europe (Poland, the Czech Republic, and Hungary from 2001 to 2013. The study consists of an introduction (Section 1 and three main parts. The introduction contains a theoretical description of the role of interest rate policy, the dilemmas connected with it, as well as an analysis of the strategies and goals of monetary policies of the National Bank of Poland (NBP, the Czech National Bank (CzNB, and the National Bank of Hungary (NBH in the context of existing legal and institutional conditions. In turn, the first empirical part (Section 2 examines how the analysed central banks responded to changes in inflation, unemployment, and economic growth rates. The tools of the analysis are the nominal and real interest rates of those banks. The subsequent research part (Section 3 attempts to evaluate the degree of the contractionary nature of interest rate policies in specific countries in the context of the Taylor rule. The text ends with a summary (Section 4 encompassing concise conclusions drawn from the earlier analyses.

  10. Book review: Unholy trinity: The IMF, World Bank and WTO Richard Peet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Breitenbach

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this timely book Richard Peet and his team lay the foundation with an excellent analysis of the process of globalisation and the resultant emergence of the global economy. The authors are especially critical of the increasing influence of institutions like the International Monetary Fund (IMF, World Bank and World Trade Organisation (WTO on the economy and the consequences experienced by peoples, cultures and the environment. The single ideology of neo-liberalism is blamed for the undesirable outcomes. This book considers concepts of power, political interest, hegemony, discourse, responsibility and the power of practicality, in critically examining the IMF, World Bank and WTO. The conclusion is reached that “all three institutions play roles greatly different from those originally agreed to under the charters that set them up”.

  11. Primeira infância: a visão do Banco Mundial The World Bank's view of early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Penn

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina a visão do Banco Mundial sobre a primeira infância como exemplo da globalização da infância. Argumenta que a globalização é caracterizada por um ponto de vista econômico neoliberal que exacerba a desigualdade entre nações ricas e pobres e entre ricos e pobres, dentro de cada país, bem como por um otimismo tecnológico-científico que enfatiza os benefícios das intervenções tecnológicas. O artigo mostra como esses dois aspectos da globalização influenciaram as políticas para crianças pequenas que o Banco Mundial vem promovendo ativamente. Recorre aos indícios apresentados pelo Banco Mundial para exemplificar as contradições inerentes a essa abordagem.This paper explores the World Bank's view of early childhood as an example of the globalization of childhood. It argues that globalization is characterized by a particular neo-liberal economic approach which exacerbates the gap between rich and poor nations and between the rich and poor within countries; and by a technological/scientific optimism which stresses the benefits of technological interventions. It traces how these two aspects of globalization have influenced the policies towards young children that the World Bank is now actively promoting. It will draw on evidence presented by the World Bank to illustrate the contradictions inherent in such an approach.

  12. Achievements and challenges of the World Bank Loan/Department for International Development grant-assisted Tuberculosis Control Project in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peng; Jiang, Xu; Zhang, Ben; Jiang, Shi-wen; Liu, Bo

    2011-07-01

    In March 2002, the government of China launched the World Bank Loan/ Department for International Development-supported Tuberculosis (TB) Control Project to reduce the prevalence and mortality of TB. The project generated promising results in policy development, strengthening of TB control systems, patient treatment success, funds management, and the introduction of legislation. In light of the global TB epidemic and control environment, it is useful to review the TB control priorities of the project, summarize the achievements and experiences around its implementation.

  13. Human milk banking in the volunteer sector: policy development and actuality in 1970s Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, Virginia

    2012-04-01

    to describe the development of rigorous milk banking policies in the voluntary sector in Australia, 1975-1979, by the non-government organisation, the Nursing Mothers' Association of Australia (now the Australian Breastfeeding Association), and the eventual abandonment of milk banking by the organisation. historical article. Australia in the years 1975-1979. during the period in which the policy development described here took place, conducting a milk bank to the rigorous standards set by the organisation required too heavy an investment of hours by unpaid volunteer coordinators to be sustainable. in establishing and continuing a successful milk bank, models which depend less on volunteer hours may be more sustainable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Do non-financial firms react to monetary policy actions as banks do?

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Carbó Valverde; Rafael López del Paso

    2005-01-01

    The theory of the bank lending channel indicates that financial institutions with larger size, higher capitalisation and higher liquidity present a greater capacity to maintain their levels of credit supply in a situation of monetary contraction. However, there is a paucity of (European) studies that analyse the bank lending channel from the non-financial firms??? perspective. This paper analyzes the impact of monetary policy actions on a large sample of Spanish firms. The empiric...

  15. Negative Impacts of the Neo-liberal Policies on the Banking Sector in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossitsa Rangelova Pavlova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of the 1970s until the last global financial and economic crisis in 2008-2009, neo-liberal ideas guided economic policy development. It is worth noting that the Central and Eastern European countries transformed their economies from centrally planned to а market type at the peak of the liberal policies. Bulgaria offers a particularly interesting example because the country encountered a very difficult transition from one extreme of an economic system organization to another. The paper considers the reforms in the Bulgarian banking sector during the transition period from a centrally planned to a market type economy (from 1989 onward through the implementation of neo-liberal policies. The development of the banking sector and its transformation is analyzed throughout the two main periods: before and after the transition. The latter is divided into two sub-periods (phases beginning with the early 1990s, followed by the financial and bank crisis in the country, the introduction of a currency board regime in 1997, and stabilization, and ending with the global crisis in 2008-2009. This article summarizes that during the transition period, a modern banking system was established to accumulate profit rather than to promote economic growth. Following a chronological order, the negative effects of the liberalization of the Bulgarian banking sector are specified: the exportation of ownership (and control upon banking system assets, unfair asset redistribution, the emergence of the local oligarchy, the weak protection of the taxpayers and others.

  16. Social Funds, poverty management and subjectification: beyond the World Bank approach

    OpenAIRE

    Anjan Chakrabarti; Anup Dhar

    2013-01-01

    Revisiting, from a Marxist perspective, the World Bank's discourse on Social Funds, we highlight three findings. One, Social Funds gets deployed in the context of a larger Third Worldist discourse of poverty management, which in turn helps deepen the logic of capitalist development. Two, generating a class-focused understanding of Social Funds (via the concept of social surplus), we argue that class processes and need processes constitute one another and through this conduit emerges a relatio...

  17. Learning from All? The World Bank, Aid Agencies and the Construction of Hegemony in Education for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Antoni; Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Altinyelken, Hulya Kosar

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the nature and quality of the participation that characterises the Bank's consultations with external actors and examines the extent to which the Bank is responsive to such feedback when it comes to defining its policy preferences and strategies in the education domain. It draws on a case study of the participatory process that…

  18. Learning from all? The World Bank, aid agencies and the construction of hegemony in education for development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verger, A.; Edwards, D.B.; Altinyelken, H.K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the nature and quality of the participation that characterises the Bank's consultations with external actors and examines the extent to which the Bank is responsive to such feedback when it comes to defining its policy preferences and strategies in the education domain. It draws

  19. Visualizing Uncertainties, or How Albert Hirschman and the World Bank Disagreed on Project Appraisal and Development Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Alacevich, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Since its birth in 1944, the World Bank has had a strong focus on development projects. Yet, it did not have a project evaluation unit until the early 1970s. An early attempt to conceptualize project appraisal had been made in the 1960s by Albert Hirschman, whose undertaking raised high expectations at the Bank. Hirschman's conclusions -- published first in internal Bank reports and then,...

  20. Global health policies that support the use of banked donor human milk: a human rights issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Lois DW

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review examines the role of donor human milk banking in international human rights documents and global health policies. For countries looking to improve child health, promotion, protection and support of donor human milk banks has an important role to play for the most vulnerable of infants and children. This review is based on qualitative triangulation research conducted for a doctoral dissertation. The three methods used in triangulation were 1 writing as a method of inquiry, 2 an integrative research review, and 3 personal experience and knowledge of the topic. Discussion of the international human rights documents and global health policies shows that there is a wealth of documentation to support promotion, protection and support of donor milk banking as an integral part of child health and survival. By utilizing these policy documents, health ministries, professional associations, and donor milk banking associations can find rationales for establishing, increasing or continuing to provide milk banking services in any country, and thereby improve the health of children and future generations of adults.

  1. The dialog between health and foreign policy in Brazilian cooperation in human milk banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittas, Tiago Mocellin; Dri, Clarissa Franzoi

    2017-07-01

    Mother's milk is the primary source of nourishment in early infancy. When this source is unavailable, secondary sources may be used, such as human milk banks. The first milk bank in Brazil was created in 1943, and they have been used ever since. A national model was developed through a number of phases, culminating in the Brazilian Network of Human Milk Banks. This gave rise to a number of international cooperation projects, with the Brazilian model particularly relevant for developing nations. The main objective of this analysis is to understand what drives Brazil to promote milk banks internationally. To do this we tried to understand the relationship between health and foreign policy, expressed here as soft power, as here the two areas dialog with one another. The results include gains in both areas and the affirmation of health as a central goal of the national interest cluster of the case.

  2. The World Bank and Private Provision of Schooling: A Look through the Lens of Sociological Theories of Organizational Hypocrisy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Karen; Menashy, Francine

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we explore how the World Bank operationalizes its focus on poverty alleviation in one of the most controversial arenas of educational change: the expansion of privately provided schooling. We argue that the Bank's role in promoting private provision has been far more complicated than most critics have discerned. It has…

  3. Public policy for start-up entrepreneurship with venture capital and bank finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes and analyses a model of start-up investment. Innovative entrepreneursare commercially inexperienced and can benefit from venture capital support. Only part ofthem succeed in matching with a venture capitalist while the rest must resort to standard bankfinance. We consider...... a number of policies to promote entrepreneurship and venture capitalbacked innovation.JEL Classification: D82, G24, G28, H24.Keywords: venture capital bank finance, matching, moral hazard, public policy....

  4. The Effect of Sharia Monetary Policy and Financing Quality on Financial Performance in Sharia Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhfiatun Muhfiatun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to explain the effect of sharia monetary policy instruments and financing quality on the financial performance of sharia banks. The research sample includes Bank Muamalat Indonesia, Bank Syariah Mandiri, Bank Mega Syariah Indonesia, Bank Rakyat Indonesia Syariah, Bank Syariah Bukopin, BCA Syariah, BNI Syariah, and Bank Jabar Banten Syariah. The financial ratios used in this research are Return on Assets (ROA and Quick Ratio (QR. The financing qualities used here are murabahah, mudharabah, and musharakah. The sharia monetary policy instruments used are GWM and SBIS. The research uses Partial Least Squares as the data analysis instrument. The research result shows that the financing qualities of mudharabah and musharakah, and SBIS, do not affect ROA, while the variables of murabahah financing and GWM do affect ROA. The variable with significant effect on QR is ROA, as murabahah financing quality; GWM and SBIS; and the other two variables of musharakah and mudharabah do not affect QR. The contribution of the financing quality variables of murabahah, mudharabah, musharakah, GWM and SBIS in explaining the effect on the ROA variable is 0.071 or 7.1%, and the other 92.9% are affected by other variables not in the current research model. The contribution of murabahah, mudarabah and musyarakah, GWM and SBIS in explaining the effect on QR is 0.7578 or 75.78% and the remaining 24.22% is the effect of other variables not in this research model.     Keywords: financing quality, sharia monetary policy instrument, financing performance, ROA

  5. Banking biological collections: data warehousing, data mining, and data dilemmas in genomics and global health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, R J R

    2000-01-01

    While DNA databases may offer the opportunity to (1) assess population-based prevalence of specific genes and variants, (2) simplify the search for molecular markers, (3) improve targeted drug discovery and development for disease management, (4) refine strategies for disease prevention, and (5) provide the data necessary for evidence-based decision-making, serious scientific and social questions remain. Whether samples are identified, coded, or anonymous, biological banking raises profound ethical and legal issues pertaining to access, informed consent, privacy and confidentiality of genomic information, civil liberties, patenting, and proprietary rights. This paper provides an overview of key policy issues and questions pertaining to biological banking, with a focus on developments in specimen collection, transnational distribution, and public health and academic-industry research alliances. It highlights the challenges posed by the commercialization of genomics, and proposes the need for harmonization of biological banking policies.

  6. The Central Bank of Nigeria's Cashless Policy: A Major Panacea for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs Afam

    To derive the development and modernization of the payment systems in line with Visioni2020. 2. To reduce-cost of banking services and drive financial inclusion by providing more efficient transaction options and greater reach. 3. To improve the effectiveness of monetary policy in managing inflation and driving economic ...

  7. From Globalization to Liquidation: The Deutsch-Asiatische Bank and the First World War in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Moazzin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article uses the case of the Deutsch-Asiatische Bank and its liquidation during the First World War to examine the challenges faced by German businesses during the war in China and China’s involvement in Allied economic warfare. This case suggests the detrimental effect that political crises and global shifts of power had on foreign businesses in modern China’s globalized treaty port economy. It also reveals China’s role in the global economic warfare of the Allies, showing that China first resisted Allied demands for a full liquidation of the German bank but eventually acquiesced to Allied pressure and handed control over the liquidation to the Allies. As a consequence, China ended up violating the very international law it had put so much value on when entering the war.

  8. South African banks and their online privacy policy statements: A content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah K. Kabanda

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In Internet banking and Internet-related transactions, security and privacy are of great concern. To alleviate these concerns, the South African government has promulgated the Electronic Communications and Transactions (ECT Act No. 25 of 2002. The Act regulates all electronic communication transactions in South Africa. Business organisations implement the Act by, for example, posting a privacy policy statement on their websites, which, in accordance with the requirements of the ECT Act, states how the organisation will use any personal identifiable information provided by the client. This study investigates whether South African banks that subscribe to the ECT Act comply with the principles relating to the protection of a consumer’s personal information. The study employed the research methods of content analysis and interviews. The findings indicate that some banks only complied with a few of the ECT Act principles, which, according to the interview respondents, undermines the levels of trust which are in play between their banks and themselves. The respondents themselves were not fully aware of all the ECT Act requirements. This lack of awareness results in consumers failing to assess the comprehensiveness of their bank’s policy statements and to what extent such banks comply with the ECT Act.

  9. The importance and role of the Central Bank in the creation of a healthy monetary and investment policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmigić-Miladinović Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper's starting point is finding an answer to the question: What kind of monetary policy should be followed by the Central bank in new market circumstances? As a major monetary institution, the Central bank should provide credibility for its monetary policy, which is particularly important during a macroeconomic stabilisation. In order to choose the most appropriate monetary policy, its creators should be familiar with the monetary policy's effects on economic activities, first of all on investment activities and the period in which they may occur. The Central bank uses its special status and authorisations to control monetary trends, to keep and handle foreign exchange reserves, to keep banks' required reserves, to manage the country's debt, to be the final creditor of the banking system, to take care of the banking system's liquidity. That is why the Central bank has become important for the functioning of the whole financial market, and especially the monetary market. The Central bank has both direct and indirect influence on the most important events on financial markets, financial system, as well as a wider influence - on a country's whole economy. In order to envisage the financial market's impact on monetary and investment policies, one should begin with the Central bank's role on the financial market, and at the same time analyse the financial market's instruments and institutions.

  10. A review of smoking policies in airports around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Frances A; Soong, Andrea; Kleb, Cerise; Grant, Ashley; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-11-01

    To review smoking policies of major international airports, to compare these policies with corresponding incountry tobacco control legislation and to identify areas of improvement for advancing smoke-free policy in airports. We reviewed smoking policies of 34 major international airports in five world regions, and collected data on current national and subnational legislation on smoke-free indoor places in the corresponding airport locations. We then compared airport smoking policies with local legislation. Additionally, we collected anecdotal information concerning smoking rules and practices in specific airports from an online traveller website. We found that 52.9% of the airports reviewed had indoor smoking rooms or smoking areas; smoking policy was unknown or unstated for two airports. 55.9% of the airports were located in countries where national legislation allowed designated smoking rooms and areas, while 35.3% were in smoke-free countries. Subnational legislation restricted smoking in 60% of the airport locations, while 40% were smoke-free. 71.4% of the airport locations had subnational legislation that allowed smoke-free laws to be more stringent than at the national level, but only half of these places had enacted such laws. Despite the increasing presence of smoke-free places and legal capacity to enact stricter legislation at the local level, airports represent a public and occupational space that is often overlooked in national or subnational smoke-free policies. Secondhand smoke exposure in airports can be reduced among travellers and workers by implementing and enforcing smoke-free policies in airports. Additionally, existing information on smoke-free legislation lacks consistent terminology and definitions, which are needed to inform future tobacco control policy within airports and in the law. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Disciplining governance in Africa : a comparison of the World Bank’s Country Policy and Institutional Assessment and the African Union’s African Peer Review Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kassa (Saba)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis study examines the promotion of governance in the African Continent. It compares the Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) of the World Bank to the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) of the African Union. These governance assessments represent differing

  12. Artful Teaching and Learning: The Bank Street Developmental-Interaction Approach at Midtown West School. Teaching for a Changing World: The Graduates of Bank Street College of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrator, Sam; Park, Soyoung; Lit, Ira

    2015-01-01

    This case study is one of five publications from the larger study, "Teaching for a Changing World: The Graduates of Bank Street College of Education." Established in 1989, Midtown West is a New York City public elementary school serving approximately 350 students from kindergarten through grade five. With the support of Tony Alvarado,…

  13. banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-01-01

    The thaw period was a kind of bank from which our country set sail towards unexplored horizons. The series on the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers is continued by the article by Felix Novikov (144-151, who writes about the history of the design of this wonderful building, today’s monument of architecture of Soviet modernism.

  14. The health systems funding platform and World Bank legacy: the gap between rhetoric and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott S; Sen, Kasturi; Decoster, Kristof

    2013-03-06

    Global health partnerships created to encourage funding efficiencies need to be approached with some caution, with claims for innovation and responsiveness to development needs based on untested assumptions around the potential of some partners to adapt their application, funding and evaluation procedures within these new structures. We examine this in the case of the Health Systems Funding Platform, which despite being set up some three years earlier, has stalled at the point of implementation of its key elements of collaboration. While much of the attention has been centred on the suspension of the Global Fund's Round 11, and what this might mean for health systems strengthening and the Platform more broadly, we argue that inadequate scrutiny has been made of the World Bank's contribution to this partnership, which might have been reasonably anticipated based on an historical analysis of development perspectives. Given the tensions being created by the apparent vulnerability of the health systems strengthening agenda, and the increasing rhetoric around the need for greater harmonization in development assistance, an examination of the positioning of the World Bank in this context is vital.

  15. A diaper bank and home visiting partnership: Initial exploration of research and policy questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Lois S; Condon, Eileen M; Deng, Shirley Z; Ordway, Monica Roosa; Marchesseault, Crista; Miller, Andrea; Alfano, Janet Stolfi; Weir, Alison M

    2017-12-13

    The cost of diapering an infant can place a significant financial strain on families living in poverty. Partnerships between diaper banks and home visiting programs for young families may offer an innovative solution to expanding the reach and impact of diaper banks in low-income communities. The purpose of this pilot study was to uncover preliminary information about the functions of diaper distribution through home visiting programs, and to inform future research and policy questions regarding diaper distribution to families in need. In this descriptive qualitative pilot study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 home visitors from Minding the Baby ® (MTB), a home visiting intervention for young parents. MTB clinicians routinely distribute diapers in partnership with The Diaper Bank in Connecticut. We used directed content analysis to code and analyze interview transcripts. These preliminary findings indicate that partnerships between home visiting programs and diaper banks may benefit families by improving diaper access, reducing stigma, and fostering trusting relationships with home visitors. Home visiting program benefits including engagement or re-engagement with families may need to be balanced with potential effects on clinical and therapeutic relationships. Recommendations for next steps in research and related policy questions are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Upgradation and modernization of eye banking services: Integrating tradition with innovative policies and current best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Radhika; Singh, Archita; Gupta, Noopur; Vanathi, M; Gupta, Vivek

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the history and evolution of the National Eye Bank (NEB) and analyze the impact over the years and report the outcome of the invested resources. Review of archival material, records, project reports, policy and procedures' manuals, and publications was done. Descriptive and analytical processing of data obtained was undertaken. Parameters evaluated included total collection, transplantation, utilization rates of donor cornea, changing trends over time in terms of numbers and duration of recipients waiting, impactful research translated into changes in standard operating protocols, new facilities, and subsequent effects on numbers or quality assurance measures and overview of major achievements. Periodic situational analysis with contextual relevance and interpretation of outcomes was done pertaining to national goals and international standards. The NEB and cornea services have played a key leadership role in furthering the development of eye banking and corneal transplantation services. The contribution extends beyond routine patient care to education, training, generation of resources, advocacy, and policymaking. In quantifiable terms, the overall performance has steadily increased over the years. Major contributions include training of doctors, eye bank staff and corneal surgeons, introduction of innovative techniques for corneal transplantation, setting of national standards for eye banking and provision of preservation media, customized corneal, and ocular surface cell replacement therapy in collaboration with other departments and institutes. The eye banking and corneal transplantation facilities have evolved with time providing quality services, modernized as appropriate with updated knowledge and incorporating technological advances supported by the systematic evidence-based approach.

  17. Monetary Policy and Bank Lending: A Natural Experiment from the US Mortgage Market

    OpenAIRE

    Wix, Carlo; Schüwer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how credit demand affects the pass-through of monetary policy to bank lending. We employ a novel identification strategy based on exploiting exogenous cross-sectional variation in local mortgage credit demand across U.S. counties following the occurrence of large natural disasters. First, we show that large natural disasters cause increased local credit demand in the short-term and reduced local credit demand in the medium-term, which we interpret as intertemporal substitu...

  18. Pharmaceutical policies for the Third World--whose responsibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-16

    Several developing countries, such as Bangladesh, Cuba, India, and Mozambique, are currently formulating national pharmaceutical policies to reduce expenditures on drugs while increasing their availability to those in greatest need. 5 components of such national policies have been identified: 1) elimination of ineffective and inappropriate preparations through concentrating on a selection such as the World Health Organization's 200 "basic and essential drugs", coupled with national drug pricing policies that discriminate between essential drugs and non-essential or luxury drugs; 2) public systems of drug distribution which would reduce costs to the consumer; 3) importation of the limited number of drugs distributed through the public system in bulk, which might reduce costs by 20-25%; 4) use of generic rather than brand name drugs; and 5) establishment of domestic pharmaceutical industries within developing countries to encourage research into drugs for local health problems, reduce use of foreign exchange to import drugs, and increase local self-reliance in dealing with disease. In November 1982, Health Action International, a coordinating body for more than 50 publish interest groups seeking to promote rational use of pharmaceuticals, presented a draft internationl code on pharmaceuticals to the UN Conference on Trade and Development. A voluntary code produced in 1981 by the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers' Associations paid little attention to monitoring and enforcement. Little progress has been made, and the need for sensible policy making at the international and national levels has long been apparent.

  19. Remarks at Opening Press Conference, IMF/World Bank Spring Meetings, Washington, D.C., April 18, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jim Yong

    2013-01-01

    Jim Yong Kim, President of the World Bank Group, discusses the issues to end extreme poverty in the World, promoting shared prosperity, and taking bold action on climate change. He speaks about accelerating the high growth rate in the developing world, and to translate this into poverty reduction and job creation. It must be inclusive to curb inequality. He insists that we must avert or mitigate potential shocks such as climate disas...

  20. World Health Organization global policy for improvement of oral health--World Health Assembly 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2008-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Oral Health Programme has worked hard over the past five years to increase the awareness of oral health worldwide as an important component of general health and quality of life. Meanwhile, oral disease is still a major public health problem in high income...... countries and the burden of oral disease is growing in many low- and middle income countries. In the World Oral Health Report 2003, the WHO Global Oral Health Programme formulated the policies and the necessary actions for the improvement of oral health. The strategy is that oral disease prevention...... and the promotion of oral health needs to be integrated with chronic disease prevention and general health promotion as the risks to health are linked. The World Health Assembly (WHA) and the Executive Board (EB) are supreme governance bodies of WHO and for the first time in 25 years oral health was subject...

  1. World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, J

    1995-01-01

    The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of

  2. The central bank issuing policy and Fisher´s equation of exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Pospíšil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of money and establishing interest rates are the main activities of central banks. Through this, the banks immediately influence the behaviour of households, companies, financial markets and the state with the impact on real outcome, employment and prices. When monitoring the issue of money, it is necessary to focus not only on its volume, but also on the attributes and functions carried by money. Among the first economists who considered the quality monetary aspect were J. Locke, D. Hume, D. Ricardo and others. The founders of modern monetarism of the 20th century were I. Fisher and M. Friedman. Fisher was the first to define the equation of monetary equilibrium in the present-day form. The objective of the paper is to point out different approaches to the equation and its modifications and different meanings of its variables. As regards the monetary aggregate M – Money – the paper also deals with the denomination of the aggregate to its various elements, which is significant for fulfilling monetary policy targets. This approach is very important especially at present in the time of crisis when central banks are performing their policy considering contradictory targets of price stability and economic growth.

  3. Upgradation and modernization of eye banking services: Integrating tradition with innovative policies and current best practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Tandon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review the history and evolution of the National Eye Bank (NEB and analyze the impact over the years and report the outcome of the invested resources. Methods: Review of archival material, records, project reports, policy and procedures' manuals, and publications was done. Descriptive and analytical processing of data obtained was undertaken. Parameters evaluated included total collection, transplantation, utilization rates of donor cornea, changing trends over time in terms of numbers and duration of recipients waiting, impactful research translated into changes in standard operating protocols, new facilities, and subsequent effects on numbers or quality assurance measures and overview of major achievements. Periodic situational analysis with contextual relevance and interpretation of outcomes was done pertaining to national goals and international standards. Results: The NEB and cornea services have played a key leadership role in furthering the development of eye banking and corneal transplantation services. The contribution extends beyond routine patient care to education, training, generation of resources, advocacy, and policymaking. In quantifiable terms, the overall performance has steadily increased over the years. Major contributions include training of doctors, eye bank staff and corneal surgeons, introduction of innovative techniques for corneal transplantation, setting of national standards for eye banking and provision of preservation media, customized corneal, and ocular surface cell replacement therapy in collaboration with other departments and institutes. Conclusion: The eye banking and corneal transplantation facilities have evolved with time providing quality services, modernized as appropriate with updated knowledge and incorporating technological advances supported by the systematic evidence-based approach.

  4. ONLINE BANKING IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-01-01

    In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspect...

  5. Using Quantitative Data in World Bank Per-Student Funding Reform Projects: Data, Designs and Dilemmas in Transition Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levacic, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, education systems have increasingly moved to allocating funding for general education by means of a per-student formula. The trend started with developed economies and moved to transition and developing economies, where the World Bank has promoted the adoption of per-student funding (PSF). But promoting a particular reform,…

  6. In the Best Interests of Youth or Neoliberalism? The World Bank and the New Global Youth Empowerment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukarieh, Mayssoun; Tannock, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    Youth, and youth employment especially, have jumped to the forefront of the international development agenda, driven by new funding and reporting priorities of the World Bank and allied international and national aid organisations. Despite the seductive rhetoric of youth empowerment, however, we argue that the new turn to youth serves primarily to…

  7. Your Money or Your Life! A Critical Canadian Perspective on the World Bank's "Reform Agenda" for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Howard

    2011-01-01

    In 1998 the World Bank published a "Reform Agenda" for higher education in the new millennium designed to accelerate privatization and the restructuring of the academic workforce. Before analyzing the report, I consider how changes in Canadian universities reflect the growth of the "knowledge-based economy." I then provide a…

  8. What factors predict how public sector projects perform ? a review of the World Bank's public sector management portfolio

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Jurgen Rene

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses regression analysis to identify which country context, reform content, process, and project management variables predict the performance of public sector management projects, as measured by the Independent Evaluation Group's project outcome ratings. The paper draws on data from a large sample of World Bank public sector management projects that were approved between 1990 an...

  9. Public banking of umbilical cord blood or storage in a private bank: testing social and ethical policy in northeastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parco S

    2013-04-01

    determination method. We found that the chemiluminescence method was more specific (97.0% than the TPHA (83.0% and nontreponemal rapid plasma reagin VDRL (75.0% tests (P < 0.05, χ2 test. The specificity link between the two automatic methods versus microscopes for WBC dosing and NRBC interference was r2 = 0.08 (ADVIA 120 and r2 = 0.94 (XE-2100. The public system does not include human T-cell lymphotropic virus testing; this is reserved for the population from endemic zones. Conclusion: In northeastern Italy current legislation prevents the establishment of private fee-based banks for storage of CB-SC. The cryopreservation, for future autologous personal or family use, is possible only by sending to foreign private banks, with a further fee of €300. These regulations confirm that Italian legislation tries to increase the anonymous allogenic donations and the number of CB-CS bags stored in the free-cost public system, that are available to anyone with therapeutic needs. Private banking is used almost exclusively by the wealthier local population. In the public system, many physicians continue to use older Italian laws regarding syphilis diagnosis, and NRBC interference on WBC count may have an impact on cord blood harvesting. Our findings suggest that in the EU there is no consensus policy on donor management. The value of storage for potential use within the family is useful only with collaboration between the public and the private systems. Keywords: cord blood collection, public system, private system, pregnant women's choice

  10. Public banking of umbilical cord blood or storage in a private bank: testing social and ethical policy in northeastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parco, Sergio; Vascotto, Fulvia; Visconti, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    VDRL (75.0%) tests (P public system does not include human T-cell lymphotropic virus testing; this is reserved for the population from endemic zones. In northeastern Italy current legislation prevents the establishment of private fee-based banks for storage of CB-SC. The cryopreservation, for future autologous personal or family use, is possible only by sending to foreign private banks, with a further fee of €300. These regulations confirm that Italian legislation tries to increase the anonymous allogenic donations and the number of CB-CS bags stored in the free-cost public system, that are available to anyone with therapeutic needs. Private banking is used almost exclusively by the wealthier local population. In the public system, many physicians continue to use older Italian laws regarding syphilis diagnosis, and NRBC interference on WBC count may have an impact on cord blood harvesting. Our findings suggest that in the EU there is no consensus policy on donor management. The value of storage for potential use within the family is useful only with collaboration between the public and the private systems.

  11. An Item Bank to Measure Systems, Services, and Policies: Environmental Factors Affecting People With Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jin-Shei; Hammel, Joy; Jerousek, Sara; Goldsmith, Arielle; Miskovic, Ana; Baum, Carolyn; Wong, Alex W; Dashner, Jessica; Heinemann, Allen W

    2016-12-01

    To develop a measure of perceived systems, services, and policies facilitators (see Chapter 5 of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health) for people with neurologic disabilities and to evaluate the effect of perceived systems, services, and policies facilitators on health-related quality of life. Qualitative approaches to develop and refine items. Confirmatory factor analysis including 1-factor confirmatory factor analysis and bifactor analysis to evaluate unidimensionality of items. Rasch analysis to identify misfitting items. Correlational and analysis of variance methods to evaluate construct validity. Community-dwelling individuals participated in telephone interviews or traveled to the academic medical centers where this research took place. Participants (N=571) had a diagnosis of spinal cord injury, stroke, or traumatic brain injury. They were 18 years or older and English speaking. Not applicable. An item bank to evaluate environmental access and support levels of services, systems, and policies for people with disabilities. We identified a general factor defined as "access and support levels of the services, systems, and policies at the level of community living" and 3 local factors defined as "health services," "community living," and "community resources." The systems, services, and policies measure correlated moderately with participation measures: Community Participation Indicators (CPI) - Involvement, CPI - Control over Participation, Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders - Ability to Participate, Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders - Satisfaction with Role Participation, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Ability to Participate, PROMIS Satisfaction with Role Participation, and PROMIS Isolation. The measure of systems, services, and policies facilitators contains items pertaining to health services, community living, and community resources. Investigators and clinicians can measure

  12. Are hybrid umbilical cord blood banks really the best of both worlds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilcher, Gregory M T; Fernandez, Conrad V; Joffe, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Since the first use of umbilical cord blood (UCB) as a medical therapy, the number of UCB banks worldwide has grown. Public UCB banks offer the option of altruistic donation, whereas private banks allow a product to be stored for the exclusive use of the paying client. With many more UCB products banked privately than publicly in countries such as the USA, hybrid models blending aspects of public and private banking have been proposed. One such bank is in operation in the UK. In this paper we review the hybrid UCB model and conclude that it offers limited benefit to the general public. Furthermore, compared with private banking, this model provides few advantages and potential disadvantages to private clients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Green care governance: between market, policy and intersecting social worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, Jostein; Farstad, Maja

    2009-01-01

    Green care--the utilisation of farms as the basis for health services--is seen as a promising addition to other health services, and it is seen as a viable diversification strategy for many farm families. However, the number of such services is low both in Norway and in Europe in general. The development of green care seems to have stagnated. This paper seeks to analyze and discuss the case of Norwegian green care in order to reflect on the hindrances to the further development of a viable green care sector. The paper analyzes the green care market, green care policies and the interaction of social worlds that are necessary to make the green care sector function smoothly. The conclusion is that there is a sound basis for a green care market and that there are sufficient political support and political engagement for the development of green care in Norway. The problem with the green care sector is the interaction between the "social worlds" involved in the sector--the suppliers/farmers, the users, and the (public sector) buyers. It is argued that the development of a green care market is hampered by the lack of an institutional framework and a set of market devices capable of bringing key actors together. The paper presents an analysis of the Norwegian green care sector. It shows that there are substantial cross-national differences between health service systems, and therefore comparisons between nations are difficult. However, the principal challenges--diverse social groups, the lack of institutional frames, and immature markets--are shared. Therefore, the need for further research is evident and there are lessons to be learned from cross-national comparison and case studies. Within the green care research field, there have been few social science studies that address organisational issues and the governance of this new and emerging business. Theoretically oriented and analytical contributions on organisational aspects of green care services are therefore timely

  14. SYSTEMIC CRISIS MANAGEMENT AND THE IMPACT ON MONETARY POLICY. THE INVOLVEMENT OF CENTRAL BANKS. AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana GIBA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In a systemic crisis, many institutions in the financial system may face a lack of liquidity and central banks, as lenders of last resort, have to support them in order to ensure their financial stability. The question is: To what extent the involvement of central banks in systemic crises management, by providing liquidity to credit institutions, affects their ability to accomplish the central goal of monetary policy - price stability?To answer this question, through this study, we conducted an empiricalanalysis on the effect which central banks’ involvement in systemic crises management, through liquidity support, has on monetary policy objectives, mainly on price stability. Using a principal components analysis, we built a Monetary policy index and we developed a regression model between this index and the liquidity support provided by central banks in systemic crises.The conclusion we reached is that the provision of liquidity by the central bank to banking institutions in the system affects its monetary policy objectives only on the short -term. Specifically, providing liquidity support leads to an increase in both monetary aggregates and consumer price index in the first two years of the crisis, after which there is a significant dilution of this impact.

  15. Tobacco industry attempts to counter the World Bank report Curbing the Epidemic and obstruct the WHO framework convention on tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton

    2008-12-01

    In 1999 the World Bank published a landmark study on the economics of tobacco control, Curbing the Epidemic: Governments and the Economics of Tobacco Control (CTE), which concluded that tobacco control brings unprecedented health benefits without harming economies, threatening the transnational tobacco companies' ability to use economic arguments to dissuade governments from enacting tobacco control policies and supporting the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). We used tobacco industry documents to analyze how tobacco companies worked to discredit CTE. They hired public relations firms, had academics critique CTE, hired consultants to produce "independent" estimates of the importance of tobacco to national economies, and worked through front groups, particularly the International Tobacco Growers' Association, to question CTE's findings. These efforts failed, and the report remains an authoritative economic analysis of global tobacco control during the ongoing FCTC negotiations. The industry's failure suggests that the World Bank should continue their analytic work on the economics of tobacco control and make tobacco control part of its development agenda.

  16. A program to develop the domestic natural gas industry in Indonesia: Case history of two World Bank projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klass, D.L. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Khwaja, S. (World Bank, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Indonesia depends heavily on revenues from the export of LNG and oil, the availability of which appears to be decreasing. It is therefore making a strong effort to accelerate development of a domestic natural gas industry. A high priority has been given to the conversion of power plants and city gas systems, including local industries and commercial facilities, from liquid fuels to natural gas. This will release more oil for export, help to meet the objectives of Repelita V, and provide substantial environmental benefits. The World Bank recently provided loans to the Indonesian Government for two projects that are aimed at substituting natural gas for oil and manufactured gas in domestic markets. One project involves expansion of the gas distribution systems of Indonesia's natural gas utility (PGN) in three cities: Jakarta and Bogor in Java, and Medan in Sumatra. The project also includes training programs for PGN staff and an energy pricing policy study to be carried out by Indonesia's Ministry of Mines and Energy. The second project involves expansion of the supply of natural gas for Surabaya and twelve other towns in its vicinity in East Java, and further expansion of Medan's supply system. Technical assistance will be provided to enhance the skills ofPGN and the Ministry of Mines and Energy, and a Gas Technology Unit similar to the Institute of Gas Technology will be established at Indonesia's Research and Development Center for Oil and Gas (LEMIGAS) in Jakarta. 14 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. A School Growing Roots: The Bank Street Developmental-Interaction Approach at Community Roots Charter School. Teaching for a Changing World: The Graduates of Bank Street College of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lit, Ira; Intrator, Sam

    2015-01-01

    This case study is one of five publications from the larger study, "Teaching for a Changing World: The Graduates of Bank Street College of Education," that examines the preparation, practices, and effectiveness of graduates of Bank Street College of Education teacher certification programs over the last decade. This case study examines…

  18. Learning to Play, Playing to Learn: The Bank Street Developmental-Interaction Approach in Liliana's Kindergarten Classroom. Teaching for a Changing World: The Graduates of Bank Street College of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soyoung; Lit, Ira

    2015-01-01

    This case study is one of five publications from the larger study, "Teaching for a Changing World: The Graduates of Bank Street College of Education." The Bank Street College of Education's developmental-interaction approach to teaching and learning centers on understanding, valuing, and meeting the needs of the "whole child."…

  19. Are developing countries ready for first world waste policy instruments?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The findings of on-going research conducted within South Africa on waste policy instruments shows that while typical command-and-control instruments lack effective monitoring and enforcement, alternative policy instruments such as economic...

  20. Appreciating diversity: Regulatory reform and banking practices in the developed and developing worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayati Ghosh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The homogenisation of finance that has dramatically increased the proclivity to instability and crisis is directly related to the very structure of regulations that have discouraged different types of institutions from emerging and/or and surviving. In developing countries they have the further limitation of preventing the necessary variation of financial institutions that is required for financing development and enlarging the spread of and access to institutional finance. The rules that apply to commercial banks or investment banks cannot and should not be applied to development banks, savings banks or co-operative banks. Diversity in the financial system can and should be encouraged at several levels and through several means.

  1. Alluring Ideas: Cherry Picking Policy from around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    A common feature of contemporary policymaking is the sharing and adaptation of policies from other countries. As neo-liberal globalisation continues to impact on the development of policy, such practices are increasingly commonplace. This article considers the current phenomenon of "policy borrowing" with reference to the use of data…

  2. ONLINE BANKING IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspects globally as well as in the Romanian banking system. Even if there already are several studies on web banking, this topic still remains a resourceful area for academic research in the next decade.

  3. World bank EMCP malaria project in Orissa, India - A field reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rajan R; Kumar, Ravi K

    2011-01-01

    Under the National Vector Borne Disease Control Program, the Enhanced Malaria Control Project (EMCP) with World Bank assistance was implemented in India, in the eastern state of Orissa. This article tries to analyze the possible reasons for the poor performance of EMCP in a few states of India. The eastern state of India is taken as a case study for looking into systemic, human resource, and logistics related issues that could explain the poor performance of EMCP in a few states of India. Field visits were made to some selected EMCP areas in the state of Orissa. Operational issues-related implementation of various components of the project were scrutinized. Not Applicable. While the project was highly successful in a few states of India, it had limited success in some states. It was learnt that the honorarium meant for Fever Treatment depot [FTD] work was divided among all the malaria workers. In high-risk areas, presumptive radical treatment was being carried on by malaria workers for every case of fever. Using Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) in such areas seemed to have no relevance. The laboratory technician ignored malaria work, due to a high work load and no additional incentive. In the Primary Health Centers (PHCs) the Medical officers had either not visited the village under indoor residual spray or symbolically visited only five to six houses. Cement tanks had to be built for larvivorus fish breeding. However, they had not been mad. The success of a public health program is dependent more on project implementation, management, monitoring, and evaluation of project activities than the volume of financial resource allocation.

  4. THE IMPLICATIONS OF MARKETING ACTIVITY IN RISK ANALYSIS, CORE ELEMENT OF LENDING POLICY TO COMMERCIAL BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Florin-Mihai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present financial context first affected by the lack of trust generated by the important bankruptcies in the USA and secondly by the global economic crisis, financial institutions are more than ever focused on applying market research, customer segmentation procedures and based upon them adapted credit strategies. The process is based on the fundaments of the marketing mix, much more carefully than before in order to maximize efficiency and market position or to consolidate, increase market share by taking advantage of opportunities or diminishing the effects of the present unfavorable economic climate. Analysis procedures based on differential risk models can be identified, the starting point being precisely the involvement of marketing by the market segmentation process and the concepts of “customer centricity” and “client relationship management”, specific credit policies being based upon them. The present paper intends to bring forth the client segmentation criteria practiced by top Romanian commercial banks, as the right segmentation process will reflect on the typology of financing over time. Furthermore, client segmentation tends to influence banking management in order to administer the risks arising from the credit activities, as it is in strict connection to the elements and processes involved in determining a correct rating of the applicants for funding.

  5. The Bretton Woods Institutions and the Environment: Organizational Learning within the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Lindenthal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to a growing public awareness, in the last 40 years environmental impacts of development projects financed and supported by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF have come into view. Since then, the member states have pressured both organizations to implement environmental concerns. We analyze the reactions of the World Bank and the IMF’s bureaucracies towards their principals’ demands. To reveal if, and to what extent, the observed reactions of both bureaucracies towards environmental integration can be assessed as organizational learning, we develop in a first step a heuristic model that allows for a distinction between different levels of learning (compliant and non-compliant, single-loop and double-loop. In a second step we describe the efforts of the bureaucracies of the World Bank (from the 1970s until today and the IMF (from the 1990s until today to integrate environmental protection into their activities. Due to our interest in the quality of the organizational changes, we finally analyze if and to what extent the bureaucracies’ reactions to the new external demand qualify as organizational learning. Furthermore, we discuss which factors helped or hindered organizational learning.

  6. Population Matters Policy Brief. Preparing for an Aging World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The world's population is aging at an accelerated rate. Declining fertility rates combined with steady improvements in life expectancy over the latter half of the 20th century have produced dramatic growth in the world's elderly population...

  7. Population Matters Policy Brief: Preparing foran Aging World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The world's population is aging at an accelerated rate. Declining fertility rates combined with steady improvements in life expectancy over the latter half of the 20th century have produced dramatic growth in the world's elderly population...

  8. Legality of the World Bank's Informal Decisions to Expand into the Tax Field, and Implications of These Decisions for Its Legitimacy

    OpenAIRE

    Dorlig, Uyanga

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe emergence of global tax governance was triggered by common tax problems, which are now still being faced by international society of nation-states. In the creation of this framework, international institutions have been playing a major role. One of these institutions is the World Bank (Bank). However, those who write about the virtues and vices of the main creators of the framework usually disregard the Bank. This article, therefore, argues that this disregard is not justified...

  9. Policy alienation and work alienation: Two worlds apart?

    OpenAIRE

    Tummers, Lars; Thiel, Sandra; Steijn, Bram; Bekkers, Victor

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The notion of work alienation has been fascinating scholars and practitioners for a long time. In recent years, a related concept has been developed in the public administration discipline: policy alienation, which examines the alienation of public professionals from the policy they have to implement. In this paper, our goal is to study the distinctiveness (or similarity) of work alienation and policy alienation. Furthermore, we examine a number of effects of work and pol...

  10. Money supply growth and inflation – the monetary policy strategy of the European Central Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatopluk Kapounek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to find out whether there is a significant relationship between money supply growth and inflation in the Eurozone. For this reason, the monetary policy strategy of the European Central Bank (ECB has been evaluated. Since the establishment of the ECB in January 1999 to May 2003 the ECB‘s monetary policy strategy consisted of three main elements: a quantitative definition of price stability, a prominent role for money in the assessment of risks to price stability (aggregate M3 as a reference value, and a broadly based assessment of the outlook for price developments. Nevertheless, since May 2003 M3 or any other monetary aggregate has lost its prominent role in the ECB‘s strategy. Therefore the nowadays ECB‘s monetary policy strategy consists of a quantitative definition of the primary objective of price stability and an analytical framework based on two pillars – economic analysis and monetary analysis. These two pillars are used by the ECB‘s Governing Council in the overall assessment of risks to price stability and in monetary policy decisions.The empirical part of this article is based on time series correlation between money supply growth and inflation in selected member countries of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU - Eurozone during the period 1995–2005. The time series are divided into two parts. The first part covers data for selected member countries of the European Union from 1995 till 1998, i.e. before the establishment of the EMU. Whereas the second part includes data for the whole Eurozone since its official start in 1999 to 2005. The time series are adjusted by SARIMA models.

  11. A Brief Introduction to the World of Macroprudential Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumičić Mirna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the rapid growth in the popularity of and the increasing number of research papers on macroprudential policy, the general public still has a relatively unclear perception of this concept. The main purpose of this paper is to explain briefly the most important concepts related to macroprudential policy and describe its objectives. Emphasis is put on explaining the main stages of a macroprudential cycle, the relationship between macroprudential policy and other economic policies, and the costs and benefits of macroprudential regulations.

  12. Policy alienation and work alienation: Two worlds apart?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); S. van Thiel (Sandra); A.J. Steijn (Bram); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The notion of work alienation has been fascinating scholars and practitioners for a long time. In recent years, a related concept has been developed in the public administration discipline: policy alienation, which examines the alienation of public professionals from the policy

  13. Policy alienation and work alienation: Two worlds apart?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); S. van Thiel (Sandra); A.J. Steijn (Bram); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe notion of work alienation has been fascinating scholars and practitioners for a long time. In recent years, a related concept has been developed in the public administration discipline: policy alienation, which examines the alienation of public professionals from the policy they have

  14. National Renewable Energy Policy in a Global World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Minji

    Increasing trade of renewable energy products has significantly contributed to reducing the costs of renewable energy sources, but at the same time, it has generated protectionist policies, which may negatively affect the trend of the cost reduction. Although a few recent studies examined the rise of renewable energy protectionism and trade disputes, they are limited in addressing the conflict between the original goal of traditional renewable energy policies and the new protectionist policies under the globalized renewable energy industry. To fill this gap, this dissertation explores how the globalized renewable energy industry has changed national renewable energy policies. Through three analyses, three aspects of the globalized renewable energy industry are examined: the rise of multinational corporations, international interactions among actors, and the changes of the global and domestic market conditions. First analysis investigates how multinational renewable energy corporations have affected national policies. A content analysis of the annual reports of 15 solar photovoltaic multinational corporation shows that solar multinationals have been influenced by national policies and have adapted to the changes rather than having attempted to change national policies. Second analysis examines how diverse actors have framed renewable energy trade issues through a network analysis of the Chinese solar panel issue in the United States. The result shows that the Chinese solar panel issue was framed differently from the traditional environmental frame of renewable energy, being dominated by multinational corporations headquartered in other countries. Third analysis explores what has caused the increasing diversity in national renewable energy policies through the case studies of the U.S. and South Korea. The result reveals that the globalization of solar industry has affected the diversification of solar policies in two countries by generating both challenges, which

  15. World Regionalization of Higher Education: Policy Proposals for International Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Prado Yepes, Cesar

    2006-01-01

    International organizations dealing with higher education should pay more attention to the rise of autonomous world regional processes and explore synergies. This article gives an overview of new macro-regional processes around the world. The European case is the most salient, but developments in America and East Asia are also noticeable. In the…

  16. Diabetes Dictating Policy: An Editorial Commemorating World Health Day 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhossein Takian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century is an era of great challenge for humankind; we are combating terrorism, climate change, poverty, human rights issues and last but not least non-communicable diseases (NCDs. The burden of the latter has become so large that it is being recognized by world leaders globally as an area that it is in need of much greater attention. In light of this concern, the World Health Organization (WHO dedicated this year’s World Health Day (held on April 7, 2016 to raising international awareness on diabetes, the fastest growing NCD in the world. This editorial is an account of the macro politics in place for fighting diabetes, both internationally and nationally.

  17. Social world of organ transplantation, trafficking, and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Farhan Navid; Purkayastha, Bandana

    2016-05-01

    Although success of organ transplants reflects advances in medical procedures, the success has generated debates about the ethical standards and policies that govern transplants, especially the acquisition of organs for transplants. We focus on laws, policies, and organ trafficking to highlight the interdisciplinary perspectives that can shape our understanding of transplantation as a social phenomenon. We discuss international policies and country-specific legislation from Pakistan to point to gaps and their implications for protecting vulnerable people who are exploited for organ removal. International collaboration and the legal framework need to be strengthened to fight the menace globally and to deal with the cases of organ trafficking within the legal ambit of human trafficking so that the rights of victims are upheld by states, justice systems, and ultimately medical establishments and practitioners.

  18. Modeling policy issues in a world of imperfect competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1998-01-01

    General equilibrium theory constitutes a sound basis for the discussion of policy issues if firms do not have market power. However, if firms influence prices strategically, the concept of profits loses its meaning due to the price normalization problem. Hence, it is unclear how to model...... the behavior of oligopolistic firms. In order to provide a conceptual foundation for the analysis of policy issues in the case of imperfect competition, we discuss ways to formulate the objective of a strategic firm. In particular, we investigate the concept of real wealth maximization that is based on profits...

  19. Energy policies and politics for sustainable world-system development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    environmental impacts of renewable energy sources. Normatively, (a) parts of the 1987 Brundtland report and (b) Danish experiences with regulated markets and innovations (Hvelplund 1995) are discussed and supplemented by (c) a critique of EU energy policies, especially the continued support of nuclear industry...... by Euratom (Woodman 2003). A political approach to preconditions for sustainable energy policies is finally developed from (a) Barry Commoner's critique of 1979 of president Carter's energy plan followed by the impasse of the Reagan era with the US government's retreat from federal energy and environmental...

  20. OUTLOOK OF THE WORLD RICE INDUSTRY UNDER ALTERNATIVE TRADE LIBERALIZATION POLICIES IN JAPAN AND KOREA

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Won W.; Taylor, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    This report evaluates the world rice industry for the 1998-2010 period by using the World Rice Policy Simulation Model. This analysis is based on a series of assumptions about general economic conditions, agricultural policies, the weather, and technological change. This report evaluates three scenarios: the base scenario, the partial trade liberalization scenario in Japan and South Korea, and the full trade liberalization scenario. The partial trade liberalization scenario includes a partial...

  1. New Zealand Freshwater Management: Changing Policy for a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, H. L.; Norton, N.

    2014-12-01

    Fresh water is essential to New Zealand's economic, environmental, cultural and social well-being. In line with global trends, New Zealand's freshwater resources are under pressure from increased abstraction and changes in land-use which contribute contaminants to our freshwater systems. Recent central government policy reform introduces greater national direction and guidance, to bring about a step-change in freshwater management. An existing national policy for freshwater management introduced in 2011 requires regional authorities to produce freshwater management plans containing clear freshwater objectives (measurable statements about the desired environmental state for water bodies) and associated limits to resource use (such as environmental flows and quantity allocation limits, and loads of contaminants to be discharged). These plans must integrate water quantity and quality management, consider climate change, and incorporate tangata whenua (New Zealand māori) roles and interests. In recent (2014) national policy amendments, the regional authorities are also required to implement national 'bottom-line' standards for certain attributes of the system to be managed; undertake accounting for all water takes and all sources of contaminants; and to develop and implement their plans in a collaborative way with communities. This rapid change in national policy has necessitated a new way of working for authorities tasked with implementation; many obstacles lie in their path. The scientific methods required to help set water quantity limits are well established, but water quality methods are less so. Collaborative processes have well documented benefits but also raise many challenges, particularly for the communication of complex and often uncertain scientific information. This paper provides background on the national policy changes and offers some early lessons learned by the regional authorities implementing collaborative freshwater management in New Zealand.

  2. Korea's English Education Policy Innovations to Lead the Nation into the Globalized World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bok-Myung

    2009-01-01

    This study is to historically survey the development of English language education policies in Korea to show that English education policies in Korea have developed to cultivate Korean students who are capable in a globalized world. This study has the following purposes: first, this paper surveys the origin of English education from the ending…

  3. Does Central Bank Quality Determine Sovereign Ratings and Credit Default Swap Spreads: Evidence from the World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlall Indranarain

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study innovates from prior research which focuses on the determinants of sovereign ratings and credit default swap spreads for a large sample of countries by incorporating the quality of central banks, let alone refined proxies. Findings show that the explanatory power of both sovereign ratings and CDS spreads model improve by a hefty 11 percent in case of sovereign ratings and 6 to 9 percent in the case of CDS spreads when central bank quality is incorporated. Such a finding bolters the notion that institutional quality does play a preponderant role when it comes to assessing country risk, making it a systematic component of institutional quality. The effect of labour participation implies that countries buffeted by stronger effects of an ageing population have greater propensity of increases in CDS spreads. Evidence is also found as to the driving dynamics of CDS spreads and sovereign ratings to be distinct. Our results hold robust post tackling for endogeneity problem.

  4. The World Bank’s persuasion policy in its world development reports (1990-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelise Zampier da SILVA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relationship between international organizations and national governments, highlighting the influence of the former in decision-making on policies to combat poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean from the 1990’s, especially Conditional Cash Transfer policies. The research methodology is qualitative, with support of spatial analysis resources and quantitative techniques to categorize information of interest.

  5. Schistosomiasis control in China: the impact of a 10-year World Bank Loan Project (1992-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianyi, Chen; Liying, Wang; Jiming, Cai; Xiaonong, Zhou; Jiang, Zheng; Jiagang, Guo; Xiaohua, Wu; Engels, D; Minggang, Chen

    2005-01-01

    China has been carrying out large-scale schistosomiasis control since the mid-1950s, but in the early 1990s, schistosomiasis was still endemic in eight provinces. A World Bank Loan Project enabled further significant progress to be made during the period 1992-2001. The control strategy was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy -- primarily to reinforce morbidity control -- while at the same time acting on transmission with the ultimate goal of interrupting it. Chemotherapy was complemented by health education, chemical control of snails and environmental modification where appropriate. A final evaluation in 2002 showed that infection rates in humans and livestock had decreased by 55% and 50%, respectively. The number of acute infections and of individuals with advanced disease had also significantly decreased. Although snail infection rates continued to fluctuate at a low level, the densities of infected snails had decreased by more than 75% in all endemic areas. The original objectives of the China World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control had all been met. One province, Zhejiang, had already fulfilled the criteria for elimination of schistosomiasis by 1995. The project was therefore a success and has provided China with a sound basis for further control.

  6. The New World Order: Enduring Currents in American Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Winterford, Thesis Advisor Rodney Kendy--Minnd Reader Thomas Bruneau , Chairman Department of National Security Affairs ii ABSTRACT The primary focus of this...Science Quarterly, 100, 3, (Fall 1985), 389. 51 Justin Rosenberg, "What’s the Matter with Realism?" Review of International Studies, 16, (1990), 292. 52...World." Vital Speeches of the Day, 56, 14, (May 1, 1990): 418-421. Rosenberg, Justin . "What’s the Matter with Realism?" Review of International Studies

  7. Integrated national energy planning and management: methodology and application to Sri Lanka. World Bank technical paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munasinghe, M.; Meier, P.

    1988-01-01

    Given the importance of energy in modern economies, the first part of the volume is devoted to examining some of the key conceptual and analytical tools available for energy-policy analysis and planning. Policy tools and institutional frameworks that will facilitate better energy management are also discussed. Energy-policy analysis is explained, while effective energy management techniques are discussed to achieve desirable national objectives, using a selected set of policies and policy instruments. In the second part of the volume, the actual application of the principles set out earlier is explained through a case study of Sri Lanka. The monograph integrates the many aspects of the short-term programs already begun with the options for the medium to long term, and ends with the outline of a long-term strategy for Sri Lanka.

  8. The rise and growth of Serbian banking until World War I - part two: The second stage - the national state and the national banking (1878-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Serbian banking during the 19th century was a gradual process that underwent two distinctive stages with the turning point in 1878 when Serbia became an independent state by the international agreement concluded at the Berlin Congress. In the first stage, until 1878, necessary political, economic and institutional preconditions had been formed for the rise of banking that led to the creation of the first organized credits and banks. During the second stage, decisive programme of economic and institutional development and modernization resulted in the mushrooming growth of banks. Apart from the Privileged National Bank of the Kingdom of Serbia (National Bank, as a bank of note issue, there were state banks and privately-owned banks mostly in the form of joint-stock companies. From 1894, farmers started to establish farm cooperative societies as institutions that met their credit needs with a much more favourable terms than banks. Analyses suggests that banks in the Kingdom of Serbia during 1878-1914 period better served the development of trade, building of the infrastructure (railroads and industry than credit needs of the farmers who were the main economic agent of the country representing 85% of the total population.

  9. Banking products : You can take them with you, so why don't you?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, Carin; Diepstraten, Maaike

    Policymakers around the world call for more competition in the banking sector. One prerequisite to achieving this is customer mobility. Despite its policy relevance, surprisingly little is known about consumers’ bank switching behaviour. We show that the principal reasons to stay at one’s bank are a

  10. Banking products : You can take them with you, so why don't you?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, Carin; Diepstraten, Maaike

    2017-01-01

    Policymakers around the world call for more competition in the banking sector. One prerequisite to achieving this is customer mobility. Despite its policy relevance, surprisingly little is known about consumers’ bank switching behaviour. We show that the principal reasons to stay at one’s bank are a

  11. Campaign Wars: Health Policy in a Fantasy World

    OpenAIRE

    David M. Cutler

    2016-01-01

    National health reform debates reminds me of a night at the movies. On the one hand, there are true-life stories like “Apollo 13,” that profile actual people and the problems they face. And then there are the fantasies, like “Star Wars,” in which magical things happen and the rules of normal life don’t apply. As I view the world of “Campaign Wars,” I have developed the uneasy impression that Republican health care proposals exist only in a fantasy universe.

  12. Life Cycle Thinking and the Use of LCA in Policies Around the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnemann, G.; Gemechu, E. D.; Sala, S.

    2018-01-01

    The chapter explains what Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) is about, why it is about taking a life cycle approach and shows that SCP-related policies have been developed at the intergovernmental level and in different regions of the world. A key element at the international level...... relevant for policies focusing on design for sustainability, sustainable consumer information, sustainable procurement and waste management, minimization and prevention as well as sector-specific policies like sustainable energy and food supply. Examples of life cycle thinking and the use of LCA...... in policies are provided for numerous countries around the world but with a certain focus on the European Union. It can be expected that the use of LCA in policies for the sustainability assessment of products will further increase, also slowly covering more means of implementation such as incentives...

  13. THE WORLDS OF FLEXICURITY-LABOUR MARKET POLICIES IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionete Anca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past, European integration has concentrated first of all on profound economic integration, creating the Single Market with common rules and regulations throughout the European Union. European integration has been more limited in the labour market and social field, where the national state remains the dominant level of regulation. Although linguistically somewhat strange, “flexicurity”, the combination of labour market flexibility and security for employees, has become recently a much praised cornerstone of European labour market policies. Obviously, in an environment with rapid technical progress and frequently changing market conditions, employers need to manage their labour force flexibly. In order to achieve this flexibility without creating an unbearable situation for employees, security is the second pillar of the concept. As such, the concept looks like an innovative European way of consolidating economic and social interests, although some argue that much flexibility is gained while the security aspect is being neglected. Flexicurity forms a part of efforts to experiment with new forms of governance in the social and employment law of the European Union. It is compatible with attempts to introduce policies at supranational level that can influence self-transformation processes at the level of Member States in order to reach overarching economic goals defined by the Lisbon agenda. It is central in the debate over the reform of labour law systems since it is a key, if not the key concept in the 2006 Green Paper on modernising labour law in the European Union. The concept has been successfully adopted in some European countries, notably Denmark and the Netherlands. The experience in these two countries will thus be described in some detail, followed by a review of flexicurity-type policies in other European countries. The current paper is realized in the doctoral programme entitled “PhD in economics at the standards

  14. The argument for pharmaceutical policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-01-01

    Pharmaceutical policy is a global concern. It has become a hot political topic in most countries--developed as well as developing--and can be found on the agenda of international organizations such as WHO, OECD, EU, WTO and even the World Bank. Pharmaceutical policy affects everyone in the world...

  15. Fertility and Population Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye; Tosun, Mehmet S.; Yang, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    There have been significant changes in both the fertility rates and fertility perception since 1970s. In this paper, we examine the relationship between government policies towards fertility and the fertility trends. Total fertility rate, defined as the number of children per woman, is used as the main fertility trend variable. We use panel data from the United Nations World Population Policies database, and the World Bank World Development Indicators for the period 1976 through 2013. We find...

  16. THE INDEPENDENCE OF CENTRAL BANKS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE-A MONETARY POLICY STRATEGY BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Iulian Vasile

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to examine the trends of the last decade and a half of central banks independence (CBI in Central and Eastern European countries on the road to the euro adoption and to compare the results with those identified in the case of the European Central Bank (ECB. We approached CBI from the perspective of monetary policy strategies central banks (CBs use. The main results show increasing independence during the selected time frame for all monetary authorities subject to analysis, regardless of the applied monetary policy strategy; superior average levels of CBI in CEE countries oriented to inflation targeting compared to those using the exchange rate as nominal anchor; higher degree of independence of ECB in relation to monetary authorities that use an inflation targeting strategy; the simultaneous presence of a significant level of independence, low inflation and stronger economic development in CEE members where CB is geared towards inflation targeting compared to CBs that implement a strategy of exchange rate targeting.

  17. Higher Education in Latin America. Issues of Efficiency and Equity. World Bank Discussion Papers 77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Donald R.

    The current state of higher education in Latin America is examined in discussion papers which attempt to identify the major problems in efficiency, finance, and equity in the area and offer policy choices for improving university performance and quality while maximizing society's return on its investment. The papers are organized as follows: (1)…

  18. The Impact of the World Bank and IMF on Education Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, David

    2006-01-01

    Education is a fundamental human right. As such it is clearly the responsibility of the state and a core element of any development policy committed to social justice. Securing the right to education is key to enabling people to secure other human rights, yet, according to this author, the right to education is violated by governments around the…

  19. The global crisis: Challenges to the banking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamária BENYOVSZKI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available After the 2008 crisis, the tasks of economic policies and the institutions’ structure underwent many changes both at world economy and European level. The paper focuses on the banking system stability, the effects of the fast pre-crisis leveraging and the fast post- crisis deleveraging, and their impact on the banking system. The most relevant methods used in this field deal with the analysis of banking sector-oriented economic policies adopted during the crisis, on the one hand, and the analysis of indicators assessing the crisis fallout on the banking sector, on the other hand.

  20. World, European and National Policies in the Field of Cultural Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Popa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available At both world and national level, transnational policies in the field of tourism, in general, and of cultural tourism, in particular, come from the U.N.E.S.C.O. and from the W.T.O. represented by the U.N.O., while at European level these policies are exclusively the result of the European Union and of the European Council. National policies in the field of cultural tourism in Romania are developed by the Ministry of Tourism, and are included and detailed in the Master Plan for the Development of National Tourism. Though the number of associations, committees, councils, organisations, and other organisms dealing with world and European tourism is larger, at national level the National Authority of Tourism does not supply the necessary instruments to achieve sustainable development in the field of hospitality and of tourism, lacking marketing policies and coherent promotional strategies based on detailed understanding and on hierarchy of source markets.

  1. An analysis of GAVI, the Global Fund and World Bank support for human resources for health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujicic, Marko; Weber, Stephanie E; Nikolic, Irina A; Atun, Rifat; Kumar, Ranjana

    2012-12-01

    Shortages, geographic imbalances and poor performance of health workers pose major challenges for improving health service delivery in developing countries. In response, multilateral agencies have increasingly recognized the need to invest in human resources for health (HRH) to assist countries in achieving their health system goals. In this paper we analyse the HRH-related activities of three agencies: the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI); the Global Fund for Aids, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (the Global Fund); and the World Bank. First, we reviewed the type of HRH-related activities that are eligible for financing within each agency. Second, we reviewed the HRH-related activities that each agency is actually financing. Third, we reviewed the literature to understand the impact that GAVI, Global Fund and World Bank investments in HRH have had on the health workforce in developing countries. Our analysis found that by far the most common activity supported across all agencies is short-term, in-service training. There is relatively little investment in expanding pre-service training capacity, despite large health worker shortages in developing countries. We also found that the majority of GAVI and the Global Fund grants finance health worker remuneration, largely through supplemental allowances, with little information available on how payment rates are determined, how the potential negative consequences are mitigated, and how payments are to be sustained at the end of the grant period. Based on the analysis, we argue there is an opportunity for improved co-ordination between the three agencies at the country level in supporting HRH-related activities. Existing initiatives, such as the International Health Partnership and the Health Systems Funding Platform, could present viable and timely vehicles for the three agencies to implement this improved co-ordination.

  2. Child Health in China. World Bank Staff Working Papers, Number 767.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mary E.; Prost, Andre

    Utilizing mainly Chinese publications, this paper reviews the existing data on childhood diseases in order to assess the health status and morbidity patterns of Chinese children. China's infant mortality rate is among the very lowest in the developing world. The number of post-neonatal deaths as a proportion of total infant deaths has decreased to…

  3. Addressing the Enforcement Gap to Counter Crime : Part 2. Options for World Bank Engagement with Police

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Ineke; Gramckow, Heike P.; Greene, Jack; Barao, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Crime and violence impede development and disproportionally impact poor people in many countries across the world. Though crime and violence represent serious problems in many countries, less-developed countries experience particular concentrations, especially those that are characterized by fragile or less-trusted government institutions and pervasive insecurity. Under such circumstances,...

  4. Privatization of health services in less developed countries: an empirical response to the proposals of the World Bank and Wharton School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitzkin, Howard; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca; Iriart, Celia

    2007-01-01

    Academics and World Bank officials argue that, by reducing out-of-pocket expenditures, expanded private insurance may improve access to needed health services in less developed countries. In this empirical response, the authors examine this recommendation through observations from their research on privatization of health services in the United States, Argentina, Chile, and Mexico. Privatization, either through conversion of public sector to private sector insurance or by expansion of private insurance through enhanced participation by corporate entrepreneurs, generally has not succeeded in improving access to health services for vulnerable groups. Although the impact of privatization has differed among the Latin American countries studied, expansion of private insurance often has generated additional co-payments, which have increased rather than decreased out-of-pocket expenditures, thereby worsening access to needed services. Privatization usually has improved conditions for private corporations and has led to higher administrative costs. To address the devastating problems of access to services worldwide, we must find ways to enhance the delivery of public sector services and must move beyond conventional wisdom about market-based policies such as privatization.

  5. STRENGTHENING ROLE OF G20: TRANSFORMATION OF WORLD ORDER AND FOREIGN POLICY OF CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article studies the role of the G20 in the evolving world and foreign policy of China in this entity. In the current world the G20 emerges as a key global platform for economic dialogue among major powers of the world. Which role has it been playing during and after global crisis? Which forces does impact it and define its future? How does China view this entity? These questions were raised by international and Chinese scholars The current article attempts to provide reasonable answers for those questions.

  6. Nonlinear Monetary Policy Rules: An Essay in the Comparative Study on Egyptian and Tunisian Central Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosra Baaziz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the behavior of monetary authorities in Tunisia and Egypt, in response to changes in macroeconomic variables over time based on LSTR model. In this sense, we estimate Taylor-type equations for short-term interest rate in Tunisia and Egypt using quarterly data covering the period 1998.Q4–2013.Q2. We find strong evidence that the real decision-making process followed by these central banks varies from one central bank to another and that it exhibits nonlinear patterns that better capture special events and unexpected contingencies i.e., the terrorist attack in the US in September 2001, the global financial crisis in 2008, and the effect of political instability with the onset of the revolution. Additionally, the presence of asymmetries in the reaction function of the Tunisian and Egyptian Bank requires disconnection from their automatic pilot rules and use of judgement to make decisions.

  7. The world's oldest fiscal watchdog: CPB's analyses foster consensus on economic policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, F.; Teulings, C.N.

    2012-01-01

    The sovereign debt problems in European countries have increased the interest in fiscal watchdogs. This paper discusses the world’s oldest fiscal watchdog, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB). CPB was founded directly after World War II. It has built a reputation of

  8. Poverty, AIDS and Children's Schooling: A Targeting Dilemma. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Martha; Filmer, Deon

    The international community is becoming increasingly concerned with the impact of high adult mortality from Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome on the welfare of children, particularly on the welfare of orphans. Very little is known about the consequences of being an orphan in developing countries. This paper analyzes the relationship between…

  9. Literacy for What? Literacy for Whom? The Politics of Literacy Education and Neocolonialism in UNESCO- and World Bank-Sponsored Literacy Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Corrine M.; Sandlin, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores literacy education, especially the kinds practiced and promoted by organizations such as the World Bank and the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), as a form of neocolonialism. Although researchers in other educational contexts have examined how schooling and education operate as a form…

  10. Promoting anti-corruption reforms : Evaluating the implementation of a World Bank anti-corruption program in seven African countries (1999-2001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Haarhuis, Carolien Maria

    2005-01-01

    This study offers an investigation of the implementation of a World Bank anti-corruption program, by applying various relevant social science theories and methods. The aim of the program is to provide countries with tools to build a relevant and participatory anti-corruption program. The study

  11. Promoting anti-corruption reforms. Evaluating the implementation of a World Bank anti-corruption program in seven African countries (1999-2001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Haarhuis, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    This study offers an investigation of the implementation of a World Bank anti-corruption program, by applying various relevant social science theories and methods. The aim of the program is to provide countries with tools to build a relevant and participatory anti-corruption program. The study

  12. THE POLICY OF THE EXCHANGE RATE PROMOTED BY NATIONAL BANK OF ROMANIA AND ITS IMPLICATIONS UPON THE FINANCIAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifane Cristina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The more profound world economic crisis has strongly marked the evolution of the Romanian financial system. The size of current account deficit, the relatively high external financing needs and the dependence of the banks on it, the high ratio between loans in foreign currency and deposits in foreign currency made of the Romanian economy, a risky destination for investors. In these conditions, since the end of 2008 and throughout 2009, the government's economic program was focused on reducing the external deficit in both public and private sector, on minimizing the effects of recession, on avoiding a crisis of the exchange rate and on cooling the inflationary pressures.

  13. Philippines: Environment and natural resource management study. World Bank country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This study addresses the most significant issues of natural-resource management in the Philippines. These include the disappearence or degradation of forests; erosion and changes in hydrological regimes; the conversion of mangrove swamps to fishponds; degradation of coral reefs; and depletion of nearshore fisheries through overfishing and destructive techniques. The issues addressed concern the extent and rate of degradation of these resource stocks, the impact thereof on the national economy, and the scope for ameliorative measures through policy responses, management changes, and investments. The Government is responsible for management of public resources, which include over half of the land area of the Philippines as well as the coastal waters. Historically, public management has been less than optimal, as evidenced by an unsustainable rate of deforestation and the recent stagnation or decline in extractive fisheries.

  14. Frictions, Persistence, and Central Bank Policy in an Experimental Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noussair, C.N.; Pfajfar, D.; Zsiros, J.

    2011-01-01

    New Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models are the principal paradigm currently employed for central bank policymaking. In this paper, we construct experimental economies, populated with human subjects, with the structure of a New Keynesian DSGE model. We give individuals monetary

  15. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 225 - Small Bank Holding Company Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... earnings of their subsidiary banks as the means of repaying such debt, a question arises as to the probable... current and proposed subsidiaries, including the recent trend and stability of earnings, past and prospective growth, asset quality, the ability to meet debt servicing requirements without placing an undue...

  16. Banks and Banking Business in Russia in the Face of International Sanctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina S. Panova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an analysis of the present condition and prospects of development of banks and the banking business in the face of international sanctions. It identifies current trends, problems and the risks of banks and banking in Russia and in the world. Special attention is paid to the analysis of sectoral international sanctions against the Russian banks and the need to minimize negative impact of sanctions on the banking business, both nationally and internationally. Great value in these conditions has the state monetary policy. Anti-crisis policy pursued by the Bank of Russia, in a context of stagnating economy, leads to a reduction in the Russian share in the world economy and increases in the standard of living gap with the developed countries. The article argues that Russia's economic growth opportunities in 2016 are limited by restriction level of bank interest, the high volatility of the exchange rate of the national currency, insufficient development of credit relations, tough, high-budget (at the level of developed Europe tax burden, increasing administrative costs, dramatically increasing the concentration of risks of subjective decisions at the present stage of the electoral cycle. In a situation of uncertainty of predictions regarding the scope and duration of the application of sanctions, the Russian Government and the Central Bank of the Russian Federation had rightly seek to use a combination of anti-sanctions measures of austerity measures on introduction of contra-sanctions to create more comfortable conditions for doing business in Russia and her allies from member countries of Eurasian Economic Union, SCO, BRICS. The article examines the strategic aspects of development banks and banking business in Russia under the new circumstances. Given the practical recommendations on improvement of the development strategy of banks in Russia. The necessity to improve the theoretical, conceptual, methodological, her reasoning

  17. Retraction Note to: “Global Assessment in the World Bank Education Strategy 2020”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Collins

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article published in Volume 2, Issue 1, pages 29-41 (DOI 10.5195/ehe.2011.41 has been retracted at the request of the editors. The editors became aware of the issue on 21 March 2016 and quickly began investigating the situation. Several locations in the article contain plagiarized texts from various authors, either with inadequate or no attribution. Specifically, these include: excerpts from Marilee J. Bresciani’s 2006 book Outcomes-Based Academic and Co-Curricular Program Review: A Compilation of Institutional Practices appearing on page 30; excerpts from Tom Schuller and Stéphan Vincent-Lancrin’s chapter in the 2009 book International Organizations and Higher Education Policy: Thinking Globally, Acting Locally? appearing on page 31; excerpts from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD website “UNESCO, OECD guidelines for quality provision in cross-border higher education” appearing on page 31; excerpts from David H. Kamens and Connie L. McNeely’s 2010 article, “Globalization and the Growth of International Education Testing and National Assessment” published in the Comparative Education Review appearing on page 31, and; excerpts from E. J. K. McKellar’s conference paper “Change our assessment practices? Why should we? The theory behind assessment practices” appearing on pages 32-33. The author apologizes to the journal and to its readers for the errors noted above.

  18. Public policy for start-up entrepreneurship with venture capital and bank finance

    OpenAIRE

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, venture capital has become an important source for nancing young entrepreneurial rms. Given the apparently more innovative nature and extra value added of venture capital backed rms compared to other firms, policy makers have taken an increasing interest in an active venture capital industry. We explore how selected policy instruments determine the incentives of individuals to start up new rms and of venture capitalists to nance and advise them, and how policy thereby influen...

  19. Evidence of Absolute Decoupling from Real World Policy Mixes in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Fedrigo-Fazio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In resource economics, decoupling from environmental impacts is assumed to be beneficial. However, the success of efforts to increase resource productivity should be placed within the context of the earth’s resources and ecosystems as theoretically finite and contingent on a number of threshold values. Thus far relatively few analyses exist of policies which have successfully implemented strategies for decoupling within these limits. Through ex-post evaluation of a number of real world policy mixes from European Union member states, this paper further develops definitions of the concept of decoupling. Beyond absolute (and relative decoupling, “absolute decoupling within limits” is proposed as an appropriate term for defining resource-productivity at any scale which respects the existing real world limits on resources and ecosystems and as such, contributes to meeting sustainability objectives. Policy mixes presented here cover a range of resources such as fish stocks, fertilizers, aggregates and fossil based materials (plastics. Policy mixes demonstrating absolute decoupling and at least one where absolute decoupling within limits has occurred, provide insights on developing resource efficiency policies in Europe and beyond.

  20. Earth Science World ImageBank (ESWIB): A Comprehensive Collection of Geoscience Images Being Developed by the American Geological Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. W.; Keane, C. M.

    2003-12-01

    Although there are geoscience images available in numerous locations around the World Wide Web, there is no universal comprehensive digital archive where teachers, students, scientists, and the general public can gather images related to the Earth Sciences. To fill this need, the American Geological Institute (AGI) is developing the largest image database available: the Earth Science World ImageBank (ESWIB). The goal of ESWIB is to provide a variety of users with free access to high-quality geoscience images and technical art gathered from photographers, government organizations, and scientists. Each image is cataloged by location, author, image rights, and a detailed description of what the image shows. Additionally, images are cataloged using keywords from AGI's precise Georef indexing methodology. Students, teachers, and the general public can search or browse and download these images for use in slide show presentations, lectures, papers, or for other educational and outreach uses. This resource can be used for any age level, in any kind of educational venue. Users can also contribute images of their own to the database through the ESWIB website. AGI is scanning these images at a very high resolution (16 x 20 inches) and depending on the author's rights, is making high-resolution copies (digital or print) available for non-commercial and commercial purposes. This ImageBank is different from other photo sites available in that the scope has more breadth and depth than other image resources, and the images are cataloged with a very high grade of detail and precision, which makes finding needed images fast and easy. The image services offered by ESWIB are also unique, such as the low-cost commercial options and high quality image printouts. AGI plans on adding more features to ESWIB in the future, including connecting this resource to the up-coming online Glossary of Geology, a geospatial search option, using the images to make generic PowerPoint presentations

  1. Explaining Policy Responses to Danish and Irish Banking Failures during the Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2013-01-01

    ) variations in domestic exposure to the financial industry, notably its relative size, dominant business models and exposure to real estate markets and 2) variations in institutional features, notably banking sector preferences and legacies of collective action. While limited explanatory power can......The 2008 global financial crisis produced very different responses in Ireland and Denmark. While both countries embraced depositor guarantee schemes and recapitalization programmes, these were designed and adopted in significantly different ways. Crucially, the Irish state initially assumed full...

  2. Merging Energy Policy Decision Support, Education, and Communication: The 'World Energy' Simulation Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney-varga, J. N.; Franck, T.; Jones, A.; Sterman, J.; Sawin, E.

    2013-12-01

    To meet international goals for climate change mitigation and adaptation, as well as energy access and equity, there is an urgent need to explore and define energy policy paths forward. Despite this need, students, citizens, and decision-makers often hold deeply flawed mental models of the energy and climate systems. Here we describe a simulation role-playing game, World Energy, that provides an immersive learning experience in which participants can create their own path forward for global energy policy and learn about the impact of their policy choices on carbon dioxide emissions, temperature rise, energy supply mix, energy prices, and energy demand. The game puts players in the decision-making roles of advisors to the United Nations Sustainable Energy for All Initiative (drawn from international leaders from industry, governments, intergovernmental organizations, and citizens groups) and, using a state-of-the-art decision-support simulator, asks them to negotiate a plan for global energy policy. We use the En-ROADS (Energy Rapid Overview and Decision Support) simulator, which runs on a laptop computer in renewable, or carbon-neutral energy technologies; taxes and subsidies for different energy sources; performance standards and energy efficiency; emissions prices; policies to address other greenhouse gas emissions (e.g., methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, etc.); and assumptions about GDP and population. In World Energy, participants must balance climate change mitigation goals with equity, prices and access to energy, and the political feasibility of policies. Initial results indicate participants gain insights into the dynamics of the energy and climate systems and greater understanding of the potential impacts policies.

  3. Multilateral development banks and global public policy networks: Speculations for the next century

    OpenAIRE

    Rischard, Jean-François

    1998-01-01

    The next 20 to 30 years will be a period of unprecedented and accelerating change as a result of two powerful forces - the advent of a radically different world economy, and the explosion of the world's population. As these forces are unleashed, the world's nation-states - weakened by their increasingly unhelpful territorial and hierarchical constructs - will struggle hard to keep up with changes. Sooner rather than later, new trans-national governance solutions will have to be implemented. O...

  4. Green Bank Observatory (GBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a...

  5. Policy effectiveness for road passenger transport emissions reductions across the world

    CERN Document Server

    Mercure, J -F

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of policy for emissions reductions in private passenger road transport depends on its ability to incentivise consumers to make choices oriented towards lower emissions vehicles. However, car purchase choices are known to be strongly socially determined, and this sector is highly diverse due to significant socio-economic differences between consumer groups. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the structure of the 2012 private passenger vehicle fleet-years in six major economies across the World (UK, USA, China, India, Japan and Brazil) in terms of prices, engine sizes and emissions. This is done in order to evaluate the effectiveness of existing and possible fiscal and technological change policies for emissions reductions. We provide tools to understand and evaluate the effectiveness of policy taking account of the distributive structure of prices and emissions in segments of a diverse market, both for conventional as well as unconventional engine technologies. We furthermore explai...

  6. DNA banking and DNA databanking: Legal, ethical, and public policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, P.R.; McEwen, J.E.; Lawyer, J.D.; Small, D.

    1997-04-30

    The purpose of this research was to provide support to enable the authors to: (1) perform legal and empirical research and critically analyze DNA banking and DNA databanking as those activities are conducted by state forensic laboratories, the military, academic researchers, and commercial enterprises; and (2) develop a broadcast quality educational videotape for viewing by the general public about DNA technology and the privacy and related issues that it raises. The grant thus had both a research and analysis component and a public education component. This report outlines the work completed under the project.

  7. Monetary and Fiscal Policy Interaction and the Relationship between the Central Bank and the Government. (The Case of Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Chironachi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author is analyzing the impact of fiscal and monetary policies on the dynamics of the exchange rate, inflation and other macroeconomic variables. The author investigates the forms of strategic interaction between the Government and the Central Bank in designing and implementing these policies. As a result, the author concludes the necessity of institutions cooperation in the development and implementation of monetary and fiscal policy measures, but also concluded that the responsible institutions must remain independent in achieving an efficient monetary and fiscal policy of the Republic of Moldova.

  8. World energy markets and uncertainty to the year 2100: implications for greenhouse policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorpe, S.; Sterland, B.; Jones, B.P.; Wallace, N.A.; Pugsley, S.-A.

    1991-01-01

    This study analyses the implications for long run world and regional economic growth and energy markets of possible international action to counter the enhanced greenhouse effect and examines the design of effective policy responses acceptable to all nations. The implications for energy trade of greenhouse policy responses will be of considerable importance to Australia, a major energy exporter. The main issue examined is the effect of responses to climate change directed at the energy sector on energy markets and economic growth. Regional and global economic growth and energy demands under various policy responses were simulated using a long run partial equilibrium model of world energy markets and fossil fuel pollution. It is concluded that the consequences of the enhanced greenhouse effect are surrounded by uncertainty, which creates problems in the design of a policy regime. The effectiveness of a carbon tax increases with greater international cooperation. The effect of carbon taxes is to encourage switching from fossil fuels to renewable and nuclear technologies rather than to reduce energy consumption or economic growth. New technology to improve the efficiency of power generation from coal, could by reducing costs and promoting fuel switching to coal, actually increase CO{sub 2} emissions. 40 refs., 10 figs., 30 tabs

  9. Modeling expectations in agent-based models: an application to central bank's communication and monetary policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salle, I.L.

    2015-01-01

    Expectations play a major role in macroeconomic dynamics, especially regarding the conduct of monetary policy. Yet, modeling the interplay between communication, expectations and aggregate outcomes remains a challenging task, mainly because this requires deviation from the paradigm of rational

  10. The World report on ageing and health: a policy framework for healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, John R; Officer, Alana; de Carvalho, Islene Araujo; Sadana, Ritu; Pot, Anne Margriet; Michel, Jean-Pierre; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; Epping-Jordan, JoAnne E; Peeters, G M E E Geeske; Mahanani, Wahyu Retno; Thiyagarajan, Jotheeswaran Amuthavalli; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-05-21

    Although populations around the world are rapidly ageing, evidence that increasing longevity is being accompanied by an extended period of good health is scarce. A coherent and focused public health response that spans multiple sectors and stakeholders is urgently needed. To guide this global response, WHO has released the first World report on ageing and health, reviewing current knowledge and gaps and providing a public health framework for action. The report is built around a redefinition of healthy ageing that centres on the notion of functional ability: the combination of the intrinsic capacity of the individual, relevant environmental characteristics, and the interactions between the individual and these characteristics. This Health Policy highlights key findings and recommendations from the report. Copyright © 2016 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd/Inc/BV. All rights reserved. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Evidence for non-communicable diseases: analysis of Cochrane reviews and randomised trials by World Bank classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneghan, C; Blacklock, C; Perera, R; Davis, R; Banerjee, A; Gill, P; Liew, S; Chamas, L; Hernandez, J; Mahtani, K; Hayward, G; Harrison, S; Lasserson, D; Mickan, S; Sellers, C; Carnes, D; Homer, K; Steed, L; Ross, J; Denny, N; Goyder, C; Thompson, M; Ward, A

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing globally, with the greatest projected increases in low-income and middle-income countries. We sought to quantify the proportion of Cochrane evidence relating to NCDs derived from such countries. We searched the Cochrane database of systematic reviews for reviews relating to NCDs highlighted in the WHO NCD action plan (cardiovascular, cancers, diabetes and chronic respiratory diseases). We excluded reviews at the protocol stage and those that were repeated or had been withdrawn. For each review, two independent researchers extracted data relating to the country of the corresponding author and the number of trials and participants from countries, using the World Bank classification of gross national income per capita. 797 reviews were analysed, with a reported total number of 12 340 trials and 10 937 306 participants. Of the corresponding authors 90% were from high-income countries (41% from the UK). Of the 746 reviews in which at least one trial had met the inclusion criteria, only 55% provided a summary of the country of included trials. Analysis of the 633 reviews in which country of trials could be established revealed that almost 90% of trials and over 80% of participants were from high-income countries. 438 (5%) trials including 1 145 013 (11.7%) participants were undertaken in low-middle income countries. We found that only 13 (0.15%) trials with 982 (0.01%) participants were undertaken in low-income countries. Other than the five Cochrane NCD corresponding authors from South Africa, only one other corresponding author was from Africa (Gambia). The overwhelming body of evidence for NCDs pertains to high-income countries, with only a small number of review authors based in low-income settings. As a consequence, there is an urgent need for research infrastructure and funding for the undertaking of high-quality trials in this area.

  12. Os projetos financiados pelo banco mundial para o ensino fundamental no Brasil World bank financed projects for Brazilian basic education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireni Marilene Zago Figueiredo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available No contexto da crise da dívida externa, a educação é concebida como parte do conjunto das reformas econômicas. Desse modo, os projetos financiados para o ensino fundamental, pelo Banco Mundial, fazem parte do conjunto dos empréstimos de ajustes estruturais e setoriais. Esses empréstimos possuem características comuns entre elas a de dar suporte às reformas institucionais e econômicas e racionalizar os programas de investimento do setor público. Na década de 1990, os projetos financiados para o ensino fundamental apoiaram e orientaram as políticas para enfrentar o fracasso escolar (evasão e repetência, as quais contemplaram o processo de avaliação e de concorrência e os critérios de qualidade, de racionalidade econômica e de produtividade.On the context of the external debt crisis, education has been conceived of as an integrant part of the set of economic reforms. The World Bank financed projects for Basic Education are thus included in the loans for structural and sectorial adjustments. Such loans share characteristics and are aimed to support the institutional and economic reforms and rationalize public sector investment programs. In the 1990s, the financed projects for Basic Education, which supported and guided the politics to face school failure (dropout and repetition, considered the evaluation and competition process and the criteria of quality, economic rationality and productivity.

  13. WORLD BANK'S AGENDA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Increasing inequality, hierarchy & exclusion. India becomes supplier of cheap skilled BUT slavish workforce & pays heavily for new knowledge from elsewhere – Back to colonial model. Control of character of knowledge by market. Imperialism determines development model.. KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY!!

  14. Overview of US AID-World Bank-NASA Collaboration to Address Water Management Issues in the MENA Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    The World Bank, USAID and NASA have recently established a joint project to study multiple issues pertaining to water related applications in the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region. The main concentration of the project is on utilization of remote sensing data and hydrological models to address crop irrigation and mapping, flood mapping and forecasting, evapotranspiration and drought problems prevalent in this large geographic area. Additional emphases are placed on understanding the climate impact on these areas as well. Per IPCC 2007 report, by the end of this century MENA region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C rise in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation. This poses a serious problem for this geographic zone especially when majority of the hydrological consumption is for the agriculture sector and the remaining amount is for domestic consumption. The remote sensing data from space is one of the best ways to study such complex issues and further feed into the decision support systems. NASA's fleet of Earth Observing satellites offer a great vantage point from space to look at the globe and provide vital signs necessary to maintain healthy and sustainable ecosystem. These observations generate multiple products such as soil moisture, global precipitation, aerosols, cloud cover, normalized difference vegetation index, land cover/use, ocean altimetry, ocean salinity, sea surface winds, sea surface temperature, ozone and atmospheric gases, ice and snow measurements, and many more. All of the data products, models and research results are distributed-via the Internet freely through out the world. This project will utilize several NASA models such as global Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) to generate hydrological states and fluxes in near real time. These LDAS products will then be further compared with other NASA satellite observations (MODIS, VIIRS, TRMM, etc.) and other discrete models to compare and optimize

  15. Controlling corporate influence in health policy making? An assessment of the implementation of article 5.3 of the World Health Organization framework convention on tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooks, Gary Jonas; Smith, Julia; Lee, Kelley; Holden, Chris

    2017-03-08

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) stands to significantly reduce tobacco-related mortality by accelerating the introduction of evidence-based tobacco control measures. However, the extent to which States Parties have implemented the Convention varies considerably. Article 5.3 of the FCTC, is intended to insulate policy-making from the tobacco industry's political influence, and aims to address barriers to strong implementation of the Convention associated with tobacco industry political activity. This paper quantitatively assesses implementation of Article 5.3's Guidelines for Implementation, evaluates the strength of Parties' efforts to implement specific recommendations, and explores how different approaches to implementation expose the policy process to continuing industry influence. We cross-referenced a broad range of documentary data (including FCTC Party reports and World Bank data on the governance of conflicts of interest in public administration) against Article 5.3 implementation guidelines (n = 24) for 155 Parties, and performed an in-depth thematic analysis to examine the strength of implementation for specific recommendations. Across all Parties, 16% of guideline recommendations reviewed have been implemented. Eighty-three percent of Parties that have taken some action under Article 5.3 have introduced less than a third of the guidelines. Most compliance with the guidelines is achieved through pre-existing policy instruments introduced independently of the FCTC, which rarely cover all relevant policy actors and fall short of the guideline recommendations. Measures introduced in response to the FCTC are typically restricted to health ministries and not explicit about third parties acting on behalf of the industry. Parties systematically overlook recommendations that facilitate industry monitoring. Highly selective and incomplete implementation of specific guideline recommendations facilitates

  16. 12 CFR 614.4352 - Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks. 614.4352 Section 614.4352 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4352 Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit...

  17. Money, the Banking System and Monetary Policy in Canada: A Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Douglas C. A.; Staunton, Ted, Ed.

    One of a series of teaching units designed to introduce secondary school students to the Canadian economy, this handbook contains instructional materials on Canada's monetary system and policy. Material is organized and presented in terms of specific topic readings and illustrative activities. The topics covered in six sections are money, the…

  18. American Mock World Health Organization: An Innovative Model for Student Engagement in Global Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Mia; Acharya, Neha; Kwok Man Lee, Edith; Catherine Holcomb, Emma; Kapoor, Veronica

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The American Mock World Health Organization (AMWHO) is a model for experiential-based learning and student engagement in global health diplomacy. AMWHO was established in 2014 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill with a mission to engage students in health policy by providing a simulation of the World Health Assembly (WHA), the policy-forming body of the World Health Organization that sets norms and transforms the global health agenda. AMWHO conferences are designed to allow students to take their knowledge of global health beyond the classroom and practice their skills in diplomacy by assuming the role of WHA delegates throughout a 3-day weekend. Through the process of developing resolutions like those formed in the WHA, students have the unique opportunity to understand the complexities behind the conflict and compromise that ensues through the lens of a stakeholder. This article describes the structure of the first 2 AMWHO international conferences, analyzes survey results from attendees, and discusses the expansion of the organization into a multi-campus national network. The AMWHO 2014 and 2015 post-conference survey results found that 98% and 90% of participants considered the conference "good" or "better," respectively, and survey responses showed that participants considered the conference "influential" in their careers and indicated that it "allowed a paradigm shift not possible in class." PMID:28351883

  19. Banking products : You can take them with you so why don't you?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, Carin; Diepstraten, Maaike

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers around the world call for more competition in the banking sector. One barrier to achieving this goal is consumer inertia. Despite its policy relevance, there is surprisingly little known about consumers’ bank switching behaviour. By applying the switching costs typology developed by

  20. Smoke-Free Policies in the World's 50 Busiest Airports - August 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Michael A; Reimels, Elizabeth; Tucker, Jennifer; King, Brian A

    2017-11-24

    Exposure to secondhand smoke from burning tobacco products causes premature death and disease, including coronary heart disease, stroke, and lung cancer among nonsmoking adults and sudden infant death syndrome, acute respiratory infections, middle ear disease, exacerbated asthma, respiratory symptoms, and decreased lung function in children (1,2). The U.S. Surgeon General has concluded that there is no risk-free level of exposure to secondhand smoke (1). Previous CDC reports on airport smoke-free policies found that most large-hub airports in the United States prohibit smoking (3); however, the extent of smoke-free policies at airports globally has not been assessed. CDC assessed smoke-free policies at the world's 50 busiest airports (airports with the highest number of passengers traveling through an airport in a year) as of August 2017; approximately 2.7 billion travelers pass through these 50 airports each year (4). Among these airports, 23 (46%) completely prohibit smoking indoors, including five of the 10 busiest airports. The remaining 27 airports continue to allow smoking in designated smoking areas. Designated or ventilated smoking areas can cause involuntary secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking travelers and airport employees. Smoke-free policies at the national, city, or airport authority levels can protect employees and travelers from secondhand smoke inside airports.

  1. 12 CFR 614.4070 - Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks, agricultural credit banks, Federal land bank...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks... ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Chartered Territories § 614.4070 Loans and chartered territory—Farm Credit Banks, agricultural credit banks, Federal land bank associations, Federal...

  2. Notes on Colombian Foreign Policy Since the American Involvement in the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Felipe Mesa Valencia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes Colombian foreign policy following the rupture of American neutrality. It focuses on the second stage of the Second World War, i.e., from the participation of the United States until the end of the conflict. The article also examines national defense as an indispensable mechanism to preserve national sovereignty, emphasizing the significance of the Third Meeting of Foreign Ministers, held in Rio de Janeiro, on continental security and strengthening of Pan-Americanism.

  3. The World Economy in the Times of Financial Crisis and its Impact on European Energy Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Baláž

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007, globalization of the world economy has led to the expansion of the financial crisis. It affects the long-term international negative positions of EU members. They reacted to the new situation by carrying out structural reforms and by support of new adaptation programs. An important element of this process was the preparing of the convergence of the national energy policies in the framework of the Europe 20-20-20 program, which should remain one of the determining elements of their success in support of the international competitiveness of the EU.

  4. Enhancing science, practice, and policy relevant to school psychology around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R

    2014-03-01

    This editorial provides a brief update related to the present and future of School Psychology Quarterly as an international resource to enhance and advance science, practice, and policy relevant to school psychology around the world. Information is presented regarding; (a) the breadth of important topics relevant to school psychology, (b) the international contributions, (c) the value of high quality and timely reviews, (d) the structure of and opportunity to contribute to special topic sections of School Psychology Quarterly, and (e) the importance of an international emphasis on children's rights and the relevance for school psychology. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. LANGUAGE POLICY IN THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD: MONOLINGUALISM AND BILINGUALISM PRACTICE AND LANGUAGE ASSIMILATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir M. Alpatov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of what previously characterized the language situation and language policy within states is transferred to the international level due to globalization. We are facing the growing importance of world languages, especially English. However, globalization (at least in the form in which it exists now does not satisfy the need of identitification for the majority people (except, of course, those for whom English is a mother tongue. This situation can lead to conflicts and even question the effectiveness of globalization processes.

  6. The World report on ageing and health: a policy framework for healthy ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, John R; Officer, Alana; de Carvalho, Islene Araujo; Sadana, Ritu; Pot, Anne Margriet; Michel, Jean-Pierre; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; Epping-Jordan, JoAnne E; Peeters, G M E E (Geeske); Mahanani, Wahyu Retno; Thiyagarajan, Jotheeswaran Amuthavalli; Chatterji, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    Although populations around the world are rapidly ageing, evidence that increasing longevity is being accompanied by an extended period of good health is scarce. A coherent and focused public health response that spans multiple sectors and stakeholders is urgently needed. To guide this global response, WHO has released the first World report on ageing and health, reviewing current knowledge and gaps and providing a public health framework for action. The report is built around a redefinition of healthy ageing that centres on the notion of functional ability: the combination of the intrinsic capacity of the individual, relevant environmental characteristics, and the interactions between the individual and these characteristics. This Health Policy highlights key findings and recommendations from the report. PMID:26520231

  7. Cancer risk and prevention in a globalised world: solving the public policy mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, R; Homberg, L; Purushotham, A D

    2012-09-01

    The world faces an unprecedented growth in cancer incidence over the next fifty years, the majority of the burden falling on low-middle income countries. At the same time as the changing demographic profiles, including global population ageing we are also seeing the rapid globalisation of pro-cancer behaviours and commodities such as tobacco. The human and economic impact will continue to be severe unless radical changes occur to current public policy mismatches in cancer prevention. At the same time high level political actions through bodies such as the UN suggest that supra-national approaches are needed to solve these issues. However, we argue that only local nation-state approaches can fundamentally address cancer risk and enhance prevention in a globalised world. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Historical perspective on asbestos: policies and protective measures in World War II shipbuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, J K; Starr, J

    1987-01-01

    Current public health consequences of poorly controlled utilization of asbestos in the past can be traced back, in part, to decisions made 45 or more years ago. This paper focuses on the extensive use of asbestos as a fireproofing and insulating material in shipbuilding in the 1940s, when World War II industrial expansion brought about a hitherto unprecedented rise in the amount of asbestos utilized. Twenty years after World War II, asbestos diseases began to manifest themselves, affecting thousands of shipyard workers as well as other workers who had been exposed in the 1940s and during the postwar period. By scrutinizing past actions, the paper argues that social forces, as well as science and technology, affect the setting of priorities and the determination of policy regarding needed but hazardous materials.

  9. Democracy in the Arab World

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ibrahim Elbadawi, formerly Lead Economist at the Development Research Group of the World Bank, he is currently Director of the Macroeconomics Research and Forecasting Department at the Dubai Economic Council and has published widely on macroeconomic and development policy and the economics of civil war.

  10. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... nationalism does not trump economic rationality. An orthodox CB renders the central banking function redundant in terms of interest rate and exchange rate determination. FDI in banking could perform the same role for the supervisory function of central banks. We use the case of Estonia to illustrate...

  11. United States foreign oil policy since World War 1 : for profits and security. 2 ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, S.J.

    2005-07-01

    This book provided a historical context for United States global oil politics, with a focus on the goals, accomplishments and challenges of United States foreign oil policy, as well as on the relationship between the state and private sectors. This second edition has integrated developments in global politics since the end of the Cold War. It was suggested that many factors have provided the context for oil policy formation: a succession of crises in Iran since the 1950s; 2 wars in Iraq; U.S. intervention in Afghanistan; the threat of international terrorism since September 11, 2001; ongoing conflicts between Israel and the Arab nations in the Middle East; political instability in Saudi Arabia and in Venezuela and the trend towards trade and investment liberalization in Latin America in the 1990s. In addition, the emergence of oil sands reserves in Canada and other sources of non-conventional oil were discussed. Nationalism and oil policies in the Depression and World War 2 were examined. The structure of decision-making in oil policies was examined. Domestic and offshore resources were reviewed, and an outline of international agreements and relationships was presented. Issues concerning OPEC countries and the Iranian Revolution were examined. It was concluded that the United States has become more and not less vulnerable, despite its military strength. The author suggested that the main policy challenge to the United States may well be the tension between its commitment to Israel and its determination to avoid alienating the Arab oil-producing states. refs., tabs., figs.

  12. Banco Mundial: concepção, criação e primeiros anos (1942-60 World Bank: conception, creation and the first years (1942-60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Márcio Mendes Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa os embates em torno da concepção da criação e dos primeiros anos de funcionamento do Banco Internacional para Reconstrução e Desenvolvimento (BIRD, mais conhecido como Banco Mundial. Para isso, remonta ao início dos anos 1940, quando começaram as negociações entre os EUA e a Inglaterra em torno da criação da arquitetura monetária e financeira internacional do pós-guerra. O trabalho discute as propostas originais de ambas as potências, a primazia dos EUA na criação do banco e a forma pela qual a correlação de forças dentro dos EUA jogou um papel importante na modelagem da instituição. Analisa, ainda, a trajetória do banco entre 1946 e 1960, mostrando como as injunções da política externa norte-americana pressionaram a atuação da entidade e de que maneira o banco se inseriu na estratégia de contenção do comunismo. Por fim, discute os fatores econômicos e políticos que levaram à ampliação do BIRD na segunda metade dos anos 1950, mediante a criação da Corporação Financeira Internacional e da Associação Internacional de Desenvolvimento.This article analyzes the disputes around the conception, creation and the first years of work of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (BIRD, better known as the World Bank. For such, it goes back to the early 1940s when the negotiations between the United States and England for the creation of a post-war international monetary and financial architecture began. The work discusses the original propositions of both potencies, the primacy of the United States in the creation of the bank and the way the force correlations inside the USA played an important role in institution's modeling. It also analyzes the bank's trajectory between 1946 an 1960, showing how the North-American foreign policy's injunctions pressed the entity's actions and in which ways the bank inserted itself in the communism containment strategy. Finally, it discusses the

  13. Gestione delle acque, pace nel Medio Oriente e un ruolo per la Banca Mondiale (Water Management, Middle East Peace and a Role for the World Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The region comprising North Africa and the Middle East is the driest in the world. Thus conflicts over water have been a part of the landscape. These conflicts over water are invariably seen as a zero sum game; such a view does not incorporate the notion that water is an economic good and is therefore scarce. Given the limitation of competitive markets, optimal water allocation could only but help. However, even if one country allocates water efficiently within its own territory, its allocation could be sub-optimal if water interdependencies with other countries are not incorporated in a regional optimization model. The World Bank is in the best position to adopt a regional optimization model and thus ameliorate water conditions in the Middle East and in other regions around the world.       JEL Codes: Q25, Q28, Q15, Q13Keywords: Water

  14. Technical Note: The Effect of The Fed’s Quantitative Easing Policy on the Performance of Listed Companies and the Banking Sector in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuar Rizky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While the efficient market hypothesis suggests that stock price reflects the fundamental condition of companies, which could affect investors’ decisions, this technical note reports empirical evidence that stock price is also influenced by the public’s perception of the market situation. This note shows that the source of funds circulating in the Indonesia Stock Exchange is related to excess liquidity resulting from the policy of quantitative easing (QE by developed countries’ central banks. Banks funding assets with debt results in leverage relationships with the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR negatively affected. Thus it is evident that the Indonesian banking strategy is "reactive" and is influenced by external factors. External factors can be influenced by global issues as well as internal (enterprise performance issues. Therefore foreign and global issues may be important (perhaps dominant in determining the perceptions of the Indonesian stock market.

  15. Electronic Banking And Bank Performance In Nigeria | Abaenewe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the profitability performance of Nigerian banks following the full adoption of electronic banking system. The study became necessary as a result of increased penetration of electronic banking which has redefined the banking operations in Nigeria and around the world. Judgmental sampling method ...

  16. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume V. International organization data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. WENDS has acquired and organized information on the following energy-related organizations: Asian Development Bank; European Economic Community; Inter-American Development Bank; International Atomic Energy Agency; International Energy Agency; Nuclear Energy Agency; United Nations; and World Bank. Within each organizational grouping most of the following topics are addressed: organization background, government background, energy background (energy policy and objectives), energy research and development activities, and international activities.

  17. Building integrated health systems in central and eastern Europe: an analysis of WHO and World Bank views and their relevance to health systems in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnoij, Diana M J; Klazinga, Niek S; van der Velden, Koos

    2003-09-01

    Two questions are addressed. i) What are the views on health and health systems as expressed in the World Development Report 2000/2001 of the WB and the World Health Report 2000 and Health 21 of the World Health Organization, and how compatible are those views? ii) To what extent will compliance of CEEC and NIS with the WHO and WB recommendations result in health systems that produce maximum health for all by adequately addressing the needs of their populations? The reports prepared by the World Bank and the World Health Organization were assessed against the theoretical framework of a needs-based public health approach. It is observed that the WHO and WB approaches are currently converging, although there remain differences in their respective focuses. The main merit of the WHO approach is its focus on performance and the systems approach towards health (care). The merit of the WB view is the integrated approach to health, education and poverty. It is argued that CEEC and NIS need to anticipate an ageing population and growing numbers of chronically ill. This calls for integrated health care systems and more integrated funding and payment systems. The recommendations provided in the WHR and the WDR with regard to integrated care and integrated financing remain rather abstract. Advisors of CEEC and NIS on health care reform and Western assistance projects should focus more on future needs, in order to avoid building health systems that consistently lag behind the needs of their populations.

  18. Managing rapid urbanization in the third world: some aspects of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, K R

    1989-01-01

    A priority task for developing countries is the formulation of national urbanization policies that: 1) foster the full development of national resources; 2) promote cohesion among regions, especially where there are striking inequities in per capita output; 3) prevent or correct the overconcentration of economic activity in a few urban centers; and 4) create a more efficient, equitable management of growth within cities. Although urban households tend to be served better by the health and educational sectors than their rural counterparts, the urban poor are denied these benefits in the absence of special programs to ensure universal access. The urban poor are further denied access to the benefits of urban centers through a transportation policy that is oriented more toward roads and cars than public transit systems. Of major concern are the overcrowded squatter settlements that have developed in response to massive rural-urban migration. Since the landlessness, joblessness, and demoralization in rural areas and the consequent urban influx are at the root of the urban crisis in the Third World, integrated rural development is essential to retain substantial new additions to the urban labor force in rural areas. Land reform is the single strategy with the greatest potential to improve the quality of life of the landless poor and small holders. Other needs include programs of labor-intensive rural public works to provide supplementary income-earning opportunities and improve the rural infrastructure and more widespread participation of the rural poor in the development process. Increasingly sophisticated administrative and financing systems will be required to carry out a national urbanization policy, and current politicized bureaucracies must be replaced by a reliance on technically skilled professional administrators.

  19. Strategy of the Polish policy in the final phase of the Second world war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Shvab

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The problems of strategy formation of the Polish government, which was in emigration, during the Second World War in the period of the eastern front approaching to the Polish borders, are found out in the article. The author confirms that the success of the Red Army made London government to rise a question about the Polish eastern border and legitimacy of London government on the liberated territories. Both questions did not have the solution in the way of traditional Polish policy. Joseph Stalin expected concession in the issue of the eastern border instead of loyalty to the London government. But Polish government did not accept accomplished facts. The ambassadors Stanislav Kot, later Tadeush Romer negotiated and insisted on returning of the western Ukrainian and Byelorussian lands. They proposed military cooperation with the Polish Home Army, which supposed to be strong enough for diversionary acts. After the battle of Stalingrad victory and that resonance, which it had made in the world, Stalin refused from such cooperation, he thought that Poland was too weak partner. Stalin continued the escalation of the relations, he consciously stopped all diplomatic relations, flatly refused to continue discussion about borders and changed the way of discussion about the legitimacy of the authentic authority in Poland.

  20. Banking beyond banks and money a guide to banking services in the twenty-first century

    CERN Document Server

    Aste, Tomaso; Pelizzon, Loriana; Perony, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Do you know how banking and money will look like in the new digital age? This book collects the voices of leading scholars, entrepreneurs, policy makers and consultants who, through their expertise and keen analytical skills, are best positioned to picture from various angles the ongoing technological revolution in banking and finance. You will learn how lending and borrowing can exist without banks; how new forms of money can compete to better serve different society needs; how new technologies are banking the unbanked communities in the poorest parts of the world, and how ideas and small projects can be financed by the crowds without the need to rely upon banks. You will learn how, in the new digital age, we will interact with new self-organised and autonomous companies that operate without any human involvement, based on a set of programmed and incorruptible rules. You will learn that new business models will emerge thanks to technology-enabled platforms, upon which one can build new forms of non-hierarchi...

  1. 12 CFR 337.11 - Effect on other banking practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect on other banking practices. 337.11 Section 337.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY UNSAFE AND UNSOUND BANKING PRACTICES § 337.11 Effect on other banking practices. Nothing in...

  2. 12 CFR 614.4020 - Banks for cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Banks for cooperatives. 614.4020 Section 614.4020 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending Authorities § 614.4020 Banks for cooperatives. (a) Banks for cooperatives are authorized to make...

  3. 12 CFR 614.4355 - Banks for cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Banks for cooperatives. 614.4355 Section 614.4355 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4355 Banks for cooperatives. No bank for cooperatives may make a loan if...

  4. The effects of foreign banks entry in emerging market economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Florida Veljanoska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of foreign bank entry in emerging markets. We developed a picture of a multinational bank in an emerging markets by combining statistics from several sources, in order to explore broad range of effects that brings foreign bank entry in the developing countries. Some impacts of foreign bank entry have been thoroughly studied, while others are hardly mention. Entry of foreign bank brings large benefits to host country’s financial system and economies at large. This paper is studying those benefits very carefully, by analyzing the impact of foreign bank entry on economy, government, monetary policy, large enterprises, small and medium size enterprises, domestic bank etc. But, we also consider the fact that at the same time, foreign investment in the financial sector, rises some concerns, and therefore we analyze the negative effects as well. At the end we must admit that although there are some negative consequences from foreign bank entry in emerging markets, the benefits that arise from foreign banks penetration are much more, and this trend of foreign bank entry has brought new positive economic impulse in developing world.

  5. I movimenti di capitali bancari con l'estero e la politica monetaria italiana. (International movements of bank funds and monetary policy in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. MASERA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the lira was declared convertible in December 1958, the Italian monetary authorities have been making increasing use of changes in the Italian banks’ foreign position as a policy instrument. The present article analyses in detail how the Italian monetary authorities have used their powers to control banks’ foreign exchange borrowing and lending as a means to restrict or expand domestic liquidity. In general, the flows of bank money to and from abroad have been regulated by the central bank as to make the process of balance-of-payments adjustment more flexible, and hence to attenuate the effects of the liquidity gains and losses due to the surpluses and deficits generated by autonomous operations with abroad. The analysis confirms that when bank credits are used without appropriate measures designed to re-establish basic equilibrium in the balance of payments, they may give rise to speculative capital movements. The author argues that while Italian monetary policy made an effective impact on the course of the economic cycle, it could not control the cycle itself.JEL: E52, F31, F32

  6. Technician Consistency in Specular Microscopy Measurements: A "Real-World" Retrospective Analysis of a United States Eye Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Gabriel M; Kwon, Ji Won; Gore, Patrick K; McCartney, Mitchell D; Chuck, Roy S

    2017-10-01

    To quantify consistency of endothelial cell density (ECD) measurements among technicians in a single US eye bank operating under typical operating conditions. In this retrospective analysis of 51 microscopy technicians using a semiautomated counting method on 35,067 eyes from July 2007 to May 2015, technician- and date-related marginal ECD effects were calculated using linear regression models. ECD variance was correlated with the number of specular microscopy technicians. Technician mean ECDs ranged from 2386 ± 431 to 3005 ± 560 cells/mm. Nine technicians had statistically and clinically significant marginal effects. Annual mean ECDs adjusted for changes in technicians ranged from 2422 ± 433 to 2644 ± 430 cells/mm. The period of 2007 to 2009 had statistically and clinically significant marginal effects. There was a nonstatistically significant association between the number of technicians and ECD standard deviation. There was significant ECD variability associated with specular microscopy technicians and with the date of measurement. We recommend that eye banks collect data related to laboratory factors that have been shown to influence ECD variability.

  7. Transnationalization of Czech Adult Education Policy as Glocalization of the World and European Policy Mainstream(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecký, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of Czech adult education policy over the past twenty years. It comments on the fact that the processes of globalization and Europeanization represent the most significant factor of that policy. The introductory part presents the historical development from the mid-nineteenth century until the end of the…

  8. Global policy for improvement of oral health in the 21st century--implications to oral health research of World Health Assembly 2007, World Health Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Oral Health Programme has worked hard over the past 5 years to increase the awareness of oral health worldwide as oral health is important component of general health and quality of life. Meanwhile, oral disease is still a major public health problem...... in high income countries and the burden of oral disease is growing in many low- and middle income countries. In the World Oral Health Report 2003, the WHO Global Oral Health Programme formulated the policies and necessary actions to the continuous improvement of oral health. The strategy is that oral...... disease prevention and the promotion of oral health needs to be integrated with chronic disease prevention and general health promotion as the risks to health are linked. The World Health Assembly (WHA) and the Executive Board (EB) are supreme governance bodies of WHO and for the first time in 25 years...

  9. Secondary Education in Africa: Strategies for Renewal. World Bank Presentations at the UNESCO/BREDA-World Bank Regional Workshop on the Renewal of Secondary Education in Africa (Mauritius, Africa, December 2001). Africa Region Human Development Working Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastri, Lawrence, Ed.

    During the last 3 decades secondary education has become universal in most industrialized countries. Sub-Saharan African countries face special challenges to benefit from this international trend. The gap between these countries and the rest of the world in coverage, quality, and relevance of secondary education is widening. To address these…

  10. Central bank forecasting: an international comparison

    OpenAIRE

    John C. Robertson

    2000-01-01

    Forecasts, whether explicit or implicit, are at the heart of policy making. In considering forecasting for monetary policy, this article contrasts the forecasting processes at three central banks-the Reserve Bank of New Zealand, the Bank of England, and the U.S. Federal Reserve. ; In the United States policymakers consider confidential staff forecasts in policy discussions, but these do not necessarily represent the consensus forecasts of the policy committee. At the Bank of England, official...

  11. A Change of Heart? British Policies towards Tubercular Refugees during 1959 World Refugee Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Becky

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at Britain's response to the World Refugee Year (1959-60), and in particular the government's decision to allow entry to refugees with tuberculosis and other chronic illnesses. In doing so, it broke the practice established by the 1920 Aliens' Order which had barred entry to immigrants with a range of medical conditions. This article uses the entry of these sick refugees as an opportunity to explore whether government policy represented as much of a shift in attitude and practice as contemporary accounts suggested. It argues for the importance of setting the reception of tubercular and other 'disabled' refugees in 1959-61 in its very particular historical context, showing it was a case less of the government thinking differently about refugees, and more of how, in a post-Suez context, the government felt obliged to take into account international and public opinion. The work builds on and adds to the growing literature surrounding refugees and disease. It also places the episode within the specificity of the post-war changing epidemiological climate; the creation of the National Health Service; and the welfare state more broadly. In looking at the role of refugee organizations in the Year, the article also contributes to debates over the place of voluntary agencies within British society.

  12. Transparency of Banking Supervisors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liedorp, Franka; Mosch, Robert; van der Cruijsen, Carin; de Haan, Jakob

    Following Eijffinger and Geraats (2006), this paper constructs an index of transparency of banking supervisors that takes political, economic, procedural, policy, and operational transparency into account. Based on a survey, the index is constructed for 24 banking supervisors. The average score is

  13. The Impact of the Strategic Sale of Restructured Banks: Evidence from Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parinduri, Rasyad A; Riyanto, Yohanes E

    ... recapitalization, and bank sales. This policy mix could determine how soon the banking industry stabilizes and banks start lending. 2 See, for example, Calomiris, Klingebiel, and Laeven (2004) ....

  14. Diffuse Agency and Institutional Dynamics in Global Governance – the Cases of the World Bank and the WTO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, Michael Stewart; Aagaard, Peter

    as they must navigate an evolving but uncertain series of overlapping policy problems (e.g. AIDS and poverty; trade and environment). Actors find their identities shift as their borders blur due to their issue-remit becoming increasingly uncertain and diffuse. In other words, normative change in global....... In such a complex global environment leadership cannot be understood through the behaviour of a single powerful actor. Single actors do not control normative development in global governance. Furthermore, this complex character of global governance means that the actors involved become themselves internally complex......Global governance has no central authority, so global political leadership must be understood in new terms. When direct use of power through hierarchies is no longer an option, policy research has turned to the concept of soft power. Central to soft power issues is normative change. Normative...

  15. The new development bank BRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković Radomir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The New Development Bank BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa is a financial institution of the countries with the largest market potentials in the globalized world. The official multilateral cooperation of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa is of recent date, and dates back to 2009, or, more precisely, to 2011 when South Africa officially joined this block. The cooperation in the field of economy and industry is the primary motive of the cooperation. In addition to economic and industrial cooperation which covers the widest range of trade, from finance to general business cooperation, within BRICS the cooperation has been also established in the fields of agriculture, science and technology, safety, health policy, protection and insurance, as well as in the field of statistics and the academic community. The highlight of the short-term, five-year cooperation is the establishment of a multilateral financial institution - the New Development Bank BRICS. The bank was founded according to the model of the existing global and regional banks, but without the dominant position among the members.

  16. An Evaluation of Banks' Liability in Robbery Incidents at Banks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spate of armed robbery attack on banks in the last decade has been alarming. It is hoped with the current Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) cashless policy there will be a drastic drop in such incidents. However, the issue of armed robbery attack at the bank premises brings to the fore two issues which are of paramount ...

  17. A frame-critical policy analysis of Canada's response to the World Food Summit 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Catherine L; Hamill, Catherine; Rondeau, Krista; McIntyre, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    The 2012 visit to Canada of Olivier De Schutter, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, led to a public rebuff by Canadian governmental officials. This paper adapts the frame-critical policy analysis of Schön and Rein (1994), to explore the rhetorical basis for this conflict. This examination is offered as an illustrative example of how food insecurity is framed as a public policy problem in a high-income nation and how this framing has changed over time. We analyze Canada's decade of sequential responses to the 1996 World Food Summit, spanning 1998-2008, in the form of Canada's Action Plan on Food Security, and its subsequent Progress Reports. We conducted a qualitative policy analysis, adapting the frame-critical approach first delineated by Schön and Rein (1994). This analysis uses a social constructionist approach to map out the relationships between tacit understanding of policy by particular actors, explicit rhetoric in the public domain, and action in this policy area over time. We identify three key ways in which competing rhetorical frames arise over time: frame shifts (e.g., a shift away from language highlighting the right to food and health); frame blending (e.g., discussion about poverty becomes obscured by complexity discourse); and within-frame incongruence (e.g., monitoring for health indicators that are unrelated to policy solutions). Together, these frames illustrate how the conflict embodied in the UN Special Rapporteur's visit has been deeply woven into the policy discourse on food insecurity in Canada over time. Frame-critical analysis is instructive for exposing and also predicting tensions that impede forward progress on difficult policy issues. Accordingly, such analyses may be helpful in not only dissecting how policy can become 'stuck' in the process of change but in active reframing towards new policy solutions.

  18. Can taxes tame the banks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devereux, Michael P.; Johannesen, Niels; Vella, John

    In the wake of the financial crisis, a number of countries have introduced levies on bank borrowing with the aim of reducing risk in the financial sector. This paper studies the behavioral responses to the bank levies and evaluates the policy. We find that the levies induced banks to borrow less ...

  19. A Review of Policies, Acts and Initiatives in Rice Innovation System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Review of Policies, Acts and Initiatives in Rice Innovation System in Nigeria. ... Pressure from international financial organizations, such as the. World Bank, World Trade Organization, and International Monetary Fund (IMF) helped in introducing distortions in the policies. Efforts by all stakeholders, the desirable political ...

  20. Banking on Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank…

  1. Bank Concentration and Fragility: Impact and Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsten Beck; Asli Demirguc-Kunt; Ross Levine

    2005-01-01

    Public policy debates and theoretical disputes motivate this paper%u2019s examination of (i) the relationship between bank concentration and banking system fragility and (ii) the mechanisms underlying this relationship. We find no support for the view that concentration increases the fragility of banks. Rather, banking system concentration is associated with a lower probability that the country suffers a systemic banking crisis. In terms of policies, we find that (i) regulations and instituti...

  2. The argument for pharmaceutical policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-01-01

    pharmaceutical policy is made; pharmaceutical policy as a dynamic process; and the new public health as a global issue. The article ends with a short description of the remaining five articles in the series which will deal with important aspects of pharmaceutical policy. The topics include: economic pressures...... on health care systems; drug utilization from the clinical viewpoint (rational use of medicines); the impact of pharmaceutical policy on patients and the patient impact on pharmaceutical policy; the professional perspective; and finally the last article which deals with studying and evaluating......Pharmaceutical policy is a global concern. It has become a hot political topic in most countries--developed as well as developing--and can be found on the agenda of international organizations such as WHO, OECD, EU, WTO and even the World Bank. Pharmaceutical policy affects everyone in the world...

  3. 12 CFR 614.4010 - Agricultural credit banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural credit banks. 614.4010 Section 614.4010 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending Authorities § 614.4010 Agricultural credit banks. (a) Long-term real estate lending. Except to the...

  4. 12 CFR 345.44 - Public notice by banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public notice by banks. 345.44 Section 345.44 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Records, Reporting, and Disclosure Requirements § 345.44 Public notice by banks. A...

  5. 12 CFR 614.4000 - Farm Credit Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks. 614.4000 Section 614.4000 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending Authorities § 614.4000 Farm Credit Banks. (a) Long-term real estate lending. Except to the extent such...

  6. Banking and Economic Development in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Tatom, John

    2005-01-01

    In Morocco, as elsewhere, banking is the principal financial sector it has the potential to contribute the most or to most severely retard economic development. But the banking industry’s potential performance is constrained by the monetary policies of the central bank. This paper reviews some major factors favoring a strong banking industry that boosts development, as well as the major obstacles that have or continue to face the industry and the economy. The Moroccan central bank, Bank al’...

  7. The doctrine of human security in Canadian foreign policy: Lloyd Axworthy’s contribution to the study of world policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Ortiz Navarrete

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The multitude of changes on the international scene during the 1990’s had a major impact on thinking in the area of international relations as well as on the foreign policy decision-making processes of all nation states. One of the most difficult issues to redefine and to give a meaning appropriate to the international needs of the moment was that of security. Lloyd Axworthy, Canada’s Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1996 to 2000, convinced that, with the end of bipolarity, the challenges to security had moved from the level of states to concerns more closely related to the well-being of individuals, undertook the task of promoting, as part of his country’s foreign policy, the concept of human security.

  8. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PRACTICES OF THE STATE YOUTH POLICY IN THE MODERN WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Samohvalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author examines a number of foreign cases of practical realization of state youth policy for example the USA, Germany and the Republic of Kazakhstan. The choice of these cases is due to the fact that these countries have an extensive practice of state youth policy. The second factor in the choice of case studies is the fundamental difference between the political systems of countries and as a consequence of the institutional arrangements and the technological features of established models of state youth policy. And fi nally, the third factor is that these States represent different political and cultural traditions. These differences between the traditions have an impact on the diversity of the state youth policy (as the US are a classic example of Western «pluralist» system of youth policy; Germany – West European model of youth policy; Kazakhstan is a bright representative of an effective model of youth policy in the former Soviet Union. Special attention is given to General and specifi c features identified on the basis of comparative analysis, the study of foreign models of youth policy, as well as possible their application in the process of realization of the state youth policy of the Russian Federation.

  9. Nutrition Labelling is a Trade Policy Issue: Lessons From an Analysis of Specific Trade Concerns at the World Trade Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkes, C; Thow, A. M.; Jones, A; Ali, I.; Labonte, R

    2017-01-01

    Interpretive nutrition labels provide simplified nutrient-specific text and/or symbols on the front of pre-packaged foods, to encourage and enable consumers to make healthier choices. This type of labelling has been proposed as part of a comprehensive policy response to the global epidemic of non-communicable diseases. However, regulation of nutrition labelling falls under the remit of not just the health sector but also trade. Specific Trade Concerns have been raised at the World Trade Organ...

  10. The Hidden Costs of Ethnic Conflict: Decomposing Trends in Educational Outcomes of Young Kosovars. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, Soumya; Murrugarra, Edmundo; Paci, Pierella

    This paper examines the impact of ethnic segmentation in education on educational outcomes. Between 1991 and the late 1990s, the Albanian Kosovar population received education services in an informal system parallel to the official one. Using the 2000 Kosovo Living Standard Measurement Survey (LSMS) data, this paper exploits cohort differences in…

  11. Education and Training in Madagascar: Toward a Policy Agenda for Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Madagascar is a poor, primarily rural country in which three-quarters of the population has subsisted below the poverty line for at least two decades. In view of the important role of education in the government's poverty reduction agenda, this report documents the current status of educational development in Madagascar and the key constraints on…

  12. Access to Higher Education in Colombia: An Assessment of Public Policy and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe Correa, Lina

    2012-01-01

    This research analyzes a set of national policy initiatives, 2002-2010, regularly referred to as Colombia's "Educational Revolution". Together these policies constitute a Colombian effort to increase access to higher education, an effort in partnership with the World Bank. The dissertation presents findings on policy goals, efforts,…

  13. Bank Lending, Housing and Spreads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslam, Aqib; Santoro, Emiliano

    agents in the economy, and through which changes in the monetary policy rate by the central bank are transmitted. The inter-linkages between housing and the role of the banking sector in the transmission of monetary policy is emphasized. Two competing effects are highlighted: (i) a financial accelerator...

  14. Nutrition labelling is a trade policy issue: lessons from an analysis of specific trade concerns at the World Trade Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Jones, Alexandra; Hawkes, Corinna; Ali, Iqra; Labonté, Ronald

    2017-01-12

    Interpretive nutrition labels provide simplified nutrient-specific text and/or symbols on the front of pre-packaged foods, to encourage and enable consumers to make healthier choices. This type of labelling has been proposed as part of a comprehensive policy response to the global epidemic of non-communicable diseases. However, regulation of nutrition labelling falls under the remit of not just the health sector but also trade. Specific Trade Concerns have been raised at the World Trade Organization's Technical Barriers to Trade Committee regarding interpretive nutrition labelling initiatives in Thailand, Chile, Indonesia, Peru and Ecuador. This paper presents an analysis of the discussions of these concerns. Although nutrition labelling was identified as a legitimate policy objective, queries were raised regarding the justification of the specific labelling measures proposed, and the scientific evidence for effectiveness of such measures. Concerns were also raised regarding the consistency of the measures with international standards. Drawing on policy learning theory, we identified four lessons for public health policy makers, including: strategic framing of nutrition labelling policy objectives; pro-active policy engagement between trade and health to identify potential trade issues; identifying ways to minimize potential 'practical' trade concerns; and engagement with the Codex Alimentarius Commission to develop international guidance on interpretative labelling. This analysis indicates that while there is potential for trade sector concerns to stifle innovation in nutrition labelling policy, care in how interpretive nutrition labelling measures are crafted in light of trade commitments can minimize such a risk and help ensure that trade policy is coherent with nutrition action. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Significance and challenges of the tourism policy in the modern world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dobrica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Raising awareness in expert circles and the general public about the heterogeneity of effects caused by tourism (economic, social, cultural, ecological, imposed the need for organized guidance of development of this activity and its placement under the framework of public (government policy. Accordingly, today in almost all developed tourist countries are being used different instruments to control the development of this complex phenomenon of the modern age. In this paper, special attention is paid to the analysis of the role, importance, models, processes of development and implementation of tourism policy, in the context of the general policy and other sectoral policies brought by governments in developed tourist countries and countries trying to become such. Tourism policy today is the starting point of the thinking process in the tourism industry. It is focused on directing the development of tourism at all levels (international, national, regional, local, that is, it must create a long-term and integral development perspective.

  16. Islamic banking

    OpenAIRE

    Němec, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is focused on introduction of Islamic banking system. Morover part of the work is devoted to a detailed description of the history of Islamic banking, on explanation of the principles on which the banking system is based. Also are analyzed in detail the basic Islamic banking products. And at the end are presented the advantages and disadvantages of the Islamic banking system.

  17. Retail Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The retail banking plays more and more important role in polish banking sector. There are several targets of this article. First of all is retail banking identification, both in Euroland and Poland. The next one trends, especially household deposits and credits and last retail banking in particular banks.

  18. Population Policy and National Development in the 21st Century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following the concern by multi-lateral organizations such as the World Bank and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) about the problems of high population growth and food supply especially in the developing countries, population policy has become an integral part of their overall development policies as ...

  19. Mobile banking: New trend in the contemporary banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanader Dušica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1990s and early 2000s, banking has undergone and is still undergoing some considerable changes, adjusting itself to the new circumstances and challenges in its environment. Modern information technologies have granted an opportunity to banks to expand their operations and adjust their offer of products and services, placing them through the new communication channels. The increasing reliance on mobile devices, especially the so-called smart phones, has facilitated the development of a new form of banking, known as mobile banking. Mobile banking is a specific channel of electronic banking, enabling clients to communicate with the bank via mobile devices. The bank's products and services are, thus, available to the clients at any time and at any place, and the banking sector is expected to perfectly understand the needs of today's clients, before implementing mobile banking. The research in this paper focuses on mobile banking, as a segment of electronic banking, which has developed under the influence of modern information technologies. The paper elaborates on the main characteristics of mobile banking, its advantages, but also its drawbacks that the banks and their clients are facing in the process of its utilization (or its implementation in practice. Moreover, the paper presents the trends of using mobile banking in the world and in Serbia, along with the tendencies for developing new services.

  20. The Central Bank and the State Budget: Selected Legal Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Polish Central Bank (National Bank of Poland – NBP performs mainly macro-economic tasks, for maintaining price levels. This Bank is not focused on tasks aimed at the interests of the State Budget. The Central Bank has a lot of power in the creation of money. It seems, there is possible to create the budgetary revenues, which are connected with the emission of money. In particular, the income from emission of coins may be determined as the budget revenue. The connection the Treasury with the Central Bank results from the historical evolution of the origin and role of the Central Bank. It is reasonable to increase the role of the treasury securities in the Central Bank activity. The Treasury Bills should be used in the open market policy leading by the Central Bank. There is the issue of changing of the Constitution of the Republic Poland in the field of limit of the public debt (60% of GDP. It seems, the Polish Constitution should not be the only constitution in the world that introduced such a limit. This limit, and the limit on annual budgetary deficit, introduces EU law. That is a sufficient legal limit.

  1. Analysis of typical world countries' wind power and PV industry policies and their enlightenment to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Yang, Lijun; Qiu, Hongji; Li, Yuanfei; Peng, Lilin

    2017-01-01

    The wind power and PV are the key fields of clean energy development in China in recent years. However, there are still many aspects of problems in wind power and PV industries at present, such as the insufficient consumptive ability and the limitation of market competition capability. The effective leading and support of government in the aspect of policies is especially needed in order to solve these problems. Based on the analysis of main policies system of wind power and PV in our country, Spain, the United Kingdom and Germany are chosen as typical countries because of their wind power and PV industries are relatively developed. Their policies of wind power and PV industries are studied respectively from five aspects, namely macroscopic laws, development planning, administrative policies, fiscal and tax policies and price policies. Then the comparison among typical countries and China is made and the exiting problems in China's policies of wind power and PV industries are summed up. Finally, the suggestions to promote China's wind power and PV industries development are presented.

  2. Central Asia in a Changing World: From a Peripheral Region to an Area of Policy Generation and Application. Actors, Policy and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Sainz Gsell

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with Central Asia, beginning with an analysis of the characteristics of international insertion of the area as a whole and of the former Soviet republics that comprise it. In a general way, it aims to analyse the evolution of Central Asia from a peripheral region to an area that generates behaviours and receives the application of policies on the part ofinternational actors. In the first part of the study, it mentions a series of particularities of the republics that have determined the relationships in the region(the Central Asian order and those between the region and the outside world; it indicates geo-historical and economic-strategic aspects. In the second part, it examines the foreign policy of the republics in the post-Cold War era from the singularities of domestic policy. And, in the third part, it analyses, according to the aforementioned peculiarities, the policies that the area and each State has generated in international actors, both regional ones and global ones, and which have transformed the region from a peripheral one to a geopolitically emerging one.

  3. The effects of Vietnamese rice export policies on world market integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luckmann, J.; Ihle, R.; Kleinwechter, U.; Grethe, H.

    2015-01-01

    World market prices of rice have been subject to large fluctuations in recent years. Vietnam is a major exporter of rice which is also the main staple food in the country. The Vietnamese government is limiting exports, to insulate domestic consumers from world market price hikes. The effects of

  4. THE RISE OF MOBILE BANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To meet customer’s expectations and needs, electronic banking services have allowed financial transactions to simplify and have increased their attractiveness. Over the past few year, in order to increase customer comfort and maintain profitability, banks around the world have adopted innovative banking technologies and modern e-banking services, such as internet and mobile banking. As a matter of fact, banking over mobile phones is the newest e-banking service with several benefits for both customers and banks. The paper aims to provide an overview of the latest electronic financial channel, underlining various aspects of mobile banking as it represents a key distribution channel for a growing number of customers.

  5. Monetary policy, determinacy, and learnability in a two-block world economy

    OpenAIRE

    Bullard, James B.; Eric Schaling

    2006-01-01

    We study how determinacy and learnability of worldwide rational expectations equilibrium may be affected by monetary policy in a simple, two country, New Keynesian framework under both fixed and flexible exchange rates. We find that open economy considerations may alter conditions for determinacy and learnability relative to closed economy analyses, and that new concerns can arise in the analysis of classic topics such as the desirability of exchange rate targeting and monetary policy coopera...

  6. United States Foreign Policy RE: The Third World - The Economic Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-06

    independence , early policy formulators designed policies which provided enormous outpourings of wealth, technology and economic assistance to countries...however as an independent blue ribbon advisory group recently reported: "The critical problem today is that the trade rules are no longer seen as being...Gabon Philippines Gambia Qatar Chana Ruanda Grenada Samoa Guatemala Sao Tomce and Principe’ Guinea Saudi Arabia Guinea-Bissau Senegal Guyana Seychl 1

  7. Internet Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet Banking (known also as online banking allows performing transactions and payments over the internet through a bank's secure website. This can be very useful, especially for banking outside bank hours (which tend to be very short and banking from anywhere where internet access is available. In most cases a web browser such as Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox is utilized and any normal internet connection is suitable. No special software or hardware is usually needed.

  8. Changing patterns of spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China between 1999-2001 and 2007-2008: assessing progress toward eradication after the World Bank Loan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Can; Cohen, Ted; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-01-03

    We compared changes in the spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China at the conclusion of and six years following the end of the World Bank Loan Project (WBLP), the control strategy of which was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy. Parasitological data were obtained through standardized surveys conducted in 1999-2001 and again in 2007-2008. Two alternate spatial cluster methods were used to identify spatial clusters of cases: Anselin's Local Moran's I test and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. Substantial reductions in the burden of schistosomiasis were found after the end of the WBLP, but the spatial extent of schistosomiasis was not reduced across the study area. Spatial clusters continued to occur in three regions: Chengdu Plain, Yangtze River Valley, and Lancang River Valley during the two periods, and regularly involved five counties. These findings suggest that despite impressive reductions in burden, the hilly and mountainous regions of Southwest China remain at risk of schistosome re-emergence. Our results help to highlight specific locations where integrated control programs can focus to speed the elimination of schistosomiasis in China.

  9. Sterol composition of virgin olive oil of forty-three olive cultivars from the World Collection Olive Germplasm Bank of Cordoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyçyk, Onejda; Aguilera, Maria Paz; Gaforio, José Juan; Jiménez, Antonio; Beltrán, Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    In olive oil, sterols constitute the majority of the unsaponifiable fraction. In recent years there has been increased interest in the sterols of olive oil for their health benefits and their importance to virgin olive oil (VOO) quality regulation. Forty-three olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars from the World Olive Germplasm Bank, IFAPA Centro 'Alameda de Obispo', Cordoba, Spain were studied for their oil sterol composition and total content. The main sterols found in olive oil were β-sitosterol, Δ(5) -avenasterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, most of them showing high variability. Most cultivars showed total sterol contents within the limits established by EU regulations, although 28% of VOOs analysed were outside the limits established for total content and/or for individual sterols. Over the group of cultivars, total sterol contents ranged from 855 to 2185 mg kg(-1) . The high variability observed was due to the genetic component, since other agronomic and technological factors were similar. Because of the high variability, the sterol fraction can be considered as a useful tool to characterize and discriminate monovarietal VOOs. The results can be useful for nutritionists for VOO inclusion in nutrition studies. Furthermore, the variability observed can be applied in olive breeding projects to select the parents of new olive cultivars with an improved sterol fraction. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Dynamics of spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in the Yangtze River Valley at the end of and following the World Bank Loan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Can; Ward, Michael; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-06-01

    The 10-year (1992-2001) World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) contributed greatly to schistosomiasis control in China. However, the re-emergence of schistosomiasis in recent years challenged the long-term progress of the WBLP strategy. In order to gain insight in the long-term progress of the WBLP, the spatial pattern of the epidemic was investigated in the Yangtze River Valley between 1999-2001 and 2007-2008. Two spatial cluster methods were jointly used to identify spatial clusters of cases. The magnitude and number of clusters varied during 1999-2001. It was found that prevalence of schistosomiasis had been greatly reduced and maintained at a low level during 2007-2008, with little change. Besides, spatial clusters most frequently occurred within 16 counties in the Dongting Lake region and within 5 counties in the Poyang Lake region. These findings precisely pointed out the prior places for future public health planning and resource allocation of schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Latest Results from the Focal L-Band Array for the Green Bank Telescope (FLAG), the World's (Current) Most Sensitive Phased Array Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingel, Nickolas; Pisano, D. J.

    2018-01-01

    Phased Array Feeds (PAFs) represent the next revolution in radio astronomy instrumentation. I will present results from the latest commissioning run from the Focal L-Band Array for the Green Bank telescope (FLAG), which holds the current world record for PAF sensitivity. Since we are able to operate at system temperatures comparable with the traditional GBT single pixel L-Band feed, the increase in the field-of-view provided by the beamforming capabilities of PAFs results in a dramatic (a factor of 5) increase in survey speeds. In particular, FLAG can probe similar neutral hydrogen column density regimes over a 4 sq. deg region in 24.6 minutes as opposed to 4.1 hours in an equivalent single pixel map (excluding observing overhead). In addition to comparisons between data taken with FLAG and the single-pixel L-Band feed, I will also discuss the technical aspects of the observing procedure, data reduction, and the transition path for FLAG from an instrument that is principle-investigator run to one that is general use. These FLAG results provide a very encouraging outlook on how the GBT will continue to compete with current and planned radio telescope facilities.

  12. The Bank Lending Channel: Evidence from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how monetary policy changes flow through the banking sector in Australia. Drawing on data between 2004 and 2010, we divide banks into three groups according to their size, and examine the impact of that cash rate change on lending of different types of loans. We find the response of bank lending after a monetary policy change varies with the size of the bank as well as the types of loan. Smaller banks are more sensitive to policy rate changes, and household loans, government loans and intra-group loans are less responsive to monetary policy compared with financial and non-financial loans.

  13. DNA banking and DNA databanking: Legal, ethical, and public policy issues. Progress report, [April 1, 1993--March 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, P.R.; McEwen, J.E.; Small, D.

    1994-02-18

    The purpose of the grant was to provide support to enable us to: (1) perform legal and empirical research and critically analyze DNA banking and DNA databanking as those activities are conducted by state forensic laboratories, the military, academic researchers, and commercial enterprises; and (2) develop a broadcast quality educational videotape for viewing by the general public about DNA technology and the privacy and related issues that it raises. The grant thus has both a research and analysis component and a public education component. This report outlines the work completed since the inception of the project and describes the activities still in progress.

  14. Le politiche monetarie in Italia dalla Golden age alle “oil crisis” nelle Relazioni della Banca d’Italia (Monetary Policy in Italy According to the 'Relazioni' of the Bank of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Strangio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Monetary policy, in recent years, is often invoked as a panacea for a severe recession that is affecting Europe, in particular Italy from 2010. This paper will examine how monetary policy reacted in times of crisis before the currency reform implemented with EMS, the main step towards the single currency. In this paper we were used the sources of the Relations of the Bank of Italy to highlight the role played by this institution in the monetary policy and the use of this policy.

  15. A Technical and Policy Case Study of Large-Scale Rescue and Redistribution of Perishable Foods by the "Leket Israel" Food Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Dana; Hod-Ovadia, Smadar; Troen, Aron M

    2017-06-01

    Food banks seeking to rescue and redistribute highly nutritious perishable foods to simultaneously alleviate food insecurity and reduce food waste often encounter practical, ethical, and political dilemmas. We present a case study of "Leket Israel," an Israeli food bank that uses an effective large-scale logistical model for the rescue and redistribution of perishable food and discuss the challenges and solutions it offers. The organization operates in a rich country plagued with poverty and inequality, where the government passively encourages nongovernmental organizations to respond to the serious and growing problem of food insecurity. Operating under a business-to-business model, Leket Israel distributes food via intermediary nonprofit organizations (NPOs), enriching the food they provide with fresh produce. Food is obtained through an Agricultural Gleaning project, Self-Growing Farm project, and Meal Rescue project. The partnering NPOs then distribute the food to people in need. Although the rescue and redistribution of highly perishable food is more costly and complex than acquiring, storing, and distributing dried and staple foods and it requires specialized knowledge and infrastructure in order to maintain rigorous safety standards, it improves the nutritional quality of the aid. In 2015, Leket Israel distributed 15 217 389 kg of food, 90% of which was fruit and vegetables, to 180 partnering NPOs nationwide, reaching an estimated 175 000 recipients. "Leket Israel" offers a valuable model that can be studied and emulated by international nutrition scientists, practitioners, and policy makers who are seeking to reduce food insecurity and food waste in other countries.

  16. Misguided Intentions: U.S. Policy in World War II and Chinese Intervention in Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schlesinger, Sande

    1996-01-01

    In 1950, merely a year after the Communist Chinese victory over the Nationalist government in China, 600,000 Chinese soldiers began crossing the Yalu River into Korea to oppose the world's most powerful nation...

  17. [Health equity in the world's most unequal region: a challenge for public policy in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenz, Patricia; Titelman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Re-democratization has transformed the social agenda and the role of the state in Latin America with a growing commitment to health equity and social justice, yet these aspirations are strained by the region´s profound socioeconomic inequalities. Efforts to provide universal coverage to the right to health have led to the development of a variety of public policies, whose scope depends on how the concepts of health and equity are understood. In general, policy action has centered on health system reforms and only recently on integrated intersectorial action to address wider social determinants of health, particularly structural determinants. Furthermore, if the goal is health equity the predominant minimum standards approach cannot be the final answer, but only a step on the road to equality. Finally, realizing universal coverage of the right to health through public policy requires the strengthening of governmental institutional capacities with an intersectorial and participatory lens.

  18. ["World domestic policy" as a way to eternal peace? Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's realistic idealism as theory of a sustainable policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosch, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The intention of this article is to show the suitability of "Weltinnenpolitik" (world domestic policy) as an analytic and programmatic view on contemporary policy. A full reconstruction or comparison of Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's concept is not at the focus. As mentioned in other contributions to this volume, Weizsäcker did not refer to the disciplinary discourses in detail. His approach is particularly 'unique' since he set about in 1963 to study the conditions of peace in a very general way. By doing so, he was able to circumscribe the conditions of peace realistically: those valid for us today and apparently also in the future. Weizsäcker probably did underestimate the complexity of the transformation to sustainable politics for preventing climate change. Vice versa one should hope that we today do not discount the prevention of atomic war as a sine qua non for sustainable climate-saving policy. Both could mark the quintessential conditions for peace.

  19. Raise the Flag for Mountains: Enhancing Policy Dialogue and Knowledge Sharing through the World Mountain Forum Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Wehrli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As a mountain country, Switzerland has an intrinsic interest and a proven track record in sustainable mountain development (SMD. Many Swiss stakeholders, including the federal and cantonal administrations, universities, and nongovernmental organizations, actively contribute to global SMD in many ways. Switzerland, with its extensive operational experience in mountainous countries around the world, has been one of the driving forces promoting policy dialogue and knowledge management among different actors to support SMD on various levels. This is reflected in its support for the United Nations’ Agenda 21 and the recent Agenda 2030. Still, after close to 25 years of global policy engagement, the voice of the mountains has not yet gained sufficient momentum and needs further strengthening.

  20. Promoting the health of Europeans in a rapidly changing world: a historical study of the implementation of World Health Organisation policies by the Nursing and Midwifery Unit, European Regional Office, 1970-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Christine; Wagner, Lis

    2011-01-01

    HALLETT C and WAGNER L. Nursing Inquiry 2011; 18: 359-368 Promoting the health of Europeans in a rapidly changing world: a historical study of the implementation of World Health Organisation policies by the Nursing and Midwifery Unit, European Regional Office, 1970-2003 The World Health Organisat......HALLETT C and WAGNER L. Nursing Inquiry 2011; 18: 359-368 Promoting the health of Europeans in a rapidly changing world: a historical study of the implementation of World Health Organisation policies by the Nursing and Midwifery Unit, European Regional Office, 1970-2003 The World Health...... Organisation (WHO) was inaugurated in 1948. Formed in a period of post-war devastation, WHO aimed to develop and meet goals that would rebuild the health of shattered populations. The historical study reported here examined the work of the Nursing and Midwifery Unit (NMU) of WHO's European Regional Office...

  1. Does health intervention research have real world policy and practice impacts: testing a new impact assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Gillian; Schroeder, Jacqueline; Newson, Robyn; King, Lesley; Rychetnik, Lucie; Milat, Andrew J; Bauman, Adrian E; Redman, Sally; Chapman, Simon

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing emphasis on the importance of research having demonstrable public benefit. Measurements of the impacts of research are therefore needed. We applied a modified impact assessment process that builds on best practice to 5 years (2003-2007) of intervention research funded by Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council to determine if these studies had post-research real-world policy and practice impacts. We used a mixed method sequential methodology whereby chief investigators of eligible intervention studies who completed two surveys and an interview were included in our final sample (n = 50), on which we conducted post-research impact assessments. Data from the surveys and interviews were triangulated with additional information obtained from documentary analysis to develop comprehensive case studies. These case studies were then summarized and the reported impacts were scored by an expert panel using criteria for four impact dimensions: corroboration; attribution, reach, and importance. Nineteen (38%) of the cases in our final sample were found to have had policy and practice impacts, with an even distribution of high, medium, and low impact scores. While the tool facilitated a rigorous and explicit criterion-based assessment of post-research impacts, it was not always possible to obtain evidence using documentary analysis to corroborate the impacts reported in chief investigator interviews. While policy and practice is ideally informed by reviews of evidence, some intervention research can and does have real world impacts that can be attributed to single studies. We recommend impact assessments apply explicit criteria to consider the corroboration, attribution, reach, and importance of reported impacts on policy and practice. Impact assessments should also allow sufficient time between impact data collection and completion of the original research and include mechanisms to obtain end-user input to corroborate claims and reduce biases

  2. Impact of EU biofuel policies on world agricultural production and land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banse, M.; Meijl, van H.; Tabeau, A.A.; Woltjer, G.B.; Hellmann, F.; Verburg, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    The European Union aims to increase the share of renewable energy in its total energy consumption to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and make the economy more CO2 neutral. This policy is further motivated by a desire to reduce dependency on fossil fuel imports and to stimulate rural development and

  3. International Perspectives on Work-Family Policies: Lessons from the World's Most Competitive Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Alison; Mokomane, Zitha; Heymann, Jody

    2011-01-01

    The United States does not guarantee families a wide range of supportive workplace policies such as paid maternity and paternity leave or paid leave to care for sick children. Proposals to provide such benefits are invariably met with the complaint that the costs would reduce employment and undermine the international competitiveness of American…

  4. International Organizations, Changing Governance and China's Policy Making in Higher Education: An Analysis of the World Bank and the World Trade Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui

    2010-01-01

    In a context of intensified globalization, the importance of international governmental organizations and non-governmental organizations as influencers and shapers of the global environment is becoming prominent. Participation in international organizations leads to active incorporation of nation-states with worldwide connotations. In higher…

  5. Item Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using item banks while providing useful information to those who are considering implementing an item banking project in their school district. The primary advantage of item banking is in test development. Also describes start-up activities in implementing item banking. (SLD)

  6. 12 CFR 347.214 - Branch established under section 5 of the International Banking Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Branch established under section 5 of the International Banking Act. 347.214 Section 347.214 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING Foreign Banks § 347.214 Branch established...

  7. Financial and economic approach: Financial & banking sector development pact from the perspective of the euro area European economic policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoropoulos Theodore E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Powerful obstacles to the further integration of repot, bond and equity markets remain the still fragmented securities settlement industry in Europe, which charges much higher fees for cross border transactions than for domestic transactions, and differences in legal systems. This paper describes the main developments in the euro area financial markets before and after the introduction of the single currency. It looks at the evolution of the euro area financial structure in the last few years. Interestingly in various dimensions the financial structure of euro area countries seems to become more diverse over time. We assess the progress towards financial integration in the most important euro-area financial segments, namely money and equity markets, as well as banking. The available data suggest that the unsecured money market strongly integrated with the introduction of the euro, as the single currency and related euro-area-wide large-value payment systems link the different countries well. Also, some progress occurred in the integration of euro-area equity markets, as stock exchanges in a few countries merged to form Euronext and professional asset managers replaced country allocation by sector allocation strategies. Overall, while asset holdings have become more international in the euro area since the introduction of the single currency, securities markets are still much less integrated than in the US. In the area of retail banking the increased homogeneity of interest rates seems to be driven more by macroeconomic convergence than by market integration. In addition we consider a wide range of other determinants, such as foreign debt or net foreign assets, terms of trade, government debt and regulated prices.

  8. GREEN BANKING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrascu Mihaela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the green banking in Romania, a new approach of conducting the banking business through considering the corporate social responsibility and environmental aspects. Nowadays, it is difficult to face the globalization and competition in order to asssure the implementation of the green banking practices. The aim of the present study is to identify corporations that have sustainability concerns. To achieve this objective, we set some hypothesis and after this we showed that the corporations are more likely to be included in the list of top banks in the world. Our study is relevant for future research in this area, because of the importance of such aspects in corporations nowadays.The conclusions of our study is that green banking practices in Romania is in an incipient stage

  9. Global Rankings, World-Class Universities and Dilemma in Higher Education Policy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    2016-01-01

    Global university rankings and world-class universities have become buzzwords almost in every country. Both exercise positive and not-so-positive impact on higher education systems. Universities everywhere are trying hard to improve their status and global rankings. The article reviews some of the important issues related to these two strongly…

  10. In the Shadow of Celebrity? World-Class University Policies and Public Value in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonini, Leon; Westerheijden, Don F.; Benneworth, Paul; Dauncey, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    The growing popularity of the concept of world-class universities raises the question of whether investing in such universities is a worthwhile use of public resources. Does concentrating public resources on the most excellent universities improve the overall quality of a higher education system, especially if definitions of excellence and…

  11. In the Shadow of Celebrity? World-Class University Policies and Public Value in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremonini, Leon; Westerheijden, Donald F.; Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Dauncey, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    The growing popularity of the concept of world-class universities raises the question of whether investing in such universities is a worthwhile use of public resources. Does concentrating public resources on the most excellent universities improve the overall quality of a higher education system,

  12. The effect of biodiesel policies on world biodiesel and oilseed prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, D.; Gorter, de H.; Timilsina, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical and empirical model is developed to analyze the effect of a biodiesel mandate, a tax exemption (tax credit) and an exogenous diesel price shock on world soybean and canola markets. The jointness in crushing oil and meal from the oilseed reduces the size of the link between biodiesel

  13. China Policy Options in a Post Crisis World : Young China Scholars ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-08-11

    Five world-class research teams are working to develop vaccines for neglected livestock diseases in the Global South ... Researchers and practitioners gathered in Montreal on August 11, 2017 to discuss the potential of child care to benefit women through improved economic opportunities and empowerment as part of a.

  14. Islamic banking

    OpenAIRE

    Логвинова, М. В.; Хоменкова, Д. Д.

    2016-01-01

    The prohibition of interest is the feature of Islamic banking which most distinctly sets it apart from conventional banking. To Western eyes, this seems a strange restriction, but Christian countries themselves maintained such a ban for 1,400 years. Islamic Banking asks why Islam has been able to maintain its stand. The book explores the intricacies of Islamic law and the religious and ethical principles underpinning Islamic banking. It then considers the analytical basis of Islamic banking a...

  15. PATHWAYS TO SUSTAINABLE BANKING MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan (Santamarian Oana Raluca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes one of the major challenges of the future: the sustainable development of the society. Sustainability is now increasingly recognized as central to the growth of emerging market economies. For the banking sector, this represents both a demand for greater social and environmental responsibility as well as a new landscape of business opportunity. Several years ago, the main part of the banks did not consider the social and environmental problems relevant for their operations. Recently, the banks began to realize the major impact of the sustainable development over the way of ulterior development of the society and, implicitly over the way of creating of the banking value in the future. In this context, the development of a banking management system, based on sustainable principles represents one of the provocations of these days.Starting from literature in the sustainable banking management field in this paper are presented several relevant issues related to risk management in the context of sustainable banking financing: the need to implement the sustainable management principles in financial and banking industry; the role of banks in sustainable development of society; social and environmental risk management policies, events that have shaped the role of the banking sector in sustainable development; international standards regarding sustainable banking management such us: Equator Principles for sustainable investment projects’ financing or GRI principles for sustainable reporting. Furthermore, we developed a practical case study related to the implementation of sustainable banking management at Bank of America.

  16. Population policy at a crossroads. Will world conference signal new directions for U.S.?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, L; Sherman, D

    1994-06-01

    In September 1994 in Cairo, at the third population conference hosted by the United Nations, world leaders will be asked to approve a plan that could stabilize the world population at about 8 billion people by the middle of the next century. Participants will consider interrelated issues: population growth, access to family planning, women's empowerment, sustainable development, poverty, consumption, and the environment. This campaign for a more equitable world is likely to continue after Cairo, with the UN-sponsored social summit in Copenhagen and a women's conference in Beijing slated for next year. The Cairo International Conference on Population and Development will require a new approach to sustainability by balancing environmental protection, economic development, and present and future human needs. The United States has only 5% of the world's population, but it uses 25% of the world's commercial energy, produces more garbage and waste than any other country, and generates 21% of all carbon dioxide emissions, which contribute to global warming. Demands for energy, water and food already cannot be met as natural resources are being exhausted at an alarming rate. The fight over water rights to the Colorado River exemplifies the shrinking natural resource base. In contrast to the Reagan-Bush administration, the Clinton administration restored funding to international family planning agencies and endorsed sustainable development. The US birth rate is back at a 2-decade high, while 60% of pregnancies are unintended. US adolescent pregnancy is the highest among industrialized countries, leading to a cycle of poverty and soaring public costs. Government funding for new contraceptive research has been stagnant because of the pressure of right-wing groups, although finally RU-486 became available for clinical trials. The Cairo conference is likely to recognize the US as the leader in global political issues, however, domestic population and consumption issues have

  17. Genetic structure and core collection of the World Olive Germplasm Bank of Marrakech: towards the optimised management and use of Mediterranean olive genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haouane, Hicham; El Bakkali, Ahmed; Moukhli, Abdelmajid; Tollon, Christine; Santoni, Sylvain; Oukabli, Ahmed; El Modafar, Cherkaoui; Khadari, Bouchaib

    2011-09-01

    The conservation of cultivated plants in ex-situ collections is essential for the optimal management and use of their genetic resources. For the olive tree, two world germplasm banks (OWGB) are presently established, in Córdoba (Spain) and Marrakech (Morocco). This latter was recently founded and includes 561 accessions from 14 Mediterranean countries. Using 12 nuclear microsatellites (SSRs) and three chloroplast DNA markers, this collection was characterised to examine the structure of the genetic diversity and propose a set of olive accessions encompassing the whole Mediterranean allelic diversity range. We identified 505 SSR profiles based on a total of 210 alleles. Based on these markers, the genetic diversity was similar to that of cultivars and wild olives which were previously characterised in another study indicating that OWGB Marrakech is representative of Mediterranean olive germplasm. Using a model-based Bayesian clustering method and principal components analysis, this OWGB was structured into three main gene pools corresponding to eastern, central and western parts of the Mediterranean Basin. We proposed 10 cores of 67 accessions capturing all detected alleles and 10 cores of 58 accessions capturing the 186 alleles observed more than once. In each of the 10 cores, a set of 40 accessions was identical, whereas the remaining accessions were different, indicating the need to include complementary criteria such as phenotypic adaptive and agronomic traits. Our study generated a molecular database for the entire OWGB Marrakech that may be used to optimise a strategy for the management of olive genetic resources and their use for subsequent genetic and genomic olive breeding. © The Author(s) 2011. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com

  18. Technology policy and planning in the Third World pharmaceutical sector: the Cuban and Caribbean community approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrupp, L A

    1984-01-01

    There has been growing international concern over many aspects of the use and flow of medicines in developing countries. This article briefly reviews factors which have contributed to problems in this area including marketing and promotional practices of the pharmaceutical companies, rising drug import costs, and the unsuitability or poor quality of available drugs. This analysis is primarily concerned with policies that have emerged from efforts to alleviate such problems, to increase control over multinational drug companies, and to bring about changes in the technology transaction processes and in the pharmaceutical sector. It focuses on two cases: the regional cooperation scheme of the Caribbean countries (CARICOM) and the national-level policy of Cuba. It is shown that the CARICOM strategy has significant limitations, primarily due to its voluntary nature and lack of enforcement mechanisms for member countries. On the other hand, the Cuban approach has brought about positive effects and progressive changes, made through political commitment to achieve social benefits, and in conjunction with integrated broad reforms of the entire health system within a socialist framework. Thus, the problems and promises of such strategies are viewed in a context which emphasizes the prevailing forces of the global political economy. The lessons from this study, applicable to other developing countries, not only reveal important measures for the pharmaceutical sector, but also stress the ultimate need for strong commitment to enforce policies at the national level and for major structural changes, in order to adequately meet the health and medical needs of the people.

  19. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  20. Green Banking Dalam Kebijakan Kredit Perbankan Di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sabtia

    2011-01-01

    Banking institution plays an important and strategic role in an attempt to protect and to manage the environment. In protecting the environment, the banking institution can do it through the pattern of green banking. Green banking is a financial institution prioritizing sustainability in its business practice. The policy on credit at green banking can increase its competitiveness and own superiority in business strategy. Participation of banking in supporting green banking management is in li...

  1. Inclusive growth and development: An IDRC-World Economic Forum ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Inclusive growth and development: An IDRC-World Economic Forum collaboration to promote innovative public-private-civil society partnerships ... This information will be incorporated into a practical, searchable, and digital knowledge bank of policy models and corporate or multi-stakeholder partnership practices.

  2. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL DETERMINANTS OF COMMERCIAL BANKS PROFITABILITY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM BULGARIA AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIRTESCU BOGDAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study focuses on commercial banks which are operating in Bulgaria and Romania, two countries whose banking sectors have registered major structural changes in the transition to a market economy and which are showing some similarities. Similar to other EU countries, the financial system from Bulgaria and Romania is dominated by the banking sector, which holds the largest share of total assets. Thus, we can say that health, strength and performance of the banking sector are of major importance for the sustainable economic development of states, but also for efficient transmission of monetary policy decisions on the real economy. The paper aims to identify the key factors that affect bank profitability and to evaluate empirically their contribution to a sample of 29 commercial banks in Bulgaria and Romania, for the period 2003-2012. Our research is based on data from the Bureau Van Dijk database, the World Bank and the European Central Bank and uses panel data estimation techniques. The dependent variable used in our study is the bank profitability, which is measured by two representative indicators the Return on Average Assets (ROAA and Return on Average Equity (ROAE. Regarding the independent variables, our analysis includes capital adequacy, the loan loss reserve rate, cost to income ratio, the ratio of liquid assets to total assets, the interest expenses to deposits ratio, the non-interest income over total gross revenues, bank size, the GDP per capita growth, inflation rate, domestic bank credit to private sector and banking industry concentration. The results of our empirical study shows that among the variables considered, the loan loss reserve rate, the ratio of cost to income, GDP per capita growth and domestic bank credit to the private sector, have a significant impact on bank profitability, results in line with our expectations, but also with the results of other empirical studies.

  3. Mental health and changing world of life in a scene of violence and social policy

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona, Héctor; Sepúlveda, Sandra; Angarita, Adriana; Parada, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    This research is presented in order to understand how political violence has changed the viotuna community’s world life, the mental health conditions. From the qualitative phenomenological perspective, depth interviews were conducted to community members and focus groups from the socially representative sectors. The findings indicate that political violence add a significant effect not only in terms of individual mental health but also from the community that causes a break in the sup...

  4. The Effect of Biodiesel Policies on World Biodiesel and Oilseed Prices

    OpenAIRE

    de Gorter, Harry; Drabik, Dusan; Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical and empirical model is developed to analyze the effect of a biodiesel mandate, a tax exemption (tax credit) and an exogenous diesel price shock on world soybean and canola markets. The jointness in crushing oil and meal from the oilseed reduces the size of the link between biodiesel and oilseed prices. A diesel price shock with a mandate results in a smaller change in oilseed prices compared with a tax exemption. Higher diesel prices increase biodiesel prices under a tax exempti...

  5. 12 CFR 614.4540 - Other financing institution access to Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks for funding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Farm Credit Bank and Agricultural Credit Bank Financing of Other Financing Institutions § 614.4540 Other financing institution access to Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks..., discounts, and obtains other similar financial assistance from a Farm Credit Bank or agricultural credit...

  6. E-Banking and its features - Albania as a special case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermela Bashuri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The e-banking system is a system which enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions such as: balance inquiries, account transfers, bill payments and some of them offer even the possibility to make loan or credit card applications on a website operated by the institution via internet at any place or time. The e-banking is referred to as online banking or internet banking. The banks have chosen to be part of the wide world of Web in order to stay competitive in the fast changing world of business and also to take further advantages. This innovation (accompanied by globalization and technology development has”obliged” the business entities to redefine and remodel their operations. Electronic banking is the wave of the future. It provides enormous benefits to consumers in terms of the ease and cost of transactions. But it also poses new challenges for country authorities in regulating and supervising the financial system and in designing and implementing macroeconomic policy. In the first section there is an overview of E-banking products and services offered world wide and in Albania as a special case. In the second section there is a general overview of the e-banking advantages and disadvantages. In the third part there is a discussion above the features, challenges, advantages and disadvantages of E-Banking vs traditional banking. In the last part there are given some general recommendations to be taken in consideration in order to maintain effective and to further develop the operating environment for the existing and potential e-banks.

  7. Patient-centred outcomes research: brave new world meets old institutional policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jessica S; Young, Henry N; Moreno, Megan A; Kliems, Harald; Cox, Elizabeth D

    2017-06-01

    Engaging patients across the research trajectory supports research that is generalizable, high quality, timely and actionable. However, this approach comes with challenges and opportunities as investigators and engaged patient stakeholders encounter institutional policies around patient engagement, privacy and research participant protection. To describe the resolution and impact of quandaries arising when patient stakeholders' values and preferences conflicted with institutional policies. Case study from a Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute-funded trial. The first example focuses on the tension between the health care organization's requirements for background checks for all patient advisors and the funders' requirement to engage hard-to-reach populations. To create an environment of mutual trust and respect with patient stakeholders, the research team decided against imposing background checks. All 53 patient and parent advisors have served continuously for 2 years and meeting attendance exceeds 95%. The second example describes parent stakeholders' role in revising a letter informing patients about a privacy violation. Among 49 families affected by and informed about this violation, 35 (71%) agreed to participate. The third example focuses on how patient stakeholder preferences about study reminders conflict with the 1996 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act rules. While patient stakeholders strongly endorsed text message reminders, regulations and technology do not permit reminders with enough detail to ensure clarity. Although retention rates exceeded 90%, attendance at study appointments was below 75% and below 60% for minority and low socio-economic status families. Patient engagement positively impacts research. Resolving conflicts between patient-engaged research and existing institutional policies and regulations would allow this impact to become fully realized.

  8. The Third World Arms Market in the 1980’s: Implications for U. S. Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-02

    forecasts cf arms demand are made using estimates of the (OVER) O Na ?1473 EnrTION OPF I NOV Is is OBSOLETE S/N 0102- 12-0 14- 6601 SECURTY ...increasingly valuable resources from external threats , the need to repress internal revolutionary movements, or a desire to purchase arms for prestige reasons...U.S.S.R. and the People’s Republic of China maintain approximately the same policies with respect to arms transfers and weaponry production; and, 3) that

  9. Electricity end-use efficiency: Experience with technologies, markets, and policies throughout the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.; Price, L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Geller, H.; Nadel, S. [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-03-01

    In its August meeting in Geneva, the Energy and Industry Subcommittee (EIS) of the Policy Response Panel of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) identified a series of reports to be produced. One of these reports was to be a synthesis of available information on global electricity end-use efficiency, with emphasis on developing nations. The report will be reviewed by the IPCC and approved prior to the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Brazil, June 1992. A draft outline for the report was submitted for review at the November 1991 meeting of the EIS. This outline, which was accepted by the EIS, identified three main topics to be addressed in the report: status of available technologies for increasing electricity end-use efficiency; review of factors currently limiting application of end-use efficiency technologies; and review of policies available to increase electricity end-use efficiency. The United States delegation to the EIS agreed to make arrangements for the writing of the report.

  10. Fiscal Policy, Public Expenditure Composition, and Growth : Theory and Empirics

    OpenAIRE

    Willi, Semmlero; Alfred, Greiner; Bobo, Diallo; Anand, Rajaram; Armon, Rezai

    2007-01-01

    This paper responds to the development policy debate involving the World Bank and the IMF on the use of fiscal policy not only for economic stabilization but also to promote economic growth and increase per capita income. A key issue in this debate relates to the effect of the composition of public expenditure on economic growth. Policy makers and some researchers have argued that expendit...

  11. World Federation for Medical Education Policy on international recognition of medical schools' programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karle, Hans

    2008-12-01

    The increasing globalisation of medicine, as manifested in the migration rate of medical doctors and in the growth of cross-border education providers, has inflicted a wave of quality assurance efforts in medical education, and underlined the need for definition of standards and for introduction of effective and transparent accreditation systems. In 2004, reflecting the importance of the interface between medical education and the healthcare delivery sector, a World Health Organization (WHO)/World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) Strategic Partnership to improve medical education was formed. In 2005, the partnership published Guidelines for Accreditation of Basic Medical Education. The WHO/WFME Guidelines recommend the establishment of proper accreditation systems that are effective, independent, transparent and based on medical education-specific criteria. An important prerequisite for this development was the WFME Global Standards programme, initiated in 1997 and widely endorsed. The standards are now being used in all 6 WHO/WFME regions as a basis for quality improvement of medical education throughout its continuum and as a template for national and regional accreditation standards. Promotion of national accreditation systems will have a pivotal influence on future international appraisal of medical education. Information about accreditation status - the agencies involved and the criteria and procedure used - will be an essential component of new Global Directories of Health Professions Educational Institutions. According to an agreement between the WHO and the University of Copenhagen (UC), these Directories (the Avicenna Directories) will be developed and published by the UC with the assistance of the WFME, starting with renewal of the WHO World Directory of Medical Schools, and sequentially expanding to cover educational institutions for other health professions. The Directories will be a foundation for international meta-recognition ("accrediting the

  12. BANKING ETHICS: MAIN CONCEPTIONS AND PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA FETINIUC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Banking ethics is a specialized set of ethical standards and rules that should be followed in the activities of financial institutions and employees of the banking sector. But despite the simplicity of the definition, in the modern world, this concept becomes complex and ambiguous. The importance of studying this subject is defined by the fact that the ethical behavior of the bank and bank employees promotes banking. At present there are several conceptions of banking ethics: general ethics, regulated ethics and ethical bank. The most common practice is to regulate internal and external relations of banks and bank workers with ethical codes. At the same time, studies show the existence of problems in the banking standards of ethics, which negatively affects the financial institution. This article is intended to reflect main tendencies and problems of banking ethics at international level and experience of Republic of Moldova in this field.

  13. Banking sector deregulation, bank-firm relationships and corporate leverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braggion, Fabio; Ongena, S.R.G.

    2017-01-01

    We study the effects of the 1971 deregulation of UK banking on firms’ financial and investment policies. The deregulation was a turning point in the evolution of firm–bank relationships during the twentieth century. Indeed, for more than 80 years prior to deregulation most firms had had a

  14. Bank Insolvency Procedures and Market Discipline in European Banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angkinand, Apanard; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    Predetermined, operational procedures for dealing with banks in distress are conspicuously absent across the world with very few exceptions. Instead governments and regulatory authorities intervene when banks approach failure. Bail-outs of important creditors, sometimes including shareholders......, and blanket guarantees for creditors become the norm. We argue that efficient incentives of banks' creditors, as well as of shareholders and managers, require predetermined rules for dealing with banks in distress, and a group of creditors that are credibly non-insured. Cross-border banking increases the need...... for pre-determined bank insolvency procedures that could enable banks to expand cross-border in branches. In the empirical part we show that credibility of non-insurance is maximized with a partial deposit insurance scheme, and that the coverage can be decreased if effective rule-based distress resolution...

  15. [World deliberations in Rio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, B

    1991-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) was held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 and dealt with world trade, environmental education, environmental emergencies, the transfer of technology and financial resources, and the restructuring of international systems for tackling environmental problems. Other issues on the agenda were the protection of the atmosphere, the ozone shield, deforestation, the conservation of biological diversity, sustainable urban and rural development, and the safeguarding of human health and quality of life. The preparation for the conference took place through a series of meetings, which also featured the problems of rural areas in the Americas. Some environmental organizations based in Washington, D.C. had become impassive over the years and promoted bipartisan and apolitical issues in order to obtain funds. Nonetheless, some groups criticized the projects of the World Bank. In 1990 the World Bank established the World Environmental Program for developing countries, which envisioned the execution of 15 projects and 11 technical assistance proposals. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) were also active in this effort. The Interamerican Development Bank also launched a forest policy for preserving forest resources. This was the consequence of the 1982 scheme that aimed at protecting forest populations and promoting sustainable forest industries. At another conference of development specialists the discrimination against women was cited as a major factor in the deleterious use of natural resources. A new development concept was urged that would incorporate the rights and participation of women as a central strategy in solving the global environmental crisis. The global population is growing at a rate of 95 million people per year, which underlines the need for better representation of women, poor people, and rural areas in state agencies and multilateral and environmental organizations for promoting sustainable

  16. An Independent Review of The Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to conduct an independent review of the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe's monetary policy in the context of monetary policy transparency, through comparing the results with other central banks in order to draw conclusions regarding the monetary policy of the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe. Monetary ...

  17. New Workers in the Banking Industry: A Minority Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, R. David

    To investigate the effects of the employment policies and practices of New York City banks upon minority employment, six banks were selected on the basis of their higher than average minority group employment. Nearly 200 interviews were conducted with bank personnel, including policy formulators, policy executors, and lower level personnel. These…

  18. Long-term impact of the World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control: a comparison of the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijie; Zhu, Rong; Ward, Michael P; Xu, Wanghong; Zhang, Lijuan; Guo, Jiagang; Zhao, Fei; Jiang, Qingwu

    2012-01-01

    The World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) for controlling schistosomiasis in China was implemented during 1992-2001. Its short-term impact has been assessed from non-spatial perspective, but its long-term impact remains unclear and a spatial evaluation has not previously been conducted. Here we compared the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk using national datasets in the lake and marshland regions from 1999-2001 and 2007-2008 to evaluate the long-term impact of WBLP strategy on China's schistosomiasis burden. A hierarchical Poisson regression model was developed in a Bayesian framework with spatially correlated and uncorrelated heterogeneities at the county-level, modeled using a conditional autoregressive prior structure and a spatially unstructured Gaussian distribution, respectively. There were two important findings from this study. The WBLP strategy was found to have a good short-term impact on schistosomiasis control, but its long-term impact was not ideal. It has successfully reduced the morbidity of schistosomiasis to a low level, but can not contribute further to China's schistosomiasis control because of the current low endemic level. A second finding is that the WBLP strategy could not effectively compress the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk. To achieve further reductions in schistosomiasis-affected areas, and for sustainable control, focusing on the intermediate host snail should become the next step to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission within the two most affected regions surrounding the Dongting and Poyang Lakes. Furthermore, in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the WBLP's morbidity control strategy may need to continue for some time until snails in the upriver provinces have been well controlled. It is difficult to further reduce morbidity due to schistosomiasis using a chemotherapy-based control strategy in the lake and marshland regions of China because of the current low endemic levels of infection. The future control

  19. Long-term impact of the World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control: a comparison of the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Bank Loan Project (WBLP for controlling schistosomiasis in China was implemented during 1992-2001. Its short-term impact has been assessed from non-spatial perspective, but its long-term impact remains unclear and a spatial evaluation has not previously been conducted. Here we compared the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk using national datasets in the lake and marshland regions from 1999-2001 and 2007-2008 to evaluate the long-term impact of WBLP strategy on China's schistosomiasis burden. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A hierarchical Poisson regression model was developed in a Bayesian framework with spatially correlated and uncorrelated heterogeneities at the county-level, modeled using a conditional autoregressive prior structure and a spatially unstructured Gaussian distribution, respectively. There were two important findings from this study. The WBLP strategy was found to have a good short-term impact on schistosomiasis control, but its long-term impact was not ideal. It has successfully reduced the morbidity of schistosomiasis to a low level, but can not contribute further to China's schistosomiasis control because of the current low endemic level. A second finding is that the WBLP strategy could not effectively compress the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk. To achieve further reductions in schistosomiasis-affected areas, and for sustainable control, focusing on the intermediate host snail should become the next step to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission within the two most affected regions surrounding the Dongting and Poyang Lakes. Furthermore, in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the WBLP's morbidity control strategy may need to continue for some time until snails in the upriver provinces have been well controlled. CONCLUSION: It is difficult to further reduce morbidity due to schistosomiasis using a chemotherapy-based control strategy in the lake and marshland regions of China

  20. 12 CFR 618.8015 - Policy guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy guidelines. 618.8015 Section 618.8015 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM GENERAL PROVISIONS Related Services § 618.8015 Policy guidelines. (a) The board of directors of each System bank or association providing...

  1. Banking on the Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    the appropriateness and desirability of their decisions and policies. In these debates, interpretations and reproductions of Danish national identity were central to the governors' claims to legitimacy. I argue that past narratives of the Danish central bank and its governors enabled and framed future legitimacy......In this article, I analyse the narratives of four Danish central bank governors from the late nineteenth century until the mid-1990s. By conducting a historical analysis informed by neo-institutional theory, I show how these central bank governors were continuously involved in public debates over...... claims and that the central bank and its governors gradually became embedded in national identity. Thus, the article highlights the historical development of the co-configuring relationship between Danish national identity and the legitimacy of monetary organization....

  2. Lauriston S. Taylor lecture: Radiation Protection and Public Policy in an Uncertain World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Charles E

    2011-11-01

    Ionizing radiation is a known, well-documented, and reasonably well-quantified human cancer risk factor based on a remarkably consistent body of dose-response information from epidemiological studies of exposed populations supported by experimental studies using animal and cellular models. This fact is largely ascribable to the relative ease, compared to other carcinogens, of estimating radiation dose to organs and local tissues. Statistical models for radiation-related cancer risk are increasingly relevant to both radiation protection policy and the adjudication of compensation claims for cancers diagnosed following occupational and environmental exposures to ionizing radiation, as discussed in a number of expert committee reports of national and international organizations concerned with radiation-related risks. These and other publications increasingly emphasize the relevance of well-quantified uncertainties in radiation-related risk projections, including upper and lower confidence or uncertainty bounds, for radiation protection. Finally, the wealth of detailed information provided by such quantitative uncertainty analysis approaches is highly relevant to radiation protection, which might be viewed as a political process that involves a diverse group of stakeholders who, individually, may be primarily concerned with avoiding possible radiation-related risks or with avoiding possibly unnecessary costs of risk reduction or unnecessary denial of benefits that require some radiation exposure, or with balancing both considerations to some degree.

  3. Mothers' knowledge of and attitudes toward human milk banking in South Australia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Catherine; Javanparast, Sara; Newman, Lareen

    2013-05-01

    The beneficial effects of breastfeeding for mothers and babies are well recognized. When maternal breast milk is not available in sufficient quantity, donor breast milk is recommended as an alternate source of nutrition, particularly in preterm and other high-risk infants. Australia lags behind the rest of the developed world in establishing and promoting human milk banks; there is no human milk bank in South Australia and little is known concerning mothers' perceptions of using human milk banks in that state. This study explored mothers' knowledge of and attitudes toward human milk banks, to inform the development of human milk banking policies and guidelines in South Australia should a milk bank be established. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 mothers who were breastfeeding and/or had preterm or sick babies. In addition, 2 focus groups were conducted-1 with breastfeeding mothers as potential donors (n = 5) and the other with mothers of preterm or high-risk infants (n = 4)-to answer questions raised by early analysis of the individual interview data. Breastfeeding mothers, as potential donors, unanimously supported donating their breast milk to a human milk bank, provided it would be easy (especially if required to drop off milk) and not overly time consuming. Mothers of preterm or sick infants would use a human milk bank if they were assured the milk was safe and appropriate for their babies. Study participants would welcome having access to a human milk bank for both donating and receiving milk in South Australia.

  4. Making online business after world economic crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Atanasova Jovanovska, Verica; Jovanovski, Vlatko; Radosavljevik-Bojceva, Marina

    2010-01-01

    2008 would be remembered as one of the most difficult years for the World Economy. Securities markets fell constantly, many banks and companies collapsed, while others were barely rescued by government intervention and many jobs were lost. Consolidating their ranks in terms of financial and business operations, companies in the post recession period create new policies for the development and application of new technologies in production and distribution of goods and services. The application...

  5. Enhancing the role of geodiversity and geoheritage in environmental management and policy in a changing world: challenges for geoscience research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John

    2013-04-01

    Geodiversity delivers or underpins many key ecosystem processes and services that deliver valuable benefits for society. With a growing recognition of the wider economic, social and environmental relevance of geodiversity, it is timely to consider the research requirements and priorities that are necessary to underpin a broader interdisciplinary approach to geodiversity that incorporates the links between natural and human systems in a changing world. A key challenge is to develop the scientific framework of geodiversity and at the same time to enhance the protection of geoheritage. Research that helps to support environmental policy and meet the wider needs of society for sustainable development and improved human wellbeing is fundamental both to improve the recognition of geodiversity and to demonstrate the wider relevance and value of geoheritage and geoconservation. Within this wider context, priorities for research include: 1) assessment of geoheritage and best-practice management of geosites for multiple uses including science, education and tourism; 2) evaluation of geodiversity and the ecosystem services it provides, both in economic and non-economic terms, to help build policy support and public awareness; 3) understanding the functional links between geodiversity and biodiversity across a range of spatial and temporal scales to help assess ecosystem sensitivity and inform management adaptations to climate change, particularly in dynamic environments such as the coast, river catchments and mountain areas; 4) providing a longer time perspective on ecosystem trends and services from palaeoenvironmental records; 5) applications of geodiversity in terrestrial and marine spatial planning.

  6. Islamic vs. Conventional Banking Role in Non-Oil Growth: A Causal Analysis in the Case of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Belhadia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the type of relationship between Islamic vs. Conventional banking and non-Oil economic growth in the case of Bahrain by using annual data 1990-2012 retrieved from Islamic banks and financial institutions information (Ibis-Online of the Islamic Bank of Development (IDB, World Bank development indicators (WB, and the Central Bank of Bahrain (CBB annual reports.This study employs the Johansen and Juselius Cointegration test and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM as well as Vector Autoregressive model (VAR to reveal the long run and short-run causality between the dual banking development and non-Oil GDP growth. The VECM results of the conventional banking show that there is long-run bidirectional causality between all the conventional banking selected indicators and the non-Oil GDP. For the Islamic banking VAR model, there is a unidirectional causality from Islamic banking indicators to the non-oil GDP. There is no evidence on the role of non-oil GDP on the Islamic banking development. Impulse response functions in the two models shows that through one standards deviation positive shock in Islamic vs. Conventional Credit provided to private sector, the non-Oil GDP will be much higher in the next five years if we stimulate the Islamic credit provided to private sector than the conventional banks.Moreover, the Islamic credit provided to the private sector appears to be more procyclical than the credit provided by the conventional banks. However, the fluctuations in the conventional credit are sharper than the Islamic banks’ private credit. This study provides the policy makers in Bahrain with the appropriate evidences to design their policies in fostering the non-Oil sector.

  7. Bank Size, Risk-taking and Capital Regulation in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. RAHMAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of bank size on bank regulatory capital ratios and risk-taking behavior using a panel dataset of 30 Bangladeshi commercial banks over the period 2008-2012. The relationship between bank regulatory capital ratios and bank risk-taking is also examined. For empirical analysis, generalized methods of moments (GMM panel method are used to explore the relationships among bank size, regulatory capital ratios and risk-taking behavior. Empirical results show that large banks hold lower amount of capital and take higher level of risk. Findings also show a reverse relationship between bank capital levels and bank risk-taking; that is, banks holding higher levels of regulatory capital are significantly less risky. Findings of this study has important implications for the Bangladeshi government, policy makers, banking regulators and bank stakeholders regarding bank size, regulatory capital requirements and overall banking sector risk-taking behavior.

  8. Is shadow banking really banking?

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan J. Noeth; Rajdeep Sengupta

    2011-01-01

    To those who don't know, the term "shadow banking" probably has a negative connotation. This primer draws parallels between what has been termed the shadow banking sector and the traditional banking sector—showing that they are similar in many ways.

  9. Reconstruction of War Damaged Buildings - A Problem that Still Stands. The Case of the National Economy Bank in Warsaw Restored During the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łotysz, Sławomir

    2016-12-01

    The Polish national historiography remains silent on the reconstruction of damaged towns and cities that was undertaken by the German administration after capturing Poland in September 1939. This paper, on the war-time restoration of the National Economy Bank's headquarters in Warsaw, is an attempt to at least partially fill the gap. Designed by celebrated architect Rudolf Świerczyński in the late 1920s in accordance with contemporary air raid defence regulations, it was bombed and nevertheless seriously damaged during the September Campaign. Under the German management of the bank, the building was reconstructed and even modernized by commissioned Polish engineers.

  10. International Organisations and Transnational Education Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the World Bank/IMF (International Monetary Fund), the OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) and the WTO (World Trade Organisation) as institutions of transnational policy making. They are all at present making education policies which are decisively...... shaping current directions and developments in national education systems. The paper reviews the enhanced role of these institutions in producing education policies and investigates the ideological basis as well as the processes through which these policies are made. It is argued that decisions are taken...... largely through asymmetric, non-democratic and opaque procedures. It is also argued that the proposed policies purport to serve the principles of relentless economic competition. Taking into account similar policies and initiatives, the paper concludes that we are experiencing not only...

  11. The Effect of Foreign Bank Presence on Domestic Banks Performance: An Evidence from a Developing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Bashir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of foreign bank presence on the behaviour of domestic banks by using the annual data of 37 commercial banks comprising of 7 foreign and 30 domestic banks for the time period of 2007 to 2011. We investigated how net interest margin, return on assets, overhead costs, cost to income and nonperforming loans are effected by the foreign bank presence. We have used panel regression analysis employing bank specific fixed effect model. As a developing country case, the results suggest that the increase in foreign bank share effects the interest margins and profitability of domestic banks in a decreasing manner. It wouldn't be erroneous to express that foreign banks have a positive effect on the competitive environment of domestic banks increasing overall banking standard in Pakistan, the licensing policies should be further liberalized to let new entrants further improve the domestic financial intermediation system.

  12. Branding as a Factor in Increasing the Bank’s Competitiveness in the World Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkodinа Iryna V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the branding of banks in the world market for banking services in the context of fierce competition between financial institutions. The stages of brand formation were researched as a basis for building the bank's commodity policy. The main elements of brand to improve the market position of bank have been identified. The indicators for building strong bank brands have been reviewed and the efficiency of the contemporary marketing strategies has been determined. The most efficient innovative marketing strategies for branding are determined (subscription business models, chat bots, e-commerce, digital targeted advertising to improve the market position of bank in today’s environment. The need to develop new internet marketing tools, original and risk projects in order to create efficient content and to excel the competitors. Prospects for further research in this direction is to consider e-commerce as an innovation marketing strategy that should become an integral part of branding.

  13. Promotional activities of banks in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelenović Vera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on banking sector in Serbia, particulary on promotional activities of banks in public and on media. The authors of paper tried to find cause and effect relationship between business success and working quality on the one hand and investment in promotion activities of bank on the other hand, like important instrument of bank's business policy realization. Promotional activities appear like successful instrument in order to increase satisfaction of the bank's clients, which effect the increase of successfulness of banks' business.

  14. Who pays for cooperation in global health? A comparative analysis of WHO, the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance

    OpenAIRE

    Clinton, Chelsea; Sridhar, Devi

    2017-01-01

    In this report we assess who pays for cooperation in global health through an analysis of the financial flows of WHO, the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. The past few decades have seen the consolidation of influence in the disproportionate roles the USA, UK, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation have had in financing three of these four institutions. Current financing flows in all four case study institutions allow donors to...

  15. Information and communication technology and bank performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different sectors of world economies are rapidly being affected by improved technology. Banking sector is also witnessing the trend in Nigeria. Information and communication Technology is said to have impacted the banking sector massively as the banks in Nigeria introduce products that would help improve their efficiency ...

  16. APPLIED ISSUES ABOUT BANKING RISK MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Geanina Clipici

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The following paper emphasizes the need to deepen the understanding of the notion of banking risk management by explaining the significant risks the bank encounters during financial exercises as well as their additional entries. The study of the paper will focus on UniCredit Bank during the years 2014 and  2015 on all types of risks, in which we will provide comprehensive data on how the UniCredit Bank management applies its risk policies.

  17. Determinants of Bank Profitability in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Osuagwu, Eze

    2014-01-01

    There are increasing scholarly debates on the direction of policy to effectively improve the performance of banks. Some scholars argue that bank performance is enhanced by improvements in the internal organization and managerial efficiency, others argue that industry wide factors are integral to bank performance. In recent times, the direction of literature has shown that macroeconomic factors play a significant role in determining bank profitability. This paper investigates the determinants ...

  18. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  19. Regional Development and Effects of Investment Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Erkan Çelik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The World Bank is the most important financier for international investment. The bank opens credits mostly for investment projects in developing countries. Turkey has received various investment credits since its membership to the World Bank on March 11, 1947. The credits were used for economic and social domains. Turkey has also been granted credits from the European Investment Bank (EIB. The credits received are composed of micro credits that belong to small and medium enterprises (SMEs. A regional development bank, Islamic Development Bank, has also received credits through Eximbank and Industrial Development Bank of Turkey (TSKB to finance Turkish SMEs. This paper deals with Turkish investment strategies in the framework of basic principles of investment – development banks.

  20. Crisis management fiscal policy action of member states

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitu, Narcis Eduard; Nicoleta, DRACEA; DRACEA, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    ...: the world trade collapsed, the capital vanished away, the banking system failed. Under the circumstances, the Member States are forced to adopt a series of fiscal policy action to avoid, if possible, facing a prolonged period of low or zero growth...

  1. The politics of policy : participatory irrigation management in Andhra Pradesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikku, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis studies the emergence, process and politics of the Andhra Pradesh reform policy of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM). The reform has been labeled as the 'A? model' of irrigation reforms and supported by external aid agencies like World Bank. Within a short span of time Andhra

  2. Effectiveness of a national reimbursement policy and accompanying media attention on use of cessation treatment and on smoking cessation: a real-world study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout, G.E.; Willemsen, M.C.; van den Putte, B.; de Vries, H.; Willems, R.A.; Segaar, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2011, the Netherlands implemented a national policy that ensured that health insurance companies reimbursed behavioural counselling for smoking cessation or the combination of behavioural counselling with pharmacological therapy. Objective To examine the real-world impact of a national

  3. The Impact of Global Institutions on National Health HIV/AIDS Policy Making in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanat Mokushev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship of global institutions such as the International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, World Bank, and individual developing countries in social health policy making in terms of HIV and AIDS. We examine the role of IGOs and NGOs in regarding to HIV/AIDS issues then analyse the TRIPs agreement as a tool for developing countries to negotiate with International organisations in global health policy decisions.

  4. Establishing an integrated human milk banking approach to strengthen newborn care

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarchis, A; Israel-Ballard, K; Mansen, Kimberly Amundson; Engmann, C

    2017-01-01

    The provision of donor human milk can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality among vulnerable infants and is recommended by the World Health Organization as the next best option when a mother's own milk is unavailable. Regulated human milk banks can meet this need, however, scale-up has been hindered by the absence of an appropriate model for resource-limited settings and a lack of policy support for human milk banks and for the operational procedures supporting them. To reduce infant mortality, human milk banking systems need to be scaled up and integrated with other components of newborn care. This article draws on current guidelines and best practices from human milk banks to offer a compilation of universal requirements that provide a foundation for an integrated model of newborn care that is appropriate for low- and high-resource settings alike. PMID:27831549

  5. Regulatory regimes and bank behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Weon Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine how the risk-taking behavior differed between Korean regional banks and national banks for the two different regulatory regimes; a very loose regulation period (1994-1997 and a very tightened regulation period (1998-2005. From the panel analysis over the period 1994-2005, we found that regional banks took riskier strategies than national banks when banking regulations are loose. Moreover, their higher risk-taking contributed to higher profit under the period of loose regulation. However, after the banking regulations were tightened after financial crisis around the late 1990s, this phenomenon disappeared and the tendency of regional banks to take greater risk than national banks was not observed any more. Also, the positive relationship between risk-taking and profitability was not observed either after regulations were tightened. These empirical findings would have the following policy implications. When the economic conditions are good, and therefore, banking regulations are relatively loose, the greater risk-taking of regional banks could be profitable, because regional banks are in a better situation in terms of maintaining their market share based on the close ties with their regional clients, and can be protected from excessive competition with national banks. But, if the economic conditions get worse and financial crisis occurs, and therefore, banking regulations get tightened, regional banks are more adversely and sensitively affected by these shocks than national banks because their size is small and their assets are less diversified than national banks, especially being concentrated on loans to small and medium size business sector and real estate loans, which are very sensitive to the fluctuation of the economy. Furthermore, if these adverse economic and financial shocks continue long, the probability of regional banks to fail would be substantially higher and it can cause a serious damage to

  6. Dividend Policy of European Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Díez Esteban, José María; López de Foronda Pérez, Óscar

    2001-01-01

    [ES]La mayoría de los directivos pusieron algunos a largo plazo coeficiente-objetivo para la distribución de dividendos en relación con las ganancias del periodo (índice objetivo de pagos). Pero no se aplican mecánicamente esta relación a los beneficios de cada año al tratar de evitar las fluctuaciones bruscas que puedan provocar movimientos en las posiciones de los inversores en mercados imperfectos. El propósito de este trabajo es comprobar si la política de distribución de dividendos de...

  7. Teaching for Humanity in a Neoliberal World: Visions of Education in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dull, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    In Serbia, teachers and policy makers express different and sometimes competing visions of education. Teachers express their desire to "awaken" students by using progressive pedagogies, while European Union and World Bank reformers appropriate progressive education in the service of neoliberal goals. The research findings presented here…

  8. BANK MERGING AND ACQUISITIONS - CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRINA ANGELA COPIL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I am trying to analyze the concepts of bank merging and acquisitions, the causes that led to their appearance, their effects on the banking system and their future perspective in the field of banking market. The main reason for choosing this topic is based on the fact that in the evolution of banking concentration, bank merging and acquisitions have a special role, they are necessary withdrawal operations of banking life, through the absorption of banks without viability by those that have a viable capital, economical and managing potential. It is well known the fact that large, very powerful and well established banks, created after processes of merging and acquisitions, have a different potential in maintaining the profit flow and balanced growth of profit, having a great impact over the economy. The contribution is based on combining some conceptual elements with some empirical aspects, bank merging and acquisitions represent a worldwide present-day process, having a great impact also on the Romanian banking market, on banking financial institutions, which, in order to face competition, have oriented their strategies for diversifying risks, for offering services to global customers, by means of bank merging and acquisitions. A developed economical market exists if it also has strong, consolidated banks, which have the ability to compete with the world's most powerful banks.

  9. Mandela calls for greater commitment and leadership in fighting AIDS. The World Economic Forum -- Policy and business in a world of HIV / AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinnis R

    1997-01-01

    The 27th annual meeting of the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, on February 3, 1997, was attended by 2000 political and financial leaders of countries and businesses around the world. The forum is the world's largest annual gathering of economic and political dignitaries. In his address to the forum, Nelson Mandela, president of South Africa, called for a global effort against AIDS and a strengthening of the world's political and business leaders' commitment against HIV/AIDS. The disease is creating global economic problems by affecting people in their prime productive and reproductive years. Mandela criticized political leaders for their limited actions in addressing the AIDS pandemic and called upon the world's business community to support government AIDS programs and help people affected by AIDS. All sectors and all spheres of society must be involved as equal partners in the war against HIV/AIDS, for neither the health sector nor government can meet the challenge on its own. If current HIV/AIDS trends continue in South Africa, AIDS will cost the country 1% of its domestic gross product by the year 2005, and up to 75% of the country's budget will be consumed by direct health costs related to HIV/AIDS. At a panel discussion preceding President Mandela's address, Dr. Peter Piot, executive director of UNAIDS, argued that the AIDS pandemic could have a devastating effect upon the global economy and urged business leaders to take strong action against the disease.

  10. 12 CFR 703.3 - Investment policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment policies. 703.3 Section 703.3 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.3 Investment policies. A Federal credit union's board of directors must establish...

  11. Global Monitoring of Salmonella Serovar Distribution from the World Health Organization Global Foodborne Infections Network Country Data Bank: Results of Quality Assured Laboratories from 2001 to 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Vieira, Antonio; Karlsmose, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    most frequently identified serovars of Salmonella isolated from humans from 2001 to 2007 in laboratories from 37 countries that participated in World Health Organization Global Foodborne Infections Network and demonstrated serotyping proficiency in the Global Foodborne Infections Network External...

  12. E-BANKING SERVICES – FEATURES, CHALLENGES AND BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Today traditional banking services, based on lending and deposittaking operations, are only part of banking activities. Due to the emergence of a knowledgebased economy and society as information and communication technology advanced, banking services have undergone profound changes during the past decades. In order to improve the quality of customer service delivery and reduce transaction cost, banks have invested to a great extent in ICT and have adopted ICT networks for delivering a wide range of banking products and services. Banks all over the world have embraced innovative banking technologies and e-banking services in recent years. In this context, the paper aims to provide an overview of the electronic banking service highlighting various aspects of e-banking. Although e-banking offers many advantages both to corporate and individual clients, electronic banking is not without certain challenges and issues in terms of security and interest of customers.

  13. Macroeconomic prospects in the banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnjatović Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the book The Oxford Handbook of Banking, translated to Serbian language, published by the Association of Serbian Banks, Belgrade (2015, there are six essays devoted to macroeconomic prospects of the banking industry. In the objective, scientifically founded way, the authors of these essays have put the problems of banking operations in a wider macroeconomic, historical context. Their view on the disturbances on the banking market, including the latest global financial and economic crisis, warns the economic policy makers on the national and supranational level that the proper measure of government intervention in the fight against macroeconomic instability has not been found yet.

  14. George Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codispoti, L. A.

    This book provides a rich feast for anyone who has a hunger to learn more about Georges Bank! Its 593 large pages provide articles on a wide variety of scientific and resource management topics. Many human interest features are also included. Among the latter are a photograph demonstrating the only proper way for a seagoing chemist to imbibe, and articles entitled, “My First Trip on Georges Bank,” and “‘Bait Up!’: Dory Fishing on Georges Bank.”Proving that every cloud has a silver lining, interest in producing this book was driven by the climate of controversy that surrounded Georges Bank in the latter 1970s and early 1980s. This was a time when exploratory wells were being driven to search for oil and when disputes between Canada and the United States about jurisdiction over the Bank were reaching their peak. As Backus notes in the Foreword, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass., set up a Coastal Research Center in 1979 when “the oil/fish dispute on Georges Bank was hot.” The direct costs of publishing this book were, in turn, supported by the Coastal Research Center.

  15. Determinants of profitability according to groups of banks in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Arjeta Hallunovi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzed the determinants of profitability of all the commercial banks in Albania, where the banks were analyzed by dividing into groups[1]. These determinants are categorized into two groups, internal and external factors. The objective of the study is to determine the factors that affect the profitability in commercial banks, to show how they differ according to groups of the banks and making some recommendations which can help the management. A panel data with all the commercial banks that operate in Albania is analyzed for the period 2009-2014. To measure the profitability is used the independent variable return on assets. Banking specific factors that are used in this study include variables such as bank size, asset management, credit risk, liquidity of assets, capital adequacy, operational efficiency and cost of financing. On the other hand is taken into consideration only one industry specific factor, which is the concentration and some macroeconomic factors as GDP, exchange rate and inflation. The quantitative data are obtained from the financial statements of commercial banks, INSTAT, Bank of Albania, World Bank and Bankscope, in order to make empirical analysis needed to identify and measure the determinants of bank profitability. In particular, the multiple regression analysis is used to measure the impact of determinants in bank profitability and to realize empirical analysis is used Eviews 7. The results of the study showed a positive relationship between bank size and profitability, statistically important in the group 2, with 1% level of significance. The credit risk had an inverse relation with profitability in the model, statistically significant at 1% level of significance for the group 2 and 5% for the group 1 and 3. While, in terms of macroeconomic factors, GDP had a positive relationship with profitability and it is statistically significant in the group 3. On the other hand, inflation and exchange rate showed a

  16. Do Cooperative Banks Really Serve Agricultural Sector in Poland?

    OpenAIRE

    Zawojska, Aldona; Siudek, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to assess the potential of cooperative banks for serving agricultural sector in Poland and to identify the areas with the most development potential. We discuss the transformation process in the cooperative banking system under market economy, and in particular investigate importance of cooperative banks for farms' financing on the basis of our survey of banks. Moreover, the role of cooperative banks in transmission of Government policy supporting farm sector in Poland...

  17. A fundamental shift in the approach to international health by WHO, UNICEF, and the World Bank: instances of the practice of "intellectual fascism" and totalitarianism in some Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, D

    1999-01-01

    Navarro has used the term "intellectual fascism" to depict the intellectual situation in the McCarthy era. Intellectual fascism is now more malignant in the poor countries of the world. The Indian Subcontinent, China, and some other Asian countries provide the context. The struggles of the working class culminated in the Alma-Ata Declaration of self-reliance in health by the peoples of the world. To protect their commercial and political interests, retribution from the rich countries was sharp and swift, they "invented" Selective Primary Health Care and used WHO, UNICEF, the World Bank, and other agencies to let loose on poor countries a barrage of "international initiatives" as global programs on immunization, AIDS, and tuberculosis. These programs were astonishingly defective in concept, design, and implementation. The agencies refused to take note of such criticisms when they were published by others. They have been fascistic, ahistorical, grossly unscientific, and Goebbelsian propagandists. The conscience keepers of public health have mostly kept quiet.

  18. Important policies of international trade and industry in fiscal year 1989. For contributions to the world and for long-term developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    (Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Tokyo (Japan))

    1988-10-01

    It is necessary to promote structural adjustments on a world wide scale to take measures to meet the advanced relation of interdependencies in the world economy. As every one in every field made efforts to overcome depression caused by high yen-rate, Japanese economy is now expanding. However, the business conditions of the field based on exports are still unfavorable. Basic targets of international trade and industry policies in the fiscal year 1989 are to contribute actively to the world economy, to actualize such trades, investments and industrial structures to harmonize with the international economic society, and to construct the base for autonomous development toward the 21st century. As a result of investigating the necessary policies toward the 1990's, followings are considered requested to cope with the expected unstable supply of petroleum and the tight relation between supply and demand of petroleum; to promote all-round energy policy, to mitigate regulations and to strenghten the constitution of petroleum industry, to take measures for security, to develop and introduce the energy which substitutes for petroleum, to promote energy conservation to secure stable supply of rare metal and non-ferrous metal materials, and lastly to promote the steady development and utilization of atomic energy.

  19. Legality of the World Bank's Informal Decisions to Expand into the Tax Field, and Implications of These Decisions for Its Legitimacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. Dorlig (Uyanga)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe emergence of global tax governance was triggered by common tax problems, which are now still being faced by international society of nation-states. In the creation of this framework, international institutions have been playing a major role. One of these institutions is the World

  20. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit Banks...

  1. Financial Crisis and the Central Bank System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICHARD POSPISIL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis that began in 2008 gradually developed into a global economic crisis and continues to this day. There is a lot of causes standing behind the creation, depth and process of the crisis, which is the deepest since the thirties of last centrury. One of the reasons can be found in the risky behavior of commercial banks, especially in the excessive lending of credits and mortgages. Its share on the financial crisis have central banks and their failure as the financial supervisory authority. But there is a lot of another causes of failures in the commercial banking system. And some of the causes lies outside the banking system and monetary policy. Its share of the blame has also become from state and its expenditure on the social policy.This article analyzes the role of the commercial banking system and the central banks on the financial crisis including prevention options and measures.

  2. FINANCIAL CRISIS AND THE CENTRAL BANK SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard POSPISIL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis that began in 2008 gradually developed into a global economic crisis and continues to this day. There is a lot of causes standing behind the creation, depth and process of the crisis, which is the deepest since the thirties of last centrury. One of the reasons can be found in the risky behavior of commercial banks, especially in the excessive lending of credits and mortgages. Its share on the financial crisis have central banks and their failure as the financial supervisory authority. But there is a lot of another causes of failures in the commercial banking system. And some of the causes lies outside the banking system and monetary policy. Its share of the blame has also become from state and its expenditure on the social policy.This article analyzes the role of the commercial banking system and the central banks on the financial crisis including prevention options and measures.

  3. The world outlook for conventional agriculture. More emphasis is needed on farm price policy and plant research if future world food needs are to be met.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L R

    1967-11-03

    1) The worldwide demand for food will continue to be strong in the coming decades. Two forces-rapidly growing population and, in much of the world, rapidly rising incomes-are expected to result in increases in the demand for food even more rapid than those that have occurred during the past. 2) Conventional agriculture has assured an adequate food supply for the economically advanced one-third of the world. The challenge now is to assure an adequate food supply for the remaining two-thirds, where population is now increasing at the rate of 1 million people per week and where malnutrition is already widespread. 3) Economically feasible prospects for significantly expanding the world's area of cultivated land in the 1960's and 1970's are limited and largely confined to sub-Saharan Africa and the Amazon Basin. Even here, agronomic problems will limit the rate of expansion. When the cost of desalting seawater is substantially reduced-probably not before the late 1970's or early 1980's at best-it may become feasible to irrigate large areas of desert. 4) Given the limited possibilities for expanding the area of land under cultivation, most of the increases in world food needs must be met, for the foreseeable future, by raising the productivity of land already under cultivation. Food output per acre, rather static throughout most of history, has begun to increase rapidly in some of the more advanced countries in recent decades. All of the increases in food production over the past quarter century in North America, western Europe, and Japan have come from increasing the productivity of land already under cultivation. The area under cultivation has actually declined. 5) Achieving dramatic gains in land productivity requires a massive investment of capital and the widespread adoption of new technology. A similar effort must now be made in the less-developed nations if these nations are to feed their people. The most important single factor influencing this rate of investment

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF ISLAMIC BANKING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISTVÁN EGRESI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While the financial world is still dominated by conventional banks, based on western economic principles, the number of Islamic banks is on the rise. Islamic banks have originated from colonial India as a response of the Muslims to the British who attempted to westernize their society. Other similar financial operations based on Islamic Law (Shari’a were established in Pakistan, Malaysia and Egypt to facilitate access of rural poor to interest-free loans. However, being unprofitable, these operations did not survive for very long. Islamic banks, unlike conventional banks, are not based on interest and conduct their business in accordance with a wide array of ethical and moral issues. The modern phase of Islamic banking started in the 1970s when the Islamic Development Bank was founded in Saudi Arabia. Soon after, a number of commercial banks were established in the neighboring countries. From this core, over the last four decades, Islamic finance and banking has spread across the entire Muslim world and beyond to become a global phenomenon. This study examines the development of Islamic banking in Turkey in the wider context of global expansion. Turkey is an interesting case study because, although its population is nearly 100% Muslim, it is a secular state built on the model of Western European countries. However, lately, the moderate Islamic party in power since 2002 has shown some signs of openness towards a parallel banking system based on Islamic principles.

  5. The anatomy of bank performance during transition: A separate efficient frontier analysis of Ukrainian banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Isik

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available By drawing on Ukrainian experience, this paper analyzes the anatomy of bank efficiency in a transitional economy. Acknowledging the vast disparities in the business technology of different size banks, in this comprehensive study, we innovatively estimate group-specific (distinct frontiers for small, medium, and large size banks. The results from separate frontiers reveal that Ukrainian banks record 38% technical inefficiency, 26% pure technical inefficiency, and 17% scale inefficiency on average. Apparently, banks in transition waste about the two fifths of their factor inputs during the production of financial services. The cardinal source of sub-performance in transitional banks seems to be managerial inefficiencies. We also found that banks operating in areas with more political influence and more developed infrastructure outperform the banks operating in politically and economically weaker regions. The results also indicate that larger banks, enjoying public trust in a risky business climate, dominate smaller banks in all forms of efficiency. However, such bias for size causes large banks to suffer from decreasing returns to scale and small banks from idle capacity. Consequently, the policies promoting consolidation between small and large banks may alleviate the excess (idle capacity for large (small banks in a transitional economy.

  6. All mixed up? Instrumental and Emancipatory Learning Towards a More Sustainable World: Considerations for EE Policy-makers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wals, A.E.J.; Geerling-Eijf, F.; Hubeek, F.; Kroon, van der S.M.A.; Vader, J.

    2008-01-01

    World wide, policymakers are looking for ways to use education and communication strategies to create a world that is more sustainable than the one currently in prospect. They often find themselves trapped between instrumental (behavior change) and emancipatory (human development) uses of such

  7. Do Central Banks React to House Prices?

    OpenAIRE

    Finocchiaro, Daria; Queijo von Heideken, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    The substantial fluctuations in house prices recently experienced by many industrialized economies have stimulated a vivid debate on the possible implications for monetary policy. In this paper, we ask whether the U.S. Fed, the Bank of Japan and the Bank of England have reacted to house prices. We study the responses of these central banks by estimating a structural model for each country where credit constrained agents borrow against real estate. The main result is that house price movements...

  8. A Theory of Central Bank Accountability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoeberichts, M.M.; Schaling, E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a theory of central bank accountability. Two aspects of accountability are considered. The first one is transparency of actual monetary policy, the second aspect is the question of who bears final responsibility for monetary policy. Monetary policy is transparent if there is

  9. Effectiveness of a national reimbursement policy and accompanying media attention on use of cessation treatment and on smoking cessation: a real-world study in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Willemsen, Marc C; van den Putte, Bas; de Vries, Hein; Willems, Roy A; Segaar, Dewi

    2015-09-01

    In 2011, the Netherlands implemented a national policy that ensured that health insurance companies reimbursed behavioural counselling for smoking cessation or the combination of behavioural counselling with pharmacological therapy. To examine the real-world impact of a national reimbursement policy and accompanying media attention on use of cessation treatment and on smoking cessation. We used a four-wave longitudinal survey among 2763 adult smokers that started in September 2010 and was repeated at approximately 3 month intervals until June 2011. Two survey waves were conducted before the implementation of the policy and two survey waves after. There were significant increases in quit attempts (among moderate-to-heavy smokers) and in quit success (among all smokers) following the implementation of the reimbursement policy and the media attention. Use of behavioural counselling did not increase, while use of pharmacological therapy without behavioural counselling (unreimbursed treatment) increased among moderate-to-heavy smokers. Attention to media about the reimbursement was significantly associated with more quit attempts and more quit success. Awareness of the policy was significantly associated with more use of reimbursed treatment among all smokers, while attention to the media coverage was only significantly associated with more use of reimbursed treatment among moderate-to-heavy smokers. Awareness/attention variables were not significantly associated with use of unreimbursed treatment. It seems that a national reimbursement policy for smoking cessation treatment that is accompanied by media attention can increase cessation. Our findings suggest that this increase can (partly) be ascribed to the media attention that accompanied the policy implementation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Making Sense of Public Policy in a Fragmented World: the Search for Solutions and the Limits of Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Fenwick, John; McMillan, Janice

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores innovation, learning and change in an environment where the historical moment of ‘New Public Management’ (NPM) has given way to unprecedented fluidity in public policy and decision making. To begin, we examine key elements of the post-NPM environment, where foundational approaches (in theory and practice) can be challenged either by innovation or by default to previous positions: both trends are evident in the incoherence of policy responses to the global economic crisis. ...

  11. Redes transnacionais de advocacia pública: estratégias e impactos - O projeto Planafloro e o painel de inspeção do banco mundial Transnational advocacy networks: strategies and impact - The Planafloro project and the world bank's inspection panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Guadalupe Moog Rodrigues

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O projeto Planafloro, financiado pelo Banco Mundial em Rondônia durante os anos 90, tinha como objetivo principal o manejo dos recursos naturais no estado. A incapacidade e falta de vontade política dos órgãos executores motivaram organizações da sociedade civil rondoniense a pedir a investigação do Planafloro pelo Painel de Inspeção. O painel é um mecanismo independente de prestação de contas à sociedade civil global no que se refere às políticas e procedimentos do Banco Mundial. As estratégias de mobilização que culminaram no pedido de investigação do Planafloro se processaram em um contexto de ativismo socioambiental orquestrado por uma rede transnacional de advocacia pública. O pressuposto teórico dominante na literatura sobre redes transnacionais de advocacia pública é que a participação de grupos locais nessas redes proporciona um aumento relativo da capacidade política destes. O caso do Planafloro revela, no entanto, que a participação de grupos locais em redes transnacionais acarreta, além do aumento relativo de sua capacidade política, novas responsabilidades e desafios que estes nem sempre estão preparados para enfrentar. No longo prazo, esse despreparo pode comprometer os eventuais ganhos políticos conquistados pelos grupos locais no âmbito da mobilização transnacional.The Planafloro project, funded by the World Bank in Rondônia during the nineties had as its main objective the management of the state's natural resources. The lack of capacity and of political will of implementing agencies eventually led Rondonian civil society organizations to request the investigation of Planafloro by the Inspection Panel. The panel is an accountability mechanism of the global civil society that oversees certain policies and procedures by the World Bank. The strategies that climaxed in the request for investigation of Planafloro unfolded in a context of social and environmental activism orchestrated by a

  12. External indebtedness of Croatian banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antun Jurman

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the main characteristics of the foreign assets and foreign liabilities of the banks that to a great extent include credit and deposit activities with non-residents – foreign physical persons and legal entities, mostly with foreign banks. The author in this paper analyses the size and trends of the Republic of Croatia’s external debt with regard to gross domestic product, import, export, international reserve of the Croatian National Bank (HNB, etc. The author also discusses external debt of the banks that have, during the past few years, contributed substantially to the overall external debt of the Republic of Croatia. The autor points out that the banks have used foreign sources mainly for placing citizens’ loans, and less for financing development projects and economy. Thus, the banks have “spent”, i.e. used up their credit capacity as well as the credit capacity of the Republic of Croatia. Regardless of the fact that the banks have improved the quality of their assets, maintained liquidity/solvency and made extremely good profits, there have not been positive effects of the multiplication of credits/loans and deposits nor have there been the awaited effects on the growth of the gross domestic product and employment that otherwise might have been achieved via different foreign resources investment policy

  13. Banking Activity for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available he corporations gain a power of influence, unthinkable years ago; they have acquired more and more rights and, in some way, govern the life of billions of peoples and of the earth in general. With every right, comes though the responsibility of the conservation and development of the environment in which the corporations act. The banking system has a major role to play in the evolution of the international framework, given its position on the economic stage. Some important banking groups realized this fact and made important steps in the area. The case study of the Holland banking group ABN AMRO proves the complexity of the introduction of sustainable development in the core of the financial business. The implementation is neither easy nor cheap. It implies essential changes in the bank management, in the way to determine the financial policies, in how to choose the clients, the employees, the suppliers etc. Led in an efficient way, sustainable banking implies innovation, creativity and, implicitly, new gains, through creating new products and opening new markets. The international banking community proved, through leading examples (ABN AMRO Bank, HSBC Group, Rabobank Group, JP Morgan Chase, Citigroup etc. that it understands the importance, the necessity and also the viability of the sustainable development.

  14. Phenomenon of Swiss banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Swiss banking is a 'generic name' for a system based on private banking and banking secrecy. In the introductory chapter we highlight the difference between Swiss banking and banking in the Switzerland's system. In the second chapter we present a more detailed description of the institution of banking secrecy, while in the third chapter we present the exceptions to it. The fourth chapter elaborates on the present and the future of Swiss banking. It is argued whether in the present circumstances banking secrecy has become disruptive to the further development of both Swiss banking and banking in Switzerland and whether Swiss banking will come to an end in the future.

  15. Determinants of commercial bank profitability in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Chavarín, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to identify the main determinants of profitability for commercial banks established in Mexico. A data base of 45 banks representing virtually the whole world of commercial banking in the period 2007-2013 was used. Dynamic models using Arellano-Bover/Blundell-Bond estimators with an error that follows an MA(1) process were employed along with static models having random effects and Hausman-Taylor estimator. Findings suggest that the profitability of commercial ba...

  16. Walking the Line: Quality Assurance Policy Development and Implementation in Vi?t Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Meggan

    2014-01-01

    Although Vi?t Nam's experiences with quality assurance (QA) policy development have been influenced by its relationships with, and funding from, the World Bank and regional organizations, the state-centric values of the Socialist Republic of Vi?t Nam still navigate the implementation process. The development of QA in Vietnamese higher education…

  17. Educacion: Documento de Politica Sectorial. Tercera Edicion. (Education: Sector Policy Paper. Third Edition.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Wadi D.; And Others

    The present paper updates the World Bank's interpretations of education development and outlines a policy framework for lending for education. After chapters on the relationship between education and development and on the state of education development, the paper devotes a chapter to each of five issues: the expansion and equalization of…

  18. An Assessment of SMEs’ Financing by Commercial Banks in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Sachikonye

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs play a key role in the world economy and contribute significantly to an economy’s output, income and employment. This paper seeks to assess the extent to which Zimbabwe’s commercial banks finance SMEs. Document analysis and an extensive review of the literature was undertaken to contextualize and draw a framework of analysis for the study. The literature shows that SMEs are of great socio-economic importance in developing countries but access to financial services for SMEs in Zimbabwe remains low. Zimbabwe’s economic challenges since 2000 to dollarization in 2009, the informalization of the SME sector, customers’ financial illiteracy and lack of training, lack of collateral security for loans, a high non-performing loans ratio, the lack of understanding of SMEs’ needs by banks, the inaccessibility of banks and the general lack of financial innovation are some of the major reasons for the low level of SME financing. A harmonised approach to policy suggestions for SMEs, lending institutions, the central bank and government to ensure the viability and growth of the SME sector are required and outlined. The research helps to formalize the SME sector considering its attendant benefits to the relevant players in the economy.

  19. Cord Blood Banking for Potential Future Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, William T; Lubin, Bertram H; Cairo, Mitchell S; Notarangelo, Luigi D

    2017-11-01

    This policy statement is intended to provide information to guide pediatricians, obstetricians, and other medical specialists and health care providers in responding to parents' questions about cord blood donation and banking as well as the types (public versus private) and quality of cord blood banks. Cord blood is an excellent source of stem cells for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with some fatal diseases. Cord blood transplantation offers another method of definitive therapy for infants, children, and adults with certain hematologic malignancies, hemoglobinopathies, severe forms of T-lymphocyte and other immunodeficiencies, and metabolic diseases. The development of universal screening for severe immunodeficiency assay in a growing number of states is likely to increase the number of cord blood transplants. Both public and private cord blood banks worldwide hold hundreds of thousands of cord blood units designated for the treatment of fatal or debilitating illnesses. The procurement, characterization, and cryopreservation of cord blood is free for families who choose public banking. However, the family cost for private banking is significant and not covered by insurance, and the unit may never be used. Quality-assessment reviews by several national and international accrediting bodies show private cord blood banks to be underused for treatment, less regulated for quality control, and more expensive for the family than public cord blood banks. There is an unquestionable need to study the use of cord blood banking to make new and important alternative means of reconstituting the hematopoietic blood system in patients with malignancies and blood disorders and possibly regenerating tissue systems in the future. Recommendations regarding appropriate ethical and operational standards (including informed consent policies, financial disclosures, and conflict-of-interest policies) are provided for physicians, institutions, and organizations that

  20. New Economy, Old Central Banks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk, Jan Marc

    2002-01-01

    Proponents of the so-called New Economy claim that it entails a structural change of the economy. Such a change, in turn, would require the central bank to rethink its monetary policy to the extent that traditional relationships between inf1ation and economic growth are no longer valid. But such a

  1. How transparent are central banks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C.W. Eijffinger (Sylvester); P.M. Geraats (Petra)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractCentral bank transparency has become the topic of a lively public and academic debate on monetary policy. However, this has been complicated by the fact that transparency is a qualitative concept that is hard to measure. This paper proposes an index for the transparency of monetary

  2. Concentration and Competition in Turkish Banking Industry: The Evidence from 2000 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil Kuzucu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Banking industry worldwide has been transformed due to globalization, financial liberalization, technological developments, government policies, deregulation of financial services, financial crises and increase in mergers and acquisitions since 1980. With these changes, there is a trend towards decrease in the number of banks and increase in banking concentration. Increase in banking concentration might affect competition conditions in banking industry. The decrease in the number of banks and the increase in banking concentration dominate the Turkish banking industry after the banking crises in 2000 and 2001. This paper examines the relationship between concentration and competition in Turkish banking industry. I measure the size of banking concentration by concentration ratios and Herfindahl-Hirschman index with the data of commercial deposit banks in Turkey from 2000 to 2012. Competition degree is measured by using Panzar Rosse model. The results of the study suggest that there is no permanent relation between banking concentration and competition in Turkish banks.

  3. Banks Performance in Ghana: Trends and Determinants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The financial sector is crucial to the economies of various countries, and banks remain a core of the sector, especially in developing economies where the capital market is not strong enough (Matthew & Laryea, 2012).The banking sector in Africa and the rest of the developing world has experienced major transformation in ...

  4. Cultural heritage policy. The Alto Douro wine region - World Herita-ge Site. Is there an argument for reinforcing the role of the state?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenço, Lina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we trace the emergence of a specific case of cultural policy: the example chosen is a UNESCO World Heritage site, namely the Alto Douro Wine Region (ADW a portuguese living and evolving cultural landscape. In order to contextualize the particularities of the means that have been adopted for the management of the ADW, we use Throsby’s (2001 typology of most commonly-used cultural heritage policy instruments. Additionally we draw on the arguments that are frequently used to support public intervention in this sphere. We conclude that ADW’s management policy should: 1 use binding agreements to operational-ize a range of measures that compensate farmers who become providers of cultural products; 2 strengthen education and information so as to promote greater physical access and personal appreciation of the ADW’s cultural goods and services; and 3 formulate an integrated set of social policies able to mitigate the negative socio-demographic trends that characterize the region and its population

  5. Long term modelling in a second rank world: application to climate policies; Modeliser le long terme dans un monde de second rang: application aux politiques climatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crassous, R

    2008-11-15

    This research aims at the identification of the dissatisfaction reasons with respect to the existing climate models, at the design of an innovating modelling architecture which would respond to these dissatisfactions, and at proposing climate policy assessment pathways. The authors gives a critique assessment of the modelling activity within the field of climate policies, outlines the fact that the large number and the scattering of existing long term scenarios hides a weak control of uncertainties and of the inner consistency of the produced paths, as well as the very low number of modelling paradigms. After a deepened analysis of modelling practices, the author presents the IMACLIM-R modelling architecture which is presented on a world scale and includes 12 areas and 12 sectors, and allows the simulation of evolutions by 2050, and even 2100, with a one-year time step. The author describes a scenario without any climate policy, highlights reassessment possibilities for economical trajectories which would allow greenhouse gas concentration stabilisation on a long term basis through the application of IMACLIM-R innovations. He outlines adjustment and refinement possibilities for climate policies which would robustly limit the transition cost risks.

  6. Banking sector globalization and bank performance: A comparative analysis of low income countries with emerging markets and advanced economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Ghosh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of financial services liberalization is the increasing presence of foreign banks in a nation. This study examines the impact of banking sector globalization on bank profits and cost efficiency by using a panel of 169 nations spanning 1998–2013. Employing both fixed-effects and GMM estimations, and including banking-industry and macroeconomic controls, I find greater banking-sector globalization to reduce both profits and cost inefficiency, thereby reflecting increased competitiveness and informational asymmetries in host markets, as well as assimilation of better technology, managerial practices by domestic banks. The results are further examined for nations across different levels of economic development and with different degrees of foreign bank presence. Only in emerging markets and in nations with more than 50% foreign banks, greater banking sector globalization positively affects profits. From a policy perspective, the findings call for banking regulatory authorities to implement polices to reduce informational asymmetries in host markets.

  7. Discursive Enactments of the World Health Organization's Policies: Competing Cultural Models in Tanzanian HIV/AIDS Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Christina

    2010-01-01

    In the healthcare arena, language policy-related research has thus far been limited to questions about "language access," i.e., whether individuals are supplied with health information in their languages, and whether interpreters for doctor-patient consultations are provided (Martinez 2008; Ngo-Metzger et al. 2003; Partida 2007; Vahabi…

  8. The Wordy Worlds of Popular Music in Eastern and Southern Africa: Possible Implications for Language-in-Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoni, Sinfree; Makoni, Busi; Rosenberg, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Language-in-education policy in Africa is replete with debate regarding the use of standard African languages as part of mother-tongue education. An issue inadequately addressed within this debate is the role and function of urban vernaculars which have become "the" mother tongue of the greater part of Africa's population. Using data…

  9. El resurgir de viejos fantasmas: política asistencial y mundo del trabajo = The resurgence of old ghosts: social assistance policy and labor world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribero, Ximena Baráibar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the nineties, Latin America has widened and institutionalized its social assistance policies, mainly by the implementation of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs. In Uruguay, these programs have been implemented since 2005. One of the more debatable topics regarding these programs has been their impact on work and whether transfer programs would not incentive beneficiaries to work and promote their dependency with the State. This paper presents the Uruguayan case analyzing Conditional Cash Transfer Programs and the world of work stating there is no such impact of these programs on adult work. Rather, these concerns are old ghosts which have always been present in the social assistance arena

  10. The national sports policies and the sustainable development issue in a globalized world: 2007 – 2013, the experience of an Intergovernmental Organization (IGO-WSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Klein

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, the Intergovernmental Organization, the World Sports Alliance (IGO-WSA, was founded with the support of international civil society (AICESIS, UN-NGO-IRENE and the United Nations. It is entrusted with the mission of educating youth and training the executives of the national sports system to deal with human development issues (education, equity, health, gender, environment while also contributing to the economic development of its Member States (partnerships, poverty reduction.A number of lessons can be drawn from this experience about support to national sports policies in a globalized world, more generally about the contribution to national development by and through sport.  We identify seven engines of an integrated approach to a sustainable development of sport in the developing countries.For the foreseeable future, the WSA-IGO faces six challenges, as tools for a renewed program: sustainability, infrastructures, education, equity, employment and training.Key words:

  11. Access to Education for the Poor in Europe and Central Asia: Preliminary Evidence and Policy Implications. World Bank Technical Paper No. 511.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandycke, Nancy

    In Europe and Central Asia, the poor face three problems: (1) the education system as a whole does not work well, and hence fails to meet their needs; (2) the private cost of education has risen, so that "education," as a commodity, competes with other consumption goods in shrinking household budgets; and (3) the perceived benefits of…

  12. Empowering Parents to Improve Education: Evidence from Rural Mexico. Impact Evaluation Series Number 4. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3935

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertler, Paul; Patrinos, Harry; Rubio-Codina, Marta

    2006-01-01

    Mexico's compensatory education program provides extra resources to primary schools that enroll disadvantaged students in highly disadvantaged rural communities. One of the most important components of the program is the school-based management intervention known as Apoyo a la Gestion Escolar, (AGEs). The impact of the AGEs is assessed on…

  13. Can Student Loans Improve Accessibility to Higher Education and Student Performance? An Impact Study of the Case of SOFES, Mexico. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3425

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canton, Erik; Blom, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Financial aid to students in tertiary education can contribute to human capital accumulation through two channels: increased enrollment and improved student performance. We analyze the quantitative importance of both channels in the context of a student loan program "Sociedad de Fomento a la Educacion, Superior" (SOFES) implemented at…

  14. Transformation of the Polish Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Stefański

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the post-war period the banking system in Poland underwent two important system transitions: after 1946 and after 1989. The third transformation began after May 1, 2004, but it did not have a systemic character. The Polish banking sector started to operate on the Single European Market. The first part of the paper is devoted to the problems of the banks transformations after 1989 with a special focus on the quantitative development of banks in 19892008, and on subsequent privatisation and consolidation processes. The former intensified in 19891999, and the latter in 19992002. The consolidation process was very noticeable in the sector of cooperative banks after 1994. The second part of the paper includes an economic and financial analysis of the banks. A lot of attention was paid to the liquidity of the banking sector. It was assessed as good, which was confirmed by a short-term rating of Moodys and by the Financial Stability Report 2009, published by the National Bank of Poland in June 2009. The comparison of the net profit of the banking sector in 19972008 shows its dependence on the economic situation and policy. The number of banks with capital adequacy ratio well above the minimum required by the banking supervision is rising. The financial power ratings are not favorable for the domestic banks. The third part of the paper focuses on the development directions of the Polish banking sector. It may be concluded on the basis of the analysis that privatisation and consolidation processes will be continued. They will concentrate on the capital of foreign banks already operating in Poland. As compared with individual foreign banks, the potential of the Polish banking sector is week. The fourth part of the paper focuses on the presentation Polish banking sector in the context of European Union banking sector. The paper finishes with conclusions. Generally, Polish banks have to implement a strategy to enable them to compete on the Single

  15. Cord blood banking - bio-objects on the borderlands between community and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nik; Williams, Rosalind

    2015-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has become the focus of intense efforts to collect, screen and bank haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in hundreds of repositories around the world. UCB banking has developed through a broad spectrum of overlapping banking practices, sectors and institutional forms. Superficially at least, these sectors have been widely distinguished in bioethical and policy literature between notions of the 'public' and the 'private', the commons and the market respectively. Our purpose in this paper is to reflect more critically on these distinctions and to articulate the complex practical and hybrid nature of cord blood as a 'bio-object' that straddles binary conceptions of the blood economies. The paper draws upon Roberto Esposito's reflections on biopolitics and his attempt to transcend the dualistic polarisations of immunity and community, or the private and the public. We suggest that his thoughts on immunitary hospitality resonate with many of the actual features and realpolitik of a necessarily internationalised and globally distributed UCB 'immunitary regime'.

  16. Banking Redefined

    OpenAIRE

    Varma, Vijaya Krushna Varma

    2010-01-01

    Taxation, tax collection, tax enforcement, tax compliance, allocation of revenues to various ministries or departments and money supply into the economy are unified and integrated in the banking system. There will be no Direct and Indirect taxes, tax collection departments, tax tribunals and tax enforcement agencies. Citizens need not maintain separate account books and submit tax returns annually for paying either Direct taxes on personal incomes or Indirect taxes while running business or i...

  17. Electronic Banking And Bank Performance In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... retained their brand names and remain quoted in the Nigerian Stock Exchange since 1997. The profitability performance of these banks was measured in terms of returns on equity (ROE) and ... customers, bank management and shareholders with regard to electronic banking adoption for banking ...

  18. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  19. International Tree Ring Data Bank (ITRDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tree ring data from the International Tree Ring Data Bank and World Data Center for Paleoclimatology archives. Data include raw treering measurements (most are...

  20. The Capitalist World-System and U.S. Cold War Policies in the Core and the Periphery: A Comparative Analysis of Post-World War II American Nation-building in Germany and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hugh Jo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to the emerging cold war, why did the United States stress industrial expansion in Western Europe but focus on primary production alongside policing operations in the non-western world? Examining US postwar occupation in Germany and Korea from a world-systems perspective, this article argues that a given country’s standing in the capitalist economy generally shapes American foreign policy toward that particular country in the early cold war years. A paladin of system-wide prosperity and peace, the United States sought to restore the international division of labor after World War II. Reactions varied across the system, however, because of distinct socio-economic developments. The presence of capital-intensive export-dependent industry afforded western Germany flexible labor-management relations. Politics was overall stable there, and America dispensed with heavy-handed intervention. In southern Korea, labor-exploitive tenancy farming rendered interclass compromise virtually impossible. As intransigent peasants threatened the market economy, the United States used force to keep the ally in the system.