WorldWideScience

Sample records for world bank neutral

  1. Population and the World Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, S

    1973-12-01

    The World Bank Group regards excessive population growth as the single greatest obstacle to economic and social advance in the underdeveloped world. Since 1969 the Bank and the International Development Agency have provided countries with technical assistance through education, fact-finding, and analysis and given 65.7 million dollars for population projects. These projects, in India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, and Malaysia provide training centers, population education, research, and evaluation as well as actual construction of clinics and mobile units. Because population planning touches sensitive areas of religion, caste, race, morality, and politics, the involved nation's political commitment to plan population growth is critical to the success of any program.

  2. The World Bank's innovation market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robert Chapman; Hamel, Gary

    2002-11-01

    Large, tradition-bound organizations can make space for radical, low-cost (and therefore low-risk) innovations. Just ask executives at the World Bank. The story of this best practice begins in 1998, when a young new-products group at the international funding agency proposed holding an Innovation Marketplace to capture novel ideas within the Bank for alleviating poverty. The forum, which eventually was opened to external participants, let people informally present their antipoverty ideas to potential funding sources. Funders could move among hundreds of booths and evaluate proposals for, say, a program that would provide postdisaster reconstruction insurance in developing countries or a vaccination development initiative. The marketplace truncated the Bank's standard project-review processes, which often stretched to a year or more, and gave funders permission to make commitments in the tens of thousands of dollars, rather than in the tens of millions more typical of Bank-financed projects. The marketplace concept met with some skepticism at the beginning. Some senior executives at the Bank felt no group had the right to spend the agency's money without following its well-established resource allocations process. But the marketplace team believed an open process for allocating grants would produce more breakthrough ideas in the long run than a centralized one. In this article, the authors describe how the new-products team brainstormed to create a market for ideas, how it got senior management's support, and how it has expanded on the original concept for these innovation marketplaces. The program's success, they contend, offers hope both for the world's poor and for business leaders looking to find new ideas under the hard crust of corporate dogma, conformance, and bureaucracy.

  3. A perspective from the World Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna de Berry

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The World Bank brings distinctive qualities to the role it can play in furthering the humanitarian to development transition and is significantly scaling up its engagement on forced displacement.

  4. WORLD BANK: Status of Grievance Process Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    In June 1998, in response, to concerns about the fairness of its employee grievance process and as part of a broader effort to reform its human resource policies, the World Bank appointed an internal...

  5. The World Bank and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, W.-C.

    2000-01-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is inextricably linked with economic and development policies. This raises the question, to what extent do the commitments to reduce carbon dioxide emissions under the Climate Change Convention affect the practices and policies of the World Bank? After briefly describing the interaction between climate change and economic development, as well as the respective instruments of the Climate Change Treaty and the World Bank, this paper identifies several windows through which the obligations set out by the Climate Change treaty affect the World Bank. These include the Global Environmentally Facility, the Operational Policies adopted by the Executive Directors of the World Bank, specific loan structures and conditions as well as the recent Prototype Carbon Fund. (Author)

  6. Photovoltaic technology: World Bank's attitude and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitwally, E M

    1982-08-01

    Several major problems stand in the way of the implementation of solar cells in developing countries; these are discussed first and relate to the following: (I) technology; (II) national strategy; (III) required capital. Next, the possible role of the World Bank is discussed. Although there is a strong commitment to the development of renewable energy sources, it is pointed out that the World Bank rates the direct solar technologies far behind biomass conversion. This results from the relatively high cost of solar cells. Nevertheless, there are several Bank-financed projects which are being carried out to enable the Bank to decide for itself the true state of the art. In view of the results obtained, it is believed that this was an appropriate course of action. It is concluded that a combination of efforts from the manufacturers and from the funding organizations is necessary if the Third World market for photovoltaics is to expand to its potential size.

  7. World Bank policy research : a historical overview

    OpenAIRE

    Dethier, Jean-Jacques

    2009-01-01

    The World Bank is a leading intellectual institution on development. It is a world leader in analytical studies in areas including poverty measurement, delivery of social services, impact evaluation, measurement of development outcomes, international trade and migration. It is also a leader in development data, including the Living Standard Measurement Surveys; the enterprise surveys, and...

  8. Coral reefs and the World Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatziolos, M

    1997-01-01

    The World Bank¿s involvement in coral reef conservation is part of a larger effort to promote the sound management of coastal and marine resources. This involves three major thrusts: partnerships, investments, networks and knowledge. As an initial partner and early supporter of the International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI), the Bank serves as the executive planning committee of ICRI. In partnership with the World Conservation Union and the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, the Bank promotes the efforts towards the establishment and maintenance of a globally representative system of marine protected areas. In addition, the Bank invested over $120 million in coral reef rehabilitation and protection programs in several countries. Furthermore, the Bank developed a ¿Knowledge Bank¿ that would market ideas and knowledge to its clients along with investment projects. This aimed to put the best global knowledge on environmentally sustainable development in the hands of its staff and clients. During the celebration of 1997, as the International Year of the Reef, the Bank planned to cosponsor an associated event that would highlight the significance of coral reefs and encourage immediate action to halt their degradation to conserve this unique ecosystem.

  9. The World Bank Annual Report 2008 : Year in Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The World Bank Group's work focuses on achievement of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The goals call for eliminating poverty and achieving inclusive and sustainable globalization. The MDGs lay out a blueprint for the World Bank Group, setting its priorities and measuring its results. The World Bank is the world's largest funder of education; the world's largest external fund...

  10. The World Bank's "Employing Workers" index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Sangheon; McCann, Deirdre; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    This note provides an update on the ongoing debate over the World Bank's Doing Business project with a particular focus on its "Employing Workers" index, which is intended to measure difficulty of hiring, rigidity of working hours and difficulty of firing. The authors review the findings of studi...

  11. Forest sector: A World Bank policy paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Forests are the most extensive terrestrial ecosystem, and nearly 500 million people depend on forests for their livelihood. Since the World Bank issued its forestry sector policy paper in 1978, there has been growing concern about the accelerated rate of destruction of the remaining primary forests in various parts of the world. The policy paper identifies two key challenges: to slow the alarmingly rapid rates of deforestation, especially (although not exclusively) in the tropical moist forests, and to ensure adequate planting of new trees to meet the rapidly growing demand for fuelwood in developing countries. The Bank intends to move vigorously to promote the conservation of natural forests and the sustainable development of managed forestry resources

  12. Daniel Stufflebeam and The World Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russon, Craig; Russon, Karen

    2018-04-01

    Circa 2000 when The Evaluation Center on the campus of Western Michigan University was undergoing a renovation, staff were encouraged to clean out their filing cabinets. One of the authors rescued two manila files from the garbage dealing with a presentation that Daniel Stufflebeam made to The World Bank on 13 December 1993 and a subsequent World Bank conference on evaluation and development in which he participated 5-6 December 1994. In these documents, Dan set out some of his early thinking on international evaluation and other topics. The authors used these materials to write a tribute article to Dan publishing some of these ideas for the historical record. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Forest sector: A world bank policy paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Forests are the most extensive terrestrial ecosystem, and nearly 500 million people depend on forests for their livelihood. Since the World Bank issued its forestry sector policy paper in 1978, there has been growing concern about the accelerated rate of destruction of the remaining primary forests in various parts of the world. The policy paper identifies two key challenges: to slow the alarmingly rapid rates of deforestation, especially (although not exclusively) in the tropical moist forests, and to ensure adequate planting of new trees to meet the rapidly growing demand for fuelwood in developing countries. The Bank intends to move vigorously to promote the conservation of natural forests and the sustainable development of managed forestry resources

  14. Seeing Like the World Bank on Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetterlein, Antje

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the way in which the World Bank constructs knowledge on poverty by identifying analytic institutions inside the organisation where ideas are developed, ‘anti-poverty advocates’ that populate these institutions and the strategies they employ to foster their agenda. By doing...... the discursive level with developments on the policy and operational level reveals that the poverty or social agenda has grown incrementally from the late 1960s even in times when neoliberalism dominated world politics and economy. The article goes beyond such an organisational analysis in critically assessing...

  15. Supervision and Performance : The Case of World Bank Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilby, C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores empirical aspects of the relation between supervision and project performance. I focus on development projects funded by the World Bank and on supervision done by the World Bank. The World Bank is the preeminent international development organization both in terms of money lent

  16. Knowledge sharing at the World Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denning, S.

    2004-01-01

    The World Bank is thus one of many organizations that have recognized that knowledge sharing is a central driver of the 21st century economy. The World Bank experience replicates what has been learned in many organizations that have attempted to implement an organization-wide program over the last eight years. Here are ten main features of that experience. 1. Knowledge sharing requires seven basic elements: strategy of knowledge management; organizing for knowledge management; budget of knowledge management; incentives for knowledge management; communities of practice; technology of knowledge management; measurement of KM strategy. 2. Communities of practice are the key to knowledge sharing. 3. Virtual community members also need physical interactions. 4. Passion is the driving force behind communities of practice. 5. Tacit knowledge can be at least partially captured. 6. Knowledge sharing has an inside-out and outside-in dynamic. 7. Storytelling is needed to ignite knowledge sharing. 8. Knowledge sharing is at some point confused with IT. 9. Vibrant communities of practice attract new talents. 10. Organizations are in different stages of knowledge sharing

  17. Towards Open Knowledge : The State of World Bank Knowledge Services

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This first World Bank Knowledge Report launches what is intended as a series of World Bank Knowledge Reports. Although knowledge is a fundamental to the Bank s overall mission, and informs all of the Bank s development activities, it has not received the same degree of attention from management that has been accorded to its lending activities. By paying attention to knowledge work as a dis...

  18. World Bank support for renewable energy - the ASTAE experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, L.

    1999-01-01

    Historically, the World Bank has helped finance the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity as well as improvements in supply-side energy efficiency. The World Bank's ability to mainstream renewable energy technologies in developing countries is enhanced by the Global Energy Facility (GEF), the World Bank Solar Initiative (and the nascent Solar Development Corporation), the International Finance Corporation and the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE). (orig./RHM)

  19. World Bank support for renewable energy - the ASTAE experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, L. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States). Asia Alternative Energy Unit

    1999-07-01

    Historically, the World Bank has helped finance the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity as well as improvements in supply-side energy efficiency. The World Bank's ability to mainstream renewable energy technologies in developing countries is enhanced by the Global Energy Facility (GEF), the World Bank Solar Initiative (and the nascent Solar Development Corporation), the International Finance Corporation and the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE). (orig./RHM)

  20. The World Bank | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Accueil · Ce que nous faisons · Nos partenaires et initiatives. The World Bank. The World Bank. http://www.worldbank.org/ · Ce que nous faisons · Financement · Ressources · À propos du CRDI. Savoir. Innovation. Solutions. Carrières · Communiquez avec nous · Plan du site. Abonnez-vous à notre bulletin pour recevoir les ...

  1. Review of the World Bank Road Safety website.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Road Safety website of The World Bank needs to be redeveloped. The website should reflect the new developments in the work field and the IT policy of The World Bank and support its implementation. The report is meant as a brief business case, describing the target audience, purposes of the site,

  2. Correlates of Success in World Bank Development Policy Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, Peter; Geli, Patricia; Saavedra, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the correlates of success of development policy lending operations of the World Bank between 2004 and 2012. The paper uses a data set constructed of individual loan characteristics and ex-post loan ratings produced by the World Bank's Independent Evaluation Group. Departing from the related literature, the paper focuses mostly on examining the impact of loan characteris...

  3. Banking services for everyone? Barriers to bank access and use around the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Demirgüc-Kunt, A.; Martinez Peria, M.

    2008-01-01

    Using information from 209 banks in 62 countries, we develop new indicators of barriers to banking services around the world, show their correlation with existing measures of outreach, and explore their association with other bank and country characteristics suggested by theory as potential

  4. assessment of selected world bank policies and their implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    U. Akah, Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University of Calabar, Calabar,. Nigeria .... (SAP) policies by the World Bank which was aimed at streamlining the ... of water resources to her citizens as a conation for assessing ...

  5. Reflective Practice: How the World Bank Explored Its Own Biases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2015-12-10

    While many international organisations have independent evaluations, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Health organization (WHO), uniquely the World Bank in its 2015 World Development Report sought to ascertain the potential biases that influence how its staff interpret evidence and influence policy. Here, we describe the World Bank's study design, including experiments to ascertain the impact on Bank staff's judgements of complexity, confirmation bias, sunk cost bias, and an understanding of the wishes of those whom they seek to help. We then review the Bank's proposed mechanisms to minimise the impact of the biases they identified. We argue that this approach, that we refer to as 'reflective practice,' deserves to be adopted more widely among institutions that seek to use evidence from research to inform policy and practice. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  6. World bank and the environment. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The second annual report describes specific environmental strategies and environmental lending in the Bank's four operational regions: Africa; Asia; Europe, Middle East, and North Africa; and Latin America and the Caribbean. It details the Bank's progress in eight environmental categories: energy and the environment, pollution, urban environment, water resources management, forest and land management, social and cultural, environmental economics, and the global environment. One chapter is devoted exclusively to tropical forests, studying ways in which the Bank is dealing with deforestation as a part of the constant review of its forest policies. Suggestions are made for decreasing the degradation of tropical forests while meeting demands for forest products. This chapter reflects a shift in Bank emphasis from commercial ventures to conservation measures. The publication reports on other initiatives by the Bank during fiscal 1991, including the launching of the Global Environment Facility (GEF)--a pilot program to oversee reduction of global warming, preservation of biological diversity, protection of international waters, and prevention of ozone depletion

  7. World bank's role in the electric power sector: Policies for effective institutional, regulatory, and financial reform. World Bank policy paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The policy paper is based on the World Bank Industry and Energy Department's ongoing policy and research work, which (1) examines experiences of industrial countries and the Bank's borrowers in developing their power sectors, (2) analyzes issues facing these sectors, and (3) describes options for dealing with these issues in developing countries. The paper is supported by a large body of research

  8. World Bank and agricultural development: food production and rural poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stryker, R E

    1979-03-01

    Over the past decade, the World Bank has become the leading international institution for development financing and for elaborating new development strategies. This has involved a major shift in lending toward agriculture and rural development. Explanations for the change range from more progressive expertise within the Bank to the shock of the 1972-74 food crisis and renewed penetration of Third World agriculture by capitalist agribusiness. Discriminating among these perspectives requires attention to the core issue of the relationship between increasing food production and reducing rural poverty. The author feels that the issue is irreducibly political and that the Bank's record is less encouraging than the reformist rhetoric. 33 references, 4 tables.

  9. The world bank and the environment, exercise 1992. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The report describes the Bank's activities in assisting countries with environmental management, such as programs to reduce poverty without exhausting natural resources. Included are assessments of the environmental impacts of projects supported by World Bank loans, and accounts of efforts to meet global environmental challenges with coordinated international action through the Global Environment Facility (GEF). Among the events in the period covered by the report are the affirmation of the World Bank's participation with United Nations organizations in the GEF and the Bank's administration of pilot programs aimed at finding solutions to such global environmental problems as pollution of international waters, global warming, depletion of the Earth's ozone layer, and dwindling biological diversity; the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development; and the publication of the World Development Report 1992, with its theme of development and the environment

  10. Oil and gas activities of the world bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossein, R.

    1993-01-01

    The oil crisis of the 1970s profoundly challenged the economies of most developing countries. The crisis hit the the oil-importing countries severely, and many suffered deteriorating balances of payments and increasingly unmanageable import bills. It was in this context, in July 1977, that the World Bank's Executive Directors approved an expanded program of lending to assist the Bank's client countries in developing their own energy resources. In 1978, the Bonn Summit and the Secretary General of the United Nations endorsed the initiation of new approaches in the energy sector by the World Bank, particularly in financing oil exploration in countries that were significant oil importers. The new initiative led to a rapid expansion of the World Bank's lending for oil and gas projects, which reached about $1 billion in 1983

  11. Oil and gas financing by the World Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi, Hossein

    1995-01-01

    The World Bank has developed a flexible oil and gas programme that is structured to meet the changing needs of the sector as they arise. The Bank became prominent in the oil and gas sector after the oil crises of the 1970s, when it began assisting client countries in developing their indigenous energy resources. At the beginning, Bank lending concentrated on exploration and development of hydrocarbon resources where the level of lending expanded to US$1 billion in 1983. This rapid expansion caused some concern that Bank activities might preempt those of the private sector. In response, the Bank imposed in 1984 strict limitations on petroleum exploration and oil production lending. In combination with the perception that future oil demand would be weak, this caused the lending programme to fall off sharply (to US$300 million by 1986). By 1990, the Bank was again moving actively into hydrocarbon sector lending, but then the emphasis was on promoting private sector development and supporting the development of natural gas as a substitute for coal and oil. Bank lending to the sector has been on the increase since 1990; a lending level of about US$1 billion yearly is expected for the second half of the 1990s. In addition to its direct lending, the World Bank facilitates contributions by other financiers through its cofinancing and risk mitigation arrangements. (author)

  12. Plundering the poor: the role of the World Bank in the Third World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, E

    1983-01-01

    The World Bank, the most important so-called development assistance agency, annually dispenses billions of dollars to Third World governments, ostensibly to "develop" their economics through a variety of loan projects. But even a superficial analysis reveals that the Bank is the perfect mechanism to help (i.e., subsidize) the large transnational corporations from the industrial countries to expand their industrial, commercial, and financial activities in the Third World, at the expense of the latter and particularly at the expense of the rural and urban proletariat. This article discusses Cheryl Payer's recent book, The World Bank: A Critical Analysis, in which she analyzes the Bank's role in the Third World and sets forth the major reasons why poverty, hunger, and malnutrition, as well as unemployment, and all the adverse social phenomena associated with them, are on the increase.

  13. World Bank Okays Public Interest in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David; Clipper, Lutitia; Enkhbaatar, D.; Manning, Anitra; Riley, Thomas; Zaman, Husam

    2004-01-01

    This essay review discusses the report of The Task Force on Higher Education and Society (TFHES), convened in 1998 by the World Bank but independently financed and staffed in collaboration with UNESCO and several foundations. "Peril and Promise" marks an historic turning point in the framework for postsecondary educational planning. Rate-of-return…

  14. Argentina: Social Sectors in Crisis. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Based on the findings of a two month visit to Argentina by a World Bank Mission in November/December of 1988, this report summarizes current economic, education, and social policies in Argentina. The four major areas targeted are the social sectors, education, health care, and housing. The analysis identifies critical problems in the organization…

  15. Nigerian University Libraries and the World Bank Loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balarabe, Ahmed Abdu

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the development of Nigerian federal universities and their libraries. Topics include library funding; the Nigerian economic crisis and the university library system; rationale for the World Bank Federal Universities Adjustment Loan Project that was used for library materials, staff development, and equipment; and problems with the…

  16. Retrenched Journals: Further on the World Bank Loan in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olorunsola, R.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews collection development difficulties encountered at Nigeria's University of Ilorin as a result of the inflation of serial subscription prices and the poor state of the Nigerian economy in the 1980s. Describes the library's successful use of the World Bank loan of 1990-1993 to fund journal renewals and purchases. (JMV)

  17. Compensation, Diversity and Inclusion at the World Bank Group

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Jishnu; Joubert, Clement; Tordoir, Sander Florian

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines salary gaps by gender and nationality at the World Bank Group between 1987 and 2015 using a unique panel of all employees over this period. The paper develops and implements a dynamic simulation approach that models existing gaps as arising from differences in job composition at entry, entry salaries, salary growth and attrition. There are three main findings. First, 76...

  18. World Bank in Nepal's Education: Three Decades of Neoliberal Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2017-01-01

    This paper critically analyses key educational policy documents produced by the World Bank mainly from the mid-1980s to 2010 with regard to implementing major educational projects in Nepal. Using critical policy sociology as a methodological tool, the paper explores how a small Himalayan nation with per capita income of about US$730 (2014) plunged…

  19. US politics and World Bank IDA-lending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Hansen, Henrik; Markussen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the role of US political factors in the allocation of World Bank concessional lending, where US political interests are proxied by voting similarity in the United Nations General Assembly on issues identified as important by the US Department of State. In contrast to previous...

  20. Can accounting rules be made neutral for bank capital regulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxiang Song

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates several methods which can possibly be used to minimize the pro-cyclical impact of accounting rules on bank capital regulation. Improving accounting rules cannot eliminate the pro-cyclicality problem as therecentlyproposed expected credit loss impairment model for historical cost accounting may be moving towards using information inputs for fair values. Limiting the trading activities accounted for by fair valuesmay reduce the pro-cyclicality. However, it cannot eliminate the impact of fair values in a liquidity crisis. The most effective method is to exclude the unrealized accounting gains or losses from regulatory capital. But it needs a report of capital ratios based on accounting measures to help regulators read the early warning signals emitted by the accounting information.

  1. The capacitor banks for the text diagnostic neutral beam and electron cyclotron heating experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelin, K.; Jagger, J.; Baker, M.; Ourou, A.; De Turk, P.

    1986-01-01

    The Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) has been operational since November of 1980. Since that time, many experimental systems have been added to the machine. Currently, two major experiments are being added to compliment the diagnostics already online. These systems, the Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB) and the Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) experiments are described in separate papers. A set of five modular, bipolar capacitor banks are used to power both the DNB and the ECH. The total capacitance of the banks is 92μF. The stored energy is about 500kJ at+or-100kV. The banks are built as five identical, interchangeable modules. One module is adequate to run the DNB. Up to four banks are used to power the ECH. The banks are portable so that they can be moved to the open end of the laboratory for maintenance. This gives much better access for repair work and allows the experiments to continue to run with the remaining banks. Due to budgetary constraints, these banks were constructed in the most economical manner possible consistent with worker safety and long term reliability. The capacitors themselves are on loan from Los Alamos National Labs. They are rated at 1.85μF at 60kV. Our application requires that they be used in a series/parallel configuration with a peak voltage of 50kV each. This paper describes the electrical, mechanical and control design considerations required to achieve a working set of banks

  2. The World Banks' BioCarbon Fund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, I.

    2003-03-01

    In November 2002 the World Bank launched the BioCarbon Fund, a public/private initiative to provide finance to projects that store carbon in vegetation and soils ('sinks') while helping to reverse land degradation, conserve biodiversity and improve the livelihoods of local communities. The Fund will seek projects to sequester or conserve carbon in non-Annex I countries and in countries in transition. Sinks may be the only option for poor nations with small energy to benefit from the carbon finance business. The Fund will include a portion of assets based on reductions in emissions such as substitution of biofuels for fossil fuels. The author Ian Noble of the World Bank, is chairman of the BioCarbon Fund Technical Advisory Committee.

  3. Poverty crisis in the Third World: the contradictions of World Bank policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, P

    1991-01-01

    Politicians, the mainstream media, and orthodox social science have all been telling us of a final victory of capitalism over socialism, suggesting that capitalism is the only viable option for solving the world's problems. Yet, the global capitalist system is itself entering the third decade of a profound structural crisis, the costs of which have been borne largely by the exploited and oppressed peoples of the underdeveloped periphery. While the World Bank's latest World Development Report recognizes the current poverty crisis in the third world, its "two-part strategy" for alleviating poverty is based on an inadequate analysis of how peripheral capitalist development marginalizes the basic needs of the third world poor. Hence, the World Bank's assertion that free-market policies are consistent with effective antipoverty programs does not confront the class structures and global capitalist interests bound up with the reproduction of mass poverty in the third world. The World Bank's subordination of the basic needs of the poor to free-market adjustments and reforms in fact suggests that the real purpose of its "two-part strategy" is to ensure continued extraction of surplus from third world countries by maintaining the basic structure of imperialist underdevelopment.

  4. Data for Development : An Evaluation of World Bank Support for Data and Statistical Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Independent Evaluation Group

    2017-01-01

    This evaluation’s objective was to assess how effectively the World Bank has supported development data production, sharing, and use, and to suggest ways to improve its approach. This evaluation defines development data as data produced by country systems, the World Bank, or third parties on countries’ social, economic, and environmental issues. At the global level, the World Bank has a st...

  5. Climate change and the World Bank: opportunity for global governance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer-Christiansen, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The direct and indirect efforts of the World Bank and its off-spring, the Global Environment Facility (GEF), to become leading international agents of global environmental 'governance' and 'sustainable development' are described and analysed politically with reference to the development of an implementation regime of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The Bank/GEF are seen as engaging in a potentially dangerous experiment of 'global ecological modernisation', or industrial transformation, in 'emerging economies', an experiment legitimised by reference to the catastrophic threat of man-made 'global warming'. This threat is already being translated into political, commercial and bureaucratic benefits accruing to a small global elite. How was this achieved and what are the likely political implications? (author)

  6. The world Bank's support for concentrated solar power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pariente-David, S.; Walters, J.; Govindarajalu, Ch.; Coma Cunill, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Clean Technology Fund (CTF) was set up in 2008 to provide funding, especially subsidies, on an industrial scale for projects that experiment with, deploy or transfer low-carbon technology, which can potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions significantly in the long run. The CTF helps multilateral development banks providing the funds needed, and giving a boost to experiments with low-carbon techniques, while waiting for the conclusion of the negotiations conducted by the United Nations on climate change. The World Bank manages this temporary fund. The article presents the use of CTF as a catalyzer to lower costs, to create a viable market and to attract important financing for the development of concentrating solar plants in Middle East and North-Africa countries

  7. Managing Climate Risk. Integrating Adaptation into World Bank Group Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Aalst, M.

    2006-08-01

    Climate change is already taking place, and further changes are inevitable. Developing countries, and particularly the poorest people in these countries, are most at risk. The impacts result not only from gradual changes in temperature and sea level but also, in particular, from increased climate variability and extremes, including more intense floods, droughts, and storms. These changes are already having major impacts on the economic performance of developing countries and on the lives and livelihoods of millions of poor people around the world. Climate change thus directly affects the World Bank Group's mission of eradicating poverty. It also puts at risk many projects in a wide range of sectors, including infrastructure, agriculture, human health, water resources, and environment. The risks include physical threats to the investments, potential underperformance, and the possibility that projects will indirectly contribute to rising vulnerability by, for example, triggering investment and settlement in high-risk areas. The way to address these concerns is not to separate climate change adaptation from other priorities but to integrate comprehensive climate risk management into development planning, programs, and projects. While there is a great need to heighten awareness of climate risk in Bank work, a large body of experience on climate risk management is already available, in analytical work, in country dialogues, and in a growing number of investment projects. This operational experience highlights the general ingredients for successful integration of climate risk management into the mainstream development agenda: getting the right sectoral departments and senior policy makers involved; incorporating risk management into economic planning; engaging a wide range of nongovernmental actors (businesses, nongovernmental organizations, communities, and so on); giving attention to regulatory issues; and choosing strategies that will pay off immediately under current

  8. Healthy development: the World Bank strategy for health, nutrition, and population results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ... the views of the Executive Directors of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply any judgement on th...

  9. Gas in the developing world--The role of the World Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    Over a third of the world's supply of energy today comes from the developing countries, a percentage that is likely to increase to almost 43% by the year 2000. One of the major areas of growth is expected to be in natural gas, which may supply over 20% of the total world's energy by 2000. Though there are major gas reserves in the developing world, they are not being exploited optimally. Growth of the gas industry requires resolution of a number of issues--financial, technical, and institutional. International trade in gas has shown recent signs of recovery, but over 70% of the gas produced in the developing countries is expected to be consumed domestically. The development and management of this emerging gas sector in the domestic economies of the developing countries will be one of the major challenges of the future. These issues are discussed in some detail. The role of the World Bank in financing natural gas projects is also discussed. The World Bank Group comprises the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development Association (IBRD) and its affiliates, the International Development Association (IDA), the International Finance Corporation (IFC), and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA)

  10. Knowledge Banking in Global Education Policy: A Bibliometric Analysis of World Bank Publications on Public-Private Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashy, Francine; Read, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    As a leading mobilizer of international development and educational knowledge, the World Bank has been critiqued in two key areas: (1) the dominance of economic thinking in its policies, and (2) its Northern-generated knowledge which informs its work in the Global South. In this paper, we investigate the disciplinary foundation of Bank knowledge,…

  11. The Determinants of Bank Internationalisation in Times of Financial Globalisation: Evidence from the World's Largest Banks (1980-2007)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, Gerarda; Mulder, Arjen

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the determinants of bank internationalisation, of the world's largest banks from the period 1980–2007. The purpose of the article is twofold. First, we show how a mixed-methods research design, in which we combine a variables-based research with three case studies, can

  12. The World Bank, Support for Universities, and Asymmetrical Power Relations in International Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christopher S.; Rhoads, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of the World Bank in advancing higher education sectors in the developing world, considering in particular the increasing power and strength of a global knowledge-based economy. Given the powerful role that intergovernmental organizations such as the World Bank play in shaping global economic policies, the authors…

  13. Higher Education for Development : An Evaluation of the World Bank Group’s Support

    OpenAIRE

    Independent Evaluation Group

    2017-01-01

    The World Bank Group’s twin goals have redefined the rationale for engagement across all sectors. Although the World Bank Group has never had an explicit strategy for higher education, institutional- and regional-level strategies and knowledge work anchor the World Bank’s engagement in supporting and promoting (i) greater access and equity, (ii) relevant and quality teaching and research, ...

  14. World Bank: Management Controls Stronger, But Challenges in Fighting Corruption Remain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    Concerns about corruption have intensified in recent years as there is a growing realization among international financial donors, including the World Bank, that corruption may undermine development...

  15. Post-crisis asymmetries of the world market development of banking services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladyslav Тіpanov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article there were analyzed theoretical backgrounds for defining the concept «banking service» by scientists from different countries: considered its main characteristics and classification, determined the key peculiarities of the world market functioning of banking services and its structure, found out the present-day developments of the world market of banking services under conditions of post-crisis period.

  16. Vocational Education and Training: A Major Shift in World Bank Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Phillip

    1992-01-01

    Comments on the World Bank's policy paper on vocational and technical education and training. Argues that past failures in establishing effective vocational and technical education were a result of not applying conventional neoclassical economic theory. Asserts that the World Bank's policy paper corrects this approach. (CFR)

  17. The World Bank: Changing Leadership and Issues for the United States and Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weiss, Martin A

    2005-01-01

    .... The focus of the next World Bank President likely will be on many development issues including global humanitarian and reconstruction assistance and debt relief for the poorest countries, among others. Congress has a significant role in shaping U.S. policy at the World Bank through funding arrangements and oversight responsibility. This report will be updated as events warrant.

  18. Cash Flow Valuation in an Inflactionary World. The Case of World Bank for Regulated Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Vélez-Pareja

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We show that project evaluation should be based on free cash flows at nominal prices. We present a case where the results from the constant price method are biased upwards and there is a risk to accept bad projects. It is a widespread practice to evaluate projects at constant prices. With an example presented in the training on economic regulation of public utilities developed by the World Bank Institute we asses that methodology. We show an overvaluation of 21% when compared with the current prices methodology and using a correct Weighted Average Cost of Capital, WACC.

  19. Faith-based Organisations, Development and the World Bank (abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Haynes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Faith-based organisations (FBOs have increasingly become important actors in international development cooperation. Many international institutions recognise them as valuable partners and declare to have ‘mainstreamed faith’ within their own activities. But is this really the case? And how has this happened? Focusing on the activities of the World Bank in the 1995–2005 period, when, under the leadership of President James Wolfensohn and Katherine Marshall, then Head of the Bank’s Development Dialogue on Values and Ethics (DDVE, the institution engaged with some selected FBOs, this chapter enquires into the reasons for the Bank’s interest in faith as well as its sudden disappearance. It argues that the main rationale for engagement with faith lay in the disappointing results of previous secular strategies and the feeling that religion had a positive role to play in fighting poverty. However, diverging perceptions of poverty and development between states and religious entities, along with lingering suspicions among state officials about dealing with faith in the public realm, derailed the collaboration.

  20. Neoliberalism with a Feminist Face: Crafting a New Hegemony at the World Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Prügl Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Neoliberalism has been discredited as a result of proliferating crises (financial ecological care) and mounting inequality. This paper examines the growing research on gender at the World Bank as a site for the construction of a new hegemonic consensus around neoliberalism. Drawing on a computer assisted inductive analysis of thirty four Bank publications on gender since 2001 the paper documents Bank efforts to establish a positive relationship between gender equality and growth; shows the ex...

  1. The World Bank's financial support to the petroleum sector in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayorga-Alba, E.; Smith, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the World Bank Group's role in the petroleum sector of developing countries. It addresses separately the role of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International Finance Corporation (IFC) and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) in the upstream, downstream, and natural gas subsectors. Using specific examples, it describes the World Bank's role in promotion exercises, infrastructure projects, policy reform, mobilization of the private sector, and provision of political risk insurance. Considering that bank lending in the hydrocarbon sector meets only about 1 % of the industry's capital requirements, the paper argues that the World Bank Group is best suited to use its unique resources to catalyze private sector investment and to provide an environment conducive to market-driven development. 4 refs

  2. Aspects of neutrality: two Dutch ambulances at the eastern front in the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, Leo

    2010-01-01

    The paper looks at two First World War ambulance teams which distinctly differed from each other, both in the way they perceived the war and the places at the front where they worked. The first was working on the Serbian side and the second on the Austrian-Hungarian. The questions raised are: how was medical neutrality defined (was it defined at all)? Was neutrality maintained, and if so how? The writings of several protagonists are closely examined, and placed in context, to show that total neutrality was not adhered to by the physicians and nurses of these ambulances. Apparently neutrality in wartime is difficult, even for men and women coming from a neutral country with an occupation seen as essentially neutral.

  3. Training for Social Development Staff at the World Bank, Volume 1. Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel R. Gross; Matthew LeDuc

    2010-01-01

    The social development family is facing a major challenge given the significant increase in lending made by the Bank in the last five years. Lending overall has more than doubled between FY05 and FY09; investment lending has increased by 82 percent and infrastructure lending by 125 percent. In this report, International Evaluation Group (IEG) suggests that the World Bank's safeguard policies ...

  4. Training for Social Development Staff at the World Bank, Volume 2. Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Daniel R.; LeDuc, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The social development family is facing a major challenge given the significant increase in lending made by the Bank in the last five years. Lending overall has more than doubled between FY05 and FY09; investment lending has increased by 82 percent and infrastructure lending by 125 percent. In this report, International Evaluation Group (IEG) suggests that the World Bank's safeguard policies ...

  5. The World Bank's Shift Away from Neoliberal Ideology: Real or Rhetoric?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Rino Wiseman

    2012-01-01

    Some literature on World Bank education policies after 1999 tries to project a shift away of the Bank from its 1980s neoliberal mandate. This article argues that the shift is only in the form of rhetoric, which facilitates a hidden agenda of creating a worldwide higher education market, leaving the poor with primary education only. At the…

  6. Leaders of Universities' Association Criticize World Bank's View on Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morna, Colleen Lowe

    1987-01-01

    World Bank recommendations calling on developing countries to shift some of their higher-education funds to elementary and secondary education have prompted opposition from leaders of the International Association of Universities. (MLW)

  7. The world bank and the environment. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The second annual report describes specific environmental strategies and environmental lending in the Bank's four operational regions: Africa; Asia; Europe, Middle East, and North Africa; and Latin America and the Caribbean. It details the Bank's progress in eight environmental categories: energy and the environment, pollution, urban environment, water resources management, forest and land management, social and cultural, environmental economics, and the global environment. One chapter is devoted exclusively to tropical forests, studying ways in which the Bank is dealing with deforestation as a part of the constant review of its forest policies. Suggestions are made for decreasing the degradation of tropical forests while meeting demands for forest products. This chapter reflects a shift in Bank emphasis from commercial ventures to conservation measures. The publication reports on other initiatives by the Bank during fiscal 1991, including the launching of the Global Environment Facility (GEF)--a pilot program to oversee reduction of global warming, preservation of biological diversity, protection of international waters, and prevention of ozone depletion

  8. Integrating Gender into World Bank Financed Transport Programs : Component 1. Case Study Summary and Final Report

    OpenAIRE

    IC Net

    2004-01-01

    The World Bank in November 2001 commissioned IC Net Limited of Japan to carry out a study titled 'Integrating Gender into World Bank Financed Transport Programs' in accord with the terms of reference (TOR) issued in June 2001. The study was financed by a grant from the Japanese Large Studies Trust Fund. The contract came into effect on 15 December 2001 and covers the period to 15 June 2004...

  9. Challenges of the banking regulation systems in the climate of the world economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlarević Lazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the 20th century, banking systems of the developed countries have undergone multiple changes, where the basic dimensions of those changes were integration, deregulation and globalisation of activities. The resultant of these factors' actions was the creation of highly risky banking environment, which acted as a catalyst of the world economic crisis effects. These effects brought to the forefront weaknesses of the banking sector and of the banking regulation system, while emphasizing the need for their redefining. Hence this work examines in detail concrete models of the banking regulation systems in the European Union area and in the United States of America. In addition, directions of redefining regulation system were highlighted, and also the relevant differences between banking business regulation in the European Union and in the United States of America.

  10. An evaluation of the feedback loops in the poverty focus of world bank operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardoust, Shahrokh; Kanbur, Ravi; Luo, Xubei; Sundberg, Mark

    2018-04-01

    The World Bank Group in 2013 made the elimination of extreme poverty by 2030 a central institutional focus and purpose. This paper, based on an evaluation conducted by the Independent Evaluation Group of the World Bank Group, examines how, and how well, the Bank uses feedback loops to enhance the poverty focus of its operations. Feedback loops are important for every element of the results chain running from data, to diagnostics, to strategy formulation and finally to strategy implementation. The evaluation uses a range of instruments, including surveys of stakeholders and World Bank staff, focus group meetings, country case studies and systematic reviews of Bank lending and non-lending operations. We find that while the Bank generates useful information on poverty reduction from its projects and programs, the feedback loops - from outcomes to data analysis to diagnostics to strategy formulation and implementation - have generally been weak, with sizable variation across countries. Copyright © 2017 The World Bank. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Investing in amnesia, or fantasy and forgetfulness in the World Bank's approach to healthcare reform in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epprecht, M

    1997-01-01

    "Investing in Health," the World Bank's 1993 World Development Report, and a follow-up report, "Better Health in Africa," advocate investments in Third World health sectors as a means of increasing individual productivity and strengthening economic growth. Both reports maintain that structural adjustment policies have enhanced the physical health of low-income populations by improving the fiscal health of business elites. This essay critiques the World Bank's approach through a historical analysis of health care problems in sub-Saharan Africa with an emphasis on the devastating effects of colonialism, patriarchy, and imperialism. Although these documents contain many useful recommendations for Western donors (e.g., recognition of the destructive potential of alcohol and tobacco, the need for state regulation over key parts of the health sector, and the effects of gender on health status), they reflect an "investment in amnesia" regarding historical evidence on health care reform in Africa and an erroneous assumption that Western biomedicine is politically neutral. Foreign aid has tended to serve the needs of multinational corporations rather than African populations. Recommended, in place of structural adjustment policies, are measures such as a massive rebuilding of Africa's urban infrastructure, the enforcement of minimum wage laws, the preservation of ecosystems that supply traditional medicines, attention to the ecologic and health consequences of economic growth, and a feminist-led reproductive rights movement.

  12. World Bank Research Digest, Vol. 5(2)

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    In this issue: growth and development at the center of the G-20 agenda; food price inflation in South Asia: crisis revisited? How fast can Egypt grow? Sustainable energy policy and nuclear power; access to HIV/AIDS treatment and risky sexual behaviors; the investment climate when firms have climate control; and bank capital: lessons from the financial crisis.

  13. The World Bank and the environment, fiscal 1992, exercise 92. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The report describes the Bank's activities in assisting countries with environmental management, such as programs to reduce poverty without exhausting natural resources. Included are assessments of the environmental impacts of projects supported by World Bank loans, and accounts of efforts to meet global environmental challenges with coordinated international action through the Global Environment Facility (GEF). Among the events in the period covered by the report are the affirmation of the World Bank's participation with United Nations organizations in the GEF and the Bank's administration of pilot programs aimed at finding solutions to such global environmental problems as pollution of international waters, global warming, depletion of the Earth's ozone layer, and dwindling biological diversity; the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development; and the publication of the World Development Report 1992, with its theme of development and the environment

  14. Entering the Forbidden Zone: the World Bank, Criminal Justice Reform and the Political Prohibition Clause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, R.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 7 years or so, the World Bank has expanded its rule of law agenda by moving into the area of criminal justice reform. This turn to criminal justice reform, however obvious it may be from a development perspective, was — and still is — a controversial step. This is because the World

  15. A review of World Bank lending for electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munasinghe, M.; Gilling, J.; Mason, M.

    1989-01-01

    This retrospective study was carried out to review power projects financed by the Bank from 1965 to 1983. The main objectives of the study were to: (1) assess the performance of power projects and institutions in terms of key physical and financial indicators, and adherence to loan covenants; (2) assess sector performance in terms of the increase in access to service, and service price, quality, and cost; (3) identify issues and causal factors relating to good or poor performance; and (4) determine options and make recommendations to improve project and sector performance

  16. Coal pricing in China: Issues and reform strategy. World Bank discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albouy, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The study assesses the magnitude of coal price distortions left in place by the dual track pricing approach to price reform implemented by China in the 1980s; it examines the economic and financial costs of these distortions and identifies the potential winners and losers of pricing improvements. Finally the report outlines a strategy for gradual price adjustments and liberalization in the coal sector. (Copyright (c) 1991 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.)

  17. PENSION REFORMS AND WORLD BANK-REGULATED LAWS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prospective public servants who world borrow from the experiences of retired .... and the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja together with workers in the private sector which .... intellectual project but also a practical reality in implementation.

  18. A Parallel World for the World Bank: A Case Study of Urgent: Evoke, An Educational Alternate Reality Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I. Waddington

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the World Bank launched Urgent: Evoke, an alternate reality game. Conceived in response to the demands of African universities, the game was designed to promote the World Bank Institute’s vision of positive global change through social innovation, and made substantial use of Web 2.0 tools such as blogs, personal profiles, and social networks. This article offers a case study of Urgent: Evoke, divided into four sections: first, the potential to use video games as citizenship education tools is discussed; second, the unique game genre (alternate reality games into which Evoke falls is explained and some possible uses of this genre in higher education are examined; third, the functioning of the Evoke game world is explained; and fourth, the results of the Evoke educational project are assessed. The case study concludes with some commentary on Evoke’s ideological message, which those less sympathetic to capitalism may view as problematic.

  19. Historical Significance of the Spanish Neutrality in the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Yurievich Mednikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an insufficiently studied problem, Spanish neutrality during the First World War. The author analyzes its historical significance in the international context, as well in the context of political, economical and social evolution of Spain. Spain was one of the few major European Powers that maintained its neutrality throughout the First World War. Although all Spanish governments during the conflict declared strict neutrality, it was, in actual fact, benevolent towards the Entente Powers, and by the end of hostilities Spain turned into "neutral ally" of Entente. This benevolence towards the future winners and a wide humanitarian campaign supported and headed by the King Alfonso XIII enabled Spain to improve her position in the postwar system of international relations; Spain became one of the non-permanent members of the League of Nations Council. Nevertheless the Spanish neutrality had a negative impact upon the social, political and economical evolution of Spain. The social stratification was increased, the public opinion was deeply divided and the social conflicts were aggravated, that considerably affected the further evolution of the Spanish society.

  20. Information and Communication Technologies : A World Bank Group Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    Information and communication technologies provide the basis for increasing and applying knowledge in the private and public sectors. Countries with strong information infrastructures that employ innovative information technology applications, have many advantages for sustained economic growth and social development. This book is, primarily, a business strategy which explains the World Ban...

  1. The World Bank and Fragile States: Dynamics of Cooperation and Aid Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomatin A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The eradication of extreme poverty in fragile states is one of the central problems of global governance at the present time. Development of these states is hindered by instability, weak public and social institutions or ongoing conflicts and violence. The World Bank is a key partner of fragile states, which account for almost a third of the world’s population. This article is a continuation of research exploring the evolution of conceptual and practical approaches by the World Bank to cooperation with fragile states. Its methodology is based on a multilevel analysis of the securitization of foreign aid as proposed by J. Lind and J. Howell of the London School of Economics. The main focus of this examination is on the dynamics of the change of scale and structure of the World Bank’s aid to fragile states in comparison with global armed trends of providing aid to fragile states as well. This article concludes that statements about the priority of the Bank’s work in fragile states have not yet been realized in practice. The Bank remains committed to the standard approach to working with this group of recipients, which involves serious risks. The World Bank leans toward supporting projects in fragile states which increases volatility and reduces aid predictability. This trend undermines the development potentials of recipient states. Attention is drawn to political factors influencing aid flows to fragile states and particularly to the tendency of increasing the share of aid provided to fragile states through multi donor trust funds rather than through the mechanisms of the International Development Association (IDA. This trend indicates that the Bank is no longer a central point of aid distribution to the recipients, pointing to the lack of trust of donor states in the existing mechanisms and rules of aid distribution. It also reveals the expanding role of donors’ strategic interests in the process of choosing recipients of World Bank aid.

  2. A discussion paper for emerging markets: The role of IMF and the World Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo R. Lizarzaburu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available While both the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, are two separate entities, often not clear the role of each of them is therefore that this paper seeks to consolidate diverse information reviewed from both entities with the purpose of being able to understand the functioning and scope of each of these important institutions that have had successes and setbacks and ultimately have an active role in global finance and economy, despite the many detractors who are at levels world. There is an anecdote which is worth mentioning. “John Maynard Keynes, recognized at the inaugural meeting of the International Monetary Fund was confused by the names he thought the Fund should be called a bank, and the World Bank should be called a bottom. Confusion has reigned ever since. The Bank and the IMF are two intergovernmental pillars supporting the structure of economic and financial world”. The fundamental difference between the two is understood as: the Bank institution primarily for the development, while the IMF is a cooperative institution that seeks to maintain an orderly system of payments and receipts between nations. The manner followed to choose the head of each organization has a different procedure, but the important thing is that in the next few years, several countries such as Brazil, India have more active participation and Latin America as a group may perhaps lead some of them.

  3. Development's Collateral Damage : The World Bank, involuntary resettlement and human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Deirdre Christine

    2011-01-01

    Each year millions of people throughout the world are forced from their homes to make way for new roads, dams and other infrastructure developments. The World Bank funds many of these projects in developing countries and has been both harshly criticised for its track record with involuntary resettlement and a global leader in producing guidelines aimed at ensuring those forced to relocate are not harmed by the process. The Bank’s policy on involuntary resettlement is backed up by an Inspecti...

  4. Toward a Green, Clean, and Resilient World for All : A World Bank Group Environment Strategy 2012 - 2022

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2012-01-01

    The new environment strategy for the World Bank Group lays out an ambitious action agenda that seeks to respond to calls from our client countries for a new kind of development path, one that supports growth while focusing more on sustainability and ensuring that the environment is a key enabler for green, more-inclusive growth. This strategy recognizes the importance of our convening powe...

  5. Efficiency in Reaching the Millennium Development Goals. World Bank Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Ruwan, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provide clear targets and areas of focus for international organizations such as the World Bank. At a conceptual level, to reduce poverty and hunger, to improve education and health indicators, and to promote gender equality and sustainable development, countries can either increase the resources they…

  6. What the World Bank's shift from public to private funding means for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Something new is afoot at the World Bank. But there's no reason for developing countries to be hopeful that development funding is about to get a much needed fillip after decades of dismal performance and inappropriate policy prescriptions. It's just that Santa Claus will only give gifts to the investor kids from now on.

  7. Pension reforms and world bank-regulated laws of the jungle: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peripheral societies (or better still, non-industrialized, raw materialsexporting states) are originally (and still remain) designed as raw resources supply zone not only in World Bank lexicon but also in global planning and programming of industrialized societies in general. Worker welfare of those both retired and in service ...

  8. The politics of entrapment : the World Bank, the integrated development model & citizenship at a crossroad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Hatcher (Pascale)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe thesis is about the World Bank and the political dimensions of the new aid architecture. The new aid agenda, which emerged out of the post-Washington Consensus (PWC), has led to debates over its real significance. While Joseph Stiglitz has argued that the new consensus actually

  9. Peru : Country Program Evaluation for the World Bank Group, 2003-09

    OpenAIRE

    Independent Evaluation Group

    2011-01-01

    Since 2003, Peru has emerged as an open, rapidly growing economy. Over the review period of 2003-09, successive governments adopted policy platforms aimed at maintaining macroeconomic stability, furthering the private sector supply response, broadening participation in growth, improving social service delivery, and strengthening public institutions. The World Bank Group (WBG) supported each of ...

  10. Social Gains from Female Education: A Cross-National Study. World Bank Discussion Papers 194.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, K.; Raney, Laura

    This paper on the social gains from female education is part of a series, prepared by the World Bank, on the benefits of improving opportunities for women. The paper suggests that expanding women's opportunities enhances their productivity and earning potential and thus contributes to better economic performance and poverty alleviation. Education…

  11. Education in Asia: A Comparative Study of Cost and Financing. World Bank Regional and Sectoral Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jee-Peng; Mingat, Alain

    Data analyzed in this study are drawn from varied sources including documents provided by governments in the context of the World Bank's operational activity. The data on a basic set of indicators were assembled for a core of 11 Asian countries (Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Sri…

  12. Minding the gap: World Bank's assistance to power shortage mitigation in the developing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, G.; Maurer, L.; Sarkar, A.; Wang, X. [The World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington DC 20433 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    This paper describes the World Bank's technical assistance and lending efforts in support of developing countries facing power shortages. The paper reviews the World Bank's experience in helping governments to mitigate power shortages in Africa, South Asia, East Asia, and Latin America regions. The paper stresses the need to consider each power ''crunch'' on an individual basis, and describes the process used in diagnosing a shortage situation and prescribing mitigation strategies. Several brief case studies are presented, including Botswana, Brazil, Uganda, and South Africa. The political and customer-centric dimensions of power shortage mitigation are briefly described, with suggestions for minimizing the socio-economic impacts of power shortages on the urban and rural poors. The paper concludes that an integrated supply-demand portfolio approach works best, and within the portfolio a mix of market-based rationing, emergency mobilization of customer-owned generation, interruptible rates, load control, and energy efficient lighting should be sought. Although the best formulation will vary according to market structure, demand composition, and nature of the crisis, World Bank practitioners have found one program that works almost everywhere to produce fast and effective results - mass market Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) replacement programs. (author)

  13. Financial management information systems 25 years of World Bank experience on what works and what doesn't

    CERN Document Server

    Dener, Cem; Dorotinsky, William Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Since 1984, the World Bank has financed 87 Financial Management Information System (FMIS) projects in 51 countries totaling over US 2.2 billion, of which US 938 million was for FMIS related information and communication technology (ICT) solutions. This study presents the World Bank?s experience with these investment operations to share the achievements and challenges observed, and provide guidance for improving the performance of future projects. The report is structured according to four overarching questions:?What historical patterns emerge from World Bank financed Treasury/FMIS projects?Thi

  14. The World Bank Inspection Panel and Quasi-Judicial Oversight: In Search of the 'Judicial Spirit' in Public International Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Naudé Fourie (Andria)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis PhD dissertation conceptualizes the World Bank Inspection Panel as a mechanism of quasi-judicial review or oversight, aimed at enhancing the accountability and legitimacy of the World Bank – which is conceived as an international institution exercising public power. The author

  15. The IMF-World Bank's economic stabilisation and structural adjustment policies and the Uganda economy, 1981-1989

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabudere, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    This research report traces all the main developments in IMF-World Bank policies in Uganda. Most of the material concerns the three IMF standby arrangements with Uganda for 1981-1984 and the World Bank Group's Structural Adjustment Programmes. These programmes introduced two contradictory policies

  16. Creating religiously compliant milk banks in the Muslim world: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnakshabandi, Kholoud; Fiester, Autumn

    2016-02-01

    Human milk banks are vital for providing donor milk to infants for whom there are maternal or postnatal barriers to the mother's own milk. Although more than 35 countries have active milk banks, not one of those is a Muslim country.(1) Despite widespread support for breastfeeding across the Muslim world, religious constraints surrounding milk-sharing have created challenging barriers to the creation of milk banks. The religious objection centres around the Islamic tenet that consuming human milk builds a kinship bond between individuals who have consumed the same woman's milk which prohibits future marriage between the 'milk-brothers and sisters.' While a small-scale, experimental 'milk exchange' programme has been attempted in two Muslim countries (Kuwait and Malaysia), the only proposed milk bank in the Muslim world was a pilot programme in Turkey that was halted because of religious concerns. The problem with milk banking is the step in the process during which the milk from individual donors is pooled and de-identified, making it impossible to trace its origins and acknowledge the newly formed kinship relationship. To meet the need for Muslim children to be able to access human milk while remaining compliant with the prevalent understanding of Islamic doctrine on milk-sharing, we propose a new approach to milk banking that we term the Conditional Identified Milk Banking System (CIMBS). In this new system, both the donor's and recipient's identities are accessible to all parties through a voluntary registry, and the milk-pooling is limited to three milk donors. Based on recent survey data, we believe that there would be receptivity among practicing Muslims and religious leaders to this alternative approach.

  17. Book review: Unholy trinity: The IMF, World Bank and WTO Richard Peet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Breitenbach

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this timely book Richard Peet and his team lay the foundation with an excellent analysis of the process of globalisation and the resultant emergence of the global economy. The authors are especially critical of the increasing influence of institutions like the International Monetary Fund (IMF, World Bank and World Trade Organisation (WTO on the economy and the consequences experienced by peoples, cultures and the environment. The single ideology of neo-liberalism is blamed for the undesirable outcomes. This book considers concepts of power, political interest, hegemony, discourse, responsibility and the power of practicality, in critically examining the IMF, World Bank and WTO. The conclusion is reached that “all three institutions play roles greatly different from those originally agreed to under the charters that set them up”.

  18. Financing of LNG projects in developing countries and the role of the World Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitsky, M.; Nore, P.

    1992-01-01

    The future quantities of capital required by the LNG industry will be very large. However, the continued rapid development of the industry is justified by the economic and environmental benefits of increased natural gas use. It is likely that the World Bank will continue to play a modest absolute role in supplying capital to the industry. The Bank can, however, play a crucial role in assisting governments in formulating appropriate energy policies and project development strategies and thereby creating the right policy and financial climate. The Bank can also provide a relatively modest amount of financial backing to projects, which nonetheless can help to generate larger volumes of finance from other sources. In the long run, LNG projects which are well structured and which operate within an appropriate policy environment should succeed in attracting financing even in today's more competitive environment

  19. An Evaluative Look Behind the Curtain : World Bank Group Staff's Early Experience with the Shared Prosperity Goal

    OpenAIRE

    Smets, Lodewijk; Bogetic, Zeljko

    2018-01-01

    In 2013, the Board of Executive Directors of the World Bank Group endorsed two ambitious goals: eliminating extreme poverty in the world by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity. The latter is defined as fostering the growth in the income of the poorest 40 percent of the population in each country. In 2016-17, the World Bank's Independent Evaluation Group conducted an evaluation on how well ...

  20. World Bank agricultural policies, poverty and income inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa 1

    OpenAIRE

    Howard Stein

    2010-01-01

    The original logic underlying the World Bank's structural adjustment policies in Africa was that the removal of state-created distortions would not only improve efficiency in the operation of markets but also enhance income equality and reduce poverty. The paper explores the linkage between adjustment and the deteriorating income distribution and rising poverty in sub-Saharan Africa with a focus on the rural sector where most of the population earns its livelihoods. The pattern observed is a ...

  1. Business creation in Portugal: Comparison between the World Bank data and Quadros de Pessoal

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa Morais Sarmento; Alcina Nunes

    2010-01-01

    Portugal has some of the highest business entry rates when compared to other countries, according to Eurostat, Statistics Portugal and the OECD Entrepreneurship Indicators Programme. We look at business creation in Portugal, from 2000 to 2007, by approaching two other complementary data sources, the World Bank Group Entrepreneurship Survey, based on official Portuguese business register’s and the universe of active employer enterprises, obtained by applying to the dataset Quadros de Pessoal, ...

  2. Knowledge-Based Country Programs : An Evaluation of World Bank Group Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Independent Evaluation Group

    2013-01-01

    The World Bank Group is currently engaged in reflection and debate on how to improve the delivery of development support. Part of this debate concerns strengthening the knowledge agenda. The findings of this evaluation are particularly relevant because they speak directly to questions that the institution is deliberating. In particular, they address four key aspects of the “science of delivery”: the role of local partners or local knowledge hubs; consultation with clients and other stakeholde...

  3. Article Review on World Bank Report, Optimal Design for a Minimum Wage Policy in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Nurrachmi, Rininta; Mad-Ahin, Ashanee; Waeowanjit, Phimpaporn; Kareemarif Arif, Naz Abdul

    2012-01-01

    There are many pros and cons with the implementation of minimum wage in Malaysia, since it is the first time. This article review is to analyze the World Bank report on Malaysian minimum wage policy that will be implemented in 2013. There are strength and weakness on the report. Moreover the review will also be analyzed from Islamic perspective since majority population in Malaysia is Muslim.

  4. Neoliberalism revised? A critical account of World Bank conceptions of good governance and market friendly intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, R

    1998-01-01

    This article examines recent World Bank reports on the role of the state in the development process, with particular reference to the rise of the East Asian newly industrializing countries and the crisis of "governance" in sub-Saharan Africa. The concepts of market friendly intervention and good governance are critically discussed, and are found to be inadequate as explanations for East Asian "success" and African "failure." The author presents an alternative explanation for the rise of the newly industrializing countries, which draws out some of the implications for the developing world.

  5. The International Monetary Fund and World Bank in Africa: a "disastrous" record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Demba Moussa

    2005-01-01

    In their 60th anniversary year, the International Monetary Fund and World Bank will attempt to highlight their "assistance" to Africa. But in reality, since the 1970s, these institutions have gradually become the chief architects of policies that are responsible for the worst inequalities and the explosion of poverty in the world, especially in Africa. When they began to intervene on that continent in the late 1970s and early 1980s, their stated goal was to "accelerate development." But the actual record is just disastrous, as this article reveals.

  6. Good Work--But Not Enough of It : A Review of the World Bank's Experience in Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Heaver, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The World Bank has been a leader in nutrition policy analysis, and many of the nutrition projects it has supported have been innovative and successful. But though the Bank has developed the economic justification for large-scale investment in nutrition, and has the experience needed to scale up, it has failed to do so. Nutrition lending is an insignificant proportion of the Bank's business...

  7. Re-thinking skilled international labour migration: world cities and banking organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaverstock, J V

    1994-08-01

    "Highly skilled professional and managerial labour migration has become an important facet of the contemporary world economy. The operations of transnational corporations have created more opportunities for skilled migrants to work abroad.... There is a growing interest amongst economic geographers to examine this form of migration through an appreciation of global economic restructuring, labour market change and world cities. Consequently, this paper introduces a new conceptual framework...[which] is based on the rationale that world cities, and the patterns of labour market demand that exist within them, are of paramount importance in influencing highly skilled professional and managerial labour migration within the world economy. The author uses an example of highly skilled labour migration within the transnational banking sector [in London] to illustrate this new conceptual framework." excerpt

  8. The World Bank and Private Provision of Schooling: A Look through the Lens of Sociological Theories of Organizational Hypocrisy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Karen; Menashy, Francine

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we explore how the World Bank operationalizes its focus on poverty alleviation in one of the most controversial arenas of educational change: the expansion of privately provided schooling. We argue that the Bank's role in promoting private provision has been far more complicated than most critics have discerned. It has…

  9. Cord Blood Banking in the Arab World: Current Status and Future Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Monica M; Dajani, Rana; Matthews, Kirstin R W

    2015-07-01

    Umbilical cord blood transplants are now used to treat numerous types of immune- and blood-related disorders and genetic diseases. Cord blood (CB) banks play an important role in these transplants by processing and storing CB units. In addition to their therapeutic potential, these banks raise ethical and regulatory questions, especially in emerging markets in the Arab world. In this article, the authors review CB banking in five countries in the region, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates, selected for their different CB banking policies and initiatives. In assessing these case studies, the authors present regional trends and issues, including religious perspectives, policies, and demographic risk factors. This research suggests strong incentives for increasing the number of CB units that are collected from and available to Arab populations. In addition, the deficit in knowledge concerning public opinion and awareness in the region should be addressed to ensure educated decision-making. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The care connection: The World Bank and women's unpaid care work in select sub-Saharan African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bibler, Sarah; Zuckerman, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    With the aim of reducing women's greater unpaid care work than men&'s and increasing women's paid employment, this paper examines the extent to which World Bank investments address unpaid care work. The paper conducts an in-depth gender analysis of 36 World Bank employment-related projects in Malawi, Mali, Niger, and Rwanda. It concludes that the vast majority (92 per cent) of reviewed projects fail to account for unpaid care work. Exceptionally, Malawi's Shire River Basin Management Program ...

  11. Making Infrastructure Work for Women and Men : A Review of World Bank Infrastructure Projects (1995-2009)

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    This report provides a gender review of a decade and a half of World Bank infrastructure lending for 1,246 projects. The objective of this review is to assess the status of and trends in gender integration in the World Bank infrastructure portfolio, and to establish a baseline for monitoring and enhancing gender integration in line with commitments made for the 2006 gender action plan. The ...

  12. From Globalization to Liquidation: The Deutsch-Asiatische Bank and the First World War in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Moazzin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article uses the case of the Deutsch-Asiatische Bank and its liquidation during the First World War to examine the challenges faced by German businesses during the war in China and China’s involvement in Allied economic warfare. This case suggests the detrimental effect that political crises and global shifts of power had on foreign businesses in modern China’s globalized treaty port economy. It also reveals China’s role in the global economic warfare of the Allies, showing that China first resisted Allied demands for a full liquidation of the German bank but eventually acquiesced to Allied pressure and handed control over the liquidation to the Allies. As a consequence, China ended up violating the very international law it had put so much value on when entering the war.

  13. Design considerations of the World Bank-assisted $55 million photovoltaic market development project in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabraal, A.; Bradley, J.

    1993-01-01

    The World Bank's first loan for photovoltaic (PV) power systems was approved on December 17, 1992. The $55-million project will offer concessional financing through the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) for the purchase of PV systems. The objective of the PV Market Development Project is to encourage the establishment of sustainable product supply, delivery, after-sales service, and financing mechanisms to support marketing PV products on a commercial basis. This paper outlines the issues and steps involved in the project design including: (1) technical viability, (2) financial and economic viability, (3) infrastructure issues, and (4) the economic and financial viability of the project as a whole

  14. Artful Teaching and Learning: The Bank Street Developmental-Interaction Approach at Midtown West School. Teaching for a Changing World: The Graduates of Bank Street College of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrator, Sam; Park, Soyoung; Lit, Ira

    2015-01-01

    This case study is one of five publications from the larger study, "Teaching for a Changing World: The Graduates of Bank Street College of Education." Established in 1989, Midtown West is a New York City public elementary school serving approximately 350 students from kindergarten through grade five. With the support of Tony Alvarado,…

  15. [Progress report on a World Bank loan to China for a tuberculosis control project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, F; Chi, Y; Wang, K

    1995-02-01

    The progress of the World Bank loaned TB control project implemented from the second quarter of 1991 to the fourth quarter of 1993 was described in this paper. In the past three years, 737 counties of the 12 provinces with the population of 360 million has been covered by the project. Among 95176 new smear positive cases discovered, 93909 patients received free treatment of TB. The treatment coverage is 98.7%, of which 95% were treated under full course supervision. The smear conversion rate at two, three months of new smear positive TB patients are 83.4% and 90.6% respectively. The cohort analysis showed that the cure rate is 89.8%, which has reached the advanced level of the modern national tuberculosis control programme in the world.

  16. Economics, health and development: some ethical dilemmas facing the World Bank and the international community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, A

    2001-08-01

    The World Bank is committed to "work[ing] with countries to improve the health, nutrition and population outcomes of the world's poor, and to protect[ing] the population from the impoverishing effects of illness, malnutrition and high fertility".(1) Ethical issues arise in the interpretation of these objectives and in helping countries formulate strategies and policies. It is these ethical issues--which are often not acknowledged by commentators--that are the subject of this paper. It asks why there should be a focus on the poor, and explores the link between improving the health of the poor, and reducing health inequalities between the poor and better-off. It discusses difficult ethical issues at both the global level (including debt relief and the link between country ownership and donor commitment) and the country level (including user fees and whether providing assistance to the non-poor may in the long run be a way of helping the poor).

  17. banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2016-11-01

    The thaw period was a kind of bank from which our country set sail towards unexplored horizons. The series on the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers is continued by the article by Felix Novikov (144-151, who writes about the history of the design of this wonderful building, today’s monument of architecture of Soviet modernism.

  18. Were the hydro dams financed by the World Bank from 1976 to 2005 worthwhile?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awojobi, Omotola; Jenkins, Glenn P.

    2015-01-01

    Because hydro dams are complex to design and usually involve long-term planning, they are particularly susceptible to cost and time overruns. The controversy surrounding their development remains an unresolved issue in the energy policy debate. This study re-examines the cost issues associated with a portfolio of 58 dams that were financed by the World Bank from 1976 to 2005. Further, an estimate is made of the value of the benefits produced by these investments to determine the magnitude of economic rates of return for the individual projects and the overall portfolio of dams. Even though this portfolio of dams suffered substantially from cost overruns, the net contribution of these dams has been positive and substantial. The ex-post real economic rate of return for the entire portfolio is estimated to be greater than 17 percent. The important policy implication of this study is that each investment in a hydro dam needs to be appraised taking into consideration the distribution and probabilities of costs that might be incurred, as well as the potential benefits. Adequate margins must exist of ex-ante benefits over costs to account for the risks of cost overruns. - Highlights: • An ex-post evaluation is made of hydroelectric dams financed by the World Bank. • Cost overruns, time overruns, and the cost of time overruns are measured. • The PV of benefits produced by this portfolio was 1.8 times the PV of the costs. • Real cost overruns were 27% and cost of time overruns 3.5% of ex-ante costs. • Risks of cost overruns must be evaluated in relation to projected benefits of dams.

  19. ONLINE BANKING IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-01-01

    In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspect...

  20. In the Best Interests of Youth or Neoliberalism? The World Bank and the New Global Youth Empowerment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukarieh, Mayssoun; Tannock, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    Youth, and youth employment especially, have jumped to the forefront of the international development agenda, driven by new funding and reporting priorities of the World Bank and allied international and national aid organisations. Despite the seductive rhetoric of youth empowerment, however, we argue that the new turn to youth serves primarily to…

  1. Structural adjustment programmes on the African continent : the theoretical foundations of IMF/World Bank reform policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meilink, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Since the early 1980s the majority of countries in sub-Saharan Africa embarked on the implementation of IMF/World Bank designed 'structural adjustment programmes' (SAPs). This paper examines the theoretical underpinnings of the SAPs. It shows that IMF policies are based on a theoretical framework

  2. Using Quantitative Data in World Bank Per-Student Funding Reform Projects: Data, Designs and Dilemmas in Transition Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levacic, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, education systems have increasingly moved to allocating funding for general education by means of a per-student formula. The trend started with developed economies and moved to transition and developing economies, where the World Bank has promoted the adoption of per-student funding (PSF). But promoting a particular reform,…

  3. The World Bank's Position on Early Child Education in Brazil: A Critical Assessment of Contributions and Shortcomings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the World Bank published a policy study on early child education (ECE) developments in Brazil, entitled "Early Child Education: Making Programs Work for Brazil's Most Important Generation. Development." This paper analyses the report's assessment of ECE policy in Brazil as well as the recommendations it provides. A critical…

  4. Perspectives of co-operation with the World Bank towards elimination of low emission sources in Krakow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerlich, K.

    1995-12-31

    I am not going to speak about or for the World Bank. More time and a different scope of the conference would be needed in order to more deeply assess the role of the World Bank and other international lenders and donors in the environmental and energy sectors in Poland. I am going to stay within the context of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project financed by the US AID and managed by the US DOE (called here for simplicity the Krakow Programme). However, in order to assess a role of the World Bank and other international lenders and donors in the pro-environment transformation of the energy systems of Krakow, one needs to briefly discuss: the possibilities and confinements related to the {open_quotes}technology{close_quotes} of disbursement of the financial resources by the multilateral development banks (MDB`s) in Poland, the type of results obtained within the {open_quotes}Krakow Programme{close_quotes} and a concept of involving American commercial companies to implement the clean-air policy for Krakow.

  5. Economic growth and decline in mortality in developing countries: an analysis of the World Bank development datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renton, A; Wall, M; Lintott, J

    2012-07-01

    The 1999 World Bank report claimed that growth in gross domestic product (GDP) between 1960 and 1990 only accounted for 15% of concomitant growth in life expectancy in developing countries. These findings were used repeatedly by the World Health Organization (WHO) to support a policy shift away from promoting social and economic development, towards vertical technology-driven programmes. This paper updates the 1999 World Bank report using the World Bank's 2005 dataset, providing a new assessment of the relative contribution of economic growth. Time-series analysis. Cross-sectional time-series regression analysis using a random effect model of associations between GDP, education and technical progress and improved health outcomes. The proportion of improvement in health indicators between 1970 and 2000 associated with changes in GDP, education and technical progress was estimated. In 1970, a 1% difference in GDP between countries was associated with 6% difference in female (LEBF) and 5% male (LEBM) life expectancy at birth. By 2000, these values had increased to 14% and 12%, explaining most of the observed health gain. Excluding Europe and Central Asia, the proportion of the increase in LEBF and LEBM attributable to increased GDP was 31% and 33% in the present analysis, vs. 17% and 14%, respectively, estimated by the World Bank. In the poorest countries, higher GDPs were required in 2000 than in 1970 to achieve the same health outcomes. In the poorest countries, socio-economic change is likely to be a more important source of health improvement than technical progress. Technical progress, operating by increasing the size of the effect of a unit of GDP on health, is likely to benefit richer countries more than poorer countries, thereby increasing global health inequalities. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Status of world research on neutral injectors based on negative ions for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquot, Claude

    1999-01-01

    The large tokamak installations (JET, TFTR, JT 60) use successfully injection of medium energy (100 keV) neutral atoms at powers of about 20 to 30 MW. These are produced starting from positive ions which transform into neutral atoms by charge exchange on a gas target. For tokamaks of next generation (ITER, for instance), the plasma dimensions will require 1 MeV neutral atoms. As the positive ions have a very low conversion yield at these energies, deuterium negative ions will be needed to be produced, as these have a rather high independent of energy neutralization yield (∼ 60%), the total electric efficiency being 40 to 50%. For ITER, three 1 MeV injectors, each of 16 MW during 1000 s will be provided, what requires acceleration at 1 MV of 40 A deuterium per injector. In this report we present the research status on large sources and on the relating problems and the progress on research on high voltage acceleration and also we present some high power systems

  7. Engaging the banks: financing small-scale renewables in the developing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, E.; Touhami, M.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the UN Environment Programme's (UNEP's) work in supporting the banking and financing sector by creating clean energy finance markets in developing countries. Details are given of the shifting of cash markets to credit, financing solar home systems in India, solar thermal lending in Tunisia, the financing of hotel based solar water heating in Morocco, and the Green Village Credit initiatives in the Yunnan province of China. The importance of providing banks with information needed to gain awareness and experience of renewable energy systems is stressed. The fundamentals of a bank engagement programme, financial catalysts, structuring market oriented approaches, and linking bank lending to policy making are discussed along with the need to shift to credit enhancements to help banks set up their first loan portfolios

  8. Engaging the banks: financing small-scale renewables in the developing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usher, E.; Touhami, M.

    2006-05-15

    This article reports on the UN Environment Programme's (UNEP's) work in supporting the banking and financing sector by creating clean energy finance markets in developing countries. Details are given of the shifting of cash markets to credit, financing solar home systems in India, solar thermal lending in Tunisia, the financing of hotel based solar water heating in Morocco, and the Green Village Credit initiatives in the Yunnan province of China. The importance of providing banks with information needed to gain awareness and experience of renewable energy systems is stressed. The fundamentals of a bank engagement programme, financial catalysts, structuring market oriented approaches, and linking bank lending to policy making are discussed along with the need to shift to credit enhancements to help banks set up their first loan portfolios.

  9. Appreciating diversity: Regulatory reform and banking practices in the developed and developing worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayati Ghosh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The homogenisation of finance that has dramatically increased the proclivity to instability and crisis is directly related to the very structure of regulations that have discouraged different types of institutions from emerging and/or and surviving. In developing countries they have the further limitation of preventing the necessary variation of financial institutions that is required for financing development and enlarging the spread of and access to institutional finance. The rules that apply to commercial banks or investment banks cannot and should not be applied to development banks, savings banks or co-operative banks. Diversity in the financial system can and should be encouraged at several levels and through several means.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF THE ISLAMIC BANKING AND FINANCE IN THE MUSLIM AND NON-MUSLIM WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Ali Jimale

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Islamic countries, many of them poor and not highly developed, large segments of the Muslim population do not have access to adequate banking services—often because devout Muslims are unwilling to put their savings into a traditional financial system that runs counter to their religious principles. Islamic banks seek to provide financial services in a way that is compatible with Islamic teaching, and if Islamic banks can tap that potential Muslim clientele, that could hasten economic development in these countries.             It is expanding not only in nations with majority Muslim populations, but also in other countries where Muslims are a minority, such as the United Kingdom and Japan. Similarly, countries such as India, the Kyrgyz Republic, and Syria have recently granted, or are considering granting, licenses for Islamic banking activities.             In fact, there are currently more than 300 Islamic financial institutions spread over 51 countries, plus well over 250 mutual funds that comply with Islamic principles. And, over the past decade, the Islamic banking industry has experienced growth rates of 10-15 percent per year—a trend that is expected to continue.            Globally, the assets of Islamic banks have been expanding at double-digit rates for a decade, and Islamic banking is an increasingly visible alternative to conventional banks in Islamic countries and countries with many Muslims. My study identifies the sources of Islamic banking expansion and ways to stimulate its continued growth. Knowing what drives the development of Islamic banking will help developing countries in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East catch up.

  11. Diffuse Agency and Institutional Dynamics in Global Governance – the Cases of the World Bank and the WTO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, Michael Stewart; Aagaard, Peter

    change occurs through the introduction, framing and facilitation of new paradigms, programmes and public opinions. Consequently, it cannot be limited to a narrow elite but involves a wider intellectual exchange between academics, policy practitioners, media professionals, NGOs and private firms...... governance involves multiple actors who by their engagement are themselves changed. To better understand this process, the paper will consider normative change within global governance in the cases of the World Bank and the WTO....

  12. ONLINE BANKING IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspects globally as well as in the Romanian banking system. Even if there already are several studies on web banking, this topic still remains a resourceful area for academic research in the next decade.

  13. World Bank: Management Controls Stronger, But Challenges in Fighting Corruption Remain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ... by deterring investment and growth and exacerbating poverty Although no Bank-wide estimates of the magnitude of this problem have been developed, levels of corruption vary from country to country...

  14. The Governance of the Black Holes of the World Economy: Shadow Banking and Offshore Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Palan, R.; Nesvetailova, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on regulatory challenges posed by the two interconnected structures of the global financial system – the economy of tax havens (or offshore financial centres), and the shadow banking system. The financial crisis of 2007-09 has revealed that tax havens structures and shadow banking entities play a central role in the practise of financial institutions reliant on financial innovation. Thriving on complexity, opaque networks and driven by arbitrage, the two phenomena pose trem...

  15. What Drives Failed Policy at the World Bank? An inside Account of New Aid Modalities to Higher Education: Context, Blame, and Infallibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappleye, Jeremy; Un, Leang

    2018-01-01

    This article analyses recent World Bank interventions aimed at improving higher education and local research capacity in low-income countries. Our empirical entry point is a critical analysis of the Development and Innovation Grant (DIG) scheme the Bank rolled out in Cambodia (2010-2015), a virtual carbon copy export of its Academic Initiative…

  16. Coping with poverty in international assistance policy: an evaluation of spatially integrated investment strategies. [World Bank, USAID, and UN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondinelli, D A [Syracuse Univ., NY; Ruddle, K

    1978-04-01

    International assistance agencies have turned increasingly to integrated rural development policies in an attempt to ameliorate the inequitable distribution of economic growth plaguing Third World nations since World War II. This paper reviews the functionally and spatially integrated investment strategies of the World Bank, US Agency for International Development, and the United Nations, outlines their objectives, perceptions of the problem, basic assumptions and programs, and evaluates them in terms of potential difficulties for implementation. Those factors crucial to making integrated development policies operational--knowledge of human ecosystems in rural areas, analytical ability, operational procedures, arrangements for local participation, subsistence systems indicators and administrative capacity of local and national governments--are discussed and assessed.

  17. The rise and growth of Serbian banking until World war I: Part one: Creation of preconditions for the rise of Serbian banking until 1878

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Biljana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Serbian banking during the 19th century was a gradual process that underwent two distinctive stages with the turning point in 1878 when Serbia became an independent state by the international agreement concluded at the Berlin Peace Conference. In the first stage, until 1878, the vassal state of Serbia had been introducing necessary political, economic and institutional preconditions for the rise of banking that led to the creation of the first organized credits and banks. At the end of this stage, there were two types of proper banks: state banks and privately-owned banks. Since the authorities of the vassal state of Serbia played a key role in preparing institutional framework for the banking operations and in organizing the first credit facilities, it could be argued that Serbian banking arose in the 19th century as a result of both state-backed and growthinduced processes.

  18. Does Central Bank Quality Determine Sovereign Ratings and Credit Default Swap Spreads: Evidence from the World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlall Indranarain

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study innovates from prior research which focuses on the determinants of sovereign ratings and credit default swap spreads for a large sample of countries by incorporating the quality of central banks, let alone refined proxies. Findings show that the explanatory power of both sovereign ratings and CDS spreads model improve by a hefty 11 percent in case of sovereign ratings and 6 to 9 percent in the case of CDS spreads when central bank quality is incorporated. Such a finding bolters the notion that institutional quality does play a preponderant role when it comes to assessing country risk, making it a systematic component of institutional quality. The effect of labour participation implies that countries buffeted by stronger effects of an ageing population have greater propensity of increases in CDS spreads. Evidence is also found as to the driving dynamics of CDS spreads and sovereign ratings to be distinct. Our results hold robust post tackling for endogeneity problem.

  19. What is Good Governance? World Bank and The Power of Normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Wahyudi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini memberikan penilaian kritis alas konsep Bank Dunia tentang 'Good Governance' (Kepemerintahan yang Balk dengan melibat konsep ini melalui pendekatan Foucauldian, yaitu bukan hanya sebagai fenomena pengetahuan tetapi jugs sebagai fenomena kekuasaan,yaitu kekuasaan untuk normalisasi. Penelaahan atas asal mula dan evolusi konsep ini menyarankan bahwa keberadaan konsep ini tidaklab netral dan bebas kepentingan dan karena itu sebenarnyajuga tidak selalu universal atau dapat diterapkan dalam semua keadaan. Pengen'ian Good Governance yang didefinisikan sebagai kebijaksaan ekonomi yang baik dan pembangunan kelembagaan yang kuat, pada alehirnya telab memperkuat pola-pola hegemoni dan kelembagaan global dan menghasilkan dominasi atau hegemonisasi dari pengetahuan' Bank Dunia (atau sebenarnyajuga ekonomi internasionalyang lain scperti IMF terhadap 'bentuk pengetahuanyang lain', dengan akibal bahwa model alternatif pembangunanyang lain akan terpinggirkan atau sama sekalipunah.

  20. Schistosomiasis control in China: the impact of a 10-year World Bank Loan Project (1992-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianyi, Chen; Liying, Wang; Jiming, Cai; Xiaonong, Zhou; Jiang, Zheng; Jiagang, Guo; Xiaohua, Wu; Engels, D; Minggang, Chen

    2005-01-01

    China has been carrying out large-scale schistosomiasis control since the mid-1950s, but in the early 1990s, schistosomiasis was still endemic in eight provinces. A World Bank Loan Project enabled further significant progress to be made during the period 1992-2001. The control strategy was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy -- primarily to reinforce morbidity control -- while at the same time acting on transmission with the ultimate goal of interrupting it. Chemotherapy was complemented by health education, chemical control of snails and environmental modification where appropriate. A final evaluation in 2002 showed that infection rates in humans and livestock had decreased by 55% and 50%, respectively. The number of acute infections and of individuals with advanced disease had also significantly decreased. Although snail infection rates continued to fluctuate at a low level, the densities of infected snails had decreased by more than 75% in all endemic areas. The original objectives of the China World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control had all been met. One province, Zhejiang, had already fulfilled the criteria for elimination of schistosomiasis by 1995. The project was therefore a success and has provided China with a sound basis for further control.

  1. The rise and growth of Serbian banking until World War I - part two: The second stage - the national state and the national banking (1878-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Serbian banking during the 19th century was a gradual process that underwent two distinctive stages with the turning point in 1878 when Serbia became an independent state by the international agreement concluded at the Berlin Congress. In the first stage, until 1878, necessary political, economic and institutional preconditions had been formed for the rise of banking that led to the creation of the first organized credits and banks. During the second stage, decisive programme of economic and institutional development and modernization resulted in the mushrooming growth of banks. Apart from the Privileged National Bank of the Kingdom of Serbia (National Bank, as a bank of note issue, there were state banks and privately-owned banks mostly in the form of joint-stock companies. From 1894, farmers started to establish farm cooperative societies as institutions that met their credit needs with a much more favourable terms than banks. Analyses suggests that banks in the Kingdom of Serbia during 1878-1914 period better served the development of trade, building of the infrastructure (railroads and industry than credit needs of the farmers who were the main economic agent of the country representing 85% of the total population.

  2. Adaptation funding and the World Bank investment framework initiative. Background Report prepared for the Gleneagles Dialogue Government Working Groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, B.

    2006-06-01

    The recent World Bank Report on 'Clean Energy and Development: Towards an Investment Framework' estimates that 'climateproofing' investments in developing countries - excluding additional investment needed to reduce the exposure to current climate risks and unavoided climate related damages - would cost between $9 and $41 billions annually. This raises two key questions that the government working groups in Mexico might wish to consider: The first question is How are the costs of climate-proofing investments in particular, and adaptation in general to be covered and managed? Depending on the types of costs related to adaptation and impacts, different forms of disbursement will have to be used to achieve the desired results. A number of financial tools are already in place or are being introduced which could be used for this purpose. Apart from the traditional instruments used in climate change funding to-date - such as the hitherto sole operating entity of the financial mechanism of the UNFCCC, i.e. the GEF - there are the following: The World Bank concept of an Investment Framework - this is probably most suited to deal with the transfer of adaptation technologies; Climate impact risks could be addressed through insurance-related instruments - these might be strictly climate related, or more general, such as the proposed European Commission / World Bank Global Index Insurance Framework; The funding of relief efforts connected with climate/weather related disasters is probably best dealt with through the proposed reform of existing disaster relief fund, administered by the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA); and Economic shocks due to whether related disasters could be dealt with through the Exogenous Shock Facility of the IMF. The instruments for disbursement of adaptation funding thus need not deal solely with climate change aspects, nor is necessary that they should be governed exclusively by the UNFCCC (COP) or the Kyoto Protocol (COP

  3. IMF, BIS, and World Bank: On the Intra-institutional Articulation of the International Financial System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fatima Silva do Carmo Previdelli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The international financial system could be organized into three groups. According to this classification, the first group includes the organizations that exercise the functions of regulation and supervision. In the second, we have those that are regulated and supervised by the former, and in the third, we find the organizations that do not follow such rules or supervision, forming the so-called shadow banking system. This article seeks to examine the first group, and, more specifically, how the International Monetary Fund articulates with the primary elements of such a group.

  4. Closing the Gap in Education and Technology. World Bank Latin American and Caribbean Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ferranti, David; Perry, Guillermo E.; Gill, Indermit; Guasch, J. Luis; Maloney, William F.; Sanchez-Paramo, Carolina; Schady, Norbert

    This document examines the gap between the Latin America and Caribbean region and the world's developed nations in the areas of education and technology. It also examines policies and strategies to close the gap. The following are among the specific topics discussed: (1) skills upgrading and innovation policies (the major actors; the role of…

  5. World Bank Education Policy and Human Resource Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutamba, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the intersection of education and training through societal development in the developing world, a concept linked to national human resource development (NHRD). In addition, education and training is known to correlate strongly with employment outcomes that are connected to economic success, health and family…

  6. How Commercial Banks Use the World Wide Web: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leovic, Lydia K.

    New telecommunications vehicles expand the possible ways that business is conducted. The hypermedia portion of the Internet, the World Wide Web, is such a telecommunications device. The Web is presently one of the most flexible and dynamic methods for electronic information dissemination. The level of technological sophistication necessary to…

  7. Uganda: The Challenge of Growth and Poverty Reduction. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report examines the outcomes of economic reform in Uganda and defines issues that Uganda must address in medium- and long-term strategies for poverty reduction. With a per capita income of approximately $220, Uganda is one of the poorest countries in the world. Its economy and social indicators bear the marks of nearly 15 years of political…

  8. Trade Finance, Bank Bail-outs and Profit Taxation in an Interconnected World

    OpenAIRE

    SCHMIDT-EISENLOHR, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Defense date: 24 May 2010 Examining Board: Prof. Giancarlo Corsetti, EUI, Supervisor; Prof. Andrew Bernard, Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth; Prof. Russell Cooper, EUI; Prof. Jonathan Eaton, New York University Countries are increasingly linked internationally. The three models developed in this thesis shed light on how firms and governments respond to the increasing interconnectedness of the world economy, analyzing profit taxation, trade finance and government intervention in the ...

  9. Cross-Border Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Eaton

    1994-01-01

    The banking systems of some countries export intermediation services to the rest of the world, while many other countries are net exporters of deposits to banks abroad and net importers of loans from banks abroad. Banking center countries typically have lower inflation, deeper financial systems, earn less government revenue from seigniorage, and have lower reserve money relative to bank assets than nonbanking-center countries. This paper develops a stylized model of regulated bank intermediat...

  10. Promoting anti-corruption reforms. Evaluating the implementation of a World Bank anti-corruption program in seven African countries (1999-2001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Haarhuis, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    This study offers an investigation of the implementation of a World Bank anti-corruption program, by applying various relevant social science theories and methods. The aim of the program is to provide countries with tools to build a relevant and participatory anti-corruption program. The study

  11. Promoting anti-corruption reforms : Evaluating the implementation of a World Bank anti-corruption program in seven African countries (1999-2001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Haarhuis, Carolien Maria

    2005-01-01

    This study offers an investigation of the implementation of a World Bank anti-corruption program, by applying various relevant social science theories and methods. The aim of the program is to provide countries with tools to build a relevant and participatory anti-corruption program. The study

  12. World Bank Development Sector Adjustment Operation Life Line to Nigerian Universities: Impact on Information Demand and Supply in the University of Agriculture, Makurdi Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozowa, Vincent Nnamdi

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of the rationale behind the World Bank credit line to Nigerian universities and examines the impact of the credit facility on the information demand and supply in the University of Agriculture, Makurdi Library (Nigeria). Discusses problems, such as poor quantity and quality of books and journals, lack of equipment, and lack of…

  13. Earth Science World ImageBank (ESWIB): A Comprehensive Collection of Geoscience Images Being Developed by the American Geological Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. W.; Keane, C. M.

    2003-12-01

    Although there are geoscience images available in numerous locations around the World Wide Web, there is no universal comprehensive digital archive where teachers, students, scientists, and the general public can gather images related to the Earth Sciences. To fill this need, the American Geological Institute (AGI) is developing the largest image database available: the Earth Science World ImageBank (ESWIB). The goal of ESWIB is to provide a variety of users with free access to high-quality geoscience images and technical art gathered from photographers, government organizations, and scientists. Each image is cataloged by location, author, image rights, and a detailed description of what the image shows. Additionally, images are cataloged using keywords from AGI's precise Georef indexing methodology. Students, teachers, and the general public can search or browse and download these images for use in slide show presentations, lectures, papers, or for other educational and outreach uses. This resource can be used for any age level, in any kind of educational venue. Users can also contribute images of their own to the database through the ESWIB website. AGI is scanning these images at a very high resolution (16 x 20 inches) and depending on the author's rights, is making high-resolution copies (digital or print) available for non-commercial and commercial purposes. This ImageBank is different from other photo sites available in that the scope has more breadth and depth than other image resources, and the images are cataloged with a very high grade of detail and precision, which makes finding needed images fast and easy. The image services offered by ESWIB are also unique, such as the low-cost commercial options and high quality image printouts. AGI plans on adding more features to ESWIB in the future, including connecting this resource to the up-coming online Glossary of Geology, a geospatial search option, using the images to make generic PowerPoint presentations

  14. The status of bank lending to SMES in the Middle East and North Africa region : the results of a joint survey of the Union of Arab Bank and the World Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Roberto; Farazi, Subika; Khouri, Rania; Pearce, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Among the principal constraints for SME lending is the lack of SME transparency, poor credit information from credit registries and bureaus, and weak creditor rights. If constraints can be addressed, lending can potentially reach bank targets of 21 percent. State banks still play an important role in financing SMEs in the MENA region, but they use less sophisticated risk management systems than private banks. On another hand, credit guarantee schemes are a popular form of support to SME finan...

  15. Field activity cost estimates for the first 3 years of the World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J; Booth, M; Jenkins, J; Wang, H; Tanner, M

    1998-12-01

    The World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis in China commenced field activities in 1992. In this paper, we describe disease control strategies for levels of different endemicity, and estimate unit costs and total expenditure of screening, treatment (cattle and humans) and snail control for 8 provinces where Schistosoma japonicum infection is endemic. Overall, we estimate that more than 21 million US dollars were spent on field activities during the first three years of the project. Mollusciciding (43% of the total expenditure) and screening (28% of the total) are estimated to have the most expensive field activities. However, despite the expense of screening, a simple model predicts that selective chemotherapy could have been cheaper than mass chemotherapy in areas where infection prevalence was higher than 15%, which was the threshold for mass chemotherapy intervention. It is concluded that considerable cost savings could be made in the future by narrowing the scope of snail control activities, redefining the threshold infection prevalence for mass chemotherapy, defining smaller administrative units, and developing rapid assessment tools.

  16. Highlights on the World Bank Loan Schistosomiasis Control Program in China (1991-1998): a special focus on Hunan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongbao, Y; Ross, A G; Musheng, X; Yuesheng, L; Yan, C

    1999-12-01

    A region-wide sampling survey was conducted in 1995 in order to evaluate the current epidemiological status of schistosomiasis japonica in Hunan Province, China. A total of 45,590 humans and 3,726 domestic animals, from 52 villages, were examined parasitologically and/or serologically for current Schistosoma japonicum infections. In uncontrolled endemic areas (43 villages) the overall human prevalence of S. japonicum was 7.81% across the different geographical subtypes. The geometric mean intensity of infection was 17.71 eggs per gram (epg) among infected individuals and only 1.25 epg in the general population. The bovine prevalence, as determined by the hatching test, was 9.63% in the uncontrolled endemic villages. Only one sero-positive (by indirect hemagglutination assay) child was found among 1,072 children tested aged 10-14 years in the 9 endemic villages under effective control. No infection was confirmed by the Kato-Katz thick smear stool examination. When the results of this survey were compared to those seen at baseline (1989) an overall reduction of 45.65% was seen in the human prevalence but no significant change was apparent in the lake-beach ecotype. Additionally, there was more than a 60% reduction in the prevalence among bovines over the same sampling period. The results demonstrate that the World Bank Loan Schistosomiasis Program was successful in achieving its most basic objectives for this province - to reduce human and bovine infections by 40%.

  17. A program to develop the domestic natural gas industry in Indonesia: Case history of two World Bank projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klass, D.L.; Khwaja, S.

    1991-01-01

    Indonesia depends heavily on revenues from the export of LNG and oil, the availability of which appears to be decreasing. It is therefore making a strong effort to accelerate development of a domestic natural gas industry. A high priority has been given to the conversion of power plants and city gas systems, including local industries and commercial facilities, from liquid fuels to natural gas. This will release more oil for export, help to meet the objectives of Repelita V, and provide substantial environmental benefits. The World Bank recently provided loans to the Indonesian Government for two projects that are aimed at substituting natural gas for oil and manufactured gas in domestic markets. One project involves expansion of the gas distribution systems of Indonesia's natural gas utility (PGN) in three cities: Jakarta and Bogor in Java, and Medan in Sumatra. The project also includes training programs for PGN staff and an energy pricing policy study to be carried out by Indonesia's Ministry of Mines and Energy. The second project involves expansion of the supply of natural gas for Surabaya and twelve other towns in its vicinity in East Java, and further expansion of Medan's supply system. Technical assistance will be provided to enhance the skills ofPGN and the Ministry of Mines and Energy, and a Gas Technology Unit similar to the Institute of Gas Technology will be established at Indonesia's Research and Development Center for Oil and Gas (LEMIGAS) in Jakarta. 14 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs

  18. The Status of Bank Lending to SMEs in the Middle East and North Africa Region : Results of a Joint Survey of the Union of Arab Bank and the World Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Roberto; Farazi, Subika; Khouri, Rania; Pearce, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Among the principal constraints for SME lending is the lack of SME transparency, poor credit information from credit registries and bureaus, and weak creditor rights. If constraints can be addressed, lending can potentially reach bank targets of 21 percent. State banks still play an important role in financing SMEs in the MENA region, but they use less sophisticated risk management systems...

  19. Green Bank Observatory (GBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a...

  20. Learning from All? The World Bank, Aid Agencies and the Construction of Hegemony in Education for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Antoni; Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Altinyelken, Hulya Kosar

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the nature and quality of the participation that characterises the Bank's consultations with external actors and examines the extent to which the Bank is responsive to such feedback when it comes to defining its policy preferences and strategies in the education domain. It draws on a case study of the participatory process that…

  1. A program to develop the domestic natural gas industry in Indonesia: Case history of two World Bank projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klass, D.L.; Khwaja, S.

    1992-01-01

    Indonesia depends heavily on revenues from the export of LNG and oil, the availability of which appears to be decreasing. It is therefore making a strong effort to accelerate development of a domestic natural gas industry. A high priority has been given to the conversion of power plants and city gas systems, including local industries and commercial facilities, from liquid fuels to natural gas. This will release more oil for export, help to meet the objectives of Repelita V, and provide substantial environmental benefits. The World Bank recently provided loans to the Indonesian Government for two projects that are aimed at substituting natural gas for oil and manufactured gas in domestic markets. One project involves expansion of the gas distribution systems of Indonesia's natural gas utility (PGN) in three cities: Jakarta and Bogor in Java, and Medan in Sumatra. Approximately 350 new industrial, 800 new commercial, and 12,700 new residential natural gas customers are expected from this project. Incremental gas sales are projected to be about 48.1 million CF/d when the project is completed in 1992. The project also includes training programs for PGN staff and an energy pricing policy study to be carried out by Indonesia's Ministry of Mines and Energy. The second project involves expansion of the supply of natural gas for Surabaya and twelve other towns in its vicinity in East Java, and further expansion of Medan's supply system. The gas for Surabaya will be used for about 400 industrial and 150 commercial customers, and 3,600 households. The additional gas supply for Medan will be used for two power plants operated by the state electric utility, PLN. Incremental natural gas sales from this project are projected to be 68 million CF/d when it is

  2. Achievement of the World Bank loan project on schistosomiasis control (1992-2000) in Hubei province and the challenge in the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changsong, Sun; Binggui, Yu; Hongyi, Liao; Yuhai, Dai; Xu, Xingjian; Huiguo, Zhu; Yong, Jiang

    2002-05-01

    Since the World Bank provided a loan for control of schistosomiasis in China, started from 1992, with the objective of a reduction of prevalence and intensity of the infection both in humans and animals by 40%, through mass chemotherapy in areas of high prevalence, and selective chemotherapy in areas with medium and low endemicity together with focal mollusciciding, the objective of morbidity control of the project has been reached in Hubei Province.

  3. Achievements and challenges of the World Bank Loan/Department for International Development grant-assisted Tuberculosis Control Project in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peng; Jiang, Xu; Zhang, Ben; Jiang, Shi-wen; Liu, Bo

    2011-07-01

    In March 2002, the government of China launched the World Bank Loan/ Department for International Development-supported Tuberculosis (TB) Control Project to reduce the prevalence and mortality of TB. The project generated promising results in policy development, strengthening of TB control systems, patient treatment success, funds management, and the introduction of legislation. In light of the global TB epidemic and control environment, it is useful to review the TB control priorities of the project, summarize the achievements and experiences around its implementation.

  4. Overview of US AID-World Bank-NASA Collaboration to Address Water Management Issues in the MENA Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    The World Bank, USAID and NASA have recently established a joint project to study multiple issues pertaining to water related applications in the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region. The main concentration of the project is on utilization of remote sensing data and hydrological models to address crop irrigation and mapping, flood mapping and forecasting, evapotranspiration and drought problems prevalent in this large geographic area. Additional emphases are placed on understanding the climate impact on these areas as well. Per IPCC 2007 report, by the end of this century MENA region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C rise in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation. This poses a serious problem for this geographic zone especially when majority of the hydrological consumption is for the agriculture sector and the remaining amount is for domestic consumption. The remote sensing data from space is one of the best ways to study such complex issues and further feed into the decision support systems. NASA's fleet of Earth Observing satellites offer a great vantage point from space to look at the globe and provide vital signs necessary to maintain healthy and sustainable ecosystem. These observations generate multiple products such as soil moisture, global precipitation, aerosols, cloud cover, normalized difference vegetation index, land cover/use, ocean altimetry, ocean salinity, sea surface winds, sea surface temperature, ozone and atmospheric gases, ice and snow measurements, and many more. All of the data products, models and research results are distributed-via the Internet freely through out the world. This project will utilize several NASA models such as global Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) to generate hydrological states and fluxes in near real time. These LDAS products will then be further compared with other NASA satellite observations (MODIS, VIIRS, TRMM, etc.) and other discrete models to compare and optimize

  5. The UNDP/World Bank monitoring program on small scale biomass gasifiers (BTG's experience on tar measurements)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoef, H.A.M. [Biomass Technology Group BTG, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    By the time that small-scale biomass gasifiers were 'rediscovered' and promoted for use in developing countries (1970s), UNDP and the World Bank were well aware of the pitfalls of previous attempts to diffuse decentralized energy technologies. Therefore they decided to initiate a technology assessment programme before endorsing and/or stimulating a widespread gasifier introduction programme in developing countries. On July 1, 1983, the UNDP/WB worldwide Small-scale biomass gasifier monitoring was initiated, which was to {sup c}ollect uniform data on the actual field performance, economics, safety and public acceptability of biomass gasifiers currently operating in developing countries{sup .} For the UNDP/WB program BTG developed a tar measuring protocol which was used at twenty gasifiers worldwide (Indonesia, Philippines, Brazil, Mali, Seychelles, Vanuatu and Burundi). Other parameters monitored include pressure and temperatures at various spots, gasflow, fuel consumption, lubrication oil analyses, gas-composition analyses, emission measurements. The seven year programme showed that most of donor funded projects failed, mainly because there was not sufficient commitment from involved parties. National programs on the utilization of loca available biomass resources mostly failed because the fuel did not suit the requirements of gasifier reactor. In case of proper project design/set-up most of the small scale biomass gasifiers operated without major problems. Examples of such projects are the ones in Balong and Majalengka (Indonesia) Onesua (Vanuatu), Espara Feliz (Brazil) and Dogofiry (Mali). A motivated team of technicians, operators, managers is one the most important items within this respect. Most of the heat gasifiers are installed commercially and are much more successful compared to the subsidized power gasifiers. Local manufactured gasifiers are generally constructed of low quality materials causing frequent technical problems. However, locally

  6. Electronic banking

    OpenAIRE

    Gradišnik, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The development of information and communication technology is one of the most important reasons for the incredibly fast changes in business. Electronic commerce is spreading unstoppably in the operations of companies. The creation of new models, such as online banking, online shopping and the like, has sped up the development of the World Wide Web. Owing to the rapid progress of the World Wide Web and technologies for secure business operations, we can barely imagine life today without e...

  7. Gestione delle acque, pace nel Medio Oriente e un ruolo per la Banca Mondiale (Water Management, Middle East Peace and a Role for the World Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The region comprising North Africa and the Middle East is the driest in the world. Thus conflicts over water have been a part of the landscape. These conflicts over water are invariably seen as a zero sum game; such a view does not incorporate the notion that water is an economic good and is therefore scarce. Given the limitation of competitive markets, optimal water allocation could only but help. However, even if one country allocates water efficiently within its own territory, its allocation could be sub-optimal if water interdependencies with other countries are not incorporated in a regional optimization model. The World Bank is in the best position to adopt a regional optimization model and thus ameliorate water conditions in the Middle East and in other regions around the world.       JEL Codes: Q25, Q28, Q15, Q13Keywords: Water

  8. Electronic Banking And Bank Performance In Nigeria | Abaenewe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the profitability performance of Nigerian banks following the full adoption of electronic banking system. The study became necessary as a result of increased penetration of electronic banking which has redefined the banking operations in Nigeria and around the world. Judgmental sampling method ...

  9. Commemorating a ‘Foreign’ War in a Neutral Country The Political Insignificance of World War 1 Memory in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Ribbens

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent creation of a First World War museum exhibit at Huis Doorn reflects the increased Dutch attention paid to this war, accompanying the international Centenary efforts, although the neutral Netherlands had not been actively involved in the military events of wwi. This initiative, on a small estate where the former German emperor Wilhelm II lived after the defeat of Germany in 1918, was not a natural outcome of the dynamics of Dutch historical culture. This article raises the question of how wwi became increasingly emphasised in the early twenty- first century, and to what extent this reflects a profound change in the national historical culture, which previously displayed no strong connections to wwi. While familiarity with wwi has grown among the Dutch media and the wider public, governmental interest remained limited (very different from the case of wwii, making it rather difficult to actually speak of politics of memory. 

  10. Technician Consistency in Specular Microscopy Measurements: A "Real-World" Retrospective Analysis of a United States Eye Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Gabriel M; Kwon, Ji Won; Gore, Patrick K; McCartney, Mitchell D; Chuck, Roy S

    2017-10-01

    To quantify consistency of endothelial cell density (ECD) measurements among technicians in a single US eye bank operating under typical operating conditions. In this retrospective analysis of 51 microscopy technicians using a semiautomated counting method on 35,067 eyes from July 2007 to May 2015, technician- and date-related marginal ECD effects were calculated using linear regression models. ECD variance was correlated with the number of specular microscopy technicians. Technician mean ECDs ranged from 2386 ± 431 to 3005 ± 560 cells/mm. Nine technicians had statistically and clinically significant marginal effects. Annual mean ECDs adjusted for changes in technicians ranged from 2422 ± 433 to 2644 ± 430 cells/mm. The period of 2007 to 2009 had statistically and clinically significant marginal effects. There was a nonstatistically significant association between the number of technicians and ECD standard deviation. There was significant ECD variability associated with specular microscopy technicians and with the date of measurement. We recommend that eye banks collect data related to laboratory factors that have been shown to influence ECD variability.

  11. The effectiveness of banking supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, EP; Obasi, U

    2009-01-01

    Banking supervision is an essential aspect of modern financial systems, seeking crucially to monitor risk-taking by banks so as to protect depositors, the government safety net and the economy as a whole against systemic bank failure and its consequences. In this context, this paper seeks to explore the relationship between risk indicators for individual banks and the different approaches to banking supervision adopted around the world. This is the first work to make use of the currently avai...

  12. The World Bank mission in Bulgaria with the objective of estimating the possibility to increase the safety of the Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, J.

    1992-01-01

    This is a report of the World Bank mission in Bulgaria held from 22 March to 31 April 1992. The author considers the present state of the safety level of all Kozloduy NPP reactors with emphasis of the units 1-4 which are of the WWER-440/230 type. Three main factors are discussed in detail: 1) design inherent safety; 2) equipment protection from accidental events connected with the equipment quality; 3) quality and culture of operation and quantitative evaluation of the safety. The areas requiring special attention in view of the safety enhancing are: safety goal policy; creation of national safety culture; planning and implementation of the improvement programme; assuring the equipment reliability; updating and protection the existing systems; furnishing the plant with new systems. A review of all on-going and proposed projects of the national authorities, IAEA, EC, WANO and BEQE is made. Some remarks are given also about the WWER-1000 type units 5 and 6. The estimated cost of all necessary measures for equipment improvement is $100-200 million and of the annual investment after the main reconstruction and innovation of the reactors - about $10 million which should be included in the normal operational expenses of the plant. A new approach to the responsibility role of the Bulgarian specialists should be created. A new and well grounded proposal for modifications in the equipment should be made from the National Electrical Company including economical evaluations. Another expert assessment will be requested from the foreign banks before financing

  13. Mitigating Evidentiary Bias in Planning and Policy-Making; Comment on “Reflective Practice: How the World Bank Explored Its Own Biases?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Parkhurst

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The field of cognitive psychology has increasingly provided scientific insights to explore how humans are subject to unconscious sources of evidentiary bias, leading to errors that can affect judgement and decision-making. Increasingly these insights are being applied outside the realm of individual decision-making to the collective arena of policy-making as well. A recent editorial in this journal has particularly lauded the work of the World Bank for undertaking an open and critical reflection on sources of unconscious bias in its own expert staff that could undermine achievement of its key goals. The World Bank case indeed serves as a remarkable case of a global policy-making agency making its own critical reflections transparent for all to see. Yet the recognition that humans are prone to cognitive errors has been known for centuries, and the scientific exploration of such biases provided by cognitive psychology is now well-established. What still remains to be developed, however, is a widespread body of work that can inform efforts to institutionalise strategies to mitigate the multiple sources and forms of evidentiary bias arising within administrative and policy-making environments. Addressing this gap will require a programme of conceptual and empirical work that supports robust development and evaluation of institutional bias mitigation strategies. The cognitive sciences provides a scientific basis on which to proceed, but a critical priority will now be the application of that science to improve policy-making within those agencies taking responsibility for social welfare and development programmes.

  14. Poverty and Hunger: Issues and Options for Food Security in Developing Countries. A World Bank Policy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutlinger, Shlomo; And Others

    Food security means access by all people at all times to enough food for an active and healthy life. Available data suggest that more than 700 million people in the developing world lack the food necessary for such a life. No problem of underdevelopment may be more serious or have such important implications for the long-term growth of low-income…

  15. Sexual and Gender-Based Violence : What is the World Bank Doing and What Have We Learned, A Strategic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Alys M. Willman; Crystal Corman

    2013-01-01

    Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is the most prevalent form of gender inequality. More than one third of the women in the world have experienced some form of gender based violence. The impacts of such violence extend far beyond the individual survivors, affecting households and communities, and spanning across generations. SGBV is widely recognized as a development constraint that f...

  16. Danske Bank - Imagekrise

    OpenAIRE

    Agerlin, Anne; Holmqvist, Maja

    2014-01-01

    This report examines and analyses the difference between Danske Bank's perception of themselves and the world's perception of the bank. The difference is illustrated, because tendency shows that boundaries have an effect on Danske Bank's image. We search through collected articles in a social constructivist perspective to handle both Danske Bank’s perception and the world’s perception. The empirical foundation has made it possible to process and interpret the stated problems. The adaptation i...

  17. FRACTIONAL BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Klimikova

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  18. Islamic banking

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, Viktoriya

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is focused on introduction of Islamic banking system. Morover part of the work is devoted to a detailed description of the history of Islamic banking, on explanation of the principles on which the banking system is based. Also are analyzed in detail the basic Islamic banking products. And at the end are presented the advantages and disadvantages of the Islamic banking system.

  19. Mobile banking: New trend in the contemporary banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanader Dušica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1990s and early 2000s, banking has undergone and is still undergoing some considerable changes, adjusting itself to the new circumstances and challenges in its environment. Modern information technologies have granted an opportunity to banks to expand their operations and adjust their offer of products and services, placing them through the new communication channels. The increasing reliance on mobile devices, especially the so-called smart phones, has facilitated the development of a new form of banking, known as mobile banking. Mobile banking is a specific channel of electronic banking, enabling clients to communicate with the bank via mobile devices. The bank's products and services are, thus, available to the clients at any time and at any place, and the banking sector is expected to perfectly understand the needs of today's clients, before implementing mobile banking. The research in this paper focuses on mobile banking, as a segment of electronic banking, which has developed under the influence of modern information technologies. The paper elaborates on the main characteristics of mobile banking, its advantages, but also its drawbacks that the banks and their clients are facing in the process of its utilization (or its implementation in practice. Moreover, the paper presents the trends of using mobile banking in the world and in Serbia, along with the tendencies for developing new services.

  20. THE RISE OF MOBILE BANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To meet customer’s expectations and needs, electronic banking services have allowed financial transactions to simplify and have increased their attractiveness. Over the past few year, in order to increase customer comfort and maintain profitability, banks around the world have adopted innovative banking technologies and modern e-banking services, such as internet and mobile banking. As a matter of fact, banking over mobile phones is the newest e-banking service with several benefits for both customers and banks. The paper aims to provide an overview of the latest electronic financial channel, underlining various aspects of mobile banking as it represents a key distribution channel for a growing number of customers.

  1. Changing Patterns of Spatial Clustering of Schistosomiasis in Southwest China between 1999–2001 and 2007–2008: Assessing Progress toward Eradication after the World Bank Loan Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Can; Cohen, Ted; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-01-01

    We compared changes in the spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China at the conclusion of and six years following the end of the World Bank Loan Project (WBLP), the control strategy of which was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy. Parasitological data were obtained through standardized surveys conducted in 1999–2001 and again in 2007–2008. Two alternate spatial cluster methods were used to identify spatial clusters of cases: Anselin’s Local Moran’s I test and Kulldorff’s spatial scan statistic. Substantial reductions in the burden of schistosomiasis were found after the end of the WBLP, but the spatial extent of schistosomiasis was not reduced across the study area. Spatial clusters continued to occur in three regions: Chengdu Plain, Yangtze River Valley, and Lancang River Valley during the two periods, and regularly involved five counties. These findings suggest that despite impressive reductions in burden, the hilly and mountainous regions of Southwest China remain at risk of schistosome re-emergence. Our results help to highlight specific locations where integrated control programs can focus to speed the elimination of schistosomiasis in China. PMID:24394217

  2. Dynamics of spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in the Yangtze River Valley at the end of and following the World Bank Loan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Can; Ward, Michael; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-06-01

    The 10-year (1992-2001) World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) contributed greatly to schistosomiasis control in China. However, the re-emergence of schistosomiasis in recent years challenged the long-term progress of the WBLP strategy. In order to gain insight in the long-term progress of the WBLP, the spatial pattern of the epidemic was investigated in the Yangtze River Valley between 1999-2001 and 2007-2008. Two spatial cluster methods were jointly used to identify spatial clusters of cases. The magnitude and number of clusters varied during 1999-2001. It was found that prevalence of schistosomiasis had been greatly reduced and maintained at a low level during 2007-2008, with little change. Besides, spatial clusters most frequently occurred within 16 counties in the Dongting Lake region and within 5 counties in the Poyang Lake region. These findings precisely pointed out the prior places for future public health planning and resource allocation of schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Changing patterns of spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China between 1999-2001 and 2007-2008: assessing progress toward eradication after the World Bank Loan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Can; Cohen, Ted; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-01-03

    We compared changes in the spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China at the conclusion of and six years following the end of the World Bank Loan Project (WBLP), the control strategy of which was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy. Parasitological data were obtained through standardized surveys conducted in 1999-2001 and again in 2007-2008. Two alternate spatial cluster methods were used to identify spatial clusters of cases: Anselin's Local Moran's I test and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. Substantial reductions in the burden of schistosomiasis were found after the end of the WBLP, but the spatial extent of schistosomiasis was not reduced across the study area. Spatial clusters continued to occur in three regions: Chengdu Plain, Yangtze River Valley, and Lancang River Valley during the two periods, and regularly involved five counties. These findings suggest that despite impressive reductions in burden, the hilly and mountainous regions of Southwest China remain at risk of schistosome re-emergence. Our results help to highlight specific locations where integrated control programs can focus to speed the elimination of schistosomiasis in China.

  4. Banking contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Durčáková, Klára

    2010-01-01

    Resumé - Bank Contracts Bank Contracts are an integral part of our everyday lives. Citizen and bussines entities used bank contracts very often. Despite this fact we can't find legal definition in the Czech law. Banking contracts understand contracts that are signed by banks in their business activities and obligations under these contracts arise. While the banking contracts have been widely used, in Czech law there is not too much literature and judgements abou this issue. Lack of legislatio...

  5. About Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieslak, Raymond F.

    The student manual for high school level special needs students was prepared to provide deaf students with the basic fundamentals of banking. Five units are presented covering the topics of banks and banking services, checking accounts, other services of banks, savings accounts, and other investments. Each lesson was carefully written for easy…

  6. The Solar Bank concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhart, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    The Solar Bank is proposed to be established as a multinational wholesale lending institution supporting the adoption of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems by as much as 40% of the world's population. It would supply capital resources to local lending institutions such as banks, credit unions, cooperatives, and rural lending organizations in the developing countries, and to financial institutions in the developed countries. The Solar Bank is intended to be global in scope, with operations in the major countries. The Solar Bank will bring a degree of standardization to the process of making small loans to many people for the purchase of PV systems, and it will provide technical support and training to its participating financial institutions. 'Solar Bank International' is likely to be headquartered in Europe. (orig.)

  7. GREEN BANKING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrascu Mihaela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the green banking in Romania, a new approach of conducting the banking business through considering the corporate social responsibility and environmental aspects. Nowadays, it is difficult to face the globalization and competition in order to asssure the implementation of the green banking practices. The aim of the present study is to identify corporations that have sustainability concerns. To achieve this objective, we set some hypothesis and after this we showed that the corporations are more likely to be included in the list of top banks in the world. Our study is relevant for future research in this area, because of the importance of such aspects in corporations nowadays.The conclusions of our study is that green banking practices in Romania is in an incipient stage

  8. Designing Agricultural Development Projects for the Small Scale Farmers: Some Lessons from the World Bank Assistance Small Holder Oil Palm Development Scheme in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orewa, S. I.

    The study was carried out to investigate farmers reasons for intercropping their oil palm farms with food and other cash crops rather than the sole oil palm planting arrangement specified for participation in the World Bank Assistance Smallholder Oil Palm development project financed during the 1975-83 period. The study was conducted at the Ekuku-Agbor Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the East) and Mosogar Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the Southwest) of the old Bendel State of Nigeria. A total of 35 oil palm farmers were randomly selected from each zone for the study. The study tried to identify the size of oil palm cultivated, types of food and cash crops planted and the proportion consumed and sold and the sufficiency of labour for various farm activities. The study showed that the average oil palm farm size at Ekuku-Agbor zone was smaller (about 1.57 ha) and more fragmented while for Mosogar zone it was 2.28 ha. However a greater percentage (over 65%) of the farms at both locations were within 0.01-2.00 ha farm size range which could be said to be relatively small. The study revealed that among other factors the farmers desire to ensure adequate family food needs which equates to food security and some cash to meet regular family financial needs necessitated their intercropping of the oil palm farms. Others include the need to maximize the returns from the use of labour which they considered a major limiting factor in farm maintenance and to take advantage of the relative high unit price of cassava and its products that prevailed then by cultivating on any available land space including the palm plantations and thereby increasing their farm income.

  9. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  10. Relationship Banking in Labor Bank

    OpenAIRE

    三村, 聡

    2012-01-01

    As Labor bank is seemed as business partner of labor union, it contributes each community activities. For example, Labor bank helps retired employee, laborer and inhabitants. In addition, after the amendment of Money Lending Business Act of 2010, labor bank became clearly community based bank by consulting for heavily-indebted people and their education. This paper analyzes the new role of labor bank such as community contribution and enhancing financing service by collecting of the opinion o...

  11. Danske Bank vildleder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2014-01-01

    EN VIDEO på Danske Banks hjemmeside fremstiller banker som neutrale formidlere af penge. Den giver et misvisende indtryk af passivitet og harmløshed og strider stærkt mod de fleste menneskers oplevelse af banker som særdeles aktive, næsten aggressive I årene op til finanskrisen 2008, og stærktmed......EN VIDEO på Danske Banks hjemmeside fremstiller banker som neutrale formidlere af penge. Den giver et misvisende indtryk af passivitet og harmløshed og strider stærkt mod de fleste menneskers oplevelse af banker som særdeles aktive, næsten aggressive I årene op til finanskrisen 2008, og...

  12. BANKING ETHICS: MAIN CONCEPTIONS AND PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA FETINIUC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Banking ethics is a specialized set of ethical standards and rules that should be followed in the activities of financial institutions and employees of the banking sector. But despite the simplicity of the definition, in the modern world, this concept becomes complex and ambiguous. The importance of studying this subject is defined by the fact that the ethical behavior of the bank and bank employees promotes banking. At present there are several conceptions of banking ethics: general ethics, regulated ethics and ethical bank. The most common practice is to regulate internal and external relations of banks and bank workers with ethical codes. At the same time, studies show the existence of problems in the banking standards of ethics, which negatively affects the financial institution. This article is intended to reflect main tendencies and problems of banking ethics at international level and experience of Republic of Moldova in this field.

  13. Bank Insolvency Procedures and Market Discipline in European Banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angkinand, Apanard; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    for pre-determined bank insolvency procedures that could enable banks to expand cross-border in branches. In the empirical part we show that credibility of non-insurance is maximized with a partial deposit insurance scheme, and that the coverage can be decreased if effective rule-based distress resolution......Predetermined, operational procedures for dealing with banks in distress are conspicuously absent across the world with very few exceptions. Instead governments and regulatory authorities intervene when banks approach failure. Bail-outs of important creditors, sometimes including shareholders......, and blanket guarantees for creditors become the norm. We argue that efficient incentives of banks' creditors, as well as of shareholders and managers, require predetermined rules for dealing with banks in distress, and a group of creditors that are credibly non-insured. Cross-border banking increases the need...

  14. Long-term impact of the World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control: a comparison of the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijie; Zhu, Rong; Ward, Michael P; Xu, Wanghong; Zhang, Lijuan; Guo, Jiagang; Zhao, Fei; Jiang, Qingwu

    2012-01-01

    The World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) for controlling schistosomiasis in China was implemented during 1992-2001. Its short-term impact has been assessed from non-spatial perspective, but its long-term impact remains unclear and a spatial evaluation has not previously been conducted. Here we compared the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk using national datasets in the lake and marshland regions from 1999-2001 and 2007-2008 to evaluate the long-term impact of WBLP strategy on China's schistosomiasis burden. A hierarchical Poisson regression model was developed in a Bayesian framework with spatially correlated and uncorrelated heterogeneities at the county-level, modeled using a conditional autoregressive prior structure and a spatially unstructured Gaussian distribution, respectively. There were two important findings from this study. The WBLP strategy was found to have a good short-term impact on schistosomiasis control, but its long-term impact was not ideal. It has successfully reduced the morbidity of schistosomiasis to a low level, but can not contribute further to China's schistosomiasis control because of the current low endemic level. A second finding is that the WBLP strategy could not effectively compress the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk. To achieve further reductions in schistosomiasis-affected areas, and for sustainable control, focusing on the intermediate host snail should become the next step to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission within the two most affected regions surrounding the Dongting and Poyang Lakes. Furthermore, in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the WBLP's morbidity control strategy may need to continue for some time until snails in the upriver provinces have been well controlled. It is difficult to further reduce morbidity due to schistosomiasis using a chemotherapy-based control strategy in the lake and marshland regions of China because of the current low endemic levels of infection. The future control

  15. Long-term impact of the World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control: a comparison of the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Bank Loan Project (WBLP for controlling schistosomiasis in China was implemented during 1992-2001. Its short-term impact has been assessed from non-spatial perspective, but its long-term impact remains unclear and a spatial evaluation has not previously been conducted. Here we compared the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk using national datasets in the lake and marshland regions from 1999-2001 and 2007-2008 to evaluate the long-term impact of WBLP strategy on China's schistosomiasis burden. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A hierarchical Poisson regression model was developed in a Bayesian framework with spatially correlated and uncorrelated heterogeneities at the county-level, modeled using a conditional autoregressive prior structure and a spatially unstructured Gaussian distribution, respectively. There were two important findings from this study. The WBLP strategy was found to have a good short-term impact on schistosomiasis control, but its long-term impact was not ideal. It has successfully reduced the morbidity of schistosomiasis to a low level, but can not contribute further to China's schistosomiasis control because of the current low endemic level. A second finding is that the WBLP strategy could not effectively compress the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk. To achieve further reductions in schistosomiasis-affected areas, and for sustainable control, focusing on the intermediate host snail should become the next step to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission within the two most affected regions surrounding the Dongting and Poyang Lakes. Furthermore, in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the WBLP's morbidity control strategy may need to continue for some time until snails in the upriver provinces have been well controlled. CONCLUSION: It is difficult to further reduce morbidity due to schistosomiasis using a chemotherapy-based control strategy in the lake and marshland regions of China

  16. Reconstruction of War Damaged Buildings - A Problem that Still Stands. The Case of the National Economy Bank in Warsaw Restored During the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łotysz, Sławomir

    2016-12-01

    The Polish national historiography remains silent on the reconstruction of damaged towns and cities that was undertaken by the German administration after capturing Poland in September 1939. This paper, on the war-time restoration of the National Economy Bank's headquarters in Warsaw, is an attempt to at least partially fill the gap. Designed by celebrated architect Rudolf Świerczyński in the late 1920s in accordance with contemporary air raid defence regulations, it was bombed and nevertheless seriously damaged during the September Campaign. Under the German management of the bank, the building was reconstructed and even modernized by commissioned Polish engineers.

  17. Neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschos, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that over the past few years considerable progress has been made in the field of weak interactions. The existence of neutral currents involving leptons and hadrons has been established and some of the questions concerning their detailed structure have been answered. This imposes constraints on the gauge theories and has eliminated large classes of models. New questions have also been raised, one of which concerns the conservation laws obeyed by neutral currents. The wide range of investigations is impressive and is expected to continue with new results from particle, nuclear, and atomic physics. Headings include - various aspects of a gauge theory (choice of group, the symmetry breaking scheme, representation assignments for fermion fields); space-time structure; isospin structure; leptonic neutral currents; and atomic experiments. (U.K.)

  18. Is shadow banking really banking?

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan J. Noeth; Rajdeep Sengupta

    2011-01-01

    To those who don't know, the term "shadow banking" probably has a negative connotation. This primer draws parallels between what has been termed the shadow banking sector and the traditional banking sector—showing that they are similar in many ways.

  19. Neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.

    1994-11-01

    The evidence for the existence of weak neutral current has been a very controverted topics in the early 1970's, as well as the muon did in the 1930's. The history is very rich considering the evolution of the experimental techniques in high energy particle physics. The history of the discovery and the study of weak neutral current is reviewed. Later the quest of the intermediate vector boson continues with the decision of the community to build a large proton antiproton collider. (K.A.). 14 refs., 1 fig

  20. E-Banking: Risk Management Practices of the Estonian Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitri Sokolov

    2007-01-01

    During the last years the development of e-banking in Estonia has been very significant. According to the report of the World Economic Forum, the Estonian IT-development has been substantial. The success of e-banking in Estonia can be compared to the corresponding success of the Nordic countries. According to the Deutsche Bank Research, around 70-80% of the Internet users in Estonia use Internet banking and in this respect, Estonia could be compared to Finland, Norway and Iceland. Despite of ...

  1. Bo Xilai :China will honor its World Trade Organization(WTO) commitments. Banking and telecommunications market sectors would be opened in time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Minister of Commerce Bo Xilai promised on September 4 that China will honor its WTO commitments. At a ceremony to mark China's five-year WTO partnership, Bo Xilai promised this to commercial leaders of Europe present again. Bo said all market sectors would be opened in time, referring especially to banking and telecommunications.

  2. Building integrated health systems in central and eastern Europe: an analysis of WHO and World Bank views and their relevance to health systems in transition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delnoij, D.M.J.; Klazinga, N.S.; Velden, K. van der

    2003-01-01

    Background: Two questions are addressed.1): What are the views on health and health systems as expressed in the World Development Report 2000/2001 of the WB and the World Health Report 2000 and Health 21 of the World Health Organization, and how compatible are those views? 2): To what extent will

  3. Building integrated health systems in central and eastern Europe - An analysis of WHO and World Bank views and their relevance to health systems in transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delnoij, Diana M. J.; Klazinga, Niek S.; van der Velden, Koos

    2003-01-01

    Background: Two questions are addressed. i) What are the views on health and health systems as expressed in the World Development Report 2000/2001 of the WB and the World Health Report 2000 and Health 21 of the World Health Organization, and how compatible are those views? ii) To what extent will

  4. Information and communication technology and bank performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different sectors of world economies are rapidly being affected by improved technology. Banking sector is also witnessing the trend in Nigeria. Information and communication Technology is said to have impacted the banking sector massively as the banks in Nigeria introduce products that would help improve their efficiency ...

  5. NEA data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to the NEA data bank. The essential programs and data for nuclear energy calculations are available from the Data Bank. The Data Bank's role, in co-operation with other centers, is to protect the technological capital represented by the programs and data in its collection, which is unique in covering nearly the whole field of reactor physics at a single center (Saclay). The compilation and exchange of experimental and evaluated neutron and other nuclear data is carried out through a world-wide information network. The tasks now assigned to the Data Bank are in the areas of computer program packaging, neutron data compilation, assembly and benchmark testing of the Joint Evaluated File (JEF) of neutron cross-section data, and servicing the NEA scientific committees, as well as providing a computer service to the main NEA secretariat. In all areas the emphasis is on developing a ''value added'' element to the incoming data or computer codes, by validation documentation and presentation of information in a convenient standard form. The services offered by the Data Bank and the computers used by the Data Bank are presented

  6. Reconstruction of War Damaged Buildings - A Problem that Still Stands. The Case of the National Economy Bank in Warsaw Restored During the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łotysz Sławomir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Polish national historiography remains silent on the reconstruction of damaged towns and cities that was undertaken by the German administration after capturing Poland in September 1939. This paper, on the war-time restoration of the National Economy Bank’s headquarters in Warsaw, is an attempt to at least partially fill the gap. Designed by celebrated architect Rudolf Świerczyński in the late 1920s in accordance with contemporary air raid defence regulations, it was bombed and nevertheless seriously damaged during the September Campaign. Under the German management of the bank, the building was reconstructed and even modernized by commissioned Polish engineers.

  7. Banco Mundial: concepção, criação e primeiros anos (1942-60 World Bank: conception, creation and the first years (1942-60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Márcio Mendes Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa os embates em torno da concepção da criação e dos primeiros anos de funcionamento do Banco Internacional para Reconstrução e Desenvolvimento (BIRD, mais conhecido como Banco Mundial. Para isso, remonta ao início dos anos 1940, quando começaram as negociações entre os EUA e a Inglaterra em torno da criação da arquitetura monetária e financeira internacional do pós-guerra. O trabalho discute as propostas originais de ambas as potências, a primazia dos EUA na criação do banco e a forma pela qual a correlação de forças dentro dos EUA jogou um papel importante na modelagem da instituição. Analisa, ainda, a trajetória do banco entre 1946 e 1960, mostrando como as injunções da política externa norte-americana pressionaram a atuação da entidade e de que maneira o banco se inseriu na estratégia de contenção do comunismo. Por fim, discute os fatores econômicos e políticos que levaram à ampliação do BIRD na segunda metade dos anos 1950, mediante a criação da Corporação Financeira Internacional e da Associação Internacional de Desenvolvimento.This article analyzes the disputes around the conception, creation and the first years of work of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (BIRD, better known as the World Bank. For such, it goes back to the early 1940s when the negotiations between the United States and England for the creation of a post-war international monetary and financial architecture began. The work discusses the original propositions of both potencies, the primacy of the United States in the creation of the bank and the way the force correlations inside the USA played an important role in institution's modeling. It also analyzes the bank's trajectory between 1946 an 1960, showing how the North-American foreign policy's injunctions pressed the entity's actions and in which ways the bank inserted itself in the communism containment strategy. Finally, it discusses the

  8. BANK GUARANTEES

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile NEME

    2012-01-01

    The present study propose the analyse of the irrevocable commitment of a bank entity towards a determined person, through which guarantees a certain legal conduct of its client, and, in case of breach, assumes the payment obligation of a determined amount of money. This kind of legal technique it is called bank guarantee and in the usual business language it is called “Letter of Bank Guarantee”. The determined reason to choose this scientific initiative it is the frequency of this kind of fin...

  9. Why the World Bank is Neither Monitoring, Nor Complying with the FAO Guidelines on Responsible Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsalve Suárez, S.; Z.W. Brent (Zoe)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Around the world, peasants, pastoralists, indigenous peoples and fisher folk are facing increasing increased threats of displacement and dispossession. The confluence of the food, financial and climate crises has further exaggerated pressures on land and forests,

  10. E-BANKING SERVICES – FEATURES, CHALLENGES AND BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Today traditional banking services, based on lending and deposittaking operations, are only part of banking activities. Due to the emergence of a knowledgebased economy and society as information and communication technology advanced, banking services have undergone profound changes during the past decades. In order to improve the quality of customer service delivery and reduce transaction cost, banks have invested to a great extent in ICT and have adopted ICT networks for delivering a wide range of banking products and services. Banks all over the world have embraced innovative banking technologies and e-banking services in recent years. In this context, the paper aims to provide an overview of the electronic banking service highlighting various aspects of e-banking. Although e-banking offers many advantages both to corporate and individual clients, electronic banking is not without certain challenges and issues in terms of security and interest of customers.

  11. Determinants of profitability according to groups of banks in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Arjeta Hallunovi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzed the determinants of profitability of all the commercial banks in Albania, where the banks were analyzed by dividing into groups[1]. These determinants are categorized into two groups, internal and external factors. The objective of the study is to determine the factors that affect the profitability in commercial banks, to show how they differ according to groups of the banks and making some recommendations which can help the management. A panel data with all the commercial banks that operate in Albania is analyzed for the period 2009-2014. To measure the profitability is used the independent variable return on assets. Banking specific factors that are used in this study include variables such as bank size, asset management, credit risk, liquidity of assets, capital adequacy, operational efficiency and cost of financing. On the other hand is taken into consideration only one industry specific factor, which is the concentration and some macroeconomic factors as GDP, exchange rate and inflation. The quantitative data are obtained from the financial statements of commercial banks, INSTAT, Bank of Albania, World Bank and Bankscope, in order to make empirical analysis needed to identify and measure the determinants of bank profitability. In particular, the multiple regression analysis is used to measure the impact of determinants in bank profitability and to realize empirical analysis is used Eviews 7. The results of the study showed a positive relationship between bank size and profitability, statistically important in the group 2, with 1% level of significance. The credit risk had an inverse relation with profitability in the model, statistically significant at 1% level of significance for the group 2 and 5% for the group 1 and 3. While, in terms of macroeconomic factors, GDP had a positive relationship with profitability and it is statistically significant in the group 3. On the other hand, inflation and exchange rate showed a

  12. A fundamental shift in the approach to international health by WHO, UNICEF, and the World Bank: instances of the practice of "intellectual fascism" and totalitarianism in some Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, D

    1999-01-01

    Navarro has used the term "intellectual fascism" to depict the intellectual situation in the McCarthy era. Intellectual fascism is now more malignant in the poor countries of the world. The Indian Subcontinent, China, and some other Asian countries provide the context. The struggles of the working class culminated in the Alma-Ata Declaration of self-reliance in health by the peoples of the world. To protect their commercial and political interests, retribution from the rich countries was sharp and swift, they "invented" Selective Primary Health Care and used WHO, UNICEF, the World Bank, and other agencies to let loose on poor countries a barrage of "international initiatives" as global programs on immunization, AIDS, and tuberculosis. These programs were astonishingly defective in concept, design, and implementation. The agencies refused to take note of such criticisms when they were published by others. They have been fascistic, ahistorical, grossly unscientific, and Goebbelsian propagandists. The conscience keepers of public health have mostly kept quiet.

  13. Challenges Faced by Sudanese Banks in Implementing Online Banking: Bankers’ Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Nafis Alam; Ibrahim Hussien Musa Magboul; Murali Raman

    2010-01-01

    Innovations in Information technology have changed the way financial transactions are done in banking industry globally. Online banking uses today’s computer technology to give user the ability to manage their finances more quickly and efficiently, from anywhere around the world, and with just a click of the mouse. Banks perceive online banking as a powerful ‘value-added’ tool to attract and retain new customers while helping to eliminate costly paper handling and tell...

  14. RELATION BETWEEN ISLAMIC BANK AND CENTRAL BANK

    OpenAIRE

    PAKSOY, H. Mustafa; ABAROSS, Nour

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with the nature of Islamic banks and their features, and requirements of these features in terms of control tools and methods appropriate with the particularity of their business and their relation with the traditional central bank. At the same time aims to view the relationship between Islamic bank and central bank. To explain this relation the researcher started to explain what is the central bank, objectives of central bank, and characteristics, what is Islamic bank and ob...

  15. A hybrid nested partitions algorithm for banking facility location problems

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Li; Yin, Wenjun; Dong, Jin; Wu, Teresa; Xie, Ming; Zhao, Yanjia

    2010-01-01

    The facility location problem has been studied in many industries including banking network, chain stores, and wireless network. Maximal covering location problem (MCLP) is a general model for this type of problems. Motivated by a real-world banking

  16. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit Banks...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF ISLAMIC BANKING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISTVÁN EGRESI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While the financial world is still dominated by conventional banks, based on western economic principles, the number of Islamic banks is on the rise. Islamic banks have originated from colonial India as a response of the Muslims to the British who attempted to westernize their society. Other similar financial operations based on Islamic Law (Shari’a were established in Pakistan, Malaysia and Egypt to facilitate access of rural poor to interest-free loans. However, being unprofitable, these operations did not survive for very long. Islamic banks, unlike conventional banks, are not based on interest and conduct their business in accordance with a wide array of ethical and moral issues. The modern phase of Islamic banking started in the 1970s when the Islamic Development Bank was founded in Saudi Arabia. Soon after, a number of commercial banks were established in the neighboring countries. From this core, over the last four decades, Islamic finance and banking has spread across the entire Muslim world and beyond to become a global phenomenon. This study examines the development of Islamic banking in Turkey in the wider context of global expansion. Turkey is an interesting case study because, although its population is nearly 100% Muslim, it is a secular state built on the model of Western European countries. However, lately, the moderate Islamic party in power since 2002 has shown some signs of openness towards a parallel banking system based on Islamic principles.

  18. Electronic Banking And Bank Performance In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... deploying information Technology in banks therefore can ... profitability indices and other control of financial ..... impact of e-banking on bank profitability ..... [13] Nikolai L. and Bazlay J.D (1997) Intermediate Accounting, South-.

  19. Bank development; bank development efficiency; bank management; bank.

    OpenAIRE

    Самородов, Б. В.

    2014-01-01

    In the paper the theoretical research of determination of the essence of “management of bank financial development” is realized. The analysis is performed on the basis of substantial considering and comparing the philosophy and economical definitions of the components of its definition.

  20. CONCEPT AND EVOLUTION OF BANK MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Turkes (Vînt) Mirela Catalina

    2010-01-01

    The bank marketing, a specialized field of the marketing, has emerged following the extensive development of the general marketing and following the appearance, separation and development of services marketing. The article shows the appearance, development and delimitation of the bank marketing concept following the increase of the financial-banking sector in all world countries due to the appearance of new competitors and the competition intensification. The research consisted in presenting ...

  1. GREEN BANKING IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF COMMERCIAL BANKS

    OpenAIRE

    Shikha Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Today across the world the biggest problem is environment management and reducing the damage to the natural resources and global warming. It is the responsibility of every individual as well as institutions in the world to work in this direction. Lots of agencies are doing research on various related topics and from the literature review it is observed that in India RBI has already given a direction for the banks through circulars to implement certain strategies for betterment of the environm...

  2. Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asosheh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Information systems outsourcing issues has been attracted in recent years because many information systems projects in organizations are done in this case. On the other hand, failure rate of this kind of projects is also high. The aim of this article is to find success factors in risk management of information systems outsourcing in commercial banks using these factors leads to increase the success rate of risk management of information systems outsourcing projects. Research methods in the present article based on purpose are applied and descriptive- survey. In addition, research tool is questionnaire which was used among commercial bank experts. For this purpose, First information systems outsourcing risks were identified and then ranked. In the next step, the information systems outsourcing reasons were surveyed and the most important reasons were identified. Then the risks which have not any relationship with the most important reasons were removed and success factors in managing residual risks were extracted.

  3. Sequential Banking.

    OpenAIRE

    Bizer, David S; DeMarzo, Peter M

    1992-01-01

    The authors study environments in which agents may borrow sequentially from more than one leader. Although debt is prioritized, additional lending imposes an externality on prior debt because, with moral hazard, the probability of repayment of prior loans decreases. Equilibrium interest rates are higher than they would be if borrowers could commit to borrow from at most one bank. Even though the loan terms are less favorable than they would be under commitment, the indebtedness of borrowers i...

  4. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  5. International Tree Ring Data Bank (ITRDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tree ring data from the International Tree Ring Data Bank and World Data Center for Paleoclimatology archives. Data include raw treering measurements (most are...

  6. Global monitoring of Salmonella serovar distribution from the World Health Organization Global Foodborne Infections Network Country Data Bank: results of quality assured laboratories from 2001 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Rene S; Vieira, Antonio R; Karlsmose, Susanne; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo M A; Jensen, Arne B; Wegener, Henrik C; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2011-08-01

    Salmonella enterica is commonly acquired from contaminated food and is an important cause of illness worldwide. Interventions are needed to control Salmonella; subtyping Salmonella by serotyping is useful for targeting such interventions. We, therefore, analyzed the global distribution of the 15 most frequently identified serovars of Salmonella isolated from humans from 2001 to 2007 in laboratories from 37 countries that participated in World Health Organization Global Foodborne Infections Network and demonstrated serotyping proficiency in the Global Foodborne Infections Network External Quality Assurance System. In all regions throughout the study period, with the exception of the Oceania and North American regions, Salmonella serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium ranked as the most common and second most common serovar, respectively. In the North American and Oceania (Australia and New Zealand) regions, Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was the most common serovar reported, and Salmonella serovar Enteritidis was the second most common serovar. During the study period, the proportion of Salmonella isolates reported from humans that were Salmonella serovar Enteritidis was 43.5% (range: 40.6% [2007] to 44.9% [2003]), and Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was 17.1% (range: 15% [2007] to 18.9% [2001]). Salmonella serovars Newport (mainly observed in Latin and North American and European countries), Infantis (dominating in all regions), Virchow (mainly observed in Asian, European, and Oceanic countries), Hadar (profound in European countries), and Agona (intense in Latin and North American and European countries) were also frequently isolated with an overall proportion of 3.5%, 1.8%, 1.5%, 1.5%, and 0.8%, respectively. There were large differences in the most commonly isolated serovars between regions, but lesser differences between countries within the same region. The results also highlight the complexity of the global epidemiology of Salmonella and the need and importance

  7. Is banking supervision central to central banking?

    OpenAIRE

    Joe Peek; Eric S. Rosengren; Geoffrey M. B. Tootell

    1997-01-01

    Whether central banks should play an active role in bank supervision and regulation is being debated both in the United States and abroad. While the Bank of England has recently been stripped of its supervisory responsibilities and several proposals in the United States have advocated removing bank supervision from the Federal Reserve System, other countries are considering enhancing central bank involvement in this area. Many of the arguments for and against these proposals hinge on the effe...

  8. Tissue bank: Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Human degenerative diseases and congenital defects are common throughout the world. Many people suffer also from burns, fractures and nerve damage resulting from traumatic accidents and outbreaks of violence which occur all too frequently, especially in poorer countries. Far too many people are impaired for life because they have no access to treatment or simply cannot afford it. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Division of Nuclear Medicine, to improve facilities at the Sri Lanka Tissue Bank. (IAEA)

  9. ELECTRONIC BANKING ADVANTAGES FOR FINANCIAL SERVICES DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paun Dragos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available E-banking is a fully automatic service for traditionally banking customers products based on information technology platforms. E-banking services provide customer access to accounts, the ability to move their money between different accounts or making payments via e-channels. The advantages generated by this services have determined an accelerate developing of this industry over the entire world. This paper examines some of the advantages of electronic banking products together with the characteristic management issues generated by the implementation of this new channel for financial services delivery.

  10. Who pays for cooperation in global health? A comparative analysis of WHO, the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Chelsea; Sridhar, Devi

    2017-07-15

    In this report we assess who pays for cooperation in global health through an analysis of the financial flows of WHO, the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. The past few decades have seen the consolidation of influence in the disproportionate roles the USA, UK, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation have had in financing three of these four institutions. Current financing flows in all four case study institutions allow donors to finance and deliver assistance in ways that they can more closely control and monitor at every stage. We highlight three major trends in global health governance more broadly that relate to this development: towards more discretionary funding and away from core or longer-term funding; towards defined multi-stakeholder governance and away from traditional government-centred representation and decision-making; and towards narrower mandates or problem-focused vertical initiatives and away from broader systemic goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. BANK FAILURE PREDICTION WITH LOGISTIC REGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Zaghdoudi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the economic and financial world is shaken by a wave of financial crisis and resulted in violent bank fairly huge losses. Several authors have focused on the study of the crises in order to develop an early warning model. It is in the same path that our work takes its inspiration. Indeed, we have tried to develop a predictive model of Tunisian bank failures with the contribution of the binary logistic regression method. The specificity of our prediction model is that it takes into account microeconomic indicators of bank failures. The results obtained using our provisional model show that a bank's ability to repay its debt, the coefficient of banking operations, bank profitability per employee and leverage financial ratio has a negative impact on the probability of failure.

  12. Techniques for measuring customers’ satisfaction in Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lidia MELNIC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The major concern of banks today is to recover and maintain customer trust. Customers need to feel that banks are considering their best interests. Customers are seeking for easy and personalized information. They want to better understand their financial situation and to control it. They want to know both the benefits, as well as the risks. Clients want to work with banks that are concerned about them and about their personal goals. However, only an attractive offer of banks is not the key to success today if is not supported by a superior service culture, that can make notable differentiation in the market. Many banks all over the world are systematically measuring how well they treat customers, identifying the factors shaping satisfaction, and changing operations and marketing as a result. Wise banks measure customer satisfaction regularly because it is one key to customer retention.

  13. CONCEPT AND EVOLUTION OF BANK MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkes (Vint Mirela Catalina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The bank marketing, a specialized field of the marketing, has emerged following the extensive development of the general marketing and following the appearance, separation and development of services marketing. The article shows the appearance, development and delimitation of the bank marketing concept following the increase of the financial-banking sector in all world countries due to the appearance of new competitors and the competition intensification. The research consisted in presenting the evolution stages of the bank marketing and the manner in which the concept has been approached and perceived, in time, by various Romanian and foreign specialists. Through analysis, I have shown the importance of including the bank marketing concept into the assembly of tactical and strategic decisions of the banking companies.

  14. Banking system trust, bank trust, and bank loyalty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esterik-Plasmeijer, P.; van Raaij, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test a model of banking system trust as an antecedent of bank trust and bank loyalty. Six determinants of trust and loyalty are included: competence, stability, integrity, customer orientation, transparency, and value congruence. The study provides insights

  15. What about the multilateral banks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planas Alexandra

    1998-02-01

    The role the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank are regarding the climate change problem is, in the same way as the international negotiations, pretty weak compared to the magnitude of the problem. The contradictions within these organizations concerning project financing and policies and strategies to support their clients in a sustainable energy path constitute a clear example of the ambiguities that still surrounds the position of the different countries in respect to the human induced global warming problem. Finally, we can see how the different countries and the new market conditions determine the role these organizations can play regarding the climate change problem

  16. Capital requirement, bank competition and stability in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Oduor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Monetary authorities around the world are implementing enhanced banking capital adequacy requirements under Basel III meant to improve financial stability. Critics however argue that increased capital requirements concentrate the banking industry reducing competition while not guaranteeing financial sector stability. Using data from 167 banks in 37 African countries, we find that increased capital beef-up significantly increases financial instability in Africa (except in big banks implying that higher capital requirements did not make African banks safer. We also find that increased regulatory capital improves competitive pricing for foreign banks while it makes domestic banks less competitive mainly attributed to the high cost of sourcing and holding extra capital for domestic banks compared to foreign banks who can source cheaper capital from parent companies. The results put to question the effectiveness of enhanced regulatory capital on stability and competitiveness of the African financial system.

  17. Banking governance: New Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mihăiţă Duţă

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Banks are companies like any other. However, banks are distinguished by certain intrinsic characteristics of companies that have a different impact on the motivation of stakeholders. Among these features, we mention:partnership and shareholders governance agreements; banks are heavily regulated companies; banking assets is the main source of haze banking and information asymmetry; between the bank and depositors there is a problem of moral hazard.

  18. ROMANIAN BANKS LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BATRANCEA MARIA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Most transactions or financial commitments have implications for a bank liquidity. Transactions are particularly vulnerable to liquidity problems at a specific institution. Therefore, one can deduce the importance of the correct calculation and liquidity indicator, not only for the bank concerned, but especially for NBR uses that bank risk management tool. That is why the authors took into consideration a sample of banks in Romania to show to what extent the banking crisis has influenced the development banks.

  19. Internet Banking integration within the banking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Marian MATEI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet Banking developed due to increasing demand of online banking transactions. The biggest advantages of Internet Banking consist of complex banking solutions, 24 hours availability, quick and secure access to the back-end application through Internet. These advantages are due to the use of SOA (service-oriented architecture. SOA appeared as a necessity of companies to integrate big and independent portions of applications, in order to obtain an homogeneous functionality of the system. For the Internet Banking applications, SOA proved to be the optimal architectural solution, for a smoth integration between banking services from the front-end to the back-end.This paper intend to offer an insite analyse of the Internet Banking applications architecture integrated with other banking systems. A SOA oriented analyse will establish the scope of the integration architecture.

  20. Bone banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, W

    1999-04-01

    The use of human organs and tissues for transplantation in Australia has increased significantly over the past 30 years. In 1997, the Australian Coordinating Committee on Organ Registries and Donation (ACCORD) reported a total number of 190 organ donors, 636 corneal donors and 1509 bone donors Australia wide. Of the 1509 bone donations, 143 came from cadaveric sources and 1366 were made by living donors. Bone transplantation is not as widely recognised as solid organ or corneal transplantation. Due to improved technology and surgical skills, the demand for bone transplantation has increased markedly. This Clinical Update will provide an overview of the physiological aspects of bone transplantation and explore bone banking, a key step in the complex and critical process of bone transplantation.

  1. Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) is an astronaut training facility and neutral buoyancy pool operated by NASA and located at the Sonny Carter Training Facility,...

  2. Internet Banking integration within the banking system

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Marian MATEI; Catalin Ionut SILVESTRU; Dragos Stefan SILVESTRU

    2008-01-01

    Internet Banking developed due to increasing demand of online banking transactions. The biggest advantages of Internet Banking consist of complex banking solutions, 24 hours availability, quick and secure access to the back-end application through Internet. These advantages are due to the use of SOA (service-oriented architecture). SOA appeared as a necessity of companies to integrate big and independent portions of applications, in order to obtain an homogeneous functionality of the system....

  3. Verdensbankens klimabistand: The World Banks Climate finance

    OpenAIRE

    Thorup, Christian; Visholm, Nina; Gottlieb, Mikkel; Lodberg, Mette; van Kleef, Pernille

    2011-01-01

    Verdensbankens klimabistand I vores projekt har vi undersøgt hvilken indflydelse Verdensbanken har i fordelingen af de klimatilpasningsmidler som verdenssamfundet blev enige om, at give til ulandene under COP 15, og derefter har vi undersøgt hvilke problematikker der er forbundet med denne indflydelse. Især det skæve magtforhold der skabes mellem Verdensbanken og ulandene i kraft af, at ulandene har desperat brug for den kapital som Verdensbanken og PPCR administrerer. Afsluttende har vi unde...

  4. Spatial comparison of areas at risk for schistosomiasis in the hilly and mountainous regions in the People's Republic of China: evaluation of the long-term effect of the 10-year World Bank Loan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Jie; Zhu, Rong; Bergquist, Robert; Chen, Dong-Mei; Chen, Yue; Zhang, Li-Juan; Guo, Jia-Gang; Zhao, Fei; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2012-05-01

    The long-term effectiveness of the mainly chemotherapy-based control strategy of the World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) for schistosomiasis control in Chinese hilly and mountainous regions was evaluated with a view to determine the best road forward. Based on the national database of schistosomiasis prevalence for the periods of 1999-2001 and 2007-2008 in the People's Republic of China, a Bayesian regression model was used for spatial comparison of schistosomiasis risk distribution between two periods taking account of all the potential risk factors simultaneously through two latent components of random effects: spatially correlated heterogeneities (CH) and spatially uncorrelated heterogeneities (UH). Four different types of endemic areas were investigated: those that remained endemic despite control efforts (17 or 37.8%), those that became non-endemic (9 or 20.0%), those that reverted back to endemicity (7 or 15.6%), and those with fluctuating endemicity (12 or 26.7%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was lower in 2007-2008 compared with that in 1999-2001, but the spatial distribution of risk remained similar. Compared to 1999-2001, the magnitude and range of risk even tended to be greater in 2007-2008. UH showed a fluctuating pattern, while CH increased gradually doubling over the two periods. There was no evidence for long-term effectiveness of the WBLP chemotherapy-based control strategy in this region. Controlling the effect of UH is still the main aspect of current schistosomiasis control strategy for the hilly and mountainous regions, but innovative methods are urgently needed for effectively controlling UH.

  5. E-BANKING- MODERN BANKING SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRANDA PETRONELLA VLAD

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available E-banking is the first of those banking services that really economize time, because it allows to the user to accomplish from behind the computer many operations in the bank account, represents the computational solution that allows to the holder to have

  6. Interest Free Banking in Nigeria - Welcome Islamic Banking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interest Free Banking in Nigeria - Welcome Islamic Banking; Welcome Christian Banking. ... banks pay interest on deposits, and charge interest on loans and advances, ... However, the literature on interest rates, in relation to Commercial Bank ...

  7. ESSENCE OF ACTIVE OPERATIONS OF COMMERCIAL BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinovskaya Irina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Constant changes in the economic situation in the country and in the world give rise to new problems in asset management of commercial banks. This, in turn, requires the timely development and introduction of new and improved mechanisms for active operations of banking institutions. Only the implementation of such adequate mechanisms will allow, on the one hand, to satisfy the needs of consumers of banking services, and on the other – for banking institutions, to obtain the necessary level of profit for the acceptable risk to them. Purpose. Substantiation of theoretical foundations of organization and management of assets of banking institutions and determination of perspective directions of development of active operations in commercial banks. Results. The article provides a list of operations carried out by commercial banks of Ukraine. The essence of the concept of active operations of a banking institution as an important element of its activity for profit is considered. Possible variants of classification of active operations are analyzed, depending on the criterion underlying (risk level, liquidity and term of putting. The definition of a bank loan and its basic principles are given. The purposes and advantages of investment activity of banking institutions are specified, the classification of such activity is carried out. Proposed directions of development of active operations of banking institutions through the use of intermediary operations and unconventional banking services are offered. Conclusions. Currently, banking institutions carry out a large number of different banking operations. Mobilized by carrying out passive operations cash funds of the banking institution are placed through active operations in different directions. The basis of active operations of a commercial bank is its credit and investment operations. A commercial bank’s profits in the future are dependent on their effective conduct. The conduct of

  8. Denying Foreign Bank Entry: Implications For Bank Interest Margins

    OpenAIRE

    Ross Levine

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of restricting foreign bank entry on bank net interest margins while controlling for (a) impediments to domestic bank entry, (b) the degree of foreign bank ownership of the domestic banking industry, (c) an array of bank-specific characteristics, (c) banking sectorconcentration, and (d) various country traits. Using data on almost 1200 banks across 47 countries, the results suggest that restricting foreign bank entry boosts bank net interest margins. Also, restr...

  9. Banks and Banking Business in Russia in the Face of International Sanctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina S. Panova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an analysis of the present condition and prospects of development of banks and the banking business in the face of international sanctions. It identifies current trends, problems and the risks of banks and banking in Russia and in the world. Special attention is paid to the analysis of sectoral international sanctions against the Russian banks and the need to minimize negative impact of sanctions on the banking business, both nationally and internationally. Great value in these conditions has the state monetary policy. Anti-crisis policy pursued by the Bank of Russia, in a context of stagnating economy, leads to a reduction in the Russian share in the world economy and increases in the standard of living gap with the developed countries. The article argues that Russia's economic growth opportunities in 2016 are limited by restriction level of bank interest, the high volatility of the exchange rate of the national currency, insufficient development of credit relations, tough, high-budget (at the level of developed Europe tax burden, increasing administrative costs, dramatically increasing the concentration of risks of subjective decisions at the present stage of the electoral cycle. In a situation of uncertainty of predictions regarding the scope and duration of the application of sanctions, the Russian Government and the Central Bank of the Russian Federation had rightly seek to use a combination of anti-sanctions measures of austerity measures on introduction of contra-sanctions to create more comfortable conditions for doing business in Russia and her allies from member countries of Eurasian Economic Union, SCO, BRICS. The article examines the strategic aspects of development banks and banking business in Russia under the new circumstances. Given the practical recommendations on improvement of the development strategy of banks in Russia. The necessity to improve the theoretical, conceptual, methodological, her reasoning

  10. Study of neutral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, W.; Bulos, F.; Eisner, A.

    1975-01-01

    The range of physics problems for which a detector emphasizing neutrals is most suitable is discussed. The primary goals are the all neutrals cross section, sigma/sub o/ (e + e - → neutrals), the characterization of the neutral energy in multi-hadronic events, the search for monoenergetic photons, and good sensitivity in the difficult region of low energy photons. Those features of multi-hadronic events which are most relevant to a neutral detector were calculated using a jet model with parameters extrapolated from SPEAR energies. These distributions are presented and discussed

  11. BANKING BUSINESS MODELS IN UKRAINIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Onyshchenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to work out and characterize bank business models that are formed in Ukraine. Methodology. Our research we will spend among banks that are functioning on the Ukrainian financial market and are not on the stage of liquidation, so the sample under study in our work is comprised of 131 banks which are different in their ownership structure and size. The core of the methodology is a statistical clustering algorithm that allows identifying the groups of banks (clusters with similar business models as banks with similar business model strategies have made similar choices regarding the composition of their assets and liabilities. The cluster analyses were taken on the base of seven chosen indicators: bank loans, bank liabilities, enterprise loans, enterprise liabilities, household loans, household liabilities and trading assets. Results. The traditional business model of bank is worked out. The bank business models that are functioning in Ukraine are identified on the base of cluster analyses using balance sheet characteristics of 131 Ukrainian banks. We find that in Ukraine were formed three types of bank business models: “Focused retail”, “Diversified retail” and “Corporative retail”. The description of each model is given. Practical implications. More detailed research of distinguished models allows not only to find out the main advantages and disadvantages of each bank model, but also the main problems that follow the development of Ukrainian banking sector. Identifying of bank models and their studying simplifies searching and elaboration of regulatory instruments as there is a two-way causation between regulation and bank business models. This implies a symbiotic relationship between regulation and bank business models: business models respond to regulation which in turn responds to the evolution of new business models. Value/originality. Such survey is conducted at the first time among Ukrainian banks. The

  12. Banking Strategy Demography - Future Population Trend: Implication for Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Teo, Lee Koon; Tripathi, Sanjay; Kazi, Zaid

    2010-01-01

    The world is going through a major shift in demographic structure that will affect the economies and global markets in a major way over the next few decades. While extensive research has been done on the macro-economic implications of demographic changes, very little research has been conducted on the demographic challenges at an industry level or for firms and on how these firms should react. The banking sector, in particular has received little attention. The project is initiated by the Glo...

  13. What is shadow banking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, S.; Ratnovski, L.

    2014-01-01

    There is much confusion about what shadow banking is. Some equate it with securitization, others with non-traditional bank activities, and yet others with non-bank lending. Regardless, most think of shadow banking as activities that can create systemic risk. This paper proposes to describe shadow

  14. Essays on banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumer-Alkan, G.

    2008-01-01

    The banking literature documents various roles for banks in financial systems. Banks are both ‘liquidity providers’ and ‘information producers’. Banks are especially important for small and medium-size enterprises and represent these firms' principal source of external finance. Hence, the banks’

  15. Are EU Banks Safe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Theissen (Roel)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ What exactly are the rules banks are subject to, and are they fit for purpose? These are the two questions addressed in this book ‘Are EU banks safe?’ and its descriptive companion book ‘EU banking supervision’. The full rulebook on banks is difficult to find

  16. Evolution in banking supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Stevens

    2000-01-01

    Banking supervision must keep pace with technical innovations in the banking industry. The international Basel Committee on Banking Supervision currently is reviewing public comments on its proposed new method for judging whether a bank maintains enough capital to absorb unexpected losses. This Economic Commentary explains how existing standards became obsolete and describes the new plan.

  17. Small finance banks: Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadev M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent innovation in the Indian banking structure has been the formation of a new banking institution—small finance banks (SFBs. These banks are expected to penetrate into financial inclusion by providing basic banking and credit services with a differentiated banking model to the larger population. In this context the new SFBs have multiple challenges in coming out with a new, differentiated business model. The challenges include building low cost liability portfolio, technology management, and balancing the regulatory compliances. This paper also presents the top of mind views of three senior executives of new small finance banks.

  18. Banking beyond banks and money a guide to banking services in the twenty-first century

    CERN Document Server

    Aste, Tomaso; Pelizzon, Loriana; Perony, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Do you know how banking and money will look like in the new digital age? This book collects the voices of leading scholars, entrepreneurs, policy makers and consultants who, through their expertise and keen analytical skills, are best positioned to picture from various angles the ongoing technological revolution in banking and finance. You will learn how lending and borrowing can exist without banks; how new forms of money can compete to better serve different society needs; how new technologies are banking the unbanked communities in the poorest parts of the world, and how ideas and small projects can be financed by the crowds without the need to rely upon banks. You will learn how, in the new digital age, we will interact with new self-organised and autonomous companies that operate without any human involvement, based on a set of programmed and incorruptible rules. You will learn that new business models will emerge thanks to technology-enabled platforms, upon which one can build new forms of non-hierarchi...

  19. GenBank

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Dennis A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Rapp, Barbara A.; Wheeler, David L.

    2002-01-01

    The GenBank sequence database incorporates publicly available DNA sequences of more than 105 000 different organisms, primarily through direct submission of sequence data from individual laboratories and large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the BankIt (web) or Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Data exchange with the EMBL Data Library and the DNA Data Bank of Japan helps ensure comprehensive worldwide coverage. GenBank...

  20. ANTESEDEN ATTITUDE TOWARDS M-BANKING DAN DAMPAKNYA TERHADAP BEHAVIORAL INTENTION TO ADOPT M-BANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titon Adrinanto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The background of this research was m­banking users in Indonesia is still low despite the mobile phone users in developed and developing countries in the world has increased rapidly since 21st century. Some bank companies in Indonesia has been offering m­banking service but the use of m­banking for financial transaction is still low and limited. The objectives of this research was to analyze the antecedents of attitude towards m­banking and its impact on behavioral intention to adopt m­banking. The design of this research applies hypothesis testing. 200 samples selected from prospective user of 3 government bank. The sampling technique was purposive sampling with cross­sectional study. Data analysis used in this research was collected by questionnaire technique with item of statements for each variable. In order to obtain valid and reliable instrument tool, validity and reliability test has been done. The result of this research conclude that there is positive effect perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived competence, perceived communication, perceived privacy and security, society influence, and facilitating condition on attitude towards m­banking. This study supports that there is positive influence on attitude towards m­banking on behavioral intention to adopt m­banking.

  1. RELIGION AND BANKING SYSTEM: THE FUTURE OF SYARIAH BANKING PRACTICES Historical and Contemporary Fiqh Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamka Siregar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The momentum of the development of Sharia banking has been noticed since the 1970s, which generally had two patterns: first, establishing the Islamic bank side by side with conventional one (dual-banking system as practiced in Egypt, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Bangladesh; and second, restructuring the banking system as a whole in accordance with Islamic Sharia (full-fledged Islamic financial system as applied in Sudan, Iran and Pakistan. The development of the Sharia-based banks which have been established across the world since the 1970s, became the motivation of the Indonesian ulemas to draft law on Sharia banking, so that Sharia banking could also be developed. As a result, these last few years, the banking world in Indonesia has witnessed the establishment of the public Sharia banks and Sharia business units, like Bank Muamalat and Bank Syariah Mandiri to mention a few. Using historical and contemporary jurisprudence perspective, this paper provides discussion on the future of Sharia banking.

  2. TRENDS OF ROMANIAN BANKING NETWORK DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Georgeta PANAIT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, two trends occurred in the banking world: downsizing of personnel, on the one hand and the reduction of retail units held, on the other hand. The first trend was most notable in countries with unstable or weak economy. The effects were seen immediately. Reducing of the operating costs and more applied of the territorial structure and staff was a decision that credit institutions in Romania took relatively late. Worldwide banks began a restructuring otherwise dictated by this time not so economic crises new market trends - increasing access to the internet for the population and use of the internet in a growing proportion of internet banking

  3. On neutral plasma oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadwick, B.A.; Morrison, P.J.

    1993-06-01

    We examine the conditions for the existence of spectrally stable neutral modes in a Vlasov-Poisson plasma and show that for stable equilibria of systems that have unbounded spatial domain, the only possible neutral modes are those with phase velocities that correspond to stationary inflection points of the equilibrium distribution function. It is seen that these neutral modes can possess positive or negative free energy

  4. Neutral beam monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A neutral beam generated by passing accelerated ions through a walled cell containing a low energy neutral gas, such that charge exchange partially neutralizes the high energy beam, is monitored by detecting the current flowing through the cell wall produced by low energy ions which drift to the wall after the charge exchange. By segmenting the wall into radial and longitudinal segments various beam conditions are identified. (U.K.)

  5. On neutral plasma oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadwick, B.A.; Texas Univ., Austin; Morrison, P.J.; Texas Univ., Austin

    1994-01-01

    We examine the conditions for the existence of spectrally stable neutral modes in a Vlasov-Poisson plasma and show that for stable equilibria of systems that have unbounded spatial domain, the only possible neutral modes are those with phase velocities that correspond to stationary inflection points of the equilibrium distribution function. It is seen that these neutral modes can posses positive or negative free energy. (orig.)

  6. Search for neutral leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, M.L.

    1984-12-01

    At present we know of three kinds of neutral leptons: the electron neutrino, the muon neutrino, and the tau neutrino. This paper reviews the search for additional neutral leptons. The method and significance of a search depends upon the model used for the neutral lepton being sought. Some models for the properties and decay modes of proposed neutral leptons are described. Past and present searches are reviewed. The limits obtained by some completed searches are given, and the methods of searches in progress are described. Future searches are discussed. 41 references

  7. Pengelolaan Likuiditas Bank Syariah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Ichsan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Islamic Banking Liquidity Management. This article is about management of liquidity which discuss about the position of cash money in the company and its ability to fulfill the obligation (pay the debt on time. Management of liquidity is one of the essential function which is done by banking institution and inside its efficient management, is needed instrument and finance market which is taking not only short term but also long term, and not only conventional banking but also syariat. Through that natural necessity (placement and fulfillment of short term need, for Islamic banking in Indonesia has been availabled some instruments such as (IMA certificate of Mudhorobah Investment between bank, (PUAS market banking regulations between syariat bank, (SWBI Bank of Indonesia Wadiah certificate, (FPJPS provision about short term cost facility for Islamic banks  DOI:10.15408/aiq.v6i1.1371

  8. PENGARUH RELATIONSHIP MARKETING TERHADAP LOYALITAS NASABAH BANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Pradikto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For banking world, the existence of customers was as important asset. In the middleof strict and dynamic competition, Bank Mandiri as one of financial service providers wasaware that customer’s loyalty was what should be obtained and maintained. One way appliedby Bank Mandiri as financial service provider was relationship marketing strategy. Marketingstrategy focussed on building relationship with the customers had final objective namely toobtain customer’s loyalty, with the purpose that these customers could provide long termadvantages for the company. This study was conducted on the customers of Tabungan Mandiriin PT. Bank Mandiri (Persero Branch of Pasuruan. The technique of data collection wasquestionnaire. The number of population was 10,627 customers. The number of sample was73 with simple random sampling technique. Data analysis applied regression analysis. Basedon the description on the result of the study above, it could be concluded that there waspositive and significant effects of variables service quality, commitment and communicationeither partially or simultaneously toward customer’s loyalty. Concerning the result of the study,it was suggested (1 to improve the service especially physical development or banking hallwhich should be conducted continuously in order to make customers satisfied in transaction.(2 to have more socialization on the use of Internet Banking Mandiri and SMS Banking Mandiritechnology in order to two ways communication between customers and Bank Mandiri.

  9. Maximizing the phylogenetic diversity of seed banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kate E; Balding, Sharon T; Dickie, John B; Lewis, Gwilym P; Pearce, Tim R; Grenyer, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Ex situ conservation efforts such as those of zoos, botanical gardens, and seed banks will form a vital complement to in situ conservation actions over the coming decades. It is therefore necessary to pay the same attention to the biological diversity represented in ex situ conservation facilities as is often paid to protected-area networks. Building the phylogenetic diversity of ex situ collections will strengthen our capacity to respond to biodiversity loss. Since 2000, the Millennium Seed Bank Partnership has banked seed from 14% of the world's plant species. We assessed the taxonomic, geographic, and phylogenetic diversity of the Millennium Seed Bank collection of legumes (Leguminosae). We compared the collection with all known legume genera, their known geographic range (at country and regional levels), and a genus-level phylogeny of the legume family constructed for this study. Over half the phylogenetic diversity of legumes at the genus level was represented in the Millennium Seed Bank. However, pragmatic prioritization of species of economic importance and endangerment has led to the banking of a less-than-optimal phylogenetic diversity and prioritization of range-restricted species risks an underdispersed collection. The current state of the phylogenetic diversity of legumes in the Millennium Seed Bank could be substantially improved through the strategic banking of relatively few additional taxa. Our method draws on tools that are widely applied to in situ conservation planning, and it can be used to evaluate and improve the phylogenetic diversity of ex situ collections. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Bank, Banking System, Macroprudential Supervision, Stability of Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Vasilyeva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of financial development during last decade causes transformation of banking sector functioning. In particular, among the most significant changes over this period should be noted the next ones: convergence of financial market segments and appearance of cross-sector financial products, an increase of prevailing of financial sector in comparison with real economy and level of their interdependent, an intensification of crisis processes in financial and especially banking sector and a significant increase of the scale of the crisis consequences etc. thus, in such vulnerable conditions it is become very urgent to identify the relevant factors that can influence on the stability of banking sector, because its maintenance seems to be one of the most important preconditions of the stability of the national economy as a whole. Purpose of the article is to analyze key performance indicators of the Ukrainian banking system, clarify its main problems, identify relevant factors of the stability of the Ukrainian banking system and the character of their influence on the dependent variable. Realization of the mentioned above tasks was ensured by regression analysis (OLS regression. Analysis of key indicators that characterize current situation in the Ukrainian banking system found out the existence of numerous endogenous and exogenous problems, which, in turn, cause worsening most of analyzed indicators during 2013-2015. Unfavorable situation in Ukrainian banking system determined the necessity of identification of relevant factors of banking system stability to avoid transmission of financial shocks. According to the results of regression analysis on the stability of banking sector positively influence such factors as increase of interest margin to gross income ratio, reserves to assets ratio, number of branches, ratio of non-performing loans to total loans. Meanwhile, negative impact on stability of banking system has an increase of liquid

  11. Bank Syariah Sebagai Alternatif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adang Sudjana

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The principle of not allowing interest practices (riba has saved the Syariah Bank and their customers from the effects of monetary crisis. In view of Islamic Principles, interest is forbidden. Therefore, all transactions of syariah banking are based on sale-purchase pattern. Besides, all good banking aspects as applied in conventional banking such as, 5 Cs (capital, collateral, capacity, character, and condition are also applied properly in the line of ukhrawi aspects in managing fund of syariah banking.  The practice of “mark-up” in project funded by syariah bank seems to be very difficult.

  12. Neutral hydrogen observations of southern galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.D.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Murray, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    21-cm neutral hydrogen observations, made using the 64-m Parkes radio telescope, are presented for 48 galaxies, 39 of which are clear detections. The H I properties and homogeneous optical data, including new photometry, are tabulated for the galaxies. A high signal-to-noise ratio subset of these observations is used to demonstrate that the overall flux-density scale is within a few per cent of northern (Jodrell Bank and Green Bank) scales. The remainder are used elsewhere in a new determination of the Local Group peculiar velocity. H I-optical diameter correlations are shown to be a useful discriminant between competing diameter systems and indicate that the Lauberts ESO(B) catalogue is the most useful currently available source of southern galaxy diameters. (author)

  13. Regional Banks in the Russian Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Vitalyevich Leonov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the lack of a uniform definition of «a regional bank», problems of their activities are widely discussed in the context of increasing regulation of the banking sector and creation of conditions for accelerated development of certain regions. The author analyses the Russian-language scientific literature in order to define «a regional bank» and systematize its key differences from other commercial banks. The researcher shows that the allocation of regional banks in a separate group should be related to specific features of the environment and not by endogenous factors associated with the selection of activities and balance sheet structure. The low level of financial market development and concentration of specific undiversified risks are the principal qualifiers differentiating between regional banks and other credit institutions in Russia. As classification criteria the author uses following: spatial representation (the bank does not have structural subdivisions in Moscow and the ownership structure (among the bank’s owners there are no national and international financial groups that have a direct impact on the operations of the bank

  14. Analisis Perbandingan Bank Umum Konvensional Dan Bank Umum Syariah

    OpenAIRE

    Nuryati; Gendis Gumilar, Amethysa

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes and compares the financial risk of the two types of commercial banks, namely conventional commercial bank and Islamic commercial bank. Analysis tools used in this study is to use financial ratios and dicriminant values (Z values). Analysis showed that the ratio of liquidity and solvability ratios higher islamic commercial bank than conventional commercial bank. Z values higher islamic commercial bank than conventional commercial bank. The commercial banks are in a state of...

  15. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION WITH INTERNET BANKING IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE BANK

    OpenAIRE

    Inder Pal Singh S/o Roop singh*, Dr. Payal Bassi

    2017-01-01

    E- Banking is about using the infrastructure for digital age to create opportunities, both local & global. IT enables the dramatic lowering of transaction cost and the creation of new types of banking opportunities that address the barriers of time and distance. Banking opportunities are local, global and immediate in e-banking. Internet banking has many advantages over other traditional banking delivery methods. Internet banking provides banks with an increased customer base, cost savings, m...

  16. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... nationalism does not trump economic rationality. An orthodox CB renders the central banking function redundant in terms of interest rate and exchange rate determination. FDI in banking could perform the same role for the supervisory function of central banks. We use the case of Estonia to illustrate...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....

  17. GenBank

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — GenBank is the NIH genetic sequence database, an annotated collection of all publicly available DNA sequences. GenBank is designed to provide and encourage access...

  18. Bank Resolution in the European Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... at the discretion of the resolution authority must be available to supply liquidity to a reorganizing bank. On these conditions, a viable and realistic Banking Union would be within reach — and the resolution of global financial institutions would be greatly facilitated, not least in a transatlantic perspective....... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States’ disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure...

  19. Bank Resolution in the European Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... mechanism deployable at the discretion of the resolution authority must be available to supply liquidity to a reorganizing bank. On these conditions, a viable and realistic Banking Union would be within reach--and the resolution of global financial institutions would be greatly facilitated, not least...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States' disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure...

  20. Framing a Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2012-01-01

    Danish bank, Danske Bank, during the 2008 financial crisis and hence in shaping its image projected to the public. Through the study of a number of semantic frames adopted by the Danish print press and those adopted by the Bank, this article will argue for the constructions of the press putting...... considerable strain on the Bank and its image, leading it to reconsider its previous strategy of denial of responsibility...

  1. GenBank

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Dennis A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Wheeler, David L.

    2006-01-01

    GenBank (R) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 240 000 named organisms, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the EMBL Data Library in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan...

  2. International Islamic Banking

    OpenAIRE

    saleem, shahid

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory and to some extent descriptive analysis is to highlight the Islamic banking & finance theory, and to explain the practical disparity all over the Muslim Umma along with commonalities of Islamic banking in them. Islamic banking has been now become a value proposition which transcends cultures and will do speedily in next decades despite of cutting throat competition expected in global banking scenario. The size of Islamic Financial Industry has now reached size ...

  3. Supervision in banking industry

    OpenAIRE

    Šmída, David

    2012-01-01

    The aim of submitted thesis Supervision in banking is to define the nature and the importance of banking supervision, to justify its existence and to analyze the applicable mechanisms while the system of banking regulation and supervision in this thesis is primarily examined in the European context, with a focus on the Czech Republic. The thesis is divided into five main chapters. The first chapter is devoted to the financial system and the importance of banks in this system, it defines the c...

  4. Modern bank's credit risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šabović Šerif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Credit risk is the most important risk banks have to face with. It occurs due to an obligation created because of debtors' capital and interest rate nonpayment. Debtors obligations non-fulfilment may lead to great losses and insolvency in bank's business. Credit risk is the crucial reason of bank's insolvency. Over 80% of bank's balance sheet is exposed to credit risk.

  5. Mobile banking in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Ho

    2010-01-01

    Technology has transformed the banking industry with the introduction of mobile banking services that offer unprecedented convenience and accessibility to customers. This Asia Focus report describes the various approaches to mobile banking in Asia, and examines how particular countries have addressed regulatory issues.

  6. The NEA Data Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coddens, G.

    1983-01-01

    The NEA Data Bank provides the nuclear data and computer programs necessary for reactor design and other calculations over a wide range of nuclear energy applications. The role which the Data Bank plays in international cooperation efforts, and the procedures to follow to obtain data and programs from the Data Bank are described. (Auth.)

  7. Banks on Notice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Regulators issue policies to guide China’s banks as massive loans compromise the banking sector’s ability to contain future risks R egulatory departments are strengthening their supervision over financial institutions to prevent an incomprehensible financial scenario from unfolding: the failure of the Chinese banking

  8. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  9. Banking in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Cull, R.; Berger, A.; Molyneux, P.; Wilson, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes stock of the current state of banking systems across Sub-Saharan Africa and discusses recent developments including innovations that might help Africa leapfrog more traditional banking models. Using an array of different data, the paper documents that African banking systems are

  10. Banking crises : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laeven, L.

    2011-01-01

    This review surveys the theoretical and empirical literature on the causes and consequences of banking crises, and summarizes the lessons learned from policy interventions to resolve banking crises. Despite their different origins, banking crises display similar patterns. Their causes lie in

  11. Banking and Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability

  12. Banking on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internet Research, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Electronic ground was broken in 1995 with the development of the completely Internet-based bank Security First Network Bank. This article discusses the need for developing online services, outlines the reasons for the formation of an Internet-based bank and argues that to remain competitive financial services providers must provide easier customer…

  13. World's finest tech sites immortalised

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    They may have transformed man's understanding of the universe but the monumental impact of the world's first large radio telescope and the planet's largest particle physics lab has never been fully recognised. Now both Jodrell Bank and CERN are among the technological landmarks that could be immortalised alongside the pyramids of Egypt and Taj Mahal on UNESCO's World Heritage Site (WHS) list.

  14. Franchising in the banking environment : middle management program / L. Britz

    OpenAIRE

    Britz, Louise

    2005-01-01

    Franchising as a growth tool is becoming a very appealing business model which has highly successful examples in almost every business sector in the world. However in the banking environment, First National Bank has been the first bank to take the lead in South Africa by introducing the franchise concept to create value for its customers. Not all businesses are suitable to become franchises therefore the aim of this research was to establish what critical success factors can be considered as ...

  15. CUSTOMER PERCEPTION OF ONLINE BANKING IN INDIA: PUNJAB

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Zorawar

    2012-01-01

    The emergence and adoption of information technology has turned the world into a global village. India being an emerging market, it cannot afford to ignore the benefits of information technology especially in the banking sector. The financial services sector realized the importance of the internet as a way of connecting and interacting with clients. From the customers point of view internet banking is a boon. Registered online customers can perform common banking transactions such as paying b...

  16. Neutralized transport experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Anders, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Greenway, W.G.; Logan, B.G.; Waldron, W.L.; Shuman, D.B.; Vanecek, D.L.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Thoma, C.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Kaganovich, I.; Sefkow, A.B.; Sharp, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental details on providing active neutralization of high brightness ion beam have been demonstrated for Heavy Ion Fusion program. A K + beam was extracted from a variable-perveance injector and transported through 2.4 m long quadrupole lattice for final focusing. Neutralization was provided by a localized cathode arc plasma plug and a RF volume plasma system. Effects of beam perveance, emittance, convergence focusing angle, and axial focusing position on neutralization have been investigated. Good agreement has been observed with theory and experiment throughout the study

  17. The adoption of "transformational mobile banking" by the unbanked

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobbin, Peter Ebo

    2012-01-01

    Whereas the number of people using mobile phones grows tremendously across the developing world, the number of people having a bank account is still very low. A recent report shows that over half the population of the world is unbanked, a majority of which are rural dwellers in the developing world....... The primary aim of this exploratory study is to examine whether or not m-banking services can be transformational. During the study, an extensive review of the literature on the unbanked and the adoption of m-banking services was conducted. This was followed by a focus group discussion which was conducted...... among the unbanked rural dwellers in Ghana. The current study concludes that the transformational potential of m-banking could be realised if beyond access, the other barriers to having a bank account, which include affordability, trust, convenience and documentation are addressed effectively in its...

  18. The Influence of Large-scale Bank Roughness and Floodplain Composition on Spatial and Temporal Variations in Bank Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, C. R.; Darby, S. E.; Leyland, J.; Aalto, R. E.; Best, J.; Parsons, D. R.; Nicholas, A. P.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of bank erosion processes and rates along the world's largest rivers remains incomplete, primarily due to the difficulties of obtaining data pertaining to the key driving processes (i.e., during the floods that drive most bank retreat). Recently, larger scale bank roughness elements (slump blocks and embayments) have been shown to impact upon rates and locations of bank erosion. However, a complete understanding of the way such features affect rates of bank erosion is currently hindered by the lack of detailed concurrent observations of slump block geometry, embayment geometry and flow at formative discharges in natural environments. Here, we report on high spatial resolution topographic (Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Multibeam Echo Souder) and flow (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) surveys undertaken on the Mekong River, Cambodia, from which we extract the geometric properties of roughness elements across a range of scales. We combine this data with sub-bottom profile data, revealing the composition of the surrounding floodplain, to link, for the first time, scales of bank roughness to bank material composition. Through the categorisation of a series of cut river banks by roughness geometry, we show how rates and locations of bank erosion are dependent on that roughness and associated bank material changes. We test how observed patterns of bank erosion conform to previously detailed models of embayment development, and provide new insight into processes affecting the retreat of large river banks.

  19. CONSUMERS’ PREFERENCE TOWARD ISLAMIC BANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    delta khairunnisa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective - This research aims to provide empirical evidence on the factors motivating consumers to save in Islamic banking.Methods - The one sample t-test is employed to test hypothesis. The validity and the reliability of research variables have been examined.Results - The result proved that consumers’ decision to save in Islamic banking are influenced by economic and religious factors, such as receiving economic benefits, quick services, online facilities, easily reachable locations, and having a better understanding of Islamic principles.Conclusions - The existence of a relationship between economic and religious preference proves that, in making decisions, consumers wish to attain two satisfaction levels: satisfaction in the world and in the hereafter.

  20. Are "Market Neutral" Hedge Funds Really Market Neutral?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew J. Patton

    2009-01-01

    Using a variety of different definitions of "neutrality," this study presents significant evidence against the neutrality to market risk of hedge funds in a range of style categories. I generalize standard definitions of "market neutrality," and propose five different neutrality concepts. I suggest statistical tests for each neutrality concept, and apply these tests to a database of monthly returns on 1423 hedge funds from five style categories. For the "market neutral" style, approximately o...

  1. The Response of Performance to Merger Strategy in Indonesian Banking Industry: Analyses on Bank Mandiri, Bank Danamon, and Bank Permata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murti Lestari

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the responses of performances of BankMandiri, Bank Danamon, and Bank Permata to merger strategy.This paper harnesses the quantitative approach with structuralbreak analysis method and impulse response function. Theplausible findings indicate that the merger of Bank Permataproduces a better performance response in comparison to theconsolidation of Bank Mandiri and the merger of Bank Danamon.The merger of Bank Permata does not result in performanceshocks, and the structural break does not prevail either. On theother hand, the consolidation of Bank Mandiri and the mergerof Bank Danamon result in structural breaks, particularly in thespread performance. In order to return to the stable position, themergers of Bank Mandiri and Bank Danamon require a longertime than does the merger of Bank Permata. This researchindicates that for large banks, the mergers and acquisitions(retaining one existing bank will deliver a better performanceresponse than will the consolidations (no existing bank. Keywords: impulse response function; merger; structural break

  2. Bunched beam neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammel, G.M.; Maschke, A.W.; Mobley, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    One of the steps involved in producing an intense ion beam from conventional accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is beam bunching. To maintain space charge neutralized transport, neutralization must occur more quickly as the beam bunches. It has been demonstrated at BNL that a 60 mA proton beam from a 750 kV Cockcroft--Walton can be neutralized within a microsecond. The special problem in HIF is that the neutralization must occur in a time scale of nanoseconds. To study neutralization on a faster time scale, a 40 mA, 450 kV proton beam was bunched at 16 MHz. A biased Faraday cup sampled the bunched beam at the position where maximum bunching was nominally expected, about 2.5 meters from the buncher. Part of the drift region, about 1.8 meters, was occupied by a series of Gabor lenses. In addition to enhancing beam transport by transverse focussing, the background cloud of electrons in the lenses provided an extra degree of neutralization. With no lens, the best bunch factor was at least 20. Bunch factor is defined here as the ratio of the distance between bunches to the FWHM bunch length. With the lens, it was hoped that the increased plasma frequency would decrease the neutralization time and cause an increase in the bunch factor. In fact, with the lens, the instantaneous current increased about three times, but the bunch factor dropped to about 10. Even with the lens, the FWHM of the bunches at the position of maximum bunching was still comparable to or less than the oscillation period of the surrounding electron plasma. Thus, the electron density in the lens must increase before neutralization could be effective in this case, or bunching should be done at a lower frequency

  3. BANKING WITHOUT INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ilieva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increased global awareness of Islamic finance. This topic is mainly opened with respect to the great financial crisis that mostly hit the banking system and the financial markets and caused many bank bankruptcies and state interventions. This paper analyzes the basic principles of Islamic banking. The absolute prohibition of receiving and giving interest (Riba and profit-and-loss sharing (PLS paradigms are elaborated in detail; they are primarily based on mudarabah (profit-sharing and musyarakah (joint venture concepts which nowadays are becoming an accepted way of doing business in several Western multinational banks. An overall comparison of the advantages of Islamic vs. conventional banking is also given. Islamic finance technology solutions have matured and they will face various challenges in the following decades, due to conventional banks offering, increasingly, Islamic products. The need for a more comprehensive environment and regulatory framework is emphasized, so that Islamic banking development can be ensured.

  4. BANKING UNION - ROMANIAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coroiu Sorina Ioana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis showed that banks were not able to face the loss, because there is no framework for a resolution, so that it intervened with money from taxpayers. So, it has been highlighted the need to update the regulations applicable to the banking sector. Creating a single supervisory mechanism in the fall of 2014 was a time reference point to achieve a banking union in Europe. Banking Union is one of the four foundations for a genuine Economic and Monetary Union. The paper’s purpose is to analyze the Banking Union structure, based on three pillars: (i The Single Supervisory Mechanism - the transfer of the main responsibility regarding banking supervision from national to European level, (ii The Single Resolution Mechanism - introduction of common provisions to ensure legal support required to manage bank failures problem, (iii The Deposit Guarantee Schemes - harmonization of deposit guarantee rules. These measures were adopted at European Union level to ensure the stability of the European banking system and to prevent future crises. Because countries that are not part of the euro area are not required to join the Banking Union, the dilemma of these countries lies in the decision to join the Banking Union quickly or to wait. It is the case of Romania, also, so, this paper analyze the opportunity of Romania's accession to the Banking Union before adopting the euro. There are analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of Romania's participation in the Banking Union, showing that, in the context of single currency introduction, Romania's participation is required. So far, there are reduced debates regarding the need, advantages and disadvantages of Romania's participation in the European Banking Union, the top representatives of the National Bank of Romania being among the few who expressed their views in public and published papers on the subject.

  5. Impact of E-Banking on Traditional Banking Services

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas, Shilpan Dineshkumar

    2012-01-01

    Internet banking is changing the banking industry, having the major effects on banking relationships. Banking is now no longer confined to the branches were one has to approach the branch in person, to withdraw cash or deposit a cheque or request a statement of accounts. In true Internet banking, any inquiry or transaction is processed online without any reference to the branch (anywhere banking) at any time. Providing Internet banking is increasingly becoming a "need to have" than a "nice to...

  6. Central bank capital, financial strength, and the Bank of Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas F. Cargill

    2006-01-01

    This Economic Letter addresses central bank capital and financial strength in the context of Bank of Japan policy (Cargill 2005). Specifically, it reviews general considerations about central bank capital and financial strength, discusses recent Bank of Japan policy in the context of capital structure, evaluates the Bank of Japan's concern in the context of the broader issue of central bank independence, and draws some lessons from recent Bank of Japan policy.

  7. Positive, Neutral, and Negative Mass-Charges in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borissova L.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available As shown, any four-dimensional proper vector has two observable projections onto time line, attributed to our world and the mirror world (for a mass-bearing particle, the projections posses are attributed to positive and negative mass-charges. As predicted, there should be a class of neutrally mass-charged particles that inhabit neither our world nor the mirror world. Inside the space-time area (membrane the space rotates at the light speed, and all particles move at as well the light speed. So, the predicted particles of the neutrally mass-charged class should seem as light-like vortices.

  8. BANK RUN AND STABILITY OF ISLAMIC BANKING IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatina A. Kasri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bank run is an important economic phenomenon which increasingly occurred in in modern banking system and potentially threatened banking stability as it could trigger a banking crisis. However, most studies related to bank run focus on the occurrence of bank run in conventional banking system. Very few of them discuss the bank run phenomenon under Islamic banking system or dual banking system where Islamic banks jointly operating with conventional banks. Therefore, this study attempts to analyze the determinants of bank run in the Indonesian Islamic banking industry by employing primary data from 256 customers of Indonesia Islamic banks in 2015 and by utilizing factor analysis and descriptive statistics. In theory, Islamic banks tend to be more resilient towards any macroeconomic or financial shocks as compared to conventional banks due to the nature of its asset-based and risk-sharing arrangement. However, the result exhibits that both psychological and fundamental factors (i.e. macroeconomics and bank fundamentals strongly influence the behaviors of Islamic banking depositors to withdraw their funds, which might trigger the occurrence of bank runs in the country. Insider information, macroeconomic condition and bank fundamental factors are also shown to have the highest impacts among all variables. Hence, in the context of banking stability, the finding implies that Islamic banks are not completely immune to the impacts of macroeconomic shocks or financial crisis. As a country with a dual banking system, Indonesia had experienced several bank runs since 1990s. Therefore, the findings of the study should provide the policy makers important insight into research based-policy in order to attain financial stability as one of the main economic goals of the country. Keywords: Bank run, Islamic bank, Factor analysis, Indonesia JEL Classification: C83, G21, G28

  9. Our World Their World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

  10. Adopting Internet Banking in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    G.O. Ofori-Dwumfuo; Betty A. Dankwah

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at the benefits, challenges and barriers in adopting Internet banking at a major bank in Ghana. The development of the Internet is changing the way financial services are provided in Ghana. The Internet banking facility has resulted in new ways of delivering banking services. The research is a case study based on the staffs that has worked with the bank for more than three years. In evaluating benefits, challenges and barriers to the bank in adopting Internet banking, intervi...

  11. Plant domestication and gene banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrino, P.

    1989-01-01

    At the time of the dawn of agriculture, plant domestication was very slow. As agriculture progressed, however, domestication began to evolve faster and reached its highest point with the advent of plant breeders who played a very important role in solving the world food problem. One of the fastest moving strategies was a better exploitation of genetic diversity, both natural and induced. However, intensive plant breeding activity caused a heavy fall in genetic variability. Gene banks then provided a further tool for modern agriculture, specifically to preserve genetic resources and to help breeders to further domesticate important crops and to introduce and domesticate new species. (author). 3 refs

  12. Islamic Banking in Global Economic Context (Critical Studies of Operational System and Performance of Islamic Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Abdul Aziz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Berdasarkan kajian terhadap sejarah kemunculan dan sistem operasional Bank Islam beserta kinerjanya, penulis menyimpulkan bahwa konsep bank Islam pada hakekatnya merupakan bentuk islamisasi terhadap institusi perbankan. Hanya saja proses islamisasi yang terjadi baru sebatas pada aspek-aspek yang bersifat marginal, artifisial, dan formal-institusional, seperti penggantian istilah-istilah teknis dalam dunia perbankan dengan istilah yang berasal dari fikih muamalah, penghapusan bunga, dan penolakan terhadap praktek-praktek bisnis yang haram. Selebihnya, bank Islam tidak berbeda dengan bank konvensional. Dampak dari islamisasi yang kurang substansial-komprehensif tersebut adalah timbulnya kesan bahwa bank Islam justru ‘terbelenggu’ oleh konsep-konsep fikih klasik yang mendasarinya, di mana ia cenderung kontra produktif dengan tren  bisnis moderen yang senantiasa menuntut efisiensi dan fleksibilitas. Agar tetap dapat survive di masa-masa mendatang, bank Islam perlu mengevaluasi diri secara terus menerus dengan selalu membuka diri terhadap berbagai kritikan yang dialamatkan kepadanya. Konsepsi yang terlalu berorientasi kepada doktrin harus diimbangi dengan kesadaran akan fakta-fakta dan tuntutan bisnis moderen, baik yang berskala lokal maupun global. Sementara itu cita-cita Islam yang ideal, seperti pemberantasan kemiskinan, pendistribusian kekayaan secara adil, dan penciptaan lapangan kerja, harus tetap menjadi orientasi utamanya. Kata Kunci:Riba, Profit and Loss Sharing, Mudlârabah, Murâbahah, Artificial Aspects of Islam  Abstract:Based on the study of the history of emergence and operation of Islamic Bank and its system performance, the author conclude that the concept of Islamic bank is essentially a form of Islamization of the banking institutions. Such Islamization are limited to the marginal, artificial, and formal-institutional aspects, such as the replacement of technical terms in the banking world with a term derived from the fiqh

  13. Nuclear fuel banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    In december 2010 IAEA gave its agreement for the creation of a nuclear fuel bank. This bank will allow IAEA to help member countries that renounce to their own uranium enrichment capacities. This bank located on one or several member countries will belong to IAEA and will be managed by IAEA and its reserve of low enriched uranium will be sufficient to fabricate the fuel for the first load of a 1000 MW PWR. Fund raising has been successful and the running of the bank will have no financial impact on the regular budget of the IAEA. Russia has announced the creation of the first nuclear fuel bank. This bank will be located on the Angarsk site (Siberia) and will be managed by IAEA and will own 120 tonnes of low-enriched uranium fuel (between 2 and 4.95%), this kind of fuel is used in most Russian nuclear power plants. (A.C.)

  14. Tissue banking in australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Lynette; McKelvie, Helen

    2003-01-01

    The legal structure for the regulation of tissue banking has existed for many years. In Australia, the donation of human tissue is regulated by legislation in each of the eight States and Territories. These substantially uniform Acts were passed in the late 1970's and early 1980's, based on model legislation and underpinned by the concept of consensual giving. However, it was not until the early 1990's that tissue banking came under the notice of regulatory authorities. Since then the Australian Government has moved quickly to oversee the tissue banking sector in Australia. Banked human tissue has been deemed to be a therapeutic good under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, and tissue banks are required to be licensed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and are audited for compliance with the Code of Good Manufacturing Practice- Human Blood and Tissues. In addition, tissue banks must comply with a myriad of other standards, guidelines and recommendations.

  15. Banks, regions and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Alessandrini

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available From the 1980s onwards the banking sectors in all the industrialised countries have been experiencing intense restructuring, aggregation and consolidation, radically changing their ownership structures and geography. Whatever the reasons behind such restructuring processes, the globalisation of the credit markets, the consolidation of banking structures, the removal of barriers to the free location of banks and their penetration of peripheral markets pose two main questions. Will integration of the banking systems lead to a narrowing or a widening of the development gap between regions? What relations will there be between financial centres and the periphery, and how will financial labour be divided between national (international banks and local (regional banks? The aim of this paper is to address such questions in the light of recent developments in the theoretical and empirical literature on financial integration.

  16. Banking: shop and compare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer A; DeJarnette, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    There are many reasons to take a critical look at the practice's banking relationship(s)--technology advancements, security measures, improvements in available services, recent banking enhancements designed specifically for medical practices, the impact of the financial crisis on bank ratings and stability, changing practice needs, opportunities for operational automation at the practice--and it is just simply smart to periodically evaluate and compare the features, pricing, and potential savings offered by vendors.

  17. Digital Banking 2025

    OpenAIRE

    Gasser, Urs; Gassmann, Oliver; Hens, Thorsten; Leifer, Larry; Puschmann, Thomas; Zhao, Leon

    2017-01-01

    As time-to-market for digital banking products becomes shorter and shorter, thousands of Financial Technology (FinTech) startups and other non-banks are rising to the occasion by developing new products, services, and business models for all areas of banking in payments,investments, and financing along the entire value chain, touching all areas from front to back office, as client adoption of these new services accelerates. The lighting Company Osram, for example, recently had to reduce its w...

  18. Method of Banks Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Horvátová

    2010-01-01

    Since there is not a special common framework for valuation banks and it gives possibilities to create establishment, improvement and adaptation of various approaches to measuring the value of banks and financial institutions. Most approaches banks valuation note the strong dependence of financial institutions value from market interest rates (Mishkin, F., Miller, WD, Copeland, T., Koller, T., Damodaran, A., and others). Each approache reflects greater or lesser degree of accuracy depending o...

  19. GenBank

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Dennis A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.

    2008-01-01

    GenBank? is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 300 000 organisms named at the genus level or lower, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank? staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Molecular Biology Labo...

  20. GenBank

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Dennis A.; Cavanaugh, Mark; Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.

    2012-01-01

    GenBank? (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for almost 260 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole-genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and GenBank staff assig...

  1. Banking Fees in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Rudd; Chris Stewart

    2012-01-01

    The Reserve Bank has conducted a survey on bank fees each year since 1997. The results of the latest survey show that banks’ aggregate fee income rose slightly in the banks’ 2011 financial years, but that growth in fee income was less than that in banks’ total assets. Fee income from households declined while fee income from businesses grew, largely as a result of increases in fees on business loans and bank bills.

  2. Optimal preventive bank supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Belhaj, Mohamed; Klimenko, Nataliya

    2012-01-01

    Early regulator interventions into problem banks is one of the key suggestions of Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. However, no guidance is given on their design. To fill this gap, we outline an incentive-based preventive supervision strategy that eliminates bad asset management in banks. Two supervision techniques are combined: temporary regulatory administration and random audits. Our design ensures good management without excessive supervision costs, through a gradual adjustment of...

  3. Shareholder activism in banking

    OpenAIRE

    Roman, Raluca

    2015-01-01

    This paper conducts the first assessment of shareholder activism in banking and its effects on risk and performance. The focus is on the conflicts among bank shareholders, managers, and creditors (e.g., regulators, deposit insurer, taxpayers, depositors). This paper finds activism may generally be a destabilizing force, increasing bank risk-taking, but creating market value for shareholders, and leaving operating returns unchanged, consistent with the empirical dominance of the Shareholder-Cr...

  4. Neutral beam development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staten, H.S.

    1980-08-01

    The national plan is presented for developing advanced injection systems for use on upgrades of existing experiments, and use on future facilities such as ETF, to be built in the late 1980's or early 90's where power production from magnetic fusion will move closer to a reality. Not only must higher power and longer pulse length systems be developed , but they must operate reliably; they must be a tool for the experimenter, not the experiment itself. Neutral beam systems handle large amounts of energy and as such, they often are as complicated as the plasma physics experiment itself. This presents a significant challenge to the neutral beam developer

  5. Neutral beam program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The structure of the beam injection program for the Doublet-3 device is discussed. The design considerations for the beam line and design parameters for the Doublet-3 ion souce are given. Major components of the neutral beam injector system are discussed in detail. These include the neutralizer, magnetic shielding, reflecting magnets, vacuum system, calorimeter and beam dumps, and drift duct. The planned location of the two-injector system for Doublet-3 is illustrated and site preparation is considered. The status of beamline units 1 and 2 and the future program schedule are discussed

  6. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Bank resolution is a key pillar of the European Banking Union. This column argues that the current structure of large EU banks is not conducive to an effective and unbiased resolution procedure. The authors would require systemically important banks to reorganise into a ‘holding company’ structure......, where the parent company holds unsecured term debt sufficient to cover losses at its operating financial subsidiaries. This would facilitate a ‘single point of entry’ resolution procedure, minimising the risk of creditor runs and destructive ring-fencing by national regulators....

  7. Banking Fees in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Reserve Bank of Australia

    2010-01-01

    The Reserve Bank has conducted a survey on bank fees each year since 1997. In 2009 growth in fee income increased slightly from recent years though it was again slower than growth in banks’ balance sheets. Growth in fee income was higher for businesses than for households. Banks reacted to the financial crisis by competing more aggressively for deposit funding which resulted in total fee income from deposit accounts falling, and repricing loan products which contributed to an increase in fe...

  8. Fundamental Principles of Stem Cell Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changbin; Yue, Jianhui; He, Na; Liu, Yaqiong; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells are highly promising resources for application in cell therapy, regenerative medicine, drug discovery, toxicology and developmental biology research. Stem cell banks have been increasingly established all over the world in order to preserve their cellular characteristics, prevent contamination and deterioration, and facilitate their effective use in basic and translational research, as well as current and future clinical application. Standardization and quality control during banking procedures are essential to allow researchers from different labs to compare their results and to develop safe and effective new therapies. Furthermore, many stem cells come from once-in-a-life time tissues. Cord blood for example, thrown away in the past, can be used to treat many diseases such as blood cancers nowadays. Meanwhile, these cells stored and often banked for long periods can be immediately available for treatment when needed and early treatment can minimize disease progression. This paper provides an overview of the fundamental principles of stem cell banking, including: (i) a general introduction of the construction and architecture commonly used for stem cell banks; (ii) a detailed section on current quality management practices; (iii) a summary of questions we should consider for long-term storage, such as how long stem cells can be stored stably, how to prevent contamination during long term storage, etc.; (iv) the prospects for stem cell banking.

  9. Essays on banking and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorov, R.I.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters that explore issues related to bank capital, multinational bank supervision, and bank lending in a developing country. The first chapter explores the impact of peer banks on bank capital adjustments. The second chapter evaluates the extent to which distortions

  10. Investment and Development Banking and Its Development in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Erkan Çelik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks, one of the most significant economic means of the nations and international organizations, have occasionally become one of the institutions mostly affected by the financial crisis in the world. Especially in the economies of the developed countries, one of the most important aspects of the financial sector is measured by the size of the financial resources and assets of the banks. The size and place of the investment banks depends on the investment and existing credit reserves appropriated by its members. From this perspective, scrutinizing the Investment and Developments Banks, which is one of the economic growth criteria, is of high importance. To this end, in addition to the operation of the Investment and Development Banks, financial products of these banks in Turkey are also analyzed in this study.

  11. THE ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CRISIS EFFECTS AT THE ROMANIAN BANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella KRÁJNIK

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The banking incomes and costs represent an important source of information regarding the profitability of a bank. The paper aims to analyse the current financial world crisis. After describing its causes and effects, the study focuses on the crisis’ impact on the global economy; Romania is the core of this analysis, as it is a country which feels very strongly the effects of the international financial turmoil. In a banking environment such as Romania's, constantly changing and subject to the pressure of a fierce competition, all the attention of the banks management teams is oriented towards the costs and their possible reduction in regard to maximizing the profit. In this context we considered as particularly important the analysis of the bank costs within the framework of the Romanian banking system, analysis which targets their structure on one side and their evolution and efficiency on the other side.

  12. These Are the Good Old Days: Foreign Entry and the Mexican Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen H. Haber; Aldo Musacchio

    2013-01-01

    In 1997, the Mexican government reversed long-standing policies and allowed foreign banks to purchase Mexico’s largest commercial banks and relaxed restrictions on the founding of new, foreign-owned banks. The result has been a dramatic shift in the ownership structure of Mexico’s banks. For instance, while in 1991 only one percent of bank assets in Mexico were foreign owned, today they control 74 percent of assets. In no other country in the world has the penetration of foreign banks been as...

  13. Government chartered banks step up oil and gas lending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, P.

    1994-01-01

    International government chartered banks are playing an increasingly prominent role in lending for world oil and gas development projects. The main players are the World Bank's International Finance Corp. (IFC), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), US Export-Import Bank, and Overseas Private Investment Corp. (OPIC). Those institutions and similar ones are the catalysts for a large number of projects in the former Soviet Union (FSU) and in other nations that are seeking to develop oil and gas resources and build processing plants, pipelines, and distribution networks. Banks also are taking a greater degree of interest in the environmental aspects of projects. In country after country, especially in the developing world, barriers to foreign investment in domestic petroleum sectors are falling. Oil and gas law reforms are under way on each continent. The paper discusses the major players, the World Bank grouped, the Romanian example, the Ex-Im Bank, OPIC, the emphasis on FSU, environmental issues, and new sources of capital in developing countries

  14. World Literature - World Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast...... historical material these essays, by a diverse group of scholars, examine the pioneers of world literature and the roles played by translation, migration and literary institutions in the circulation and reception of both national and cosmopolitan literatures....

  15. Commercial banking in the conditions of deregulation vs. reregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaklan Damir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines contemporary trends in commercial banking, confronting the stages of deregulation and reregulation in this field triggered by the global mortgage crisis. Under deregulatory conditions the competitive position of banks has toughened, and they reacted to it by intensifying: marketization, i.e. globalization, concentration, securitization and conglomeration, and by turning to the profit-oriented risk management of their activity. The contraction of their interest margin was thus neutralized by the reduction of operational costs and loss provisions, and by an increase in non-interest revenues, thereby maintaining banking profitability. The recent crisis has pinpointed the necessity of firmer regulation or reregulation of the banking sector, aimed at reducing its systemic risk, the most important aspect of which being the stricter international banking capital and liquidity standards, along with the requirement to adequately treat systemically important banks. Reregulation should strengthen capitalization and liquidity; mitigate the volume, concentration, internationalization and business dispersion, hence improving the supervision of the banking sector, implying its lower, yet more stable profitability. Such an impact of the adopted section of targeted regulatory measures has been indicated by higher liquidity, lower globalization, slower concentration and securitization, and stabilization-oriented risk management activities of today's banks. Their growth and profitability have shrunk.

  16. Moderating Effects of Bank Ownership on the Relationship between Securitization Uptake and Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Munene Muiruri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Securitization is a process in which commercial banks can raise low-cost financing by assigning asset risks to investors’ appetite for risk. This has been one of the most dominant and fastest growing means of capital creation in the United States and the world over. After introduction of securitization, the banking industry in Kenya has recovered from a long period of poor performance. The aim of this study is to aim of study was to tests for the moderating effects of bank ownership on relationship between securitization uptake and financial performance of forty three commercial banks in Kenya, over a five-year period from 2009 to 2013. The researchers dominantly relied on secondary data from most recent annual published financial statements and banks supervision records at the Central Bank of Kenya. The data was complimented by use unstructured personal interview from 172 banks key officials; the mortgage, credit, risk and compliance and debt recovery who were identified by simple random sampling from each of 43 banks. The data were cross validated with information from secondary sources; five years annual published financial statements and bank supervision records at the Central Bank of Kenya so as to avoid premature conclusions. In line with the previous studies, the results indicate that the banks’ financial performance had been almost progressing over the operational periods considered for the study. The commendable performance in profitability of the banks was attributable to securitization uptake among banks. The study recommends banks to use securitization in ensuring they have adequate capital and bank managers to be allowed to invest their liquid assets so that can generate more income to boost their performance.

  17. Mod en neutral seksualitet!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2013-01-01

    Towards a Neutral Sexuality! or Roland Barthes as a Queer Thinker? This article argues that the work of Roland Barthes has interesting perspectives in common with the queer theory. This argument will be put forward by using his concept of ‘the neutral’ that Barthes defines as “that which outplays...

  18. Issues in neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental results on low energy confirming the structure of the effective Lagrangian of the weak neutral current processes as predicted by the Salam-Weinberg model are reviewed. Some possible modifications of the effective Lagrangian and the feasibility of their experimental verification are also considered. (P.L.)

  19. ITER neutral beam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondino, P.L.; Di Pietro, E.; Bayetti, P.

    1999-01-01

    The Neutral Beam (NB) system for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has reached a high degree of integration with the tokamak and with the rest of the plant. Operational requirements and maintainability have been considered in the design. The paper considers the integration with the tokamak, discusses design improvements which appear necessary and finally notes R and D progress in key areas. (author)

  20. The effects of foreign banks entry in emerging market economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Florida Veljanoska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of foreign bank entry in emerging markets. We developed a picture of a multinational bank in an emerging markets by combining statistics from several sources, in order to explore broad range of effects that brings foreign bank entry in the developing countries. Some impacts of foreign bank entry have been thoroughly studied, while others are hardly mention. Entry of foreign bank brings large benefits to host country’s financial system and economies at large. This paper is studying those benefits very carefully, by analyzing the impact of foreign bank entry on economy, government, monetary policy, large enterprises, small and medium size enterprises, domestic bank etc. But, we also consider the fact that at the same time, foreign investment in the financial sector, rises some concerns, and therefore we analyze the negative effects as well. At the end we must admit that although there are some negative consequences from foreign bank entry in emerging markets, the benefits that arise from foreign banks penetration are much more, and this trend of foreign bank entry has brought new positive economic impulse in developing world.

  1. Islamic banks and profitability: an empirical analysis of Indonesian banking

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the factors that determine the profitability of Indonesian banks between the years 2006-2012. In particular, it investigates whether there are any significant differences in terms of profitability between Islamic banks and commercial banks. The results, obtained by applying the system-GMM estimator to the panel of 54 banks, indicate that the high bank profitability during these years were determined mainly by the size of the banks, the market share...

  2. PRIVATE BANKING AND WEALTH MANAGEMENT SERVICES OFFERED BY BANKS

    OpenAIRE

    IMOLA DRIGĂ; DORINA NIŢĂ; IOAN CUCU

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines the features of private banking business focusing on the substantial growth in private banking over the last decade as commercial banks have targeted upmarket high net worth individuals. The accumulation of wealth has prompted the development of private banking services for high net worth individuals, offering special relationships and investment services. Private banking is about much more than traditional banking services of deposits and loans. It's about providing a one-...

  3. Methods of Payment to Banks: e-Banking. Comparative Study on Three Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Petronella VLAD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available E-banking website, majority offers the banks. At first it was electronic-banking, Internet-banking followed, followed by mobile-banking service. These services offer the same facilities, Customer Bank just that varies the channel used for communication with the Bank. The services offered by banks through E-banking, approves: compilation of orders; scheduled payments; orders for payment of wages; internal transfers; pay rates on internal or external; currency exchanges; view balances of accounts at any time; information about foreign exchange rates; view and print account statements; the definition of beneficiaries of direct payments by the client.

  4. Determinants of Bank Selection Choices in Malaysia: A Demographic based Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Celestine Fernandez, Dominic

    2008-01-01

    Banking is an important contributor to the economic growth around the world. The benefits of understanding consumer selection decisions will provide bankers with a competitive advantage as it has the ability to influence the marketing mix. With rising overheads and price competition, the profit margins earned from bank services are being narrowed. Banks will have to capture a sizeable customer base to sustain their profitability and turnover. Malaysia was chosen for this study as banks have b...

  5. Pure contagion effects in international banking: The case of BCCI’s failure

    OpenAIRE

    Angelos Kanas

    2005-01-01

    We test for pure contagion effects in international banking arising from the failure of the Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI), one of the largest bank failures in the world. We focused on large individual banks in three developed countries where BCCI had established operations, namely the UK, the US, and Canada. Using event study methodology, we tested for contagion effects using time windows surrounding several known BCCI-related announcements. Our analysis provides strong evi...

  6. Geographic diversification in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Yiwei; van Lelyveld, Iman

    2014-01-01

    In the aftermath of the 2007-2009 crisis, banks claiming positive diversification benefits are being met with skepticism. Nevertheless, diversification might be important and sizable for some large internationally active banking groups. We use a universally applicable correlation matrix approach to

  7. Banking. Teaching Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Florida Cooperative Extension Service.

    One in a series of consumer education materials for teenagers, this document focuses on banking and banking services. The series is based on the philosophy that teens need the training and guidance to develop the skills needed to become competent consumers. Developed for 4-H Club members, the material is designed to acquaint students with the…

  8. Organization of eye bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    Comeal transplantation is the only method of combating the blindness due to corneal opacity caused by infections, malnutrition, trauma and hereditary diseases. Comeal blindness is more prevalent in the developing countries. The availability of the donor cornea, trained ophthalmic surgeons and microsurgery facilities are the key factors in restoring vision in-patients with comeal blindness. The eye bank organization is somewhat similar to that of blood bank. The eye bank should be located in a hospital or a medical centre in which a laboratory may be established for the evaluation and storage of donor tissue. The medical director (Ophthalmologist), technician, secretary and public relation officer are the persons who play an important role in the successful organization of eye bank. The function of the eye bank are procurement, assessment, processing, distribution of donor eyes/corneas, training of technicians/doctors, and conducting research related to storage of donor tissue and corneal transplantation. The necessary infrastructure required for the organization of an eye bank include separate accommodation area for the personnel and the laboratory, telephone, computer, refrigerator, laminar air flow hood. Slitlamp, specular microscope, storage media and equipment, instrument for enucleation of donor eyes, and a motor vehicle. The details of responsibilities of the staff of eye bank, source of donor eyes, suitability of donor material, procurement of the donor cornea, tissue assessment, storage and preservation, distribution of donor tissue, and limitation of eye bank will be discussed at the time of presentation

  9. Optimal Central Bank Transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  10. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  11. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  12. Transparency of Banking Supervisors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liedorp, Franka; Mosch, Robert; van der Cruijsen, Carin; de Haan, Jakob

    Following Eijffinger and Geraats (2006), this paper constructs an index of transparency of banking supervisors that takes political, economic, procedural, policy, and operational transparency into account. Based on a survey, the index is constructed for 24 banking supervisors. The average score is

  13. International fuel bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The working group discusses the establishment of an international bank for nuclear fuels. The statements by representatives of seven countries discuss the specific features of a bank of this kind which is set up to facilitate access to nuclear fuels but also to permit a more rigid control in the sense of the non-proliferation philosophy

  14. Destroy The Bank! (case)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. Van der Star; dr. A. Maas

    2016-01-01

    DZ Bank faces some significant challenges for the near future. One of them is the way payments are being made. This case is about Stefan, the Strategic Management Consultant of DZ Bank. He struggles with innovations and new technologies, such as Bitcoins. What does this mean for the future of the

  15. Banking and trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term, scalable arm’s length finance which we call trading. Relationship banking is not scalable, has high franchise value, is long-term oriented and low risk. Trading is transaction-based: scalable, with lower margins (capital

  16. The macroeconomics of banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kwaak, C.G.F.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis studies the macroeconomic effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policy in an environment where commercial banks are undercapitalized after a financial crisis and have large holdings of (risky) government bonds on their balance sheets. An undercapitalized banking system cannot perfectly

  17. The World Report on Disability and People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Officer, Alana; Shakespeare, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The "World Report on Disability" was requested by the World Health Assembly, the governing body of the World Health Organization (WHO). Because disability is broader than health, WHO partnered with the World Bank. The "World Report" was published in 2011 and provides a comprehensive scientific analysis on the global situation…

  18. Oscillations of neutral B mesons systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boucrot, J.

    1999-01-01

    The oscillation phenomenon in the neutral B mesons systems is now well established. The motivations and principles of the measurements are given; then the most recent results from the LEP experiments, the CDF collaboration at Fermilab and the SLD collaboration at SLAC are reviewed. The present world average of the $\\bd$ meson oscillation frequency is $\\dmd = 0.471 \\pm 0.016 \\ps$ and the lower limit on the $\\bs$ oscillation frequency is

  19. The competitive challenge in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Schmeits, A.

    2005-01-01

    The increasingly competitive environment poses challenges to bankers. This paper emphasizes relationship banking as a prime source of the banks' comparative advantage. The proliferation of transaction-oriented banking (trading and financial market activities) does however seriously challenge

  20. Competition in investment banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a comprehensive measure of overall investment banking competitiveness for follow-on offerings that aggregates the various dimensions of competition such as fees, pricing accuracy, analyst recommendations, distributional abilities, market making prowess, debt offering capabilities, and overall reputation. The measure allows us to incorporate trade-offs that investment banks may use in competing for new or established clients. We find that firms who switch to similar-quality underwriters enjoy more intense competition among investment banks which manifests in lower fees and more optimistic recommendations. Investment banks do compete vigorously for some clients, with the level of competition related to the likelihood of gaining or losing clients. Finally, investment banks not performing up to market norms are more likely to be dropped in the follow-on offering. In contrast, firms who seek a higher reputation underwriter face relatively non-competitive markets.

  1. BANKING SUPERVISION IN EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Lavinia Mihaela GUȚU; Vasile ILIE

    2013-01-01

    The need for prudential supervision imposed to banks by law arises from the action that banking market’s basic factors have. Therefore, it is about banks’ role in economy. The normal functioning of banks in all their important duties maintains the stability of banking system. Further, the stability of the entire economy depends on the stability of the banking system. Under conditions of imbalance regarding treasury or liquidity, banks are faced with unmanageable crisis and the consequences ca...

  2. Bank and sovereign debt risk

    OpenAIRE

    Darracq Paries, Matthieu; Faia, Ester; Rodriguez-Palenzuela, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Euro area data show a positive connection between sovereign and bank risk, which increases with banks' and sovereign long run fragility. We build a macro model with banks subject to incentive problems and liquidity risk (in the form of liquidity based banks' runs) which provides a link between endogenous bank capital and macro and policy risk. Our banks also invest in risky government bonds used as capital buffer to self-insure against liquidity risk. The model can replicate the positive conn...

  3. Analysis of changing bank services in globalization process of financial business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Mumi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of economic development of every country is closely connected with the functioning of effective infrastructure of financial market, in the carter of which is a bank system. The success of market relations, the provision of intensive economic growth, the increasing country’s competitiveness at the world market and the growth of population well-being are determined by the fact of how much effectively banks are able to act at different segments of bank services. The innovations in the bank field are closely connected with the innovations in the global and world financial sector. The issues about the influence of globalization on bank activities, the development of market of bank services, empirical researches are of great interest nowadays. Special attention is paid to the Ukrainian market of bank services. The analysis of the current state of the bank sector of the Ukrainian economy gives an opportunity to disclose some problems in the bank sphere as: political and financial instability in the country, the low quality of bank assets, the decrease of liquidity of bank assets, the low credit to the bank system among population, unstable legal framework in the state, the high level of vulnerability of the bank system to the country’s currency policy conducted by NBU.

  4. Corporatisation, Global Banking Impact on the Australian Education System: Reflecting on Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balon-Rotheram, Auston

    Trends, such as a massive increase in globalization, neo-liberalization, and economic rationalization, have been supported and directed by major governments and major financial institutions, such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The pact between the World Bank and the IMF has created an economic juggernaut that is…

  5. The Role of Participation Banking as Alternative Financing Channels to Substitute for Deposit Banks and its Growth in the Turkish Finance Market - Period: 2007-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Sayım

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Financial systems and companies have become the most important reasons in the weakness of world economic system. The formation and development process of the financial structure also constitute the infrastructure of the world economic system. The path of the financial system and development has led to discuss with the financial crisis in 2008-2011. One of the solutions in order to reduce problems caused by the conventional banking system is alternative financing systems. In Turkey, the corporations based on profit share system are named participation banks. These banks which settle on different principles in the risk distribution of the portfolio acquired are analyzed more nowadays. Participation based banks are placed in practically every regulation related to banking terms and get their legal infrastructure more steady in the banking legislation of Turkey. This study is a continuation of a series related to the situation of participation banking in Turkey. On the other hand, the literature and the history of participation banking have been given less attention in this study. Literature information on methods in participation banks has been described in previous work of the series. Two analyzes were conducted in this study. One analysis is interpretive analysis that expresses the situation of applications of participation banking against banking risks. The other is an analysis of the figures of participation banks in Turkey as a continuation of the series. This study is a 2007-2015 part of research series. The study tries to explore the place and the importance of participation based banking with the various sub-headings, especially in Turkey. For this reason, we examine the comparative review 2007-2015 data of participation banks which are composed of Total Assets, Equity Net Profit, Collected Funds and Bank Loan Funds. Then we compare the total figures with deposit banks for the same period in Turkey.

  6. Antihypertensive neutral lipid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, F.L.; Blank, M.L.

    1984-10-26

    The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated either-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood presure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.

  7. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  8. Neutral beams for mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    An important demonstration of negative ion technology is proposed for FY92 in the MFTF-α+T, an upgrade of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This facility calls for 200-keV negative ions to form neutral beams that generate sloshing ions in the reactor end plugs. Three different beam lines are considered for this application. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed

  9. Gargamelle: neutral current event

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    This event shows real tracks of particles from the 1200 litre Gargamelle bubble chamber that ran on the PS from 1970 to 1976 and on the SPS from 1976 to 1979. In this image a neutrino passes close to a nucleon and reemerges as a neutrino. Such events are called neutral curent, as they are mediated by the Z0 boson which has no electric charge.

  10. Cracking Bank PINs by Playing Mastermind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focardi, Riccardo; Luccio, Flaminia L.

    The bank director was pretty upset noticing Joe, the system administrator, spending his spare time playing Mastermind, an old useless game of the 70ies. He had fought the instinct of telling him how to better spend his life, just limiting to look at him in disgust long enough to be certain to be noticed. No wonder when the next day the director fell on his chair astonished while reading, on the newspaper, about a huge digital fraud on the ATMs of his bank, with millions of Euros stolen by a team of hackers all around the world. The article mentioned how the hackers had 'played with the bank computers just like playing Mastermind', being able to disclose thousands of user PINs during the one-hour lunch break. That precise moment, a second before falling senseless, he understood the subtle smile on Joe's face the day before, while training at his preferred game, Mastermind.

  11. Religious perspectives on umbilical cord blood banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, Christopher F C; O'Connor, Michelle A C; Kerridge, Ian H; Stewart, Cameron; Cameron, Andrew; Keown, Damien; Lawrence, Rabbi Jeremy; McGarrity, Andrew; Sachedina, Abdulaziz; Tobin, Bernadette

    2012-03-01

    Umbilical cord blood is a valuable source of haematopoietic stem cells. There is little information about whether religious affiliations have any bearing on attitudes to and decisions about its collection, donation and storage. The authors provided information about umbilical cord blood banking to expert commentators from six major world religions (Catholicism, Anglicanism, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism) and asked them to address a specific set of questions in a commentary. The commentaries suggest there is considerable support for umbilical cord blood banking in these religions. Four commentaries provide moral grounds for favouring public donation over private storage. None attach any particular religious significance to the umbilical cord or to the blood within it, nor place restrictions on the ethnicity or religion of donors and recipients. Views on ownership of umbilical cord blood vary. The authors offer a series of general points for those who seek a better understanding of religious perspectives on umbilical cord blood banking.

  12. Digital Banking: Risks of Financial Digitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornіvska Valerіa O.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates the results of the research into development of the digital economy in the global financial space, shows the contradictions of these processes in the context of the growth of financial inclusion of households, identifies the risks of active introduction of digital banking in poor countries of the world. The characteristics of the processes of growth of the influence of banking institutions on the operational activity and daily life of households are given, and it is proved that under conditions of digital banking, without having any other alternative ways of economic activity in terms of money circulation than non-cash turnover, clients are forced to agree to unlimited presence of financial operators in social systems. It is substantiated that in Ukraine the global risk of digitalization of the society is gradually developing as a result of the creation of unified information systems for the control of global financial flows.

  13. Climate Neutral Campus Key Terms and Definitions | Climate Neutral Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuses | NREL Neutral Campus Key Terms and Definitions Climate Neutral Campus Key Terms and Definitions The term climate neutral evolved along with net zero and a number of other "green" and accuracy in these areas lets research campuses know exactly how close they are to climate

  14. FUNGSI SOSIAL BANK SYARIAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prehantoro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Bank of Moslem law one of its target is profit oriented as financial institution intermediasi beside as institute of baitul maal. Bank of Moslem law can accept the fund coming from zakat , infak, alms, hibah, or other social fund which among other things come the ta’zir. Bank of Moslem law also channel it social fund coming from communal ownership of money to communal ownership organizer (nadzir as according to will ;desire of communal ownership giver (wakif. social Function execution have to pursuant to Statute of Management of Zakat and Statute of Wakaf.

  15. An Overview of Corporate Governance Practices of Selected Islamic Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Belal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Complying with Corporate Governance (CG standards is not mandatory but with collapse of many financial institutions, compliance with high standards of CG in banking operation has become a necessity. This is due to the fact that many banks and companies worldwide collapsed as a result of poor corporate governance practices such as Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI 1991, Barings Bank 1995, Lehman Brothers 2008, Enron 2001, WorldCom 2001, etc. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to examine and ascertain whether present level of CG standards practiced by Islamic banks is adequate to prevent or safeguard the banks from collapsing. The approach of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of board and the various board committees utilizing data published in financial statement of the selected banks. The methodology used in this paper is analytical descriptive to reach accurate results and as more appropriate approach with this research. The study finds out that the selected banks comply with CG standards adopted; however such compliance does not mean that the board, the board committees will be constantly reliable. Therefore, instilling the Islamic values such as the concepts of ih}sân, honesty, and accountability is paramount to prevent CG failures and protect/safeguard the banks from collapsing.

  16. The New Development Bank in Global Finance and Economic Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Morozkina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the question whether the New Development Bank (NDB will promote the role of the BRICS countriesin the global financial architecture and foster their development. It begins by comparing the key multilateral developmentbanks (World Bank, Asian Development Bank, African Development Bank and Inter-American Development Bank,European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and national development banks of the BRICS countries with thenewly established institution. The NDB’s purpose is to mobilize resources for infrastructure and sustainable developmentprojects in the member countries. This purpose, as author concludes on the base of the analysis, partly duplicates the workof the existing institutions. However, the NDB could add to the functions of the existing institutions and become a significantdevelopment bank for its members. The best way to achieve this significance is to implement multilateral projects in the areasmentioned above. The article also examines the current role of the BRICS countries in the global financial architecture andthe potential for an increased role, brought by the establishment of the BRICS bank. The founding countries of the NDB willjointly determine the volume and directions of its financial aid. In addition, in contrast to the Bretton Woods institutions,the BRICS countries can change the rules of the development financial aid, particularly the conditions and system formonitoring results. The article concludes that the BRICS countries have created a possible way to change the current systemof development finance and therefore to increase the role of the BRICS countries in the global financial architecture.

  17. Tissue banking, biovigilance and the notify library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, D Michael

    2017-06-30

    This issue is dedicated to the contributions of Professor Glyn O. Phillips to the field of tissue banking and the advancement of science in general. The use of ionizing radiation to sterilize medical products drew the interest of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). A meeting in 1976 in Athens Greece to present work on the effects of sterilizing radiation doses upon the antigenic properties of proteins and biologic tissues was my first introduction of Professor Phillips and the role that he was to play in Tissue Banking (Friedlaender, in Phillips GO, Tallentine AN (eds) Radiation sterilization. Irradiated tissues and their potential clinical use. The North E. Wales Institute, Clwyd, p 128, 1978). The IAEA sponsored subsequent meetings in the Republic of Korea, Czechoslovakia and Rangoon, the later including a visit to the tissue bank by Professor Phillips. His advocacy resulted in multiple workshops and teaching opportunities in a variety of countries, one of which led to the establishment of the Asia Pacific Surgical Tissue Banking Association in 1989 (Phillips and Strong, in Phillips GO, Strong DM, von Versen R, Nather A (eds) Advances in tissue banking, vol 3. World Scientific, Singapore, pp 403-417, 1999).

  18. Banking on the Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I analyse the narratives of four Danish central bank governors from the late nineteenth century until the mid-1990s. By conducting a historical analysis informed by neo-institutional theory, I show how these central bank governors were continuously involved in public debates over...... the appropriateness and desirability of their decisions and policies. In these debates, interpretations and reproductions of Danish national identity were central to the governors' claims to legitimacy. I argue that past narratives of the Danish central bank and its governors enabled and framed future legitimacy...... claims and that the central bank and its governors gradually became embedded in national identity. Thus, the article highlights the historical development of the co-configuring relationship between Danish national identity and the legitimacy of monetary organization....

  19. Protein Data Bank (PDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive is the single worldwide repository of information about the 3D structures of large biological molecules, including proteins and...

  20. Reliability data banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, A.G.; Bendell, A.

    1991-01-01

    Following an introductory chapter on Reliability, what is it, why it is needed, how it is achieved and measured, the principles of reliability data bases and analysis methodologies are the subject of the next two chapters. Achievements due to the development of data banks are mentioned for different industries in the next chapter, FACTS, a comprehensive information system for industrial safety and reliability data collection in process plants are covered next. CREDO, the Central Reliability Data Organization is described in the next chapter and is indexed separately, as is the chapter on DANTE, the fabrication reliability Data analysis system. Reliability data banks at Electricite de France and IAEA's experience in compiling a generic component reliability data base are also separately indexed. The European reliability data system, ERDS, and the development of a large data bank come next. The last three chapters look at 'Reliability data banks, - friend foe or a waste of time'? and future developments. (UK)

  1. Bangladesh Bank Heist

    OpenAIRE

    Md Ahsan Habib

    2017-01-01

    Cyber crime is a threat to our E- commerce . A hacker group named "Lazarus" hacked $951 million from Bangladesh Bank's account. This is the short case study of this incident with professional ethical view.

  2. Mitigation Banking Factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mitigation bank is an aquatic resource area that has been restored, established, enhanced, or preserved for the purpose of providing compensation for unavoidable impacts to aquatic resources permitted under Section 404

  3. Competition between bank regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Dirk; Eggert, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines competition between bank regulators in open economies. We use a model where credit demand of firms is endogenous and show any tendency for downward competition in regulation policy is limited by the effect of regulation on profits of nonfinancial firms. Moreover, perfect mobility on loans and deposit markets fully eliminates the incentives of regulators to set bank regulation at ine±cient low levels.

  4. Central banks: Paradise lost

    OpenAIRE

    Issing, Otmar

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the paper is to analyze how the concept behind central bank policy developed over time and how the recent financial crisis and its consequences will have an influence. While the principles of the institutional arrangement for central banks (independence, clear mandate, prohibition of monetary financing) are relevant as ever, pre- crisis consensus strategies of monetary policy have been revealed as flawed. The close monitoring of money and credit developments, a key lesson to be d...

  5. Improving Banking Supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Mayes, David G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explains how banking supervision within the EU, and in Finland in particular, can be improved by the implementation of greater market discipline and related changes. Although existing EU law, institutions, market structures and practices of corporate governance restrict the scope for change, substantial improvements can be introduced now while there is a window of opportunity for change. The economy is growing H5ly and the consequences of the banking crises of the early 1990s have ...

  6. Role of Foreign Banks in Integration of Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Šubić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic development of financial industry in some last ten years that, considering the kind of financial agents, remained bank-oriented represents a suficient reason to investigate the causes that brought to the present structure of banking system. After having presented theoretical bases of the integration forms and banks connection, the paper analyzes the influence of foreign banks on the development of Croatian bank system. Thus, beside the knowledge of quantitative changes in the banking system, the paper researched the motivations of the banks regarding integration that, among other things, brought to creating the effects of scale and scope economies. However, the concentrations among banks can lead to creation of negative externalities that later become potential dangers for the banking. Pre-cognitions on development of banking system are used to create projection of future banking development while the data basis of the countries from the region enabled the comparative analysis of banks integration in these countries. The conclusion is that the foreign banks have been the largest promoters of bank integration in the Republic of Croatia contributing also to qualitative development of banking market and to deepening of financial market spectrum.

  7. Bremsstrahlung and neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.G.; McKellar, B.H.J.

    1979-01-01

    The utility of the bremsstrahlung process in detecting parity violations from V-A weak neutral current interference is analysed in two ways. Firstly, bremsstrahlung from polarized lepton-nucleus scattering has an asymmetry with respect to the polarization of the incident leptons, and secondly, bremsstrahlung from unpolarized lepton nucleus scattering has a small circular polarization. The magnitude of each effect is calculated. The ratio of the parity violating contribution and the parity conserving contribution to the cross section is shown to be a misleading measure of the utility of these experiments. A parameter, the figure of merit, is introduced and used to discuss the feasibility of possible experiments

  8. SEGMENTASI LAYANAN INTERNET BANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Theresia Sihotang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze internet banking�s users based on their experiences. It can be used to set marketing program of internet banking that appropriate with customers needs, in order to anticipate tight competition. This research methods starts with focus group discussion and clustering analysis to classify 312 respondents of internet banking users based on demographic, benefit and behavioral segmentation. The sampling method uses purposive sampling and snowball sampling. K-Means Clustering method�s produces four optimal clusters. The benefit orientation of the first cluster in on time saving. Second cluster, concern on the ease of getting and operating internet banking so this cluster does not need auxiliary features such as video guide to use internet banking. The third cluster�s orientation is on the modern lifestyle and the ease of getting and operating internet banking service with detailed daily mutation transaction The fourth cluster, concerns on the detailed daily mutation transaction but they are not sure with the security of personal data via internet banking. �

  9. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  10. Plasma neutralizer for H- beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    Neutralization of H - beams by a hydrogen plasma is discussed. Optimum target thickness and maximum neutralization efficiency as a function of the fraction of the hydrogen target gas ionized is calculated for different H - beam energies. Also, the variation of neutralization efficiency with respect to target thickness for different H - beam energies is computed. The dispersion of the neutralized beam by a magnetic field for different energies and different values of B . z is found. Finally, a type of plasma jet is proposed, which may be suitable for a compact H - neutralizer

  11. BANK MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS IN ROMANIA AFTER 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Copil Crina Angela

    2014-07-01

    have a special purpose, they are necessary operations of draining the bank life by the absorption of the banks without stability by those with potential of economical and managerial stable capital. It is well known that the great banks, very strong and well consolidated created in the process of mergers and acquisitions have another potential in maintenance of the flux of profit and the balanced increase of the profitableness, having a great impact on the economy. The contribution consists in combining some conceptual elements with some empirical aspects, with the process of bank concentration created by acquisitions and fusions that leads to the elimination of some bank entitites that are not credible and stable and maintenance of those that are efficient, useful and credible for the client and for the Romanian society. The subject is a present one in the entire world, in a continuous change and adapting to the existent tendencies in the entire world, having a major impact also on the Romanian bank market, on the bank financial institutions that in order to face the competition have directed their strategies for the diversification of the risks.

  12. BANK RATING. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrancea Ioan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks in Romania offers its customers a wide range of products but which involves both risk taking. Therefore researchers seek to build rating models to help managers of banks to risk of non-recovery of loans and interest. In the following we highlight rating Raiffeisen Bank, BCR-ERSTE Bank and Transilvania Bank, based on the models CAAMPL and Stickney making a comparative analysis of the two rating models.

  13. Corporate Social Responsibility in the Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Csaba Lentner; Krisztina Szegedi; Tibor Tatay

    2015-01-01

    As countries of the world used large amounts of public funds to manage the 2008 financial crisis, public debt has risen to a critical level in many of them. Due to the drop in real economy, several countries faced unemployment and economic fallback that are still unresolved to this day. After the crisis, many were concerned how to restore the confidence in financial institutions and how banks can better contribute to sustainable social and economic growth. This paper discusses corporate socia...

  14. The main directions of banking products promotion in the banking marketing system in Russian commercial banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markova O.M.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available the article is devoted to the research of directions of client-oriented approach application during bank products promotion in Russian banks. Attention is paid to the development of electronic banking, social networks through which consumers receive the necessary information about beneficial offers and special conditions for providing banking services.

  15. Neutral helium beam probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Rezwanul

    1999-10-01

    This article discusses the development of a code where diagnostic neutral helium beam can be used as a probe. The code solves numerically the evolution of the population densities of helium atoms at their several different energy levels as the beam propagates through the plasma. The collisional radiative model has been utilized in this numerical calculation. The spatial dependence of the metastable states of neutral helium atom, as obtained in this numerical analysis, offers a possible diagnostic tool for tokamak plasma. The spatial evolution for several hypothetical plasma conditions was tested. Simulation routines were also run with the plasma parameters (density and temperature profiles) similar to a shot in the Princeton beta experiment modified (PBX-M) tokamak and a shot in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor tokamak. A comparison between the simulation result and the experimentally obtained data (for each of these two shots) is presented. A good correlation in such comparisons for a number of such shots can establish the accurateness and usefulness of this probe. The result can possibly be extended for other plasma machines and for various plasma conditions in those machines.

  16. Bank Diversification Effects on Bank Performance and Risk Profile of Bank in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Lukmawijaya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the relationship of Indonesian bank diversification towards its long term performance and risk profile with Indonesian bank data from 2009 to 2013. Non-interest income to total operating income of the bank measures its bank diversification level. Bank value is measured by the adjusted Tobin's Q and risk profile which is broken down into total risk, idiosyncratic risk, and systematic risk. The result shows that bank non-interest income diversification has a positive influence on its franchise value. There is, however, no strong evidence that diversification can lower a bank's risk profile.

  17. The world Bank's support for concentrated solar power stations;L'initiative de la banque mondiale en faveur d'une montee en puissance des centrales solaires a concentration (CSP). Utilisation du Fonds des Technologies Propres en faveur d'une approche cooperative pour faire face aux defis du changement climatique et aux defis energetiques des pays du Moyen-Orient et d'Afrique du Nord (MENA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pariente-David, S.; Walters, J.; Govindarajalu, Ch.; Coma Cunill, R. [Banque mondiale, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The Clean Technology Fund (CTF) was set up in 2008 to provide funding, especially subsidies, on an industrial scale for projects that experiment with, deploy or transfer low-carbon technology, which can potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions significantly in the long run. The CTF helps multilateral development banks providing the funds needed, and giving a boost to experiments with low-carbon techniques, while waiting for the conclusion of the negotiations conducted by the United Nations on climate change. The World Bank manages this temporary fund. The article presents the use of CTF as a catalyzer to lower costs, to create a viable market and to attract important financing for the development of concentrating solar plants in Middle East and North-Africa countries

  18. E-Banking of Economical Prospects in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Azizul Baten; Anton Abdulbasah Kamil,

    2010-01-01

    Now a day’s due to emerging global economy, e-commerce and e-business have increasingly become a necessary component of business strategy and a strong catalyst for economic development. The new information technology is becoming an important factor in the future development of financial services industry, and especially banking industry. As a third-world developing country, Bangladesh is far behind to reach the expected level in global banking system. So it is our urgent n...

  19. E-banking: Online Transactions and Security Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Hameed Ullah Khan

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the technology involved in the more important payment systems currently available to internet users. As the field is undergoing a major upheaval by changing the traditional banking services, e-commerce is facilitating change in recent years. These programs in-returns have shown lucrative growth in internet businesses and capital generation. Transactions on an international scale are the mark of highly demanding businesses with a global consumer base. Banks around the world...

  20. An Application Relating To Credit Risk and Credit Risk Management in Tu rkish Banking System: The Case of Turkey Garanti Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Çil Koçyiğit

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the globalization process of the world, at the competitive area arised as a result of the rapid increase in the number of banks and their branches in developing countries, the vigorously existance of banks depend on the management of the risks faced successfully. Banks must establish their credit strategies onto a good risk managment. Indeed, it is the inevitable fact that the success of financial institutions depends on having a powerful risk management system. In this study, by using the banking ratios, it is aimed to investigate the credit-risk changes of Turkish Garanti Bank (S.C. by three-month periods of 2007–2012 and give information about the risk management of Turkish Garanti Bank (S.C.. In conclusion, it is seen that, at Turkish Garanti Bank (S.C., credit risk is measured and evaluated in accordance with international standards, and all risk management is executing in parallel with Basel II regulations.

  1. THE FINANCIAL SECTOR OF THE STATE - THE STRUCTURE OF THE BANKING SYSTEM WITH A BANKING SECTOR IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The financial sector of each country in the world has its own specificities that depend on many factors. In this paper we will talk about the structure of the financial system in our country from the aspect of the banking sector. Banks are specialized institutions that have a special role in the development of the country's economic system, as their basic function is to supply the economy with the necessary amount of loans and money. Banking business is a special economic activity. It is determined by the type and content of banking operations. In general terms, banking transactions are divided into two groups: active and passive. The Bank is established as a joint-stock company, which is regulated by the laws on banks and international regulatory frameworks.

  2. A STUDY ON E-BANKING SERVICES: ITS RISKS AND IMPACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Rajni

    2016-01-01

    Today’s world is one with increasing online access to services. One part of this which is growing rapidly is Internet Banking. Internet banking refers to systems that enable bank customers to access accounts and general information on bank products and services through a personal computer (PC) or other intelligent devices. Though a large volume of literature is accessible on E-banking, this area is still a work in progress and offers a wide array of opportunities for further research and appl...

  3. BrainNet Europe's Code of Conduct for brain banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klioueva, Natasja M; Rademaker, Marleen C; Dexter, David T; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Seilhean, Danielle; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Schmitz, Peer; Bell, Jeanne E; Ironside, James W; Arzberger, Thomas; Huitinga, Inge

    2015-07-01

    Research utilizing human tissue and its removal at post-mortem has given rise to many controversies in the media and posed many dilemmas in the fields of law and ethics. The law often lacks clear instructions and unambiguous guidelines. The absence of a harmonized international legislation with regard to post-mortem medical procedures and donation of tissue and organs contributes to the complexity of the issue. Therefore, within the BrainNet Europe (BNE) consortium, a consortium of 19 European brain banks, we drafted an ethical Code of Conduct for brain banking that covers basic legal rules and bioethical principles involved in brain banking. Sources include laws, regulations and guidelines (Declarations, Conventions, Recommendations, Guidelines and Directives) issued by international key organizations, such as the Council of Europe, European Commission, World Medical Association and World Health Organization. The Code of Conduct addresses fundamental topics as the rights of the persons donating their tissue, the obligations of the brain bank with regard to respect and observance of such rights, informed consent, confidentiality, protection of personal data, collections of human biological material and their management, and transparency and accountability within the organization of a brain bank. The Code of Conduct for brain banking is being adopted by the BNE network prior to being enshrined in official legislation for brain banking in Europe and beyond.

  4. Does business regulation matter for banks in the European Union?

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyvas, Nikolaos Antonios; Mamatzakis, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the impact of business and financial specific regulations on banks in the EU-27 over the 2004–2010 period. We employ a dataset of a wide range of business regulation indices from the “Doing Business” project of the World Bank. Results for the credit regulation indices show that the strength of creditor rights is negatively related to bank performance as measured by cost efficiency, although this effect subdues during the recent crisis period (20...

  5. FUTURE CHALLENGES TO THE ORGANIZATION OF ACCOUNTING IN TRADE BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Andasarova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Trade banks are on the threshold of the introduction of two big projects which would qualitatively change the organization of accounting. The first one is the adoption of long-expected accounting standard Financial instruments IFRS 9, and the second is connected to the introduction of new world standards in bank capital famous as Basel III - a global, voluntary regulatory standard on bank capital adequacy, stress testing and market liquidity risk, through accepted in June 2013 by the EU Capital Requirements Directive 2013/36/EC and Capital Requirements Regulation 575/2013.

  6. Pengaruh Kualitas Layanan Mobile Banking (M-Banking Terhadap Kepuasan Nasabah di Indonesia [Effect of Mobile Banking (M-Banking Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Wardhana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The research aim was to assess the influence of the service quality of mobile banking (m-banking against customer satisfaction at the greatest banks in Indonesia. Elements of the quality of mobile banking services (m-banking were speed, security, accuracy, and trust. The population of this study was bank customers from eight of the greatest bank in Indonesia -- Bank Mandiri, Bank BRI, Bank BCA, Bank BNI, Bank CIMB Niaga, Bank Danamon, Bank Permata, and Bank Panin -- who used mobile banking which totaled 19.9 million customers with the size of the sample being 400 respondents. The sampling method used nonprobability sampling by incidental sampling. The results by using a structural equation modeling (SEM found significant influences between service quality of mobile banking (m-banking partially and simultaneously to customer satisfaction.

  7. 12 CFR 583.3 - Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by the...

  8. ANALISIS KOMPARASI KINERJA KEUANGAN; BANK DEVISA DAN BANK NON DEVISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nani Hartati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research is intended to assess and analyze the financial health of Foreign Exchange Bank and Non-Foreign Exchange Bank. Assessment is done by looking at the financial ratios from 2011 to 2015, the results of each financial ratios performed comparison and analysis. The financial statements were obtained from the Indonesian Stock Exchange website. The conclusions of the analysis were compared with the indicators of Bank Indonesia's financial performance assessment released by Indonesia Bank. There is a significant difference between foreign exchange bank and non-foreign exchange bank. The ratio of financial ratios in the analysis includes NPL, CAR, ROA, LDR, and BOPO.

  9. Why The Rate Of Financing In Islamic Banks Is High? An Analysis Based On Malaysian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Syauqi Beik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Islamic banking has grown rapidly and has become fi nancial-nerve centre in today’s world economy, particularly in the last three decades. It has attracted various entrepreneurs and enterprises to get its fi nancing. However, Islamic banks tend to have a higher rate of fi nancing compared to the conventional ones. This less competitiveness encourage the demand for Islamic products may fall leaving the Islamic banks. Good debtors opted for conventional loans since the interest rates paid were relatively lower and the rest (the bad debtors successfully made their way to Islamic banks. Therefore, the nonperforming financing of Islamic banks is high. This paper attempts to analyze factors that determine high rate of fi nancing in Islamic banks, by taking the case of Malaysian Islamic banks. In this paper, the top three of Islamic banks and conventional banks are selected for comparison. It finds that high default premium and overheads per capital contribute signifi cantly to the high fi nancing rate. Hence, the Islamic banks should diversify their assets and implement universal banking concept.Keywords: Islamic bank, rate of fi nancing, NPF (Non-Performing Financing, universal banking system

  10. Development of tissue bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R P Narayan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole.

  11. Materials information data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, K.E.

    1978-03-01

    A major concern in the design of weapons systems is compatibility of materials with each other and with the enclosed environment. Usually these systems require long-term storage and must have high reliability at the end of this storage period. Materials selection is thus based on past experience and on laboratory-accelerated testing to assure this long-term reliability. To assist in materials selection, a computerized materials data bank has been established. In addition to references on personnel and documents, this data bank provides annotated information on materials so that the designer and materials engineer can draw on it for guidance in selecting materials. The primary purpose of the data bank is to provide materials compatibility data. However, the structure of the system permits the data bank to be used for storage and retrieval of general materials information. The data bank storage and information retrieval philosophy is discussed and procedures for information gathering are outlined. Examples of data entries and a list of search routines are presented to demonstrate the usefulness and versatility of the system

  12. Spectroscopy of neutral radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mol, Aran; De, Subhadeep; Jungmann, Klaus; Wilschut, Hans; Willmann, Lorenz [KVI, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    The heavy alkaline earth atoms radium is uniquely sensitive towards parity and time reversal symmetry violations due to a large enhancement of an intrinsic permanent electric dipole moment of the nucleous or the electron. Furthermore, radium is sensitive to atomic parity violation and the nuclear anapole moment. To prepare such experiments spectroscopy of relevant atomic states need to be done. At a later stage we will build a neutral atom trap for radium. We have built an atomic beam of the short lived isotope {sup 225}Ra with a flux of several 10{sup 4} atoms/sec. We are preparing the laser spectroscopy using this beam setup. In the preparation for efficient laser cooling and trapping we have successfully trapped barium, which is similar in it's requirements for laser cooling. The techniques which we have developed with barium can be used to trap rare radium isotopes. We report on the progress of the experiments.

  13. Alternative banking: theory and evidence from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Von Mettenheim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since financial liberalization in the 1980s, non-profit maximizing, stakeholder-oriented banks have outperformed private banks in Europe. This article draws on empirical research, banking theory and theories of the firm to explain this apparent anomaly for neo-liberal policy and contemporary market-based banking theory. The realization of competitive advantages by alternative banks (savings banks, cooperative banks and development banks has significant implications for conceptions of bank change, regulation and political economy.

  14. Submission to the Georges Bank Review Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankin, E.; Butler, M.; Church, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Georges Bank, off southwestern Nova Scotia, is one of the most biologically productive continental shelf ecosystems in the world. It supports a wide diversity of species, including many seabirds. In 1988, federal and provincial legislation placed a moratorium on petroleum exploration and drilling on the Georges Bank, directing the ministers of Natural Resources Canada, and of the Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources to make a decision regarding the moratorium by January 1, 2000. This report by the Ecology Action Centre (EAC) asks the Georges Bank Review Panel to recommend extending the moratorium on Georges Bank and adjacent areas until 2012, in part to match the American moratorium. Other reasons why the panel made this recommendation were explored. The principal reason is the EAC concern that when the moratorium is lifted, several oil and gas developments will proceed in this ecologically significant offshore area that could result in the loss of the ecological integrity of Georges Bank. The EAC contends that before oil and gas development in the region could begin, the following issues would have to be resolved: (1) disposal of drill muds and cuttings, (2) volume and disposal of produced water, (3) effects of small and large spills, (4) impact of seismic activities on whales and turtles, and (5) carbon dioxide emission through venting and flaring. Also, the EAC does not believe that developing Georges Bank will create as many jobs in the affected communities as some people suggest. Lifting the moratorium by Canada would also frustrate American environmental goals, as well as compromise Canada`s position in international environmental partnerships such as the Gulf of Maine Council. 19 refs., tabs., figs.

  15. Submission to the Georges Bank Review Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, E.; Butler, M.; Church, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Georges Bank, off southwestern Nova Scotia, is one of the most biologically productive continental shelf ecosystems in the world. It supports a wide diversity of species, including many seabirds. In 1988, federal and provincial legislation placed a moratorium on petroleum exploration and drilling on the Georges Bank, directing the ministers of Natural Resources Canada, and of the Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources to make a decision regarding the moratorium by January 1, 2000. This report by the Ecology Action Centre (EAC) asks the Georges Bank Review Panel to recommend extending the moratorium on Georges Bank and adjacent areas until 2012, in part to match the American moratorium. Other reasons why the panel made this recommendation were explored. The principal reason is the EAC concern that when the moratorium is lifted, several oil and gas developments will proceed in this ecologically significant offshore area that could result in the loss of the ecological integrity of Georges Bank. The EAC contends that before oil and gas development in the region could begin, the following issues would have to be resolved: (1) disposal of drill muds and cuttings, (2) volume and disposal of produced water, (3) effects of small and large spills, (4) impact of seismic activities on whales and turtles, and (5) carbon dioxide emission through venting and flaring. Also, the EAC does not believe that developing Georges Bank will create as many jobs in the affected communities as some people suggest. Lifting the moratorium by Canada would also frustrate American environmental goals, as well as compromise Canada's position in international environmental partnerships such as the Gulf of Maine Council. 19 refs., tabs., figs

  16. Stress Testing as a Tool of Bank Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonyuk Oksana I.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is development of theoretical, methodological and practical recommendations on the use of stress testing by Ukrainian commercial banks. Stress testing is defined as a part of bank risk management on the basis of scientific studies of domestic and foreign scientists. The article marks the essence of the bank stress testing and identifies its role in the structure of banks’ risk management in Ukraine. It considers goals of conducting stress testing in banking institutions. It identifies main aspects and specific features of conducting stress testing of bank risks. It characterises main advantages and shortcomings of use of stress testing in the modern bank risk management. It generalises the world and European approaches to the methods of conducting stress testing in commercial banks in comparison with the Ukrainian methodical recommendations. It shows that results of stress testing have practical value, since they help to preliminary assess influence of potentially negative events upon the state of the loan portfolio of the bank and make relevant managerial decisions.

  17. The Central Bank and the State Budget: Selected Legal Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Polish Central Bank (National Bank of Poland – NBP performs mainly macro-economic tasks, for maintaining price levels. This Bank is not focused on tasks aimed at the interests of the State Budget. The Central Bank has a lot of power in the creation of money. It seems, there is possible to create the budgetary revenues, which are connected with the emission of money. In particular, the income from emission of coins may be determined as the budget revenue. The connection the Treasury with the Central Bank results from the historical evolution of the origin and role of the Central Bank. It is reasonable to increase the role of the treasury securities in the Central Bank activity. The Treasury Bills should be used in the open market policy leading by the Central Bank. There is the issue of changing of the Constitution of the Republic Poland in the field of limit of the public debt (60% of GDP. It seems, the Polish Constitution should not be the only constitution in the world that introduced such a limit. This limit, and the limit on annual budgetary deficit, introduces EU law. That is a sufficient legal limit.

  18. Customer loyalty in Internet banking

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, M.; Schuster, C.

    2008-01-01

    In the recent years the way to do banking has changed. Internet banking has grown and a lot of niche banks working mainly with the Internet as a medium has entered the Swedish bank market. How to keep the customer loyal online in a very competitive environment has become a main question for the banks. The aim of this dissertation is to test what factors impact bank customer loyalty in an online environment. A positivistic research philosophy, a deductive research approach, an explanatory pur...

  19. Bank Customers Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebubeogu Amarachukwu Felix

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Bachelor of Science Hon in Information Technology. The Design and development of this Bank customers Management system provides a more secured approach in managing bank customers information which strengthens the relationships between banks and their customers by providing the right solutions that uses a multi-level security to improve customer satisfaction. The technology used in developing this project is ASP.NET and the programming language used to develop this project is C and the IDE used is Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 professional in designing the front end while the back end uses Microsoft SQL Server 2012.

  20. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    OpenAIRE

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication networks: the control over the distribution of audiovisual services constitutes a vital part of the problem. In this contribution, the phenomenon of net neutrality is described first. Next, the European a...

  1. LADEE Neutral Mass Spectrometer Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains the data collected by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) instrument aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)...

  2. Phenomenology of neutral current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    Neutral-current interactions are discussed within a rather general phenomenological framework without commitment to any particular theoretical model. Three points are kept in mind: what various experiments really measure; the performing of complete experiments to determine the neutral-current couplings; and the testing of models in an objective, emotionally uninvolved manner. The following topics are considered: neutrino-electron scattering, hadronic currents and models, neutrino-induced inclusive hadronic reactions, neutrino-induced exclusive hadronic reactions, and neutral-current phenomena without neutrinos. In conclusion, what has actually been learned about neutral-current interactions is summarized. 9 figures, 2 tables

  3. 12 CFR 211.22 - Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations. 211.22 Section 211.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) Foreign Banking...

  4. Nuclear Plant Data Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, C.P.; Turner, M.R.; Spore, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Data Bank (NPDB) is being developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to assist analysts in the rapid and accurate creation of input decks for reactor transient analysis. The NPDB will reduce the time and cost of the creation or modification of a typical input deck. This data bank will be an invaluable tool in the timely investigation of recent and ongoing nuclear reactor safety analysis. This paper discusses the status and plans for the NPDB development and describes its anticipated structure and capabilities

  5. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  6. Islamic Development Bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    The Islamic Development Bank (IDB) was opened formally in October 1975 to foster the economic development and social progress of its member countries and Moslem communities individually as well as jointly in accordance with the priniciples of Islamic law. Its functions include participation in equity capital, granting loans for projects and enterprises, extending training facilities, and promoting foreign trade, especially in capital goods, among the member countries. The 34-member Bank is capitalized at 2 billion Islamic Dinars and located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

  7. Cyber risk in banking

    OpenAIRE

    Linert, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with the cyber risk in banking industry. Its main goal is to stress the imporatance of cyber risk both verbally and numericaly and review the approach of banks to this risk. The first part of this thesis specifies what cyber risk is and how it fits among other operational risks, presents the common cyber-attacks and archetypes of cyber criminals, later it delves into the cyber risk in Czech Republic and at the end of this part it mentions the legislation that covers ...

  8. Bank Insolvency Procedures and Market Discipline in European Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Angkinand, Apanard; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    Market discipline in banking requires that explicit and implicit insurance schemes for financial sector firms are limited, and that the lack of insurance of important stakeholders is credible. This credibility cannot be achieved without transparent, predictable procedures for distress resolution for banks, including explicit rules for the liquidation of insolvent banks. We find that very few European countries have explicit procedures for dealing with problem banks. The propositions tested in...

  9. The influence of bank employees on bank customer relationship management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rootman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Despite extensive research in services marketing, much is still unknown to specific service providers on the influence of their employees on their services. This paper attempts to address this limitation and investigates the influence of employees on the customer relationship management (CRM of banks. The primary objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of selected independent variables, namely attitude and knowledgeability, on the CRM of banks. Design/Methodology/Approach: An empirical investigation was conducted with a structured questionnaire with items that related to banks' CRM in terms of attitude and knowledgeability. The sample consisted of 290 banking clients in the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan area and the response rate was 91.03%. Findings: Significant positive relationships exist between both the knowledgeability, and attitude of bank employees and a bank's CRM. These relationships imply that more extensive knowledgeability and more positive attitudes of bank employees lead to improved, maintained relationships between a bank and its clients. Employees play an important role in banks’ client relationships. Implications: Banks should focus on increasing their employees' knowledgeability and improving their attitude to ensure higher levels of CRM. This paper provides strategies for banks and could create greater awareness among South African banks of the advantages of CRM, how their employees influence their CRM, and ways to adapt to these influences. Originality/Value: No study has focused exclusively on CRM within banks in South Africa. Prior research focused on customer service and service quality; both possible results of superior CRM. However, this research differs, as it identifies the variables influencing CRM in banks in South Africa. It is proposed that this paper will be beneficial for South African banks, as the recommendations may be used to ensure higher levels of CRM in banks.

  10. PATHWAYS TO SUSTAINABLE BANKING MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan (Santamarian Oana Raluca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes one of the major challenges of the future: the sustainable development of the society. Sustainability is now increasingly recognized as central to the growth of emerging market economies. For the banking sector, this represents both a demand for greater social and environmental responsibility as well as a new landscape of business opportunity. Several years ago, the main part of the banks did not consider the social and environmental problems relevant for their operations. Recently, the banks began to realize the major impact of the sustainable development over the way of ulterior development of the society and, implicitly over the way of creating of the banking value in the future. In this context, the development of a banking management system, based on sustainable principles represents one of the provocations of these days.Starting from literature in the sustainable banking management field in this paper are presented several relevant issues related to risk management in the context of sustainable banking financing: the need to implement the sustainable management principles in financial and banking industry; the role of banks in sustainable development of society; social and environmental risk management policies, events that have shaped the role of the banking sector in sustainable development; international standards regarding sustainable banking management such us: Equator Principles for sustainable investment projects’ financing or GRI principles for sustainable reporting. Furthermore, we developed a practical case study related to the implementation of sustainable banking management at Bank of America.

  11. Commercial Activity or Banking Competition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose-Marie Pușcaciu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the competition on the banking market and proposes an overview of debt collection companies through the economic crisis which has profoundly affected the banking sector. Article scroll through the main features of competition on the banking market as well as the domain weaknesses that negatively influenced the banking system performance. Even if there is not a sufficiently transparent and functional legal framework and debt recovery market is not supervised enough, it is among the few markets that increase from year to year. Increasing competition from adjacent companies that compete with banks, namely, a non-banking entity, it is stimulating the banking system which will thus become more constructive. It is estimated, that in terms of customers, there will be no differentiation between the banking industry and non-banking entities that will reshape the Romanian banking system soon. Also, the study aims to highlight the existence of debt collection companies, implicitly, the specific markets, it is only a consequence of excessive, unnecessary and dangerous borrowing from previous years. Avoiding bad loans from banks, a fair competition from banks and from non-banking institutions, in the long term, it will generate a balance in the market and it will support economic growth of Romania.

  12. Barriers to Banking - Towards an Inclusive Banking Environment in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Estelle; Martinson, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    A recent study in South Africa on the barriers to banking which involved customers in three disability groups namely mobility, hearing and vision has highlighted that currently banking in South Africa is not accessible. Customers with a disability are unable to independently use banking services across a wide range of channels. Exclusion from something as fundamental as managing their own financial affairs raise serious human rights concerns and requires committed action from decision-makers to address this. The fact that solutions to all of the identified barriers have been successfully implemented in banks in other parts of the world for many years emphasize that this is not a technical challenge. While some solutions require complex or expensive changes such as removing physical access barriers and ensuring that digital channels meet internationally accepted standards of accessibility, there are many simple and low-cost solutions which can be implemented immediately and would make a world of difference to these customers and their experience of banking. One key barrier which emerged in all the focus groups and surveys is attitudinal barriers - staff who are unwilling to assist, impatient, interact with the customer's assistant instead of directly with them and lack basic skills on how to interact with someone who has a disability. A comprehensive framework of banking was used to identify a wide range of barriers. The barriers were classified as attitudinal, barriers to physical access, digital access barriers, barriers to information, communication barriers and some generic concerns such as safe evacuation during emergencies and alternative authentication. Both the barriers and the solutions where ranked by participants. From a theoretical perspective, the benefit of a customer-centric approach to understanding these barriers and the innovation potential of a Universal Design approach is affirmed by this study.

  13. On becoming neutral: effects of experimental neutralizing reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, M; van Pol, M; Peters, M

    2001-12-01

    Behaviour Research and Therapy 34 (1996) 889-898 found that writing out a negative thought produced anxiety and an urge to neutralize the thought, that instructing participants to neutralize the thought reduced anxiety/neutralization urge in the short run (i.e. within 2 min), but that in the control group 20 min without instruction was attended by the same reduction in anxiety/urge to neutralize ("natural decay"). The observations were made with pariticipants who scored high on "thought action fusion" and the experiment was set up as exerimental model of obsessions. We repeated the study with participants that were not selected on thought action fusion. All the findings reported by Behaviour Research and Therapy 34 (1996) 889-898 were replicated. Correlational analysis indicated that the strength of the effect was not related to scores on scales measuring "thought action fusion". Behaviour Research and Therapy 34 (1996) 889-898 did not assess whether non-neutralizing was followed by immediate reductions in distress. We did assess this and found that the larger part of the immediate reduction of distress after neutralization also occurs when no neutralization instruction is given. The effects of neutralization instructions in the present type of experiment are considerably less powerful than suggested earlier.

  14. Improved E-Banking System With Advanced Encryption Standards And Security Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharaaf N. A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Emerging new Technologies and large scale businesses have made this world a global village. Many business organizations provide online services targeting global consumer bases. Transaction in international scale has been enabled by banks all around the world through E-banking in order to supply the needs of above business organizations. E-banking serves lots of benefits to both customers of banks and banks itself. It adds value to customers satisfaction with better service quality and enables banks to gain a competitive advantage over other competitors. Online banking need to possess high level security in order to provide safe consistent and robust online environment which guarantees secure data transmission and identity of both bank and customer. Lack of security may lead to less trust or hard to trust attitude towards online banking. Although customers are attracted by online banking convenience they seem largely in concern about identity theft and phishing. Analysis of many research papers on e-banking security models and their respective advantages and disadvantages have been discussed in literature review. Username password E-banking dongles fractal images biometric scans and advanced encryption standards are some of the suggested solutions for E-banking security. This study focuses on the security beyond above mechanisms. This paper ensures security of online banking at three levels. At client side using internet dongle integrated with finger print scanning technology at banking sever side and data transmission level. This model also includes username password and advanced encryption for further security. Complete description on the model has been discussed in methodology section. Future works on this topic and Conclusion are covered in separate sections.

  15. CO2-neutral fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goede A. P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for storage of renewable energy (RE generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel

  16. An Evaluation of Banks' Liability in Robbery Incidents at Banks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spate of armed robbery attack on banks in the last decade has been alarming. It is hoped with the current Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) cashless policy there will be a drastic drop in such incidents. However, the issue of armed robbery attack at the bank premises brings to the fore two issues which are of paramount ...

  17. Evolution of central banking? De Nederlandsche Bank 1814-1852

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittenbogaard, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays the role of central bank is unquestioned and nearly ubiquitous. But was this always the case? This thesis analyses how De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB) developed into a central bank during the first four decades of its existence. Its establishment in 1814 was the result of a combination of both

  18. Capital Adequacy in Banks: Reflections on Selected Banks in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In principle, bank capital serves two functions. First, it represents the value of shareholder's equity, and secondly, it is the value of the buffer stock available to absorb unexpected losses. Because of this second function, it is argued that a bank's capital must be adequate. Adequate capital is the foundation of any banking ...

  19. Capacitor Bank 'CHANDI' for Plasma Target Production for Liner Plasma Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, R.; Sharma, S.K.; Debnath, K.; Shyam, A.

    2006-01-01

    A capacitor bank is fabricated to drive (JXB) Plasma gun to generate hot plasma (target) for liner plasma investigation. The bank will also be used for driving other pintch experiments. The bank consists of 8 capacitors connected in parallel, each having capacitance of 178 μF giving a total of 1424uF. The bank is charged at 15 kV using a 28 kV power supply charging the capacitors in 65 seconds utilizing full wave charging technique. The total energy of the bank is 160kJ at 15kV. A modeling of power supply was done so that all the components involved are utilized to their operating limit safely. Moreover to give fault protection to the capacitor bank we have implemented the neutral control technique in the power supply. The capacitor bank is discharged to the inductive load through an ignitron switch of very high coulomb rating and capable of withstanding high voltages at its electrodes. The cables used for connecting capacitor bank with ignitron switch are used in parallel to give them collective capability of bearing capacitor discharge currents. These cables are capable of holding high DC voltages (40kV), which appear at the time of charging of the bank. The bank is tested and is operational

  20. Bank service management in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John; Narteh, Bedman

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a study of the determinants of effective management of of retail banking services in Ghana......This article reports a study of the determinants of effective management of of retail banking services in Ghana...

  1. BANKING SUPERVISION IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GUȚU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for prudential supervision imposed to banks by law arises from the action that banking market’s basic factors have. Therefore, it is about banks’ role in economy. The normal functioning of banks in all their important duties maintains the stability of banking system. Further, the stability of the entire economy depends on the stability of the banking system. Under conditions of imbalance regarding treasury or liquidity, banks are faced with unmanageable crisis and the consequences can be fatal. To ensure long-term stability of the banking system, supervisory regulations were constituted in order to prevent banks focusing on achieving rapidly high profits and protect the interests of depositors. Starting from this point, this paper will carry out a study on existing models of supervision in the European Union’s Member States. A comparison between them will support identifying the advantages and disadvantages of each of them.

  2. American Association of Tissue Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Committees Accreditation American Board of Tissue Banking Bylaws / Ethics Communications Donor Family Services Ad Hoc Committee Education Finance ... Bureau Accredited Bank Search Bookstore Bulletins Global Topics Communications & Media Job Center News Releases Patients and Community Useful ...

  3. Analisis Perbandingan Kinerja Pada Bank Nasional, Bank Campuran, Dan Bank Asing Yang Terdaftar Di Bursa Efek Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Angel, Christania Graciella

    2014-01-01

    Bank performance appraisal is based on bank financial report itself. The financial report can be form balance report which give information about the financial position to the outside of bank that can be used of eksternal to assess the level of risk exist in a bank. Based on ownership consist of national bank, mixture bank and foreign bank. These banks has tight compete to show a good performance to the public. This research aimed to analyze the financial performance difference of national ba...

  4. Banking marketing mix trends in a digital era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Ioana Chirica

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We live in a dynamic world, with everything changing more rapidly than perhaps ever before. Changes are simultaneously a cause and an effect in this world, triggered and affecting both companies (inclusing banks and consumers. Pro-activity and reactivity are key words. Adaptation of strategies, focused consumer targeting, extended usage of new technologies, rapid growth of online environment, breakthrough of social networks and smartphones, all represent factors that converge to one direction: a digital era, when companies/banks should focus on their clients' fidelity and have an in-depth understanding of their market in order to create a real competitive advantage.

  5. Electromagnetic radiation optimum neutralizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Igor

    2002-01-01

    This particular article relates to subtle electrical effects, and provides some evidence of a fundamental nature on how subtle low frequency electromagnetic fields might be utilized to protect human body against harmful effects of high frequencies electromagnetic radiation. I have focused my efforts on definite polar polymer compound named EMRON which is patented in the USA. This polar polymer compound can be excited by external high frequencies electromagnetic fields to generate subtle low frequency oscillations that are beneficial for cellular life structures. This concept is based on the possibility of existence of resonance phenomenon between polar polymers and biopolymers such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, etc. Low frequency patterns generated by defined polar polymer compound can interact with biostructures and transmit the signals that support and improve cellular functions in the body. The mechanism of this process was confirmed by number of studies. The animal (including human) brain is affected by electromagnetic waves to the extent that production of Alpha or Theta waves can be directly induced into brain by carrying an ELF (extremely low frequency, 5-12 Hz) signal on a microwave carrier frequency. EMRON does not reduce the power of electromagnetic fields. It 'shields' the cellular structures of the body against the harmful effects of EMR. The radiation is still entering the body but the neutralizing effect of EMRON renders the radiation harmless

  6. Is science metaphysically neutral?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Iris

    2012-09-01

    This paper challenges the claim that science is metaphysically neutral upheld by contenders of the separation of peacefully co-existent science and religion and by evolutionary theists. True, naturalistic metaphysical claims can neither be refuted nor proved and are thus distinct from empirical hypotheses. However, metaphysical assumptions not only regulate the theoretical and empirical study of nature, but are increasingly supported by the growing empirical body of science. This historically evolving interaction has contributed to the development of a naturalistic worldview that renounces the necessity of a transcendent god and of purposeful design. The thesis presented here differs not only from the claims of the "separatists" and of evolutionary theists. In pointing to the metaphysical aspects of science, I also criticize the failure of some evolutionary naturalists to distinguish between empirical and metaphysical contentions. Most important, based on the examination of science suggested here, creationists' false accusation that science is only a naturalistic dogma is refuted. Finally, the difficulties involved in the position endorsed here for the public support of evolution are acknowledged, taking into account the high religious profile of the American society and the social and political context in the US and in other countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The oil world war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafargue, F.

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 21. century, a war has started between the USA, China and India. The USA, first oil consuming and importing country in the world, has now to take into account the increasing energy consumption of China and India. China is now, just behind Japan, the third oil importing country and India ranked number seven. From the Gulf of Guinea to the Arabic peninsula, from the Orenoque basin to the Caspian sea banks, Washington, Beijing and New Delhi covet the same oil fields. This rivalry exacerbates the political tensions in many regions of the Earth and already provokes a latent food crisis. This black gold war is changing the World's face and should provoke serious armed conflicts. (J.S.)

  8. Human milk banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Esther Marie; Wood, Angela; Fiske, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Forms of human milk banking and donation have been present for more than a century worldwide, but, since 1985, the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HM BANA) has established guidelines to make the use of donor's breast milk safe and the second best form of feeding to maternal breast milk for a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant. The Indiana Mother's Human Milk Bank provides an extensive and meticulous process of selecting breast milk donors. The process begins with a phone interview with a potential donor and includes the review of the donor's medical records, blood laboratory screening, medication and dietary intake, as well as consent from the donor's pediatrician. The milk bank follows steps of collecting, storing, and receiving the breast milk in accordance with the guidelines of the HM BANA. Pasteurization is the method used to ensure the proper heating and cooling of breast milk. Despite the rigorous pasteurization method, the donor's breast milk will not lose most of the important beneficial components needed for sick or ill NICU infants. Every batch of pasteurized breast milk will be cultured for any possible contamination and shipped to NICUs after it has been cleared by laboratory testing.

  9. Trilogy of China's Banking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Banks of China will face declining profit rate and slightly increasing non-performing loans ratio in a short term during 2009, but government policies will reduce the negative impact of financial crisis, and China's financial environment is still relatively safe in a global comparison.

  10. UBS BANK INFORMATION

    CERN Document Server

    UBS, CERN branch

    2002-01-01

    UBS SA, formerly Société de Banque Suisse (Swiss Bank Corporation), which has been providing banking services on the CERN site since 1954, is delighted to continue its financial partnership with the CERN personnel. Recent trends in payment methods - a decline in the use of cash combined with an increase in the use of 'virtual money', credit or payment cards and e-banking - have led UBS SA to place greater emphasis on customer services compared with conventional, over-the-counter transactions. Since our customers' banking habits have also changed, we will be implementing the following changes at our CERN offices: Building 500: conversion work will shortly be commencing to provide a comfortable and well-appointed customer services area offering, in particular, greater privacy, as well as two counters. Throughout the work, every measure will be taken to minimise inconvenience to our customers. Building 504: owing to the improvements to be made to our Building 500 premises, we will hencef...

  11. Central Banking after the Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick S. Mishkin

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores where central banking is heading after the recent financial crisis. First it discusses the central bank consensus before the crisis and then outlines the key facts learned from the crisis that require changes in the way central banks conduct their business. Finally, it discusses four main areas in which central banks are altering their policy frameworks: 1) the interaction between monetary and financial stability policies, 2) nonconventional monetary policy, 3) risk manage...

  12. Aggregate Uncertainty, Money and Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Hongfei Sun

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of monitoring the monitor in a model of money and banking with aggregate uncertainty. It shows that when inside money is required as a means of bank loan repayment, a market of inside money is entailed at the repayment stage and generates information-revealing prices that perfectly discipline the bank. The incentive problem of a bank is costlessly overcome simply by involving inside money in repayment. Inside money distinguishes itself from outside money by its ...

  13. Scrum methodology in banking environment

    OpenAIRE

    Strihová, Barbora

    2015-01-01

    Bachelor thesis "Scrum methodology in banking environment" is focused on one of agile methodologies called Scrum and description of the methodology used in banking environment. Its main goal is to introduce the Scrum methodology and outline a real project placed in a bank focused on software development through a case study, address problems of the project, propose solutions of the addressed problems and identify anomalies of Scrum in software development constrained by the banking environmen...

  14. Efficiency model of Russian banks

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlyuk, Dmitry

    2006-01-01

    The article deals with problems related to the stochastic frontier model of bank efficiency measurement. The model is used to study the efficiency of the banking sector of The Russian Federation. It is based on the stochastic approach both to the efficiency frontier location and to individual bank efficiency values. The model allows estimating bank efficiency values, finding relations with different macro- and microeconomic factors and testing some economic hypotheses.

  15. The efficiency of bank branches

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Takbiri; Mohammad Mohammadi; Bahman Naderi

    2015-01-01

    Banking industry has significant contribution in development of economies of developing countries. Most banks execute their operations through different branches. Therefore it is important to measure the relative efficiencies of these branches. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is one of the most useful tools in measuring banks’ performance. The present paper aims to extract ranking pattern of banks based on performance evaluation using DEA analysis. In the present research, 120 bank branches o...

  16. Cash efficiency for bank branches

    OpenAIRE

    Cabello, Julia Garc?a

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks? branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank ...

  17. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume V. International organization data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. WENDS has acquired and organized information on the following energy-related organizations: Asian Development Bank; European Economic Community; Inter-American Development Bank; International Atomic Energy Agency; International Energy Agency; Nuclear Energy Agency; United Nations; and World Bank. Within each organizational grouping most of the following topics are addressed: organization background, government background, energy background (energy policy and objectives), energy research and development activities, and international activities.

  18. The pricing of bank debt guarantees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arping, S.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the desirability of fair pricing of government guarantees for bank liabilities. Fair pricing is desirable only if the banking sector is sufficiently transparent. In opaque banking systems, fair pricing may exacerbate banks' incentive to take excessive risks.

  19. SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF THE PROCESS OF BANKING CONCENTRATION AND CONSOLIDATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COPIL CRINA ANGELA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I proposed to anaylze the main aspect that characterized the process of bank concentration and consolidation in the European union, knowing their evolutions and particularities on the European and world bank sector and the effects that they have on the banks and the economy altogether. I presented the evolution of the number of banks, evolution that reflects the degree of consolidation of the bank system. Based on the financial crisis begun in 2008 the number of credit institutions decreased continuously as a consequence of the processes of bank mergers and acquisitions generated by the uncertainties of the economic perspectives. Also I analyzed the evolution of the degree of bank concentration in the European countries, process that underlines the degree of domination of the banking market accomplished by some great banks. We consider essential the knowing of this process because the increase of the bank concentration leads to the creating of some bank entities with very large dimensions, that in the periods of crisis can generate macro economic imbalances by involving the state in their subventioning. The research is based mainly on compiled statistic data offered by the European Central Bank (BCE, data that are published annualy and that were processed to be able to offer an overview on the most important modifications that took place in the European union and in its representative countries.

  20. The merits of neutral theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, D.; Etienne, R.S.; McKane, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity has challenged the classic niche-based view of ecological community structure. Although there have been many attempts to falsify Hubbell's theory, we argue that falsification should not lead to rejection, because there is more to the theory than neutrality

  1. Neutral evolution of mutational robustness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nimwegen, Erik van; Crutchfield, James P.; Huynen, Martijn

    1999-01-01

    We introduce and analyze a general model of a population evolving over a network of selectively neutral genotypes. We show that the population s limit distribution on the neutral network is solely determined by the network topology and given by the principal eigenvector of the network

  2. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  3. 75 FR 49493 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Peoples Bank and Trust Company, both of North Carrollton, Mississippi. B. Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C...

  4. 75 FR 20848 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... Carolina, Seneca National Bank, Seneca, South Carolina, and The Peoples National Bank, Easley, South... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C...

  5. 76 FR 59396 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... control of Bank of Odessa, both in Odessa, Missouri, Commercial Bank of Oak Grove, Oak Grove, Missouri... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C...

  6. 75 FR 5322 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. [thinsp]225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank...

  7. 75 FR 3904 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. [thinsp]225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank...

  8. 75 FR 9414 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. [thinsp]225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank...

  9. 77 FR 3475 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank...

  10. Banking on women's spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, M

    1993-11-01

    An interview with Professor Mummadad Yunus, Managing Director of the Grameen Bank, revealed that he has provided loans to poor women in Bangladesh since 1976 and that the Grameen Bank has continued his work since 1983. The idea behind the banking system is that poor people without traditionally accepted collateral are good credit risks. In 1993, the Grameen Bank had operations in 33,000 out of a possible 68,000 villages in Bangladesh. The operations include 1030 branches and a staff of 12,000 people. 1.6 million people are recipients of loans, of whom 94% are women. The population served is the poorest and has no experience in income generation. Conclusions drawn from this experience are that women are better managers of resources and are more serious entrepreneurs than men and that the benefits of loan programs for the poor go directly to children and households. Women's self-image suffers from negative social conceptions, and one task is to convince women of their value, skills, and possibility of advancement. The bank philosophy rests with the belief that all human beings are a "treasure of potential possibilities." Women are advised to protect their money and marriage and not to sacrifice one for the other. Husbands initially are against money going to wives, but eventually they understand that the family benefits. Over 200,000 loans have been made for the provision of housing. The loan requirement is that the woman must own the land on which the house is built. Husband's have the opportunity to transfer title of the land to the wife. Ownership of land provides security for the wife.

  11. Bank risk, bailouts and ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijskens, R.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical analysis in the second part investigates the effect of liquidity assistance and bailouts on bank risk taking and liquidity choice. Furthermore, it explores the possibilities for central banks to create ambiguity about liquidity assistance, thereby influencing bank choices. The

  12. Teaching Bank Runs through Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The author advocates the use of films to supplement textbook treatments of bank runs and panics in money and banking or general banking classes. Modern students, particularly those in developed countries, tend to be unfamiliar with potential fragilities of financial systems such as a lack of deposit insurance or other safety net mechanisms. Films…

  13. Bank Relationship and Firm Profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Ongena, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines how bank relationships affect firm performance. An empirical implication of recent theoretical models is that firms maintaining multiple bank relationships are less profitable than their single-bank peers. We investigate this empirical implication using a data set containing

  14. Başlangıcından Günümüze Dünyada ve Türkiye’de İslâmi Bankacılığın Genel Durumu / From the Past to the Present the General Situation of Islamic Banking in the World and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Atar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The global financial crisis that emerged in the US in 2008 rekindled the debate on capitalism. The efforts of large-capitalist banks to shake up and save the states with their big-budget institutions have made the free-market economy or capitalism, once more controversial. These controversies that took place in that period are also handled in intellectual dimensions, and Karl Marx's famous work Das Capital broke sales records. While the critique of capitalism is made especially in the context of Marxist literature, there is another alternative into the mainstream economics: Islamic economics. The term of Islamic economics was firstly used by Seyyid Ebu’l-A’la Mevdudi (1903-1979. In fact, Islamic economics was born as a reaction to mainstream economics, with being a modern concept introduced in the 1960s. This new approach has been specifically addressed by Indian Muslims. In other words, if we are talking about Islamic economics as an independent discipline today, it is a great need for the supremacy of the West to get into the economics and for Muslims to benefit from this discipline to overcome it. The main sources of the Islamic economics are the Qur'an and Sunnah, the main sources of Islam. And also, ijma’ and qiyas can be thought as sources of Islam. In this article, firstly, to be able to understand the background of the subject we will reveal emergence conditions of Islamic banks by giving in the chronological order. We will present the magnitudes of Islamic banking in the world today by comparing it with the general banking system (conventional banks. After analyzing the global general situation of Islamic banking, we will analyze the history of Islamic banking in Turkey and its share in the sectoral and domestic banking system in the world. Öz 2008’de ABD’de ortaya çıkan küresel finans krizi, kapitalizm eksenli tartışmaları yeniden alevlendirmişti. Büyük sermayeli bankaların sarsıntı geçirdiği ve

  15. Risk Management, Corporate Governance and Investment Banking: The Role of Chief Risk Officer

    OpenAIRE

    Afanasyeva, Olga; Lapina, Yulia; Scherbina, Tetiana

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the defining the role of CRO in corporate governance and to show the interrelation between the way of CRO subordination and performance of investment bank. The sample consists of observations over a period of 2011 for 29 biggest investment banks (by amount of assets) implementing world-wide investment activity. The banks are originated in the USA (8), Eastern Europe (14), China (2), Japan (2), Canada (2), and Australia (1). With the aim to evaluate and compare financial ...

  16. Critical challenges affecting Islamic banking growth in India using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)

    OpenAIRE

    Mosab I. Tabash

    2017-01-01

    The banking sector plays a vital role in growth-supporting factor for economic growth in the world’s fastest-growing economies like India. Recently, Islamic banking has become an increasingly popular method for alleviating poverty, financial inclusion and economic development around the world. Its importance is highly needed in developing and emerging countries such as India. The main purpose of the paper is to identify and prioritize the critical impeding factors for Islamic banking growth i...

  17. Access to Formal Banking and Household Finances: Experimental Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Somville, Vincent; Vandewalle, Lore

    2017-01-01

    Access to formal banking is spreading across the world. Obtaining a bank account may transform how people manage their finances, and affect their savings and consumption. We report from a field experiment that randomly provides access to a bank account to a representative sample of villagers in rural India. The treated keep relatively important savings on their account, but reduce their other savings by a similar amount. Their household’s overall savings and expenditures do not change. We ide...

  18. Plant DNA banks for genetic resources conservation (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. Е. Волкова

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Literature review of DNA banks creation as the current strategy of plant genetic resources conservation. Results. The current state of plant genetic resources conservation was analyzed in the context of the threat of gene­tic erosion. The importance of DNA banks was shown which function is to store DNA samples and associated products and disseminate them for research purposes. The main DNA banks in the world were described, including the Republican DNA Bank of Human, Animals, Plants and Microorganisms at the Institute of Genetics and Cytology of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Stages of DNA banking were considered: tissue sampling (usually from leaves, cell destruction, DNA extraction, DNA storage. Different methods of tissue sampling, extraction and DNA storage were compared. The need for Plant DNA Bank creation in Ukraine was highlighted. Conclusions. DNA collections is an important resource in the global effort to overcome the crisis in biodiversity, for managing world genetic resources and maximi­zing their potential.

  19. Contribution of Internet Banking toward Profitability of Banking in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Karimzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the Internet in the banking industry on the one hand is closely related to a change in the structure of the organization and nature of operations in banking industry itself, and on the other hand, to the emergence of computer as a significant organizational tool. Banks have always been starving to introduce new technologies to reduce operational costs and expand their businesses. This study is an attempt to investigate the contribution of Internet banking on the performance of the banking system in India. Return on Assets (ROA and Return on Equity (ROE ratios are used to test this effect. The regression analysis showed that there is a significant effect of Internet banking services on the profitability of banks in terms of ROA and ROE in India.

  20. 12 CFR 996.2 - Bank employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RESOLUTION FUNDING CORPORATION § 996.2 Bank employees. Upon the request of the Directorate of the Resolution..., employees, or agents of the Banks are authorized to act for and on behalf of the Resolution Funding... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank employees. 996.2 Section 996.2 Banks and...

  1. La misión del banco mundial en Colombia, el gobierno de Laureano Gómez (1950-1951 y la Asociación Nacional de Industriales (ANDI The world Bank Mission to Colombia, the Laureano Gómez administration (1950-1951, and the National Association of Industrialists (ANDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sáenz Rovner Eduardo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza cómo las medidas económicas implementadas por el presidente Laureano Gómez entre 1950 y 1951 afectaron los intereses de los empresarios colombianos, incluidos los grandes industriales congregados en la Asociación Nacional de Industriales, ANDI, fundada en Medellín en 1944. La política económíca de Gómez fue guiada por las recomendaciones del Banco Mundial y por las presiones norteamericanas que buscaban una liberalización de la economía internacional en los primeros años de la posguerra.This article analyzes how the economic measures implemented by President Laureano Gómez between 1950 and 1951 impinged upon the interests of Colombian businessmen, including the large
    manufacturers. The latter group was part of the powerful National Association of Industrialists (ANDI established in Medellín in 1944. Gomez ' s economic policies were guided by the World Bank' s recommendations. The u.s. government, which tried to liberalize the international economy during the early postwar years, also pressured him.

  2. What is a truly neutral particle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsan, Ung Chan

    2004-01-01

    An electrically charged particle is necessarily different from its antiparticle while an electrically neutral particle is either identical with or different from its antiparticle. A truly neutral particle is a particle identical to its antiparticle, which means that all its algebraic intrinsic properties are equal to zero since particle and antiparticle have all their algebraic intrinsic properties opposite. We propose two complementary methods to recognize the true nature of any electrically neutral particle. On the one hand, any non-null algebraic intrinsic property of a particle (properties such as Q, magnetic moment already known from classical physics, or quantum numbers such as baryonic number A, lepton number L or flavors, which are meaningful only in the quantum world) reveals that it is distinct from its antiparticle. On the other hand, any particle decaying through a self-conjugate channel or/and through both two conjugate channels is a truly neutral particle implying then that all algebraic intrinsic properties, known or yet unknown, of this particle are null. According to these methods, the neutrino, like any fermion, cannot be its own antiparticle, so neutrinoless double beta decay cannot take place in nature. We point out the internal contradiction required by the existence of hypothetical neutrinoless double beta decay. We suggest that persistent failure to find experimental evidence for this decay mechanism despite huge efforts dedicated to this aim is consistent with the physics of this process. The immediate consequence would be that limits of neutrino mass deduced from neutrinoless double beta decay cannot be used as constraints in contrast with mass limits deduced from the behavior of the end-point in simple beta spectra. (author)

  3. Bank Consolidation in Nigeria: Marketing Implications and Challenges for the Surviving Banks

    OpenAIRE

    IE Ernest

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the marketing implications of the Nigerian bank consolidation with a view to theorizing the marketing challenges which Third World countries wishing to embark on the same exercise should watch out for. The research used secondary data sources to expose the status of marketing in the pre-consolidation era and goes further to put forward the marketing implications and challenges of the exercise. Delivery of quality services, repositioning of brand identi...

  4. Disaster Recovery Framework for Commercial Banks in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueen Uddin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The banking sector is the backbone of the entire financial economy of a country. In today’s globalized world, most organizations use online transaction processing systems for transferring money and doing business. Natural or man-made disasters can lead to data loss which in turn can cause millions of dollars of money lost. This study focuses on disaster recovery practices in commercial banks in Sri Lanka. From our preliminary findings, it was concluded that commercial banks only have ad-hoc disaster recovery standards and practices, as there is no standard framework available. Fourteen (14 banks were selected for data collection and relevant authorities were interviewed. The results were translated as qualitative observations to understand the best practices. Similarly, international standards, compliance requirements of the central bank, and existing researches were used to develop a disaster recovery practice framework. The proposed framework was then validated for its efficiency and usefulness among commercial banks and found to be acceptable by the banking industry.  

  5. THE METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE BANK DEPOSITS GUARANTEE PROBLEM SOLVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Pechonik

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In world banking practice it is considered that it is better to solve the problem of one bank, rather than arouse the mass impressment of deposits, generating the effect of spreading the disease onto the other credit institutions. In our conditions the process of spreading was specifically reflected in flowing the financial resources of people out of the commercial banks into Sberbank, that shortened drawn resources of other banks, lowed their financial steadiness. The decision of this problem demands conducting aim-oriented policy on the safe-keeping of funds of individuals and organizations in all commercial banks. In other words, the system of deposits insurance is needed, which is based on the necessary participation of all banks and credit organizations, drawing money resources into deposits. But the legislation we have nowadays does not allow to provide in full measure the demanded guarantees to depositors, to form real mechanism of bank liquidity crisis and mass impressments of financial resources by the depositors prevention in case of negative economic market or bankruptcy.

  6. Stabilitas Bank, Tingkat Persaingan Antar Bank dan Diversifikasi Sumber Pendapatan: Analisis Per Kelompok Bank di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddi Wibowo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The"Competition-fragility" view and The "Competition-stability" view has a contrary logical flow in predicting the relationship between bank stability and competition among banks. According to Berger et al (2009, these two views differ on credit risk aspect of loan portfolio, but on the risks faced by the bank as a whole, these two views have the same prediction. In the credit market which is dominated by few banks with substantial market power, the risk of bank credit portfolio increases as predicted by the view "competition-fragility", but the bank's overall risk does not always go up with the jump in credit portfolio risk. The paper shows that empirical test of the Indonesian banking system support this hypothesis, except in foreign bank group that has its own business model. The relationship of competition and the credit risk of banks in Indonesia also have a U -shape pattern that increasing competition in the early stages can reduce credit risk, which is due to increasing income diversification and diversification of bank credit type, but at a certain point the increasing competition has worsened the quality of bank credit portfolio. Key word: banking competition, risk, stability, fragility, diversification

  7. Sharing China's Bank Restructuring Bill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guonan Ma

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the questions related to the cost of China's bank restructuring and how it has been financed. We first propose a framework for recognizing losses. Then, we examine the recent major moves by the Chinese Government to repair the country's bank balance sheets. Finally, we explore the implications of the Chinese Government's methods of funding bank restructuring. We find that the Chinese Government has been decisive in confronting the costly task of bank restructuring. So far, Chinese taxpayers have paid most of the bill for bank restructuring.

  8. Banks, markets, and financial stability

    OpenAIRE

    Eder, Armin; Fecht, Falko; Pausch, Thilo

    2014-01-01

    In a theoretical model of the Diamond-Dybvig style, in which deposit-taking banks and financial markets coexist, bank behavior is analyzed taking into account a positive ex-ante probability of a future financial crisis. We focus on the role of the interaction of market liquidity and banks' funding liquidity in the propagation of shocks in the financial system. Our findings suggest that in particular bank-dominated financial systems are prone to contagious bank runs due to asset price deterior...

  9. The impact of corruption on the soundness of Islamic banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khemaies Bougatef

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Islamic banking is developing rapidly around the world and is increasingly recognized as a viable alternative mode of financing especially these last years when capitalism has shown its limits and weaknesses. However, this astronomical growth of banking and Islamic finance was associated with a high level of corruption that plagues many Muslim countries. This ailment of corruption can deter Islamic banking to be a better effective and meaningful pathway for poverty reduction and economic development. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of corruption on the soundness of Islamic banks (IBs. Using a panel of 69 IBs over the period 2008–2010, we provide robust evidence that the corruption level aggravates the problem of impaired financing.

  10. Credit Risk in the Banking Sector in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamet Aliu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Loans make up the bulk of a bank’s assets, and thus credit risk is the most significant risk for commercial banks in Kosovo and throughout the world. Despite its complexity, effective management of credit risk is a prerequisite for the success of a bank and the banking system in general. A special role in this aspect is played by the separation of reserves to cover the risk of failure to repay the loan or in cases of nonfulfilment of contractual obligations by the loan recipient. Therefore, this research aims to address this issue and analyses the credit risk management of the banking system of the Republic of Kosovo in general and the effects of separation of reserves for loan losses in particular.

  11. Can taxes tame the banks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devereux, Michael P.; Johannesen, Niels; Vella, John

    In the wake of the financial crisis, a number of countries have introduced levies on bank borrowing with the aim of reducing risk in the financial sector. This paper studies the behavioral responses to the bank levies and evaluates the policy. We find that the levies induced banks to borrow less...... but also to hold more risky assets. The reduction in funding risk clearly dominates for banks with high capital ratios but is exactly offset by the increase in portfolio risk for banks with low capital ratios. This suggests that while the levies have reduced the total risk of relatively safe banks......, they have done nothing to curb the risk of relatively risky banks, which presumably pose the greatest threat to financial stability...

  12. Ownership concentration and bank profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Kitakogelu Ozili

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether ownership concentration influences bank profitability in a developing country context. We focus on bank ownership concentration measured as the amount of direct equity held by a majority shareholder categorised into: high ownership concentration, moderate ownership concentration and disperse ownership. We find that banks with high ownership concentration have higher return on assets, higher net interest margin and higher recurring earning power while banks with dispersed ownership have lower return on assets but have higher return on equity. Also, higher cost efficiency improves the return on assets of widely-held banks and the return on equity of banks with moderate ownership. The findings have implications. JEL: Code: G3, G34, G31, Keywords: Corporate governance, Ownership structure, Agency theory, Profitability, Firm performance, Banks, Return on asset, Return on equity

  13. Banking products : You can take them with you so why don't you?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, Carin; Diepstraten, Maaike

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers around the world call for more competition in the banking sector. One barrier to achieving this goal is consumer inertia. Despite its policy relevance, there is surprisingly little known about consumers’ bank switching behaviour. By applying the switching costs typology developed by

  14. NetEnquiry--A Competitive Mobile Learning Approach for the Banking Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutner, Marc; Teine, Matthias; Gebbe, Marcel; Fortmann, Lara Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Initial and further education in the banking sector is becoming more and more important due to the fact that the regulations and the complexity in world of work and an international banking scene is increasing. In this article we provide the structures of and information on NetEnquiry, an innovative mobile learning environment in this field,…

  15. Is an inequality-neutral flat tax reform really neutral?

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Prieto Rodríguez; Juan Gabriel Rodríguez; Rafael Salas

    2004-01-01

    . Let us assume a revenue- and inequality-neutral flat tax reform shifting from a graduated-rate tax. Is this reform really neutral in terms of the income distribution? Traditionally, there has been a bias toward the inequality analysis, forgetting other relevant aspects of the income distribution. This kind of reforms implies a set of composite transfers, both progressive and regressive, even though inequality remains unchanged. This paper shows that polarization is a useful tool for charact...

  16. INFORMATION FROM THE BANK

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    The UBS will be integrating its two computer platforms during the weekend of 24 April.This operation involves changing your account card and Eurocheque card, which will be sent to you by post.Those who receive their bank correspondence at CERN may obtain their codes from the branch there.The security and rapidity of this procedure will be helped by the presentation of an identity document.Despite the precautions taken, problems may be experienced with the operation of the cash-points during that weekend.The bank's staff would like to offer apologies in advance for any difficulties and are at your disposal for any information you may need.UBS

  17. The European Central Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, Michael; Wieland, Volker

    2006-01-01

    The establishment of the ECB and with it the launch of the euro has arguably been a unique endeavor in economic history, representing an important experiment in central banking. This note aims to summarize some of the main lessons learned from this experiment and sketch some of the prospects for the ECB. It is written for "The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics", 2nd edition. JEL Classification: E52, E58

  18. En Ung bank

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Maria Benedicte; Rice, Harrie Emily; Andersen, Lærke Maria; Elfort, Amanda Josefine; Pedersen, Sophie Espe; Sahibzada, Qamar Un Nisa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to examine the campaign Øhhkonomi from Danske Bank. The project is based on examining which assumptions the campaign, and further actions surrounding the campaign, expresses about the audience. The campaign audience is specifically 18-27 years old and addresses problems regarding their personal finance skills and understanding thereof. Starting from a communication point of view, the project examines the campaign and the sender in itself. The purpose hereof is t...

  19. GenBank.

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, D; Lipman, D J; Ostell, J

    1993-01-01

    The GenBank sequence database has undergone an expansion in data coverage, annotation content and the development of new services for the scientific community. In addition to nucleotide sequences, data from the major protein sequence and structural databases, and from U.S. and European patents is now included in an integrated system. MEDLINE abstracts from published articles describing the sequences provide an important new source of biological annotation for sequence entries. In addition to ...

  20. MULTIPERIOD BANKING SUPERVISION

    OpenAIRE

    KARL-THEODOR EISELE; PHILIPPE ARTZNER

    2013-01-01

    This paper is based on a general method for multiperiod prudential supervision of companies submitted to hedgeable and non-hedgeable risks. Having treated the case of insurance in an earlier paper, we now consider a quantitative approach to supervision of commercial banks. The various elements under supervision are the bank’s current amount of tradeable assets, the deposit amount, and four flow processes: future trading risk exposures, deposit flows, flows of loan repayments and of deposit re...